A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Scholar’s Terms

First Edition

Octavian Sarbatoare

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality
Scholar’s Terms

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

First published in Australia in Dec. 2009 by Sarbatoare Publications, Sydney, NSW For other publications SEARCH ‘Octavian Sarbatoare’ at National Library of Australia: http://www.nla.gov.au/ sarbatoare@hotmail.com Copyright © Octavian Sarbatoare 2009 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Inquiries should be addressed to the author or legal representative.

Australian National Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data: A Sanskrit dictionary of spirituality: scholar’s terms

ISBN 978 0 9807337 0 9. 1. Sanskrit language - Dictionaries. 2. Spiritual direction. I. Title. 294.2 Typeset by Sarbatoare Publications

2

Octavian Sarbatoare

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality
Scholar’s Terms

Sarbatoare Publications Sydney

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Preface to first edition and introduction This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the trails of bold words. In order to avoid repeating explanations, under various entries, a certain spiritual word is described in one place only. This makes the dictionary very compact. The main text is arranged in roman alphabetical order. This method does not take into account having a certain order of letters with diacritical signs (i.e. bars above vowels or the dots under consonants), although it keeps correct the international transliteration of Devanāgari, the Sanskrit alphabet. Those readers having knowledge of Devanāgari, can easily write any word from its transliterated form. Many Sanskrit composed words are split in order to make it easy for the reader, but they can be written in composed or separated forms equally. For this reason the arrangement in roman alphabetical order does not take into account the space between two words. The dictionary does not provide lengthy description of words, but emphasises on the key spiritual meanings and connections with other entries. The explanation of various yogic or other techniques is beyond the purpose of this work; they have to be learned from specialized written material or a qualified teacher, etc. Sometimes there is more than one significance behind an entry. The alternatives are mentioned without going in much detail, but as guidance for further studies only. The few roots or literal information mentioned herein are to emphasize the significance of an entry. For more details about the origination of words should be consulted specialised Sanskrit dictionaries. This work contains many useful classifications in Hindu spirituality. A number of classical works names are mentioned, thus allowing the reader to pursue further studies on the subject. There is of course a larger Sanskrit spiritual terminology, however a limit has to be set up in regards to the details herein presented. The basic text was finalised during one of my trips to India at Deoghar in the year 2001. But, its publication waited until 2009, when the conditions were proper for an easy presentation to the public, considering the multiple possibilities that are now available on the Net. This dictionary is made for the serious spiritual seeker only, the one who is ready to undertake research into the deep field of Indian consciousness thought. For many years to come this free electronic book will be present on the Internet for the purpose of serving the keen seeker of spiritual liberation.

Octavian Sarbatoare Sydney, 2009, Australia

4

A

A
Abhaya
Fearlessness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Abhaya Mudr1
The gesture of dispelling fear (Bhaya)

Abhigamana
vide Up1sana

Abhim1na
The ego awareness, a synonym for Asmit1

Abhimata
A pleasant object for meditation vide also Dhy1na

Abhinive0a
Will to live, as one of the five Kle0a-s, known also as !0i= vide V1san1

Abhi=eka
A ceremonial purification either of a deity or an individual by bathing or sprinkling water

Abhivyakti
Manifestation vide also Abhivyaktik1ra9a, Vyakta

Abhivyaktik1ra9a
The cause of manifestation (Vyakta)

Abhy1sa
Practical application of spiritual teachings as a way to obtain perfection and liberation

Abhy1sin
A practitioner of any form of Abhy1sa; a S1dhaka or Yog2

!camana
A ceremonial rite of sipping water from the palm of the hand and sprinkling it on the body on various parts for the purpose of purification It is used also for purification before meals or religious ceremonies.

Ac1pala
Absence of fickleness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

!c1ra
Lit. 'manner of action, conduct, practice; rule' 5

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Way of spiritual life In Tantra are distinguished seven ways of spiritual life namely Ved1c1ra, Vai=9av1c1ra, )aiv1c1ra, Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, Siddh1nt1c1ra and Kul1c1ra.

!c1ra Tantra
The practice of Tantra

!c1rya
Teacher

!cch1v1ka !cch1v1ka
Lit. 'the one who invites' In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Hot4 priest

!d1na
The action of taking or receiving vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01

!dar0a
The sense of super-ordinary seeing vide also Pr1tibha

Adbhuta
Wonder as one of the Rasa-s

Adha501kha
Lit. 'lower branch' A representation of the world as having branches below and upper roots as #rdhvam3la of Brahman

Adha50akti
The lower, one of the Ku98alin2 )akti-s

!dh1ra
Support; foundation

!dh1ra Padma
Centre in the body for Dh1ra9a practicing, known also as De0a

Adharma
Sin as one of the eight Bh1va-s; unrighteousness vide also Dharma

Adhideva
vide Adhidevat1

Adhidevat1
Presiding (tutelary) deity, same as Adhideva

Adhik1ra
Lit. 'right, privilege' 6

A

One's competency for spiritual S1dhan1 as assessed by the Guru before initiation

Adhik1rabheda
Lit. 'right of separation' The coexistence of various doctrines and believes in the history of India, all as forms of one Reality (Sat)

Adhik1rin
Lit. 'fit for; entitled to' A name of a qualified aspirant for spiritual life, a competent S1dhaka

Adhim1tra T2vrasa%vega
High intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega-s

Adhi=7h1na
Lit. 'abode, residence, site; standing by' A locus or medium to experience with

Adhvabheda
The process of time difference between At2ta, Vartam1na and An1gata Dharma-s

Adhvara
In the Veda-s a non-injuring sacrifice consisting of preliminary preparations and duties before the sacrifice itself vide also Adhvaryu

Adhvaryu
One of the four Vedic priests ($rvija-s) the one who chants the hymns of the Yajur Veda while performing Adhvara An Adhvaryu is assisted by three helper priests viz. Pratiprasth1t4, Ne=74 and Unnet4.

Adhy1tma
Lit. 'origin of !tma' The Supreme Spirit; the science of the Supreme Spirit as )1stra

Adhy1tma Vidy1
Knowledge of the Supreme Spirit

!din1tha (also !d20vara)
A name of )iva as the original Guru, the Primal Lord

Aditi
Lit. 'boundless, infinity' One of the most ancient known Mother Goddess referred to in the $g Veda as being the daughter of Dak=a, mother of the !ditya-s and of the gods

!d20vara (see !din1tha) !ditya
Lit. 'primal light' A Vedic class of deities; principle sustaining nature and the universe 7

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Traditionally there are twelve !ditya-s, correlating with the twelve solar months. The most important is Savit4 (S3rya) hence the name !ditya for the Sun God. The are: A%s1, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dak=a, Mitra, P3=an, )akra, Savit4, Tva=74, Varu9a, Vi=9u and Vivasvat (ref. Taittir2ya !ra9yaka, I.13). vide also Antar1ditya Vidy1

!diyog1c1rya
The first teacher of Yoga, i.e. )iva

Adroha
Absence of hatred as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Advaita
Lit. 'without duality' The doctrine of non-duality in which the Supreme Soul Param1tman is identified with the human Soul J2v1tman All existence is being regarded as one reality. )a^kara is the best known writer on the subject.

!dy1
Lit. 'eternal' One of the Nity1 )akti-s; the original )akti who is the source of all other Nity1 )akti-s !dy1 Nity1 )akti corresponds to the full-moon. It is known also as Tripurasundar2, A^gi A^gi Nity1 and symbolizes Dev2 Herself. The Mantra for !dy1 Nity1 is Sklhr2%.

!dy1 Nity1 )akti
The eternal original power vide also !dy10akti, Vimar0a )akti

!dy10akti
Primordial power as aspect of the goddess K1l2 !dy10akti, !dy1 Nity1 )akti, Vimar0a )akti are all the same.

!gama
Lit. 'coming near, approaching; studying; acquisition of knowledge' Authoritative work; testimony Sacred works of Tantra-s in which )iva is Guru (spiritual teacher) and Dev2 (as P1rvat2) is )i=ya (disciple); a testimony based on a previous Pram19a and if correct imparted is one of the three Pram19a-s. vide also Nigama

!g1mikarma
Action yet to be performed and its results

Agastya
Name of a sage, also a name of )iva

Aghora
Lit. 'not terrific' A name of )iva; a worshipper of )iva and Dev2. Aghori is a female Aghora 8

A

vide also Aghora M1rga

Aghora M1rga
A particular sect of )aiva-s of non-conventional practices considered to be pure Tantra adepts (T1ntrika-s)

Aghori
vide Aghora

!gney2 Dh1ra91
The Dh1ra91 on fire as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s

Agni
Lit. 'fire' The Vedic god of fire known also as Agnideva; the sacrificial fire; the fire of the stomach; the Devat1 of Su=umn1 N182; the power of transformation As a Vedic god Agni was Indra-s brother and essential to the practice of ritual sacrifice. As sacrificial fire in the Veda-s, Agni is of three kinds namely G1rhapatya, Dak=i9a (or Anv1h1ryapacana) and !havan2ya. Esoterically Agni is the consciousness (Cit), the three kinds of sacrificial fires are expressions of levels of awareness and therefore equated with Ma9ip3ra, An1hata and Vi0uddhi Cakra-s. vide also J1thar1gni, S3rya, Agnitraya, Cidvahni, Agni S3rya Indra, Upakosala Vidy1

Agni B2ja
The Mantra Ra% associated with Ma9ip3ra Cakra

Agnicayana
The act of preparing the Vedic sacrificial fireplace

Agnideva
vide Agni

Agn2dhra
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest by kindling the sacrificial fire

Agnig4ha
A place keeping the sacred fire known also as Agni01la

Agni G4hapati
Agni the lord of the house with the sacred fire; the fire of the body It is also one of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Agni.

Agnihoma
The oblation put into the sacrificial fire like milk, ghee, cooked cereal, etc., according to the ritual of Agnihotra It is also known as Homa.

Agnihotra
The rite of sacrificing to Agni It is of two kinds namely Nitya (necessary) and K1mya (optional). Agnihotra rite is concluded by Agnyupasth1na (the worship of Agni). Vide Hotr1 Arghya Havi for the object of oblation with 9

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

fire. As a yogic practice Agnihotra is identified with Pr191y1ma. vide also !tm1rpa9a

Agnihotr1h3ti
The rite of sacrificing (oblation) to Agni with invocation (recitation) of sacred formulas (Mantra-s)

Agnihotrin
The performer of an oblation to fire; one of the four Vedic priests ($tvija-s) the one who chants the hymns of the Rg Veda Same as Hotrin or Hot4.

Agnikha98a
Group containing M3l1dh1ra and Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra-s and Brahmagranthi The presiding deity of this Kha98a is Agni, the Gu9a is Tamas and corresponds to the cosmic planes to Bh3rloka, Bhuvarloka Bhuvarloka and Svarloka.

Agniko9a
The quarter ruled by Agni on southeast position known also as Agnidi0

Agniku98a
vide Homaku98a

Agnis1ra Dhauti
vide Antardhauti

Agni S3rya Indra
The trinity of Veda-s There is a fundamental parallel with the concept of J61t1 J61na J6eya in the Tantra-s in which Agni becomes the one who knows (J61t1), S3rya the knowledge (J61na) and Indra the object of knowledge (J6eya). vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya, Sat Cit !nanda

Agnis3tra
The thread of fire as a rite for a young Br1hma9a's investiture

Agnitraya
The three sacrificial (sacred) fires (vide Agni) known also as Agnitret1

Agniv1din
Worshipper of fire

Agni Yoga
The fire of Yoga generated by various techniques, Pr191y1ma being the most important It is considered that a Yoga practitioner starts the spiritual growth once touched by the fire of Yoga.

Aha%
Lit. 'I' The union of A the first letter and Ha the last letter of the Sanskrit alphabet (Devan1gari) This union contains within all the letters of the M1t4k1, therefore as a Mantra is an expression of 10

A

)abda in all its forms.

Aha%brahm1smi
'I am Brahman', a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad-s vide also Mah1v1kya

Aha%k1ra
Lit. 'I am the doer' The principle of Ego-formation as kind of separation from the divine It is fundamental that Aha%k1ra has to die before the higher consciousness will emerge. The explosion of Aha%k1ra happens in !j6a Cakra. vide also Vajre0var2, Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra, !k10a

Aha%k1r1kar=i92
The attractive power of Aha%k1ra vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Aha%k1ratattva Aha%k1ratattva
The Tattva of Aha%k1ra

!h1ra
Lit. 'food' The dietary rules as part of Yoga practices The food is divided according to the three Gu9a-s.

!havan2ya Agni
One of the three sacrificial fires taken from the G1rhapatya Agni In this fire the oblation is offered. In the human body it is located in the neck area. Esoterically it represents the level of consciousness of Vi0uddhi Cakra. vide also Agni

Ahi%s1
Lit. 'non-injuring' Non-injury or non-violence as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s and one of the five Yama-s in Yoga

Ahi%s1prati=7h1
A state in which Ahi%s1 is firmly established In the presence of a Yog2 possessing Ahi%s1prati=7h1 all enmities will cease. side also Vairaty1ga

!h3ti
Lit. 'invoking' A sacred rite of offering oblation with fire accompanied by certain magic formulas (Mantra-s) vide also Agnihotr1h3ti

Ai0varya
Competence as one of the eight Bh1va-s 11

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also Anai0varya

!j1naja Deva
Lit. 'born in the world of gods' A god by birth A person of remarkable divine qualities supposed to be inherited from previous births. Another kind of god is a Karma Deva, who is created by own actions, i.e. he/ she has to work to qualify for the name. vide also !nandamaya Vidy1

Ajap1 G1yatr2
vide Soham

Ajapa Japa
The recitation of Ha%sa5 Mantra or Soham Mantra Mantra with awareness of the breath, also known as Ajapajapa

!j61
Lit. 'to perceive, understand' Order, command

!j61 Cakra
The Cakra of command One of the major Cakra-s in the human body !j61 Cakra is located at the Medulla Oblongata, the top of the vertebral column i.e. behind the Bhr3madhya. The level of awareness in !j61 Cakra is Taparloka. vide also Yuktatrive92, J61na Cak=u, Divya Cak=u, J61na Netra, Itarali^ga, Aha%k1ra

!j61na
A synonym for Avidy1; ignorance as one of the eight Bh1va-s vide also J61na

!k1ra !k1ra
With form; manifested as a name for Sagu9a Brahman vide also Nir1k1ra

!kar=a9a Siddhi
The power of attracting vide also Siddhi

!k10a
Ether; space The A%0a-s (constituent parts) of !k10a in the Pi98198a are Aha%k1ra, Citta, Buddhi, Manas and Anta5kara9a. vide also Bh3ta

!k10atattva
The Tattva of !k10a, known also as Vyomatattva In the !k10atattva, J2v1tman resides dormant and non-manifest in the human body. 12

A

!k10a Vidy1
The knowledge of !k10a A Veda Vidy1, (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) referring to !k10a as pervading everything. This endless Tattva has to be seen in connection with the Tanm1tra of )abda and the sound of Udg2tha. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

!k102 Dh1ra91
The Dh1ra91 on space as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91-s

Akha98a
Without division vide also Kha98a Kha98a

Akha981gni
Uninterrupted fire

Akrodha
Absence of anger (Krodha) as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Ak=a
vide Rudr1k=a

Ak=am1
Not letting go of a negative experience as opposed to K=am1

Ak=ara
Lit. 'imperishable' A syllable; a name for the syllable O%; a name for Brahman

Ak=ar1k=ara Vidy1
The knowledge of the imperishable (Brahman) A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s in which the knowledge of Brahman is the higher Vidy1 by which the imperishable is realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Ak=ayapatra Ak=ayapatra
Lit. 'never ending leaf' A symbol of abundance, as the leaf could serve as plate for food

Ak=i Vidy1
The knowledge of the eye A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. It is a Devay1na path in which Puru=a is meditated upon internally as Indra in the right eye and Indr192 in the left eye. The conjoint meditation leads to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if this Vidy1 as correlated with Antar1ditya Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Akula
vide Kaula 13

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Alabdhabh3mikatva
The state of lack of concentration as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Alakhb1ra
Lit. 'invisible boundary' A place of seclusion where Paramaha%sa Sanny1sin-s live

!lambana
Object of an experience having !0raya as its basis vide also V1san1

Ala%bus1 N182
The N182 connected to the centre of the forehead vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvasa%k=obhi92

!lasya
Laziness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s and one of the seven Varjana-s

Ali^ga
Lit. 'without sign' A synonym for Avyakta Prak4ti; a stage of non-differentiation when Gu9a-s are in equilibrium and Asmit1 Sam1dhi is experienced (vide Gu9aparva)

!loka
Light as experience beyond the Loka-s vide also Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti

Aloluptva
Freedom from desire as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Amanaska
The knowledge of Brahman beyond the mental plane vide also Manaska

Am1nitva
Humility as a virtue of wisdom

Ambhas2 Dh1ra91
The Dh1ra91 on water as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91-s

Ambik1
Great Mother as a name of Dev2

Amla
Sour, one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

Am4ta
Nectar of immortality, ambrosia vide also Soma, Soma Rasa

Am4t1kar=i92
14

A

The attractive power of Am4ta vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Am4ta P1n
Taking of the nectar (Am4ta) Tantric ritual of divine nectar. There are external and internal techniques.

Am4t1p3r9a
Lit. 'filled with nectar' A state of purity of mind of a Yog2 vide also A=7asiddhi

A%s1
The share of gods, one of the twelve !ditya-s

A%0a
Constituent part of a classification

An1gata Dharma
The inherent property of future time as a potential state, one of the three Dharma-s (as inherent properties of time) The knowledge of An1gata Dharma and Adhvabheda will enable one to have time experiences and change the world of time as An1gata becomes Vartam1na and Vartam1na becomes At2ta.

An1h1ra
Fasting (or not eating enough) as one of the seven Varjana-s vide also Mit1h1ra

An1hata Cakra
Lit. 'un-struck Cakra' The Cakra located on the vertebral column behind the centre of the chest This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Tvak, the Karmendriya of P19i, the Tanm1tra of Spar0a Spar0a, is the centre for Pr19a V1yu and the seat of Manomaya Ko0a, the level of awareness is Maharloka. vide also K1kin2

An1hata Dhvani
vide An1hata )abda

An1hata )abda
The un-struck, silent sound as subtle transcendental state known also as An1hata Dhvani

Anai0varya
Incompetence as one of the eight Bh1va-s vide also Ai0varya

!nanda
Lit. 'happiness, bliss; enjoyment; sensual pleasure; delight; the act of enjoying' Pure happiness as one of the three attributes of !tman 15

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also Ana^gamadan1

!nandalahar2
Lit. 'wave of enjoyment' The Tantric hymn of )a^kar1c1rya addressed to his wife P1rvat2

!nandamaya Ko0a
The body of bliss as sphere of consciousness It is the expression of the balanced aspect of the inner spirit and the experience of a blissful state and has its seat in the Bindu Visarga. !nandamaya Ko0a forms K1ra9a )ar2ra, the causal body going beyond the manifestations of Prak4ti.

!nandamaya Vidy1
The knowledge of bliss A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) refers to the knowledge of !nandamaya Ko0a Ko0a and various evolutionary stages namely Manu=ya, Manu=ya Gandharva, Deva Gandharva, Pit4, !j1naja Deva, Karma Deva, Deva, Indra, B4haspati, Praj1pati and Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

!nanda Sam1dhi
A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a !tmadra=7a is able to experience the essential nature of thought This state is known also as !nanda Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi.

Ana^ga
Lit. 'bodiless' A name of K1madeva (after he was burned to ashes by )iva's third eye Cak=u) as love without a body The esoteric explanation of Ana^ga is that K1ma as desire exists even without an object of desire (vide commentary on K1ma).

Ana^gakusum1
The mental faculty of being attracted It corresponds to the human expressing of Vacana (speaking) symbolized by Kusuma. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^gamadan1
The mental faculty of loving It corresponds to the human expressing of !nanda (enjoying) symbolized by Madan1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra, Madan1, Ana^ga

Ana^gamadan1^ku01
The mental faculty of being attached It corresponds to the human expressing of !d1na (taking) symbolized by A^ku0a. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^gamadan1tur1
The mental faculty of being lovesick It corresponds to the human expressing of Gamana (going) symbolized by Madan1tur1. 16

A

vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^gam1lin2
The mental faculty of wanting to be accepted It corresponds to the human attitude of Up1d1na (accepting) symbolized by M1l1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^gamekhal1
The mental faculty of being proud It corresponds to the human attitude of Upek=a (ignoring) symbolized by Mekhal1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^garekh1
The mental faculty of being detached It corresponds to the human attitude of H1na (rejecting) symbolized by Rekh1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ana^gavegan2 Ana^gavegan2
The mental faculty of being excited It corresponds to the human attitude of Visarga (excreting) symbolized by Vega. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra

Ananta
Lit. 'infinite, endless' The name of )e=a ()e=an1ga or N1gan1yaka), the snake-god (or serpent-king) of a thousand heads who serves as Vi=9u's couch.

Anantav1da
The doctrine of infinity

Anavasthitatva
The state of instability as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

A98api98a
Macrocosm (Brahm198a) and Microcosm (Pi98198a)

A^ga
Lit. 'limb; part; step' A subdivision of a science or of a Mantra, etc.; the body; the mind; accessory vide also A=71^ga Yoga

A^gamejayatva
The activity of unsteadiness of the mind As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3-s it is connected to Pr19amaya Ko0a

A^ga Ny1sa
Tantric rite of touching certain parts of the body (A^ga)

A^ga P3j1
17

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Worship with offering especially of flowers to the several parts of Lord's body

A^ga Vidy1
The esoteric knowledge and interpretation of various marks on the body

A^gay1ga
A subordinate sacrificial rite vide also Y1ga

A^gi Nity1
vide !dy1

A^giras
Name of a $=i in the Veda-s; seer; ray vide also Sapta4=i

A^gu=7ham1tra Vidy1
The knowledge of the Soul (J2va) A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. The term A^gu=7ham1tra for the soul denotes something which is extremely fine, having residence in the heart. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Anib1dha
Unobstructed, without obstacles; liberty

A9im1
Lit. 'minuteness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming as small as an atom vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

A9im1di
vide A=7asiddhi A=7asiddhi

A6jali
Reverence, salutation

A6jali Mudr1
The gesture of placing side by side the open hands in front of the body as kind of reverence

A6jana Siddhi
The power of making clear vide also Siddhi

A6janat1
The quality of identifying with the form of an object as a result of Am4t1p3r9a

A^ku0a
Lit. 'goad' A representation of Dve=a vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01, P101^ku0a 18

A

Anna
Food

Annamaya Ko0a
The body of nourishment as sphere of consciousness It forms Sth3la )ar2ra, the gross body having its seat in the M3l1dh1ra M3l1dh1ra Cakra. This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the gross matter.

Anna Yoga
The Yoga of food based on !h1ra rules

Anta5kara9a
Lit. 'the internal organ' The thinking faculty of mind vide also !k10a

Antar
Inner

Antar1ditya Vidy1
The knowledge of the inner sun A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. The right eye represents the sun, the left eye the moon, meditation on this Vidy1 has an external form leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if correlated with Ak=i Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Antar1k10a
Inner space

Antara^ga
The internal stage, the inner expression as opposed to Bahira^ga

Antar1ya
vide Citta Vik=ep1

Antardhauti
Yogic technique of inner purification There are four main Antardhauti-s viz. V1tas1ra, V1ris1ra, Vahnis1ra (or Agnis1ra) and Bahi=k4ta.

Antardhy1na
Inner deep meditation

Antarindriya
An internal organ In Ved1nta there are four Antarindriya-s viz. Manas, Citta, Buddhi, and Aha%k1ra.

Antarj61na
The knowledge coming from within

Antary1ga
19

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Inner worship vide also Y1ga Y1ga, Bahiry1ga

Antasa^kalpa
A terminal spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is no urge to fulfil anything.

A9u
Atom vide also Tanm1tra, Param19u

A9ubh3ti
Lit. 'perception' The generic term which describes the spiritual experience as various degrees of experience of consciousness, another term to describe Sam1dhi in Yoga

Anugraha
Lit. 'kindness, favour; conferring benefits' Blessing, grace

Anulomaviloma
Kind of Pr191y1ma as technique of alternate breathe

Anusa%dh1na
Lit. 'investigation, searching into; plan' Discovery

Anu=7h1na
Lit. 'performance; undertaking; practice' The accomplishment of an act with absolute discipline according to a definite plan; the Sa^kalpa of an act There is a wide range of Anu=7h1na-s like Japa, J61na, T1pasya, Yoga, Tantra, etc.

Anusv1ra
vide Bindu

Anv1h1ryapacana Agni
vide Agni

Ap
Water The A%0a-s of Ap in the Pi98198a are the five Tanm1tra-s. vide also Bh3ta

Apai0una
Absence of crookedness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Ap1na
The V1yu which expels the life-force from the body 20

A

vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvasampatprad1, Devasu=i

Ap1na Mudr1
The gesture (Mudr1) of acquiring (preserving) Ap1na energy

Apara
Lower or worldly knowledge

Apar1jita
Lit. 'invincible, unsurpassed' The palace in the Brahmaloka representing the R3pa of Brahm1 as a stage to be overcome in order to reach Parya^ka vide also Mah10akti, Parya^ka Vidy1

Apar1ntaj61na
The knowledge of death It is known by practicing Sa%yama on Sopakrama and Nirupakrama Nirupakrama Karma-s.

Aparigraha
Non-receiving as one of the five Yama-s

Aparigrahaprati=7h1
A state in which Aparigraha is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Aparigrahaprati=7h1 will get the memory of past life because the mind is purified.

Aparok=1nubh3ti
Lit. 'perception of the perceptible' The personal experience of the Divine with form as experience of Bhakti

Apavarga
Lit. 'turned off' A synonym for Mok=a

Apsaras
Nymph, angelic creature

!ptaj61na
The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when the veil of knowledge has been removed It allows a different kind of experience because there is nothing left to be known., thus real knowledge (J61na) is accomplished.

!ptak1ma
The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is nothing left to be desired In this stage Yog2’s desires are completely fulfilled, Siddhi-s do arise naturally, the complete Brahmacarya is obtained as the Yog2 does not respond to the sexual sensation of any form.

Aptattva
21

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The Tattva of Ap known also as Toyatattva

Apunya
Lack of merit

!ra
One of the lakes before entering into S1lajja city in the Brahmaloka The crossing of !ra and (ya means overcoming the Pa6c1gni-s. vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

!r1dhana
Worship, adoration; a ceremony to propitiate a deity

!ra%bha Avasth1
A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Brahmagranthi

!ra9i
Piece of wood Two !ra9i-s are used to kindle the sacred fire by attrition, they represent mind and body, heaven and earth, father and mother, i.e. the bringing together of polarities.

!ra9yaka
Lit. 'forest; produced in the forest' A specific kind of Vedic literature !ra and (ya are the two lakes as obstacles before entering in the city of Brahm1 named S1lajja. vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

!ra9y1yama !ra9y1yama
Lit. 'walking in the forest' Celibacy

Arcan1 (also Arcana)
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhaki Yoga as the devotional act of ritual worship of the Divine

Ardhan1r20vara
A conjoined representation of )iva and )akti as symbol of their unity The )aiva-s worship the male or the right side, the )1kta-s the female or the left side.

Arghya
Offering, oblation vide also Hotr1, Arghya, Havi

Ari=7a
The omen of knowledge of death (Apar1ntaj61na)

!rjava
Straightforwardness as one of twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Arjuna
One of the five P19dava brothers in the epic Mah1bh1rata, disciple and companion of the Lord 22

A

K4=9a in Bhagavad G2t1

!roha9a
The act of ascending as opposed to Avaroha9a

Arpa9avidy1
The Para (supreme) worship of Dev2

Artha
Lit. 'aim, purpose' Wealth, material gains; object of the senses vide also Puru=1rtha, Savitarka Sam1dhi

Aru9a
The impulsive One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of Icch1 (wish). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Ar3pa
Formless as opposed to R3pa (with form) as one of characteristics of the Self

Arvan
Lit. 'primal power' In the Veda-s the stallion as representing the primal power

Arya
Lit. 'nobleman' The Aryan people and their tradition

!rya Dharma
Lit. 'path of noble people' vide Veda

Aryaman
Nobility as one of the twelve !ditya-s

A=18ha
The month corresponding to parts of June/ July vide also M1sa

Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi
Kind of Sam1dhi in which the practitioner has overcome the stage of differentiation going beyond Pratyaya, but still in the presence of Sa%sk1ra-s It is an intermediate state of Sam1dhi.

!sana
Lit. 'sitting' Yogic or Tantric posture as form of integration of the human body (Pi98198a) with the cosmic body (Brahm198a) 23

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

In Yoga one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali. Through !sana-s, D48hat1 is obtained. There is an exoteric and esoteric symbolism of !sana-s. vide also Yog1sana, Tantr1sana

Asat
The non-manifested; the state beyond Sat and the cause of Sat vide also Avyakta, Sad Vidy1

Asatya
Falsehood as opposed to Satya (truth)

!0i=
vide Abhinive0a

Asmit1
Egoism as on of the five Kle=a-s; the material cause of the sense organs (Indriya-s) vide also Abhim1na

Asmit1 Sam1dhi
A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a will experience what is beyond thought and own awareness Known as Asmit1 Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi, it culminates in Nirb2ja Sam1dhi.

!0rama
Lit. 'the abode of ascetics, a hermitage; a stage in the life of a person' Spiritual retreat Traditionally there are four !0rama-s of a man's life as lifestyles viz. Brahmac1rin, G4hastha G4hastha, V1naprastha and Sa%ny1sin. The main purpose of an !0rama, as spiritual retreat for a Sa%ny1sin, is to exhaust own Karma-s, so allowing the negativity to be released, in short reinvesting own Karma.

!0raya
Support or basis of an experience for !lambana !lambana (object of an experience) vide also V1san1

A=71^ga Yoga
Lit. 'Yoga of the eight steps' The system of Yoga as thought in Yoga S3tra-s of Pata6jali as a eight-fold path, i.e. Yama, Niyama, !sana, Pr191y1ma, Praty1h1ra, Dh1ra9a, Dhy1na, and Sam1dhi

A=7asiddhi A=7asiddhi
The eight Siddhi-s known also as A9im1di Traditionally there are only eight major Siddhi-s namely A9im1, Mahim1, Garim1, Laghim1, Pr1pti, Pr1k1mya, I0itva and Va0itva. Their acquisition is a result of mastering over the five Bh3ta-s and an expression of moving free in the world of Prak4ti.

Asteya
Non-stealing as one of the five Yama-s

Asteyaprati=7h1
24

A

A state in which Asteya is fully established It is considered that the material goods come to a Yog2 possessing Asteyaprati=7h1.

Asthi
Bone vide Dh1tu

!stika !stika
Believer in Veda-s All the literature based on Veda-s is considered to be !stika. vide also N1stika

Asu
Lit. 'life-force, breath' In the Veda-s the spirit surviving death

A0uddhatattva
The impure Tattva-s They consist of the twenty-four Tattva-s from Prak4titattva down to P4thiv2tattva (vide Tattva).

A0uddhi
Element or process which makes impure the body as opposed to )uddhi All Do0a-s are considered to be A0uddhi-s.

A0ukl1k4=9a
The mixed Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma-s

Asura
The divine or supreme spirit; a demon

A0va
Lit. 'not the self' In the Veda-s the swift horse as representing the mind or the manifested energy

!sv1da
The sense of supernatural tasting vide also Pr1tibha

A0vamedha
The horse sacrifice as a Vedic rite

A0vattha
Lit. 'under which horses stand' The sacred fig tree Ficus Religiosa, a variety of Banyan tree Esoterically it represents the Guru. vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

!0vina
The month that corresponds to parts of Sept./ Oct. 25

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also M1sa

A0vini
In the Veda-s the divine twin physicians (riding upon horses) said to restore health amongst mortals as well; the left and right life-force in the breath A0vini-s hold a distinct position in the Veda-s they are practically equated with the energy flow within Id1 and Pi^gal1 N182-s.

A0vin2 Mudr1
The mare Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bhandha-s

Atalaloka
vide Loka

Atandrita
The state of being alert as a yogic state

Atharva Veda
The name of the fourth Veda known also as Brahmaveda vide also Tantra

Atij1gara
Not having enough sleeping as one of the seven Varjana-s

Atikr1ntabh1van2ya
The most advanced kind of Yog2 the one who has accomplished the transcendence

Atisvapna
Excessive sleeping as one of the seven Varjana-s

At2ta Dharma
The inherent property of past time, one of the three Dharma-s (as inherent properties of time)

!tma
vide !tman

!tmabh1va
Reality of the individual Soul as one's self condition and beyond any description; the self consciousness leading to Kaivalya; the awareness of the self consciousness !tmabh1va will be experienced only when the Vi0e=a state was transcended.

