Casting Defects and Design Issues

ver. 1

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Overview
• • • • • Processes Analysis Defects Design l D i rules Economics

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Issues in Casting
• • • • Shrinkage Porosity Piping Microstructure Mi t t

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Shrinkage
• Can amount to 5-10% by volume • Gray cast iron expands upon solidification due to phase changes • Need to design part and mold to take this amount into consideration

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Shrinkage
TABLE 5.1 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.6 6.3 3.8 2.5–3 4 4.9 Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.5 4 Expansion to 2.5 4.2 4–5.5 6.5

Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R. A. Flinn.

Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron g Magnesium White iron Zinc

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Casting Defects

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Defects - Hot Tears

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Casting Defects - Porosity

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Porosity
• Types
– due to gases – smooth bubbles – due to shrinkage – rough voids

• Not a problem for ingots
– parts that will be deformation p p processed – as long as it is not exposed to air (corrosion) – can be healed

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Porosity due to Gases y
• Smooth bubbles
– result f lt from entrapped gases t d – solubility in liquid is high, in solid is low, so gas is rejected d ring cooling during

• Sievert’s law S = kpg0.5
– S = solubility – k = constant – pg = partial p p pressure of g over melt gas
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Remedies for Gas Bubbles
• Control atmosphere
– vacuum – gases with less solubility

• Proper venting to let gases out • Proper design of runners and gates to avoid turbulence

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Remedies for Gas Bubbles
• Add metallic elements to react with gases
– killed steels - highly deoxidized (Al, Si)
• high shrinkage due to gas removal - piping

– semi-killed steels - less deoxidized
• less piping, porosity

– rimmed steels - little deoxidization
• blow holes in ring at rim (sometimes break through) • little piping because gas doesn’t escape doesn t
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Porosity due to Shrinkage
• Rough bubbles - voids • Stages
– cooling li id li liquid – rejects latent heat at melting point
• alloys b ll become slushy - li id and solid co-exist l h liquid d lid i t

– cooling solid

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Differential Cooling
• Transition between thicker and thinner sections can lead to porosity p y

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Porosity / Shrinkage Solutions
• Risers allow molten metal to flow into mold to make up for shrinkage • Design flow so no p freezes early g part y
– large channels

• “Flexible” molds Flexible
– allow metal to shrink, not hold metal

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Porosity / Shrinkage Solutions
• Heating or cooling certain areas to maintain uniform cooling (thermit or chills) ) • Uniform part thickness
– leads to uniform cooling cooling, less residual stress
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Chills

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Pipe Defect
• D t shrinkage giving rise t Due to h i k i i i to a funnel-like cavity • Solutions
– insulate top (glass wool) – heat top (exothermic mixture thermit)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Microstructure

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Grains on Willie B’s head Bs

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Microstructure - Dendrites

• Finer structure at walls • Grains / dendrites grow to center
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Microstructure - Dendrites

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Microstructure
• Post-treatment may be necessary to get desired properties - grain structure p p g
– annealing – tempering – cold working

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Design Rules Summary
• Uniform wall thickness • Flat parting lines • Gradual thickness transitions • D ft for removal Draft f l
– tapers: 0.5 to 2 degrees

• Surface of mold gives surface of part
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Sand Casting Rules

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Economics Example - Optical Bench

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Requirements
• Casting of Al-Si alloy g y • Number
– one-off one off – preliminary run (100) – production run (10 000) (10,000)

• High precision required
– machining required hi i i d – pick cheapest casting method
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Alternative Processes
• Sand casting g • Low pressure casting • Permanent mold casting • Die casting
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Cost Equation q

Cc C L C = Cm + + & n n
• • • • • • C = cost/part Cm = material cost Cc = capital cost i l CL = labor cost n = number produced & n = production rate
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009 29

Process Costs
Process Material, M t i l Cm ($) Labor, CL ($/hr) Capital, CC ($) Rate, Sand Casting 1 20 0.9 6.25 Low Pressure 1 20 4.4 22 Permanent Die Casting Mold 1 20 700 10 1 20 3000 50

& n

(#/hr)

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Process Economics

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Process Selection
• Probably pick low pressure casting, as a p preliminary run of 100 is assured. y • If production run is needed, die casting will probably be used used. • Th t The tough part i getting the process h t is tti th cost data.
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Production of Aluminum Auto Parts
M ain C h aracteristic P o u ring/F illin g M eth od C a stin g A G ravity L a d le L o w -P re ssu re B D ie C a sting A ir p re ssure throu gh sta lk H igh -P re ssure D ie C a sting C (P o re s F re e ) H ig h -sp e ed an d hig h-pressu re in jectio n by hyd ra u lic piston 1 1 0 0 -50 0 1 -2 Low +++ + +++ +-+ ++ +++ Few C ylind er blo ck, oil pan, cylinder he ad co ve r, tra nsaxle case S q ueeze D C astin g R ela tively low sp eed and hig h-pressu re in je ctio n 10 50 0 -1 ,0 00 2 Lo w -m e d iu m +++ + +++ +++ +++ Few P isto n , d iskbrake caliper, po w e r stee rin g toe con tro l hu b h u b, kn uckle

F illing T im e (s) O p erating P ressu re (a tm .) C ycle T im e (m in.) ( i ) D ie/M o ld T e m pe ra tu re D im en sion a l A ccu ra cy D e sign i A vailab ility P rod u ctivity Q u ality C o st M achin in g R e qu ire d M ain P a rts (o the r tha n w h ee ls)

10 -3 0 1 5 -1 0 H ig h + +++ + + + M an y Inta ke m a nifo ld , cylin d e r b lo ck a n d h e ad , p isto n

1 0 -30 1 + (0 .2 -0 .5 ) 5 -1 0 H ig h ++ ++ ++ ++ + M an y C ylinder block, cylin d e r h ea d , su sp en sion , m em b er

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Advantages of Casting
• • • • • Near- or net- shape Less scrap Intricate shapes Large h ll L hollow shapes h No limit to size

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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Disadvantages of Casting
• Shrinkage, porosity, cracks • N strain h d i No i hardening
– can be brittle

• Tooling can be expensive
– part shape depends on tool ( p p p (mold) )

• Microstructure can be difficult to control
– non-uniform cooling non uniform – faster on outside produces finer grain structure there
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Summary
• Defects • Design rules • Economics

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ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton © GIT 2009

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