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# Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS 1.1 Understanding Physics By the end of this subtopic, you will be able to Explain what physics is, Recognise the physics in everyday objects and in natural phenomena. What is physics ?

Mechanical Energy

The word “Physics” is originated from the Greek word “physikos”. In physics, we study natural phenomena and the properties of matter. The aim of physics is to

explain the fundamental nature of the universe by using the concept of physics. Physics involves the conduct of studies and experiments to find anwers to the question ‘Why?’ and ‘How?’ in relation to the mysteries of the universe. The majority of natural phenomena can be explained using the principles of physics, for example ; i) We cannot see an object behind a wall because light travels in a straight line. ii) The image of the pencil formed by the mirror is due to the reflection of light. Fields of study in physics The scope of physics very wide. Knowledge of physics is grouped into different fields of study as shown in figure 1.1.

Heat - Studies the influence of heat on different types of matter.

Force and motion - investigates the action of force and motion

Forces and pressure - pressure, pressure in liquids, gas pressure, atmospheric pressure, Pascal’s principle, Archimedes’ principle, Bernoulli’s principle.

Light - explains the different phenomenon due to light.

Fields of study in physics

Electricity and electromagnetism - investigates the interactions of electric and magnetic fields

Waves - understands the properties of different types of waves and their uses.

Electricity and electromagnetism - investigates the interactions of electric and magnetic fields. 1

Electronics - studies the use of electronic devices in various fields

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2 1

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES A physical quantity is …………………………………………………………………….. The list of physical quantities : 1. ………………………………………. 2. ………………………………………. 3. ………………………………………. 4. ………………………………………. 5. ………………………………………. 6. ……………………………………….

battery

Base quantity 2. List examples of physical quantities in the box.

7. ………………………………………. 8. ……………………………………….

3.The value of the measurements consists of a numerical magnitude and a unit. example : the length of a metre rule is 250 cm

unit numeric physic al al magnitu quanti 4. Physical quantities are categorized into base quantities and derived quantities.

5. Base quantities are physical quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other physical quantities. 6. There are five base quantities ; length, mass, time, current and temperature Base quantity Length Mass Time Current Temperature Symbol S.I. Unit Symbol for S.I. Unit

Derived quantities

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Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics _________________________________________________________________________________________

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A derived quantity is …….………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Determine the derived unit for the following derived quantities. Derived quantity area volume density velocity momentum Acceleration Force pressure weight work power kinetic energy potential energy charge Formula area = length x width volume = length x width x height density = velocity = mass volume Derived unit m x m = m2 mxmxm= m3 Name of derived unit – – – – kg m s-1 – – kg m s-2 Newton (N)

displacement time

**momentum = mass x velocity
**

acceleration = change in velocity time

force = mass x acceleration pressure = force area

weight = mass x gravitational acceleration work = force x displacement power = work time

1 K.E = × mass × velocity 2 2 P.E = mass x gravitational acceleration x height charge = current x time Kg ms-2 Ampere second (As) Joule (J) Coulomb (C)

Standard Form

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1 2 3

Standard form = A x 10n ,

1 < A < 10 and n = integer

Standard form is used to …………………………………………………………………... Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following quantities in standard form :

a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =…………………………………………………. b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =………...

c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m = ……………………………………………………… b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = …………………………………………... c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = …………………………………………….. Prefixes 1. Prefixes are usually used to ………………………………………………………………... 2. It will be written …………………………………………………………………………… 3. The list of prefixes :

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Eg : 1 Tm = ……………………………………. 3.6 mA = ……………………………………. How to change the unit ; Eg : 1. Mega to nano

Tera (T) Giga (G) Mega (M) kilo (k) Hekto (ha) Deka (da) desi (d) centi (s) mili (m) micro (µ) nano (n) pico (p)