!tmadar0an
Vision of the Soul

!tmadra=7a
A witness of the self beyond the intellectual consciousness vide also Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi

!tmaj61na
Knowledge of the Self

!tmajyoti
26

A

The light of the Soul

!tm1kar=i92
The attractive power of !tma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

!tman (also !tma)
Lit. 'the breath; what is spontaneous' The individual Soul as seed of Brahman present in all creatures The three attributes of !tman are Sat, Cit and !nanda !nanda. vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya

!tma Nivedana
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of self-offering to the Divine

!tma Rati
The feelings for the Self as expressions of true Bhakti !tma Rati-s, as expressions of devotion and kinds of liberation, are five in number, namely S1m2pya, S1lokya, S1r3pya, Sar=7i and S1yujya. vide also Rati, Rasa

!tm1rpa9a
Lit. 'offering to !tma' The attitude of offering own action as part of P3j1 (worship) to sanctify the ordinary existence It is an attitude of giving back to the Divine what really belongs to the Divine. Therefore the ordinary work with hands and body becomes Mudr1, the ordinary talk becomes Japa, the act of eating becomes Homa or Yaj6a, the ordinary walk becomes Pradak=i9a, the act of lying down becomes Pra91ma, the act of breathing becomes Agnihotra, etc. This is a high form of P3j1, a continuous awareness of the Self.

!tma )akti
The transcendental awareness as one of the )akti-s flowing through Su=umn1 N182 as a result of balancing of Pr19a )akti and Manas )akti, the union of space (!k10a) and time (K1la) It is the spiritual kind of energy (vide )akti) allowing the occurrence of Anubh3ti experience.

!tmavidy1
The knowledge of the Self

Atri
Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i

Aty1h1ra
Excessive eating as one of the seven Varjana-s vide also Mit1h1ra

Au882y1na P27ha
vide U882y1na P27ha 27

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Au%
vide O%

Au=adhi
vide O=adhi

Avadh3ta
Lit. 'one who has rejected all his worldly feelings and obligations' A highly spiritual person

Avair1gya
Attachment as one of the eight Bh1va-s vide also Vair1gya

!vara9a
Lit. 'what covers' The covering of the inner reality on the path of Yoga !vara9a is one of the two functions of M1y1 as the illusion which covers the inner reality. One of the best ways of removing !vara9a is the practice of Pr191y1ma. It is a fundamental concept that only by removing the covering (!vara9a) the higher awareness can be experienced.

!vara9a Devat1
A deity of covering There are three !vara9a Devat1-s namely K1me0var2, Vajre0var2 and Bhagam1lin2 Bhagam1lin2, the deities covering the light. vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Avaroha9a
The act of descending as opposed to !roha9a

Avasth1
Lit. 'condition' State of human existence There are three states (Avasth1traya) viz. J1grat (waking), Svapna (dreaming) and Su=upti (deep sleep), each one having specific V4tti-s. Beyond Avasth1traya there is one more state known as Tur2ya.

Avasth1 Pari91ma
Transformation of state of mind (Citta) accompanying the Pari91ma-s as a result of Sa%yama

Avasth1traya
vide Avasth1

Avat1ra
(from Avat4i i.e. to descend) Incarnation of the Divine upon earth The best known Avat1ra-s are the ten forms of Vi=9u.

Avidy1
28

A

Ignorance, one of the five Kle0a-s; an error of perception; a human experience of the cosmic M1y1 Avidy1 is regarded as the cause of Kle0a-s, its control means the control of all other Kle0a-s.

Avirati
The state of lack of due restraint as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Avi0e0a
Lit. 'without difference' One of the four Gu9aparva-s in which Savic1r1 Sam1dhi is experienced

Avyakta
The non-manifested principle of creation, the primary germ of Prak4ti, the state of nondifferentiation This state is devoid of N1mar3pa. Avyakta is identified with Asat, Nirgu9a Brahman, Parabrahman or @0vara. vide also K1me0var2, Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra, Vyakta, Ali^ga

Avyakta N1da
The non-manifested sound vide also N1da

Avyakta Prak4ti
The non-manifested nature, a synonym to Ali^ga

!yam1tma Brahm1
'The extension of the Self is Brahm1' is a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad-s vide also Mah1v1kya

!yudha Devat1
A deity bearing weapons There are three deities presiding over the weapons of Dev2 Lalit1 namely P101^ku0a (noose and goad), Ik=ukoda98a (sugar-cane bow) and the B19a-s (the five flower arrows). Their weapons are P10a, A^ku0a, Ik=ukoda98a (or Dhanu=) and B19a-s. They are being kept symbolically by the Dev2 in her four hands. The !yudha Devat1 are to be found between Sarvarogahara Cakra and Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra.

!yurveda
The science of the Indian medicine vide also Do=a

29

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

B
Bagal1 Mukhi
The eighth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s representing the unconscious plane of existence that is the source of illusion

Bahira^ga
The external stage, the outer expression as opposed to Antara^ga

Bahiry1ga
External worship known also as B1hyay1ga vide also Y1ga, Antary1ga Antary1ga

Bahi=kara9a
The body as external instrument

Bahi=k4ta Dhauti
One of the Antardhauti-s as internal purification By its practice a Deva Deha may be obtained.

Bahuda
Lit. 'much-giving' One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa life-style when the Sanny1sin Sanny1sin gives the best in the life of an !0rama

B1hy1k10a
Outer space

B1hyap3j1
Lit. 'lower worship' A ritual practice of worship, using voice, objects or images vide also P3j1, Devay1na

B1hyay1ga
vide Bahiry1ga, Y1ga

Bala
Bodily and mental strength or vitality as one of the four K1ya Sampad-s

B1l1ki
Name of a sage in the Upani=ad-s vide also B1l1ki Vidy1

B1l1ki Vidy1
The knowledge of B1l1ki

30

B

A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s that gradually deals with the knowledge of Puru=a from the left and right eyes to Agni, V1yu, !k10a and finally to the Puru=a of the sun. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Bali
A gift offering as a sacrifice in the form of fruits and flowers

B19a
Lit. 'arrow' A flower arrow of K1ma The five flower arrows of K1ma denoting the five Tanm1tra Tanm1tra-s (subtle forms of matter) are the lotus, the A0oka, the mango blossom, the jasmine and the blue lotus. vide also !yudha Devat1

Bandha
Lit. 'binding, tying; connection with; uniting; joining' Contraction as yogic technique; lock Bandha-s are techniques used to dissolve the psychic knots and redirect the resulting energy within the body. There is an esoteric and exoteric symbolism of Bandha-s. On a higher plane they are powerful and relevant Ku98alin2 yoga techniques towards )iva and )akti union in the human body seen as Microcosm (Pi98198a). There are three major Bandha-s namely J1landhara Bandha (Water-pipe lock), U882y1na Bandha (Upwards lock) and M3la Bandha (Root lock). vide also Bandhatraya

Bandhatraya
The triple contraction using the three main Bandha-s namely J1landhara Bandha, U882y1na Bandha and M3la Bandha.

Basti
Lit. 'lower belly' One of the +atkarma-s known also as Vasti. As a yogic technique does the cleansing the abdominal area. It is of two kinds viz. Jala Basti and )u=ka Basti.

Bh1dra Bh1dra
The day of full-moon in the month of Bh1drapada

Bh1drapada
The rainy month corresponding to parts of August /September vide also M1sa

Bhadr1sana
The gentle !sana

Bhaga
Gracious God; happiness; prosperity; beauty, loveliness; love, sexual pleasure; the female organ; one of the twelve !ditya-s vide also Bhaj

Bhagam1lin2
31

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'the one adorned with glory' One of the !vara9a Devat1-s presiding over the principle of existence of Mahat Bhagam1lin2 is also one of the Nity1 )akti-s. vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Cakra

Bhag1sana
vide Tantr1sana

Bhagavad G2t1
The Song of the Lord The most famous Yoga work, a synthesis of Ved1nta, Yoga, S1mkhya teachings, believed to be composed in the third or fourth century BCE. vide also Arjuna, Kuruk=etra

Bhagavan
Lit. 'God-like' One of God's names; a generic and popular name of God in India vide also Bhaj

Bhagavat
Lit. 'the adorable one' One of )iva's names vide also Bhaj, Bhaga

Bhairava
Lit. 'terrible, formidable' A name of )iva as a frightening aspect of the divine; a Tantric male participant

Bhairav2
Consort of Bhairava as a particular form of Dev2; a Tantric female participant

Bhairav2 Cakra
vide Cakra P3j1

Bhairav2 Tantra
A name of a Tantra

Bhaj
Lit. 'to adore; enjoy; worship; bestow; share with; distribute' Sanskrit root of words like Bhakti, Bhaga, Bhagavan, Bhagavat, Bhajan, Bhakta.

Bhajan
Devotional song vide also Bhaj

Bhakta
Devotee; one following the path of Bhakti vide also Bhaj, Bh2ma Vidy1 32

B

Bhakti
Devotion Devotion is seen as channelling of emotions towards God in order to experience the eternal existence. In the tradition, Bhakti is the only way God can be reached, as the experience of the Macrocosm (Brahm198a) in the Microcosm (Pi98198a). The Bhakti M2m1%s1 S3tra describes devotion as being "Supreme longing for the Lord". It is said that the Lord becomes perceptible through devotion. Bh1vac381ma9i says: "Nothing is accomplished by constant Japa, sacrifices and austerities which torture the body, because without deep devotion Yantra-s and Mantra-s do not yield fruit". vide also Bhaj

Bhakticcheda
Any decoration or marks on forehead, arms, cheeks, nose, breasts, etc. as an expression of devotion to Devat1-s.

Bhakti M1rga
The path of devotion vide also Bhakti Yoga

Bhakti Yoga
The Yoga of Devotion The last stage in Yoga, considered to be the Yoga of the 21st century. It has nine limbs (A^ga-s) namely )r1va9a (listening to holy scriptures), K2rtana (singing devotional songs), Smarana (remembering the Divine), P1da Sev1na (service to the feet of the Lord), Arcan1 or P3j1 (ritual worship), Vandana (prostration before the image of the Lord), D1sya (slavish devotion to the Lord), S1khya (friendship) and !tma Nivedana (Self-offering to the Lord). In Bhakti Yoga there are five main states or conditions (Bh1va-s) namely )1nta (tranquil), D1sya (slavish), V1tsalya (affectionate), S1khya (friendly) and M1dhurya (sweet). vide also )uddha Bhakti

Bhakti Yoga Sam1dhi
The Sam1dhi as a result of Bhakti Yoga practice

Bh1^g
A drink made of Indian hemp leaves

Bh1rati
In the Veda-s the word signifying the truth (Satya); a high educational institution

Bhasma
Ashes used for spiritual purpose

Bhastrik1
Lit. 'causing the sound of bellows' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

Bh1=ya
Lit. 'an explanatory work, exposition, commentary' Work of a spiritual kind

Bh1va
33

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'attitude; true condition; reality; disposition' State, emotion, devotional sentiment In Bhakti Yoga there are five states as devotional sentiments known also as Rasa-s. As states or conditions accompanying the Li^ga (as transmigratory soul) there are eight Bh1va-s namely Dharma, Adharma, J61na, Aj61na, Vair1gya, Avair1gya, Ai0varya, Anai0varya. As states of human personalities there are three Bh1va-s namely Pa0u Bh1va, V2ra Bh1va and Divya Bh1va. vide also Tantra

Bh1vana
Lit. 'imagining' Contemplation, reflection; feeling; thought It is also a kind of worship (meditation) of Dev2 (vide Y1ga). In the tradition it is said that God is captivated by the Bh1vana-s (feelings).

Bhaya
Fear as on of the seven Varjana-s Fear is seen as a product of duality vide also Abhaya Mudr1

Bhay1naka
Terror as one of the Rasa-s

Bheru981
One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Bhoga
Lit. 'enjoyment' The worldly experience as a path to spiritual growth in Tantra; any worldly experience attached to the Indriya Indriya-s

Bhog1dhi=7h1na
Living organism

Bhr1mar2
Lit. 'causing the sound of wasp' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma This kind of Pr191y1ma will result in the experience of An1hata )abda. vide also Ras1nanda Yoga

Bhr1ntidar0ana
The state of wrong perception as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Bh4gu
vide Brahm1

Bh4gu V1ru9i Vidy1
The knowledge of Bh4gu V1ru9i 34

B

A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) refers to the gradual knowledge of the five Ko0a-s beyond which the Sagu9a Brahman can be realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Bhr3madhya
The space between the eyebrows as Cakra K=etra of !j61 Cakra vide also )1%bhav2 Mudr1

Bhuja^g1sana
The cobra !sana

Bhuja^g2
Lit. 'female-serpent' A name for Ku98alin2

Bhuja^gin2 Mudr1
The she-serpent Mudr1 one of the Mudr1 Bhanda-s

Bh3ma Vidy1
The knowledge of the world A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s, as related to N1rada by Sanatkum1ra. The disciple is led to understand gradual stages from V1k, Manas, Sa%kalpa, Citta, Dhy1na and finally to Pr19a. Here are also enumerated the qualifications of a good devotee (Bhakta) namely Satya, Vij61na, Mati, )raddh1, Ni=7h1 and K4ti. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Bh3mi
Earth vide also Bh3ta

Bh3mik1
vide Yoga Avasth1

Bh3mitattva
vide P4thiv2tattva

Bh3pura
Lit. 'region (plan) of earth' vide Trailokyamohana Cakra

Bh3rloka
The Earth plane vide Loka

Bh3 Sam1dhi
The underground Sam1dhi

Bh3ta
Lit. 'consisting of; being' Gross element of the human body; gross form of matter; animated being 35

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Also known as Pa6cabh3ta-s, Mah1bh3ta-s or Sth3la Mah1 Bh3ta-s. There are five Bh3ta-s namely: !k10a or Vyoma (ether), V1yu (air), Tejas or Agni or Vahni (fire), Ap or Toya (water), Bh3mi or P4thiv2 (earth), all produced from the Tamas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s. For the purpose of Mudr1 the five fingers correspond to the five Bh3ta-s. The order of their higher and higher absorption is P4thiv2, Ap, Tejas, V1yu, !k10a, corresponding to the Devat1-s such as Brahm1, Vi=9u, Rudra, @0vara, and Sad10iva, the later seen as parallel to the five parts of O% Mantra (i.e. A, U, M, N1da and Bindu).

Bh3t1di
Rudiment-matter, original element Source of !k10a (ether) as the first Bh3ta (gross matter) of S4=7i.

Bh3ta )uddhi
Purification of the gross elements (Bh3ta-s) of the body It is an essential ritual before worship or any making of ritual art items.

Bhuvana
In the Veda-s the world (including the solar system) as plane of existence

Bhuvane0var2
Lit. 'ruler of the spheres' The fourth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s represents the projection of the consciousness as infinite space and therefore the holder of all existence

Bhuvane0var2 B2ja
vide Hr2%

Bhuvarloka
The region between the earth and the sun; the sky A Loka inhabited by Siddha-s and Muni-s.

B2bhatsa
Disgust as one of the Rasa-s

B2ja (also written as V2ja)
Lit. 'seed; germ; semen; source; origin; primary cause; truth as the cause of being; basis for the mind' B2ja as part of creation that emerged from N1da

B2j1kar=i92
The attractive power of B2ja vide also Sarv101paripuraka Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

B2j1k=ara
Seed syllable or B2ja Mantra

B2ja Mantra
A Mantra having three to nine syllables, synonym to B2j1k=ara; an expression of a deity in a Mantra form.

Bila Siddhi
36

B

The power of opening vide also Siddhi

Bilva
Tree of the Lord )iva known also as wood-apple, Bel tree or scientifically Aegle Marmelos, the only sacred tree of the Lord )iva

Bilvapattra
Leaf of Bilva tree

Bindu
Drop; dot; mark; source In Tantra, Bindu as K1ra9a Bindu, Bindu then K1rya Bindu, Bindu proceeds N1da and represents the infinite potentialities of the larger universe (Brahm198a) about to be unfolded. The ninth Cakra (Sarv1nandamaya Cakra) of the )r2 Yantra is also called Bindu. There are three Bindu-s at the centre of )r2 Yantra, namely )iva M1y1, )akti M1y1 and )iva)iva-Sakti M1y1. Their colours are white, red and colourless, their elements are Sun, Moon and Fire symbolized by the double Bindu of Visarga and single Bindu of Anusv1ra. The image of Bindu made of Visarga and Anusv1ra is described metaphorically in B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad (2.1.20) and other Upani=ad-s as a spider. In Saundaryalahar2 (7) the Divine Mother Tripurasundar2 is described with her face resembling the moon, her breasts like the frontal globes of the forehead of a young elephant, wearing minibells, therefore equating Tripurasundar2 Tripurasundar2 with Bindu. vide also Bindutraya

Binduma98ala Cakra
vide Sarv1nandamaya Cakra

Bindutraya
The threefold Bindu at the centre of the )r2 Tantra

Bodhana
An essential rite to awakening (through worship) a work of ritual art

Brahm1
Lord Brahm1 one of the Hindu trinity (Trim3rti); the principle and manifestation of creation Lord Brahm1 presides over the creation of the Universe (Brahm198a). He is the personal Creator manifested from the impersonal Universal Spirit (Brahman). The first created beings by Brahm1 were the ten lords viz. Mar2ci, Atri, A^giras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Vasi=7ha, Pracetas (or Dak=a), Bh4gu and N1rada. They all are known under the name Praj1pati or Mah1 $=i-s. vide also Sapta4=i

Brahmac1rin
Lit. 'student of Brahm1' A follower of Brahmacarya vide also !0rama

Brahmacarya
Continence as one of the five Yama-s It has to be seen more as awareness of actions of a person than abstinence from sexual experience.

Brahmacaryaprati=7h1
37

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

A state in which Brahmacarya is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Brahmacaryaprati=7h1 becomes full of vitality.

Brahmadv1ra
The door of Brahm1

Brahmagranthi
Lit. 'knot of Brahm1' The Granthi located in the Agnikha98a It represents the attachment to Lobha (greed) and K1ma (desire) of Pa6c1gni-s vide Granthi.

Brahmaj61na
Spiritual wisdom as knowledge of the true reality

Brahmak1ra
The active state of Citta in which identifies itself with the Self

Brahmak1ra V4tti
The V4tti of Brahmak1ra state

Brahmaloka
vide Satyaloka, Loka

Brahman
(from the root B4h i.e. to expand) Lit. 'expansion, evolution, growth' In Ved1nta the impersonal Universal Spirit known also as )iva in Tantra. It has two aspects viz. Sagu9a and Nirgu9a. vide also M1y1, T1raka, Tantra

Br1hma9a
Lit. 'one who has divine knowledge' A Brahmin priest; a specific kind of Vedic literature (900-700 BCE) He is one of the four Vedic priests ($tvija-s) who chants the hymns of the Atharva Veda while performing incantations (Mantra-s). A Brahmin priest is assisted by three other helper priests viz. Agn2dhra, Br1hma91cchansin and Pot4. As spiritual leader he belongs to the highest caste (Var9a) in the Vedic tradition. vide also Veda

Br1hma91cchansin
Lit. 'the one reciting after the Br1hma9a' In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest

Brahma N182
A channel of energy within the Citra N182

Brahm198a
Lit. 'Brahm1's egg' 38

B

Macrocosm; universe; world; cosmic body There are endless Brahm198a-s coexisting, each having own gods, Brahma for creation, Vi=9u for preservation and Rudra for destruction (vide Trim3rti). Brahm198a could also be seen as Cittav4tti of Brahman or a product of the cosmic thinking manifestation therefore is unreal. vide also A98api98a, K=udra Brahm198a, Pi98198a

Brahm192
vide Trim3rti

Brahmarandhra
Lit. 'Brahm1's opening' An opening above the Sahasr1ra Cakra through where the Soul is said to pass on death and the door between two realms of existence

Brahma Tantra
All that is taught in the Veda-s

Brahmav1din
One who explains the Veda-s

Brahmaveda
The Veda of sacred spells and charms, i.e. Atharva Veda

Brahmavedi
The Brahm1's altar

Brahmayoga
The highest kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana in which devotion is the essence

B4haspati
Lit. 'lord of prayer or devotion' Guru or preceptor of the Deva-s; the name for planet Jupiter vide also !nandamaya Vidy1

B4haspati V1caspati
B4haspati the lord of speech and prayer; one of the eight Devas3-s as an aspect of B4haspati

B4hat (from the root B4h i.e. to expand)
Lit. 'abundant, vast, large' In the Veda-s a name for Brahman

Buddha (from the root Budh i.e. to wake up)
Lit. 'the enlightened one' An spiritual liberated man, founder of Buddhism, who lived in the sixth century BCE Buddha is regarded in Hinduism as an incarnation (Avat1ra) of Vi=9u.

Buddhi (from the root Budh i.e. to wake up)
Lit. 'intellect, reason' The discriminating aspect of mind; intellect as a cognitive faculty 39

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also !k10a

Buddhimaya Ko0a
vide Vij61namaya Ko0a

Buddhitattva
The Tattva of Buddhi

Buddhy1kar=i92
The attractive power of Buddhi vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Cakra

Budha
The planet Mercury, one of the Navagraha-s

40

C

C
Caitanya
Consciousness; the Universal Soul vide also Cetana

Caitra
The month corresponding to parts of March/April vide also M1sa

Cakra
Lit. 'wheel; circle' Centre (vortex) of energy and level of awareness In the human body there are seven major Cakra-s viz. M3l1dh1ra, Svadhi=7h1na, Ma9ip3ra, An1hata, Vi0uddha (or Vi0uddhi), !j61 and Sahasr1ra. Known also as Padma-s (lotuses) the Cakra-s are located in the S3k=ma )ar2ra body influencing also the other two )ar2ra-s. Round the centre of energy there are expansions producing the appearances of the petals of a lotus flower, in fact they are starting points of energy channels (N182-s). When opened the Cakra-s become gates of connection between the three )ar2ra-s therefore the physical consciousness may thus have access to other planes. The Cakra-s represent also the cycle of creation, preservation and destruction (absorption). vide also Pa6c1gni, Loka

Cakra K=etra
The horizontal projection of a Cakra trigger point in the spinal cord on the front surface of the body Only Svadhi=7h1na, Ma9ip3ra, An1hata, Vi0uddhi and !j61 Cakra-s have Cakra K=etra-s.

Cakra P3j1
Circle worship Tantric rite of which Bhairav2 Cakra is the most important.

Cakrar1ja
Lit. 'royal wheel' Another name for )r2 Cakra

Cakr1sana
vide Tantr1sana

Cakra )uddhi
The process of purification of Cakra-s

Cakre0vara
The leader of a Cakra P3j1 as a Tantric Guru vide also Cakre0var2 41

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Cakre0var2
A generic name for a )akti presiding over a Cakra P3j1 vide also Cakre0vara

Cak=u
The third eye, the eye of )iva; the physical eye The opening of Cak=us is linked to the renunciation to desired (vide Ana^ga). vide also Netra, J61nendriya

C1mu981
A terrific aspect of Dev2 as destroyer of Ca98a and Mu98a

Ca982 (or Ca98ik1 )
Lit. 'an ardent, passionate woman' A popular name of Dev2

Ca98id1s
Poet and initiate of 15th century Bengal vide also R1mi

Ca98ik1
vide Ca982

Candra
Lit. 'shining; the moon' The moon or the lunar phase as one of the Navagraha-s; the Devat1 of I81 I81 N182; the feminine kind of energetic; a Devat1 vide also Candrakha98a

Candradv1ra
The passage of the moon

Candrakal1
The increase/ decrease of the moon's disc in twenty-four hours, i.e. one sixteenth of the moon's disk The moon is so personified as twenty-eight Nity1 )akti-s

Candrak1nti
Moonlight

Candrakha98a
Group containing Vi0uddhi and !jn1 Cakra-s and Rudragranthi The presiding deity is Candra, the Gu9a is Sattva, the corresponding cosmic planes are Taparloka and Satyaloka.

Candrama98ala
Moon's halo, a representation of )r2 Cakra

Candra N182
A synonym for I81 N182 42

C

Candra0ekhara
Lit. 'the one who has the moon as diadem' A name of )iva

Caturtha Pr191y1ma
Lit. 'the fourth Pr191y1ma'

Catu=p27ha
Lit. 'the four P27ha-s' The four P27ha-s are K1mar3pa, P3r9agiri P3r9agiri, J1landhara and U882y1na. vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra, Sarv1nandamaya Cakra, Siddhap27ha

Cau0atti Yogin2
The sixty-four Yogin2-s

Cela
Disciple

Cetana
Lit. 'the one that illuminates' Consciousness vide also Caitanya

Ch1ndogya Upani=ad
One of the most important Upani=ad from where many Veda Vidy1-s are extracted

Ch1ya
Shade, shadow; reflection; protection; giving protection (as a name of )iva)

Ch1ya Puru=a
The consciousness beyond Buddhi

Ch1y1 Up1san1
Tr17aka technique when the practitioner does the gazing on own shadow (from sun or moon)

Cidagni
vide Cidvahni

Cidagniku98a
The altar of the fire of consciousness It is from where Dev2 was born in Her physical form.

Cid1k10a
Lit. 'space of knowledge' Mind space as space of consciousness; the cosmic universal mind The dark colour space visualized in front of the closed eyes in which is experienced the visual aspect of mental energy is the Cid1k10a experience. Only when Ku98alin2 reaches Sahasr1ra Cakra there is the full experience of Cid1k10a.

Cid1k10a Dh1ra91 Dh1ra91
43

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The practice of meditation on Cid1k10a

Cidr3pa
The pure consciousness as pure thought; consciousness with form vide Cit

Cidvahni (also Cidagni)
The celestial fire, the fire of consciousness corresponding to the heart (H4d) in the human body )akti S3tra S3tra says: "Consciousness is fire because by its nature it consumes the universe". vide also N1ciket1gni Vidy1

Cikits1
Science of medicine as kind of )1stra

Cinnamast1
The fifth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s It represents the end of ordinary existence, the essential step before the emergence of a new consciousness.

Cint1ma9i
Lit. 'thought gem' The gem which grants all wishes The shinning "precious stone" is the pure mind covered by the veils of desire (that is to be removed by various practices). It is well described in Brahm198a Pur19a and Rudra Y1mala.

Cit
Lit. 'to be conscious of, know, perceive' The pure consciousness; the universal consciousness freed from any conditioning vide also Sa%vit

Citr1
Lit. 'bright; excellent' One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Citragupta
Lit. 'the hidden auditor' The one recording every action Various interpretations are given who is the one doing that. It can be regarded as the collector of information found in the Cid1k10a.

Citra N182
A channel of energy within the Su=umn1 N182

Citri92
vide Padmin2

Citsvar3pa
The formless pure consciousness

Citta
44

C

(from the root Cit i.e. to be aware) Lit. 'reflecting, thinking; aimed at' The conscious, subconscious and unconscious layers of mind and their functions reflecting the Cit The two active states of Citta are Vi=ayak1ra and Brahmak1ra, its supporting organ is the Manas. From the point of view of J61t1 J61na J6eya, Citta is the one who knows. As levels of access to different planes there are three kinds of Citta-s namely Citta (as an individual natural expression), Cid1k10a (as cosmic mind) and Nirmana Citta (as divine or causal mind). vide also !k10a, Pari91ma

Cittabh3mi
State of mental plane as kind of consciousness There are five Cittabh3mi-s (according to Vy1sa Bh1=ya) namely K=ipta, M38ha, Vik=ipta Vik=ipta, Ek1gra and Niruddha.

Cittakar=i92
The attractive power of Citta vide Sarv10aparipuraka Cakra

Citta Pras1dana
In Yoga the attitude towards obtaining purification of the mind There are four Citta Pras1dana-s viz. Maitr2, Karu91, Mudit1 and Upek=a.

Cittasa%vit Cittasa%vit
The experience of merging of Cit with its reflection (i.e. Citta) acquired by practicing Sa%yama on An1hata Cakra

Citta0uddhi
Purification of the mind vide also )uddhi, Citta

Citta Vik=ep1
The mental obstructive destruction in Yoga known also as Antar1ya Antar1ya (impediment) There are nine Citta Vik=ep1-s namely Vy1dhi, Sty1na, Sa%0aya, Pram1da, !lasya, Avirati, Bhr1ntidar0ana, Alabdhabh3mikatva and Anavasthitatva as described in Yoga S3tra-s (I.30). vide also Vik=epasahabh3, Vik=epa

Cittav4tti
Activity in Citta Citta as a cognitive experience, a superimposition on the true nature of the human being (Puru=a) There are five Cittav4tti-s according to Pata6jali namely Pram1na, Viparyaya, Vikalpa, Nidr1 and Sm4ti, all as conscious experiences in Citta. For the condition of state of Yoga it is necessary to restrict the activities in the mind by Abhy1sa and Vair1gya.

Cittav4ttinirodha
Cessation of Cittav4tti-s as Pata6jali's definition of Yoga in Yoga S3tra-s.

C381ma9i
Crest jewel as Dev2's gem 45

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

D
D1haka
The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of burning (heating) vide also Sarvaj61namay2

Dahar1k10a
Lit. 'small space' The space of the lower three Cakra-s in the human body

Dahar1k10a Dh1ra91
The practice of meditation on the lower Cakra-s (i.e. M3l1dh1ra, Svadhi=7h1na and Ma9ipura Ma9ipura)

Dahara Vidy1
The knowledge of the small A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s which could be known by meditation into the heart (H4daya) as the open door for the inner !k10a leading to the full knowledge of !k10a vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Daiv2sampat Daiv2sampat
Divine quality In the Bhagavad G2t1 are mentioned twenty-six divine qualities namely Abhaya, Sattvasa%0uddhi, J61nayogavyavasthiti, D1na, Dana, Yaj6a, Sv1dhy1ya, Tapas, !rjava, Ahi%s1, Satya, Akrodha, Ty1ga, )1nti, Apai0una, Day1, Aloluptva, M1rdava, Hr2, Ac1pala, Tejas, K=am1, Dh4ti, )auca, Adroha and N1tim1nit1.

Daiv2 V1k
It is how was called the Sanskrit language during the Vedic period

*1kin2
The )akti residing in M3l1dh1ra Cakra

Dak=a
Lit. 'able, intelligent; strong' One of the Praj1pati-s known also as Pracet1s considered to be Dev2's father; one of the twelve !ditya-s

Dak=i9a
Right side; having somebody to the right side as a mark of honour (as opposed to V1ma i.e. to the left); one of the sacrificial fires (vide Agni) Dak=i9a is also a donation, fee or gift to a priest or Guru.

Dak=i9a Agni
One of the three sacrificial fires, the southern fire of the altar of sacrifice In the human body it is located in the heart area, esoterically is the level of consciousness of An1hata Cakra. 46

D

vide also Agni Agni

Dak=i91c1ra
The right-hand division of Tantra also known as Dak=ina M1rga

Dak=i9a M1rga
Lit. 'path of the right' vide Dak=i91c1ra

Dak=i91m3rti
The Guru of Gods

Dak=i91varta
A shell whose convolutions are oriented towards the right

Dak=i91yana
Sun's progress south of the equator (from 21 June to 21 Dec) expressing the southwards way to Yama's quarter; the dark path For the departed soul it offers the experience of Dh3mra and R1tri, i.e. the consciousness will return to the material plane in a new body. vide also Uttar1yana

D1mara
Kind of spiritual writing work promulgated by )iva

Damaru
A hand drum traditionally the instrument of subduing of Lord )iva (vide)

Dana
Control of senses as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

D1na
Alms giving as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Da98a
Stick

Da98a Dhauti
Cleaning by a stick as one of the H4d Dhauti-s in order to cure the heart diseases

Danta Dhauti
Cleaning the teeth area as one of the four Dhauti-s There are four yogic techniques under Danta Dhauti namely Danta M3la M3la Dhauti, Jihv1 )odhana, Kar9a Dhauti and Kap1larandhra Dhauti.

Danta M3la Dhauti
Washing of the teeth as one of the Danta Dhauti-s

Darbha
Dried Ku0a used in religious ceremonies

Dar0ana
47

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'vision, view; understanding; doctrine' The cognitive principle; system of philosophy; meeting with a spiritual purpose; sight of a Deva or Guru. vide also +a8 Dar0ana

Da0a Mah1vidy1
The ten great sciences as deities vide Mah1vidy1

Da0av1yu
The ten vital airs vide V1yu

Dasn1mi
Lit. 'ten names' The ten orders of mendicants (founded by )a^kara) protected by the N1ga-s (naked ascetics)

D1sya (also known as Kai%karya)
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of slavish devotion to the Lord, also one of the Rasa-s The ideal service was done by Lak=ma9a to R1ma as R1ma's servant.

Daurmanasya
The mental activity of being depressed As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3-s it is connected to the Manomaya Ko0a.

Day1
Compassion as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Deha
Body as vehicle and media of actions (Karma-s)

De0a
Space; region; centre of concentration synonym to !dh1ra Padma

Deva (from the root Div i.e. to cast, throw, therefore expressing the action as manifestation of
gods) A god, deity; spirit; spiritual being Deva-s are manifestations and functions of Cit (Universal Consciousness) at various levels and as such they are creations of )akti as the kinetic aspect of Cit. Their range of actions extend from the world of Manu=ya to Sagu9a Brahman. The fundamental concept about Deva-s is that they manifest both externally and internally to the human being (Manu=ya) and as such become accessible through cognition and experience. vide also )iva )akti

Deva Bh1=1
vide Sa%sk4ta

Devadar0ana
The seeing of Gods 48

D

Devadatta
Lit. 'the God-given' The V1yu producing the function of yawning vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarv1^gasundar2

Deva Deha
Divine body

Devaloka
Heaven, the world of Gods

Devamaithuna
The cohabitation of the Gods as expression of )iva )akti form of union

Devan1gari
Lit. 'divine writing' The Sanskrit alphabet vide also M1t4k1

Devas3
The procreating Gods as one class of deities (Ga9a Devat1-s) There are eight Devas3-s, each having specific functions, namely Agni G4hapati, Soma Vanaspati, Savit4 Satyaprasava, Rudra Pa0upati, B4haspati V1caspati, Indra Jye=7ha Jye=7ha, Mitra Satya and Varuna Dharmapati. They all manifest within the human body.

Devasu=i
Lit. 'divine tube' The gates of the five major V1yu-s located in the centre of the lotus of the heart The gates have to be seen as the openings in the K1ra9a )ar2ra through which the five major V1yu-s are born within the Suk=ma )ar2ra. The gates are located as four towards the four quarters (Sam1na to the north, Vy1na to the south, Ap1na to the west, Pr19a to the east) and one upwords namely Ud1na. Each gate possesses specific Siddhi-s, which have to be overcome. Beyond the five gates it is Para%jyoti=, the J2v1tm1 Itself. vide also G1yatr2 Vidy1

Devat1
God or Goddess; Deity vide Deva

Devay1na
The path of Gods A spiritual path using Gods as vehicles to attain the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman.

Devayoni
Spirit, demigod Spirits said to people Mount Kail1sa and Mount Meru. )r2 Gane=a after receiving the teaching of the Tantra-s from his father Lord )iva, preached them first to Devayoni on Mount Kail1sa.

Dev2
49

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The Great Goddess Dev2 as Sat2, Um1, P1rvat2 and Gaur2 is the spouse of )iva. She is the ruler of all the Universes (Brahm198a-s) having countless names according to Her different qualities and actions. vide also K4p1 Ka71k=a, !yudha Devat1, Lalit1

Dev2 Ku98alin2
)akti as Ku98alin2

Dev2p27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of a part of Dev2's body as Sat2 vide also P27ha

Dev2 Up1sana
Dev2 worship

Dhairya
Fortitude

Dhairy1kar=i92
The attractive power of Dhairya vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Dhairyat1
Calmness as a result of practicing Praty1h1ra

Dhana6jay1
The V1yu producing the function of distension vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92

Dhanur1sana
The bow !sana

Dhanu=
Bow vide also Ik=ukoda98a, Indradhanu=

Dh1ra91 (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support) (also Dh1ra91)
Lit. 'the act of holding or maintaining' Concentration In Yoga one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali

Dh1ra9a Yantra
A kind of Yantra to be worn by the devotee as an amulet used for protection of all kinds or acquisition of material gains or personal qualities

Dharma (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support)
Lit. 'right conduct' Higher duty, virtue (or Pu9ya) one of the eight Bh1va-s; one of the Puru=1rtha-s; inherent property of time 50

D

As inherent properties of time Dharma-s are of three kinds viz. At2ta, Vartam1na and An1gata, the process of time difference is called Adhvabheda. They affect each other all the time as the potential future time becomes present then past, and the past can influence the present and therefore generates a potential state. Dharma is a play of Karma, in which both cause and effect are being present in every action, but Dharma emphasizes the order ($ta) in action (Karma). vide also Adharma

Dharm1dharma
Merit and demerit

Dharmam1rga Dharmam1rga
The path of virtue

Dharmamegha Sam1dhi
The highest point of Sam1dhi in which the Yog2 gives up even the idea of reaching Kaivalya At this point all V1san1-s are buried and the Yog2 has access to a different reality. The Karma-s (actions) and Kle0a-s (afflictions) do not create any effect i.e. the Yog2 is free from the manifestations of Prak4ti and the products of the three Gu9a-s, the state of J2vanmukti is reached, the Yog2 becomes a Siddha. vide also Sat Cit !nanda, Mah1v1kya

Dharma Pari91ma
Transformation of the nature of mind (as Citta) accompanying the Pari91ma-s as a result of Sa%yama

Dharma01l1
A resting place for pilgrims

Dh1tr2 (from the root Dh4 i.e. to hold, preserve, support)
Earth

Dh1tu
Lit. 'ingredient; element; primitive matter' An essential element of the body There are seven Dh1tu-s (Sapta Dh1tu-s) viz. Asthi (bone), Meda (fat), M1%sa (flesh), Rakta (blood), Tvak (skin), Majj1 (marrow) and )ukra (semen). They are the abodes of the seven )akti-s presiding over the seven Cakra-s and represented by the seven trunks of the elephant in M3l1dh1ra Cakra as symbol of creativity.

Dhauti
One of the +atkarma-s the Dhauti-s are of four kinds namely Antar Dhauti, Danta Dhauti, H4d Dhauti and M3la )odhana

Dhenu
In the Veda-s the milch cow representing the power of creation complementing V4=abha (the bull) In the Vedic tradition Dhenu is the representation of V1k. It has four udders representing the Mantra-s Sv1h1, Va=a7, Hanta and Svadh1. Sv1h1 and Va=a7 feed the Deva-s, Hanta feeds the men and Svadh1 Svadh1 the Pit4-s. Dhenu has to be seen as symbol of female principle in the Veda-s, a parallel concept to Prak4ti in Yoga. It is also relevant to know that the "moo" sound of a cow is the opposite of Mantra O%, i.e. the "moo" sound is the sound of the creation, the O% sound of the absorption. 51

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Dh4ti
Fortitude as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Dh3m1v1t2
The seventh of the ten Mah1vidy1-s Called also "the smoky one" she represents the ultimate destruction, a kind of existence when everything in the universe is in a state of darkness and inertia.

Dh3mra
Lit. 'smoke-coloured, smoky' A certain experience leading to the path of Dak=i91yana vide also Dh3mrali^ga

Dh3mrali^ga
The experience of Dh3mra in the M3l1dh1ra Cakra as form taken by )iva It is also known as Svayamb3 Li^ga. vide also )ivali^ga

Dhvani
The audible sound

Dhy1na (from the root Dhyai i.e. to contemplate, imagine)
Awareness as unbroken state of thoughts flow This is a process of expansion of consciousness in which time (representing )iva) and space (representing )akti) are brought together. In Yoga it is one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali and an essential path to further human evolution. Through Dhy1na, Pratyak=atva is obtained. Consciousness is also compared with the fire (Agni), which by its nature consumes the material universe. Dhy1na, as degree of finesse, is of three kinds, namely Sth3ladhy1na, S3k=madhy1na and Jyotirdhy1na. vide also Cidvahni

Dhy1na Mudr1
A kind of Mudr1 used for meditation

Dhy1nasth1na
Point of Dhy1na Dhy1na practice inside the human body

Dhy1na Yoga
Kind of Yoga by practicing various kinds of meditation

Dhy1na Yoga Sam1dhi
The Sam1dhi as a result of Dhy1na Yoga practice

Digambara
Lit. 'sky-clothed' A naked mendicant, a N1ga vide also Rakt1mbara

D2k=1
52

D

Initiation of a spiritual tradition In the Tantra-s there are thirty-eight kinds of initiations, traditionally.

D2rgha
Long

Divya
Lit. 'divine' Divine quality; a kind of S1dhaka in the Tantra-s In the Divya kind of S1dhaka the Sattva Gu9a is predominant.

Divyabh1va Divyabh1va
One of the Bh1va-s as a state of human personality based on equilibrium and rhythm, therefore of Sattva nature

Divya Cak=u
The divine eye i.e. !jn1 Cakra

Divya )rotra
Divine ear or hearing as a quality acquired after practicing N1da Dh1ra9a

Divyaugha
Lit. 'divine teacher' Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1tha-s represented in the human body by the two ears ()rotra) and the mouth (V1k)

Do=a
Deficiency; fault; detrimental effect; disease; humour of the body; defect As deficiencies of the body causes diseases there are three Do=a-s namely V1yu, Pitta and Kapha as humours of the body. In the !yurveda system of Indian medicine the knowledge of Do=a-s is essential for balancing the body system. The term Do=a can be used to define any defect and has an extended use.

Dra=7a
Lit. 'seer, observer' A person capable of witnessing own actions and all life experiences (as D40ya) The real Dra=7a is !tman. A Dra=7a lives fully, surrenders and moves with the flow of life. vide also !tmadra=7a, Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi, S1k=ibh1va S1k=ibh1va

Dra=7a D40ya
The subject and object of seeing (D4=7i)

D48hat1
Strength as a result of practicing !sana-s

D4=7i
Lit. 'seeing' The action of seeing; the space between the eyebrows The word is also taken as sense experience or beyond the sense experience and is associated with !jn1 Cakra. 53

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

D40ya
Lit. 'seen' All the objects known through senses (Indriya-s) and all A%0a-s of !k10a in the Pi98198a; anything subject to cognition

Du5kha
Lit. 'unpleasant, pain, sorrow' The mental activity of being sad, distressed; suffering; grief The root of Du5kha is considered to be the duality (Dvaita). Philosophically Du5kha as suffering is a necessity, a conditio sine qua non of liberation (Mok=a), a condition the human being has to rise above and put an end to suffering. As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3-s Du5kha is connected to the Vij61namaya Ko0a. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Vimal1, Kle0a

Durg1
Lit. 'fortress' A form of )akti as culmination of all positive attributes The ascent of Ku98alin2 )akti from M3l1dh1ra Cakra Cakra (where it takes the form of K1l2) culminates in Sahasr1ra Cakra when takes the form of Durg1.

Durg1 B2ja
vide Hr2% Du% is also Durg1 B2ja (as per Varad1 Tantra)

D3rv1
Kind of grass scientifically known as Panicum Dactylon or Agrostis Linearis Meditation on D3rv1 grass gives specific benefits.

D3t2
Lit. 'female messenger' One of the Nity1 )akti-s known also as )ivad3t2

Dvaita
Duality vide also Advaita

Dvandva
A pair of opposites (e.g. cold and heat or happiness and sorrow); couple; face to face Dvandva-s as pair of opposites could be overcome by steadiness in !sana.

Dv1para Yuga
An age of the world consisting of 864,000 years vide Yuga

Dv1ra
Gate, passage; aperture of the human body

Dv1tri%0at Vidy1
54

D

The thirty-two Vidy1-s Traditionally the thirty-two Vidy1 Vidy1-s are the followings: !k10a, Ak=ar1k=ara, Ak=i, !nandamaya, A^gu=7ham1tra, Antar1ditya, B1l1ki, Bh4gu V1ru9i, Bh3ma, Dahara, G1rgi Ak=ara, G1yatr2, @0a, Jyoti=1%jyotir, Madhu, Maitrey2, N1ciket1gni, Pa6c1gni, Paramapuru=a, Parya^ka, Pr191gnihotra, Puru=a Puru=a, Sad, Sa%varga, )19dilya, Satyak1ma, )r2man Ny1sa, Udd1laka !ru9i, Udg2tha, Upakosala, U=asta Kahola and Vai0v1nara. vide also Veda Vidy1

Dve=a (known also as Krodha)
Lit. 'hatred" Repulsion; hate; anger, aversion; one of the five Kle0a-s vide also A^ku0a A^ku0a, P101^ku0a, Vair1gya

55

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

E
Ek1gra
One-pointed state as one of the five Cittabh3mi-s

Ek1grat1
Concentration on a single point (one-pointed), a state of doing only one action at a time

Ek1grat1 Pari91ma
Transformation of concentration as one of the three Pari91ma-s vide also Lak=ana Pari91ma

Ekatattv1bhy1sa
The practice of one principle only

Eloke02
The hair of goddess K1l2 as symbol of mysteries of life

56

G

G
Gaja Kara9i
A yogic technique of vomiting in order to purify the N182-s

Gamana
The act of going or attaining vide also Ana^gamadan1tur1

Ga9a Devat1
Class of deities There is a wide range of Ga9a Devat1-s depending on the historical periods of India and kind of literature. vide also Devas3

Ga9apati
A name of Ga9e=a

Gandha
Smell vide also Tanm1tra

Gandh1kar=i92
The attractive power of Gandha vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

G1ndh1r2 N182
The N182 connected to the left ankle vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvava0a^kar2

Gandharva
Being in the heavenly world expert in music vide also Kail1sa

Gandhatattva
The Tattva of Gandha

Ga9e=a
The elephant-headed god, a son of )iva, a symbol of the primordial power, the starting point for the human access to the divine by overcoming all obstacles His vehicle is the mouse also a symbol of enduring and overcoming obstacles. vide also Ga^g1, Devayoni

Ga^g1
Lit. 'that which goes with Ga% 57

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The river Ganges From its literal meaning Ga^g1 is the remover of obstacles as Ga% is the B2ja Mantra for Ga9e=a vide also Pray1ga, Trive92

G16j1
Indian hemp

G1rgi Ak=ara Vidy1 Vidy1
The G1rgi's knowledge about the Imperishable A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) named after G1rgi V1caknav2. This Vidy1 refers to !k10a pervading all in the past, present and future beyond which is the imperishable Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

G1rhapatya Agni
One of the three sacrificial fires, the one kept as perpetual fire by a householder Traditionally a man received it from his father and has to be transmitted to his sons. In the human body it is located in the navel area. Esoterically this fire is the level of consciousness attained in the Ma9ip3ra Cakra. vide also Agni

Garim1
Lit. 'heaviness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming very heavy vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

Garu81sana
The eagle !sana

Gaur2
A spouse of )iva (Rudra) A form of )akti. Her colour is white vide also Dev2

Gauripa77a
A Yoni shaped pedestal upon which the )ivali^ga is placed as representing )akti as holder.

G1yatr2
Lit. 'way of going; song, hymn' The most sacred Vedic Mantra of twenty-four syllables arranged as a triplet of eight syllables each It is also called S1vitr2, being addressed to S1vit4 (the Sun), so G1yatr2 Mantra is also S1vitr2 Mantra. G1yatr2 Dev2 (the goddess G1yatr2) is the presiding deity of this Mantra.

G1yatr2 Vidy1
The knowledge of G1yatr2 A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) that is considered to be the most important because it brings the knowledge of all the others by singing or uttering the G1yatr2 Mantra. The knowledge of this Vidy1 comes from Ch1ndogya and B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad-s and other Vedic 58

G

literature. This Vidy1 deals also with the concepts of Devasu=i-s, An1hata )abda, V1k, Para%jyoti= and many others. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Gha7a Avasth1
A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Vi=9ugranthi

Ghatika
Unit of time of twenty-four minutes One day consists of sixty Ghatika-s.

Ghr19a
Organ of smell, the nose vide also J61nendriya

Ghr19atattva
The Tattva of Ghr19a

G2ta
Sacred song

G61na
vide J61na

Gomukh1sana
The cow-mouth !sana

Gop1la
Lit. 'cowherd' A name of K4=9a vide also Govinda

Gop2
Woman cowherd as companion of K4=9a in V4nd1vana From mythological point of view they are female incarnations of $=i-s.

Gorak=1sana
The Gorak=a !sana

Govinda
Lit. 'chief herdsman' A name of K4=9a derived from the word Go meaning cow

Graha Graha
Lit. 'holding, seizing, acquiring' A planet having a magic influence over the destinies of people A Graha can also be called an evil spirit influencing the body and mind of somebody. As planets they have a strong influence on the Cakra-s. Traditionally there are nine planets (vide Navagraha). 59

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Graha9a
The knowledge acquired through senses vide also Sam1patti

Grah2t4
The knower vide also Sam1patti

Grah2t4 Graha9a Gr1hya
In Yoga S3tra-s the triple merge of the one who knows, the knowledge, and the object of knowledge This is a parallel concepts to J61ta J61na J6eya of the )r2 Yantra. Such a merge is possible only when A6janat1 quality is acquired.

Gr1hya
The object of knowledge vide also Sam1patti

Gr1ma Devat1
Village deity

Granthi
Psychic knot as stage of manifested consciousness Along Su=umn1 N182 there are three knots viz. Brahmagranthi, Vi=9ugranthi and Rudragranthi. Each one is a door to a different level of consciousness. Each Granthi belongs to a specific Kha98a (vide Agnikha98a, S3ryakha98a, Candrakha98a Candrakha98a), each Kha98a corresponds to a K37a of Pa6cada01k=ar2 Mantra. The force of M1y1 is very powerful in the knots. Pains and various physical disorders often accompany Granthi-s’ piercing.

Gr1vastut
Lit. 'the one praising the Soma stones' In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Hot4 priest named after the hymn to the Soma stones

G4hastha
Householder vide also !0rama

Gu9a
Quality, attribute, characteristic; a property of Prak4ti The three Gu9a-s (Trigu9a) are Sattva, R1jas and Tamas vide also Ali^ga, Gu9aparva Gu9aparva

Gu9aparva
State of the Gu9a-s as stages of their manifestations There are four Gu9aparva-s namely Vi0e0a, Avi0e0a, Li^gam1tra and Ali^ga.

Gu9a Rahita !k10a
The first of the Vyoma Pa6caka-s described as the space without attributes 60

G

Gupta
Lit. 'the hidden one' A name of K4=9a

Gupt1sana
The hidden !sana

Guru
Lit. 'remover of darkness' Spiritual teacher, preceptor; the planet Jupiter one of the Navagraha-s As spiritual teacher, Guru helps the )i=ya (disciple) to contact and awaken the inner Guru (i.e. the Self). As far as the Guru-)i=ya relationship is concerned, Guru is basically the individual projection of every )i=ya.

Guru Tattva
Essence of the concept of role of a Guru

Gy1na
vide J61na

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H
H1kin2
The )akti residing in the !jn1 Cakra

Ha%sa
Lit. 'accord; harmony; swan' The symbol for the Supreme Reality; one of the stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle

Ha%sa5
The Ajap1 Japa Mantra It has two parts. The Ha% (representing )iva) is produced during inhalation and Sa5 (representing )akti) is produced during the exhalation of the air.

H1na
The act of rejecting or abandoning In Yoga, H1na is the liberation of Puru=a from Prak4ti. vide also Ana^garekh1

Hanta
vide Dhenu

Hanum1n
The monkey devotee of R1ma renowned for his deep devotion, courage and strength

Hara
A name of )iva

Harac381ma9i
)iva's crest-gem, i.e. the moon vide also Candra0ekhara

Hari
A name of Vi=9u or K4=9a

Hastijihv1 N182
The N182 connected to the right side of the body vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvasa%mohi92

Hastin2
vide Padmin2

H1sya
Humour as one of the Rasa-s

Ha7ha Yoga
The physical Yoga having the goal to balance the solar influence (represented by Ha Mantra) and 62

H

the lunar influence (represented by &ha Mantra) in the human body

Havana
The offering to the Vedic sacrificial fire, known also as H1van

Havi
The object of oblation vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi

Hetu
Cause of an experience as source of an effect (Phala) vide also V1san1

Him1laya
Lit. 'abode of snow' Range of mountains bounding India on the north, home of many places of pilgrimage and spiritual retreats

Himavat
Lit. 'snowy' The Him1laya mountains; the king of Kail1sa

Hira9yagarbha
The golden womb The womb from where the manifestation takes place is in the subtle body, but its seed is in the causal body. The texts from Ved1nta describe Hira9yagarbha as being in the region of An1hata Cakra

Hl1din2 )akti
The )akti of rejoice, exhilaration, joy and bliss It is a name of R1dh1 dancing (as form of L2l1) to experience ecstasy.

Homa
The act of oblation or sacrifice vide also !tm1rpa9a, Agnihoma Agnihoma

Homaku98a (also known as Agniku98a)
A hole in the ground where sacrificial fire is burnt for oblations vide also Ku98a

Hotra
The act of oblation with fire vide also Agnihotra

Hotr1
The sacrificer (performer of an oblation) vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi Same as Hotra 63

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Hotr1 Arghya Havi
The One who offers, the Offering, the Object of Offering Referring to the act of oblation (Agnihotra) in Veda-s, it has a parallel significance to J61ta J61na J6eya in Tantra-s. The object of Hotra (Agnihotra) is to realize the unity of Hotr1, Arghya and Havi, thus acquiring knowledge of high degree,

Hot4
One of the four Vedic priests ($tvija-s) the one who chants the hymns of $g Veda while performing oblation with fire A Hot4 is assisted by three other helper priests, viz. Maitr1varu9a, Acch1v1ka and Gr1vastut.

Hotrin
vide Agnihotrin

H4d
Heart

H4daya
Heart; the heart as the seat of feelings

H4day1k10a
The space of the heart

H4day1k10a Dh1ra91
The Vedic practice of meditation on the space of the heart For other Vedic practices vide Veda Vidy1.

H4d Dhauti
Cleaning the heart-throat area as one of the four Dhauti-s There are three yogic techniques for cleaning the heart-throat area namely Da98a Dhauti, Vamana Dhauti and V1sodhauti.

Hr2
Modesty as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Hr2%
The Tantric Mantra called H4llekh1 It is also known as )akti B2ja, Durg1 B2ja, Bhuvave0var2 B2ja, M1y1 B2ja, M3la B2ja.

H4llekh1
vide H42%

H3ti (from the root Hve i.e. to invoke)
A sacred rite of invocation and offering to the Divine within the human body

64

I

I
Icch1
Lit. 'desire, will' The mental activity of wishing vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Aru91

Icch1 )akti
The energy of will

Id1 N182
Known also as Candra N182 it is one of the major N182-s (in the human subtle body) running up the left side of Su=umn1, the central channel vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, A0vini, Sarvasampattip3ra92, Candra, Candra N182

Ik=ukoda98a
The sugar-cane bow of K1ma Known also as Dhanu=, it denotes the mind. vide also !yudha Devat1

Il1
In the Veda-s the Goddess Earth, daughter of Manu, a symbol of inspiration and love

Ilya
The tree in the Brahmaloka that is seen after passing the Viraj1 river and before the S1lajja city The seeing of the tree enables the devotee to have a preliminary Gandha (smell as experience) of the existence of Brahma and to overcome it eventually. vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

Indra
Lord of Light representing the archetypal of pure being as object of human knowledge In the Veda-s Indra is called "the thunderbolt" as an expression of strength and vigour. He is the divine warrior breaking all barriers, the transcendental experience of stepping from unconsciousness to consciousness. Indra is equated with the concept of Puru=a in Yoga. vide also Svarloka, Parya^ka Vidy1, !nandamaya Vidy1, Agni S3rya Indra Indra, Indra Agni Soma S3rya

Indra Agni Soma S3rya
The four Godhead of the Veda-s The concept of Indra Agni Soma S3rya of the Veda-s is a parallel idea with that of Sat Cit !nanda. Therefore Indra is the fundamental Reality (Sat), Agni the Consciousness (Cit) and Soma the state of Ecstasy or Bliss (!nanda). S3rya is the door-gate of access through knowledge (J61na) of the unity of Sat, Cit and !nanda. vide also !tman, Agni S3rya Indra 65

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Indradhanu=
The rainbow

Indra Jye=7ha
Indra the leader of the heaven One of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Indra, the most important of Devas3 Ga9a Devat1-s.

Indriya
Sense and action organs and the mind (Manas) as source of lower consciousness of objects experience Indriya-s consist of five J61nendriya-s, five Karmendriya-s and Manas. In Tantra their stimulation brings the stimulation of Cakra-s as the externalised practice of Praty1h1ra. vide also Asmit1, Rudra, Antarindriya

I^gitaj6a
The interpretation of the inner intention by external gestures of a person vide also Lak=a9a Lak=a9a Siddhi

@0a Vidy1
The knowledge of God A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. It refers to Sagu9a Brahman as a subject of knowledge, but to Nirgu9a Brahman as the subject of Self-realization only (ref. @01v1sya Upani=ad). vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

@01na
An old name of )iva; the sun as a form of )iva

@0itva
Lit. 'superiority' One of the eight yogic powers that of being above others vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

I=7a Devat1
The chosen deity of an aspirant as the expression of the supreme reality to be followed or worshipped in various forms

I=7ihan (from I=7i i.e. impulse)
Overcoming a specific place and time in the Brahmaloka thus enabling the devotee not to destroy the sacrifice of crossing the lakes !ra and Nya It helps also to rise above the five internal fires (Pa6c1gni-s). vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

@0vara (from the root @0 i.e. to rule)
Lit. 'lord' The Supreme Puru=a as non-manifested state; a name of )iva as patron of Yogi-s; God in Yoga @0vara is also the Devat1 of V1yu Bh3ta. vide also Parabrahman Parabrahman, Asat, Avyakta, Nir1k1ra, Sagu9a Brahman 66

I

@0varapra9idh1na
Devotion to God as one of the five Niyama-s

@0varapra9idh1naprati=7h1
A state in which @0varapra9idh1na is experienced A Yog2 possessing this state will be able to experience the ecstasy accompanying the surrender to the Divine.

@0varatattva
The Tattva of J61na )akti (the energy of knowledge) vide also @=vara

Itarali^ga
Lit. 'identification with this and that' The experience of the similar nature of J2v1tman and !tman taken by )iva in !j61 Cakra as advanced form of awareness vide also )ivali^ga

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J
J1gar2
The name of J2va in the J1grat state

Jagat
The ever-changing universe as phenomenal world

J1grat
The Avasth1 of waking associated with a specific V4tti (vide J1grat V4tti) In this state the J2va J2va consciousness is in the gross body (Sthula )ar2ra) and the perception is through the senses and mind.

J1gratsvapna
An intermediate state between waking (J1grat) and dreaming (Svapna)

J1grat V4tti
The condition of the waking state associated in the mind with the Alpha brain waves vide also Avasth1, V4tti

Jala
Water vide also Ap

Jala Basti
The Basti with water as one of the two Basti-s

J1landhara Bandha
Lit. 'water pipe lock' The ‘vital centre’ Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s vide also Bandhatraya

J1landhara J1landhara P27ha
vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra In the S3k=ma )ar2ra it is equated with Vi0uddhi Cakra vide also P27ha, Catu=p27ha

Janarloka
The Loka of rebirth inhabited by Brahm1-s son Sanatkum1ra

Janma Cakra
The wheel of life (from Janma meaning birth)

Janmar10i Janmar10i
Zodiacal sign

Janmasiddha
68

J

A perfect being by birth

Janmayoga
Horoscope

J1nujugm1sana
Lit. 'posture of the joined knees' vide Tantr1sana

Japa
Repetition of a Mantra vide also !tm1rpa9a

Japa Anu=7h1na
The Anu=7h1na related to Japa

Japam1l1
The rosary used for counting of Mantra-s

Ja71yu
The vulture king

J17har1gni
The digestive fire as form of Agni The ten J17har1gni-s are: Recaka, Pacaka, )o=aka, D1haka, Pl1vaka, K=1raka, Udg1raka, K=obhaka, J4mbhaka and Mohaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

J1tu Janus Janim1 Janim1
In the Veda-s birth, being, nature

J1tyantara Pari91ma
Fundamental transformation of the mind equivalent to rebirth brought by Prak4ty1p3r1t In practical terms it represents the awakening of potentialities of the mind.

Jayin2
The fulfilled One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental quality of Sattva (equilibrium). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Jihva
Organ of taste, the tongue vide also J61nendriya

Jihv1 )odhana
Cleaning the root of the tongue as one of the Danta Dhauti-s

Jihvatattva
The Tattva Tattva of Jihva

Jij61su
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Lit. 'desirous of knowing' A kind of spiritual initiation as Sanny1sa lifestyle in a preliminary stage

J2va
vide J2v1tman

J2vanmukta
A person who attained liberation (Mukti) and whose consciousness is not touched by Prak4ti, but still acts in the world of Prak4ti A J2vanmukta has a simultaneous perception of Prak4ti and the state of Mukti thus becoming integrated into the pure consciousness. vide also Marut

J2vanmukti
The state of a J2vanmukta

J2v1tm1
vide J2v1tman

J2v1tman
The individual Soul vide also Param1tman, Advaita Known also as J2v1tm1, J2va, the individual Soul becomes )1r2ra, Tejasa or Pr1j6a depending in which kind of )ar2ra (body) dwells, respectively Sth3la, S3k=ma or K1ra9a.

J61na (from the root J61 i.e. to know)
Knowledge, perception as one of the eight Bh1va-s J61na extends from sense perception to the perception of !tman as full absorption. Synonyms for J61na are Vidy1, Praj61. The real J61na is that knowledge, which gives liberation; any other knowledge is called Vij61na. vide also Savitark1 Sam1dhi, Aj61na, J61ta J61na J6eya

J61na Anu=7h1na
The Anu=7h1na related to J61na-s (as spiritual studies)

J61na Cak=u
The third eye i.e. !j61 Cakra

J61na Mudr1
A hand Mudr1 practice in order to acquire knowledge and wisdom

J61na Netra Netra
The eye of knowledge i.e. !j61 Cakra

J61na )akti
The energy of wisdom or knowledge

J61na Yoga
The Yoga of knowledge or wisdom

J61nayogavyavasthiti
70

J

Steadfastness in knowledge of Yoga as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

J61nendriya
Organ of perception in the human body There are five J61nendriya-s namely )rotra (ears), Tvak (skin), Netra or Cak=u (eyes), Jihva (tongue), Ghr19a (nose) produced from the Rajas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s.

J61nin
One following the J61na path

J61t1 J61t1
vide J61ta J61na J6eya

J61t1 J61na J6eya
The One who knows, the Knowledge, the Object of Knowledge The illusory triad of the Self, which has to merge at the stage when the Self is fully realized. vide also )r2 Yantra, Sam1patti

J6eya
vide J61ta J61na J6eya J6eya

J4mbhaka
The J17har1gni of intake of breath (energy) vide also Sarvarak=1svar3pi92

Jv1l1m1lin2
Lit. 'flame-garlanded' One of the Nity1 )akti-s It bestows esoteric knowledge of one's previous births. Jv1l1m1l1 means garland of fire.

Jye=7ha
The month corresponding to parts of May/ June vide also M1sa

Jyoti
Lit. 'light' The inner light as the cause of An1hata )abda; any spiritual light experience

Jyotirdhy1na
The causal form of meditation

Jyotirli^ga
The form taken by )iva in Sahasr1ra Cakra as experience of Jyoti or the highest form of awareness As an external expression there are twelve enlightened shrines of )iva in India. vide also )ivali^ga

Jyoti=1mjyotir Vidy1
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The knowledge of the light of lights A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s as related to Janaka by $=i Y1j6avalkya. It describes the light of lights i.e. !tm1, the Soul as seated in the heart (H4daya). vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Jyoti=mat2
Lit. 'shining, luminous' Condition of the mind experiencing Jyoti (associated with Sattva Gu9a) through which Vi0ok1 is obtained Typical methods are practices of H4day1k10a Dh1ra91, N1da Dh1ra91, )1%bhav2 Mudr1.

Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti
The mind faculty that is able to experience the light (!loka) This faculty enables the acquisition of many Siddhi-s.

72

K

K
Kadamba
The tree Nauclea Cadamba whose fragrant blossoms of orange colour are used in worship particularly of Dev2's

K1di
The first of all )r2 Vidy1 Mantra

Kail1sa
Mythical mountains in Him1laya-s Mountains frequented by Siddha-s and Gandharva-s, the paradise of )iva. Here is where P1rvat2, )iva's spouse, the daughter of the Mountain King was born. These mountains are also )iva K=etra, where there are the three great shrines of Gangotri (the source of the Ganges), Kedarnath (a Ma7h and temple of Sad10iva Sad10iva) and Badrinath (a temple of an incarnation of Lord Vi=9u). It is the place of Satsa^ga of Lord )iva for $=i-s and Muni-s, a place of great beauty, the fabulous residence of Kubera built of Cint1ma9i and surrounded by Kadamba trees. The mystic mount is to be sought in the Sahasr1ra Cakra in the body of every J2va.

Kail1sav1sin
Lit. 'the one dwelling on the mount Kail1sa' A name of )iva

Kai%karya
vide D1sya

Kaivalya (from the word Kevala, vide)
The state of absolute unity of spirit as a culmination of supreme knowledge and absence of Avidy1 As a process of unfolding the pure consciousness, Kaivalya is defined as the Pratiprasava (involution) of the three Gu9a-s when they acquire an undisturbed condition, so being able to fulfil the Puru=1rtha-s.

Kaivalya Mukti
The liberation of absolute unity

Kaivalyapr1gbh1ram
Lit. 'tendency towards absolute unity' The process of mind's (Citta) attraction towards the unity experienced by a practitioner in the final stages of own S1dhana

K1ki Mudr1
Lit. 'gesture of the crow' The crow Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

K1kin2
The )akti residing in An1hata Cakra

Kal1
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A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

A small part of a whole; an atom, an essential part of matter

K1la
Lit. 'of a dark colour' Time; death

Kal1 Ka6cuka
Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real nature of matter as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti vide also Tattva, Kal1tattva

K1la Ka6cuka
Form of )akti limiting the perception of time integrated with space being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti vide also Tattva, K1latattva

Kal1tattva
The Tattva of Kal1 Ka6cuka

K1latattva
The Tattva of K1la Ka6cuka

K1l2 (word derived from K1la, vide)
Lit. 'the dark one' The divine Mother as the consort of )iva K1l2 as the first Mah1vidy1 is the )akti of K1la and the original creative principle. As a goddess she transforms herself into the ten Mah1vidy1-s as expressions of planes of existence and cycles of life. K1l2 is also the first expression of the awakened Ku98alin2 as destroyer of ignorance.

K1lid1da
Lit. 'servant of K1l2' A celebrated poet of ancient India author of )akuntal1, and other works.

K1liya
The serpent-demon who was defeated by K4=9a as expression of victory over lust

Kali Yuga
An age of the world consisting of 432,000 years It is held that this Yuga began year 3102 (or 3114) BCE, being the age in which we live in.

Kalki
The tenth incarnation of Vi=9u, yet to come

Kalpa
Resolve; a fabulous period of time

Kalpataru
The wish-fulfilling tree A Kalpataru day is considered to be the first of January every year. As per )1rad1 )1rad1 Tilaka work, Kalpataru is the awakened Ku98alin2, the source of all things desired. 74

K

K1ma
Desire, the passion associated with Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra One of the names of K1madeva as one who generates desire for love. In the $g Veda, K1ma is described as the first movement of creation. vide also Puru=1rtha, Pa6c1gni

K1m1^ga
The mango tree Magnifera Indica

K1mab19a
An arrow of K1madeva

K1ma B2ja
vide Kl2%

K1mabindu
Lit. 'wish drop' A drop of melted butter into the sacred fire in order to obtain the fulfilment of a wish

K1madeva
The God of Love He can assume any form at will. His other names are Madan1, Manmatha, K1ma, Smara, M1ra, Pradyumna, Ana^ga, Kusume=u, Kandarpa, Manobhava, Kamar1ja, etc., all as expressions of love, attachment and desires. His two wives are Rati and Pr2ti as sentiment and joy. His B2ja Mantra is Kl2%. K1madeva is the son of Brahm1, the Creator as K1ma (desire) comes always as part of the creation, but even exists without an object of desire (vide Ana^ga, K1ma). His emblem is the Makara, hence the name Makaraketana (the one having the Makara for an emblem).

K1madhenu
The cow of plenty, the mythical cow of Vasi=7ha As per )1rad1 Tilaka, K1madhenu is the awakened Ku98alin2.

K1makal1
K1ma signifies the union of )iva and )akti as K1me0vara and K1me0var2, Kal1 is their manifestation

K1m1kar=i92
The attractive power of K1ma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

K1m1k=y1
Temple in K1mar3pa (Assam-India) where Sati's Yoni fell to ground It is a Tantric centre of great power.

Kamal1
The tenth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s represents the state of reconstituted unity when everything is joy, happiness and good fortune Kamal1 is also one of Goddess Lak=m2's names. Dev2 is also named Kamal1 as she is in every )akti. 75

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

K1mar1ja
Lit. 'king of desire' One of the names of K1madeva as king of desires vide also K1ma

K1mar1jak37a
One group (section) of Pa6cada02 Mantra known also as Madhyak37a It is presided over by S3rya

K1mar3pa
Lit. 'shape assumed at will; the Yoni' An old region corresponding to the actual east part of Bengal and west part of Assam in India where the famous temple K1m1k=y1 is located

K1mar3pa P27ha
vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra vide also P27ha, Catu=p27ha In the S3k=ma )ar2ra it is equated with Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra. It is also a Yonip27ha.

K1ma0ara
Lit. 'love's shaft' An arrow of K1madeva

K1me02
The passionate One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of U=na. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

K1me0vara
Lit. 'the king of love' A name of )iva without attributes vide also K1makal1

K1me0var2
Lit. 'the queen of love' One of the !vara9a Devat1-s presiding over the principle of existence of Avyakta K1me0var2 is also a name for the Supreme )akti (vide K1makal1, K1me0var2 Nity1). vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

K1me0var2 Nity1
The eternal K1me0var2, a name for the Supreme )akti

K1min2k16cana
Lust and gold as expressions of desire and greed

K1myahoma
Homa with the purpose of attainment of one's desires 76

K

Ka6cuka
Lit. 'cover, disguise' Limitation Forms of )akti in which the primordial unity is obscured by M1y1 )akti so the inner perfection of Cit !nanda as )iva )akti union is limited. There are five Ka6cuka-s (part of the thirty-six Tattva-s), viz. Kal1, Vidy1, R1ga, K1la and Niyati.

Kandarpa
Lit. 'inflamer even of a god' One of K1madeva‘s names, as the one inflaming love

Kap1labh1ti
Lit. 'shinning skull' One of the +a7karma-s used to destroy the disorders caused by Kapha (phlegm) It is of three kinds namely V1makrama, Vyutkrama and )2tkrama.

Kap1larandhra Dhauti
Cleaning of the frontal sinuses as one of the Danta Dhauti-s

Kapha
One of the three Do=a-s In the !yurveda system, Kapha is a deficiency of phlegm as a cause to diseases.

K1ra9a
Cause, origin

K1ra9a Bindu
The causal source, which proceeds the K1rya Bindu

K1ra9a R3pa
Causal form vide also R3pa

K1ra9a K1ra9a )ar2ra
The causal body (composed of Sa%sk1ra-s) as vehicle of transmigration (Sa%s1ra) Its centre is the heart. This )ar2ra is the cause of all other lower bodies.

Karav2ra
The plant oleander (Nerium Odorum) or its flower; a species of Soma used in worship

K1rik1
A verse of an essential statement usually applied in grammar and philosophy

Karma (from the root K4 i.e. to accomplish)
Action and its accumulations The accumulated Karma is of three kinds, viz. )ukla Karma, K4=9a Karma and A0ukl1k4=9a Karma producing fruits according to own nature. The actions (Karma-s) are accompanied by Pari91ma, T1pa and Sa%sk1ra. As degree of finesse Karma is of two kinds, i.e. Sth3la and S3k=ma. Karma accumulates only when there is a sense of doing something. From the point of 77

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

view of timely effect, Karma is of two kinds, viz. Sopakrama and Nirupakrama. vide also Karm10aya, Sa%sk1ra

Karma Deva
A god created by own actions as compared to a !j1naya Deva (god by birth) vide also !nandamaya Vidy1

Karma Sanny1sa
One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin although living in the world is committed to spiritual life Karma Sanny1sa is also a kind of initiation of yogic type. vide also Dik=a

Karm10aya
Repository of acts as Karma-s of various natures, the store of the traces of past Karma-s accumulated in the forms of Sa%sk1ra-s

Karma Yoga
The Yoga of action vide also Pari0rama

Karmendriya
Organ of action in the human body There are five Karmendriya-s namely V1k (mouth), Upastha (genitals), P1yu (anus), P192 (hands), P1da (feet) produced from the Rajas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six Tattva-s. vide also Vikara9a Bh1va

Kar9a Dhauti
Cleaning of the ear opening as one of the Danta Dhauti-s

Karobari
The caretaker of a spiritual institution

Kartar2
A two-syllables Mantra

K1rtika
The month corresponding to parts of Oct./ Nov. vide also M1sa

K1rttikeya
The god of war, son of )iva and P1rvat2

Karu91
The sentiment of compassion; compassion as one of the Rasa-s Karu91 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana-s as an attitude towards unhappy people. vide also Maitry1di

K1rya
78

K

Effect; action vide also K1ra9a, Satk1ryav1da

K1rya Bindu
The effect source, which follows the K1ra9a Bindu

Ka=1ya
Astringent as one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

Ka7uka
Pungent as one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

Kaula
The essence common to both )iva and )akti Kaula Dharma and Kaulika Dharma are synonyms. In the Tantra-s Kula means )akti, Akula means )iva and the union between Kula and Akula is called Kaula. The path of Su=umn1 is also named Kula, as Dev2's names are Kulayogin2 and Kaulin2. Traditionally there are eight kinds of women attending on Kaula worship.

Kaulam1rga
The Kaula path

Kaulika
vide Kaula

Kaulin2
The essential (basic) One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental quality of Tamas. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Kaula

Kaumud2
Lit. 'moonlight' The day of full-moon in the month of K1rtika when the festival in honour of K1rttikeya is held Kaumud2 is also personified as goddess, the wife of Candra.

Kaumud2c1ra
The day of full-moon in the month of !0vina

Kavitva
The literary ability vide also P198itya

K1vya
Poem; charming

K1ya
Body

K1y1gni
The fire of the body as digestive fire 79

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K1yar3pa
Form of the body Performing Sa%yama on K1yar3pa and suspending the reception of the light in the eyes will enable the Yog2 to become invisible.

K1ya Sampad
Bodily perfection In Ha7ha Yoga the marks of bodily perfection are four viz. R3pa, L1va9ya, Bala and Vajsa%hananatv1ni (vide Yoga S3tra-s III.46).

K1ya Sthairya
Steadiness of the body

K1yika
Kind of worship "by body" of the Dev2 vide also Y1ga

Ke0ava
Lit. 'having long or handsome hair' A name of K4=9a Ke0ava assumes various forms in different Yuga-s.

Ketu
The descending node in astronomy and astrology, one of the Navagraha-s

Kevala
Lit. 'entirely, wholly' The state of highest possible knowledge

Kevala Kumbhaka
Spontaneous Kumbhaka as a result of full awakening of Ku98alin2 vide also Sahita Kumbhaka

Keval2
Lit. 'causing absorption' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Pr191y1ma

Kha8ga Siddhi
The power of breaking through vide also Siddhi

Khajuraho
Lit. 'agitated chest' The famous Tantric temples

Kha98a
Lit. 'part, chapter, group, section of a work' Division 80

K

Khecar2
The flying One

Khecari Mudr1
The Mudr1 of flying as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Khy1ti
Awareness vide also Vivekakhy1ti

K2rtana
One of the A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of singing songs for the Divine

K2rti
Fame

Kle0a
Affliction, suffering In Yoga the five afflictions binding down the human being are Avidy1 Avidy1, Asmit1, R1ga, Dve=a, Abhinive0a. From Avidy1, Asmit1 will appear, from Asmit1, R1ga, from R1ga, Dve=a, from Dve=a, Abhinive0a. Kle0a-s can be eliminated mainly by living into an !0rama and coming back to society after a while. vide also Du5kha

Kl2%
K1ma B2ja A B2ja for K1madeva and K4=9a.

Kon1rak
Lit. 'corner of the time-wheel' The famous Tantric temple in Orissa (India)

Ko0a
Lit. 'sheath; body' Sphere of consciousness There are five Ko0a-s viz. Annamaya, Pr19amaya, Manomaya, Vij61namaya and !nandamaya as an integral part of the three )ar2ra-s. vide also Vik=epasahabh3

Krama
Lit. 'proceeding, going towards; progressing step by step; method' Sequence, order

Kratu
Name of a $=i; capacity; will vide also Sapta4=i

Kriy1 )akti
The energy of action 81

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Kriy1 Yoga
The practical Yoga

K4kara
The V1yu producing the function of hunger vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvavighaniv1ri92

Krodha
Anger as one of the seven Varjana-s Krodha, known also as Dve=a is the passion associated with Ma9ip3ra Cakra. vide also Pa6c1gni, A^ku0a

K4p1
Mercy

K4p1 Ka71k=a
A side look (glance) full of grace as Dev2's kind of look

K4p1s1gara
Lit. 'the one who is an ocean of mercy' A name of K4=9a

K4=9a
Lit. 'dark-blue; the one who attracts' An incarnation (Avat1ra) of Vi=9u

K4=9a Karma
The bad (dark) Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma-s

K4ta Yuga
vide Satya Yuga, Yuga

K4ti
The quality of being active vide also Bh3ma Vidy1

K=am1
Forgiveness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s vide also Ak=am1

K=1raka
The J17har1gni of bile secreting vide also Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92

K=atriya
One of the four Var9a-s in the Vedic tradition consisting of military and administrative people

K=etra
Field 82

K

vide also Kuruk=etra

K=ipta
Uncontrolled state as one of the five Cittabh3mi-s

K=2ra V4k=a
Fig-tree

K=obhaka
The J17har1gni of churning of the food vide also Sarv1nandamay2

K=udra Brahm198a
Lit. 'little universe' The human body as Microcosm About the human body as a Microcosm the work Vi0vas1ra Tantra says: "What is here is elsewhere, what is not here is nowhere". As such there is a fundamental parallel concept between Microcosm (K=udra Brahm198a or Pi98198a) and Macrocosm (Brahm198a). vide also )iva )akti, Pi98198a, Brahm198a

Kubera
The god of wealth known also as Kuvera vide also Kail1sa

Kuh3
The new moon personified

Kuh3 N182
The N182 connected to the right side of forehead vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvavidr1vi92

Kuja
The planet Mars, one of the Navagraha-s

Kukku71sana
The cock !sana

Kula
vide Kaula

Kulaku98a
The place where Ku98alin2 sleeps in M3l1dh1ra M3l1dh1ra Cakra

Kul1m4ta
The nectar flowing from Sahasr1ra Cakra

Kulasundar2
One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Kum1r2 P3j1
Worship of virgin in the Tantric tradition 83

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Men do the worship. A girl in her eighth year is called Gaur2.

Kumbhaka
Controlled retention of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma As a rite Kumbhaka is the inner Agnihotra.

Ku98a
Lit. 'pit, round hole in the ground where fire is burnt; coiled; circular' The place in the human body where the sexual glands are situated; a special hole used in the ceremonial rite of sacrificing to the fire (Agni)

Ku98alin2
Lit. 'that which is coiled' The evolutionary energy as power/ force resting at the base of the spinal column where is described as being coiled three and a half times around Svayambh3 Li^ga When Ku98alin2 is raised up through the Su=umn1 N182 the higher levels of consciousness are experienced while the Cakra-s are activated until Ku98alin2 reaches Sahasr1ra Cakra that is the end of its journey. Ku98alin2 is the aspect of K1ra9a Bindu in the human body. vide also Kevala Kumbhaka, Ku98a

Ku98alin2 )akti
The Serpent Power; the transformative energy of creation It has three forms namely Adha50akti, Madhya0akti and #rdhva0akti. When Ku98alin2 )akti has passed through all the seven Cakra-s the consciousness of the Yog2 becomes uninterrupted between the lowest and the highest centres.

Ku98alin2 Yoga
The Yoga of Ku98alin2 known also as Laya Yoga

K3rma
Lit. 'tortoise' The V1yu producing the function of closing and opening of eyelids K3rma is also one of Vi=9u Vi=9u's incarnations, the representation of the axis mundi, the centre of stability around which everything evolves. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvam4tyupra0ama92

K3rm1sana
The tortoise !sana

Kuruk=etra
Lit. 'field of the Kuru-s' The battlefield described in the Bhagavad G2t1 as symbol of the inner battlefield within the human body

Kurukull1
A name of India and its people personified as goddess Her Vidy1 is called Trikha9d1 vide also V1r1h2 84

K

Ku0a
Grass scientifically known as Poa Cynosuroides used in certain sacred ceremonies and for meditation in Yoga

Kusuma
Flower; menstrual discharge vide also Ana^gakusuk1

Kusume=u
Lit. 'arrow of flower' One of the names of K1madeva as one whose love arrows are flowers vide also Kusuma

Ku7icaka
Lit. 'happy in the hut' One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin starts to live in an !0rama

Ku72r
Cottage, hut as a retreat for a Sanny1sin

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L
Laghim1
Lit. 'lightness' One of the eight yogic powers the one allowing somebody to become very light; lightness as a result of practicing Pr191y1ma vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

Laghu
Short

Lajj1
Modesty; shame; bashfulness

L1kin2
The )akti residing in the Ma9ip3ra Cakra

Lak=a9a
Lit. 'expressing indirectly, indicating; symbol, sign' Characteristic, attribute, mark; a kind of )1stra; expression of a condition

Lak=a9a Pari91ma
Transformation of quality of the mind (Citta) accompanying the Pari91ma-s as a result of Sa%yama

Lak=a9a Siddhi
The power to have a correct interpretation of nature’s warnings of past, present and future events This ability makes possible to have accurate predictions. vide also )akuna Tantra, Siddhi

Lak=ma9a
The brother of R1ma renowned for his devotion to R1ma; a famous Tantric temple at Khajuraho (India)

Lak=m2
Goddess of prosperity, spouse of Lord Vi=9u known also as Kamal1, Ram1

Lak=m2 B2ja
vide )r2%

Lak=ya
Aim, goal

Lalan1 Cakra
A minor Cakra located to the back wall of the pharynx serving to store the Am4ta falling from Bindu prior to the release to Vi0uddha Cakra 86

L

Lalit1
Lit. 'she who plays; she who is charming, lovely, desired' A special name of Dev2, the great Goddess, the great )akti Her play is world-play. The word Lalit1 has the meanings of eight human qualities namely brilliancy, manifestation, tenderness, depth, concentration, energy, grace and compassion. She is the deity of )r2 Vidy1, the supreme Kame0var2 at the centre of )r2 Yantra. According to Padma Pur19a, Lalit1 is the deity worshipped at Pray1ga. The Goddess Lalit1 has many names, the most famous group being Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra. vide also !yudha Devat1

Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra
The most relevant reference book in the )akti tradition

Lat1
Creeper; slender body; woman partner

Lat1 S1dhana
A Tantric practice of a female with a male Esoterically is the expression of Dev2 Ku98alin2 encircling the Svayambh3 Li^ga like a creeper (Lat1) in M3l1dh1ra Cakra.

Laulik2
vide Neti

Lava9a
Salt, one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

L1va9ya
Beauty as one of the four K1ya Sampad-s

Laya
Lit. 'absorption, dissolution' The process in which a product dissolves or is absorbed into that from which has originated. vide also Niv4tti

Layakrama
Lit. 'going towards absorption' The process of absorption as opposed to S4=7ikrama Practically any act of Yoga is a Layakrama act. In the )r2 Yantra Yantra the action of absorption have the direction from Trailokyamohana to Bindu. Practically any act of Yoga is a Layakrama act.

Laya Siddhi Yoga
Kind of Yoga by practicing with Yoni Mudr1

Laya Siddhi Yoga Sam1dhi
The Sam1dhi as a result of Laya Siddhi Yoga practice

Laya Yoga
The Yoga of dissolution known also as Ku98alin2 Yoga, a combination of Karma and J61na Yoga-s 87

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The final absorption into Ku98alin2 means becoming one with the J61na )akti.

L2l1
Divine play producing the universe vide also Lalit1

Li^ga
Lit. 'emblem; sign; form in disguise' A mark of identification; the transmigrating soul

Li^gam1tra
Lit. 'with mark' One of the four Gu9aparva-s in which !nanda Sam1dhi is experienced

Li^ga Mudr1
The gesture of the Li^ga form generating heat in the body

Li^ga )ar2ra )ar2ra
The subtle body, same as S3k=ma )ar2ra

Lobha
Greed, the passion associated with M3l1dh1ra Cakra vide also Pa6c1gni

Loka
Lit. 'plane; world; region' Degree of space access and level of awareness Traditionally there are fourteen Loka-s, seven above (and including) the Bh3rloka and seven below. The above earth worlds are Bh3rloka, Bhuvarloka, Svarloka, Maharloka, Janarloka, Taparloka and Satyaloka (or Brahmaloka). The below regions are Atalaloka, Vitalaloka, Sutalaloka, Ras1talaloka, Tal1talaloka, Mah1talaloka Mah1talaloka and P1t1laloka. There is a correspondence between Loka-s and Cakra-s as expressing various levels of awareness (consciousness).

88

M

M
Mada
Pride, arrogance, the passion associated with Vi0uddha Cakra vide also Pa6c1gni

Madan1
Lit. 'love, passion; the season of spring; intoxication' One of the names of K1madeva as one who intoxicates with love vide also Ana^gamadan1

Madan1tur1
Lit. 'love-sick' vide Ana^gamadan1tur1

Madhu
Lit. 'sweet, delightful; honey' The season of spring; a name of )iva

Madhubh3mika Madhubh3mika
A Yog2 who can experience his Siddhi-s in the world of Prak4ti

Madhura
Sweet, one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

M1dhurya
Loveliness, sweetness; deep affection; one of the Bh1va-s of Bhakti Yoga, also one of the Rasa-s

Madhu Vidy1
The knowledge of the honey A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) having the central point the sun and its manifestations as Madhu (honey) of all the gods and their manifestations. The universe is compared to the honeycomb similar to the honeycomb of the human body. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Madhya
Middle

Madhyak37a
vide K1mar1jak37a

Madhyam1
The audible (whispering) stage of )abda

Madhya Marga
vide Su=umn1 89

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Madhya0akti
The middle one of the Ku98akin2 )akti-s

Madhya T2vrasa%vega
Medium intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega-s

Madya
vide Pa6ca Mak1ra

M1gha
The month corresponding to parts of Jan./ Feb. vide also M1sa

Mah1 Bandha
The great Bandha as one of the also Mudr1 Bandha-s A kind of Bandha in which the three major Bandha-s are performed concurrently. vide also Bandhatraya

Mah1bh1rata
The great Indian epic attributed to the sage Vy1sa It describes the conflict between the forces of light (the P19du-s) and the forces of evil (the Dh4tar1=tra-s).

Mah1bh3ta
vide Bh3ta

Mah1bindu
vide Par1bindu

Mah1deva
Lit. 'the great god' A name of )iva

Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra
The great causal body associated with the state of Tur2ya and )uddhatattva-s vide also Tur2y1t2ta

Mah1k10a
The third of the Vyoma Pa6caka-s described as the great space

Mah1 M1y1
Lit. 'great illusion' The objective universe

Mah1 Mudr1
The great Mudr1 as one of the most important Mudr1 Bandha-s

Mah1navam2
The ninth day of the bright half of !0vina and Caitra

Mah1pralaya
90

M

The great dissolution

Mah1 Mah1puru= puru=a
The Great Being; a name of )iva, as holder of consciousness

Maharloka
The region above the polar star A Loka inhabited by Bh4gu and other saints, also known as the middle region.

Mah1 $=i
Great seer of the Vedic tradition vide Brahm1

Mah10akti
Supreme )akti A synonym for Parama0akti. In that supreme sphere crossing all worlds her residence is called Mah1 Kail1sa or Apar1jita. There she is one with Parama0iva. Her body is of pure Sattva.

Mahat
The highest intelligence; the cosmic principle of Buddhi On the human plane Mahat takes the form of the Tanm1tra-s. vide also Bhagam1lin2, Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Mah1talaloka
vide Loka

Mah1tattva
The centre of individuality in any Avasth1 (state) of a person, experienced as Aha%k1ra or Asmit1. Sa%yama on Mah1tattva leads to Nirmana Citta experience.

M1h1tmya
Greatness

Mah1tripur1sundar2 Mah1tripur1sundar2
The Great Beautiful Tripur1 vide also Sarv1nandamaya Cakra

Mah1vajre0var2
One of the Nitya )akti-s

Mah1v1kya
The four great sayings of the Upani=ad-s: Tattvamasi, Aha%brahm1smi, Praj61nam Brahm1 and !yam1tma Brahm1 They summarise the whole philosophical concept of the Upani=ad-s. The experience of these four sayings is possible only after attaining Dharmamegha Sam1dhi through yogic techniques, i.e. full spiritual liberation.

Mah1 Vedha
The awakening Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s The awakening refers to Ku98alin2 )akti 91

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Mah1videh1
Lit. 'great bodiless' The awareness of Cid1k10a as a way to destroy/ remove !vara9a

Mah1vidy1
Lit. 'great wisdom' The third kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana; the ten Tantric )akti-s As Tantric )akti-s they are K1l2, T1r1, +o8a02, Bhuvane0var2, Cinnamast1, Tripur1 Bhairav2, Dh3m1v1t2, Bagal1 Mukhi, M1ta^g2, Kamal1 representing the gradual transformation of the primordial principle of creation that is Goddess K1l2. Mah1vidy1-s have specific Yantra-s to depict the polarity of their divine nature either positive or negative. In Tantra the ten Mah1vidy1-s are degrees of experiences towards unity.

Mah1y1ga
Great Worship The paramount worship of Dev2 or of the sixty-four Yogin2-s as is performed by )ivayog2-s only. vide also Y1ga

Mah1yaj6a
Great sacrifice (offering) vide also $tvija, Yaj6a

Mah1 Yuga
The great Yuga vide Yuga

Mahim1
Lit. 'greatness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming as big as the universe vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

Maithuna
Lit. 'coupling, union' Sexual union between a Yogin2 and a Yogi, representing )akti (energy) and )iva (consciousness) Maithuna has three R3pa-s (forms) namely Sth3la, S3k=ma and K1ra9a. The Sth3la Maithuna (gross union) is the sexual union, the S3k=ma Maithuna is the union of Pr19a-s (energies), and the K1ra9a Maithuna is the union of Ku98alin2 )akti with )iva as a culmination experience in Tantra. But K1ra9a Maithuna transcends the ordinary experience being the esoteric kind of Maithuna. The three R3pa-s of Maithuna are expressions of the experience of duality matterspirit. vide also Pa6ca Mak1ra, Mithuna M3rti, Samarasa

Maitr1varu9a
Lit. 'the one belonging to Mitra and Varu9a' In the Veda-s a helper priest, the first assistant of a Hot4 priest

Maitrey2 Vidy1
92

M

The knowledge of Maitrey2 A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s, in which R=i Y1j6avalkya, on retiring from his household life, instructs Maitrey2, one of his two wives into the knowledge of !tma in order to obtain immortality. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Maitr2 Maitr2
The sentiment of friendship Maitr2 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana-s as an attitude towards happy people. vide also Maitry1di

Maitry1di
The group of sentiments of Maitr2, Karu91 and Mudit1 leading to a particular state of Sam1dhi

Majj1
Marrow vide Dh1tu

Makara
Crocodile regarded as an emblem of K1madeva

Makaraketana
Lit. 'one having the Makara for an emblem' One of the names of K1madeva

Makar1sana
The dolphin !sana

M1l1
Lit. 'wreath, garland; crown; rosary, necklace' A string of beads of Tulsi, Rudr1k=a Rudr1k=a, crystal, etc., used mainly for Japa practice Esoterically it represents the impurity of the mind. vide also Ana^gam1lin2

M1l1 Mantra
A Mantra having more than twenty syllables, a sacred text in the form of a wreath

M1lin2
Female florist

M1lin2 Tantra
A kind of Tantra

M1%sa
Flesh; meat vide Pa6ca Mak1ra, Dh1tu

Manana
Lit. 'reflection, thinking, meditation' 93

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

A method of reflection in order to differentiate between what is real and what is unreal and achieve Viveka on any particular experience

Manas
The mind as organ of perception or supporting organ The mind is the organ through which the human being will have a finite experience of the infinite consciousness (Cit or Samvit) through Citta as reflection of Cit. vide also !k10a

M1nasa
Kind of worship "by mind" of the Dev2 vide also Y1ga

M1nasap3j1
Lit. 'mental worship' A ritual practice of mental worship such as using a Mantra for example vide also P3j1

Manaska
The knowledge of Brahman through the mental plane vide also Amanaska

Manas )akti
The awareness of time (K1la) as one of the )akti-s flowing through I81 N182 thus enabling the J61nendriya-s to function Manas )akti is the mental kind of energy (vide )akti). vide also )iva )akti

Manastattva
The Tattva of Manas

M1navaugha
Lit. 'the human teacher' Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1tha-s represented in the human body by two nostrils (Ghr19a) and the anus (P1yu)

Ma98ala
Lit. 'circular; group, multitude' Kind of Yantra representation of a Devat1 either in bi-dimensional or tri-dimensional form There is a fundamental concept that the human body is a Ma98ala, thus subject to all forms of Yantra worship.

Ma98alap27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Ma98ala or Yantra forms vide also P27ha

Ma98apa
Hall; temple 94

M

Ma98uk1sana
The frog !sana

M198uk2 Mudr1
The frog Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Ma^gala
Lit. 'happiness' Anything auspicious; an aspect related to the )iva concept; a name for planet Mars

Ma9i
Gem, jewel, pearl

Ma9ip3ra Cakra (known also as N1bhipadma)
Lit. 'city of jewels wheel' The Cakra located in the subtle body on the vertebral column behind the navel This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Netra, the Karmendriya of P1da, the Tanm1tra of R3pa, is the centre for Sam1na V1yu and the seat of Pr19amaya Ko0a, the level of awareness is Svarloka. vide also L1kin2

Manmatha
Lit. 'stirring the mind; destroying the mind' One of the names of K1madeva as one who agitates the mind

Manobhava
Lit. 'mind born' One of the names of K1madeva as one who is first born in the mind, then takes different forms

Manomaya Ko0a
The body of mind as sphere of consciousness It forms S3k=ma )ar2ra, the subtle body. This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the mind and has its seat in the An1hata Cakra.

Manonman2
The cessation of mind functioning as a yogic experience

Mantha
Lit. 'churning' The activity of stirring round an offering as part of an oblation; the churning-stick or the mash-pot

Mantra
Lit. 'liberation of the mind' A sacred formula as a subtle form of a Devat1, an expression of the consciousness as sound Mantra-s are of five kinds viz. Pi98a, Kartar2, B2ja, Mantra and M1l1. A Mantra having ten to twenty syllables is called Mantra (vide all five kinds). Mantra practice goes in spiral bringing the mind closer and closer to the source of the sound. The most celebrated is Mantra O%, the sound going towards absorption. 95

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Mantrap27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in a Mantra form vide also P27ha

Manu=ya
Human being

M1ra
Lit. 'killing' One of the names of K1madeva as one who kills for love M1ra is personified as a demon wearing a crown with a shinning jewel that it blinds those looking at it. The jewel is the fascination of vice, the demon M1ra is in fact the personification of the human temptation to vice hence an aspect of K1madeva K1madeva who kills for the vicious love.

M1ra9akarma
Lit. 'action of destruction of an enemy' One of the +a7karma-s, which gives the power to kill one's enemy This is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra-s.

M1rdava
Gentleness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

M1rga
Lit. 'search, seeking' Path; the spiritual path vide also Devay1na

M1rga02r=a
The month corresponding to parts of Nov./ Dec. known also as Sahas or Agrah1ya9a vide also M1sa

Mar2ci
Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i

Marut
Lit. 'shinning one' In the Veda-s the Storm-Gods sons of Rudra and companions of Indra symbolizing the liberated sages i.e. the Self-realized seers vide also $=i, Sapta4=i

M1sa
Month The lunar months are Caitra, Vai01kha, Jye=7ha, !=18ha, )r1va9a, Bh1drapada, !0vina, K1rtika, M1rga02r=a, Pau=a, M1gha, Ph1lguna.

M1t1
Mother 96

M

M1ta^g2
The ninth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s representing the power to control and annihilate evil and exercise virtues

M1ta^gin2 Mudr1
The she-elephant Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Ma7ha
A place of hermitage; an !0rama

Mati
The quality of determination vide also Bh3ma Vidy1

M1tr1
A unit of time for measuring the duration of Pr191y1ma approximated to one second or less

M1t4k1
Lit. 'source' Letters from A to Ha of Devan1gari, the Sanskrit alphabet; divine mother Its source is )abda, the letters symbolizing functions of the same creative force. The letters are to be regarded as Mantra-s, sounds representing the subtle forms of Devat1-s. M1t4 means mother hence M1t4k1 emphasises a creative aspect. In symbols of the human subtle body, M1t4k1-s are present on letters on the petals of Cakra-s. There are 50 letters of Devan1gari alphabet.

Matsya
Fish; an Avat1ra of Vi=9u as representation of the beginning of manifestation of the universe vide also Pa6ca Mak1ra Mak1ra

Matsy1sana
The fish !sana

Matsyendr1sana
The king of fish !sana

Mauna
Vow of silence as a yogic Praty1h1ra technique developing the attitude of a seer (Dra=7a)

M1y1
Illusion of duality in Ved1nta It has two functions namely !vara9a and Vik=epa and manifests in the human mind as Avidy1. vide also M1y1 )akti, Brahman

M1y1 B2ja
vide Hr2%

M1y1 )akti
The energy of illusion, the cosmic energy It is a manifestation of )akti which veils in various degrees Herself as consciousness. In Tantra-s, M1y1 is real, only her manifestation becomes an illusion (mere semblance). 97

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

M1y1tattva
The Tattva of M1y1 )akti

May3r1sana
The peacock !sana

Meda
Fat vide Dh1tu

Me8hra
Penis

Mekhal1 (also Mekhala)
Lit. 'girdle, belt; ceremony of investiture' Name of the girdle worn by the men of the first three castes of Hindu tradition That of a Brahman is made of Mu6ja, that of a K=atriya of M3rv1, that of a Vai0ya of )a9a. vide also Var9a, Ana^gamekhal1

Meru
Mythical mountain in the Him1laya-s Here is the centre of the world-lotus, in esoteric terms the Sahasr1ra Cakra

Meru Da98a
The vertebral column symbolized by the stem of the V291 of Tripurasundar2

M2m1%s1
One of the +a8 Dar0ana-s It has two branches namely P3rva and Uttara M2m1%s1-s

M291k=i
Lit. 'the one having fish-eyes' A form of )akti as spouse of )iva; kind of Soma plant; a famous Tantric temple in Madhurai (India); a daughter of Kubera

Mi0ra
Mixed

Mi0rabindu
The point of return of thought after activity and the union with the pure thought One of the three Par1bindu-s representing the )iva )akti M1y1 as well as the Icch1 )akti as manifestations. vide Bindu, Par1bindu

Mit1h1ra
Moderate diet vide also An1h1ra, Aty1h1ra

Mithuna M3rti
98

M

Statue of a couple in an erotic posture They are displayed in various temples like Khajuraho, Konarak Konarak, M291k=i, Padman1bhasv1m2 (in Trivandrum, Kerala, India), )r2ra^gan1tha (in )r2ra^gam).

Mitra
Lit. 'friend' A name of Sun-god in the Veda-s; one of the twelve !ditya-s

Mitra Satya
The light of truth One of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Mitra.

Modin2
The delighting One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of Sukha (delighted). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Moha
Infatuation, attachment Known also as R1ga it is the passion associated with An1hata Cakra. vide also Pa6c1gni, P10a

Mohaka Mohaka
The J17har1gni (digestive fire) causing pain and fainting vide also Sarvapsitaphalaprad1

Mohana
Infatuating, bewildering as expression of K1ma

Mohi92
A fascinating woman; a form of Dev2

Mok=a
Liberation, release from worldly transmigration vide also Puru=1rtha Puru=1rtha

M4da%ga (also M4da^ga)
A two-sided drum

M4du T2vrasa%vega
Low intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega-s

M4t1sana
The corpse !sana

M4ti Yoga
The Yoga dealing with death

M4tyu6jaya
Lit. 'conqueror of death' 99

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

A name of )iva

M38ha
Confused state as one of the five Cittabh3mi-s In this state Tamas Gu9a predominates.

Mudit1
The sentiment of joy Mudit1 is also one of the Citta Pras1dana-s as an attitude towards virtuous people. vide also Maitry1di

Mudr1
Gesture of invocation Mudr1-s represent the language in which the body speaks to the divinity, an expression of body consciousness. Through Mudr1-s, Sthirat1 is obtained, their practice brings certain experiences in the mind. There is an exoteric and esoteric symbolism of Mudr1-s. For the purpose of Mudr1 the five fingers correspond to the five Bh3ta-s. Example of Mudr1-s are Abhaya, Vara, Vy1khy1na, J61na, Pr19a, Ap1na, Li^ga, Varu9a, )3nya, Surabhi. Many other Mudr1-s are associated with Mudr1 Bandha techniques. vide also !tm1rpa9a, Pa6ca Mak1ra Mak1ra

Mudr1 Bandha
A joined Yoga technique of gesture and contraction practice Ten Mudr1-s are enumerated in the Ha7ha Yoga Prad2pik1 namely Mah1 Mudr1, Mah1 Bandha, Mah1 Vedha, Khecar2, U882y1na Bandha, M3la Bandha, J1landhara Bandha, Vipar2ta Kara92, Vajrol2 Vajrol2, )aktic1lana. In the Ghera98a Sa%hit1 are enumerated twenty-five Mudr1-s, that are in fact Mudr1 Bandha-s namely Mah1 Mudr1, Nabhomudr1, U882y1na, J1landhara, M3la Bandha, Mah1 Bandha, Mah1 Vedha, Khecar2, Vipar2ta Kara92, Yoni, Vajrol2, )aktic1lan2, T181g2, M198uk2, )1mbhav2, Pa6cadh1ra91-s, (i.e. P4thiv2 Dh1ra91, !mbhas2 Dh1ra91, !gney2 Dh1ra91, V1yav2 Dh1ra91, !k102 Dh1ra91), A0vin2, P10in2, K1k2, M1ta^gin2, and Bhuja^gin2.

Mudr1p27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Mudr1 form vide also P27ha

Muh3rta
An astronomically determined time of auspicious beginnings

Mukta
A person of liberated soul vide also J2vanmukta

Mukt1sana
The freedom !sana

Muktatrive92
A name for M3l1dh1ra Cakra as a place of lower intersection of the three main N182 N182-s and giver of liberation (Mukti) 100

M

Mukti
Final liberation vide also J2vanmukti

M3la
Root, origin

M3la Bandha
Lit. 'root lock' The root Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s vide also Bandhatraya

M3la B2ja
vide Hr2%

M3l1dh1ra Cakra
Lit. 'root's support Cakr Cakra a' The Cakra located between the scrotum and the anus This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Ghr19a, the Karmendriya of P1yu, the Tanm1tra of Gandha, is the centre for Ap1na V1yu and the seat of Annamaya Ko0a, the level of awareness is Bh3rloka. vide also Muktatrive92, *1kin2, Dh3mrali^ga

M3la Mantra
vide Hr2%

M3laprak4ti
The primary cause of matter as transcendental basis of physical nature; the original root (out of which matter evolved) based in M3l1dh1ra Cakra in the human body vide also V1k, )abda

M3la )odhana
Yogic technique of purification of the rectum with water in order to allow Ap1na V1ya to flow freely; one of the four Dhauti-s

M3la Triko9a
Primary triangle of the )r2 Yantra as seat (!sana) of Dev2 It represents the threefold process of S4=7i (creation), Sthiti (preservation) and Sa%h1ra (dissolution).

M3la Triko9a Cakra
vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Mumuk=u
One aspiring to Mok=a

Muni
Lit. 'one who knows' A saint; one having spiritual knowledge 101

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Mu6ja (also Mau6ja)
The specie of grass Saccharum Sara vide also Mekhal1

M3rch1
Lit. 'causing fainting (i.e. loosing the mental consciousness)' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

M3rti
Image; symbol; figure; form of Devat1

M3rv1
The specie of hemp Sanseviera Roxburghiana (also Maurva Maurva, M3rvik1) vide also Mekhal1

102

N

N
N1bhi
Navel

N1bhipadma
vide Ma9ip3ra Cakra

Nabhomudr1
The navel Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

N1ciket1gni Vidy1
The knowledge of the fire of N1ciketas A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) which deals with the heavenly fire and its correspondence in the human body, the heart (H4d). vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1, Cidagni

N1ciketa (also N1ciketas)
The young Brahmin in the Ka7ha Upani=ad who received teachings from Lord Yama.

N1da
Sound It represents the first impulse towards creation, the dual aspect of )iva)iva-)akti as sound or word. From N1da emerged B2ja. vide also Bindu

N1da Dh1ra9a
Dh1ra9a on sound as a specific practice of concentration in order to obtain Divya )rotra vide also Jyoti=mat2

N1da Yoga
Yoga of the sound as yogic concept based on sound consciousness

N1da Yoga
Kind of Yoga practice using gross or subtle sounds leading in a specific way to the state of Sam1dhi

N182
Lit. 'tube, pipe' Channel of energy in the subtle body (S3k=ma )ar2ra) Traditionally there are 72,000 N182-s in the human body as symbolized by V291's strings of Tripurasundar2. The fourteen main N182-s in the human body are Su=umn1, I81, Pi^gal1, Sarasvat2, )a^khin2, P3=1, G1ndh1r2, Payasvin2, Yo0ovat2, Hastijihv1, V1ru92, Vi0vodar1, Kuh3, Ala%bus1. The most important N182-s are Su=umn1, I81 and Pi^gal1, out of which Su=umn1 is central to the experience of spiritual awakening.

N1ga
103

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'snake, serpent' A naked ascetic; the V1yu producing the function of hiccup vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Cakra, Sarvadu5khavimoci92

N1gan1yaka
vide Ananta

Nak=atra
Lit. 'star; constellation' Any heavenly body; a lunar mansion Traditionally there are twenty-seven constellations in number, each one related to a specific tree (Nak=atra V4k=1) or animal.

Nak=atra V4k=a V4k=a
vide Nak=atra

N1ma
Name

Nama5
Reverence, veneration as a Mantra of invocation of a Devat1

N1m1kar=i92
The attractive power of N1ma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

N1mar3pa
Name and form M3laprak4ti is the source of all the manifestations of N1mar3pa world as products of V1k or )abda. vide also N1mar3pa Vidy1

N1mar3pa Vidy1
A S3k=ma (subtle) kind of worship as knowledge of name and form For the purpose of Dev2's worship the Lalit1 Sahasran1ma Stotra is the most relevant. vide also V1k, )abda, M3laprak4ti M3laprak4ti

Namask1ra
Salutation, homage

N1rada
A sage devotee of Lord K4=9a vide Brahm1

N1rasi%ha (also Narasi%ha)
A man-lion as Avat1ra of Lord Vi=9u, a representation of transition between animal and human

N1r1ya9a
Lit. 'the human path' 104

N

Devat1 as beginning of humanity; the first human; a name of Vi=9u

N1r2
Woman, wife

N10ik1gra D4=7i
Seeing the tip of the nose as kind of Dh1ra91 yogic practice

N1stika
Non-believer in Veda-s All the literature not based on the Veda-s is considered to be of N1stika kind vide also !stika

Natar1ja
Lit. 'king of dance' An aspect of )iva as Lord of Dance )iva dances upon the demon Apasm1ra who represents the ego which makes people forget their true nature. vide also Rudra

N1tha
Lit. 'help, protection' Lord; a name of )iva vide also Navan1tha

N1tim1nit1
Absence of pride as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Nauli
One of the +a7karma-s

Nava Cakra
Lit. 'nine wheels' A name for the )r2 Yantra In the )r2 Yantra the nine Cakra-s also represent S4=7i (Creation), Sthiti (Preservation) and Sa%h1ra Sa%h1ra (Dissolution), each Cakra being a mathematical arrangement of three by two, therefore the Trailokyamohana represents the S4=7i S4=7i and the Bindu represents the Sa%h1ra Sa%h1ra.

Navagraha
The nine planets The Navagraha-s are: S3rya, Candra, Kuja, Budha Budha, Guru, )ukra, )ani, R1hu and Ketu. vide also Graha

Navam2
The ninth day of the bright half of the moon in every month vide also Mah1navam2

Navamu98i
105

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'nine skulls' A Tantric practice to overcome fear (Bhaya)

Navan1tha
The nine Lords They are all aspects of )iva as three Divyaugha-s (Prak101nanda, Vimar01nanda and !nand1nanda), three Siddhaugha-s ()r2 J61n1nanda, )r2 Saty1nanda and )r2 P3r91nanda), three M1navaugha-s (Svabh1va, Pratibha and Subhaga). The nine Lords helped )akti to reveal the Tantra01stra Tantra01stra on earth in the Satya Yuga as teachers, therefore they are the nine Tantric teachers.

Navaratna
The nine precious gems They are Padmar1ga (ruby), Mukt1 (pearl), Prav1la (coral), Vaidurya (lapis lazuli), Pu=par1ga (topaz), Vajra (diamond), N2la (sapphire), Marakata (emerald), Gomeda (cow's fat stone).

Navar1tra
A period of nine days

Navayon2 Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel of nine Yoni-s' vide )r2 Yantra

N1yik1
A female partner in the Tantric ritual

Ne=74
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest

Neti
Lit. 'not this' One of the +a7karma-s known also as Laulik2 Neti Neti is also a famous expression in the Upani=ad-s signifying that the human being is not part of the ever changing nature (M1y1) seen now, nor part of this kind of creation (S4=7i).

Netra
Organ of sight, the eye vide also J61nendriya

Netratattva
The Tattva of Netra

Nidhi Siddhi
The power of determination vide also Siddhi

Nidr1
Dreamless sleep as one of the five Cittav4tti-s vide also Yoga Nidr1 106

N

Nidr1 J61na
The state of conscious sleeping

Nigama
Scripture Nigama-s are considered to be the Veda-s or any work as auxiliary or explaining the Veda-s or a doctrine or instruction as words of gods or holy persons (Muni-s). In the Tantra-s Nigama-s are sacred works in which Dev2 is Guru and )iva is )i=ya.

Nigarbha Sahita Pr191y1ma
vide Sahita Kumbhaka

Nigrahahoma
Homa with the purpose of restraining an enemy vide +a7karma for the magical rites in the Tantra-s.

N2laka97ha
Lit. 'one having blue throat' A name of )iva as the one who has taken poison in order to save the world

Nilapatak1
One of the Nity1 )akti-s also known as N2lapat1kin2

N2lapat1kin2
vide N2lapatak1

Nir1k1ra
Without form, ‘non-manifested’ as a name for Nirgu9a Brahman vide also !k1ra

Nira6jan1
Stainless; a name for Sam1dhi; a name for Su=umn1 N182

Nirb2ja Sam1dhi
Sam1dhi without seed (B2ja) beyond Pratyaya and devoid of awareness A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a is able to reach the Ali^ga, the stillness as state of non-differentiation of the three Gu9a-s. Nirb2ja Sam1dhi is the union with the Divine and the final goal for liberation. Beyond that is a different reality subject to Dharmamegha Sam1dhi. vide also Sab2ja Sam1dhi

Nirgu9a
Without quality or attribute As an aspect of Brahman, Nirgu9a is beyond any description. vide also Sagu9a

Nirgu9a Brahman
The Universal Spirit without qualities vide also Brahman, Parabrahman, Avyakta, @0vara, Nir1k1ra

Nirgu9op1sana
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The contemplation experience after the $tambhar1 Prajn1 state vide also Sabu9op1sana

Nirliptat1
Lit. 'out of being attached' Detachment as a result of practicing Sam1dhi as the experience of the cosmic self (Param1tm1)

Nirmana Citta
The divine mind simultaneously experienced through Sa%yama on Mah1tattva of artificially created minds of a Yog2 in order to get consciousness of past Karma-s and enjoy their fruits By the enjoyment of the fruits of past Karma-s the Yog2 becomes free of various Karm10aya-s. The created minds are under the control of Yog2's natural mind that directs them in various planes of consciousness, so the whole experience is entirely conscious. The created minds are to be seen as expressing various kinds of personalities when the experience is downloaded to the Yog2's natural mind that becomes gradually free of Sa%skara-s. vide also Nirmanak1ya Citta

Nirmanak1ya Nirmanak1ya Citta
The causal individual mind experience as source of particular V1san1-s, an expression of Nirmana Citta (divine mind)

Nirodha
Lit. 'restrain; cessation; dissolution' Restriction to be observed on the Yoga path; a synonym for Pr191y1ma or for Kumbhaka As cessation Nirodha refers to Cittav4ttinirodha as definition of Yoga.

Nirodha Pari91ma
Transformation of perception of the mind as one of the three Pari91ma-s vide also Avasth1 Pari91ma

Nirodha Yoga
The Yoga of cessation of any kind of Cittav4tti Cittav4tti-s

Niruddha
Restrained state as one of the five Cittabh3mi-s The restrained state refers to the eleven Indriya-s therefore Niruddha state is a kind of Praty1h1ra.

Nirupakrama Karma
The dormant Karma that is not producing any fruits in the present vide also Apar1ntaj61na, Sa^cita Karma

Nirv19a
Emancipation; bliss; self-realization

Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi
Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vic1ra' State of Sam1dhi in which the consciousness is experienced as reflection of the form beyond the state of Vic1ra With the accomplishment of Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi the Dra=7a becomes !tmadra=7a and is already 108

N

inside the experience of spiritual salvation. This state of Sam1dhi is also known as Nirvic1r1 Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi. vide also $tambhar1 Prajn1

Nirvikalpa Sam1dhi
Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vikalpa' State of Sam1dhi in which there is no separation between J61t1 (one who knows) and J6eya (object of knowledge) as full expression of union with Sagu9a Brahman This experience in Yoga is similar to the experience of consciousness at Sahasr1ra Cakra Cakra level in Tantra.

Nirvitark1 Sam1dhi
Lit. ' Sam1dhi without Vitarka' State of Sam1dhi in which the mind is devoid of awareness and the knowledge of the form comes from within and beyond the state of Vitarka This state of Sam1dhi is also known as Nirvitarka Nirvitarka Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi.

Ni01cara
Lit. 'one who acts during the night' A demon using the dark of night for wrong doings

Ni=kala
Without parts The kind of form (Ni=kalar3pa) of Brahman that can only be attained through J61na.

Ni=k1ma
Without desire

Ni=k1ma Ni=k1ma Karma
Action without desire as an attitude of a Yog2 who is free to accumulating Sa%sk1ra-s, i.e. there is no sense of doing of actions (Karma-s)

Ni=k1ma S1dhaka
Kind of Yoga practitioner known also as Sanny1sin walking the path of liberation and being aware of all the four Puru=1rtha-s

Ni=patti Avasth1
The final stage of the four Yoga Avasth1-s when the consciousness of the Yog2 has reached the unity in Sahasr1ra Cakra

Ni=7h1
The quality of firmness in service vide also Bh3ma Vidy1

Nitya
Eternal, perpetual

Nity1
One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Nity1klinn1
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One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Nity1 )akti
The eternal expressed by the moon The sixteen Nity1 )akti-s are K1me0var2, Bhagam1lin2, Nity1klinn1, Bheru981, Vahniv1sin2, Mah1vajre0var2, D3t2, Tvarit1, Kulasundar2, Nity1 Nity1, Nilapatak1, Vijay1, Sarvama^gal1, Jv1l1m1lin2, Citr1, !dy1. They preside over the sixteen days/ nights between new-moon and fullmoon. Each one has a specific Yantra, the full description is in the work known as Tantrar1ja Tantra. vide also Candrakal1

Niv4tti
The dissolution (return) process as a mind experience vide also Prav4tti

Niyama
Lit. 'restraining' One of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali It contains five inner disciplines to be observed namely )auca, Santo=a, Tapas, Sv1dhy1ya, @0varapra9idh1na, all as expressions of a balanced state of mind.

Niyati
Not joined

Niyati Ka6cuka
Form of )akti limiting the perception of the unity of cause and effect as being one with the primordial )iva )akti; the Ka6cuka separating cause and effect vide also Tattva, Niyatitattva

Niyatitattva
The Tattva of Niyati Ka6cuka

Ny1sa
Lit. 'placing, applying' Awareness of a particular Devat1 as assigned or installed in specific parts of the body; psychophysical posture; renunciation The six principal Ny1sa practices refer to Ga9e=a, Graha, Nak=atra, Yogin2, R10i and P27ha. vide also A^ga Ny1sa

Ny1ya
One of the +ad Dar0ana-s

110

O

O
O8821na P27ha
vide U882y1na P27ha

Ojas
Lit. 'vigour, bodily strength, energy' Vitality

O%
The most celebrated of all Mantra-s known also as Pra9ava or O%k1ra As attributes it is circular in form, eternal, pervading all. Various actions such as recitation, reading rites, penance, sacrifices, Yoga techniques, Kirtan, in short every spiritual act should be preceded by O%. In its detailed form O% consists of five parts A, U, M, N1da and Bindu corresponding to the five gods Brahm1, Vi=9u, Rudra, @0vara and Sad10iva. There are different kinds of pronunciation of the sacred syllable namely Kulluk1, Setu, Mah1setu. For its use in the Vedic perspective, there are four Svara-s (tones) of Pra9ava, i.e. Ud1tta (for Br1hma9a-s), Anud1tta (for K=atriya-s), Pracita (for Vai0ya-s) and Auk1ra (for )3dra-s). The chanting of O% Mantra is in fact the chanting of the name of God. In many books O% is described as having three parts A, U, M for the threefold designation of Brahman as Brahm1, Vi=9u and Rudra. There is a rich literature to describe Pra9ava AUM as indicating three Veda-s, three V4tti-s, three Loka-s, three Granthi-s, etc. vide also Udg2ta Vidy1, Udg2ta

O%k1ra
vide O%

O% Nama5 )iv1ya
vide Pa6c1k=ar2

O=adhi (also Au=adhi)
Lit. 'light receptacle' Herb, any medicinal herb; creature There are fifty relevant herbs, one for each of the fifty letters of Sanskrit alphabet (Devan1gari).

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P
Pacaka Pacaka
The J17har1gni of digestion of food vide also Sarva0aktiprad1

P1da
Foot; chapter vide also Karmendriya

P1da Sev1na
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of service to the feet of the Lord

P1datattva
The Tattva of P1da

Padma
Lotus vide also Cakra

Padm1sana
The lotus !sana

Padmin2
The first of the four classes into which females are divided, the other three are said to be )a^khin2, Citri92 and Hastin2

P1duk1 Siddhi
The power to impress somebody vide also Siddhi

Pa6cabh3ta
vide Bh3ta

Pa6cada01k=ar2
vide Pa6cada02

Pa6cada02
The fifteen-syllables Mantra, the Dev2 Herself in Her S3k=ma form It is to be learned from a qualified Guru. Pa6cada02 is known also as Pa6cada0ak=ar2, )r2 Vidy1 Mantra, Vidy1r1ja, G1yatr2 of the )1kta-s, etc. It contains three groups (K37a-s) i.e. V1gbhavak37a, Madhyak37a or K1mar1jak37a and )aktik37a. The three K37a-s are identified with the face, the trunk and the limbs of Dev2. It has the body of three and a half as expressing the Ku98alin2 )akti. The work Lalit1tri0at2 Lalit1tri0at2 gives the Mantra indirectly in the three hundred names where there are twenty names beginning with each of the syllables.

Pa6cadh1ra91
112

P

The five Dh1ra91-s namely P4thiv2, !mbhas2, !gney2, V1yav2 and !k102 as Mudr1 Bandhas (vide)

Pa6c1gni
Lit. 'the five fires' Passions associated with the five lower Cakra-s The Pa6c1gni-s are Lobha, K1ma, Krodha (or Dve=a), Moha (Sa^ga or R1ga) and Mada (or Smaya). The Abhivyaktik1ra9a of Pa6c1gni-s are the Sa%sk1ra-s.

Pa6c1gni Vidy1
The knowledge of the five fires A Vidy1 Vidya (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) is fully described in the )atapatha Br1hma9a as the knowledge told to N1ciketas by Yama. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1, Tejas, Pa6c1gni

Pa6cako=a
The five bodily sheaths (Ko0a-s)

Pa6cak=ar2
The five-syllables Mantra Mantra i.e. O% Nama5 )iv1ya

Pa6ca Mak1ra
The five M's A form of Up1sana the Pa6ca Mak1ra-s are Madya (wine), M1%sa (meat), Matsya (fish), Mudr1 (parched cereals) and Maithuna (sexual union). The five M's are symbols of different stages in the Pr191y1ma i.e. Pr191y1ma Pr191y1ma, Praty1h1ra, Dh1ra91, Dhy1na and Sam1dhi, behind their ordinary meanings is the transcendence of human addictions.

Pa6camu98i
The Tantric practice of the five skulls

Pa6ca Sahita Pr191y1ma
The five united Pr191y1ma-s Advanced Pr191y1ma techniques for body regeneration.

Pa6catattva
The five lower Tattva-s namely P4thiv2, Ap, Tejas, V1yu and !k10a

Pa6catattva Dh1ra91
Meditation on the Pa6catattva-s

Pa98it
Scholar; pandit

P198itya
Proficiency in learning and wisdom; erudition It is of four kinds viz. V1ditva, Kavitva, V1gmitva and Vy1khy1t4tva.

P19i
Hand (from the root P1 i.e. to drink) 113

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vide also Karmendriya

P19ini
The great grammarian of the 7th century BCE

P19itattva
The Tattva of P19i

P1pa
Vice, sin

Par1 (also Para)
Lit. 'supreme' The supreme state; the transcendental state of )abda The supreme state is experiencing the union with the supreme consciousness.

Par1bindu
The supreme Bindu as the original Bindu Represented by a triangle Par1bindu is differentiated into )vetabindu, Raktabindu and Mi0rabindu Mi0rabindu called together K1makal1. Figuratively is described as Mah1tripurasundar2 residing at the centre of the )ri Yantra. vide also Sarv1nandamaya Cakra

Parabrahman
Supreme Brahman, unconditioned Absolute As manifested principle Parabrahman has many names such as Tat, Asat, Avyakta, Nirgu9a Brahman etc. Parabrahman as Supreme Absolute is the upper reality generating two kinds of monotheism in the Hindu tradition; one is centred upon a supreme God (Parama0iva) and another upon a supreme Goddess (Dev2, Lalit1, Mah10akti Mah10akti or Parama0akti). vide also Para%jyoti=

Paradhy1na
The supreme form of meditation

Par1ha%t1
The supreme Ego i.e. the supreme consciousness

Param (also Parama)
Supreme

Paramaha%sa
Lit. 'supreme swan' One of the advanced stages of spiritual life of a Sanny1sin vide also Sa%ny1sa, Ha%sa

Param1k10a
The second of the Vyoma Pa6caka-s described as the supreme space

Param19u
The ultimate atom (A9u) 114

P

Paramapuru=a Vidy1
The knowledge of the supreme Puru=a A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s in which N1ciketas N1ciketas is instructed by Yama in knowing various stages (Indriya-s, Manas, Buddhi, Avyakta) leading to the knowledge of the supreme Puru=a. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Parama0akti
The Supreme )akti vide also Parabrahman

Parama0iva
The Supreme )iva vide also Parabrahman

Parama0iva Parama0akti
The Supreme )iva )akti It is the Supreme consciousness as Nirgu9a, in which )iva is the static aspect and )akti the active aspect of the same Supreme Consciousness (Cit). The static and active aspects have to be seen only as potentialities without any characteristics i.e. Parama0iva is the potentiality of consciousness and Parama0akti the potentiality of manifestation.

Param1tm1
vide Param1tman

Param1tman (also Param1tm1)
The Supreme Soul as compared to J2v1tman, the individual Soul Param1tman and J2v1tman are two manifestations (one external and one internal as refers to the human being) of the same Reality (Sat).

Para%jyoti=
Supreme Light The light beyond the five gates (vide Devasu=i ), the light of J2v1tman. Para%jyoti= is also Parabrahman.

Par1n1da
The supreme sound

Par1p3j1
Lit. 'supreme worship' A ritual form of transcendental worship vide also P3j1

Para0ur1ma
An Avat1ra of Vi=9u, a representation of the emergency of the brave man sometimes called J1madagnya or Bh1rgava Bh1rgava (as descending from Bh4gu)

Para0ur1ma Sutra
An authoritative scripture of Kaula doctrine of Tantra 115

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Paravairagya
Highest Vairagya in which various roots of bondage are eliminated through a direct cognition of Puru=a

Par1tpar1
Supreme of the Supreme

P1r1ya9a P1r1ya9a
Daily reading of a sacred text

Paricaya Avasth1
A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Rudragranthi

Pari91ma
Transformation as a result of performing Sa%yama; principle of evolution; change in general As a result of Sa%yama the Pari91ma-s are of three kinds viz. Sam1dhi Pari91ma, Ek1grat1 Pari91ma and Nirodha Pari91ma. Each one is accompanied by three stages of transformations of properties of the mind viz. Dharma Pari91ma, Lak=a9a Pari91ma and Avasth1 Pari91ma. Pari91ma is also the change accompanying every action (Karma). As principle of evolution there are five stages of Pari91ma namely: from non-manifest to manifest, from mineral to vegetable, from vegetable to animal, from animal to human, from human to superhuman. vide also Prak4ti

Pari0rama Pari0rama
Physical labour as technique for body purification vide also Karma Yoga

Pari0uddhi
Purification of memory vide also )uddhi

P1rvat2
Lit. 'stream of a mountain' A name of )akti )iva's spouse as daughter of Himavat the mountain King of Kail1sa. She is often depicted with folded hands (vide Svastika) and her face full of devotion for her Lord )iva. vide also Dev2

Parya^ka
The couch on which Brahm1 sits in the Brahmaloka. Every part of the couch represents a specific manifestation related to Brahm1.

Parya^ka Vidy1 Vidy1
The knowledge of the couch A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s in which the devotee is led in successive stages to reach the Parya^ka. The obstacles in the Brahmaloka start with !ra and (ya lakes, then I=7ihan place and time, Viraj1 river, Ilya tree (an A0vattha tree named Somasavana), S1lajja city, Apar1jita palace, Indra and Praj1pati as doorkeepers, Vibhu hall, Vicak=a9a throne and finally Parya^ka couch. 116

P

vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

P10a
Lit. 'knot; bondage; noose' The noose as representation of R1ga vide also P101^ku0a

P101^ku0a
Noose and goad Corresponds to the attraction and repulsion, passion and anger, love and hate, denoting R1ga and Dve=a. The P101^ku0a B2ja Mantra is O% Hr2% Kro%. vide also !yudha Devat1, P10a, A^ku0a

Pa0cimott1n1sana
The back-stretcher !sana

P10in2 Mudr1
The noose (P10a) Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Pa0u
Lit. 'cattle; animal; an ignorant person' Conditioned individual; a kind of S1dhaka in the Tantra-s in whom the Tamas Gu9a is predominant

Pa0u Bh1va
One of the Bh1va-s as a state of human personality based on instinct, therefore of Tamas nature vide also S1dhaka

Pa0un1tha
Lit. 'lord of cattle' A name of )iva

Pa0upati
Lit. 'lord of animals; lord of the souls covered by ignorance' A name of )iva

Pa0y1c1ra
The first kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana (vide) when a Mantra is given by a Guru

Pa0yanti
The mental stage of )abda

P1t1laloka
vide Loka

Pata6jali
The author of the Yoga treatise Yoga S3tra He lived probably around year 200 BCE.

Pau=a
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The month corresponding to parts of Dec./ Jan. vide also M1sa

Pavam1na
In the Veda-s the self-purifier i.e. the mind

Payasvin2 N182
The N182 connected to the right ankle vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvaj4mbhi92

P1yu
Anus vide also Karmendriya

P1yutattva
The Tattva of P1yu

Phala
Effect of an experience having the source a cause (Hetu) vide also V1san1

Phala0ruti
The panegyric of accruing benefits of a text in the Stotra literature

Ph1lguna
The month corresponding to parts of Feb./ Mar. vide also M1sa

Pi98a
Body; a monosyllable Mantra (vide) vide also Deha, )ar2 ar2ra, K1ya

Pi98198a
Lit. 'the body-egg' The human body as Microcosm, a reproduction of Brahm198a Known also as K=udra Brahm198a, the A98a (egg) is seen as the potentiality of reproducing its own original source, the Brahm198a. Pi98198a is the link between the earth and the cosmic planes, a unity of psycho-cosmic experiences. For the purpose of meditation Pi98198a is divided into five parts extending from soles to the top of the head, P4thiv2 (from soles to knees), Ap (from knees to hips), Tejas (from nose to the navel), V1yu (from navel to nose), !k10a (from nose to the top of the head). Therefore Pi98198a made up of Bh3ta-s is the representation of the cosmic man. vide also A98api98a

Pi^gal1 N182
Known also as S3rya S3rya N182 it is one of the major N182-s (in the human body) running up the right side of Su=umn1, the central channel vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvamantramay2, S3rya, A0vini

P27ha
118

P

Place of pilgrimage; shrine, temple; a symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 (Goddess); a Tantric sacred place where the fifty parts of Sat2-s body fell, so becoming pilgrimage centres Known also as P27hasth1na-s, the P27ha-s can be of Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a (causal) forms and experienced as Vidy1p27ha Vidy1p27ha-s, Ma98alap27ha-s, Yon2p27ha-s, Stanap27ha-s, Dev2p27ha-s, Siddhap27ha-s, etc. They may or may not have holy shrines like P27hat2rtha-s or P27hak=etra-s do. The P27ha-s is where Dev2 resides in a form or as different parts of the body of Sat2.

P27hak=etra P27hak=etra
Location of a P27ha in a K=etra place; holy shrine

P27hasth1na
vide P27ha

P27hat2rtha
Location of a P27ha in a T2rtha place; holy shrine

Pit4
Ancestor vide also Dhenu, !nandamaya Vidy1

Pitta
One of the three Do=a-s In !yurveda system of medicine a deficiency of bile as a cause to diseases.

Pl1vaka
The J17har1gni of flooding of gastric juice vide also Sarvavy1dhivin10in2

Pl1vin2
Lit. 'causing floating' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma-s

Pot4
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest

Pracetas
Lit. 'clever, wise' vide Dak=a, Brahm1

Pradak=i9a
The act of turning towards persons or objects so as to place them on one's right side of the body as form of worship vide also !tm1rpa9a

Pradh1na
The universal Soul as primary germ of the material universe In S1mkhya philosophy Pradh1na is similar to Prak4ti.

Pradyumna
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Lit. 'he who conquers everything' One of the names of K1madeva as one who overcomes any obstacle for the sake of love

Praj1pati
Lit. 'lord of creatures' A god having a dominant position in the Veda-s, sometimes identified with Agni, Soma, Savit4 or Indra and the first ten created beings of Brahm1 (vide) vide also Parya^ka Vidy1, !nandamaya Vidy1

Praj61
Lit. 'to know, understand' Wisdom, knowledge, consciousness personified as goddess Sarasvat2 vide also J61na

Pr1jna
The Soul in the K1ra9a )ar2ra vide also J2v1tman

Praj61jyoti
A Yog2 who can experience the light (Jyoti) of consciousness (Praj61)

Praj61nam Brahm1
'The ultimate truth is consciousness' a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad-s vide also Mah1vakya

Pr1k1mya
Lit. 'freedom of will' One of the eight yogic powers of possessing irresistible determination vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

Prak10a
Lit. 'shinning, bright; manifest; light' A name for the pure Self

Prak10a Prak10a !vara9a
Covering of the light, as a veil to knowledge of the Self

Prak4ti
Lit. 'primary substance; nature; original form, primordial matrix' A name of )akti as personified energy in the creation; the Primordial Female Principle in Yoga Triggered by Pari91ma, the primary substance takes various successive forms marked by Gu9a-s. vide also Trigu91tmik1, M1y1, )akti, Tattva, A=7asiddhi

Prak4ti Tattva
The Tattva of Prak4ti consisting of the three Gu9a-s giving birth to all manifestations of nature (Prak4ti Prak4ti)

Prak4ty1p3r1t
120

P

The overflow of Park4ti (nature) caused by the removal of Avidy1 After this experience the development of the super-consciousness occurred. vide also J1tyantara Pari91ma

Pralaya
Dissolution of the physical universe as opposed to S4=7i (creation) vide also Mah1pralaya, Brahm198a

Pram1da
The state of carelessness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Pram19a
Correct knowledge as a form of Vidy1 and one of the five Cittav4tti-s Pram19a is of three kinds namely Pratyak=a, Anum1na and !gama. vide also Viparyaya

Pr19a
Lit. 'breath of life; spirit; vitality' The V1yu which draws the life-force into the body vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvasiddhiprad1, Devasu=i

Pr191gnihotra Vidy1
The knowledge of sacrificing Pr19a to Agni A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) containing also two other Vidy1-s namely Pr19a and Pratardana. This Vidy1 deals with the sacrifice of the speech (V1c) to the breath and of the breath as the five Pr19a-s to the internal fire by breathing or taking food as acts of oblation. This sacrifice leads to Pratardana the act of piercing of the Granthi-s by Ku98ali92 )akti. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Pra91ma
Lit. 'bowing' The act of prostration or obeisance vide also !tm1rpa9a

Pr19amaya Ko0a
The body of energy as sphere of consciousness This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the energy field and has the seat in the Svadhi=7h1na and Ma9ip3ra Cakra-s

Pr19a Mudr1
The gesture of acquiring Pr19a energy

Pr19a )akti
The awareness of space (!k10a) as one of the )akti-s flowing through Pi^gal1 N182 enabling the Karmendriya-s to function It is the pranic kind of energy (vide )akti). vide also )iva )akti 121

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Pra9ava
vide O% vide also T1raka

Pr19a Vidy1
The knowledge of Pr19a A Veda Vidy1, which together with Pratardana Vidy1 is contained within the Pr191gnihotra Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Pr191y1ma
Lit. 'lengthening of the breath' The process of expansion and regulation of the flow of energy within Pr19amaya Ko0a of the human body; in Yoga one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Through Pr191y1ma, Laghim1 is obtained and Prak10a !vara9a will gradually disappear. It has three states viz. P3raka, Kumbhaka and Recaka, it is regulated by De0a (place as climate), K1la (time as duration of the three states) and S1^khya (number of rounds). There is one more state (beyond the Indriya-s experiences) named Caturtha Pr191y1ma, a continuous awareness of the breath, i.e. Ajapajapa practice. As a form of rite Pr191y1ma is identified with Agnihotra. In Ha7ha Yoga Prad2pik1 eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma are enumerated viz. S3rya Bheda, Ujj1y2, )2tk1r2, )2tal2, Bhastrik1, Bhr1mar2, M3rch1 and Pl1vin2. There are many other Pr191y1ma-s both from Tantric and Vedic traditions. The Ghera98a Sa%hit1 enumerates also eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma viz. Sahita, S3rya Bheda, Ujj1y2, )2tal2, Bhastrik1, Bhr1mar2, M3rch1 and Keval2. vide also Nirodha

Pr192
The breathing creature

Pra9idh1na
Lit. 'put completely' Surrender to God as a sure way to Self-realization

Pr1pti
Lit. 'reaching; obtaining' One of the yogic powers of obtaining anything at will vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi

Pr1rabdha
Lit. 'undertaking, beginning' Commencement of an action

Pr1rabdha Karma
Past action producing result in the present, a synonym to Sopakrama Karma

Pras1da
Grace; the offering of food as sign of grace

Prasa%khy1na
122

P

Kind of Dhy1na (meditation, reflection) in which the practitioner will accept goods only for the present needs

Prasava
Lit. 'impulse forward' Evolution as state of Prak4ti when the elements of nature produce more effects vide also Pratiprasava, Vyakta

Prast1va
The chanting of prelude sung by the Prastrot4 priest

Prastot4
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest by chanting the Prast1va

Pratardana Vidy1
The knowledge of the piercing A Veda Vidy1 Vidy1 which together with Pr19a Vidy1 is contained within the Pr191gnihotra Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Prathamakalpika
A Yog2 as beginner in experiencing Sam1dhi

Pr1tibha
Lit. 'to shine upon' The reflective Self; a specific power acquired naturally (without Sa%yama) by somebody having the knowledge of the Self In the state of Pr1tibha the supernatural senses of )r1va9a, Vedana, !dar0a, !sv1da and V1rta arise naturally as Siddhi-s.

Pr1tibha J61na
Lit. 'knowledge flashing upon the thoughts' Intuition

Pratihart4 Pratihart4
Lit. 'the one bringing back' In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest

Pratim1 (Devat1pratim1)
Icon of a deity, quasi similar to Murti in two-dimensional form

Pratipad
The new-moon time

Pratipak=a Bh1vana
The practice of thinking of the opposite quality in order to transform the negative habits into positive ones

Pratiprasava
Involution as state of Prak4ti when the elements of nature return to their original cause vide also Prasava, Vyakta, Yoga 123

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Pratiprasth1t4
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest

Pratyabhij61
The consciousness recognizing the identity of the individual Soul and the Supreme Soul as state of illumined knowledge vide also Savic1r1 Sam1dhi

Praty1h1ra
Awareness as an externalised (first) then internalised state, the gradual withdrawal of the mind from the objects experience In Yoga one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali, the first step in understanding the pure mind. Through Praty1h1ra, Dhairyat1 is obtained. This transitional (between the outer and inner experiences) step in Yoga employs various practices like Japa, K2rtana, Tr17aka, N1da Yoga, Tantra S1dhana. vide also Indriya

Pratyak=a
Correct knowledge based on non-defective senses as one of the three Pram19a-s

Pratyak=atva
Conscious and continuous perception as a result of practicing Dhy1na

Pratyaya
In Yoga the basis (as content of mind) on which the consciousness functions Pratyaya is subject to the three Gu9a-s

Prav4tti
The creative process as mind faculty vide also Niv4tti, Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti

Pray1ga
Lit. 'place of sacrifice' A place of pilgrimage near All1h1b1d (India) where is the confluence of three rivers namely Ga^g1, Yamun1 and Sarasvat2 The confluence is also known as Trive92, symbolically corresponding to !j61 Cakra vide also Lalit1, )y1ma

Prayoga
Recitation of a sacred formula

Pr2ti
Lit. 'joy' One of the two wives of K1madeva

Priya
Dear, beloved

P4thiv2 (also P4thv2)
124

P

Earth The A%0a-s of P4thiv2 in the Pi98198a are the five Karmendriya-s vide also Bh3ta

P4thiv2 Dh1ra91
The Dh1ra91 on earth as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91-s

P4thiv2tattva
The Tattva of P4thiv2 known also as Bh3mitattva

Puhapak1sana
vide Tantr1sana

P3j1
Recitation; ritual; chanting or reading of a sacred text as a ritual practice of worship Known also as Arcan1, P3j1 is part of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga. The ritual practice is of three kinds viz. B1hyap3j1, M1nasap3j1 and Par1p3j1, and is both internal and external. The fundamental concept of ritual is its cosmic meaning; any P3j1 is an involvement of the cosmic energies.

P3jar2
Performer of recitation of a sacred text (vide P3j1)

P3jy1
Worthy of devoted worship

Pulaha
Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i, Brahm1

Pulastya
Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i, Brahm1

Punarjanma
Rebirth as a result of Soul transmigration

Pu9ya
Virtue, merit; holy vide also Dharma

Pura
Lit. 'in advance, forward; a stronghold, fortress' The human body; the living principle, life

P3raka
Controlled inspiration of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma

Pur19a
Lit. 'ancient' 125

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A class of Sanskrit scripture of stories about gods as manifestations of one reality Pur19a-s are written in a popular manner and considered to be part of sacred books of Hinduism.

Pura0cara9a
Repetition of Mantra-s under certain conditions for a specific number of times

P3r9a
Lit. 'full, complete' One of the stages of Sanny1sa lifestyle when the Sanny1sin is firmly established in the life of an !0rama P3r9a Sanny1sa is also the first stage of Tantric initiation.

P3rnabhi=eka
Full initiation as a special ceremony in the )1kta tradition

P3r9agiri P27ha
vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra vide also P27ha, Catu=p27ha In the S3k=ma )ar2ra (the subtle body) it is equated with An1hata Cakra.

P3rn1huti
Complete offering (oblation) when the ladle is emptied

P3r9am1s2
The full-moon time

P3r9im1
The day of full-moon

P3r9im1r1rti
The night of full-moon

Puru=a
Lit. 'sleeping town; male' A particular manifestation of consciousness as a transformation of )iva into a passive witness of Prak4ti; the Primordial Male Principle in Yoga; a conscious being as a small scale replica of the Creator In the Veda Vidy1-s, Puru=a as an external expression is the Sun, as internal expression is the right eye or Indra. In Yoga philosophy Puru=a is an awareness in course of evolution experienced beyond the Cittav4tti-s and the Gu9a-s eventually, so leading to Self-realization. There are infinite stages of mental consciousness therefore infinite Puru=a-s (vide Vai0v1nara Puru=a, Tejom1y1 Puru=a, Vi0va Puru=a) all as hidden cause of manifestations. vide also )iva, Brahman, U=as, Indra

Puru=a Prak4ti
The dual transformation of )iva )akti principle The interplay between Puru=a and Prak4ti is the cause of all manifested world. A fundamental concept in experiencing Puru=a is that it starts with the instrumentality of Prak4ti. vide also Bindu, V4=abha Dhenu 126

P

Puru=1rtha
Lit. 'aim of Puru=a' Object of human desire There are four Puru=1rtha-s viz. K1ma, Artha, Dharma and Mok=a

Puru=atattva
The Tattva of Puru=a

Puru=a Vidy1
The knowledge of Puru=a A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. In this Vidy1, the human being is seen as the Sacrificer and Puru=a the Y1j6a. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Puru=avi0e=a
A state of consciousness, which manifests in every human being as experience of the Divine

P3rvac2ti
Lit. 'first thought' In the Veda-s the original basis of consciousness as Brahman

P3rvap2ti
Lit. 'first drinking' In the Veda-s the original absorption into Brahman

P3=an
A god in the Veda-s representing prosperity; one of the twelve !ditya-s

P3=1 N182
The N182 connected to the left thigh vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvara6ja92

Pu=pa
Flower; menstrual flow

Pu=pi92
A woman in her period

127

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R
R1dh1
K4=9a's beloved The love between K4=9a and R1dh1 symbolizes the human-God relationship, which becomes complete only when the human surrenders completely to God.

R1ga
(from the root Ra6j i.e. to be attracted by) Lit. 'red colour; passion' Infatuation; love; passion; attachment as one of the five Kle0a-s known also as Moha vide also P10a, P101^ku0a, Vair1gya

R1ga Ka6cuka Ka6cuka
Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real nature of love as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti vide also Tattva, R1gatattva

R1gatattva
The Tattva of R1ga Ka6cuka

Rahasya
Lit. 'secret' The secret doctrine of esoteric teaching

Rahasya Rahasya N1ma Sahasra
The thousand secret names

R1hu
The ascending node in the astronomy/ astrology one of the Navagraha-s

Raja
The pollen of flowers; the menstrual excretion'

Rajas
Lit. 'emotion, affection' The quality of passion, activity and motion; the woman's menstrual discharge One of the three Gu9a-s sometimes identified with Tejas. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Jayin2

Rajas Tapas
The purification of Rajas Gu9a vide also Tapas

R1ja Yoga
128

R

The royal Yoga

R1ja Yoga Sam1dhi
The Sam1dhi as a result of R1ja Yoga practice

R1ki92
The )akti residing in Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra

R1k=asa
A kind of demon The abode of R1k=asa-s was )r2 La^ka (former Ceylon), the domain of the great R1k=asa known as R1va9a.

Rakta
Blood vide also Dh1tu

Raktabindu
Lit. 'red spot' The point of activity of thought vide Bindu One of the three Par1bindu-s, it represents the )akti M1y1 as well as the Kriy1 )akti as manifestation.

Rakt1mbara
Lit. 'red clothed' A mendicant wearing red garment vide also Digambara

Ra%
vide Agni B2ja

R1ma (from the root Ram i.e. to rejoice)
Lit. 'charming, lovely' An incarnation of Vi=9u as symbol of joy within It is considered that R1ma appeared on earth approx. 9000 years ago.

R1m1ya9a
The great epic of V1lm2ki relating the story of R1ma and S2t1 as ideal husband and wife and their devotion for each other vide also R1va9a

R1mi
The washer-maid lover of Ca98id1s

Rasa
Lit. 'taste, flavour; character of a work; kind of sentiment; essential taste' Essential taste; devotional sentiment As essential tastes there are six Rasa-s, viz. Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour), Lava9a, (salt) 129

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Ka7uka (pungent), Tikta (bitter) and Ka=1ya (astringent). As sentiments and characters of a work there are ten Rasa-s, viz. )4ng1ra (love), V2ra (heroism), B2bhatsa (disgust), Raudra (fury), H1sya (humour), Bhay1naka Bhay1naka (terror), Karu91 (compassion), Adbhuta (wonder), )1nta (peacefulness) and V1tsalya (affection). As devotional sentiments and degrees of Bhakti there are five Rasa-s or Bh1va-s, called also Rati-s namely )1nta (peace), D1sya (service), S1khya (friendship), V1tsalya (affection) and M1dhurya (loveliness). When these five sentiments are directed towards the Self, they take the forms of !tma Rati. vide also Tanm1tra

Ras1kar=i92
The attractive power of Rasa vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Ras1m4ta Curan
Product of Ayurvedic Tantra based on sulphide of mercury The receipt is given in Siddhayoga of V4nda.

Ras1nanda Yoga
Kind of Yoga by practicing with Bhr1mar2 Pr191y1ma

Ras1nanda Yoga Sam1dhi
The Sam1dhi as a result of Ras1nanda Yoga practice

Ras1talaloka
vide Loka

Rasatattva
The Tattva of Rasa

Ras1ya9a
The Indian alchemy

Rati
Lit. 'sentiment; devotion; pleasure' One of the two wives of K1madeva Rati is the goddess expressing various degrees of Bhakti (vide Rasa). To direct these sentiments towards the Self is called !tma Rati.

Rati !sana
vide Tantr1sana

Ratna
Jewel, gem

R1tri
Night vide also Dak=i91yana, )ivar1tri

Raudra
Fury as one of the Rasa-s

R1va9a
130

R

The great R1k=asa He was initially a great Bhakta of Lord )iva, then became a demon in R1m1ya9a epic, later on attaining Self-realization.

Ravi
The Sun God vide also Agni, S3rya

Recaka
Lit. 'emptying' Controlled expiration of breath as one of the three states of Pr191y1ma; the name for J17har1gni (digestive fire) of elimination vide also Sarvaj61

Rekh1 (also Rekha)
Line, stripe; delineation vide also Ana^garekh1

$g Veda
Lit. 'the Veda of praise' The most ancient sacred book consisting of 1028 hymns arranged in ten Ma98ala-s Based on the calendars used in the Veda-s and star positions, the $g Veda is thought to date to 4000 or 6000 BC when Sarasvat2 river (now dried) was the greatest river of ancient India. vide also Veda

Rocan1 (also Rocana)
Lit. 'shinning, bright sphere' In the Veda-s a name for the heaven as sphere of consciousness vide also Loka, Rodas2

Rodas2 Rodas2
In the Veda-s heaven and earth as kind of Devat1 vide also Rocan1

Roga
Disease

$=i
Lit. 'seer' An inspired sage in the Vedic tradition vide also Sapta4=i

$ta
Lit. 'rule, order' The rule of order of things It applies equally at the grand scale of the universe, as well as at the nature and human levels. $ta has to be seen as the natural law of orderly things that is suitable for everything. It is immutable and 131

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

out of the control of humans and even of gods. All have to obey the rules of $ta, which is created at the highest level of the reality (Sat) as foundational design of manifestation. It has to be followed in rituals and human behaviour, thus being the basis of Dharma. The Vedic priests ($tvija-s) do apply $ta when performing their duties.

$tambhar1 Praj61 Praj61
The super-consciousness state full of cosmic experience as a culmination of Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi vide also Nirgu9op1sana

$tu
Lit. 'season' The natural sequence of seasons An observation that has a deep spiritual connotation that is conceptualised as $ta, order of things at every scale.

$tvija
A Vedic priest There are four chief priests of the Veda-s namely Hot4, Adhvaryu, Udg1t4 and Br1hma9a, each one having three helper priests making sixteen the number of priests necessary to perform the Mah1yaj6a with the Soma juice (Soma Rasa or Am4ta).

Rudra
One of the Gods of Hindu trinity (Trim3rti) an aspect of )iva; the principle and manifestation of transformation; the Devat1 of Tejas Bh3ta Lord Rudra presides over the transformation of Macrocosm (Brahm198a) and Microcosm (Pi98198a). In Brahm198a he acts as Natar1ja, an agent of transformation at grand scale. In the Pi98198a (the human body as microcosm) there are eleven Rudra-s i.e. five J61nendriya-s, five Karmendriya-s and the mind (Manas), all together are known as the eleven Indriya-s.

Rudragranthi
Lit. 'knot of Rudra' The knot located in the Candrakha98a It represents the attachment to Mada (pride) and Siddhi-s (supernormal powers). The transcendence of this knot is equivalent to full awakening of Ku98alin2.

Rudr1k=a
Lit. 'pervaded by Rudra' The tree Elaeocarpus Granitrus or its seed used for rosaries by followers of )iva tradition It is also known as Ak=a.

Rudr192
vide Trim3rti

Rudra Pa0upati
Rudra the lord of the souls covered by ignorance One of the eight Devas3 Devas3-s, an aspect of Rudra.

R3pa
Form; sight 132

R

There are three kinds of R3pa-s (forms) namely Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a (causal). They apply to a wide variety of threefold concepts of which Tripur1 is seen as the most comprehensive. The three forms are to be seen as levels of vibrations of energy and as such any threefold concept could be understood by the Citta only if it has the awareness of a threefold perception. R3pa means also beautiful form as one of the four K1ya Sampad-s. vide also Tanm1tra, Tripur1

R3p1kar=i92
The attractive power of R3pa vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

R3patattva
The Tattva of R3pa

133

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S
Sabar Mantra (from Sabar i.e. milk, nectar)
Mantra representing the quintessence of a sacred text

)abda
Lit. 'vibration, sound; word' The vibration of sound; the thought process in the form of words There are four stages of )abda namely Vaikhar2, Madhyam1, Pa0yant2 and Par1 by which the whole universe of N1mar3pa comes into existence. Various S1dhana-s using )abda in different forms (like K2rtana, Bhajan, Mantra, N1da Yoga, etc.) have the purpose to merge the sound consciousness into the mental consciousness. The original cause of )abda is M3laprak4ti. In the Veda-s V1k Dev2 was later identified with Sarasvat2, the goddess of speech. vide also Karmendriya, Savitark1 Sam1dhi

)abda Brahman
Brahman as the primal sound-energy

)abd1kar=i92
The attractive power of )abda vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

)abdatattva
The Tattva of )abda

Sab2ja Sam1dhi
Sam1dhi with seed (B2ja) based on Pratyaya Pratyaya Towards finer and finer realms of consciousness Sab2ja Sam1dhi is of six kinds viz. Savitark1, Nirvitark1, Savic1r1, Nirvic1r1, !nanda and Asmit1. Other varieties of Sab2ja Sam1dhi are Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi, Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi. vide also Nirb2ja Sam1dhi Sam1dhi, Savikalpa Sam1dhi

)accid1nanda
In Vedanta existence-consciousness-bliss as a state similar to Nirb2ja Sam1dhi in Yoga vide also Sat Cit !nanda

+a8a^ga
Lit. 'six limbs' The science of forms The forms are seen as outer expressions of the inner reality, the means to provide a spiritual experience by understanding their transcendental correspondence. Although +a8a^ga as a word refers to the six limbs (vide +a8a^gany1sa) its expression as science of forms is very wide, addressing the symbol-values of Yantra, Ma98ala, statues, icons, temples, geometry, architecture, etc. vide also M3rti 134

S

+a8a^gany1sa
Lit. 'Ny1sa of the six limbs' The act of installing of deities by touch and Mantra-s invocation into six parts of the body namely heart, forehead, crown of the head, anus, eyes and navel. vide also +a8a^ga

Sad10iva
Lit. 'always auspicious' A form of )iva; the Devat1 of !k10a Bh3ta

Sad10ivatattva
The Tattva of Icch1 )akti (the energy of will)

+a8 Dar0ana
The six classical philosophies of the Indian tradition namely M2m1%s1 M2m1%s1, Ny1ya, Vai0e=ika, S1%khya, Yoga, Ved1nta They are also known as Indian orthodox (i.e. accepted by Hinduism) systems of philosophy. vide also Tattva Cintana

S1dhaka
Lit. 'efficient, effective' Adept, spiritual aspirant practicing S1dhana According to Gandharva Tantra a competent S1dhaka should be Dak=a (intelligent), Jitendriya (having senses under control), Sarv1hi%s1 Vinirmukta (free from injuring all creatures), Sarvapr19ihita Rata (doing always good to all beings), !stika (believer in Veda-s), )uci )uci (pure), Brahmav1d2 (with faith in Brahman). In the Tantra-s there are three kinds of S1dhaka-s viz. Pa0u, V2ra and Divya, each one having preponderance over one of the three Gu9a-s. In Yoga-s there are two kinds of S1dhaka-s viz. Sak1ma and Ni=k1ma. vide also Tantra )1str1dhik1ra

S1dhana (also S1dhan1)
Lit. 'leading straight to a goal' A practice from Yoga, Tantra, Veda, etc. with a spiritual aim The goal of S1dhana is to enable the practitioner as manifestation of )iva )akti at Microcosmic level (i.e. K=udra K=udra Brahm198a) to experience )iva )akti at Macrocosmic level (i.e. Brahm198a) where the experience is unlimited. vide also Tantra S1dhana, Veda S1dhana, Yoga S1dhana

S1dhik1
A female S1dhaka

S1dhu
A holy man, saint; a saintly woman

Sad Vidy1
The knowledge of the reality (Sat) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) which deals with Asat as the cause of Sat, as the knowledge imparted by sage Udd1laka to his son )vetaketu. 135

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vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Sagarbha Sahita Pr191y1ma
vide Sahita Kumbhaka

Sagu9a
With quality as attribute Sagu9a and Nirgu9a apply to a wide range of descriptions where the subjects can be with or without qualities or attributes, like Dev2 being in Her Sagu9a or Nirgu9a aspects or Brahman. The concept applies to any reality with attributes (as Sagu9a) or without attributes (as Nirgu9a).

Sagu9a Brahman
The Universal Spirit possessing qualities vide also Brahman, !nandamaya Vidy1, Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Sagu9op1sana
The contemplation of objects as an introduction to meditation vide also Up1sana Up1sana, Nirgu9op1sana

Sahaja
Lit. 'original, natural' The stage of Self-realization vide also J61na, Sam1dhi, Vidy1

Sahajol2 Mudr1
A variant of Vajrol2 Mudr1 practiced by a female Yog2 (i.e. Yogin2)

S1ham
Lit. 'She I am' A Mantra to identify oneself with )akti vide also Soham

Sahas
Lit. 'power, strength' In the Veda-s the power to overcome the ignorance vide also M1rga02r=a

Sahasr1ra Cakra (known also as Soma Cakra)
The thousand-petals lotus (Cakra), the most important Cakra in the human body where the highest level of consciousness is experienced The awakening of this Cakra enables one to leave the body in full consciousness as the level of awareness is Satyaloka. The "one thousand" is just symbolic of a number, practically this Cakra has unlimited extensions and all the potentialities of the consciousness as !k1ra and Nir1k1ra. vide also Jyotirli^ga, Ku98alin2, Meru, Kail1sa

Sahita Kumbhaka
Lit. 'supported Kumbhaka' A Pr191y1ma technique in which the ratio between P3raka, Kumbhaka and Recaka is 1:4:2, therefore based mainly on Kumbhaka but supported also by P3raka and Recaka 136

S

Known also as Sahita Pr191y1ma it is of two kinds viz. Sagarbha (with repetition of Mantra-s) and Nigarbha (without repetition of Mantra-s). Sahita Kumbhaka leads to Kevala Kumbhaka therefore the awakening of Ku98alin2 )akti.

Sahodara
Lit. 'born of the same womb' A sister or brother

)aiva
A follower of )iva and kind of philosophical tradition in India in which the male principle is paramount

Sakala
With parts

Sak1ma
With desire

Sak1ma S1dhaka
Kind of Yoga practitioner known also as Sa%s1r2 concerned mainly with the first two of the Puru=1rtha-s i.e. K1ma and Artha

Sakara
With form, manifested

S1khya
Friendship; one of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of friendship, also one of the Rasa-s

S1kin2
The )akti residing in the Vi0uddhi Cakra

)akra
Courage as one of the twelve !ditya-s

S1k=i
Witness vide also Dra=7a

S1k=ibh1va
Attitude of a witness The real witness (S1k=i) is the Universal Consciousness (Cit). By practicing S1k=ibh1va S1k=ibh1va a S1dhaka is on the same side with the real witness. The practical manner is to reserve approx. 1% of the conscious activity of the brain to witness what the other 99% does. vide also Dra=7a, !tmadra=7a

)1kta
A follower (worshipper) of )akti known also as )aktip3jaka; kind of philosophical tradition in India in which the female principle is paramount

)akti
Lit. 'power, energy' 137

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide )iva )akti Energy as manifested form taken by )iva as Power-Holder ()aktim1n) As manifestation )akti is the vibration of any frequency in the three R3pa-s possessing all aspects of life from beneficial to malefic, sensual to sublime, creative to destructive. There are three kinds of energies ()akti-s) namely Pr19a )akti, Manas )akti and !tma )akti, i.e. pranic, mental and spiritual energies.

)akti B2ja
vide Hr2%

)aktic1lan2 Mudr1 (or )aktic1lan1)
The awakening of )akti Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

)aktik37a
One group (section) of Pa6cada02 presided over by Soma

)aktim1n )akti
The Power-Holder and Power The Power-Holder is )iva and the Power is )akti. There is nor )iva without )akti or )akti without )iva, they are One as the static aspect (i.e. )iva) and the moving (kinetic) aspect (i.e. )akti) of the same Reality (Sat). vide also )iva )akti

)akti P3j1
)akti worship

)akti0odhana )akti0odhana
The ritual of purification of the woman representing )akti in )akti P3j1 practice.

)aktitattva
The Tattva of )akti vide also )iva )akti

)akti Up1san1
Female worship

)aktiv2ra
A male partner of a woman who represents )akti pertaining the )akti worship ritual (i.e. )akti P3j1)

)akuna )1stra
vide )akuna Tantra

)akuna Tantra
The doctrine (science) of omens It is known also as )akuna Upade0a ()akunopade0a) or )akuna )1stra. A part of Tantra, the )akuna Tantra deals with nature's warnings of forthcoming events. The power of correct interpretation of these warnings is called Lak=a9a Siddhi. The warnings are hidden symbols of Prak4ti's messages. vide also Lak=ana, Lak=ana Siddhi 138

S

)akunopade0a
vide )akuna Tantra

)alabh1sana
The locust !sana

)1lagr1ma
A sacred stone worshipped by Vai=9ava-s The black stone containing a fossil ammonite is found near the )1lagr1ma village on the river Ga9dak2 in Nepal. Its name comes from the )1l trees (Vatica Robusta) which grow in the area. The black ammonite falls into the river from the mountain Ga9dak2 (which according to Bh1gavata Pur19a, Vi=9u had transformed himself). The )1lagr1ma believed to be pervaded by the presence of Lord Vi=9u is the most sacred object of Vai=9ava-s having the same status as )ivali^ga for )aiva-s.

S1lajja
Lit. 'granting modesty' The city of Brahm1 in the Brahmaloka representing the experiences of the world of Brahm1, as various Rasa-s as sentiments The devotee has to raise above these kinds of experiences (vide Parya^ka Vidy1) by a Dra=7a attitude. vide also S1k=ibh1va

S1lokya
Lit. 'same world' The state in which the devotee lives on the same plane with the Divine vide also !tma Rati

)am
Lit. 'contentment, peace' Auspiciousness as a name of )iva

Sam1dhi
Lit. 'union with the Lord' Awareness as states of consciousness (transcending the mind eventually) in which any duality will disappear gradually and the individual Self (J2v1tma) of a Dra=7a merges with the cosmic Self (Param1tm1) In Yoga, Sam1dhi is one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Pata6jali. Through Sam1dhi, Nirliptat1 is obtained. There are only two categories of Sam1dhi viz. Sab2ja and Nirb2ja, other kinds such as Sampraj61ta, Asampraj61ta are only intermediate states of Sam1dhi. There are also Sam1dhi-s as a result of particular kinds of Yoga practices like Bhakti Yoga Sam1dhi, R1ja Yoga Sam1dhi, Laya Siddhi Yoga Sam1dhi, Dhy1na Yoga Sam1dhi, N1da Yoga Sam1dhi, Ras1nanda Yoga Sam1dhi as stated in Ghera98a Sa%hit1 work. The Sam1dhi concept has to be seen as the experience of awareness therefore it has limitless aspects. vide also Sam1patti, Nira6jan1, Samarasa

Sam1dhi Pari91ma
Transformation of consciousness as one of the three Pari91ma-s vide also Dharma Pari91ma 139

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Sam1dhi Praj61
The higher intelligence possessing a spiritual vision It is developed as a result of successfully practicing Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi.

Sam1na
The V1yu which controls digestion into the body vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvak1maprad1, Devasu=i

S1m1nya Homa
The ordinary Homa

Sam1patti
Lit. 'coming together' The state of merge in various stages of individual identity with cosmic identity known in Yoga S3tra as the merge of Grah2t4, Graha9a, Gr1hya. This is a state preliminary to Sam1dhi. Both Sam1patti and Sam1dhi employ the same process, however Sam1patti deals with an impure mind, but Sam1dhi arises in a pure mind, therefore its perception is much more advanced by the removal of covering (!vara9a). After purification of the mind Sam1patti graduates into Sam1dhi. vide also Samarasa

Samarasa (also Samarasatva)
The experience of unity in Tantric practices, a state parallel to Sam1dhi in Yoga vide also Maithuna

Samarpa9a
The act of offering

Samastavidy1
The Sth3la (gross) worship of Dev2

Samatva (also Samat1)
Balance, equanimity

S1ma Veda
The Veda of chanting, one of the four Veda Sa%hit1-s

Samaya
Traditional custom Samaya also means the five books of Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatkum1ra, )uka and Vasi=7ha because they describe the traditional custom, therefore the traditional custom of Samaya becomes Samaya doctrine. vide also )ubh1gama Pa6caka

Samayana
The state of emptiness, equanimity and mental tranquillity In this state the cognitive, cognative and volitional functions cease to exist.

)1%bhav2 Mudr1
140

S

The consort of )a%bhu Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s vide also Jyoti=mat2, Bhr3madhya, !j61 Cakra

)a%bhu
Lit. 'causing happiness’ A name of )iva

Sa%dhy1
The twilight prayer

Sa%h1ra
A work of dissolution vide also M3la Triko9a, S4=7i

Sa%h1rakrama
Going towards dissolution, a synonym for Layakrama

Sa%hit1
A collection of writings, the main ones being the four Veda-s

S1m2pya
The state in which the devotee realizes proximity with the Divine vide also !tma Rati

Sa%kalpa (also Sa^kalpa)
Resolve, determination, declaration of purpose A spiritual technique when the practitioner makes a personal declaration of purpose in specific circumstances like a P3j1 or during Yoga Nidra

)a%kar1c1rya
vide )a^kara

S1%khya (also S1^khya)
Lit. 'number' One of the +ad Dar0ana-s

Sa%kr1nti
The passage of the sun the northwards way vise also Uttar1yana Uttar1yana

Sa%ny1sa (also Sanny1sa)
Lit. 'renunciation of the world' Renunciation as one of the four !0rama-s; a way of investing Karma-s There are gradual stages of Sa%ny1sa life starting with Jij61su, then Karma, Ku7icaka, Bahuda, P3rna, Ha%sa, etc., all as various degrees of spiritual life. Bhagavad G2ta says: "Sanny1sa equals investing the Karma-s", in other words investing own actions for personal and community development.

Sa%ny1sin (also Sanny1sin, Sanny1s2)
Lit. 'giving up' 141

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Ascetic, one who has renounced all earthly concerns vide also !0rama, Ni=k1ma S1dhaka, Sv1mi

Samprad1ya
Tradition, belief transmitted from one teacher to another

Sampraj61ta Sam1dhi
Kind of Sam1dhi in which the practitioner is still able to differentiate vide also Sam1dhi Praj61

Sa%s1ra
Life of transmigration from one birth to another; the life of birth and death as the law of cyclic spiritual progress

Sa%s1r2
vide Sak1ma S1dhaka

Sa%0aya
The state of doubt as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Sa%sk1ra
Latent impression in the Citta as subtle form of V4tti; sacramental rite in the Tantra-s The latent impressions as potentialities are the accumulated seeds of consciousness as objective consciousness of past experiences which survive up to the state of Nirb2ja Sam1dhi. There are multiple layers of Sa%sk1ra-s. The impressions (Sa%sk1ra-s) accompany every action (Karma). By practicing Sa%yama on own Sa%sk1ra-s the knowledge of previous births is obtained. vide also K1ra9a )ar2ra, Karma, V1san1, Ni=k1ma Karma

Sa%sk4ta
Lit. 'well done' The Aryan language, which was standardised by P19ini the great grammarian of the 7th century BCE The language is also called Deva Bh1=1 (i.e. the language of gods).

Sa%varga Vidy1
The knowledge of absorption A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. It refers to the correlation between the individual Pr19a-s and the universal V1yu in which Pr19a-s are absorbed. It is also related to the food (Anna) giving, the individual Pr19a being seen as the food that will be given (therefore absorbed) to the humankind (Vai0v1nara Vai0v1nara) seen as the body of V1yu. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Sa%vega
Urge, eagerness vide also T2vrasa%vega

Sa%vid
Perception

Sa%vit
142

S

Goddess Sa%vit also called Bhairav2; the Pure Consciousness synonym with Cit vide also Cittasa%vit

Sa%yagdar0ana
The perfect vision that enables the devotee to dispel darkness and avoid Punarjanma (rebirth)

Sa%yama
The state when Dh1ra91, Dhy1na and are Sam1dhi are applied together as three consecutive stages towards J61na, a state of mental control over the applied awareness vide also Siddhi

)a9a
The species of hemp Cannabis Sativa or Crotolaria Juncea vide also Mekhal1

Sanaka
vide Samaya

Sanandana
vide Samaya

San1tana Dharma
The Eternal Dharma

Sanatkum1ra
One of Brahm1's sons vide also Janarloka, Samaya

Sa^cita Karma
Past actions not yet manifested, a synonym to Nirupakrama Karma

)198ilya Vidy1
The knowledge of )198ilya A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s refers to the Soul (in the heart) as Pr1j6a in the K1ra9a )ar2ra. The meditation is on the Soul expending and contracting in the centre of the heart (H4d). vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Sa^ga
Attachment vide also Pa6c1gni

)ani
The planet Saturn one of the Navagraha-s

Sa^kalpa (also Sa%kalpa)
Lit. 'determination' Resolution, a firm affirmation taken in specific yogic technique practices; purpose, desire vide also Anu=7h1na 143

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

)a^kara
The author of the celebrated Tantric text Saundaryalahari (eighth century CE) known also as )a^kar1c1rya or )a%kar1c1rya he is the founder of the ten orders ( Dasn1mi) of mendicants in India vide also N1ga

Sa^ka71sana
The twister !sana

)a^kha
Conch-shell used for ritual, ornaments or as instrument to produce sounds

)a^khin2
vide Padmin2

)a^khin2 N182
The connected to the left side of the body vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvonm1di92

Sanny1sa
vide Sa%ny1sa

Sanny1sin
vide Sa%ny1sin

)1nta
Peacefulness as one of the Rasa-s

)1nti
Peacefulness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

)1ntikarma
Lit. 'action of peace' One of the +a7karma-s giving protection from the evil influences of planets and curses by others, or removes diseases and dispels fears bringing peace and happiness This +a7karma will counterbalance the ill effects of the others five malefic magical rites, therefore bringing the Tantric concept of polarity into effect.

Santo=a
Contentment as one of the five Niyama-s

Santo=aprati=7h1
A state in which Santo=a is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Santo=aprati=7h1 becomes very happy.

Saptabh3mi
The seven upper worlds In the human body they correspond to the seven Cakra-s. vide also Loka

Sapta Sapta Dh1tu
144

S

vide Dh1tu

Sapta4=i
The seven seers In astronomy the seven $=i-s are the seven stars viz. Mar2ci (or Marut), Atri, A^giras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasi=7ha of the constellation Ursa Major. vide also Brahm1

Sarasvat2
Lit. 'she who is full of inspiration' Consort of Lord Brahm1; name of a river (vide Pray1ga and Trive92) in the Veda-s As a personification of Praj6a, Sarasvat2 presides over arts and eloquence, wisdom and learning. vide also $g Veda

Sarasvat2 N182
The N182 connected to the left shoulder vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarv1rthas1dha92

)ar2ra
Body, frame There are there bodies as states of consciousness viz. Sth3la (gross), S3k=ma (subtle) and K1ra9a (causal). They are represented in the Tantra-s in the form of the three types of )ivali^ga-s and experienced through the five Ko0a-s as different vibrations of energy. Beyond these three bodies there is the Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra, their source associated with Tur2ya state.

)1r2ra
The Soul in the Sth3la )ar2ra (gross body) vide also J2v1tman J2v1tman

)ar2r1kar=i92
The attractive power of )ar2ra vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Sar=7i
The state in which the devotee realizes the knowledge of the Divine vide also !tma Rati

Sar3pa
With form

S1r3pya
The state in which the devotee realizes same form with the Divine vide also !tma Rati

Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92
The one in the form of all supports In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of K=1raka vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra 145

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Sarvadu5khavimoci92
The remover of all sufferings In the human subtle body corresponds to N1ga V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2
The destroyer of duality In the human subtle body corresponds to Su=umn1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvahl1di92
The delighter of all In the human subtle body corresponds to V1ru92 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvai0varyaprad1
The giver of all sovereignty (authority) In the human subtle body corresponds to J17har1gni of )o=aka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvaj61
The one who knows all In the human gross body corresponds to J17har1gni of Recaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvaj61namay2
The one full of all knowledge In the human gross body corresponds to J17har1gni of D1haka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvaj4mbhi92
The releaser of all In the human subtle body corresponds to Payasvin2 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvak1maprad1
The giver of all desires (wants) In the human subtle body corresponds to Sam1na V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvakar=i92
The one who attracts all In the human subtle body corresponds to Vi0vodar1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvama^gal1
146

S

One of the Nity1 )akti-s The B2ja Mantra is Sva%.

Sarvama^gal1k1ri92
The one bringing all auspicious things In the human subtle body corresponds to Ud1na V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvamantramay2
Consisting of all Mantra-s In the human subtle body corresponds to Pi^gal1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvam4tyupra0ama92
The one bringing to a state of peace the indication of death In the human subtle body corresponds to K3rma V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarv1nandamaya Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel consisting entirely of bliss' The Red Central Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presiding by Mah1tripur1sundar2 )akti (Lalit1 Lalit1) It is also known as Binduma98ala Cakra. Here is where Dev2 Lalit1 as supreme K1me0var2 is united with Her Lord Kame0vara in the state of supreme union of Sat Cit !nanda in U882y1na P27ha. It is represented as three Bindu-s (points), the one above representing the face, the two below representing the breasts. Meditation on this Cakra brings the identity of the S1dhaka with Lalit1. vide also Par1bindu, Bindu

Sarv1nandamay2
The one full of all bliss In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of K=obhaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarv1^gasundar2
The one beautiful in all limbs In the human subtle body corresponds to Devadatta V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvap1pahar1
The dispeller of all evil In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Udg1raka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvapriya%kar2
The doer of what is liked by all In the human subtle body corresponds to Vy1na V1yu. 147

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvapsitaphalaprad1
The giver of the fruit of all wants In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Mohaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvarak=1kara Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel protecting all' The ten Blue Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripuram1lin2 )akti The )akti-s to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of protection namely Sarvaj61, Sarva0aktiprad1, Sarvai0varyaprad1, Sarvaj61namay2, Sarvavy1dhivin10in2, Sarv1dh1rasvar3pi92, Sarvap1pahar1, Sarv1nandamay2, Sarvarak=1svar3pi92, Sarvapsitaphalaprad1. In the human subtle body they are manifestations of Sam1na V1yu within the Manip3ra Cakra as Vahnikal1 (vital fire). The ten functions of Vahnikal1 manifest as ten J17har1gni-s in the gross body (vide J17har1gni).

Sarvarak=1svar3pi92
The one in the form of all protections In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of J4mbhaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarvara6ja92
The one pleasing (charming) to all In the human subtle body corresponds to P3=1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvarogahara Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel removing all sickness' The eight Red Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripurasiddh1 )akti The )akti-s to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of mental expressions (V1gdev2-s) namely Va0in2, K1me02, Modin2, Vimal1, Aru91, Jayin2, Sarve02 Sarve02 (or Sarve0var2) and Kaulin2. In the human mind they manifest as Devat1-s of two sets of polarities i.e. )2ta (calm) and U=9a (ardent), Sukha (delighted) and Du5kha (distressed), Icch1 (wish) and the three Gu9a-s namely Sattva (equilibrium), Rajas (activity), Tamas (inertia). At this stage the S1dhaka is able to achieve Sarvarogahara, the curing of all ills by overcoming the opposites (Dvandva-s), the individual self as will (Icch1) and the qualities (Gu9a-s), the essence of the Self being beyond all.

Sarv1rtha Sarv1rtha
Lit. 'all accomplishments' A yogic state when the mind (as Citta) becomes pure Thus it allows the combined experience of Dra=7a and D40ya (i.e. the subject and the object of awareness) which Citta is able to reflect. vide also V1san1

Sarv1rthas1dhaka Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel creating all prosperity' The Ten Red Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripura0r2 )akti 148

S

The )akti-s to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities of accomplishments namely Sarvasampatprad1, Sarvapriya%kar2 Sarvama^gal1kari92, Sarvasiddhiprad1, Sarvapriya%kar2, Sarvak1maprad1, Sarvadu5khavimoci92, Sarvam4tyupra0ama92, Sarvavighaniv1ri92, Sarv1^gasundar2, Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92. In the subtle body they correspond to the ten V1yus viz. Pr19a, Ap1na, Vy1na, Ud1na, Sam1na, N1ga, K3rma, K4kara K4kara, Devadatta, Dhana6jay1. vide also V1yu

Sarv1rths1dha92
The one who accomplishes all material gains In the human subtle body corresponds to Sarasvat2 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarva0aktiprad1
The giver of all powers In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Pacaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarv10a%k=obha9a Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel agitating all' The Eight-petals Red Lotus Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1sundar2 )akti The )akti-s to be worshipped on the petals are the deities who agitate the mind viz. Ana^gakusum1, Ana^gamekhal1, Ana^gamadan1, Ana^gamadan1tur1, Ana^garekh1, Ana^gavegan2, Ana^gamadan1^ku01 and Ana^gam1lin2. They correspond to the human expressions and attitudes of Vacana, Upek=a, !nanda, Gamana, H1na, Visarga, !d1na and Up1d1na.

Sarvasa%k=obhi92
The agitator of all In the human subtle body corresponds to Ala%bus1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvasa%mohi92
The one who can delude all (everything) In the human subtle body corresponds to Hastijihv1 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvasampatprad1
The giver of all material gains In the human subtle body corresponds to Ap1na V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvasampattip3ra92
The one who can fulfil and satisfy all In the human subtle body corresponds to I81 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarv101paripuraka Cakra
149

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Lit. 'the wheel fulfilling all desires' The Sixteen-petals Blue Lotus Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripure0i (+oda02) )akti The )akti-s to be worshipped on the petals are the deities of attraction viz. K1m1kar=i92 Buddhy1kar=i92, Aha%k1r1kar=i92, )abd1kar=i92, Spar01kar=i92, R3p1kar=i92, Ras1kar=i92, Gandh1kar=i92, Cittakar=i92, Dhairy1kar=i92, Sm4ty1kar=i92, N1m1kar=i92, B2j1kar=i92, !tm1kar=i92, Am4t1kar=i92 and )arir1kar=i92. These attractive powers as manifestations of M1y1, veil the consciousness. In the human body they are experienced through the five Bh3ta-s, the five J61nendriya-s, the five Karmendriya-s and Manas.

Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel granting every happiness' The Fourteen Blue Triangles Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tipurav1sin2 )akti The )akti-s to be worshipped in this Cakra are the deities granting all that is auspicious viz. Sarvasa%k=obhi92, Sarvavidr1vi92, Sarvakar=i92, Sarvahl1di92, Sarvasa%mohin2, Sarvastambhi92, Sarvaj4mbhi92, Sarvava0a^kar2, Sarvara6ja92, Sarvonm1di92, Sarv1rthas1dha92, Sarvasampattip3ra92, Sarvamantramay2, Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2. They correspond with the fourteen main N182-s in the human body (S3k=ma )ar2ra) namely Ala%bus1, Kuh3, Vi0vodar1, V1ru92, Hastijihv1, Yo0ovat2, Payasvin2, G1ndh1r2, P3=1, )a^khin2, Sarasvat2, I81, Pi^gal1, Su=umn1.

Sarvasaubh1gyad1yi92
The giver of all good fortunes In the human subtle body corresponds to Dhana6jay1 Dhana6jay1 V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvasiddhiprad1
The giver of all that is perfect In the human subtle body corresponds to Pr19a V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel granting all miraculous powers' The White Central Triangle Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1mb1 )akti It is also known as Triko9a Cakra, Yonima98ala Cakra, M3la Triko9a Cakra. At the corners of the triangle are the )akti-s to be worshipped in this Cakra, the !vara9a Devat1-s namely K1me0var2, Vajre0var2 and Bhagam1lin2 presiding over the three principles of existence ( Avyakta, Aha%k1ra and Mahat). The corners of the triangles are the three P27ha-s namely K1mar3pa, P3r9agiri and J1landhara as symbols of creation. Outside the triangle there are the three !yudha Devat1-s presiding over the weapons of Dev2 Lalit1. vide also Catu=p27ha

Sarvastambhi92
The one who can arrests (restrain) all In the human subtle body corresponds to Ya0ovat2 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvava0a^kar2 Sarvava0a^kar2
The controller of all 150

S

In the human subtle body corresponds to G1ndh1r2 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvavidr1vi92
The chaser of all In the human subtle body corresponds to Kuh3 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Sarvavighaniv1ri92 Sarvavighaniv1ri92
The one overcoming all obstacles In the human subtle body corresponds to K4kara V1yu. vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Sarvavy1dhivin10in2
The destroyer of all diseases In the human gross body corresponds to the J17har1gni of Pl1vaka. vide also Sarvarak=1kara Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Sarve02
The active one One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental quality of Rajas vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Sarve0var2
vide Sarvarogahara Cakra

Sarvonm1di92
The intoxicator of all In the human subtle body corresponds to )a^khin2 )a^khin2 N182. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

S1=71^ga Pra91ma
Prostration of the six limbs

)1stra
Scripture vide also Tantra

Sat
Being; existence; reality The Veda-s say: The Reality is one, the wise speak of It in different ways (Ekem Sat Vipr1 Bahudh1 Vadanti Vadanti) vide Sat Cit !nanda, )iva )akti, Svar3pa

+a7 Cakra Bheda
Piercing the six Cakra-s as a process towards attaining spiritual liberation (Nirvana)

Sat Cit !nanda
151

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

The triad Existence-Consciousness-Bliss, a state reached through Dharmamegha Sam1dhi as the experience of united attributes of !tman It is a parallel concept with the Indra Agni Soma from the Veda-s (vide Indra Agni Soma S3rya) therefore the Dharmamegha Sam1dhi becomes the J61na, in Vedic terms is a S3rya expression. vide Saccid1nanda, Tad1k1r1patti Tad1k1r1patti

Sat2
A spouse of )iva vide Dev2, P27ha

+a7karma
Lit. 'six actions' The six magical rites in the Tantra-s; the six yogic processes of purification The +a7karma-s as magical rites are )1ntikarma, Stambha9akarma, Va0ikara9akarma, Vidve=a9akarma, Ucc17anakarma Ucc17anakarmaand M1ra9akarma. They are associated with specific deities, B2ja Mantra-s, gross elements, colours or compass directions. The S1dhan1 of the five malefic magical rites is considered to be a lower form of spirituality and such practices are not a vehicle of enlightenment. As yogic processes of purification, the +a7karma-s are Dhauti, Basti, Neti, Nauli, Tr17aka and Kap1labh1ti. Their practice results in acquiring )odhana. vide also Nigrahahoma, Yogam1y1 S1dhana

Satk1ryav1da
In S1%khya the concept that every K1rya potentially exists in its K1ra9a

Satsa^ga
A gathering to discuss spiritual themes

Sattva
Lit. 'reality; true essence' The quality of purity, equilibrium and rhythm It is one of the three Gu9a-s vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Sarve02

Sattvasa%0uddhi Sattvasa%0uddhi
Purity of the heart as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Sattva Tapas
The purification of Sattva Gu9a vide also Tapas

Sattya% )iva% Sundara%
Truth Bliss Beauty

Satya
Lit. 'true; pure' The quality of being true as one of the five Yama-s and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s 152

S

vide also Bh3ma Vidy1

Satyak1ma Vidy1
The knowledge of Satyak1ma A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) describes the knowledge of Satyak1ma J1b1la about the four P1da-s (namely Pr1na, Ak=i, )rava9a and Manas) leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Satyaloka
The highest of the fourteen worlds known also as Brahmaloka It is the abode of Brahm1, the heaven of truth and the accomplishment of Viveka vide Loka, Sahasr1ra Cakra

Satyaprati=7h1
A state in which Satya is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Satyaprati=7h1 will have the power to accomplish actions by words or thoughts.

Satya Yuga
An age of the world consisting of 1,728,000 years vide Yuga

Saubh1gya
Good fortune, success

)auca
Physical and mental purity as one of the five Niyama-s and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s Purity is an essential condition before awakening of energies that will amplify the qualities of various planes either positive or negative in colour. vide also )aucaprati=7h1 )aucaprati=7h1

)aucaprati=7h1
A state in which )auca is firmly established A Yog2 possessing )aucaprati=7h1 develops detachment towards one's own body and nonattachment to others.

Saumya Homa
Homa for the benefit of a certain person

Saundaryalahar2
vide )a^kara )a^kara

)ava
Corpse

Savic1r1 Sam1dhi
Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vic1ra' A stage of Sam1dhi in which the consciousness is experienced as reflection of the form as state of Vic1ra 153

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vide also Savikalp1 Sam1dhi From Savic1r1 Sam1dhi onwards the Dra=7a is able to experience Pratyabhij61.

Savikalp1 Sam1dhi
Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vikalpa' A Sab2ja form of Sam1dhi in which there is still duality between J61t1 (the One who knows) and J6eya (object of knowledge) becoming one only in Nirvikalp1 Sam1dhi Savikalp1 Sam1dhi is of four kinds namely Savitark1, Savic1r1, !nanda and Asmit1 as experiences with a form of Vikalpa.

Savitark1 Sam1dhi
Lit. 'Sam1dhi with Vitarka' The first stage of Sam1dhi, a state when consciousness alternates between )abda (as word), Artha (as object of senses) and J61na (as meaning), as expression of Vitarka state vide also Savikalp1 Sam1dhi

Savit4
S3rya, the Sun God; power as one of the twelve !ditya-s vide also G1yatr2, Savit4 Satyaprasava

Savit4 Satyaprasava
Savit4 of continuous virtue or truth One of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Savit4

S1vitr2
vide G1yatr2

S1yujya
The state in which the devotee realizes identity with the Divine vide also !tma Rati

)e=a
vide Ananta

)e=an1ga
vide Ananta

Setu
Bridge

Sev1
Personal service to Guru

Sevaka
Servant; a person engaged in service to God

Siddha
Perfect being; saint; one possessing Siddhi-s; a Yog2 established in Dharmamegha Sam1dhi

Siddh1nt1c1ra
154

S

The final aim doctrine of Tantra A Tantric path based on meditation performed in an isolated environment.

Siddhap27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 denoting perfection; a place where a high spiritual person attained Siddhi-s The Catu=p27ha-s (the four P27ha-s) are considered to be Siddhap27ha-s as well.

Siddh1rtha
Lit. 'one who has fulfilled the goal' A name of Buddha Gautama

Siddh1sana
The perfect !sana

Siddhaugha
Lit. 'the perfect teachers' Three aspects of )iva as part of Navan1thaNavan1tha-s represented in the human body by the two eyes (Netra) and the genital organ (Upastha) The Siddhaugha-s are )r2 J61n1nanda, )r2 Saty1nanda and )r2 P3r91nanda.

Siddhi
Power resulting from Yoga; power of intellect There are eight major Siddhi (vide A=7asiddhi) and many minor Siddhi-s viz. Vedha, Nidhi, A6jana, P1duk1, Bila, Kha8ga, !kar=a9a, Va0ya, etc. Their acquisition requires Am4t1p3r9a Am4t1p3r9a (purity of mind). Siddhi-s are gifts of Ku98alin2 and it is the consciousness itself through A6janat1 which identifies with the object, quality or manifestation by using a specific state known as Sa%yama. vide also Utkr1nti, Vibh3ti

)ilpi Yog2
A Yog2 artist using art for spiritual growth towards Yoga

Si%h1sana
The lion !sana; the lion's throne

)irovrata
Lit. 'fire devotion' The rite of carrying fire on the head as symbol of opening the head to higher consciousness This is also a kind of )aiva initiation (according to S3ta Sa%hit1). vide also Vrata

)i=ya
(from the Sanskrit root )1s i.e. to teach) Lit. 'one who is to be taught' Disciple of spiritual teaching vide also Guru 155

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)2ta
Lit. 'cold; cool' The mental activity of being calm, unmoved vide also Sarvarogahara Sarvarogahara Cakra, Va0in2

)2t1
The wife of R1ma (vide)

)2tal2
Lit. 'causing coolness' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

)2tk1r2
Lit. 'causing the sound )2t' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

)2tkrama
Yogic technique of taking water through the mouth and expelling it through the nostrils as one of the three Kap1labhati-s

)iva
Lit. 'in whom all things lie; auspicious' Lord )iva one of the Hindu trinity as Rudra, the destroyer His various names indicate particular states, qualities and manifestations of the Self in its descent towards the many. Many of His names are given in the Pura9a-s like Agni, Padma, K3rma, )iva, V1mana, etc., as well as in )iva Sahasran1ma (one thousand names of )iva). His abode is Mount Kail1sa Kail1sa (vide). Lord )iva promulgates His teachings in works as Y1mala, D1mara, )iva S3tra and Tantra-s. He is the first devotee of )r2 Vidy1 and the original Guru (!din1tha). As Rudra, )iva brings about the destruction of the ego (Aha%k1ra) and transformation. In His representations )iva's third eye is a symbol of spiritual wisdom, the tiger skin represents the slain of the tiger of lust, the snakes are symbol of vital energy. vide also Brahman, Parama0iva, )iva )akti, Trim3rti

)ivad3t2
)iva-s messenger; one of the many names of Dev2 vide also D3t2

)ivali^ga
Lit. ' mark of )iva' An oval-shaped form representing the pure consciousness of )iva; the cosmic universal mind (Cid1k10a); a symbol of )iva or )iva )akti principle )ivali^ga-s can be of three kinds according to their R3pa-s viz. Dh3mrali^ga, Itarali^ga and Jyotirli^ga. At one end of the form is time (K1la) representing )iva, at the other end is space (!k10a) representing )akti, in the centre is Bindu, the place of union. vise also Brahm198a

)ivar1tri )ivar1tri
Lit. ')iva's night' 156

S

A festival in honour of )iva. Esoterically )ivar1tri is the day when J2va realizes own true nature.

)iva )akti
Dual principal of )iva and )akti vide also Tantra, K=udra Brahm198a, )aktim1n )akti )iva )akti is Brahman. From Tantric point of view )iva is time (K1la) and pure consciousness, )akti is space (!k10a) and the kinetic energy of the pure consciousness, i.e. the Absolute as activity. )ivatattva and )aktitattva are really one as static and kinetic aspects of the same Reality (Sat). This principle pervades the whole universe as dual form of polarity (vide )ivali^ga for symbol). In the human body (Pi98198a), )akti takes the main form as Dev2 Ku98alin2 in M3l1dh1ra Cakra and )iva as Jyotirli^ga in )ahasr1ra Cakra. vide also Tantra, K=udra Brahma98a, )aktim1n )akti

)ivatattva
The Tattva of Pure Consciousness (Cit) vide also )iva )akti

)ivayog2
A Yog2 follower of )iva

)ivayuvat2
Lit. ')iva's young woman' The five downwards-pointed triangles representing the )akti in the )r2 Yantra vide also )r2ka97ha

Skanda
Lit. 'the jumping one' A name for K1rttikeya, the God of war, a son of Lord )iva

)loka
Verse of a sacred text

Smara
Lit. 'loving recollection; love' One of the names of K1madeva (the God of love) as one who keeps the memory of a love experience

Smarana
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as devotional act of remembering the Divine

)ma01na
Cremation ground, crematorium, a place to bury; an oblation to deceased ancestors; a place of performing certain Tantric practices

Smaya
Pride vide also Pa6c1gni

Sm4ti
Memory as one of the five Cittav4tti-s 157

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Sm4ty1kar=i92
The attractive power of Sm4ti vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

+o8a02
The third of the Mah1vidy1-s represents the power of perfection. +o8a02 is also the sixteen-syllables Mantra which has to be learned from a Guru or might be revealed to a devotee in various ways.

)odhana
Purification of the body as a result of practicing +a7karma-s as yogic processes of purification

Soham
Lit. 'he I am' A Mantra to identify oneself with )iva; the reverse of Ha%sa5 It is also known as Ajap1 G1yatr2. vide also S1ham, Ajap1 Japa

Soma
Lit. 'juice' The Soma plant and its juice; the drink of gods Personified as an important Vedic deity Soma is identified with the moon and any form of Am4ta. Esoterically Soma is the state of happiness and divine intoxication, the !nanda of Sat Cit !nanda, the three attributes of !tman. vide also Indra, Agni, Soma, S3rya

Soma Cakra
vide Sahasr1ra Cakra

Soma Rasa
The juice of the Soma plant known also as Am4ta

Somasavana
Lit. 'that which exudes nectar' vide Parya^ka Vidy1

Soma Vanaspati
Soma the lord of loveliness; the essence of happiness One of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Soma.

Sopakrama Karma
The active Karma with fruits in the present vide also Apar1taj61na, Pr1rabdha Karma

)o=aka
The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of removing the humours (Do=a-s) vide also Sarvai0varyaprad1 158

S

Spar0a
Touch vide Tanm1tra

Spar01kar=i92
The attractive power of Spar0a vide Sarv101paripuraka Cakra

Spar0a Sa%vit
Divine touch as a supernormal power (Siddhi)

Spar0atattva
The Tattva of Spar0a

Spho7a
The subtle sound or vibration out of which the world was created

)raddh1
Lit. 'that which holds the truth' Faith; the quality of being faithful vide also Bh3ma Vidy1

)r1va9a ( also )rava9a)
The month corresponding to parts of July/ August (vide also M1sa); the sense of supernormal hearing; one of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of listening to Holy Scriptures vide also Pr1tibha

)r2
Holy

)r2 Cakra
Lit. 'holy wheel' vide )r2 Yantra

)r2ka97ha
Lit. 'holy desire' The four upwards-pointed triangles representing the )iva element in the )r2 Cakra. vide also )ivayuvat2

)r2%
Lak=m2 B2ja Mantra

)r2man Ny1sa Vidy1
The knowledge of consecration to God A VedaVidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s refers to the path of Sa%ny1sa (renunciation) as leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 159

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

)r2m1t1
The Holy Mother as one of the sacred names of Dev2

)r2 Pura
vide )r2 Yantra

)r2 Vidy1
Holy Science vide )r2 Yantra

)r2 Vidy1 Mantra
vide Pa6cada02

)r2 Yantra
The most celebrated of all Yantra-s it is the graphical representation of S4=7ikrama and its reverse the Layakrama. Its manifestation is the development and the absorption of the outer universe (Brahm198a) as well as the inner universe (Pi98198a) on nine levels. The graphical representation is subject to meditation of various forms, the object of the )r2 Yantra is to realize the unity of J61t1 (who is Hotra), of J61na (which is Arghya) and of J6eya (which is Havi). The deity worshipped at the centre (Bindu) of the )r2 Yantra is Lalit1. It is also known as )r2 Cakra, )r2 Pura, Navayoni Cakra, )r2 Vidy1, etc. The nine levels of Cakra-s towards the centre are Trailokyamohana, Sarv101paripuraka, Sarva0a%k=obha9a, Sarvsaubh1gyad1yaka, Sarv1rthas1dhaka, Sarvarak=1kara, Sarvrogahara, Sarvasiddhiprada and Sarv1nandamaya.

)49g1ra
Lit. 'love; the erotic sentiment' Love as one of the Rasa-s (vide)

)rotra
Organ of hearing, the ear vide also J61nendriya

)rotratattva
The Tattva of )rotra

S4=7i
A work of creation vide also M3la Triko9a, Tantra, Sa%h1ra S4=7i applies also to the creation of the physical universe (Brahm198a) as opposed to Pralaya (dissolution)

S4=7ikrama
Going towards creation The action opposed to Layakrama. In the )r2 Yantra the direction from Bindu to Trailokyamohana.

S4=7i Sthiti Sa%h1ra
Creation-preservation-dissolution as manifestation of Trim3rti of )akti expression

)ruti
160

S

Knowledge received by revelation from the Divine Veda-s are considered to be )ruti-s

Stambha9akarma
Lit. 'action of stopping or arresting' One of the +a7karma-s, which gives the power of preventing or arresting somebody's bodily or mental actions It is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra-s

Stana
The female breast

Stanap27ha Stanap27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Stana form vide also P27ha

Stava
Hymn

Sthairya
Steadiness, firmness, being motionless (same as Sthirat1)

Sthirat1
Steadiness as a result of practicing Mudr1-s vide also Sthairya

Sthitapraj6a
Lit. 'firm in wisdom' A spiritual stage synonym to that of a Jivanmukta, or a person who is established in it

Sthiti
A work of preservation vide also M3la Triko9a

Sth3la
Gross, physical vide also R3pa

Sth3ladhy1na
The gross form of meditation

Sth3la Karma
Gross action produced by thoughts (vide Karma) vide also S3k=ma Karma

Sth3l1k10a
The space pervading the physical (gross) body

Sth3la Karma
Gross action caused by the S3k=ma Karma 161

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Sth3la Mah1bh3ta
vide Bh3ta

Sth3la R3pa
Gross form vide also R3pa

Sth3la )ar2ra
The gross (physical) body

Stotra
Prayer; hymn of spiritual nature

Str2
Woman, female

Str2mantra
A female Mantra (i.e. a Mantra ending with Sv1h1)

Sty1na
The state of dullness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

)ubh1gama Pa6caka
The five authoritative scriptures of Samaya doctrine i.e. Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatkum1ra, )uka and Vasi=7ha

Subrahma9ya
Lit. 'the one dear to Br1hma9a' In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Udg1t4 priest

Sudar0ana Cakra
Vi=9u’s discus, as sun’s symbol, and invincible weapon

)uddha Bhakti Bhakti
The purity of Bhakti as a necessary condition to develop a relationship with God

)uddh10uddhatattva
The pure-impure Tattva-s i.e. the seven Tattva-s from Mah1tattva down to Puru=atattva (vide Tattva)

)uddhatattva
The pure Tattva-s i.e. the five Tattva Tattva-s from )ivatattva down to )uddhavidy1tattva (vide Tattva)

)uddhavidy1tattva
The Tattva of Kriy1 )akti (the energy of action)

)uddhi
Purification; element of purification as opposed to A0uddhi vide also Citta0uddhi, Pari0uddhi

Sudh1
162

S

Spiritual nectar as the beverage of the Gods

)3dra
One of the Var9a-s in the Vedic tradition consisting of servants

)uka
vide Samaya

Sukha
Lit. 'pleasant, joyful, happy' The mental activity of being delighted vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Modin2

)ukla Karma
The good Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma-s

)ukra
Semen virile vide Dh1tu )ukra is also the name for the planet Venus (vide Navagraha) as well as the name for the guru of demonic beings.

S3k=ma
Subtle

S3k=madhy1na
The subtle form of meditation

S3k=ma Karma
Subtle action caused by thoughts (vide Karma) vide also Sth3la Karma

S3k=ma R3pa
Subtle form vide also R3pa

S3k=ma )ar2ra
The subtle body known also as Li^ga )ar2ra vide )ar2ra

S3k=modaya
The awakening of the subtle plane, a state in which the consciousness is active in the Svapna condition

S3kta
Lit. 'well said' Vedic hymn

)3nya
Void 163

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)3nya Mudr1
The gesture of the void

)3nyaka
Emptiness

)3ny1ta
Void

Supta
Sleeping

Surabhi Mudr1
The gesture of charming

S3rya
The sun or its deity; the Devat1 of Pi^gal1 N182; the right nostril One of the gods of the Vedic trinity, S3rya presides over the sky, while Agni is on the earth and Indra in the atmosphere. S3rya is also one of the Navagraha-s and the source of energy within all creatures on earth. Esoterically is the psycho-cosmic principle of light and the experience and knowledge of consciousness, the immanent Godhead. vide also Savit4, !ditya, Ravi, Veda, Agni S3rya Indra

S3rya Bheda
Lit. 'causing sun expansion' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

S3ryadv1ra S3ryadv1ra
The passage of the sun

S3ry1k10a
The fifth of the Vyoma Pa6caka-s described as the space of the sun

S3ryakha98a
Group containing Ma9ip3ra and An1hata Cakra-s and Vi=9ugranthi The presiding deity is S3rya, the Gu9a is Rajas and corresponds in the cosmic planes to Maharloka and Janarloka.

S3ryama98ala
Sun's disc

S3rya N182
A synonym for Pi^gal1 N182

)u=ka Basti
The dry Basti as one of the two Basti-s

Su=umnadv1ra
The passage of Su=umn1

Su=umn1 N182
164

S

The N182 connected to the back of the forehead running along the vertebral column, the passage for Ku98alin2 )akti It is the most important N182 in the human subtle body. It is also known as )3nya Padav2, Madhya M1rga, etc. vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvadvandvak=aya^kar2, Agni, Nira6jan1

Su=upti Su=upti
The Avasth1 of deep sleep associate with a specific V4tti (vide Su=upti V4tti) In this state the J2va consciousness is in the causal body (K1ra9a )ar2ra) and the perception of consciousness is undifferentiated therefore beyond the experiences of J2grat and Svapna states. This is the state of bliss (!nanda) leading to the fourth state called Tur2ya.

Su=upti V4tti
The condition of the deep sleep state associated in the mind with the Delta brain waves vide also Avasth1, V4tti

Sutalaloka
vide Loka

S3tra
Lit. 'thread' Aphorism, short sentence or a book of aphorisms (i.e. the author's thoughts hang as beads on a thread)

Suv2ta (also Suvita)
In the Veda-s the path of prosperity; a happy journey

Svadh1
Lit. 'self-nature' A Vedic Mantra as expression of the Self vide also Dhenu

Svadharma
One's own Dharma

Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra
Lit. 'own residence Cakra' The Cakra located at the base of the vertebral column where the coccyx bone is situated This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Jihva, the Karmendriya of Upastha Upastha, the Tanm1tra of Rasa, it is the centre for Vy1na V1yu and the seat of Pr19amaya Ko0a, the level of awareness is Bhuvarloka. vide also R1ki92

Sv1dhy1ya
Lit. 'own study' Study of )1stra-s as one of the five Niyama-s and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s; the analysis of one's own self; recitation of Mantra-s vide also Up1sana 165

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Sv1dhy1yaprati=7h1
A state in which Sv1dhy1ya is practiced and the observation of one's own self experienced A Yog2 possessing Sv1dhy1yaprati=7h1 will be able to experience the union with a desired Devat1.

Sv1h1
Lit. 'self-affirmation' The final word of a Mantra for a goddess vide also Str2mantra, Dhenu

Sv1mi (also Sv1min)
Lit. 'master of one's self' A particular kind of Sanny1sin as result of a specific initiation (D2k=1)

Svapna
Lit. 'dreaming' The Avasth1 of dreaming associated with a specific V4tti (vide Svapna V4tti) In this state the J2va consciousness is in the subtle body (S3k=ma )ar2ra) and the perception is mental only.

Svapna J61na
The state of conscious dreaming

Svapna V4tti V4tti
The condition of the dreaming state associated in the mind with the Theta brain waves vide also Avasth1, V4tti

Svara
Sound; air breathed through the nostrils; tone in recitation; a note of the musical scale vide also O%

Svara S1dhana
Kind of S1dhana (practice) using the seven notes of the musical scale, each note being related to one of the seven major Cakra-s vide also N1da Yoga

Svara Yoga
The Yoga of breathing cycle

Svarga
Leading to heaven

Svarloka
The region between the sun and polar star as Indra Indra's heaven

Svar3pa
Lit. 'own form' Essential nature of a deity; the form of Reality (Sat) 166

S

)v1sa Pra0v1sa
Lit. 'inspiration-expiration' The activity of agitated breath As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3-s it is connected to the Annamaya Ko0a.

Svasti
Happiness; kind of salutation (like "Hail!")

Svastika
A kind of cross as symbol of being auspicious and bringing good luck It is considered to be a simplified symbol of the sun. As a Mudr1, it is performed by crossing arms and hands on chest. For example the folded hands of P1rvat2 (vide).

Svastik1sana
The auspicious !sana

Svayambh3 Li^ga
(from Svayambh3 i.e. self-created) vide Dh3mra Li^ga

)vetabindu
The point of pure thought (vide Bindu) )vetabindu is one of the three Par1bindu-s representing the )iva M1y1 as well as the J61na )akti as manifestations.

)vetaketu
vide Sad Vidy1

Sy1dv1da
The doctrine of probability

)y1ma
Lit. 'of dark or dark-blue complexion' A name of )iva; the sacred fig-tree at Pray1ga

167

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T
T181g2 Mudr1
The tank Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Tad1k1r1patti
Lit. 'accomplishment of own form' The supreme awareness, the highest state of Sam1dhi, the experience of Sat Cit !nanda or pure awareness

Tadupar1ga
The reflection of the object in the mind as a cognitive process vide also Citta

Tal1talaloka Tal1talaloka
vide Loka

Tamas
Lit. 'darkness, inertia' The quality of ignorance, inertia and stagnation It is one of the three Gu9a-s. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, Kaulin2

Tamas Tapas
The purification of Tamas Gu9a vide also Tapas

T1mb3la
Betel (scientifically known as Piper Betel), an article used in ritual offering

Tamogu9a
The quality of ignorance vide also Tamas, Gu9a

Tanm1tra
Lit. 'element of extension' Subtle element (essence, quality) of the human body; subtle form of matter; senses Known also as S3k=ma Mah1 Bh3ta-s, there are five Tanm1tra-s namely )abda (sound), Spar0a (touch), R3pa (form, sight), Rasa (taste, flavour), Gandha (smell, odour), produced from the Tamas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the thirty-six TattvaTattva-s. Tanm1tra-s are considered to have a subatomic structure and be the constituents of atoms (A9u-s). vide also B1na, A9u

Tanm1tra Sam1dhi
Awareness of the senses as a lower stage of Sam1dhi 168

T

Tantra
Lit. 'liberation through extension' (Tan means to extend, stretch, spread; Tra means threefold and stands for liberation, as the path to liberation is threefold. In other words the meaning of the word Tantra is to expand consciousness and liberate energy, which has the same significance as Brahman in the Veda-s) System, doctrine, teaching, science Some texts equate Tantra with Atharva Veda. Tantra is considered to be the scripture ()1stra) of the Kali Yuga. Many of the TantraTantra-s called !gama-s are thought to the world by Lord )iva in the form of dialogues between Him and Dev2 as Durg1 or P1rvat2. When the dialogue is addressed by P1rvat2 to )iva, the form of Tantra is called Nigama. Another form of Tantra is Y1mala. The doctrine of Tantra emphasizes on unity in duality and duality in unity, the ultimate Reality being both static ()iva as Prak10a aspect) and dynamic ()akti as Vimar0a aspect). Tantra treats five subjects: the creation of the world, the absorption of the world, the worship of gods, the attainment of desires, the union with the Divine. The Indian Tantra and other similar practices developed in many parts of the world have evolved from taboos, superstitions and agricultural rituals of the primitive people. Even the $g Veda contains chants to ensure success in agriculture. The symbolism of Tantra is in the form of animal or human figures. The five systems of Tantra are: Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, Ved1c1ra, Siddh1nt1c1ra and Yog1c1ra. In Tantra seven ways of spiritual life are distinguished namely Ved1c1ra, Vai=9av1c1ra, )aiv1c1ra, Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, Siddh1nt1c1ra and Kul1c1ra. Tantric symbols are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3000 BCE) on non-Indo-Aryan origin, however many later Tantric practices are based on Vedic practices (including those from Upani=ad-s and Pur19a-s). It can be said there is a closed connection between Tantra Tantra-s and Veda-s as parallel concepts. Traditionally there are sixty-four Tantra-s as mentioned by Sa9kara in his work Saundaryalahari. The principal sects or branches of Tantra are )aiva-s (worshippers of )iva), Vai=nava-s (worshippers of Vi=9u) and )1kta-s (worshippers of )akti).

Tantra Anu=7h1na
The Anu=7h1na related to practices of Tantra

Tantra S1dhaka
vide S1dhaka

Tantra S1dhana
The practice of Tantra It covers a very wide range of practices. There are four kinds of initiations in the Tantra S1dhana namely Pa0y1c1ra, V2r1c1ra, Mah1vidy1-s and Brahmayoga.

Tantr1sana
Tantric posture using the sexual energy in order to unfold and experience higher awareness Typical Tantric postures are Cakr1sana, Puhapak1sana, Yoni !sana, Padm1sana, Siddh1sana, Viparitarati !sana, Rati !sana, J1nujugm1sana, Bhag1sana.

Tantra01stra
The doctrine of Tantra 169

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Tantra )1str1dhik1ra
Competency for Tantra It is fully described in Gandharva Tantra (vide S1dhaka for conditions of competency). vide also Adhik1rin

Tantra Tattva
The principles of Tantra as awareness, meditation and acceptance

Tantr2
The Indian lute or V291

T1ntrika
Lit. 'relating to Tantra' A follower of the Tantra doctrine

T1pa
Lit. 'pain' Anxiety accompanying an action (Karma)

Taparloka
vide Loka A Loka inhabited by deified Vair1gin-s, the level of awareness before Satyaloka.

Tapas (also T1pasya )
(from Tap i.e. to shine, to produce energy) A process of self-purification as one of the five Niyama-s and one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampats There are three kinds of Tapas acting on different levels on the human body viz. Sattva Tapas, Rajas Tapas and Tamas Tapas. vide also Loka

T1pasa
Ascetic as practitioner of various Tapas

T1pasprati=7h1
A state acquired by practicing Tapas A Yog2 possessing Tapasprati=7h1 will have own impurities destroyed and a healthy body.

T1pasya
vide Tapas

T1pasya Anu=7h1na
The Anu=7h1na related to observance of T1pasya-s.

T1r1
The second of the Mah1vidy1-s represents the power of spiritual aspiration

T1raka
Lit. 'that which enables to go over' 170

T

The knowledge which liberates; a synonym for Pra9ava; a name for Brahman as cause of liberation; a kind of Mudr1

Tarpa9a
A kind of ceremony when libations of water are presented to gods or deceased people in order to satiate them. Tarpa9a employs also the performance of specific Mantra-s.

Tat
Lit. 'that' The Supreme Reality beyond any identification

Tat Sat
Lit. 'that which is' Another name for the Supreme Reality

Tattva
Lit. 'essence, reality' Cosmic principle; true state; essential element In the Tantra-s there are thirty-six Tattva-s namely: )ivatattva, )aktitattva, Sad10ivatattva, @0varatattva, )uddhavidy1tattva, M1y1tattva, Kal1tattva, Vidy1tattva, R1gatattva, K1latattva, Niyatitattva, Puru=atattva, Prak4titattva, Buddhitattva, Aha%k1ratattva, Manastattva, )rotratattva )rotratattva, Tvaktattva, Netratattva, Jihvatattva, Ghr19atattva, V1ktattva, Upasthatattva, P1yutattva, P19itattva, P1datattva, )abdatattva, Spar0atattva, R3patattva, Rasatattva, Gandhatattva, !k10atattva, V1yutattva, Tejastattva, Aptattva, P4thiv2tattva. The thirty-six Tantric Tattva-s are divided into three kinds: pure ()uddhatattva), pure-impure ()uddh10uddhatattva), and impure (!0uddhatattva).

Tattva Cintana
Reflection on supreme consciousness as one of the two sides of the Indian philosophy, the other one being Tattva Dar0ana Typical forms are the +ad Dar0ana-s as intellectualised systems to approach the supreme reality through knowledge.

Tattva Dar0ana
Perception of the supreme consciousness as one of the two sides of the Indian philosophy, the other one being Tattva Cintana It is the experiencing of the supreme reality beyond the intellect, a typical form being Nirb2ja Sam1dhi, i.e. the experience of Nirgu9a Brahman.

Tattvaj61na
Knowledge of the reality

Tattv1k10a
The fourth of the Vyoma Pa6caka-s described as the elemental space

Tattvamasi
Lit. 'that you are' A celebrated statement from the Ch1ndogya Upani=ad expressing the identity between !tman and J2v1tman or the potentiality of the human being to be able to identify with the Divine

Tejas
171

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

Fire, light; form of Agni vide also Bh3ta The word Tejas has a wide range of significance (related also to the acquisitions from the fire) like vital power, magic power, the heating level of the human body, clearness of the eyes, the brightness of the human body, glow of the body, vitality, brilliance of the mind. Tejas is both the yogic fire which is the same as the celestial fire (Cidagni). As vigour is one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampats. The esoteric expression of Tejas is the consciousness, in Vedic terms Agni.

Tejasa Tejasa
The Soul in the S3k=ma )ar2ra (subtle body) vide also J2v1tman

Tejastattva
The Tattva of Tejas Known also as Vahnitattva

Tejom1y1 Puru=a
The mental consciousness in the state of dream as kind of Puru=a in the subconscious mind

Tilaka
A ritual mark on the forehead to designate one's sect

T2rtha
A place of pilgrimage on the banks of a sacred river; a holy place T2rtha-s could be in outer as well as the inner forms in the human body. Laghu Yoga Vasi=7ha does mention thirty-six T2rtha-s (holy places) in the body where worship should be performed in the form of meditation.

T2rtha^kara
Kind of teacher

Titka
Bitter, one of the essential tastes (Rasa-s)

T2vrasa%vega
Intensity of the eagerness towards spiritual realization For an aspirant there are three T2vrasa%vega T2vrasa%vega-s namely M4du, Madhya and Adhim1tra. vide also Sa%vega

Toya
Water vide also Bh3ta

Toyatattva
vide Aptattva

Trailokyamohana Cakra
Lit. 'the wheel enchanting the three worlds' The Yellow Surround Wheel of the )r2 Yantra presided by Tripur1 )akti It consists of a square with four gates (forming the plan of earth named Bh3pura) and three 172

T

concentric circles, girdles (Mekhal1), the space between forming the Traillokyamohana.

Tr17aka
Yogic technique of fixing the eyes on one external or internal object or location as one of the +a7karma-s vide also Praty1h1ra

Tret1 Yuga
An age of the world consisting of 1,296,000 years vide Yuga

Trigu9a
The three Gu9a-s (vide)

Trigu91ti
Beyond the three Gu9a-s

Trigu91tmik1
The Dev2 in the form of Prak4ti as composed of the three Gu9a-s

Triko9a
Lit. 'triangle' vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Trik37i
The joining point of the three main N182-s in the !j6a Cakra vide also Bhr3madhya

Trim3rti
Lit. 'three forms' The Hindu Trinity consisting of Brahm1 (the Creator), Vi=9u (the preserver) and Rudra or )iva (the destroyer, the one who brings transformation) Brahm1 (Viri6ci), Vi=9u (Hari) and Rudra (Hara) are the names for functions of the one Universal Consciousness operating within ourselves as well as outside the human body. According to Kubjika Tantra there are not Brahm1, Vi=9u and Rudra who create, maintain and destroy, but their )akti-s as manifestations namely Brahm192, Vi=9av2 and Rudr192. These three forms of functions are present in various degrees in any activity. Brahm1 as function should be seen in any activity of creation and multiplication, Vi=9u in any activity which stops creation but maintains the already existing status of things, Rudra in any activity which stops creation and destroys the existing things through absorption. In terms of spiritual evolution Rudra's function becomes essential as the activity of consciously going back to the source of creation and becoming one is Yoga (union). vide also S4=7i Sthiti Sa%h1ra

Tripur1
Lit. 'she who is threefold' An aspect of Dev2 Dev2 The K1lik1 Pur19a says: "She has three angles as well as three circles and her Bh3pura is threelined. Her Mantra is said to be of three syllables and She has three aspects. Ku98ali92 energy is also threefold in order that She may create the three gods, thus since She is everywhere triple, She is 173

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

called Tripur1". Tripur1r9ava work says: "Tripur1 means the three N182-s, Su=umn1, I81 and Pi9gal1, it means also Manas, Buddhi and Citta. As Dev2 dwells in these She is called Tripur1". Tripur1 refers also to the three Bindu-s at the centre of )r2 Yantra. vide also Trailokyamohana Cakra, Bindu, Tripur1ntaka

Tripur1 Bhairav2
The sixth of the ten Mah1vidy1-s represents the power of destruction as the annihilated power of time of all existence

Tripuram1lin2
The Garlanded Tripur1 vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Tripur1mb1
The Mother Tripur1 vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Tripurasiddh1
The Perfect Tripur1 vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Tripura0r2
The Holy Tripur1 vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra

Tripur1sundar2
The Beautiful Tripur1 vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra, Bindu

Tripurav1sin2
The Dwelling Tripur1 vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra

Tripur1ntaka
Lit. 'the one destroying the three cities' A name of )iva The three cities are Lobha, K1ma and Krodha, which are the Pa6c1gni-s (fires) associated with the three lower Cakra-s. Their destruction means the overcoming of these fires and the raise of the level of consciousness above them.

Tripure0i
The Sovereign Tripur1 vide also Sarv1s1paripuraka Cakra

Tri=tubh
Eleven syllables as Vedic meter used in addressing the Divine

Trive92 (vide Pray1ga for the place of pilgrimage)
The conjunction of the three main N182-s between the eyebrows 174

T

In the I81 N182 dwells Dev2 Jamun1, in the Pi^gal1 N182 dwells Dev2 Ga^g1, in the Su=umn1 N182 dwells Dev2 Sarasvat2.

Tulas2
Basil; the goddess having this name as an aspect of Dev2 Commonly known as Tuls2, it is a small shrub, a sacred plant venerated mainly by Vai=9ava-s. It is said the plant Tuls2 was produced from the hair of the goddess Tuls2, Tuls2, a primal expression of goddess Lak=m2.

Tuls2
vide Tulas2

Tur2ya (also Turya)
Ecstatic state, the fourth state of Soul beyond the Avasth1-s It is the highest level of consciousness, the knowledge of and union with Brahman. vide also Mah1 K1ra9a )ar2ra

Tur2y1t2ta
One who has realised the state of Tur2ya

Turya
vide Tur2ya

Tu=7i
Contentment, fulfilment

Tvak
Organ of touch, the skin vide also Dh1tu, J61nendriya

Tvaktattva
The Tattva of Tvak

Tvarit1
One of the Nitya )akti-s

Tva=74
Proficiency in making good things as one of the twelve !ditya-s

Ty1ga (from Tyaj i.e. to renounce)
Renunciation as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s

Ty1gin
One on the path of Tyaga

175

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U
Ucc17anakarma
Lit. 'action of ruining an enemy' One of the +a7karma-s which gives the power to ruin and torment an enemy by creating material discomfort, pain, shame, etc. It is one of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra-s.

Ud1na
The V1yu which controls circulation into the body vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvama^gal1k1ri92, Devasu=i Devasu=i, Utkr1nti

Udd1laka
vide Sad Vidy1, Udd1laka !ru9i Vidy1

Udd1laka !ru9i Vidy1
The knowledge of Udd1laka !ru9i A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. Udd1laka !ru9i was a renowned Br1hma9a teacher who had the knowledge of !tm1 as being latent in everything. It is given the example of V1yu as being like a thread binding everything in the world and Pr19a like a thread in the human body. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

U882
Lit. 'to fly up; to cause to fly up' The action or feeling of flying

U882y1na Bandha
Lit. 'upwards lock' The flying up Bandha as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s vide also Bandhatraya

U882y1na P27ha
The symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the middle of the Sarv1nandamaya Cakra Known also as O882y1na P27ha (or Au882y1na P27ha) it is equated with Sahasr1ra Cakra. vide also U882, Catu=p27ha

Udg1t4
One of the four Vedic priests ($tvija-s), the one who chants the hymns of the S1ma Veda An Udg1t4 is assisted by three other helper priests, viz. Prastot4, Pratihart4 and Subrahma9ya.

Udg1raka
The J17har1gni (digestive fire) of belching (vomiting) vide also Sarvap1pahar1 176

U

Udg2tha
Lit. 'to chant aloud' The chanting of S1ma Veda by the Udg1t4 priest; the chanting of O% Mantra; a general name for the S1ma Veda.

Udg2tha Vidy1
The knowledge of Pra9ava O% A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s, which deals with the chanting of the O% Mantra as expression of the name of God. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Ujj1y2
Lit. 'causing victory' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma

Um1
A form of Dev2

Unm1dana
One of the five arrows of K1madeva the one causing intoxication with love vide also Sarvonm1di92

Unman2 (also Unman2 Avasth1)
Lit. 'to become absent in mind' A kind of state beyond the experience of the mind

Unman2 Avasth1
vide Unman2

Unman2bh1va Unman2bh1va
Absence of mind as attitude (Bh1va) vide also Unman2

Unnet4
In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Adhvaryu priest by pouring the Soma Rasa into the recipients

Upac1ra
Offering used for worship

Up1d1na
The act of accepting vide also Ana^gam1lin2 Ana^gam1lin2, Up1sana

Upade0a
Advice

Upakosala Vidy1
The knowledge of Upakosala 177

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s. This Vidy1, named after Upakosala Kamal1yana, a disciple of Satyak1ma J1b1la, deals with the knowledge of the three kinds of Agni and their Loka-s as levels of awareness. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Upani=ad
Lit. 'sitting by the side' A class of philosophical works exposing the secret doctrine They are regarded as a source of Ved1nta, S1%kya and Yoga philosophies, the secret knowledge acquired by sitting near the master. vide also Mah1v1kya

Up1saka
Worshipper, devotee

Up1sana
The external worship and contemplation with the aim to integrate in oneself the two polarities as )iva - )akti It has five stages i.e. Abhigamana (approach), Up1d1na (acceptance of offering), Ijy1 (oblation), Sv1dhy1ya (recitation of Mantra-s), and Yoga (devotional feeling of unity). vide also Sagu9op1sana

Upasarga
Obstacle in spiritual life

Upastha
Sexual organs vide also Karmendriya

Upasthatattva
The Tattva of Upastha

Upavas Upavas
Lit. 'sitting by the side of God' Fasting

Up1ya
A means to successfully approach an action; a stratagem There are various Up1ya-s depending on purpose.

Upek=a
The act of ignoring or disregarding (also Upek=1) Upek=a is also one of the Citta Pras1dana-s as an attitude towards people full of vice. vide also Ana^gamekhal1

#rdhvam3la
Lit. 'upper origin' Brahman as the root cause represented by Adha501kha 178

U

#rdhvaretas
Lit. 'raising the semen upwards' A certain condition of a Yog2 when the sexual energy is sublimated For this purpose Mudra Bandha-s techniques are recommended.

#rdhva0akti
The upper one of the Ku98alin2 )akti-s

Uruloka
Lit. 'great world' The wide space; awareness of the vast space

U=as
In the Veda-s represents the dawn, awakening, blossoming, full-moon night; the Dawn Goddess as symbol of awakening

U=asta Kohala Vidy1
A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s that deals with the knowledge of U=asta C1kr1ya9a and Kohala Kau=2taka about the bondage of the Soul. Only through renunciation will come the knowledge leading one to Devaloka. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

U=9a
Lit. 'hot; passionate' The mental activity of being ardent, passionate vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra, K1me02

U=7r1sana
The camel !sana

Utka71sana
The hazardous !sana

Utkr1nti
Levitation as a result of possessing Laghim1 Siddhi It is considered that levitation can be experienced by mastery over Ud1na V1yu.

Utt1nak3rm1sana
The straight tortoise !sana

Utt1nama98uk1sana
The straight frog !sana

Uttar1yana
Sun's progress north of the equator (from 22nd Dec. to 21st June) expressing the northwards way to Yama's quarter; the bright path The passage of the sun is called Uttar1yana Sa%kr1nti or Sa%kr1nti. For the departed soul it offers the experience of Agni and Jyotir i.e. the consciousness will not return to the material plane. vide also Dak=i91yana 179

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

V
Vacana
The act of speaking vide also Ana^gakusum1

V1cika
Kind of worship of Dev2 by speech; any vocal worship vide also Y1ga

V1ditva
The ability to speak clearly vide also P198itya

Vagbhavak37a
One group (section) of Pa6cada0i presided over by Agni

V1gdev2
A deity of mental expression The V1gdev2-s are expressions of some mental activities or qualities, out of which the speech is only one. There are eight V1gdev2-s (each being the Devat1 of one expression only) namely: Va0in2, K1me0i, Modin2, Vimal1, Aru91, Jayin2, Sarve02 and Kaulin2. vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

V1gmitva
The ability of eloquence vide also P198itya

Vahni
Fire The A%0a-s of Vahni in the Pi98198a are the five J61nendriya-s vide also Bh3ta

Vahnikal1
The essence of fire vide also Sarvarak=1kara Cakra

Vahnis1ra Dhauti
One of the Antardhauti-s (known also as Agnis1ra) a yogic technique to increase Ja7har1gni by fire purification

Vahnitattva
vide Tejastattva

Vahniv1sin2
180

V

One of the Nity1 )akti-s

Vaidika
Lit. 'relating to Veda' The name of the Vedic tradition

Vaikhar2
The physical (vocal) stage of )abda (vide)

Vaiku97ha
A name of Indra or Vi=9u; the paradise of Vi=9u

Vair1gin
Somebody who has accomplished Vair1gya vide also Taparloka

Vair1gya
Detachment (i.e. expression of inner freedom) as one of the eight Bh1va-s The inner freedom as freedom of the mind is seen to giving up R1ga and Dve=a through control by the mind. It is the level of awareness of Taparloka. vide also Avair1gya, Pa6c1gni Pa6c1gni

Vairaty1ga
Cessation of enmity as a result of Ahi%s1prati=7h1

Vai01kha
The month corresponding to parts of April/ May vide also M1sa

Vai0e=ika
One of the +ad Dar0ana-s

Vai=9ava
A follower of Vi=9u; the Vi=9u tradition

Vai=9av2
vide Trim3rti

Vai0vadeva Vai0vadeva
Lit. 'relating to all the gods' All Deva-s (gods) A Vai0vadeva ceremony consists in homage to all the gods followed by food offering to the gods, particularly to Agni. Practically the act of eating should be seen as an offering to Agni who takes the form of fire of digestion. vide also Vai0v1nara

Vai0v1nara
Lit. 'relating to all the people' Humankind, God as humankind (also Vai0v1nara !tm1) 181

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also Vai0vadeva, Vai0v1nara Vidy1, Sa%varga Vidy1

Vai0v1nara !tm1
vide Vai0v1nara, Vai0v1nara Vidy1

Vai0v1nara Puru=a
The mental consciousness of the humankind as kind of Puru=a of the conscious individual mind vide also Vai0v1nara

Vai0v1nara Vidy1
The knowledge Vai0v1nara A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1-s) deals with the knowledge of Vai0v1nara !tm1 as humanity and the corresponding relation to the human body. The macro/ micro relation will make some human activities as access gates to the macro world. The act of eating is to be seen as an offering to Vai0v1nara, the own heart as Vedi, the digestive fire as Agni, etc. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1, Vai0v1nara

Vai0ya
One of the Var9a-s in the Vedic tradition consisting of tradesmen and agricultural people

Vajra
Thunderbolt seen as Indra's bow representing the power of discrimination

Vajra N182
A channel of energy outside the Su=umn1 N182 vide also Vajrol2

Vajr1sana
The diamond !sana

Vajre0var2
Lit. 'the diamond queen' One of the !vara9a Devat1-s presiding over the principle of existence of Aha%k1ra vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Vajrol2 Mudr1
The Vajra N182 Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Vajsa%hananatv1ni
Adamant hardness as one of the four K1ya Sampad-s

V1k
Lit. 'speech, vibration; mouth' The primordial sound known also as )abda (vide) vide also Dhenu

V1k Dev2
vide )abda

V1ktattva
182

V

The Tattva of V1k

V1m1c1ra V1m1c1ra
The left-hand division of Tantra as spiritual path with own wife whose place traditionally is to the left of her husband. This path is known also as V1ma M1rga.

V1makrama
Yogic technique of alternative nostril breathing as one of the three Kap1labh1ti-s

V1ma M1rga
vide V1m1c1ra

V1mana
An incarnation of Vi=9u as dwarf, a representation of the dawn of human existence

Vamana Dhauti
Cleaning by vomiting as one of the H4d Dhauti-s in order to cure the diseases coming from Do=a-s

V1naprastha
Lit. 'hermit, anchorite' vide !0rama

Vandana
One of the nine A^ga-s of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of prostration before the image of the Lord

V1r1hi
The )akti of the Boar (Var1ha) Avat1ra of Vi=9u; the earth

Vara Mudr1
The gesture of granting boons (favours)

Vara9a Vara9a
The obstacle that does not allow the individual consciousness (J2v1tman) to manifest There are three Vara9a-s namely M1l1 (impurity of the mind), Vik=epa (distraction), !vara9a (the covering of the inner reality), their process of removal is called Vara9abheda Vara9abheda.

Vara9abheda
The process of removal of obstacles (Vara9a)

Varga
Group, family

V1ris1ra Dhauti
One of the Antardhauti-s, as purification with water

Varjana
Things to avoid as observance on the Yoga path There are seven kinds of Varjana-s (according to Am4tabindu Upani=ad) namely Bhaga, Krodha, !lasya, Atisvapna, Atij1gara, Aty1h1ra and An1h1ra.

Var9a
183

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The four main classes (castes) described in Manu's code, viz. Br1hman-s, K=atriya-s, Vai0ya-s and )3dra-s; the Sa^skrit letter

V1rta
The sense of supernormal smelling vide also Pr1tibha

Vartam1na Dharma
The inherent property of present time, one of the three Dharma-s (as inherent properties of time)

Varu9a
Lit. 'the one who covers' A Vedic god as personification of space In the Veda-s the god of heaven and earth having many attributes. Later on Varu9a was associated with the waters of the atmosphere. In the Vedic literature Varu9a is invoked together with Indra, Mitra, Agni, Yama, etc., as associations of attributes. Varu9a is also one of the twelve !ditya-s.

Varu9a Dharmapati
Varu9a the lord of right conduct One of the eight Devas3-s, an aspect of Varu9a

Varu9a Mudr1
The gesture of Varu9a

V1ru92 N182
The N182 connected to the right shoulder vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvahl1di92

V1san1
The mental form as impression becoming resident in the form of Sa%sk1ra as latent potentiality; the basic structure of mental consciousness The accumulated impressions are generated by Abhinive0a (will to live) as a process without beginning. V1san1-s stop to accumulate when their cause (i.e. the Kle0a-s) will cease to create afflictions. The V1san1-s will disappear through the elimination of four factors namely Hetu (cause), Phala (effect), !0raya (support of an experience) and !lambana (object of an experience) therefore Citta becomes pure and capable to reflect both the Dra=7a and the D40ya. vide also Sarv1rtha

Va=a7
vide Dhenu

Va0ik1ra
A high form of Vair1gya

Va0ikara9akarma
Lit. 'action of subjugating' One of the +a7karma-s which gives the power to attract and bring under control gods, men, women and animals and make them to act according to the one's desires One of the five malefic rites in the Tantra-s. 184

V

Va0in2
The subduing (mastering) One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of )ita (calm). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Vasi=7ha
Name of a $=i an exponent of Vedanta teaching vide also Sapta4=i, