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ANDBOOK

Assaciation of Struct
gheers of the Philippines, Inc.
Unit T-10, New Manila Condominium
21 N. Domingo St.. Quezon City
Steel Flat Products 6-47
Table 6-49: Tolerance on Width and Length Unit:mm
I I 7
I
Division 1 Tolerance I
\
Width +10
------i
I I
0
I
I I I
I
Length t15
1
I I
0
I
I
I
I I
J
Mote: The actual length of coils must not be less than the nominal length.
ASEP Steel wandbook
-27.
FOREWORD
PART 1
Built-Up Shapes . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 to 1-52
PART 2
Cold-Formed Plate Shapes . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 to 2-20
PART 3
Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 t o 3-40
PART 4
Rolled Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 to 4-80
PART 5
Metal Decks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 to 5-22
PART 6
Steel Fiat Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 to 6-48
PART 7
Design Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 7- 1 to 7-42
PART 8
Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7 t o 8-26
PART 9
Miscetlaneous Tahtes and Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 to 3.430
el0 -
cm
-
am*
-
sxct.
-
&GI. *
ila
-
kefm -
klJ -
m .
-
mex
-
mtn -
mm
-
WIPa
N
Be -
psi -
rad -
sq.m. -
temp As -
TYP
W -
PNS -
center t o center
centimeter
c u b i ~ meter
exclusive
inclusive
kilogram
kilogram per meter
kiloNewton
meter
maximum
minimum
millimeter
megapascal
Newton
Pascal
pounds per square inch
radians
square meter
temperature steel
typical
weight
American Concrete Institute
American Institute of Steel Construction
Arnerlcan Iron and Steel lnstitute
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines
American Society for Testing and Materials
American Welding Society
British Standards
Japanese Industrial Standards, 1991
National Structural Code of the Philippines, Vol. 1, Fourth
Edition, 7992
Philippine National Standards
ASEP Steel Hmdbook
. "iij .
GENERAL.
Thi s @EP Steel Handbooki s i ntended primarily t o serve as a guide En the
se1ec.tict1 and use of locatiy available structurat steel products. These products
are di vi ded into fi ve classes based on tho method of,manufact~lrr: and/or
maxi mum thickness of t he section, The fi rst fi ve parts of t hi s handhook
corresponrt t o t!lesct classes as follows:
Part 1 Bui l t-Up Shapes
Part 2 Cold-Formed Plate Shapes
Part 3 Cold-Formed Li ght Gagc Shapes
Part 4 Rol!ec! Shapes
Part 5 Met al Decks
Each of these parts presents a series of tables of computed and/or
compi l ed data. These data consi st of sectional dimensions and properties
chosen and arranged t o enable rapid and convenient selection of structi l ral steel
members. For increased usefulness, several other tables, formulas, and design
i nformati on are presented in Parts 6 t o 9 of thi s handbook.
As an updated edi ti on of t he ASE-P Handbook of Steel Shapes and
Sections, thi s handbook has considerably been expanded and contai ns several
major revisions. The major revisions include the fol l owi ng:
1. The thickness of steel pi ates f or the bui l t-up and bent plate have
been modified. The thickness adopted corresponds t o the bar
sizes of rei nforci ng steel bars primarily t o facilitate recollecr;on.
Thi s adaptati on eliminates thi ckness wi t h fractions of millimeters.
The maxi mum thickness adopted for bui l t-up sections was also
increased f rom 44 t o 45 millimeters. The maxi mum thicltness usad
for bent shapes has been reduced from 25 t o 20 millimeters.
2. The thickness of steel sheets for l i ght gage sectiorrs have heen
modified. The adopted thickness range f r om 2.0 t o 6.0 millimeters
in increments of 0.5 mi l l i meti x. This compares witit t he thi cl ~ness
used in the fi rst edi ti on whi ch range f r om 1.2 t o 4.7 mi i l i ~nei ers
wi t h varyi ng i ncr en~ent s of 0.2 or 0.3 miliirnetcr
The range of overali depths of built-up BW and BH sections has
been modified. The overall depths of BW sections adopted range
from 200 to 1,000 mitfimeters in increments of 50 or 100
mitlimetets from the previous range of 100 lo 920 millimeters
with variable increments. The overail depths of BH sections
sdopred from 200 to 700 millimeters compared to the prevlous
195 ro 425 millimeters.
BuUt-up wide flrnga Tee, ~WT,$ection properties has been added.
The rolled shapes and sections has considerably been expanded
with the adoption of sections from the AtSC Manual of Steel
Consttuction, 93h edition, except for the angle sections. Although
the standard AtSC designations were adopted, the tabulated
section properties are in SI units.
Part 5, presenting two metal deck shapes has bean added to the
hendtrook. Metal decks are cold-formed light gage shapes and
norn~affy vary with the manufacturer. The handbook limited the
shapes to those shapes tocally available.
The discussion on steel frat products, originally incorporated
within the rolted shapes, has been considerably expanded to
include excerpts from standard specifications. his expansion
mftriteri the separation of the discussion to a new Part 6 uf the
handbook.
Design examples has bean added in the new Part 7 of the
handbook. Each of the five design exampies include detaiiod
discussions and references to the differen1 parts of this handbooit
as wall as i f ) @ NSCP.
The discussion on welded ]oints. pteviously presented with the
miscell~neaus tabtes and &ate, is presented in a seaerated Part 8
af this handbook. An expanded misceftaneoos tables and data is
presented in Part 9.
ASEP Steel tianrievok
- 8 -
Foreword
CU\SSIFICATION AND DESIGNATIONS
The folfowing classifications and designations are used for the different
structural shapes presented in this handbook.
--
-
Shape Designation
Wide-Flange 1 BW H x W
I
-
Heavy Column / BH H x W
--
I
BWT H x W
Wide Flange Tee
Channel 1 BC H x B x t
I
Stiffened Cee [ LC H x B x C x t
Stiffened Zee I LZ H x B x C x t
Rectangular Tube
---.
LR H x B x t
Square Tube I LS H x B x t
--
Wide Fianae I W d x w
S-Shape 1 S d x w
Channel f C d x w
Structural Tee I WT d x w
Angfe f L H x B x t
I
Pipe - standard
-.
I PS d
Pioe - Extra Strona 1 PE d
Pipe - Double-Extra I PD d
ASEP Ste Handbook
. .
Where: 3
is the aange width of the section; shorter leg
of angles; shorter side of tubular sections, in
mm.
is the overalt depth of lip of tight gage
sections, i n mm.
Is the depth of rolled sections, in inches.
#s the depth of the section; tonger leg of
angles; longer side of tubular section, in mm.
i s tho ovoratf widths of ineta8 decks, in mm.
is the base metal thickneaur of the section, in
mm.
i s the nominal weight pw unit ien@th, in kgtm.
is tho naminat weight per unit Ienipth of rolled
sections, in ibslft.
The sectfons and shapes ptessnted i n the first three parts of this
handbook may be refarred t o as fabricated sttapes as they are made from rolled
flat products. These sections are timited therefore by the availability of these
fkt products, and the availabiiity and limitations of the equipment required in
tha fabrication of these shapes and sections.
There are t wo generai methods af producing structural shapes from flat
me t products. On$ is by welding together plates into the desired shape, and
the other is by cold-formine plates, coils sheets, or strips.
Shapes produced by weldrnents are referred here as 'flultt-Up' shapes
an8 are limited t o the use of plates having a thickness greater than or equal t o
6.0 milfimoters.
Shapes may also be cold-formed by passing the Rat steel products i n roils
the desired shape i s attained, or by press brake bending. For consistency
with common practice, however, these shapes are divided into two classes
ckybtrnding on the thickness of the base metal used. Cold-fot .ad piate shapes
are produced from plates wi th thickness greatef than ar equal $6.0 millimeter.
Cold-formed tight gage shapes, on the other hand, are prod^ ad from coifs,
sheets, or strips with thicknessless than or eq nl to 6.0 mlllit: \tw.
ASEP Steel Handbook
xii -
Foreword
For plates, t he fol l owi ng thickness, i n millimeters, were adopted: 6, 8, 10, 12.
16, 20, 25, 28. 32, 40, 45, For l i ght gage sections the fol l owi ng thickness, i n
millimeters, were adopted: 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0. 5.5, 6.0.
Because of the general flexibility of the fabrication methods, an i nfi ni te
variation of shapes and sections can be produced. The shapes presented have
been l i mi ted t o those con~monl y used for each classification.
For t he sections, the dimensions were chosen such that the opt i mum
utilization of the available fl at products i s attained. Furthermore, the dimensions
were chosen such that certain l i mi ts given i n the provisions of applicable codes
and speci fi cati oi ~s are not exceeded. These l i mi ts are discussed more ful l y i n
the t ext accompar!ving each part of thi s handbook.
Note t hat the f abr i ~at ed sections presented are not standard stock
sections. The designer is also i n no way limited t o the tabulated shapes and
sections. Use of special shapes and sections may be advantageous in somfa
cases where substantial economy may be derived f rom i ts use. Furthermore,
special shapes and sections may also be required t o meet requirements
particular t o a given probl em.
ROLLED SHAPES
Rolled shapes are defined here as those produced by passina red-hot
bl ooms or bi l l et steel through rolls unti l t he desired shape is attained. Except f ~ r
t he angles. t he shapes and sections adopted are those f rom the 9t h edition of
the Al SC Manual of Steel Construction. The Al SC sections adopted include the
W, S, C, WT and pipe sections.
As stated above, t he designation used i n thi s handbook is identical t o
those used i n the Al SC Manual, al though the section dimensions and properties
are presented in the SI units.
SECTION AND PROPERTIES
The sectional properties tabulated were calculated based on generally
accepted engineering principles and were generated usi ng mi cro-computers.
Simplifications and/or assumptions particular for each class of shapes arc
discussed in the descriptive material pi eceedi ng each part of thi s handbook.
ASCP Steel UC~wJbook
~ 8 i 1
in calculating the theoretical weight of the sreei sections, a mass density
of 7850 kglrn3 was used'
RKMANSHIP AMD TOLERANCES
The dimensions and proparries shown on the rables are theoretical values
and rhose of the finished prodtrcis will be subjected to the usual variatia:is.
Ibkrrrances not covered shall he based on applicable specificatloos felating to
each cfaslr and shalt be specified by the designer with proper ragard ra
f&bication and erection requirements.
STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS
Flat structural steei ~roduets are locaiiy avsifable as hot-rolled plates,
csih and sheets. in addition, cold-rolled coils and sheets are also montdfactured
tecdy. The detailed discussion on flat products and available sizes can be
found in Part 6. The fabricated shapes are based on these products.
ASEP :hoe! Har~rlbo: k
xiv .
BUILT-UP SHAPES
ASEP 'tee1 Ha n d b o o k
-1-
CONTENTS
................................................ Nomenclature
General ......................................................
.....................................
Scope and Classifioati on 1-5
....................................................
mterialg 1-6
.........................................
Sectional Cimensi~ns 1-6
.........................................
Sectional Properties 1-8
Welds ........................................................ 1-8
................................ Comments on the Design Tables 1-4
Dimensiolial Tolerances ....................................... 1-10
Tables of Dimensions and Properties
BW - Shapes ............................................. 1-14
BH - Shapes ............................................. 1-24
BWT- Shapes ............................................. 1-34
Beam Selection able - 1 - 4 4
........................................
Values of C, Table .......................................... 1-48
Allowable Compressive Stress Table ........................... 1-49
AS; . Steel Handbc k
.3 .
NOmNCLATURE
1 Definition
crass-sectional aree
Area of cowresstan flmse
Ftange width
Slenderness ratio of compression elements ae
defi~t3 i n Appendix A of 1992 NSCP, Chapter 4.
Axial cmapriissivs stress paraittad in a pritmatic
matbar in the abrsence of bending inolwnt
specifid nrinlmw yield stress of structural steel
Depth of tb section
Clear aiatarmce Mtwemn f3augss
Moaasnt of iwrtita about tha i t 4 axis
mmmnt of izmztia abatlt the Y-Y axis
EffeCtiv@ Langth factor for prismatic amber
zlcwsr mtbrac& P
W i m m mibraceid of tba aapressioo fl8age
at which the alloapabla baading stress may lm takeucl
aa 0.6QTp based on NSCP Gact. 4.5.1.4.1
Maxi mBraeat3 length of the compression flange
at which the allowable bending stress may be taken
as 0.60PY
B%an raolsting moment
Ratio of effective profile area of an axiafly
r to its total profile area,
Appendix A, 1992 NSCP
First mnuant of area of the beam flange about
the neutral axis
Axial stress reduction factor where wiath-
thicknsaa ratio of unsttdfened elements exceeas
flirniting value given i n Sect. 4.9.12,
Appenaix x of 1992 NSCP
Radius of gyration of a section coaprising the
comprcsisaion flange plus I f 3 of the comprel~sion
web area, taken about an axis in the plane af
the web
Radius of gyrstiora ahout the X-x axis
Radius of gyration about the Y-Y axis
Elastic sectmn modulus about X - X hxis
Built-up Shapes 1-3
s~
Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axis
T Height of web excluding weid thickness
t f
Flange thickness
t"
Web thickness
w Minimum fillet weld size
W Weight of the section per unit length
2,
Plastic section modulus about the X-X axis
z~
Plastic section modulus about the Y-Y axils
ASEP Steel H a book
-5-
Bui l t - Up Shapes 1 - 5
BUILT-UP SHAPES
Built-up 8hapc.s are herein defined as structural steel
sections made up of steel platas with thicknesi* ranging from
5 . 0
nun to 45.0 mm, welded together to form structural ohapas.
Considering that locally produced rolled shapes are normally
limited to depths of about 200 mm, built-up sections are fre--
quently used as a substitute for rolled sections.
Soma fabricators use modern equipment, such as multiple head
gas cutting amchines and automatic welding machines, needed in
the production of built-up shapes. These modern equipment have
considerably increased the economy and efficiency of production
of built-up sections. With the tables presented in this Part 2
of the Steel Handbook, designers may dlrectly select and speclfy
a built-up section, Alternatively, the tables may be used to
facilitate the substitution of built-up becrions for rolled
sect ions.
Scope and Classification
As defined above, there is an infinite number of posslble
shapes which could be presented. For simplicity, however, this
Steel Handbook is limited to the most corrronly used built-up
shapes. i-e. the bi-symmetric I shape and the wide flange Tee
shape.
Three specific built-up shapes are presented in this Steel
Handbook, the BW, BH, and BWT shapes. The BW sections are in-
tended primarily for use as becam members, while the BH sections