109 106

10 3 101

2

10 10-1 0 10-2 10

10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12

2. Tera to micro

3. piko to Mega 4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the quantities in standard prefixes: a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = …………………………………………. b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m = ……………………………………………… c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m = ……………………… d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg = ……………………… 1.3 SCALAR AND VECTOR QUANTITIES

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1 2 3

Scalar quantities are ……………………………………………………………………… Examples : ………………………………………………………………………………… Vector quantities are………………………………………………………………………... Examples : ………………………………………………………………………………… Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require magnitude, direction or both to specify them. Description of events Magnitude 0 1. The temperature in the room is 25 C 2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the northwest of Johor Bahru 3. The power of the electric bulb is 80 W 4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur Direction

**• Some common examples of scalar and vector quantities.
**

Scalar quantities ……………………………………………… ……………………………………. …………………………………………. Vector quantities …………………………………………… …………………………………………… …………………………….

1.4

UNDERSTANDING MEASUREMENTS

1.Using appropriate instruments to measure.

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• When we measure a physical quantity, we need to consider its magnitude and then choose a suitable instrument. • The magnitude of the quantity should not exceed the maximum capacity of the instrument, and the instrument must be sensitive enough to detect and give a meaningful measurement of the quantity. • For example; metre rule is used to measure the length of a book, measuring tape is used to measure the length of a table and micrometer screw gauge is used to measure the diameter of a glass rod. . Example of measuring instruments : 1 Ammeter is used to measure ……………………………..

1 0 2

incorrect reading 3 4

1 0

2

3

4 reading

correct

pointer

mirror

pointer

mirror

Pointer’s image can be seen

Pointer’s image is behind the pointer

.2Measuring cylinder is used to measure ……….................... wrong position of eye Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of the scale) wrong position of eye

water

3 A ruler is used to measure……………………… wrong right wrong

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12

13

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Vernier Caliper • A vernier caliper is used to measure a small object with dimension up to 12 cm • It is has an accuracy / sensivity of 0.01 cm

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• •

i) ii)

There are two pair of jaws, one is designated to measure linear and outer diameters while the other is to measure inner diameter A vernier caliper consists of two steel bar scales, one sliding over the other. The main scale is graduated in intervals of 0.1 cm. The sliding vernier scale has a scale on which ten divisions are equal to nine small divisions on the main scale (0. 09cm) The difference between the sizes of one division on the main scale and one division on the vernier scale is 0.1 – 0.09 = 0.01 cm giving a vernier scale an accurancy of 0.01 cm.

iii)

Figure 1.3 : Ten divisions on the vernier scale are equal to nine small divisions on the main scale.

HOW TO READ THE VERNIER CALLIPHERS.

0

1

cm

0

12345

6 7 8 9 10

Main scale

= ………………….

Find the division of vernier scale which is coincides with any part of the main scale

**Vernier scale = …………………..
**

Caliper reading = main scale reading + (0.01 cm x vernier scale )=....................

The diagram below shows a vernier calliper with reading.

7

0

1

0

5

10

Vernier calliper reading = ……………. cm

ZERO ERROR OF VERNIER CALLIPHERS i) No zero error. the ‘0’ mark on the main scale is exactly in line with the ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale when the vernier caliper is fully closed.

ii) Positive zero error the vernier scale is at distance to the right of the ‘0’ mark on the main scale when vernier caliper is fully closed. This error is positive zero error = + 0.04 cm

iii) Negative zero error the vernier scale is at distance to the left of the ‘0’ mark on the main scale when vernier caliper is fully closed. This error is negative zero error = - ( 0.1 – 0.08 ) = - 0.02 cm

Micrometer screw gauge

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• A micrometer srew gauge is used to measure a small lengths ranging between 0.10 mm and 25.00 mm. Examples; can measure diameters of wires and thicknesses of steel plate.

• It is has an accuracy/sensivity of 0.01 mm

**Figure 1.5 : Micrometer screw gauge
**

• The micrometer scale comprises a main scale marked on the sleeve and a scale marked on the

**thimble called the thimble scale.
**

• Each division on main scale is 0.5 mm.

The timble scale is subdivided into 50 equal divisions. When the thimble is rotated through one complete turn, the main scale will moved to 0.5 mm.

• This means that one division on the thimble scale is

0.50 mm = 0.01 mm 50 divisions

The reading of the micrometer screw gauge = main scale reading + ( 0.01 mm x thimble scale ) • When taking a reading, the thimble is turned until the object is gripped very gently between the anvil and the spindle. • The ratchet knob is then turned until a ‘click’ sound is heard. • The ratchet knob is used to prevent the user from exerting undue pressure.

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HOW TO READ THE MICROMETER SCREW GAUGE

1.

2.

Main scale reading= 2.0 mm. The reading on the thimble scale = 22nd mark on the thimble scale. The final reading of the gauge is = 2.0 mm + ( 0.01 x 22) mm = 2.22 mm.

3.

ZERO ERROR The accuracy of the micrometer screw gauge is also affected by zero error. Before commencing determine the zero error and if had, it must to eliminate; Correct reading = gauge reading – zero error. i) No zero error the ‘0’ mark on the thimble scale is exactly in line with the horizontal reference line on the main scale when the micrometer is fully closed.

ii) Positive zero error the horizontal reference line in the main scale is in line on the positive side of the ‘0’ mark, on the thimble scale. The positive error reading is = + 0.04 mm

iii) Negative zero error the horizontal reference line on the main scale is in line below the ‘0’ mark of the thimble scale. The negative error reading is = 0.03 mm.

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Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge 1. Write down the readings shown by the following (a) 7 8

Answer: ……………..

0

5

10

(b)

4

A

B

5

P 0

5

Q 10

Answer: ……………..

(c)

6

7

Answer: ……………..

0 5 1 1

(d)

0

Answer: …0…………..

0

5

10

**2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.
**

0 1

0

5

10

Zero error = ………… cm

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(b).

The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

5 6

0

5

10

Reading shown

= …5.64…….cm

**Corrected reading = …5.62……..cm 3. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a) (b)
**

0 5 40

0 5 10 3 5 3 0

35

Answer: …………………………. (c)

0

Answer:………………….. (d)

25 20

0

5

20 15

Answer:…………………………

Answer:…………………….

**4. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.
**

0 45

0

0

5

0

Zero error = ……….. mm

Zero error = …......….. mm

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**(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.
**

0 20

0

5 0

5

15

Zero error = 0.03………mm

Reading shown

= 6.67………..mm

**Corrected reading = 6.64………..mm 5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges. (a) (b)
**

0 5 40

0 5 10 3 5 3 0

35

Answer: …………… (c)

0

Answer: …........… (d)

25 20 0 5 20 15

Answer:……………

Answer:

…………

**6. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.
**

0 0 45 0 5

0

Zero error = ...............mm

Zero error = ….............. mm

**(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.
**

0 20

0

5 0

5

15

Zero error = …0.03.mm

Reading shown

= ….6.67..mm

Corrected reading = …6.64..mm

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Accuracy , consistency and sensitivity in measurements. 1. Accuracy : ………………………………………………………………………………… ..................................................................................................................................................... 2. Consistency : ……………………………………………………………………………… ..................................................................................................................................................... 3. Sensitivity : ………………………………………………………………………………… .......................................................................................................................................................

4. The diagram shows the result for four shooters A, B , C and D in a tournament. Every shooters shot five times .

The table shows the conclusion . Shooter Consistency A High B Low C High D Low

Accuracy Low High High Low

EXAMPLES OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR ACCURACY. 1.

Mechanical stop watch Accuracy : ……………………………………..

2.

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Electronic stop watch Accuracy :…………………………………… Reading :……………………………………. 3.Measurement Current

Ammeter range 0 – 5A Accuracy :…………………………………………….

Double-scale ammeter Accuracy of upper scale :…………………….. Acuracy of lower scale : ………………………. Reading :………………………………………..

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Miliammeter range 0- 50 mA Accuracy:…………………………………………… Reading :………………………………………….. Accuracy:……………………………………… Measurement Temperature

Accuracy:…………………………………………..

Measurement of Length We normally use ruler, measuring tape , vernier calipers or micrometer screw gauge to measure length. • The smallest scale division on the measuring Measuring Smallest scale instruments shows the sensitivity of the instruments. instrument division • Thus the more sensitive the measuring instruments the Ruler 0.1 cm or smaller the scale divisions . 1 mm • Therefore the micrometer screw gauge has the Vernier 0.01cm highest sensitivity calipers Mikrometer 0.01 mm screw gauge

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Errors in measurements Any measurement of a physical quantity has errors or uncertainty. Two main types of errors: (i) (ii) (i) (ii) ………………………………… ....................................................

Causes of Systematic Errors: ....................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................

**Causes of Random Errors :
**

a) ……………………………………………………………………………………… b) ……………………………………………………………………………………… c) ………………………………………………………………………………………

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS : 1. In this section you are required plan an experiment based on the scenario given . 2. To answer this section, students must be able to • • Identify Responding Variable (RV) and Manipulated Variable (MV). Relate the Responding Variable (RV)and Manipulated Variable (MV).

The table below provides the technique to answer questions in this section STEPS 1.Making observation to identify RV And MV 2. Inference REMARK RV and MV must be the physical quantities that can be measured during the experiment. An inference is a conclusion drawn from observation of a phenomenon studied RV depends on MV OR MV influences RV FORMAT SAMPLE ANSWER RV: acceleration of the boat MV: The total mass of the boat (a) • Acceleration of the boat decreases when its mass is increased. OR • Acceleration of the boat

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depends on the total mass of the boat General statement that assumed to be true regarding the relationship The longer/bigger the between MV and RV 3. Hypothesis MV the longer/smaller (Must have the RV DIRECTION) based on the experiment being planned. 4. Aim To find the relationship between MV and RV

•

(b) For a constant external force acting on an object, the bigger the mass of the object, the smaller is its acceleration. (c)(i) To find the relationship between acceleration and the mass of an object.

To find the relationship between the MV and the RV

5. Variable

•

•

Manipulated Variable (MV) – Physical Quantity which is controlled / changed for the purpose of investigating the results of an experiment.. Responding Variable (RV) – Physical Quantitiy which is the result of the changes made to MV Constant Variable (CV) – Physical Quantities which are kept constant during the experiment

List down the: • Manipulated Variable (MV) • Responding Variable (RV) • Constant Variable (CV) that are used in the experiment

**(C)(ii) • Manipulated variable (MV): mass of the object, m
**

•

Responding variable (RV): acceleration of the object, a Fixed variable (FV): force acting on the object, F

•

6. Equipment or Apparatus

List all apparatus and materials used (the apparatus that are used to measure the RV and MV must be included) Draw the correct diagram

List all apparatus and materials used

(C)(iii) Ticker tape, cellophane tape, three identical elastic cords/rubber bands, ticker timer, three trolleys, two retort stand with clamps as support, power supply, runway for trolley. (C)(iv)

7. Diagram

Draw the correct diagram

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Write in passive form – past tense. • The procedures must include: o Method of measuring the first 8. Procedure value of MV. o Method of measuring the RV o Repetition of experiments using at least another 4 MV

•

Write down the procedures

(C)( v) (i) The apparatus is set up as shown in the figure. (ii) the ticker timer which is connected to the 12 V a.c. power supply is started and the trolley is pulled down the runway.The elastic cord is always maintained at the same length and parallel with the trolley. (iii) The ticker obtained is cut into 5-tick strips and a tape chart for the motion of the trolley is made. The acceleration of the trolley, a, is calculated and recorded. (iv) The steps are repeated with 2 and then 3 identical trolleys stacked up. For each case, the elastic cord is kept stretched until the end of the runway. (C)(vi)

9. Tabulation of data

Draw the basic table to record data

Draw table to record data

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Mass, m / number of trolley 1 2 3 4 5

1/ m

Accele ration, a / cm s-2

Normally must have a minimum of 5 trials/data

(vii) the graph of acceleration, a against m (or a against 1/m) is plotted. (1 point will be given for EITHER (a) writing: ‘the graph of a against m (or a against 1/m) is plotted’ , or (b) any of these graph sketches. ALL labels must be present.) 10. Analysis of data Sketch the graph with suitable quantities.

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Plan and report an experiment Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different. Steps 1 2 3 4 Inference Hypothesis Aim Variables Example : refer to the situation above

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List of apparatus and materials Arrangement of the apparatus

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Procedures

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Tabulate the data

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Analyse the data

1 0

Discussion

Conclusion 11

Precautions : 1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady state. 2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy. 3. Discussion (refer to given questions) The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases. Hypothesis accepted.

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Reinforcement Chapter 1 Part A :Objective Question 1. Which of the following is a base SI quantity? A Weight B Energy C Velocity D Mass 2. Which of the following is a derived quantity? A Length B Mass C Temperature D Voltage 3. Which of the following is not a basic unit? A Newton B kilogram C ampere D second 4. Which of the following quantities cannot be derived? A Electric current B Power C Momentum D Force 5. Which of the following quantities is not derived from the basic physical quantity of length? A Electric charge B Density C Velocity D Volume 6. Initial velocity u, final velocity v, time t and another physical quantity k is related by the equation v - u = kt. The unit for k is A m s-1 B m-1 s C m s-2 D m2 s-2 7. Which of the following has the smallest magnitude? A megametre B centimetre C kilometre D mikrometre 8. 4 328 000 000 mm in standard form is A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m 9. Which of the following measurements is the longest? A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm C 0.12 mm D 1.2 x 10-11 km 10. The diameter of a particle is 250 µm. What is its diameter in cm? A 2.5 x 10-2 B 2.5 x 10-4 C 2.5 x 10-6 D 2.5 x 10-8 11. Which of the following prefixes is arranged in ascending order? A mili, senti, mikro, desi B mikro, mili, senti, desi C mili, mikro, desi, senti D desi, mikro, mili, senti 12. Velocity, density, force and energy are A basic quantities B scalar quantities C derived quantities D vector quantities 13. Which of the following shows the correct conversion of units? A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3 B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3 C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3 D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3 14. Which of the following measurements is the shortest ? A 3.45 x 103 m B 3.45 x 104 cm C 3.45 x 107 mm D 3.45 x 1012 µm 15. The Hitz FM channel broadcasts radio waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in the north region. What is the frequency of the radio wave in Hz? A 9.28 x 104 B 9.28 x 105 7 C 9.28 x 10 D 9.28 x 1010 16. An object moves along a straight line for time, t. The length of the line, s is

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given by the equation s =

12 gt . The 2

C s-1 D s-2 m Part B : Structure Question

SI unit of g is A m2 s2 B m s-2 1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the two towns. P Q

Figure 1 (a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective SI units. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) State a derived quantity and its SI unit. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Convert the value 1 . m to standard form. 5 x 10-3

(c) Complete Table 1 by writing the value of each given prefix.

Table 1 (d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in terms of its basic units.

(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12

cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.

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2. Figure 2 shows an ammeter of 0—3 A range.

Figure 2 (a) (i) Name component X. ………………………………………………………………... (ii) What is the function of X? …………………………………………………………. (b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2 (i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ..…………………………………. (ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i). ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye positions while measuring the volume of the water. (a) (i) Which of the eye positions is correct while taking the reading of the volume of water? …….…………………………… ………

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Figure 3 (b) The water in the measuring cylinder is replaced with 30 cm3 of mercury. (i) In Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the mercury in the measuring cylinder. Figure 4 (ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i). ………………………………………………………………………………………

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