are normally intended for use as columns. The BWT sections are
intended for use as truss top and bottom nhord elements. The
classification and designation relating to tZ?ese shapes are given
below.
1-5 DuiJt-Up Shapes
-- -
I
7
I
Class Shapa Oesignaticn !
-
- --4
I
Bur lt-Up Wide Flanne BW HxW i
i
Heavy CQ11ma BH HxU 1
I
Wide Flange Tee BWT HxW 1
The designation of built-up sections arm based on outside
depth weight per meter length rather than on a21 dimensions
of the buikt-up section as is used in other standards. The adopt-
ed form i s tisimpler and is one which is familiar to local desiw-
ers .
The BW and BH sections are distinguished by the ratio,
tx/ r y e of the radius of gyration about the %-X and Y-Y axes,
rosplctively. EU sectiona have r,/ry ratios gtraater h a or
equal to 3.0, while BH sections have r,/ry ratios less than 3.0.
The grouping, however, doe8 not imply that tne EW aectiom
are to be used only as beams, and BH sections aa columns. Pap
ticular loading or lateral support conditions or other require-
abents m y dictate the shape of a given memb%r.
The built-up tee (BWT) sections presented are assumed to be
obtained by cutting BW sections similar to rolled tee sections.
The depth df BWT soctione are therefore half Of those correapon&.
Lng Btt sections,
A total of 255 built-up sections are presented in this st-1
Bandbook. Of these, 88 are SU sections with depths ranging frw
200 1 ~ 1 to 1000 m. There are 81 BH sections with depths rang-
ing from 206 am to 700 m.. There are 86 BW-sections with depthp
ranging tram 100 am to 500 mmn.
Materials
The m~nimum quality reqairement for built-cp shape
fabrrca..
tion is structural steel coxktoxining to ASTR A36 and/or Jf S
~ 3 1 0 1
SS 400 (formerly JTS C3101 SS 41).
3. 'St 1 f?andbook
Locally rolled plates are available for these grades oi
mtructural steel which have minimum specified yield stresses, I".,
of 248 Wtj aad 245 MPa, respectively. The sectional propertief5
and limits of built-up shapes and sections are based on thcse
values. Further information regarding materials for built-up
ahapes i s given in Part 6.
Sectional Dimensions
A major consideration in the choice of dimensions of the
sections is the optimum utilization of locally available plates.
Again, to facilitate easy recall in detailing and deslgn and to
simplify splices between connections, out-to-out" depth at pre-
dlctable increments is adopted in this Steel Handbook.
With the "out-to-out" depth, the clear distance between
flanges will vary depending on the flange thickness resulting in
a lower .yield of the web plates. This situation is unlike the
case of rolled wide-flange and S-shapes whose clear distances
between flanges are kept constant for each family of the nominal
depths. The constant clear distance between flanges of rolled
sections is due to the roiling equipment used in its manutact:?.rre
where sectional differences within a family are achie>*ed by
vdifying the flange dimensions and the web thicknesses.
Built-up sections, however, are not subject to these limi-
tations. ff: I s believed that the use of a constant "or.!t-tc-ont"
dapth would provide ease in detailing, fabrication a i d
erection. Fi:rthermore, it is' believed that the cited ut i l iz;lticn
of plates could still be improved by choosing a proper cutting
layout or by using the remaining plate materials for sec:ondar.y
structural elements such as gussets and stiffeners.
Asids from the utii-ization of available plates, the dimen-
sions of the flanges of both BW and RH sections were proportioned
to satisfy the limit on the width to thickness ratio for unatiff-
ened elements of the compression flange according to NSCP Sect.
4.5.1.4.1. This limiting ratio, of 170/JFg, equals to 10.8 for
structural steel coaforming.to ASTM A36.
1-8 Built.-ilp Shapes
For the web dimensions of BW sections, the thicknesses were
lFaited such that the allwnbls shear stress ray be taken as
Q.40Fg
without. the use of stiffeners.
The maximum ratio of the.
cl~asr distance between flanges to web thickness h/t, equal to
]1000/lF . For a yield stress of 248 MPa, this ratio has a value
of 63. 5. Note that stiffeners should still be provided as re-
quirad by otbr provisions of the code, particularly NSCP
Sects.
4.10.5 and 4.10.10.
For ttm ueb dimensions of BH aections, the thickneases were
limited so that the depth to thickness ratio of the web, h/t;,
Qar not exceed the value specified by NSCP forxala 4.5-4b.
This
limiting ratio, 675/JFy, has a value of 42.8 for Fy equal to 248
NRa.
ti%ctional Properties
The properties, ratios, and weights of the sections were
aemputed cansidering the diQ+amions of the flange and web plates
anly. The weld aatarial was excluded. Ifi a competitive design
r*nd constmctien environment, some besigners would include the
capacity of the weld nmterial.
For built-up tees, values of Q, and C', for Steel with mini-
mum yield oltrese, Fy equal to 248 MFa are also tabulated. For
gections with width to thickness ratio of unstiffened
projecting
eleaants of comgreesion flange exceeds 330/ JFy as specified ip,
lPSCP Sect. 4.9.1.2, the allowable stress is governed by the
~ S O V ~ S ~ O ~ S of Appendix A, Section A2, A5 and A6 of Chapter 4,
Part 2 of the MBCP. Where no values of 9, and C', are shown, the
krullt-up tee conforms to NSCP Sect. 4.9.b.2 and is considered as
fully effective.
The dtmansion " w" given in the tables of dimensions
properties is the minimum Leg size of fillet weld& as
Specified
in NSCP Table 4. 17. 2A. The actual size of fillet welds must be
specified by the designer. To facilitate this calculation, the
quantity Qf/Ix are tabulated for each BW and BH oectio~~s.
Qi i s
ASEP ' eel ,andbook
I'
Duilt-Up Shapes 1-9
the first moment of area of a flange about the X-X axis.
Groove welds may also be used to connect the flanges to
the
web plate. If required, groove welds shall be as specified by
the designer.
Co-nts an the Design Tables
Aside ftom the tables of dimensions and properties, a Beam
Selaction Table for the BW sections is included to facilitate the
sslect2.on of flexural members dtlslgned on the basis of NSC? Sect.
4.5.1.4.1. For ease of use, the quantities required to check the
compact section criteria are included, together with the limit-
ing values of the unbraced lengths.
For the design of compression members, a table of the allow-
able stress as a function with the slenderness ratio, Kl/r, is
also included.
AS1 Stes Handbook
1 I
3
I
6
I
i
i
1 3 1 6
{B/lOO, but aoti
1 f I
I leas than 6 ruJ
5
J
a
H is maeured patulle1 to the web a t the ueb center l i ne .
F is the laaximwa of f s e t at the toe of the fl ange fron, r
f i ne noma1 t o the plane of the web through the tntessec-
tion of the web center l i ne and tb outsi de face c " the
fl ange.
Built-up Shapes :-.I1
B. STIWIGHTMESS TOLERANCE
- ---
I- ------ -7- -
1
1 Member I Length 1 Permissible Variations in
Straightness, mm
I
I I rrrm I I
+--
1 columns
I
-t --I- I
I
Less than 9,100 1 1 mm x (total length in m)
I
( 9,100 to 13,700 1 10 mm
1
10 mm + 1 mm x (total length
I
i
1 Over 13,700
I in m - 13.7 m)
I
I I
I
I I
I I
Beams w/o I I I
!specified I I I
(Camber or I
I All
I
1 1 mm x (total length in m)
I
1 Sweep 1
C. CAMBER AND SWEEP TOLERANCES
I I
i~arlable i Member IPermissible Variations from Specified 1
1 I I Cambe r or Sweep, IMI I
+-------i --I
( Ca mb e r lBeams except ( 2 raa, x (test length in m), but not
1 below a I less than 6 mn
I
I I
I I I
/Beams with I
I
I
ltopflange I
I
I
I lembedded in 1 0.5 mm x (total length in m), but
I
1 ( concrete I not less than 6 mm I
I
I I
1 Sweep 1 Beams
I
I 1 mm x (total length in m)
I
I
"
Tolerance over specified camber of beams need not exceed
the greater of 1 m x (length to the nearest end in m) or
19 m. The toierarice under tho specifted camber is 0 KUII.
Flust ~ n i have a designed concrete haunch.
c':,ecified
tolerance is for over and UPX~ UK specified camber.
Built-Up Shapes 1-13
TABLES
OF
DtMENSlO S AND PROPERTIES
ht kr
IgrmMon W A
HxW
km mm2
HI4
l l mm
R r n
ASEP 2 '%? mdhoo!;
Bur l t - . Up Shapes 1-15
I
BW SHAPES
Dlmenalonr
Proputlor
8opwkiea I Plmtte Modulus
7 Axis Y-Y I 7
Dwgnrtion
H x W
BW 1COOx 518
x 457
x 373
BW mx 496
x 444
x 4'93
x 370
x 357
x 333
x 334
x 2e3
BW 900x M7
x 315
x 264
x 2%
x 225
x
ASEP Steel Iiandh ,k
-17.
ASEP steel Handbar.
-18.
Built-up Shapes 1-17
-7
Deaignat~on
H x W
-- -
BW 600x It%
x 1' 39
x 150
x 133
x 1113
BW mx \Ff
x 1%
;< 123
x 13?
RW mr $3
x 13
BW Wx 181
x :m
x 115
; < l$Q
x l(XI
BW 450 x 1 C.1
x %
x s.3
ASE itee Handbook
Built-IJp Shapes 1- 25
ASEP Steel Handbook
"7
Rullt-Up Shapes 1-27
BH SHAPES
Dimensions
Proputirs
-
AXIS X-X
I I S
xll
1 x10:
m ; m m-
heignatinn
H x W
*YSEP Stee 1 Handbook
-29.
ASF2 S i War .ocrk
R u i l t - Up Shapes 1 - 29
BH SHAPES
Dlmonrlonr
Propertler
Plastr
Axis Y-Y
:I@ xl03
nm4 rnm3 mm mrn3
-
Deeignation
Hx W
ASEP Steel Handbi k
-31-
1-35 Built-Up Shapes.
BX SWEG
Dimensions
Proportier
-
Oeelgnabon
H x W
BH 2 X ) x :5
x 14
x 12
x i 3
x 10
x 8
x 7
BH 250x 5
x 5
X 4
BH X O x %
x 6)
x 71
.x 7
x 6
x 5
x 4
BH 2(10x 3
x 3
x 3:
Dcr'lgnrtiien
HxW
Bt i S W E S
Dimensions
Prupairiirs
ASCP S t ee i ktnnrlbook
3 -1
1-24 Builk-Up Shapes
:-X Axis Y-Y
. - - - - - - -
BWT 533 x 2 4
0.845 137 x 232
O M 137 x 214
0.845 137 x 197
0.845 137 x 187
!
I
0.951 129 BWT 4 5 0 x 1 4 3 i
0.951 1 29 x 1411
X 1321
0.703 1 % x : I S;
0,7CQ '$3 .x ?ti?!
x i i X/
1-36 Built-Up Shapes
BWSHAPES
Dlmonrlonr
Propwllor
I Axie X-x
I
---- BWT 4CCx 14
x :3
x 12t
x :1t
x 1 C+
Where no value of C', w Q, to ohown, the mclun Mmp!!eO wtlh NGCP Sect 4.8.1.2
---- ---
.-
ASEP eel H"mdbook
-39-
1-38 Built-Up Shapes
Built-up Shapes 1-39
87 3e.S 0638 160 BWT
65 34.1 0.618 7 8 0
150 12 RO 213 MB
5x1 m ao zrs aia
Built-up Shapes 1- 41
BWT SHAPES
Dlmenrions
Properties
brignation
, t i xw
1 1
mm
- --
41.1 O.B70 128 BWT 175x 2'
38.5 0.978 128 x 2,
41,7 0,654 156 x 2
I
Where no value o: G', cx 9, lo ohown, me uaclbn cornplleo wlth NGCP Sect. 4.8.1.2
- --
PISEP St eel tlandboc
-13-
? ... 4 t B:rL 1-r. --Up Shapes
ASCP ?eel Iiandbnok
-44-
1
-
Elsatlc Proprrtiee
I axia X-X Axis Y -Y
Whera no vaius 01 C' cx Q IQ ohown, the mctbn mrnplleo wtitr NSCP ~ s c t . 4.8.1 2
- L A
- --
ASEE Steel Handbook
-45-
1-44 Built-up Shapes
BEAM SELECTION TABLE
ASCF St.eel Iartdbo .
-46-
BEAM SELECTION TABLE
A. E P Stee~ kandbook
4,
1- 46 Built-Up Shapes
BEAM SUECffON TABLE
ASEP Steel Handbook
-49-
1-46 Bui 1%-Up Shapes
PLLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS TABLE
F, = 248 MPa -
Main and Swndsrv Mombus
Kl/r not
F,
3 E L
l38,8Q
136.40
1 S.QO
1 S639
134,07
134.35
133.82
133.29
132.75
132.21
1 31 ,ss
131,lO
130.54
12m?
129.39
12t.01
128.23
l27,83
l27.Q4
128.43
125.82
12521
124,59
1 23.96
123.33
122.69
122.05
121.40
120.75
12m9
-
F,
(M Pa)
11943
118 76
11809
117 41
11672
1 I6 03
11533
11463
113 93
113 22
112 50
1 1 1 78
1 1 1 05
11032
109 58
1W04
108 09
10734
10658
10582
10505
104 27
la49
102 71
101 92
101.13
I W.33
98 52
68.71
37.90
. -
ASEP Steel Nandboo
-51-
1-50 Built-Up Shapes
&LOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESS T A 9 E
Cold-Formed P1at.c Sbap-1s 2 -1
CONTENTS
Nomenclature ................................................
General .....................................................
Scope and Classificat~on ....................................
Materials ...................................................
Sectional Dlmenslons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........................................ Sectional Properties
Tables of Dimensions and Properties
BA-Shapes (Equal Legs) .................................
BA-Shapes (Unequal Legs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
BC-shapes ..............................................
ASEP Str 1 Handbook
5 7-
2- 2 Cold-Formed Plate SiiapeS
NOMENCLATURE
Definition
Cross-sectional area
Flange width of channel or length
of shorter leg of angle
Depth of the channel or length
of longer leg of angle
Specified minimum yield stress of structural steel
Moment of inertia about U-U axis
Moment of Inertia about V-V axis
Moment of inertia about X-X axis
Moment of inertia about Y-Y axis
Inside radius of bend
Radius of gyration about U-U axis
Radius of gyration about V-V axis
Radius of gyration about X-X axis
Radius of gyration about Y-Y axis
Elastic sectlon modulus about X-X axis
Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axis
Base metal thickness
Flat width of elements exclusive of fillets
Weight of the section per unit length
Distance from centroid to outer face of the
section along the X-X axis
Distance from centroid to outer
face of the section along the Y-Y axis
Angle between the X-X axis and the
principal U-U axis
Units
mm2
mm
mm
MPa
mm4
mm
4
mm4
mm4
mm
mm
ntm
mm
m
mm3
3 3
m m m
mm
mm
kg/m
mm
mm
rad
ASEP Steel ifandboo6
Cold-i'ormed 1' 1at.r. Shapes 2--3
COLD-FORMED PLATE SHAPES
General
Cold-formed plate shapes are normally used as substitutes
for particular families of rolled shapes llke angles and channels
because .of the limited ranges of sections available for the
latter.
Cold-formed plate shapes are defined here as sections made
from steel plates with thickness ranging from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm
formed by cold rolling or by press brake bending
into the desired
shapes. Shapes cold-formed from thinner plates are designated as
light gage shapes and are covered in Part 3 of this handbook.
Compared to built-up sections which use plate thicknesses up
to 45.0 mm, a maximum plate thickness of 20.0 mm was adopted for
cold-formed plate sections. This maximum was adopted due to
concerns on possible material damage and the difficulty of fabrl-
cating shapes using thicker plates. Furthermore, because of t"o
relatively thicker steel material used compared to the light gape
shapes only. simple shapes requiring few bends are included i n
this handbook.
For the design of cold-formed plate sections, the pronlslons
of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Specificario~l
for the Deaign Of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members are recom-
mended.
Scope of Classification
Only two families of simple structural shapes are given in
this Part 2: the angles and the channel. The classification and
designations relating to these shapes are given below.
ASE Steel ilandbr 7k
-59-
i
Shape Designation
I
1
Class /I
I - , - - - - --i
i
1 cold-~ormaei Angle, EA NxBxt
i
Plate Cmnne l BC NxBxt
I
I
I
i
i
A tatal o t 77 bent-plate sections are presented in this
statel Wandbgcik. Of these, 23 are BA shapes having equal legs
witn deptha ranging front 50 to 200 m, and 27 are BA shams
w i n g unequal. iegs wkrn deptfu3 ranging from 75 m to 225 mi,
The remaining 1 7 sections are BC shapes with depths ranging froop
70 m to 390 m~ n .
The mini- quality rrzquirisanl: for cold-farmed plate fabrr-
cation is structural steel eonforming to ASTW A35 and/or 31.9
63103. 5S400 [farmerly 319 C3101 SSQl). Locally rolled plates are
avaifabls for these grades of rirtructurai steel, whicb have mlnr-
specified yield stress, %, of 248 MPa and 245 MPa, xespec-
ly, The aw.?kianal prcpertfera and listits of cold-formsd plate
s are W35o8 M these values. Further informatiozi regarding
ials of col8-forme4 plate shapes is given in Part 6 of t h i s
R consideration in the chc?ice of dimtlnsions i S "ihe util :.%a-
tion of fbcalXy-wai'lahle staa3 plates. Yi e l Ct is Camputed 1 1 ? i r ~
1829 nun wide pl at es, equal ~ i d t h strips, and an allowance of 3 ale
gmr cut,
The sectional dimensions are also chosen such that the
maximum allowable compressive stress on the unstiffened elements
may be taken as 0.60Fy based on the AISI provisions. Thus, the
legs of the angles and the flanges of the channels were propor-.
tioned such that the flat width to thickness ratio, w/t, does not.
exceed 166/JF..
This limiting ratio has a value of 10.54 for
Fy
equal to 248 &pa.
In this Steel Handbook, the plate thicknesses of the hdse
metal now adopts metrlc dimensions and increments ranging from
6.0 mm to 20.0 mm as compared with 6.3 mm to 25. 0 nun in the Jst
Edition. Based on current observations of locally-produced mate-
rial, this maximum limit of 20.0 mm is considered as the current
practical limit because of the difficulty of bendlng thicker
plates to the required radius.
The radii of bends, R, given in the tables are minimum
values and are measured from the inside face 3f the bends. In
coordination with the metal fabricators, the inside bend radius
of thcse cold-formed plate shapes are now uniformly made as 2.0
times the material thickness compared with the 1.5 times to 2.0
times the material thickness in the 1st Edrtion. These limits arc
imposed to avoid "necking" and micro-cracking of the material at
the bends during cold-forming.
Sectional Properties
Sectional properties used in this Steel Handbook are now
computed utilizing selected metric dimensions and increments
based on ASTM A36M-87 steel plates as compared wlth the 1st
Edition which were done using selected ASTM A36 st.eel plates
with "English" dimensions and increments.
The properties, ratios, and weights of these cold-formed
plate shapes are computed using the so-called "area m.,thodw based
on the actual dimensions of the section taking into consideration
the effect of the bend. The so-called "linear method" normally
used for light gage sections is not used for the determination of
the sectional properties of tbese shapes.
ASEP :;tee1 Ha r book
-61
2 - 6 Cold-Formed Plate Shapes
For the angles, the moments af inertia and the radii ot
gyration about the principal centroidal axes are given.
tangent Q£ the angles maae by the. X-X axi s and t he U-U axis are
also given in the tables.
ASEP 5 ,el Uandb, ok
-E:!-
Cold-Formed Plate Shapes 2-7
TABLES
OF
ENSIQNS AND PROPERTIES
ASEP i *eel "';mcibook
6-
2-8 Cold-Formed Plate SRapes
I
rid -
Yc
mm
-
807
58.5
s> 3
52.4
51.1
48 6
424
40.0
37.7
38.6
s3.g
31.5
30.4
29.2
a. 4
24,2
23. I
21.9
ASEP Ctee X Etar.dboc k
.w
Col cl -Formed Pl a t e Shapc:s 2- 3
I
Xld
mm'
-
27,425
22,882
17,648
1 6,225
13,640
10,732
5,874
5,046
4,051
4 4 s
z406
1,972
1,714
1,429
884
761
673
570
432
-
-
I
XI d
mm'
-
7,425
1, 882
7,848
625
3,640
0,732
5,874
3 046
4,051
8 48s
2 408
1,972
1,714
1,429
894
761
673
570
432
3-10 Cold-Fotnrsd Plate Shapes
ist
bldiw
8
rnrn
-
24.0
m.0
16.0
320
a- -
Y,
rnm
-
I$*$
38.2
17.0
1s.e
2-12 Gold-Formed Plate Shams
t
--
tan
a
-
a258
4251
0.24B
a342
0.333
0,324
0412
0 401
A399
0.306
0 526
RSl 4
0 508
a 504
0 880
R6@
Q@M
0.6s
BA SHAPES
D~rneneione
PropMt~es
Unequal Anglm
.-
I
XI o3
T14
a, 202
Z, 913
'0,940
17,491
14,920
11,887
1 2.741
10,925
8,740
7,511
6,977
5,610
4,043
4,003
4,575
3.709
3,207
2, ass
2-14 Cold-Forated Pl att? Shapfts
AGRP Stsel Handbook
--70-
2-1;6 Cold-Formed Plate Shapes
ASEP S 631 Handbook
<.
Cold-Formed Plate Shapes 2-17
BC Shapr
Dknrnrlons
Propriles
2-18 Cald-Fofrew3 Plate Shapes
ASEP Steel Ha~di mok
-74-
Cold Formed Plate Shdpes 2 - 1 9
r
rnm
433
44.5
45 7
330
38.3
37,s
23.2
24 5
258
PART 3
COLD- FORMED
LIGHT 6
Cold-Formed Li ght Gage Shapes 3- 1
CONTENTS
Nomenclature ................................................. 3 - 1
General ...................................................... 3- 3
..................................... Scope and Classification 3-4
Materials .................................................... 3-55
...................................... Methods of Cold-Forming 3-5
Sectional Dimensions ......................................... 3-6
S~ctional Properties ......................................... 3-6
Slitting Guide For Lip Sections .............................. 3-7
Dimensional Tolerances ....................................... 3-10
Tables of Dimensions and Properties
LC-Shapes ............................................... 3- 14
LZ-Shapes ............................................... 3-24
LR-Shapes ............................................... 3-34
LS-shapes........... 3-38
....................................
ASEP St eel H. Jbook
3-2 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes
NOMENCLATURE
Definition
Cross-sectional area
Flange width of section or shorter leg
of .tubular section
Effective design width of element
Overall depth of stiffening lip
Depth of section or longer leg of tubular
sect ion
Clear distance between flanges
Basic design stress
Specified minimum yield stress of structural steel
Moment of inertia about the X-X axis
Moment of inertia about the Y-Y axis
Inside radius of bend
Radius of gyration about X- X axis
Radius of gyration about Y-Y axis
Radius of gyration about 2- 2 axis
Elastic section modulus about X-X axis
Elastic section modulus about Y-Y axrs
Base metal thickness of section
Flat w$dth of element exclusive of fillets
Nominal weight per unit length
Distance from centroid to outer face of the
section along the X-X axis
Distance from centroid to outer face of the "
section along the Y-Y axis
Angle between the X-X axis and the
Principal Z-Z axis
Units
mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
MPa
MPa
mm4
mm4
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm3
mm
3
mm
mm
kg/ m
mm
mm
rad
ASEP Stee 1 Hand1 ?k
nn
Cold-Formed Light Gage Sha~x?s 3 - 3
COLD-FORMED LIGHT GAGE SHAPES
General
This part of the Steel Handbook deals with light gage struc-
tural steel shapes cold-formed from coils or sheets which
thick-
nesses ranging from 2.0 mm to 6.0 mm. Shapes bent from plates
with thicknesses from 6.0 mm to 20.0 mm are designated as cold-
formed plate shapes and covered in Part 2 of this Steel Hand-
book.
The use of conventional built-up shapes is uneconomical in
some cases bscause of the very low stress developed even for the
lightest available section. In such situation, light gage sec-
tions are normally used.
The performance of light gage shapes under load, however,
differs in several significant respects from that of heavy rolled
sections. Because of its slender flat elements, light gage sec-
tions tend to buckle at stress levels lower than the yield point
, when subjected to compressive. bending, shear, and bearing
i
stresses. This local buckling does not, however, neceasariiy
mean failure as additional loads may still be carried even by the
"buckled" member. The design criteria for these sectlons *re
therefore based on the post-buckling strength ~f the members
after local buckling has occurred. Furthermore, as these are
normally open sections, torsional buckling or torsion-flexural
buckling may be significant depending on the relationship of the
shear center to the centroid of the section.
Light gage steel construction also differs from that of
heavy steel in the shapes of the sections used, connections, and
fabrication practices. As a result, design specifications for
heavy hot-rolled and built-up steel construction do not apply.
The provisions of the American Iran and Steel Institute's Speci-
fication for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
are recommended for use in conjunction with the analysis and
design of light gage steel sections.
ASEP Steel Handbook
0.
3-4 Cold-For@& Light Gage Shapes
9wp and Clalaapiification
cold-formd light gage atructural steel me-rs can be
Uivibed into two product categories: fraraing members and nur-
face rpsmbars. The latter are generally used for roof decks,
floor decks, wall panels, and siding material.
Due to the relative ease of producing a great variety of
cold-fornred sections, several shapes have been developed and
us&. These include cees, zeee, angles, hats, tubes. tees, and
I-oactLone. Frequently, these sections are stiffened with lips
or other edge atiffenem to inhibit premature local buckling.
Because of their wide popularity and usage in the Country,
this Steel HdndWak presents only four of the simpler light gage
shapes. Two of the lour shaves, the lip-cee and the lip-me
shapes are primarily used as flexural members. The remaining
two, the square tube and the rectangular tube sWti0ns are esaen-
tially utilized as compression members. The latter closed see-
tions, however, may also be uned as flexural members. The clas-
sifications and designations relating to these shapes are given
tm(IDI0w.
I 1
1 Class
Shape Designation I
C----------- 4
i I
[Gold-Formed L i p-Cee LC H X B X C X ~ i
ltight Gage Lip-Zee LZ HxBxCxt
I Rectangular Tubing
I
LR HxBxt 1
I Square Tubing LS HxBxt I
L- -------J
A total of 281 light gage sections are given in this Steel
Handbook. Of these, 107 are LC sections with depths ranging from
(5% m to 255 r m. There are 107 LZ sections with depths ranging
from 65 mnt to 200 mm. For the tubular sections, 34 are LR sec-
tions and 33 ara LS sections, The LR sections have depths ranginq
from 25 mm to 175 m while the LS sections have depths ranging
from 24 mm to I D3 ma. The latter two closed sections are based
on the nixes av, ~i l able from local manufacturers.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-82-
Materials
The minimum quality requirement for light-gage structural
framing members is structural' steel conforming to JIS G3101
SS400. Light gage shapes are normally manufactured from hot-
rolled coils which are locally available in 930 mm widths and
thicknesses ranging from 1.2 mm to 9.0 mm. However, to minimize
corrosiqn problems and to insure structural durability, light
gage sections used as s-tructural members should not be thinner
than 2.0 m. On the other side, to avoid inefficient structural
properties when inside radius of pressed light gage sections are
fabricated, light gage section plate thickness should not be
thicker than 6.0 mm. To minimize "necking" and micro-cracking at
the bend radius and prevent change of properties in the affected
zone of the bent' portion, the inside radius (in coordination with
Steel fabricators in the country) are made equal to 2.0 times the
plate material thickness.
When strength is not of prime consideration, or for non-
structural members, the minimum requirement is commercial qrlali-
ty (CQ) hot-rolled conforming to JIS G3131 SPHC and JIS G3141
SPCC (or PNS 127 Class I), respectively. Further information is
given in Part 6 of this Steel Handbook.
The specified yield strength, Fy, of SS 400 steel is taken
as 245 MPa. For the SPHC and SPCC (or PNS 127 Class 1) steels,
the specified yield stress, Fy is taken as 170 MPa.
Mthods of Cold-Forming
There are two methods generally used in the manufacture of
cold-f armed sections. These are:
(1) By roll rolling, and
( 2 ) By press brake bending.
Roll forming is uaualiy confined to a limited number of
shapes because of the cost of the rolling equipment. If the
special Set of rolls needed for each shape is available, the
production of large quantities of identical shapes is best accorc-
plish@d by roll forming.
ASEP St el Handbook
.Q?.
Forming in press brakes, is however, more economical fox
maderate production runs of limited quantities of a given
shape,
Thta is so because, in the semi-manual use of the gresa brakes,
mPy a minimum change of tooling i s needed to accommodate t h ~
f&arication of a great variety of shapes. Its mdjor drawbacks
a m the lower dimensional quality control and the higher suscep-
tibility to micro-cracking of the marerials at the corner bends
which may affect the structural integrity of the shapes.
Sectional Dimensions
As with the other fabsicated shapes, one of the major con-
siaarations in the choice of sectional dimensions is the optimun,
utilization of locally manufactured sheets or coils.The adopted
anetions could result in an average 93% coil utilization (with a
ra%ximum of about 98% and a minimum of about 88%). These percent-
ages may, however, will differ because of existing current coil
width8 and could be improved by proper planning of fabrication
procedures.
Other considerations in the choice of the sectional dimen-
sions are based on the provisions of the AISI Specifications.
For one, the lip stiffeners of the LC and LZ sections mgst
satisfy a minimum overall depth to be considered effect~ve as a
* l i p stiffener." The lip dimeneions were so chosen that they are
effective for stresses not exceeding 0.60Fy, however, under theee
stresses the full dimensions of the lip may or may not be
fully
effective in the computation of the effective section properties.
Note that the full unreduced section properties are also
used in the calculation of deflections.
Sectional Properties
The calculation of areas, n~oments of inertia and other
sectf.onal properties are usually done using appropridtc? simp1 i f i -
cations.
The section properties of thin-walled shapes are computed
using the so-called "line3r method." In this method, the varlous
area elements which compose the. section are replaced by stralqht-
line or curved-line elements. Calculating the total lengtn,
moments of inertia, etc., of these line elements, the appropriat-e
section properties of the actual sectlon can be obtained by
multiplying these quantities by the thickness. This procedure
was followed in this Part 7 of the Steel Handbook.
It should be noted that the actual area of thln elements
under compressive stresses must frequently be replaced by a
reduced effective area for calculating the effective cross-
sectional properties as required by the AISI, and thus should be
computed and considered in the design. The computed deslgn
stresses based on the effective section properties shall not
exceed the basic allowable stresses specified
Slitting Guide For Lip Sections
The following discussion is intended primarily as a guide to
fabricators and manufacturers of light gage sections in the
vlitting of locally available coil products. Two tables are
herein presented giving the theoretical width of strips and the
recommehded slitting schedule.
Table 3-1 gives the theoretical blank width required for
each particular LC or LZ section. Note that the width of the
strips increases as the thickness of the steel decreases. This
table is useful in determining the combination of sections whict
would optimize utilization of coils.
Table 3-2 presents the recommended slitting scheclulc? for
coil widths assuming uniform blank wigths are to be produced.
The table gives the number of identical strips to be cut iron the
coil and the expected yield in percent. As shown, the yield
could be as high as 98%. Note that further economy may be at-
tained by combining sections and the use of Tahl.6 3. 1 as 11o.Led
above.
ASEF Steel Handbcok
.YE
Dimensional Tolerances
The tabulated dimensions and properties are theoretical
values and the finished product will normally have some slight
variations from these tabulations. To guide the designer and
fabricator, a set of recommended dimensional tolerances are given
below.
Table 3-1
Theoreticel Width aC Strips
( S i ~ e . ap I C, Ttilekness, mm
5 . 0 4 . 5 4 . 0 3. 5 3. 0 2 . 5
I
I KxBtC 1 6. 0 5. 5 T O 1
Table 3-2
Recommended Slitting Schedule
Coil Number of Yield
Wi dt h, m St r i p8 X
930 2 94
1.220 3 9 1
1.220 3 91
1,220 3 9 1
1,055 3 98
1.2'10 4 91
1.210 4 91
1.220 4 98
1.220 4 95
1,220 4 90
1.220 5 98
1.220 5 98
1.220 5 90
930 4 94
1.220 5 94
1,220 6 93
930 4 89
1.220 6 95
930 5 93
930 6 93
1.220 7 97
930 7 89
DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES
Co l d - F o md l Light Gage Shapes
FORMING TOLERANCES
-.
I--
_
Permissible Variations Over and Under I Out-of-Squareness
Specified DJmensiona I of Corners
--
I
mm/mm
H. Depth I 8, Flange Width I C, Lip I
mm
I
m
I mu, I
I { -1 4 . . .-
!Under 151) ou, excl 1.51
1150 to 300 om, eicl 2.01 1.5
I
1 2. 0
I
I
0.076
1300 as and over 3.01 I 1
i Length
Permissible Variation Over Specified
i
mm Length, mma
a- - -. --
(7,000 and over 40
lover 7,000
40 + 5 an x (total length in m - 7)
I.7---
-- - -- . .
--
a
Permissible variation under specified length is (I m for all lengths.
STRAIGHTNESS TOGFX?NCE
OF
DlMENSlO S AND PROPERPI ES
ASEP "tee1 andbnok
MEP Stael Piandhoak
-07..
LC SHAPES
Full Swtion
Propratlrr
x103 ' xl @ I r xtd
mm4 nm4 r n. 3 j rnm 1
ASEP Steel Handbook
I 4
LC $WAPEIZ
Full Swon
.FPropwtb*
ASZP Steal Handbook
95
LC SHAPES
Fuil Section
Proportior
ASEP St eel H i dbook
96-
LC SHAPES
Full Seotion
Propwticl,
LC SHhPES
Full SraUon
Proputbr
LC 8HMES
Full Won
Proportlor
kdr X-X I Axis Y-Y
I
I 1 I I 1 s I
RSEP St . 1. Han xxok
4-
LC SHAPES
Full S d o n
Pr o~ut i r s
Radius
R
mm
LC SHAPES
Full $&Ion
Proporties
3- 24 Ca1.d-Fnrntad 1, i yht :;aye Shapes
-
Area
A
mm2
1,035
1,537
1,418
1.295
1,167
1,038
900
761
61 7
1,250
1,127
1,001
070
736
597
1,801
1,674
1,543
1,741
16' 9
1,493
1 352
5.45
----"
LZ SHAPES
Full Sao!ion
Prapatier
Inm I
1 rnrn
U SHAPES
Full Swtlon
Properties
Radiun Axis 2-2
A tan r
Coin-Fo~mect Light Gage Shapes 3-27
RSEP Steel I' iribook
10'
3- ZR Cold-Formod tight Gage Shapef*
Pvea Radium Axir 2-2
A R tan i r
ASEP S1 el Handbook
lic
Cold-Formed L l g t ~ t Gage Shapes 3-29
U SHAPES
Full Saotlon
PropwtlrH
rnm4 rims mrn mm4
Ms 6 58.7
80.5 57. I
9.1 n. a
51.3 57,Q
46.2 58.3
407 58.7
34.0 tja. 1
28,6 .s.4
35. €I 53, Q
53% I 54 4
32.2 544
53.7 581)
40.4 45.7
30.2 48.2
35,7 *. 7
32. Q 47.1
29.8 47.5
21). s 47.9
ST. 0 4 . 3
34.2 93.7
31.8 47.2
28.7 47.6
mrn3 ] mrn 1
I 1
ASEP S"e1 TI' ndbooh
I 0
3-30 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes
U BHAPES
Full Sootion
ASEP S+ ,-e L Handbook
OR-
Cotb-Formed Lr ght Gage St~apes ' -31
ASEP Steel Handbook
, nn
3- 32 Cold-k'orared Light Gage Sxnapcs
lei
~ o l ( t - ~ . o r meri Light Cage Shaves 3- 13
3-34 Cold-For ~ight Gage Shapes
iA SHAPES
Full Sootlen
Prop#tir8
74!
1574
%B)t
St r
42t
3 4
538
2%
l2E
l l t
I&
R
81
18
I @
#I
#1
24
21
14
12
ASEP S t t b 1 Eiandhook
' 12-
Cold-Formed Light Ga q e Shapw 3- 35
!A SHAPES
~ u l i Swtlon
Prowtmr
--
Radiur of Gmtron
Dlssignatt~n
3- 36 Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes
LP SHAPES
Full SIL7tlon
Wright h r Radius
W A R
Moment ol l n~r t r
ASEP Steel Ifandbook
Cold-Formed Light Gage Shapes 3-13.!
LR SMAPES
Full Srckion
Frop8rtirs
1
SIction Modulus Rud~tin of C
-
8,
xlo9
s,
XI d fx
rnm3 mm3 rnm
1 I
ASEP Steel Handbook
-115-
-
Radius
R
mrn
8.1
7. c
6. t
5,
4.t
7. [
6. t
5. I
4. (
7 1
6. C
5. C
4' C
--
PART 4
ROLLED SHAPES
CONTENTS
Nomenclature ................................................ 'L -2
Scope and Classificat~on ................................... 4-3
.................................................. Materials 4-4
......................... Sectlanal Dimensions and Properties 4-4
Dimensional Tolerances ...................................... 4-5
Tables of Dimensions and Properties
W-Shapes ...............,.,,..+....................... 4-12
S-Shapes ............................................... 4-38
Channels ............................................... 4-42
Structural Tees ........................................ 4-46
Angles ................................................. 4-66
4-76
..................................................
ASEP Steel Nandbo
. l ?t
Nomenclature ............................................... 4 - l
General ..................................................... 4- 3
Scope and Classification ..................................
Materials .....................................+............ 4-4
Sect~onal Dimensions and Properties ......................... 4-4
Diatensionai Tolerances ...................................... 4-5
Tables of Dimensions and Properties
W-Shapes .............................................. 4-12
S-Shapes ............................................... 4-38
channels ............................................... 4-42
Structural Tees 4-46
........................................
Angles ................................................. 4-66
Pipes .................................................. 4-76
&SRP Steel Nannbo
-121
4-2 Rolled Shapes
NOMENCLATURE
Definition
Cross-sectional area
Width of the flange section or the
length of shorter leg of the angle
Flange width of the rolled section
Nominal diameter of the rolled section
Nominal depth of section: or length
longer leg of angle
Moment of inertia
Designation for standard welght pipe
Designation for double-extra strong pipe
Designation for extra strong plpe
Radius of gyration
Radius of gyration of a section comprising
the compression flange plus 1/3 of the
compression web area, taken about an axis
in the plane of the web
Elastic section modulus
Base metal thickness of the rolled section
Base metal thickness of the section
Flange thickness
Web thickness
Nominal weight of the section per unit length
Nominal weight of the rolled section per
unit length
Distance from the outer face of channel web
or angle leg to the centroid along the
X-X axis
Distance from the outer face of channel
flanges or angle leg to the centroid along
the Y-Y axis
Angle of 2-Z axis with respect to Y-Y axis
Units
m
inches
inches
mEl
mm3
inches
ms
mnl
mm
kg/m
lbS/ft
mra
mm
rad
ASEP Sts 1 Handbook
2-
ROLLED SHAPES
Rolled steel shapes are herein defined to inslude st ruct ural
steel sections produced by passing red-hot blooms (for larger
sections) or billets (for smaller sections) through rolls until
tke desired shape is attained.
The available shapes and sizes of locally produced rolled
shapes are limited. These include channel sections up to a depth
of 150 m, f l a t bass up to a maximum s i z e of LOO mm, angle sec-
tions up to n.naximun of 100 aun, square bars up to a maximum of
25 m. As a result, the number of sections presented in the 1st
gaition was linitad as they were based on locally produced see-
tiwns.
To increase the usefulness of the handbook, Part 4 has keen
considerably expanded to include the angles (which can be pro-
duced locally up to 100 mm) and the AISC Standard W shapes, WT
shapes, 8 shagws, and pipea. ALL designations are identical to
thm AAXSC Manual of Steel Construction, 9th Edition hut the dinzen-
eions/elastic properties and weight are converted to 8.1. units
Scope and Classification
The following structural steel rolled shapes normally
produced abroad and imported in the country are:
wide Flange, WT,
R, channel, angle and pipe sections.
The classification and designations relating t> these nhapes
are given below,
4-4 Iloll ed Shapes
I
1
) Class Shape Designation I
t--------- --j
I
W dxw
1
1 Rolled Wide Flange
S dxw
I
I S Shapes
Channe 1 s C dxw
I
I
Structural Tees WT dxw
I
I
Angles L HxBxt
I
I
Pipes-standard strength PS d
I
I
Pipes-extra strength PE d
I
I
Pipes-double extra strength PD d
I
I I
A total of 674 steel sections are presented in this Steel
Handbook. Of these, 291 are W shapes, 31 are S shapes, 29 are
channels, 206 are WT shapes. 80 are angles and 37 are pipes. W
shapes have depths ranging from 105.7 nun to 1,016.0 mm. S shapes
have depths ranging from 76.2 mm to 622.3 nun. Channels have
depths ranging from 76.2 mm to 381.0 mm. WT shapes have depths
ranging from 52.8 mm to 475.0 nun. Angles have depths ranging from
20.0 nun to 200.0 nun. Pipe sections have depths ranging from 12.7
nun to 304.8 mm.
Materials
The minimum quality requirement for rolled shapes is struc-
tural ateel conforming to the billet specifications for PNS 49
Grade 230 (structural Grade, formerly PTS 230). Locally produced
rolled shapes are available only for structural steel whose
minimum specified yield stress, Fy, is 230 MPa.
Sectional Dimensions and Properties
Except for the angles which can be locally produced up to
a
maximum depth of 100 nun, the shapes, dimensions, and Properties
of steel sections presented in this Part 4 of the Steel Handbook
are based on the data compiled from AISC, Manual of Steel Con-
struction, 9th Edition but converted to S.I. units.
ASEP ' ' eel Handbook
-124
For the locally produced angles, the adopted sec:tions have
leg dimensions which axe i,n increments of 25 mm. The increment of
the angles' thicknesses were made to be similar to that of the
plate thicknesses of the built-up shapes to facilitate easy
recall in detailing and design.
Dimensional Tolerances
The tabulated dlmennions and properties dre theoretical
values and the finished product will. normally have some slight
variations. To guide the deslgner and fabricator, a summdry a i
the dimensional tolerances as given by the ASTM Specifications A6
i s also given below. Such close tolerances are adopted to avoid
overlaps in angle legs and thickness dimensions in keeping with
internationally accepted standards as can be found say in ASTM.
For a detailed discussion on these tolerances as well as other
fabrication requirements reference to the ASTM A6 specifications
and AISC Manual of Steel Construction, 9th Edition is hereby
suggested.
4-6 1 7 ~ ~ 1 led Shapes
DfMENSXONAt TOLERANCES
Rolled Shapes
1
ba(le/Homiaal S h e ,
I
i
I
- 1 -.-..-
jllp t o 318
175-l80,inti
!over 180-360
i t 3 and under
1we1 10.15,
1 eat :
i%-1BQ, incl
lover 180- 369
115 tnd nodes
/ ever 25-50,
I i n c l
jver 50-75,
i excl
lover 75- 106,
j i nel
jcver i33-l5d,
1 i n c :
/at; iyJ
- 4
Pef #i si bi ) Ya t i a i i o r ~~~i r j F'i ~ , ' ~ e b ! t . ~ a i ?a:iationr fros Specitin4 Yeb j
--,. loat-01-1 o f f ioepth aver /Thickness, Over and Under, i n /
/ Dm 1bqnareb! centac Specified, 1 ---.__.___i
]Over Uader/aar, aej aar,api / #R 1 l and 1 Over 5 i Over 10 1
1 I i ! / under 1
.t-
0.8 0,s j 9.8 0.8 j
0.026; ---
1.2 1.1 ; i. ? i , E /
0.02.5i - - -
ASEP Steel Nan ~ o u k
. I <fi.
Rolled Shapes 4-7
a W is neasured at center iine of web for W and S shapes; at the back or
web for C and L shapes, Xeasurement,is overall for C shapes under 75
mm. 0 is oaeaaured parallel to
flange. G is measured
parallel to web.
F + F1 applies when channel flanges are toed in or out. For channels
16 mi and under in depth, the permissible out-of-square is 0.047 m/ mm
of depth. Tolerance is given per ~ n n of flange width for S and C shapes.
For unequal angles, the longer leg determines the nominal size classi-
fication. Out-of-square tolerance is per mm of leg length.
CUTTING TOLEMCES
r-
--
l ~ b a ~ j ~ e mi n a l sitea: Variation Iros Speciized Gi?en teagth, a#
I I n a + 1 I --r
--- .. . .. . .- .
j I
4 11 * 500 t o 3,600 13,000 t o 6,060, i 6,800 t o 9,000, / Y,O@ t o ll,F88 i.i,CM to 15,0?1 .
1 ! 1 1 ex1 1 i nci
i i ocl i n c ~
1 I 1 Over Bnder 1 O w Under / O w Undei Over U~ d e r I Over BnCci
I I i 1 I I
/ 1 75 and I 13 6 1 13 6 i I1 6 i 19 6 25 E 4
i
I 1 over I I i I i I
1 I I
a Nominal size pertains to greatest: sectional dimension.
W shapes with a nominal size of 610 mm and under wi t h lengths over
9.000 map, permissible variation over opecifled length = 10 ma plus 7 WI I
for each additional 1,500 mm or fraction tt~ereof.
W ahapee used as columns with lengths over 9,000 mut perntissihfe
variation over specified length 4 13 mm pl us 2 ~ B I for each addittomi
1,500 mm or fraction thereof.
ASEP S t e Har' ;uok
-1% I-
4- 8 Rolled Shapes
I. I I
I' Shpc8 1
Pernissible Variation f o r Ends Out-of-Square
1 7 : I
nmim o f Depth -1
a For W shapes, permissible variation is mm/nm of dept h o r T i
h ~ , ! t h
whichever is greater.
For angles, permissible variation is mm/mm ot t he l oni r t r 1t. i . Lt'ngth.
A S E P S t c H dbook
- 1 G
Rolled Shapes 4-9
STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCES
I
-
i
S4ape 1 Variable
I
----l -----
I Canoer and
/ Sweep
I
I
1
t
,C,L 1 Camber
I
I
I
1 Sueep
Section or
Noninal Size a mn
Sections with flange wiOth
less thal 150 mn
Sections with a flange u ~ d t h
appro:. equal to depth and
specified on order as coiunns
Length of 13,710 om and under
Length over 13,120 nu
15 and over
Permissible Variations
Z nm I (total length in m . j
1 m a (total,leogth in n.), but over 10 am
I0 am t (1 mm 1 (total length in n - 13.71 0 . ) )
6 01 in any 1,500 ma, or 4 rm I (tot.length in I.
1 GIP x (total le~gth in 1 . 1
Due to the extrene variations in flexibility
i
,f these shapes, tolerances for sweep are
!
subject to negotiations betmeen aanufacturer
I
m d purchaser lor the indi'~idua1 sections I
!
- -- - . -_--__.A
a
For L shapes, nominal size pertains to longer leg.
ASEP Stec? Handbook
TABLES
OF
DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES
4-14 Rolled Shapes
W SHAPES
Dimensions
Properties
Weight Area
W A
kg/m mm2
Flange
Wdth
" f
mm
-
4eo 5
458.8
451.5
446 4
4420
437.4
434.5
4 a 3
427.5
424. Q
422.4
423.0
421.5
420.4
419.4
410.3
310,3
307.8
309.4
307.7
306.7
3m. 6
304 B
3W.2
303.5
--
Flange
rhldcness
tr
mm
RSEP Steel Handbook
-134
Rolled Shapes 4-15
ASEP Steel liandbook
'35-
4-16 Rolled Shapes
W SHAPES
Dimendons
Proprtlrs
Wnb
'hldtnrss
tw
in m
50.0
46.0
41.9
38.6
35.1
32 0
29.5
26.4
24.4
22 1
21.1
19.7
18.2
17.0
16.1
15.4
14.7
14.6
50.0
45.5
41.4
38.1
34 5
31.5
29.0
--
Flange
Width
bi
mm
429.5
4255
421.4
418.0
414.4
411.5
408.9
408.0
4M. 0
401.4
4G2.8
401.4
388.9
262.1.
2a.8
293.0
292.4
291.6
411.5
406.9
403.0
399.4
396.0
392 9
3% .a
-----
Flangn
Ihldcnnl/
ASEP Stecl Handbook
136
4-18 Rolled Shapes
W SHAPES
Dimenrioncl
Pr oput i r
Fl anp
'hldcnocls
t
mm
47.0
41.9
38 1
3a4
30.1
27,1
30.0
25,4
23 6
21.6
19.3
17.0
15.5
89,9
83 1
75.9
69.1
63 0
57 9
53.1
49, W
45.0
40.9
38 1
34 0
ASEP St c - 1 dandhook
i-
4-20 Rolled Shapes
Arm Dwth
A H
md mrn
Fbnqr
Width
b f
mrn
367.8
3%,1
354.7
254.3
255.8
2W, 4
233.7
233 0
3 m 3
354.5
3%. 5
$47.0
343.4
3411.5
337.8
334.4
333.0
330'5
328.9
327.4
32% 1
3 8 . 7
326,s
323 1
323 9
----
ASEP Steel Nandhook
-140-
Rolled Shapes 4-21
I Y I
i-2 -1
Elastlo Praprrtlr,
MS X-X 1 AXIS Y-Y
I 1 s i I s i
4-22 Holtea Shapes
ASEP Steel Hmdbc k
142
Rolled Shapes 4- 23
ASEP Steel Handbook
3%
W BWAPEB
Dimenaionr
Pro
Rolled Shapes 4- 25
W 6HAPES
Dimensions
Praprrtisr
Elastic Prepsrtllr, I
Mr X-X Axis Y-Y ] Designation
3m, 904 2,im.e
2$3,027 1 ,@40.C
26*,393 1,748.4
2@,257 1,SBF)E
203,202 1,3983
183,142 1,258.7
162,746 1,126 7
144,432 f,W6.5
1 a, 448 908.4
115,712 816.3
ASEP Steel haadhc k
.
I S, ? N O 4
1?,7 4%-
taa
145 48.28
t5.4 SB ll!
133 3861
t oe $7 3785
ASEP S tee1 J1~~~3t>rtttk
-146-
+
-
n
o
n
o

m
a
n

a
a
i
-
*

~
-
-
o
n
o
$
j
g
~

c
r
n
r
n
o
m

T
W
O

g
w
b
r
n

n
n
4
t

m

a

s

0

-

E
%
m

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

U
)

a
,

(
0

-

T
-

r
D

v
-

P

.
-
-

r
-

3

3

Z

3
:

8

I

4-28 Rolled %hapals
w t 4 x m
x 4 s
x 428
X
x $90
x $42
~ $ 1 1
xaea
x 257
xm
x211
x leg
x 176
x 156
x 143
Wl 4 x f
k 120
x loo
x w
x BO
W14x $2
Y 'P4
x 68
Flange Fkngs
Width Thldnnm
RSEP Stee Handbook
- , 2-
W SHAPES
D~mensions
Proportlrr
-
---
Eiastic PI
AXIS X-X
I 1
"
i
!
I...
ASEP Sta Pandbuok
.5(1
No1 l ed Shapus 4-32
RSEP Steel Han&book
-15%-
1 Dorignation
I
i
-
Flange
Width
b,
mm
--
254.3
253.9
205.2
204 3
203.3
188.6
165.6
164.8
102.4
101.7
101.3
100.8
2M. 5
282.0
280.7
259.8
257.3
256 0
2540
254.0
203.7
202.8
202 2
14T6
146.6
--
4-34 Rolled Shapes
me. s
mi
23, 6
T553,7
2S,7
m. e
2228
215.6
206.1
m. :
203,i
w. 7
201.d
210.1
me.c
208. (
2112. $
r n~
182'
1 m
1 %'
il S,!
159:
RSEP Steel Handb ,k
-151-
--
web
'hkkmu
t
mm
8.9
6 1
7.1
-
Fkngr
width
b f
mm
1n.e
I n,o
1a3.1
i
- -
ASEP St oe l Handbook
-1Sl i -
Rolled Shapes 4-37
W SHAPES
Dimonrionr
Proporllu
Ela8t;o Proportlo8
M a X-X I Axlr Y-Y
ASEP Steel Handbook
1 5 /
ASEP Steel Handbook
-1s
Rolled Shapes 4-39
ASEP Steel ~&;tbook
t cn
k#
A
mn?
6,645
4,813
4,w
3,*
3,794
2, m
3,271
2, w
2, WQ
1,887
1 ,QIO
1,456
1,426
1,077
1256
118,4
106.9
101.6
980
aao
90.8
84.6
83.4
7a 3
71.0
67 8
8a 7
569.2
ASEP Steel Nandb, k
-160-
Rolled Shaws 4- 41
ASEP Si'ecll Handbook
161-
4-42 Rolled Shapes
ASEP Steel Ha n hook
-162-
Rolled Shapes 4-43
CHANNELS
Dimrnsiane
Properties
Etaetlo Proprrtir
M e X-X 1 P
I I s I I I
221 8 Rl. 74 1,007
21,- t e?i7 @me LKW
.t@,B? 171.4 B a s 731
in*$
/
arw 574
1133 85.95 487
99 7 6&19 404
ASEP Steel Handbook
-163-
4-44 Rolled Shapets
*
ASEP steel Handbook
-164-
Rolled Shapes 4-45
I
xtd
mi d
-
7,242
@, a7
$ 4 8
3,704
3,FM
3,811
f ,802
770
&St
El& Proper
AxisX-X
I
xr d xtd
mm4 mrr?
I
ASEP Stuef Handbook
-165-
4-45 Rolled Shapes
STRUCNRK T EEe
Oinrensionr
Proputhe
Cut horn W S h m
ASEP :eel Handbook
-166-
Rolled Shapes 4-47
8f RUCTURAL TEE5
it
bimrions
PropMrn
Cut from W Shbprr I
980% WT18x17Q.5-
07, CIS x 164
$7'36 x 150
08.M x 140
$3.84 x t 3 0
35, $2 x tns
94.72
I
x i 1 5
ASEP Steel Handbook
161
&n Depth
A H
mmi mm
BTRUCTURPL TEE8
Dimmiom
Propwtiw
Cut ham W $ h r w
ASEP S tee1 Handbook
-160-
Ekntlo Propwtlr
.
MJd, X-X AX!, Y-Y
.
I I 8 I 1 I I 8 I
xld
rnm4
270,134
94,409
gpo,
ma,m7
I #,a s
m1540
~ a o i
mart
#I
1m,w
1 n, w
lM,W
1 s,m
148,288
101,MI
i 9,8365
1 30,954
ASEP Steel Handbook
-169-
m, e
'346.7
344.2
941.9
339,t
325. 5
3173
314.2
310.9
m,t
' 805.8
311.4
am. e
m* f
31K3, 0
301.2
301.5
289.8
ASEP Steel Handbook
-170-
El r m Propertin I
Axlr X-X
I
P
1
s I I i-
e& I r 30,377
6607 S%MS
eaao 128970
as? awoa
#39 2f,g77
me0 00,w
tH 891,@7
6758 61,185
87.31 70,738
M55 @Ol S
@5,7@ y11c
?a45 24$43
7585 22M5
5 if@%%
?a20 17,190
77,72 14,851
e m 7,159
€a 00 6, tm
ASEP Steel Ear book
-171-
Rolled Shapes 4-53
I
xl 0'
md
-
M,oae
W9lt
711,338
69,094
02,435
54 1 Sl
59,837
52861
43 785
42,872
30,043
31,027
34 423
29, (5234
sq1os
52,eet
4q $32
44 2%m
a043
34, a87
DerlgnrUon
dxw
ASEP Steel Wmdbaok
-173.
14,8 284.8
ras 2ea 3
1.1'8 m15
10.0 280 0
ASEP Steel Randbook
-174-
Rollea Shapes 4-55
STRUCTURAL TEE8
Dlmrnaiona
PrOprrUr
Cut horn W S h a p ~
Y $
Eiraklo Prbprrllw
X-X Axlr Y-Y Designation
I I I I 8
STRUCTURAL TEES
Dimcnaionc
Propartbe
Cut kern W Sh r m
-
m*
H
nrn
-
284.7
2744
285 7
257.0
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241.8
237.0
232.4
227'8
2P. 8
217.4
212.8
2m.o
2m.7
1 B. 8
IS$.%
1 W.3
1 90.2
$87.7
f a 2
103.9
181.9
179.8
1 79.1
Web
' hldtnrrr
tv
mm
-
70.0
7r.g
65.9
80, 5
ma
$1'2
47.8
480
42 0
89.1
36,8
828
a. Hi,l)
27.2
24-9
2516,
21.1
189
I f 3
184
15,o
13 3
$23
11.2
ASEP Steel ' qndbook
176-
Rolled Shapes 4-57
xtd
md
4323,5
2,4
3469.1
31 05,B
2774.2
241 ,@
2318.2
21 53.3
1 977,2
1B08.2
1%29,0
1321.5
1188.1
1 084,2
972.3
877 5
7u. 4
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aq m3
arg 80t.2
aqen 1 ma@
lii,B7l 1Qi . O
44895 I867
lQ000 182.15
r 4 r 2 ~ t7ix-i
14,452 174,c
ASEP Steel Iimdt- rk
-178-
Rolled Shapcs 4-59
K ~ V XI@ t Y XI d XI o3
mm' mw? mm mm mm' mm'
ASEP Steel Handbook
-179-
STRUCTURK TEE8
Dimrnsion
F'roprtkr
Cut tom W Bhapau
20.1
1 a0
155
140
rat
11.1)
1 au
9.8
0.1
8.8
8.4
8.5
7.5
7.8
6.6
5 0
6.6
8.0
5.6
5, t
ASEP Steel Ha- ibook
-180-
RoXled Shapes 4-61
liTRUCTURM TEE8
Dimendona
Propwtlw
Cut kom W Shprr
t Y xrd
rnm mm mm'
1 I
34.29 82,831:
a251 71,592
3a2a eqew
m7 0 56,193
27.1.94 48,94@
2682 44,~5:!
25. ~1 40, sea
25.02 36,298
aare wm
2531 1qQ37
28.72 11,730
2R70 10,406
27.43 9,157
$a 02 5,078
3228 4,246
31.75 3,605
41.40 970
41.91 783
44.20 587
44.70 491
ASEP Steel landbook
- 1
4-52 Rolled
ASBP Steel Handbook
-18%-
Rolled Shapes 4-63
ASEP Stc r IIandbook
183
4-64 Rolled Shapes
STRUCTURAL TEES
Dirnsnrion~
Propwtkr
Cut from W S h a p
Depth
H
rn m
Web
'hlcknecr
L
mrn
9 1
7 9
7 2
7 2
6 2
6 4
5 8
6 2
5 8
4 3
8.1
6 6
5.8
6 8
5 8
4 3
s 9
6 1
7 1
--
--
Flange
Thlcknwa
4
rnm
ASEP Seeel Handbc
Rolled Shapes 4-65
STRUCTURAL TEE8
Dimonlions
Proputla
Cut tam W 8hapor
Mr Y-Y
I I 8
ASEP Steel Handbook
-185-
ASEP Steel 't nabnok
-I35
Roi led Shapes 4-67
x r tan
mm mm
a
ao 16.0
90 16.0
&O 18,O
80 16.0
0.0 t6A
BO tao
B 0 t6.O
ASEP Steel andbook
. l C
Rolled Shapos 4-73
4-74 gWl l & Shapes
ASEP S tee1 :aridbook
-1r
Rolled Shame 4-.lt;
ASEP Steel. Handbook
-195-
4-'76 MoJ. l e d Shapes
21 3
aat
3 a 4
422
4a3
00.3
7ao
me
101.6
114,3
141.3
1aar,a
219.1
273.1
323.8
21.3
a7
38 4
422
48 3
64 3
73 0
Be B
101,8
114.3
-
ASEP Steel Handbook
-196-
Rolled Shapes 4-
C
r 1 No. I d
ASEP Steel HanP jook
-197-
PIPES
Dimrtuionr
Propath8
ASEP Steel Hand1 ok
-198-
Rolled Shapes 4- 79
Sohedula
No.
ASEP Steel Harlbook
-199-
PART 5
METAL DECKS
Metal Decks 5-1
CONTENTS
.................................................
nanclat urO 5-2
-era1 ...................................................... 5-3
mtsrial ..................................................... 5-4
D.pip ....................................................... 5-5
Fireproofing ................................................. 5-5
Wrrosion .................................................... 5-6
SD Dtteign Data ............................................... 5-8
SD Panel Section Properties .................................. 5-9
BD Concrete Volumes and Weighta .............................. 5-9
Allowable Lateral Loads for BD Composite Slab ................ 5.. 10
9D Col mpcsi te Slab Allowable Superimposed Load ................ 5-11
CD Panel ~ropartica .......................................... 5-13
CQ Panel ReactLon Data 5-13
.......................................
Colqpsrbite Slab Propertlee 5-14
....................................
ASEP Steel Handbook
-203-
NOMENCLATURE
D.f inition
Crosa-mectionrl area
Concrsts strength at 28 days
Rblnforci'ng bsr yield ettength
SpecifFe8 yi el d stress of structural ateal
Coapoeita section mowmt: of inertia
Positive bending rorant of inertia
Uegativa bending momant of inertia
Second mofent of orea for
negativs moment regime (Strength)
Second au3aent of orea tor
poeitivs rtoPent regiono (Strength)
Owarning lrawnt capacity of
section in the negative S m e
Governing moment capacity of
section in the positlv~ %one
Overall width of the metal deck
Inside radius of bend
Positive &ancling section modulus
Negative -ding section modulus
Base metal thickness of thta metal decks
Cmtpo8ite eection raodulua for concrete
Elastic modulus for nwative
moment tone (Compression flange)
Elastic modulus for negative
84wurt some (Tension flange)
Elastic mdulus for gositive
aooant zona (Compression flange)
&laatic modulus for positive
moment eona (Tension flange)
Coapasite aection modulus for steel deck
Perimster of embedded metal deck
Units
mm2
MPa
MPa
NP a
m. 4
ma4
ma4
ASEP Steel mdborrk
-2C
Metal Decks 5-3
METAL DECKS
Metal decks or panels, generally considered as part of the
family of cald-fornned structural steel members, are categorized
under the classification of surface members. Roofing, siding or
wall and floor panels of various profiles, coating and base
waterials, belong to this classification. Materials used are
normally steel, aluminum and sometimes stainless steel (for spe-
cial application)
"h
This Part 5 of the Steel Handbook deals with steel floor
panels, normally referred to as floor deck, steel deck, metal
decking or aimply metal deck. Metal decks may be used structur-
ally, as a composite alternative to conventional wood or metal
formworks. However, unlike conventional formworks, metal decks
are permanent and therefore not
reusable.
For composite systems, the metal decks have positive bond
enhancements between the concrete and the metal profile to pre-
serve the integrity of the composite action. For "trapezoidal
profile" metal decks used in composite slabs, indentations along
the longitudinal elements are provided. For "othern profiles,
vertical folds or stiffened webs are totally embedded in the
concrete to provide the necessary grip for composite action.
Similar to cold-formed light gage frame members, metal decks
are manufactured from galvanized-coated continuous coils or cut
sheeta. Cold-forming may be done using press brakiog/bending
Rathods in the manufacture of "special" profiles. Generally,
bowaver, roll forming is employed by most manufacturers for mass
production.
Regarding the architectural aspect, metal decks are avail-
abla either in "ribbedn profiles or with "flatn soffits. In the
absence of a ceiling, metal decks with flat soffits are desirable
over the ribbed type. Metal deck products are mostly proprietary
in nature. The manufacturer usually holds a patent for each
particular metal deck profile being produced.
ASEP Steel I mdbook
-20
The metal deck profiles featured in this Part 5 of the Steel
Blur. dbk ara only those available locally. The "trapezoidaln or
."rilpb&" profile is .available from Philmetal Products while the
*sl at n or *soffitm profile is produced by Condeck lnternatioaal.
;bletal decks under the brand names Steeldeck and Condeck, are
l.l#otifieQ in this Steel Usndbook as SD panels and CD panelm,
~llprctively. llirtal decks aay be ordered in s~acific length.
rer, for efficiency in drsifm, lengths should cover a mini-
llwr of three apanm. Very long apana may be limited by transport
limitations. Metal decks lass than three spans shall be check4
for both bending stresses and deflections-
The basa metal quality requirement for metal (floor) decks
gh.11 be colg-rolled steel having a minimum yield point of 206
a , conforming to the requireraents of JIS G3141 SPCC-8 and/or
PWS 127 Class 1-8. Specified ID deClDKIls and very seldom in wire
end sheet metal gages, thicknesses of metal decks range from 0.75
m to 3.20 nm (wherein 0.75 RI M to 1.60 nun are locally avallabla)
ir 914 and 1219 lea\ widths. Metal decks floor slab systems are
rWar locally available in specified minimum yield strengths, F
of 275 Wa and 550 MPa, and whose choice is norafilly dictated rj;
~ ~ t ~ n ~ l i c considerations.
Pot hot-rolled varieties, the minimmi quality requirement is
gt wt ural mtmel conforming to JIS 63101 SS 400, with a minimlu
-lfied yield stress. Fy, of 245 MPa.
:i
' ?or gatvaniaed steel varietiee. the minimum quality r-ire-
rrwt ia physical (structural) quality zinc-coated steel c o n f o w
t9y t o the requirements of ASW A446 Grades A to F or corresm+
lag tWS 67 squiwalsnt.
Par atmospheric corrosion-resistant steels, the minimu
quality requirement is high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) st-1
conforming to the requirements of JIS G3125 SPA-C or SPA-H, with
minimum yield atress. Fy, of 314 MPa and 343 MPa, respectively.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-206-
Metal Decks 5-5
Currently, only the galvanized cold-rolled steel of
minimum
yield strengths. Fy, of 275 MPa and 550 MPa are locally av al l -
able.
The structural propertias for each particular profile were
supplied by the manuf aoturers. However, calculation of proper -
t i a s of special configurations follow the method specified in
the Cold-Formed Steel Design Manual, AISI 1986 Edition.
When a metal deck i a primarily used as permanent form for ii
concrete slab, its design is straight forward similar to the
ecasign of an ordinary floxuzal member. As a component of a
composite slab system, however, where it is considered as a posi-
t i ve moment zeinforcament, the design calculations for metal
becks are more complicated.
The NSCP and its referral codes, the AISC fox steel, Ameri -
can Concrete Institute (ACI) for concrete and AlSX for cold-
formed members are silent on this aspect of design involving
natal decks. Furthermore, each manufacturer has its o m carnposlte
dasign method usually based on Allowable Stress Design or
Strength Design . The basic principles used are usually the
X I Code or the British Standard (BS) Code of practice for trie
dmaign of reinforced concr~te flexural members. Design examples
of each Particular metal deck profile are available free from the
ra8peCtiVe manufacturers' brochures.
Fireproofing
Fireproofing is a very critical aspect of metal decks espe-
cially if metal decks are used entirely or partially as rein-
forcement for concrete slabs. The respective nrtinufacturers claim
that their metal decks are "fire-rated" from one to two hours,
depending on the concrete slab thickness. the concrete type
(whether normal-weight or light-weight ) used, and rhe presence ar
absence Of positive. fire.-resistive paints or coatings. Regard-
less of this claim, ASEP requires that for metal decks used as
total or partial reinforcement for composite sections, they must
ha provided with a permanent effective fireproofing.
For all composite concretcr and metal decks slab system,
,&W!P rsquiras the inetallatiOn of positive and permanent methods
eP fire protaction.
Corrosion
Another very important aspect of nbatal decks if used
structural reinforcement tor concrete slabs is the corrosion
factor. For structures built in corrosive environments (lika
sari nr off-ahor6 structures, and structuree at or near
bbot es) , and structures having acidic or abrasive enviranmnts
( l i ke , manufacturing plants), astal decks should at best be used
wily as a rrsplacentant to fonaiorks.
ASEP Steel Hanctbook
-208-
Metal Decks 5-7
TABLES
OF
DIMENSIONS AND PROPERTIES
ASEP Steel Handbook
-7nq-
SD PANEL SECTIOPJ, PROFILE AND DIMEWSlONS
SD PANEL SECTION PROPERTIES
( PeR W3"i'R WIDTH f
t I POSITIVE BENDING MOMENT NEGATIVE BEPI'DING YOYEKT
SUB DEPTH O W TOP OF 41), mm
unm
I
--
SO 03.6 76
I
NOTE3 : 1 WEIGHTS FOR CONCRETE ONLY - NO METAL
2 W:ICIlTS Ch EN INCLUDE ALLOWANCE FOR DEFLECTION
ASEP S t a d Handbook
-21 1-
ALLOWABLE LATERAL LOADS
FOR SD COMPOSITE SLAB
UWABLE LATERAL LOADS f N/m2 f
'COUL SIM MKi NAn ON SPAN - C/C OF SUPPORTS, mill
PwIx, mm N w X L
1.W 2,100 2,400 2,700 3,000 3,300 3,600
@ Oi l 0 X 0.80 26.120 25,240
24.510 23.950 23.490 223.200 22;910
58 SW X 1.00 26.990 25.820
24.950 24,370 23,780 25.360 23.0%
I 1. UTW LW VALUES ARE o o r * ~ o BY s 8 sum *NO ~ S KI AKS OF LOS ANCKLK u u r o ~ N u w o o m
COMLJNEU IN RESEARCH RECOMMENDATION No 2757 OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF BUILDING OfFlilliLS
I
f 2. NO KICRWE IN VPLUES %OWN S PERMIXED FOR W!ND OR SEiSMiC FORCES.
I
I
3. WELDS TO SUPPORTING MEMBERS S W L HAM A FUSION A R M '.?UIVALENT TO 1 2 7 mm EFfECTlVE DIAMETER
(COMMONLY REFERRED TO A3 PUDDLE WELD)
I
ASEP Steel Ha? .book
-212-
Metal Decks 5-11
_
~~ .- $1) COMI' OSI' I' I~ SLAB
- OFPIH AI,L.OIVI\I<LI:, SUI'iIH1MI'OSl~:I) I.OAL)
~ ....
( \ VOMI NG STI ~KSS DESI GN)
i
. ... . , . - - - - .
DTAL SLAB DESIGNATION NO. OF SPAN-C/C 01.' SI!I'f'ORTS. lorn
EPTH, mrn N,, x t ! SPANS - -- ~~~~ -~--
7i&l 1~-1.1100 j~Y3.i;"; / 3.800
NOTES :
1 ONE ROW OF SHORING IS RLOUIRED AT MIOSI'AN FOR VALUE$ ON StihDED AREAS
2. PRCIWDE WELDED WIRE MESH OR EQUIVALENT FOR SHRINKAGE CONTROL
3. BUTTON PUNCH SIDE ME AT 9UOrnm O C
4. f'c = 21 MPa B 28 r)nvs. FY = 275 MPO
5. VALUES ARE BASED ON 960 Pa CONSTRUCTION LOAD.
6. STEELDEK COMPOSITE SW.3 CAN SP4N MORE THAN 36311rnm ABC TABLE DID NOT WOW ALLOWABLE LOAO #A!CkS
ABOVE 3. 600rnm DlJE TO SPACE COhlSTRAlNT.
ASEP Steel Hand1 ok
-213-
CD PANEL
PROPERTIES
( PER METER rmx )
CD PANEL
REACTION DATA
ASEP Steel Iianiibook
.21%
CONCRETE SLAB
CD COMPOSI TE SLAB
PROPERTI ES
PER METER WIDTH
(I'c = 20 N/mm 2)
ASEP St c fam~dhook
..
CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(rSc = 20 N/mm 2,
CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER METER XfBYB
(2% = 25 N/rma2)
ASEP St, -1 Elandbook
218-
Metal Decks 5-17
91n CONCRSTE SUB
CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(I'c = 25 N/mm2)
STEEL BASED
IrZeXURAL PROPERTIES
BOND DATA (U = 0.5 N/mm2)
I I I \ I I I DESIGNATION
ca couposrm SLAB
PROPERTIES
ASEP Steef Handha k
.%.%A
Metal Decks 5-19
CD COMPOSITE SIAB
PROPEKTIES
PER METER WIDTH
(f'c = 30 N/mm 2 )
ABBP ytrel Handbook
-222-
CD COMPOSITE SLAB
PROPERTIES
PER HEXER WtDTfl
ff'c = 40 N/mm 2,
PART 6
STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS
ASEP Steel ' mdbook
---
Steel Flat Products 6-1
CONTENTS
.................................................
Nmnclature 6-2
................................................
re via ti on^ 6-2
....................................................... 6.nmral 6- 3
Scope and Classification ..................................... 6-3
....................................................
mtariale 6-4
ASTM A36M-87 ............................................ 6-7
JIS G3101-87 ............. ................................ 6-15
............................................ JIS G3131.90 6-24
JIS G3141.90 ............................................ 6-31
PNS 127.88 .............................................. 6-38
ASTM A446M-87 ........................................... 6-43
PNS 67-86 ............................................... 6-46
ASEP Steel Handhnok
-227-
Units
MPa
hriccm Society for Te6ting and Materials
C rcial quallty
mid-rolx~a coil
Cold-rolled sheet
srclusiv.
me-roll& coil
Rot-rolletl plate
%at-rotTu4. shMt
PigQ-rtreWtb l~-.llOy st-1
i
J Xn&mtri a1 itltriatEards
Pkilipgpiaa Hatianal Staedarde
$twtilra1. quality btrosphsrlc corrosion-resistaat
osSb-&Wl*d stml u plr a161 6312
gtrocturrl quality aOaosghsric corrosion-re8istult
h$-mllod st-1 as p~sr318 63125
Carrrcial qmalfty arrl&rolled stksl r s per JKS 63141
Braniq qurlity cold-relled steel a6 par JIS G3141 .
dlr&wfng qyalitp cold-rolled steel as mr 31s G314l
)Ilea-aqming. 6.rp drllrinp quality cold rolled steel as
per JI$ 63141
C m r e i a l quality cold-rolled steel, tension and
f o ~ i l i ~ y valuaa guaranteed, as per 31s 63141
Btructural quality
Structural steel
ASEP Steel Wglr8'xtok
930
Steel Flat Products 6-3
STEEL FLAT PRODUCTS
Flat rolling or processing may be considered to involve
those operations in steel plants associated with the conver~lon
of slabs, either continuously or ingot-cast, into finished
plates, sheeta, an8 strip products, including hot-rolled, cold-
rolled and/or coated sheets. Conveniently, it is classified into
hot-rolling and cold-rolling operations which results to a final
product with a width to thickness ratio which is usually fairly
large.
The process of hot rolling consists of passing xed-hot
ductile steel slabs between two large, cylindrical steel rolls
( i n Contrast with the grooved rolls used in the production of
tShapeS, such as structural beams) revolving in opposite direc-
tlonrr but at the ease peripheral speed. Commercial (CQ) or
structural ( SQ) plates, strip, or sheet are the resulting end-
products.
In cold rolling operations, on the other hand, the hot-
rolled strip is processed to final ordered thickness without any
further heating except for annealing or heat treating purposes.
CQ or E+Q strip, or sheet are the resulting end-proaucts.
Steel flat products are Locally available in the form of
hot-rolled plates (HRP), hot-rolled ccils/sheets (HRC/HRS), and
cold-rolled coils/sheet (CRC/CRS). Likewise, coated (or finished
steel) flats which predominantly use CRC/CRS as base material.,
are also available in the form of hot-dipped zinc-coated (or
galvanized) steel. The product standards to which these are
manufactured are listed in Table 6-1.
Scoge and Classification
Thls Part 6 of the Steel Handbook specifies the characteris-
tics of plate and sheet (hot-an6 cold-rolled) products which
arrl
differentiated one from the other as follaws (based from ASTM A6M
and ASTM A56824 definitions):
ABEP Steel Hm' dok
-229-
(1) Plate, - flat,hot-roll96 steel classified as over 200
mm
in width and over 6.0 mm in thickness: or over 1,200
las in width ernd over 4.5 lam in thickness.
( 1 ) Not-rollaa
sheet - flat, hot-rolled steel classified as
over 300 m to 1,200 mm, incl. in width and 1.2 aua
to 6. 0 m, excl. in thickness: or over 1,200 mm in
width and 1.2 nuu to 4.5 mm, excl. in thickness.
Note: minimum thickness for High-Strength Low-Alley
S t a x (HSLA) ia 1.8 w.
(3) Cold-rolled sheet - flat, cold-rolled Steel ch~sified
&a 50 8* to 300 ma, incl. in width and 0.35 to 2.0
am, incl. in thickneea; or over 300 mrn in width and 0.35
a and over in thiclmsas.
For the fabrication of &wilt-UD ShaDCIg enumerated in (Part
1) of thia Steel. Handbook and cold-formed plate shames tabulated
i a (Part 2) of this Steel Handbook. the minimum quality steel for
Ivemtural Pleabers shall conform to ASTM A36M and/or JIS 63101
(foramrl y designated as JIS G3101 SS41). These steels have
alnimtm s-cified yield .trees, Fy, of 250 MPa and 245 MPa,
m6saectiV.l Y .
Fat tlm fabrication af d-f orawl Jiaht-a pre-
&#at$ ia (pert 3) of this St:: Handbook, the s e r i a l nquin-
lunte involve the following:
(1) ThQ siiniaw quality steel for structural members shall
conform to ASTM A36M and/or JIS G3101 SS400.
(2) The minimum quality steel for the non-structural mmbsrg
shall conform to -
(2.1) JIS 63131 SPHC and/or ASTM A569M for the hot-
rolled steel varieties. These steels have a
minimum specified yield stress, Fy, taken as 170
MPa. The basic allowable stress shall be taken
as 0.60F
Y'
ASEP Stcte 1 Handbook
-230-
Steel Flat Products 6-5
( 2 . 2 ) JIS G3141 SPCC, ASTM A366M and/or PNS 127 Class
1 for the cold-rolled varieties. These steels
have a minimum specified yield stress,
Fy,
taken
as 170 MPa. ~he'basic allowable stress shall be
taken as 0 .60Fy.
For the fabrication of the metal decks (Part 5) of this
Steel Handbook:
(1) The base metal quality requirement for floor decks shall
be cold-rolled steel having a minimum yield point of 206
MPa, conforming to the requirements of JIS G3141 SPCC-8
and/or PNS 127 Class 1-8. Steel of this variety is
locally available in thic)messes from 0 . 7 5 mrn to 1.60
m, in widths of 914 mm and 1,219 m, and specified
yield strengths Fy, of 275 MPa or 550 MPa.
(2) The minimum quality for hot-rolled varieties is struc-
tural steal conforming to the requirelnents of JIS G3101
SS400, with a specified minimum yield stress, Fy, of 245
MPa .
(3) The minimum specification for galvanized varieties is
physical (structural) quality steel conforming to the
requirements of ASTM A446 Grades A to F (with minimum
yield stress, Fy, ranging from 226 MPa to 550 MPa) or
the corresponding PNS 67 equivalent.
( 4 ) The minimum quality for atmospheric corrosion-resistant
varieties Is high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel con-
forming to the requirements of JIS G3125 SPA-C or SPA-H.
with minimure yield stress, F,, of 314 MPa and 343 MPa,
respectively.
Steel conforming to other material specifications can also
be rolled Locally. However, this is limited by the capabilities
of the local manufacturer of flat steel products. The designer
should consult with the flat steel manufacturer before specifying
any type of Locally manufactured structural or high-strength
steel not listea here in the Steel Handbook. Current mill capa-
bilities limit these grades of steel from 1.50 nun up to 12.30 mm
in thickness and widths from 660 mm to 1, 524 nun, conforming to
ASEP Steel Handbook
-2 i
6-6 Steel Flat Products
~ p d f i c a t i o n s such as JIS G3106, JLS '3125, JIS G3114, JLS
G9113, AWI'Pl A607.8Rd their corresponding
"near grade equivalentstc
For reference purposes, a listing of currently laanufacturad
t ht stsel products are listed in Table 6-1: Locally Available
l W 4 St - 1 ProQucts.
Teblr 6-1: Locally Available Flat Steel Products
I I I 1
1 Product Form I Standard I Titles i
1 I I I
INot-Rolled Plate ASTH A36R-87 1 Structural Steel I
I (m@)
I JIS G3101-87 I Rolled Steel for General Structures 1
I I I I
IMt-Rolled Coil ( JIS G3131-90 ) Hot-Rolled Mild Steel Plates,
i
I t =) I 1 Sheets and Strip 1
I I I I
(Cold-Rolled Coil 1 JIS G3141-90 I Cold-Rolled Steel Sheets and Strip
!
I (cw)
( PNS 127-88 1 Cold-Rolled Carbon Steel Sheets and Strip i
I I I I
(Oslvanized Steel I ASTM A446-87 1 Structural Quality Galvanized Steel Sheets/
I 1 PNS 67-86 / Galvanized Steel Sheets and Coils I
I ,
?or convmnience, excerpts from these relevant standards are
i n Tabla8 6-2 t o 6-49.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-232-
Steel Flat Products 6-7
ASTM A36M-87
Table 6-2: Preferred Specified Thickness Unit:mm
1
1
I 5. 0 5. 5 6 . 0 7. 0 8. 0 9.0 10. 0 11.0 12.0 14.0 1
) 16.0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 25. 0 28.0 30.0 32. 0 35.0 38.0 1
( 40.0 45. 0 50. 0 1
I I
Table 6-3: Chemical and Mechanical Property Requirements
7 I 1
I
Chemical Composition.%
' 1
I Tensile Test (Transverse Direction) 1
I -+--7---1 I
I t 1 I Yield 1 Elongation,% min.*'(
1 Thick- I C S i HI? P S [Tensile I Point I-,---+
(neesCema) 1 max. rnax. max. [Strength( (MPa) [GL-200 mJG1.=50 mm 1
I I 1 (MPa) I min. lor 8 in. [or 2 in.
t - - - - - - -
1 trZO 10.25 - - 0.04 0.051 I I I I
i-------t------ I
I I I I I I I
1 >40-50 10.26 0.15 0.80 0.04 0.051
I I I I
i
1 -0.40-1.20
I I I I I
I I
* I . When coppet steel is specified, the minimum Cu shall be 0.20%.
'2. For plates wider than 610 m ~ , the elongation requirement is reduced 2%.
'3. ?or uteri;rl under 8 mm in thickneaa, a deduction from the percentage of
elongation
in 203 mm of 1.25% shall be made for each decrease of 0.80 mm
o f the awcified thickness below 8 mm.
ASEP Steel mdbook
-2:
6-8 Steel Fiat Products
T&Le 6-4a: Permiselble Variatxons in Thickness Unit: am
1
Tolerance Over Specified Thickness for Widths
I
Over
1,200
i
1,200 to 1.500 to 1,800 to 2.100 to (
and 1, 500, 1,800,
2.100, 2,400,
Under excl excl excl u c l
i
i
IK)TI1 I-Permissible variation under specified thickness, 0.3 m.
WOTI1 %Thickness to be measured a t 10 arsa to 20 lam from the longitudinal edge.
NOTC 3-For specified thickness other than Chose s how, the next hi ghe r thick-
near will apply.
NOTE &-For thickness meas*~red at any Location other than that specified in
Note 2 , the peraissrble maximum over tolerance shall be increased
by
75% rotmded to the nearest 0.1 am.
ASEP Steel K;andboo)r
234-
Steel F l a t Pr o d u c t s 6-9
T a b l e 6-4b: P e r mi s s i b l e Variations i n Th i c k n e s s ( Co n t ' d . ) Uni t : lorn
7 1
I
I ( To l e r a n c e Over S p e c i f i e d Th i c k n e s s f o r W i d t h s
I
M 1
ISpecified 1 1
( Th i c k n e s a , 1 2,400 t o 2,700 t o 3,000 t o 3,300 t o 3,600 to 1
1
mm 1 2,700. 3,000, 3,300, 3,600, 4,200,
excl e x c l e x c l excl
I
I
1 excl I
I I
I
tWrE 1- Pemi sr i bl e var i at i on under speci f i ed thickness, 0.3 m.
NOTI4 2-Thickness t o be measured a t 10 rn t o 20 cm from the l ongi t udi nal edge,
M?TE 3-For r peci f i ed thickness ot her than those shown, t he next higher thick-
neon will apply.
MOTE 4-For thickness measured a t any l ocat i on ot her than t hat speci fi ed i n
Note 2, the permissible naximura over t ol erance shal l b e increased
by
75% rounded t o t he nearest 0. 1 mm.
ASEP Steel Handbook
9QC
Steel Flat Products 6- 41
Table 6-37: Width Tolerance A
Unit: nun
r
1
I
Division by Nominal width I
I
I
Under 1,250 1 1, 250 and over I
1
I
+7 I 410
0
I
I 0 I I
Table 6-38: Width Tolerance B Unit: mm
I 1
I Division by Nominal Width I
t I
Under 1, 250
P
I I 1,250 and over I
Table 6-39: Length Tolerance A Unit: mm
1 Division by Nominal Length i Tolerance
t
--
I
I Under 2, 000
i
+ 10
I
I I
I
( 4,000 t o 6 , 0 0 0 , excl .
i
I
ASEP Steel liand' w k
3267-
6-34 Steel Flat Proolucts
T e l e 6-5a: Paraiesible Variations in Width and Length for
Sheered Plates s 40 pa thick; length only of Univer-
sal Hill Plate s 50 mm thick
I I
Ik.cified Riraulaions I Variations Over Specified Width I
I and ~ength* for Thickness, nu,
I and ~quivalent Masses, kg/m2
I
1 I
I
I To 10.5 excl. 10.5 to 16,excl.l
Width I To 78.5,excl. 78.50 to 125.6, 1
I
excl .
I
t I
Width Length Width Length I
+ - I I
4- &QM, 1 TO 1;500.
I
10 13 11
1 U C 1 .
l6 1
I
11 16 13
I
I-.
1 1,560 to 2,100, 1
1 u c l .
l8 I
I
13 19 16 22
I
I 1 , l M to 2,780.1
I
I UCl.
I
I
I
1 2,700 a d
I 16 2 2 19 25
I
I ever
I
I
1
ASEP Steel Handbook
.-236-
Steel Flat Products 6-11
Table 6-5b: Permissible Variations in Width and Length lor
Sheared Plates 5 40 mm thick: length only of
Universal Mill Plate s 50 mm thick (Cont'd.)
I I I
I Specified Dimensions I Variations Over Specified Width I
I
I and ~ength* for Thickness, nun
I and Equivalent Masses, kg/m2
I
I I
- 1 i
I I
1 16 to 25, excl. 25 to 50, incl. 1
I Length 1 Width 1 125.6 to 196.2, 196.2 to 392.5, 1
I I
1 excl. excl .
I I I Width Length Width
I
Length 1
C-------t--------
IT0 3,000, 1 To 1,500, I 13 19 16 25
I excl.
I
I
I UC' .
I
I 1,500 20 2,100,l 16 2 2 19 2 5
I
1 excl.
I
I I
I 2,100 to 2, 700, ) 19 2 5 25 29
I
I
I I 6.~1. I
I
1 ( 2,700 and 22 29 2 9 32
I
I
I over
I
I
I I
13,000 to I To 1,500,
I
I 16 2 5 19 29
I
I 1 axcl. I
I
If1.000, 1 1,500 to 2,100, 1 19 2 5 2 2 3 2
i
icucl. 1 excl. 1
I
I ( 2,100 to 2,700,) 21 29 2 5 35
I
I I sxc1. I
I
I 1 2,700 and I 2 2 32 2 9 35
I
I 1 over I
I
I I
A Permisrible variations under specified width and length. 6
1.
ASEP Str 11'Aandbook
-2%-
1 Steel Pl at Products
T a b l e 6-6a: Permissible Variations from Flatness
, k t e l-men the longer dimension is under 900 m, the pemissible variation
.hculd nat exceed 6 ao. When the longer dimension is from 900 8. to
1mI , incl., tho peraiasible variation should not exceed 75% of the
tabular w u r t for the specified width, but in no case lees than 6 nm.
Wta 2-Thara variations apply to plates that have a specified minimum
tenmile mtrangth of not more than 400 M I ' . , or conparable chemical corpo-
rition or hardnes8. The limits in the table are increased 50% for
plater specified t o a higher minimum tensile strength or coapatible
chemirtry or hardness.
3 - 1 6 t&le and these notas caver the permissible variations
far flatness of ctreular and sketch plates, bared on the maximtun diwn-
riwlr of those plates.
f 1 I I
I I
(
P e r m i e ~ i b l e Variations fron a Flat 1
4 I ( surface for specified widths, ma A*"
1i)p.cifi.d I Specified ) To 900 to 1200 to 1500 to 1800 to (
I P J ~ l c k n m ~ s , I Maom, ( 900. 1200. 1509, 1800, 2100 I
1" 1 ro/r2 1 ercl. excl. excl. excl. excl. I
+-+ i
I'ZO 6, ( TO 47.1, I l4 19 2 4 32 35
I "el. ( mxcl.
f
16 to 10, ) 47.1 to
I
16 19 24 29
I
( u c l .
1 1 3
( 78.5, excl. )
I
I S O to 12, ( 78.5 to 14 16 16 19
I
IUac1.
i 13
1 94.2, excl. 1
I
( l a t o 20, 1 94. 2 t o 13 14 16 16
I
mc1.
I 11
1 157.0, axcl.1
I
I l@ t o 25, 1 157.0 to 1 3 1 4 16 16
I
L l . 1 196.2, excl.1 I l1 I
131 to 50, 1 196.2 to
I lo 13 13 14 14
I
I"1c1. ( 392.5, excl. 1
I
I 1 I
I
* Flatness Variations for Length - The longer dimension specified is consid-
ered
the length. and peraiasible variations in flatr~css along the length
ahould not exceed the tabular awunt for the specified width in plates
up
to 6.000
in length, or in any 4,000 mm of longer pl abee.
Flatness Variatfons for Width - The flatness variations
across the width
should not exceed the tabular mount for the specified wl!th.
ASEP Steel H-lndbook
-238
Steel Flat Products 6-13
Table 6-6b: Permissible Variatians trom Flatness (Cont'd.)
, lote 1-When the longer dimension is under 900 m, the permissible variation
should not exceed 6 mm. When ;he longer dimension is from 900 mm to
1800 r, incl., the permimsiblc variation should not exceed 75% of
the
tabular aount for the npecifiad width, but in no case less than 6 m.
Note 2-Them variations apply to plates t hat have a specified minimum
tensile 8trongth Of not more than 400 MPa or comparable chemical cmpo-
sition or herdnese, The limits in the table are increased 50% for
plates specified to a t.igher minimum tensile strength or compatible
chemirtry or hardness.
Iete 3-Thin tabla and these notes cover the permissible variations
for flatness of circular and sketch plates, based on the maximum dimen-
nionr of thora plates.
I I
I I Parmieslble Variations from a Flat
I
I Surface for Specified Widths, mm A* B
Specified /Specified 12100to 2400to 2700to 3000to 3600to 4200
Thickness, 1 Mans, 12400, 2700, 3000, 3600, 4200, and
P ( kg/m2 lexcl. excL, excl. excl. exc1. over
t----- t---------- l
IT0 6. ITO 47.1, 1 38 41 44 48 ... ...
1 excl . 1 axcl .
16 to 10, 147.1 to
I
1 32 35 38 4 1 ..-
...
excl . (78.5, excl. 1
110 to 12, ( 78. 5 to 1 22 2 5 2 9 32 48 54
(ucl. 194.2. axcl. I
(12 to 20, (94.2 to 1 l9 2 5 2 5 2 9 38 51
I "cl . 1157.0, 8 x 1 . 1
120 to 25, 1157.0 to 1 l6 i$ 2 2 25 35 4 4
) oscl. 1196.2, excl.1
125 to 50, 1196.2 t o
I l6 16 16 18 29 38,
Iucl. 1392.5, excl.1
L I I
I
A Flatness Variations for Length - The longer dimension specified is conaid-
ared
the length, and permissible variations in flatness along the
length
should not exceed the tabular amount for the specified width in plates
up
to 4,000 mm in length, or in any 4.000 m of longer plates.
Platnese Variations for width - The flatness var~iations
across the wi d t h
Should not excped the tabular amount for the specified width.
ASEP Steel Handbook
.710.
ASEP Steel 1 ~dbook
-74
Steel F l a t Products 6-15
Table 6-8: Preferred Standard Thicknesses
Unit: nm
I -
1
1 1 . 2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.5 ( 2. 6) 2. 8 ( 2. 9) 3.2{
3 . 6 4.0 4 . 5 5.0 5. 6 6.0 6.3 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0)
Jll.0 12.5 12.7 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 (17.0) 18.0 19.0 20.0)
122.0 25.0 25.4 28.0 (30.0) 32.0 36.0 38.0 40.0 45. 0 50. 0)
J
Rssark: The standard thicknesa not i n parentheses shoul d preferably
be used.
Table 6-9: Preferred Standard Widths Unit: m
I -1
Ramark: For s t e e l pl at e, the standard widths of 914 mm, 1.219 mm and 1,400
mu or over s hal l be appl i ed.
Tal e 6-10: Preferred Standard Lengths
6-16 St-1 B1.t Pr o d u c t s
'fable 6-11: Chemical P r o p s t y Rapuir-nta
-
I
- -
0.050 mu. 0.050 max. f
I
- -
I
0.050 max. 0.050 max. 1
I
- -
I
0.050 mar. 0.050 max. 1
I
1
0. 30 rex. 1.60 max. 0.010 l a x . 0.040 nax. I
Wto: Allgiw el nant a other than in above tabl e can be added to SS540 ac-
c o d & q to r ~ ui r e mnt a .
ASEP Steel Handbc ~k
-242-
Steel Fl a t Products 6-17
Table 6-12a: Mechanical Property Requirements
Tensi l e Test
-1
Yi el d.
Poi nt or / Tensi l e
Yield 1 St r engt h
St r engt h /
*/m2 I ~ / m m ~
I-"----
205 min. 1 330-630
1
I
I
f
I
-
Elongation
I I
Dimensions .of
I T e s t I %
Rolled St eel , =
Piece 1
I i
t--4
. St eel sheet or s t r i p 1 N0.5 / 26 s i n.
has a t hi ckness of
not more t han 5 mm
+St eel pl a t e o r s t r i p
has a t hi ckness of
over 5 t o 16 i nc l .
*St eel sheet or s t r i p
haa a t hi ckness of
not sore t han 5 mu
@St eel pl a t e or s t r i p
has a t hi ckness of
over 5 to 16 i nc l .
I
*St eel aheat or s t k i p 1
has a thicttalhdO tr* I
not more t han 9 am
1
*St eel pl a t e or s t r i p
has a t hi ckness o f I
over 5 t o 16 i nc l .
I
1
*St eel sheet or s t r i p j
ha8 a t hi cknese of I
R o t more than 5 mm
1
*St eel pl a t e o r s t r i p [
has a thickne&s of 1
over 5 t o 16 f ns l . I
5
I
No.5 f 19 min.
E
1
Po. LA j 15 mtn.
i
I
i
No.5 ] 16 Bin.
I
f
Ilo.XA f 13 min.
1
I
8-18 Steel F l a t Products
TgLlo 6-12b: mechanical Propslrty R6quirement.s (Cont'd.)
\
I 1
1
4" I
Bcqding Test
:I
1 I
S I
I 1
I I I
I Ihr&ms Angle Inner Diameter I
I
Test Piece
I
I
I
__C____i
NO. 1 I
I
I
I
I
I
I
NO. 1
I
I
I
I
NO. 1
1
, I
ASEP Steel Handbook
A.
Steel Flat Pxoducts 6-19
Table 6-13a: Tolerance on Thickness
I
I
Width
I
(Thickness
14.00 or over
I t o L . pC1* 5.00
(5.00 or over
I t o & excl. 6. 30
14.30 or over
( to 6 ucl. 10.0
110.0 or over
1 to L ercl. 16.0
116.0 or over
( to C mxcl. 25.0
125.0 or ovar
I to L rxcl. 40.0
(40.0 or over
I to &. excl . 63.0
163.0 or over
( to C u c l . 100
1100 0s ova*
1 t o G ercl. 160
(160 or over
) to C exu1. 200
1108 ot over
I to C ue l . 250
(250 or avrr
1 t o 6 ucl. 300
1300 or war
( t o O iacl. 350
L
1, 600 or
ovar to and
excl. 2,000
Unit: ma
1
2,000 or 1
over to and 1
excl . 2,500 1
------i
~ 0 . 5 5
iO.60
20. 65
*0. 65
10.75
*o. 80
t0.95
il. 1
11.5
il.8
*1.9
22.1
22.3
L u r k a 1. Lither plur aide or minus aide of the thickness tolerances given in
tha above Tabla m y ba lhited on request. The total tolerances, in
thi8 cane shall be equal to those given in Table.
2. Thicknes~ shall be measured at any point inward the scheduled
cutting lfaa concerning width for the as-rolled steel plate (with
untrimed edge), and at any point not less than 15 am from the
aforementioned line for the cut edge pl at e.
ASEP Gteol :landbook
-7dF-
6-20 Steel F l a t Products
Table, 6-13b: Tolersncs on Thickneee (Cont'd.) Unit:
I I I
1 1
I
Mi%tIth 1 2,50;39 or 1 3,150 or 1 4, 0000s 1
I
I over to and 1 over to and ( over t o and I
f Phiekneosr I arcl . 3,150 / axcl. 4,000 f excl. 5,003 1
1 t - - - . - i F - i
t0. 65 I - 1
-
I
t I I 1
I
Ramarks 1. Either plus s i de or ninus ai de of the t hi c he r r tolardnces gi ven in
the above Table lay be l i ai t e d en request. The total toi erances, i n
t hi a case s hal l be equal t o those gi ven i n Table.
I
2. Thiclrnesa shall be measured at any poi nt inVIlrd the scheduled
Wt i n g l i ne concerning width for the as-rol l ed steel pl ate [with
untrimed edge), and at any polnt not less than 15 p. from the
aforementioned l i ne for the cut etlge pl at e.
ASEP Steel Ha n mok
-246-
Steel F l a t Products 6-21
Table 6-14: Tolerance on Length uni t: mm
I I I I
I Length I Thickness I Tolerance 1
i - i ------+ ------I -----------I
I I < 6 I 1 +10
+0.5%
1 26300 1 0 0
I
26
I
+0.5%
I
+15
I
I I I I
0 0
I
I I I I I
I r ur k: Toler*nca 8 doas not apply t o thickneas of 220 m.
ASEP Steel Handbook
.$-I-
6-22 Steel F l a t Products
i (Under 3.,15
! I
13.15 or over t o
p h r 6 ezcl. 6.00
' 6 0
1 b .00 or over to
I 1 c e ~ c l . 20.0.
I 120.0 or over
C----i
1 /Under 3.15
1160 or13.15 or over t o
J m r I & ercl , 6.00
(.to C (6.00 or over t o
c . 1 L crcl. 20.0
, 1190 120.0 or over
& exel . 6.00
6. 00 or rjver t o
20.0 or over
,.
/ m r I hs x c i . 6.00
L 16.00 or over t o
tesC1. ( h excl. 20.0
1630 120.0 or over
-
1 I S 3.0
I io.5 1
I I I
- 1 t2 1 10 0 4.0 0 I - I
I
I I I I
-
I I 10 1 - 1
+___1-___(
I 5 2.0 1 t0.4 1
\ I s 3.0 1 e0.5 1
I I
I
- ( i2 1 10 0
I
4.0 0 I - 1
I I I I
I 1 15
-
I - I
__l_f- -___(
I 1 5 2 . n 1 t0.5 1
I I s 3.0 i0.5 1
0 I I
+ Not 1 i s 1 15 0
I I
4.0 0 1 - I
specified 1 I
-
I
I I 10
I
1 - I
____I(-
I I ' 0 3.0 I ~ 0 . 5 1
. 1 -
1 1 lo 3. 0 1 i0.5 1
0 1 +20 1 1
+ Not 1 0 110 0
I
5.0 0 I - 1
speci fi ed I I
-
I I
I 1 l 5 I - I
I I
Table 6-15a: Tolerance on Width
Unit: mm
I I I
1
,& 1 I 1 Tolerance
I
. , . ) i
,. $..k. I I I
:I 1 I I Mill ' edge I
Cut edge I
; 1 I I
i
]Width ) Thickness ( St eel pLateIStee1 . I A B I C I
I I 1 (as rolled (sfrip and\ Normal Resheared \Slitted \
. I 1 ((with
1 cut I cut edge or fi ne i edge 1
I s , 1 . Juntri-d (length8 1 cut edge 1
i
I
: I . . I I edge ) (therefrom1 +
- .
- I I
I 4 -------I
2.0
H
I I 1 5 1 t-0.3 1
I
I
' I
I
I
4 -
I
I
I
I
I
!
i-
I
I
!
I
I
I
i -
I
I
I
I
I
I
L
ASEP Steel r' idbook
-24a
Steel Flat Products 6-23
Table 6-15b: Tolerance on Width (Cont'd.)
Unit: raa
r 1 I
1 I I
Tolerance
i I I
I
I
1 1 Hilt edge I
Cut edge
i I t-------~-----l I
Jwidth ( Thickness [Steel plate(Stee1 I A B 1
I I
Ira rolled (rttip mdl Normal Resheared ISlitted
I I
(with (cut I cut edge or fine I edge
1 1 luntrilrwd (lengths I cut edge I
1 I I edge)
lthereftoml + - + - 1
1 - 1 ----------I ---------1 -------I
(Under 3.15 4.0
C---
I I I 1 lo
1630 or13.15 or over to1
4.0
I
Iwer 1 & axcl. 6.00 1 0
I 1 lo I
1 +25 I
(to L 16.00 or over to1 + Not I 0 1 10 0
I
6.0 0 I -
(excl. ( h excl. 20.0 f specified I
11.000 I20.0or over (
I
-
I
I I 15 I
t - i ---------.1 -------i ----+ -----------A --
(1,000 (Under 3.15 1 I I' lo 4.0
(or 13.15 or over to] 4.0
I
lwer 1 & excl. 6.00 1 0
I 1 10 I
I +30 1
(to.& (6.00orovartol +Not I 0 ( 1 5 0
I
6.0 0 1 -
Jex~l. I & excl. 20.0 ( specified (
J1.250 120.0 or over I
I
-
I
I I l5 I
H -----------1 -------+ ------I
(1.250 (Under 3.15
-----i--
I I 1 lo 4.0
lor 13-15 or over t o ) 4.0
I
lover I & excl. 6.00 1 0
1 1 lo I
I +35
I
(to & (6.00 or over to1 + Not I 0 1 15 0
I
6.0 0 I -
Iercl. 1 & 8x1. 20.0 1 specified I
11.600 120.0 or over I
I
I 1 15
-
I
I
H -'-------I ---A ------------A
I (Under 3.15 I 1 1 lo 4.0
I 13.15 or over to1 I 4.0
I
11.800 1 & excl. 6.00 ( 0
1 lo I
1 +40 1
(or ~6.00oroverto~ +Not 1 0 (1.2% 0
I
6. 0 0 1 -
lover 1 & excl. 20.0 1 specified I
I ~20.0orcver 1 I I 1.2%
I
I
-
I
ASEP Steel Handboo!
6-24 Steel Flat Products
rl
6-16: Prfb.sEerrab T h i c k ~ o ~ a s (for SPHC) Unit: lp
-
Eeoarkr: 1. 'fha otandard thickncrr not in parenthercr should preferably
be u d .
2. Per tha clte<I strip M cut loncthr therefrom, the rtandard
thicbarror af 12. 70 r ~r under shall k r ~ 1 i . Q.
V d & a 6-17: Proirrr.d Stamlard Width. Unit: r
1 I
mr k : Par steel strip and cut lrwythr therefrom. the rtuul.rd widths of
2.000 m 0r urrd.r rh.11 h a@licd.
ASEP Steel Ha ibook
-2517-
Steel Plat Products 6-25
Table 6-18a: Chemical and Jfechanical Property Requirements
r I I
I
I I I
Tenslle Test 1
I t 1
Elongation %
-I
I I I I
Deeig-1 Chemical /Tensile 1 ----I
nation( Compo- (Strength / Thickness Thickness Thickness I
1. mition,% 1 ( 1.2 mm to 1.6 nun to 2. 0 mm to 1
I t - - (MPa) 1 1 . 6 mm 2 . 0 nun 2.5 nun
I I P I S I I excl. excl . excl . I
I
H * -4 -------I
JSPHC )0.05010.0501 270 min.1 27 m l n . 29 min.
i
29 min. 1
I
I max.1 max.1 I
JBPHD 10,040)0.040( 270 rain. [ 30 mi n . 32 min.
I
33 min. I
I I mx.1Pia;c. I I
IB?RE 10.03010.0351 270 min.1 31 min. 33 mi n .
I
35 rnin. I
I I max.1 max.) I I
L I I I I _IJ
Raarke: 1. The C and tin contents are not specified, but SPHC i s manufactured
frw carbon ateel having a C content of 0.152 or below and an Mn
content of 0.60% or below. SPHD and SPHE are manufactured from
carbon rtael having r C cantent of 0.10% or below and an Un
con-
tent of 0.50% or below.
2. Nechanical test values do not apply to abnormal parts of at both
M a ateel atrip (coflii).
ASEP Steel Handbook
-251-
6-26 Steel Plat Products
TsPale 6-lab: Chemical and Mechmical Property Requirements
(Cont'd. )
P
I I
1 Tensile Test I
C
i Elongation %
ch.ntioal i
. C W - ( Thickna8s Thickness Thickness
8i t i on. 8 / 2. 5 ap to 3.2 mm to 4.0 aa and
- 1 3. 2 aun 4.0 and
P I S ( excl. excl . over
__(I
0.05010.0501 29 nin. 31 nin. 31 min.
==.I WU.1
0.040~0.040) 35 min. 37 rin. 39 min.
uu.Iaw. I
0.03OJb.0351 37 min. 39 min. 41 min.
u* . I ur . 1
--
No. 5
Rolling
Direction
.IO.EQ. 1. C a d Ibi eonteats are not specified, but SFHC is manufactured
frcm arbst stanl havia( r C content of 0.15% 0s helor and an
ibr
cansul: of 0 . m or bl o w. SNU) and S W are ~ ~ u f ~ t u r e d f r a
carhen rtoel havisyl r C centant of 0.10% or below and an ih
con-
tQ4tt 0Z 0 . a or b.10~.
2. kmcbmical teat values Qs not apply to abnorul part8 of at both
.atk steel mtrip (coils);
ASEP Steel mdbook
.2E
Steel Flat Products 6-27
Table 6-19: Thickness Tolerance
Unit: mm
7-
I
WiCth
I
) Thickness
I------
/ Under 1.25
( 1. 25 to 1.60 ~xcl.
1 1.60 to 2.00 excl.
1 2.00 to 2.50 excl.
1 2.50 to 3.15 excl.
1 3.15 to 4.00 excl.
1 4.00 to 5.00 excl.
1 5.00 to 6.30 excl.
1 6.30 to 10.0 excl.
( 10.00 t o 16.0 excl.
I
Under
1,600
_I
1,600 to 1 2,000 t o
2,000 excl. 1 2,500 excl.
I
______)
-
I
-
-
I
-
*0.23 I -
20.25
i0.29
I
I
k0.29
to. 34 1 20. 34
to. 55 I i0.55
i0.60 1 t0.60
20.65 I k0.65
i0.65 1 *O. 65
-tee: X . The values of tolerance in the table are unchangeable on plus or
minus side provided that the overall tolerance range is left un-
changed.
2. The position of thickness measurement shall be taken on an arbitrary
point inside not l ea8 than 25 ma away from the edge for mill edged
steel atrip and cut plate therefrom of not less 50 mm in width. the
central position for less than 50 mm in width, an arbitrary point
inaide not less than 15 rpm away from the edge fcr cut edged strip
and cut plate from it of not less than 30 nuu in width and the cen-
tral position for Law? than 30 mm in width. It shall be an arbitrary
point inside of the aeeumed cutting line for as-rolled steel plate
having r i m and an arbitrary point not less than 15 n m inside of the
edge for cut edged steel plate.
ASEP Steel "xndbook
- 2 ~
6-28 Steel Flat Products
Table 6-20: Length Tolerance Unit: mm
" ib
I I
I I
Tolerances
EL W t h I Th'ickneas I I
I
#! I
1 A (Ordinary lB (Re-cutting or1
lk. I
I Cutting) ]Precise Cuttingjl
- - ------------4 P
I /Under 6.00 I t25 1 +5
I I 0 0
I
I
[Undcr 6,300 1
I
I
I
!
16.00 and over 1 +25 +10
I
I
I I I 0 I 0 I
I
I
- - -------------1 --------------i
I IUndNr 6 .OO 1 +0.5% I +10
I I I 0 I 0 I
I
(6,300 and over 1
I
I ' 16.00 and over I +0.5%
I
+15
I
1 I I 0 I I
I
0
I
L
ASEP Ste .andbook
- .
St eel Fl a t Products 6-29
Table 6-2la: Tolerance on Width
Unit: mm
r ' 1
I 1 i
Tolerance8 I
I I
I I
I i I
Hi l l Edged I Cut Edged I
I t t - - - - - +
I
Ititth I .)(IYu 9tetl plate# s t t a ~ s t t i p 1 L(Ord1nary i t t 0 c i
1 I
I i s Rolled 136 Cut Pl at e I Cuttl ag) l l recl s~ Cutting\ /(Slitting1 1
I 1
I (Raving Ri l ) tbcrefror I t - 1 ' I I
H ] - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I - - - - - - t i ---1
I
I Dm1 3. 15 I l 5 1 2. 0 ' t 0. 3 ]
1-r 1 3. 15 to 6. 00 8rcl . l - t2 l 5 0 I 3.0 0 I j 0 . 5 4
)1b0 1 1.00 Lo 20.0 c1c1.l 1 lo 1 4.0 1 - 1
I
1 10.00 uld ovrr / 1 10 I - I - 4
I I I I I I ;
1
1 under 3.15 1 1 5 1 1.0 1 ta.4 j
(110 ( 3. 15 to 6. 00 excl. 1 - ! 2 I s 0 1 3.0 0 1 t0.5 I
Jt c 150 1 6. 00 to 20. 0 t r c l . I lo I 4.0
lucl. ) 10.0 and over I
/ - I
1 15 I - 1 - 1
I I I I I I I
I
I I t ne e r 3. 15 1 i 5 I 1.0 1 ! o, 5 1
(250 1 1.15 t o L O O rrcl. i 0 1 5 1 5 0 / 3.0 0 I f 0 . 5 I
I ~ C ~ O O 1 6.00 to 20. 0 ~ Y C I . 1 I NO^ 1 10 1 4.0
I - I
) ~ l . 1 10.0 and over 1 specifled
I l5
I - I - '
I I I I I I
i
I
I
( Under 3.15
1 lo 1 3. 0 1 ! 0. 5 1
1400 1 3. 15 t o 6.00 crcl . 0 420
1 lo 0 1 3. 0 0 1 tO.3 1
) t o 630 ) 9.00 to 20. 0 exel . I t Not
1 lo 1 5. 6
1 ( 10. 0 lad over 1 rpeclflbd 0
1 - 1
I 15
I
1 -
1 I I I I I
1 - 1
1 I 1 lo 1 4.0
I
I l&r 3. 15
168to I 3. 15 to 6.90 excl, 1 0 t 30 0 1 4.0
I I
11,000 1 6.00 to 20. 0 ercl, I t Not
I 10
1 l o 1 6. 0
0 ; - I
pel. 1 10. 0 ud ore1 J epocl tl cd 0
I I
I I
I ' 5 I I
-
I J 1 ! I
- I 2
ASEP Ster Hanabook
;5-
S-m Steel F l a t Products
%
Ta b l e 6-21b: Tolerance on Width (Cont'd.)
Unit: s\ra
Hill Kdptd
$tee1 ~lites S t d Stri p
a$ Rolltd ad Cat Plat6
(Baring Ria) ?barefro8
0 il
t l o t
c pc i f ied
A(0rdlnarg
Cutting)
t
Cut Edged 1
-
I I
)(Re-totting or / C I
rtclsa Cutting) /(Slitting) I
Fb. %+lermua oa steal at ri p sill W and cut platdm therefrom loan
than 400 r tr width ui l l B. allorad to l i m i t t h rims ai de ot tolor-
aeu te mro. In tbne c i n e , the tolermcar on plun ni& #lull bs
twiee tke WLW #ivm i n above table.
ASEP Stet IanBbook
6-
Steel Flat Products 6-31
JI S G3141-90
Table 6-22: Preferred Standard Thickness Unit: mm
I t
1 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.20 1.40 J
11.60 1.80 2.00 2.30 2.50 (2.60) 2.80 (2.90) 3.201
Note: The standard thickness not in parentheses should preferably be used.
Tabla 6-23: Chemical Composition ( %)
I I I
1 Quality I c I Mn
+
I
1 SPCC
I
I SPCD
I
I SPCE
I
_I__j
I
0.12 mar. 1 0.50 max.
I
0.10 max. 1 0.45 max.
I
0.08 max. 1 0.40 max.
I
[Informative reference]
I I
P
I
s
I
-.____I
I 1
0.040 nex. 1 0.045 max. 1
I I
0.035 MX. 1 0.035 max. 1
I I
0.030 max. 1 0.030 max. 1
Rearrk: For steel sheets and coils of grade 1/8 hard, 1/4 hard, 1/2 hard and
full hard, increase in hardness is achieved by sometimes changing
their chemical composition instead of by temper rolling.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-157
pmla 6-24a: mcwical Properties
I t 1
reasion test i
Elonqatioo Win, Vaiee (t1
I
1
1 .
t o 10.10 t o 10.60 tb j ~ . o . t o j1.i to j
I
W)' j[@.Blil lit-OZl) /(1,03+) 118.863) / 2 , 5 & i
rd/O.lO uel/l.O erel 11.6 azcl 12.3 uc l I (0. 091) i
li) l ( o , t ~ j(Q.039) [i@,otli I(@.PW l wei ,I
I 1 . I
. +J- ; - ,
34 1 36 1 37 39 1 36 1
I 1 I 1
I I I I I I I f I I i I
lPrsrl4I%fep 1 ' s 1 - 1 '27% / 34 j 36 / 38 / 39 / 40 I 1 1 j
IWltf i I , 1 1 I I I I I I I
' I I I I' I I I I I I I
I ' 1 S / - I L Z U 3/ 38 j 40 1 . 41 1 !2 j 13 j
; w m I i I 1 1. 1 I 1 I I
'1*1m I ( 1 'I 1 . , ! '1 , I . I I
I
1, I 1 1 -
: 1 1 , r i ~ ) ~ l p l e , tension twt value8 r h r l l not apply t o STCC, but
v ba r*i~ei$ by the cwt-t tba valuer i n the prarratharis ahal l
*rJ.
2. Ilhem t eeai m t eat vrlrwa or Erichsan val usr or h t h ar e yarao-
tm$ fog U)DC i n eaepli.sca with a customer's rectutrt, t&c
8uf f i r
T *If. & sivwr to th* *i#KuItioIl: SPCn:
3. In pr i nei pl a, tSro un8i ab test r hal l be mt t t d f or tbicImer8 lass
tk8n e.BO m.
4. For §FOB#, non-ming shall be guaranteed f or a period of mix
mearks from thc dat e of ahipsent from the works. Ron-agutim
f adi eat as per f ot unce i n which st r et cher s t r ai n does not occur
during Working proceurr. The bending test shal l be wi t t e d f or
standard tempering.
Steel Flat Products 6-33
Table 6-24b: Mechanical Properties (Cont'd.)
Eesdicg ?e:!
Tens!os t est !
-4 -
----
ensile I I
I
trength j i
i n :Bending anq!e /Inside radios
{ Wa ) itppe an3 i ! IType 326
A ~ i r c c t i e n of / l endi ng aagle tinside radios IDirecticn of '
japticirjens ! i lsperinens
I I
, 25 and 1 : I I
0.0iO) 1 I I
ver I i
i I I
------i-. - 1 --.---I------- -'
(rU0j I i I
2270 j i
2218 Roiling 1 18b' , i Closing
/ di r e c t i on 1 I Ti qht l y
I I i
Remarks: 1. In principle, tension test values shall not apply to SPCC. but
whm rr~uired by the customer the values in the parenthesis ahall
apply.
2. When tension test values or Erichsen values or ~oth are guaran-
teed for SPCC in compliance with a customer's request, the
suffix
'f shall be given to the designation: SPGCT
3. Xn principle, the tension test shall be omitted for thickness leas
than 0.60 m e .
4. For SFCEN, non-ageing shall be guaranteed for a period of six
mnths from the date of shipment from the works. Nan-ageisg
~ndfcatea performance in which stretcher strain does not occur
during warking processi. The bending test shall be omitted for
standard tempering.
Table 6-25.: blschanical Properties, SPCC, Temper-Designated
? r I
I 1
Hardness 1 Bending test I
i I I I I
I i / / Hazd 1 4 1 65-80 1115- 150 1 180'
1 I I I I
1 2 r 2 74-89 1 135-185 1 180'
t
IltarQ
I I I I
1 1 1 85 rin 1 170 min I -
1 I I 1 I
Inside
radius
I
I
-
Closing tightly I
I
Cloaing tightly I
I
0.5 time. the i
thickness
I
1.0 time the I
thicknems
1
I
I
T-lm 6-25b: Mechanical Propclrtles, SPCC, Tamper-Designated
( Cont ' d. )
t I 1 I
1 1 *emmr 1 Tsnsile Strength ( Elongation,% I
1
270 min.
i --------4
I
32 min.
I
I
294-412 1 25 min.
I
I
I
373-490 I 10 min.
I
I
i i
1
i
- d l 1 1 I 441-588
1
-
I
I I I
I
550 mln.
I
-
I
I 1 I 1
ASEP Steel Handbook
-260-
Steel Flat Products 6-35
Tolerance on Thickness
Table 6- 26: Thickness. Tolerances A Unit: mm
1 I 1
f
Nominal I Under 630 to 1000 to 1250 to 1600 1
I
Width 1 630 1000, excl. 1250, excl. 1600. excl. and over(
[Mominal Thickness 1 I
I
[Lees than 0.25
10.25 to 0.40, exci.
10.40 to 0.60, ercl.
10.60 to 0.80, excl.
10.80 to 1.00, excl.
(1.00 to 1.25, excl.
(1.25 to 1.60, excl.
11.60 to 2.00, excl.
/2.00 to 2.50. excl.
12.50 to 3.65, ercl.
15.15 and over
L 1 I
Remarks: 1. Tolerance on thickness. width and length are usually in accord-
ance with Table A.
2. When tolerances stricter than those in Table A are specified,
the
tolerances shall comply wi t h Table 8.
ASEP Steel Haridbook
-9Rl.'
6-36 Steel Flat Products
Tabla 6-27: Thickness ~olerances B Unit: mm
k I
I
Nominal Under 160 to 250 to 400 to
I
Width / 160 250, excl. 400, excl. 630. excl.
jhainal ~htclrnaes i
.
j hs s than 0.lO 1 tO.010 *O .020
- -
10.10 to 0.16. sxcl. I t0.015 t0.020
- -
(8.16 to 0.25. excl. I 20.020 t0.025 to .030 t0.030
19.25 to 0.40. axcl . I t0.025 to. 030 t0.035 to. 035
1O.u) to 0.60, excl. 1 ~0.035 SO. 040 to. 040 t0.040
10.60 to 0.80, excl. ( rO.040 t0.045 r0.045 to. 045
10.00 to 1.00. excl. t0.04 20.05 t0.05 tO.05
) l . W to 1.25, ~xcl. I t0.05 to. 05 to. 05 *O .06
11.25 to 1.60, encl. I tO.05 i O . 0 6 to. 06 t0.06
14.- to 2.00. axel I t5.W :0. 07 tO.08 t0.08
12.00 to 2.50, excl. I t0.07 +a -0s t0.08 to .09
j2.W to 3.15. escl. I t0.M to. 09 tO.09 tO.10
19.15 ancl over 1 :0.09 to. 10 20.10 tO.ll
I
I
I
-1
M ~ s k s : 1. Tolcrmeo on thickmaan, width and length are usually in accord-
mace with Table A.
2. When tolerances stricter than those in Table A are 6-Nrd, the
tolerancer shall ccap1.1 with Table 6 .
1
I 6 : Tolerance oar width Unit: mm
@#I$ * ;.
j;;;,r ~ t e r i a l /
I
Length Length
1"' .larimel wi dth I Tolerances A
I
Tolerances R I
1 @riaor 1,250
I
I
+ 7 + 3
I I -0 -0
I
I
I i
I
( 1,250 and wer
I +I0 + 4
I
I I - 0 -0
1
1
I
ASEP 5 eel Handbook
-262-
Steel Flat Products 6-37
Table, 6-29: Tolerance on Length Unit: mm
r I
I'
Material Length Length
IWominal Length \ Tolerances A Tolerances B
I-
IUnder 1,000 I +10 + 3
I I
- 0 -0
11,000 t o 2,000, excl. I + 10 + 4
I
I
-0 - 0
I2,OOO t o 3,000, excl. I +15 +6
I I
- 0 - 0
(3, 000 td 4, 000, excl. 1 +15 +8
I I -0
- 0
14,000 t o 6,000, excl. I *20 -
I I
-0 -
L
28ble 6-30; Tolerance pn Flatnerrs U n ~ t : mm
I I
I --1
I I
Flatness A 1 Flatness B I
1 Xind of
1- - - , - - - - - - - {
INominal Strain 1 Bow I Wavy I Center I Bow I Wavy I Center ,
IWidth 1 I Edge 1 Buckle I ( Edge I Buckle 1
------I ------I -----i 4 ------I ------+
/under 1,000 1 1 2 1 $ 1 6 I 2 1 2 1 I
~i , oooto1, 2so, erci . 1 15 1 9 8 j 3 1 2 1 2 1
~1,250ta1,600.e1cl.( 15 1 1 1 1 8 1 4 1 3 1 2 I
11.600 and over l z O l l 3 l 9 1 5 1 4 1 2 I
I I
Ih..rka: The specification shall apply to cold-rolled steel sheets 500 mm or
more in width of standard temper grade. Unless otherwise specified,
Flatnear A shall apply.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-263-
6 - 3 8 Steel Flat Prociucts
PNS 127-88
tabla 6-31: Preferred Standard ~hickness
Unit: m
Table 6-32: Chemical Propertiem,%, mx .
I I I I I I
1 class I c I m I P I s I
[---------I --------I ---------I -----i
1 1 I
0.12 1 0. 50 I 0.040 1 0. 045
2 0.10 0. 45 0.035 1 0.035
I
I
3
I
0.08
I
0. 40
I
0.030 1 0.030
I
I I I 1 I
Table 6-33: Tensile Strength and Elongation of Tempers 1, 2, 4
aada
r I 1
I I
Tension Test
I
I t
I P*rgar 1 Tsneilo Strength, MPa j
i
Elongation,% I
r---------I-
1 8 1 294-412 I 25 min.
--I
1 4 1 373-490 10 rain.
1
1 2 I 441-588
I
I
-
I
I 1 I 549 =in. I
-
I
I
A
ASEP f t c 1. Handbook
'64-
Steel Flat Products 6-39
Table 6-34: Tensile Strength and ÿ long at ion of Tempere A and S
I I 1
I I
Tension Test 1
t------4 ----7 ;
1 Division bylTensile 1
Elongation.%, min.
I
I NominallStrength I
Thickness,(SPa, sin.\
I
I I
I - t------4 -I
I
1 0.25 & 1 0.25 to 0.40 to 0.60 to 1.00 to 1.60 to 2.5 & (
1 ( over 1 0.40, 0.60. 1 .OO.
1.60. 2.50. over I
I Class I I excl. excl. excl. excl. ercl. I
t----------1 I
I 1 1 275 1 32 34 36 3 7 38
1 275 1 34 36 38 39 40
39 1
1 2
1 275 1 36 38 40 4 1 42
41 I
3 A3 I
I I i
Notes: 1. The tension teat values do not usually apply to Class 1, unless
specified by the purchaser.
2. Table 6-34 applies to steel sheets and strips 30 mm or more in wi dth
but does not apply to those less than 0.60 mm in thickness.
3. For teuper S, Class S where non-ageing of the aheet/strip is
designated. the material shall have a six-month guarantee after
delivery by the manufacturer.
ASEP Steol Handb >k
-265-
6-40 St eel Fl at Products
able 6-35: Thickness Tolerance A Unit: i nn
r t
1
I
Division by/ 660 to 1,000 t o
1,250 to 1,600 1
I mminal width1 1,000,
1,250, 1,600, and
I sxcl . excl . excl .
I
1Ttivtrrien by
over 1
~Netnlnal Tbicknesa 1 1
-
lVlldar 0.25 1 x0.03 20.03 -
-
10.25 to 0.40, exc1. j $0.04 10.04 -
-
I
10.40 to 0.60, 6xcl. l i0. 05 *0,05 i0.06
-
I
10.60 t o 0.80, excl. 1 t0.06 *O .06 t C 37
t
iO.08 f
10.80 ta 1.00, excl. 1 r0.07 rO.08 10. 09 10.70 1
11.00 to 1.20, excl.1 fO.08 k0.09 10.10 r o. 12 1
fl . 20 to 1.60, e xe l , / ~0. 10 i O . l l t O. 12 t0.14 ]
11.60 to 2.00, sxcl . 1 k O . l l k0.12 k0.11 r0.16 I
/ 2-00 to 2.50, exc1.1 tO.13 t0.14 10.16 10.18 (
12.50 t o 3.20, axcl 20.15 ~ 0 . 1 6 LO. 18 ~ 0 . 2 0 1
13.20 and over 1 r0.17 10.19 to. 20
- I
Table 6-36: Thickness Toleraacs B
Divl.sion by
Naainal iJidth
Division by
Nominal Thickness
Unaar 0.10
0.10 to 0.16, excl .
0.16 to 0.25, excl .
0.25 t o 0.46, excl .
0.40 to 0.60, excl.
0.60 t o 0.80, excl
0.80 t o 1.00, excl .
1.00 t o 1.20, excl .
1.20 to 1.60, excl .
1.60 t o 2.00, excl .
2.00 t o 2. 50, excl .
2-50 t o 3.20, e x c ~ .
3.20 and over
Under 160 t o 250 to 400 t c
160 250, 400. 630,
BxCf . exc1. exc1.
ASEP Steel Hand >ok
-266-
6-42 Steel Plat Products
?awl. 6-40: Length Tolerance B
Unit:mm
I
Ff_ Division by Worinal Length 1 Tolerance
I
I
+3
1 0
Wk 5-41: F h t a u o Tolrranm Unit: u
- -
-
I I 1 1
Clu~iiicetionl Pucklf8wd I Elongation I Elongation I
1 I I 1 1
Io-8: 1. Buckling wave is the warpage of the entire width of the sheet or
'. strip.
9 . L l ~ s t i o n of edge is the uarpage of edges of the5 aheet or atrip.
3. dlosgaticxa of center i r the warpage of the center of the Sheet or
stri p.
ASEP Steel Handbook
-268-
Steel F l a t Products 6-43
ASTM A446M-87
i - -
-- - --
Rec6.y1ended
Recamended Recommended
I Thicknesses, nun Widths, m Lengths, nun
i
I
ASEP Steel Yandbook
-269-
t
I Grade I
I
i d a r b , ma s . 1 0.20 0.20 0.25 0.40 0.20 0.50 1
i
aphorus, M x . 1 0.04 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.04 0.04 1
(Sulfur, MX. 1 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0. 04 1
{So--par. when copper 1 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 (
I steal is ipecified, mint t
I I I
A Class 1 and 2.
table 6-41: Machsnical Rsquirements, Base Metal
I 1
I Yield Point, win Tansils, Strength, Elongation in 501
Gr ade 1 MPa (ksi) ain MFa (kai) as (2 in.) min, I
I % I
I
l i 1 230 (33)
310 ( 45) 20
in 1 255 (37)
360 (52) , 18
I
l C. I 275 (40) 380 ( 5 5 ) 16
I
$ 1 34 5 ( 50 ) 450 (65) 12
I
f3118 ? 1 343 ( 5 0 ) ... 12
I
.. ... \ , !KMS(.@0) 570 (82) .. .
I
460 670) 12
1
I
ff the lodsrrll 6 reeult is 85 or k1l h. r. no tensiaa t e a t i; required.
@ ~lu sir14 miat apgworck.~ ttm w i l e mtr-th and sire*
. tkmw
i a so *rlt in the g y r er &rap in tha be-, the yield point s k f d
h taken PI tRe strrres at 0.5% elengation, under load.
ASEP Stan1 landbook
1-
Steel Flat Products 6-45
Table 6-45a: Thickness Tolerances of Hot-Dip Galvanized Sheet
A
1
' j Smcifiod Width, mm j Thickness Tolerance, Plus and Minus, nun 1
I
I For Spacif fed Thickness, mB 1
Over 0.4 Over 1.0
i
I I I
1 Over Through I Through 0.4 Through 1.0 Through 1.5 1
A Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 10 mm
from a side edge.
' Regardlela o f whether total thickness tolerance is specified equally
or unequally, owr and under, the total tolerance should be equal to twice
the tabular tolerances.
Fable 6-45b: Thicknees Tolerances of Hot-Dip Galvanizad Sheet A
(Cont Id. )
I I I
I Specified Width, mm 1 Thickness Tolerance, Plus and Minus. mm 1
I 1 For Specified Thickness, nunB f
M
1 Over 1.5 Over 2.0 Over 2.5
-1
I
I -=
I
Through 1 Through 2.0 Through 2.5 Through 5.0 I
--
I ...
i
1.500 I 0.15 0.20 0.23
1 1,500 ...
I 0.15 0.23 0.23
I
I
I
Thiclulcar is measured at any point across the width not
less than 10 mm
from r side edge.
Regardless of whether total thickness tolerance is specifled equally or
unequally, over and under, the total tolerance should be equal to twice
the tabular talerancee.
a I
$eta:
The nominal thicknem of sheets and coils is the thickness of the base
metal in millimeter measured prior to galvanizing.
T a l e 6-47: Standard Width and Length Unit: nun
18tandard Width .i Standard Length
Tabl e 6-481 l$ickne8s Tolereace Unit:
t I I
Width 1 UnQcr 1,000 1 1,000 to1,220
?&mtaal
*afekoesl
i I I I I
-
[@Mar 0.25 1 20. 04
i
I i0.04
18.25 to 0.40, excl. I e0.05
1 20.05
10.40 to 0.60, eacl. I t0.06
I 20.06
jQ.60 to 1.00, axcl. 1 * O. 07
1 r0.07
11.00 to 1.60, excl. ( *O. 09
I iO.10
11.60 I 20.12
I t0.13
I
J
Ilote: 1. Thickness is measured at any point across the width not less than 50
m from the side edges.
ASEP Steel F ndbook
-272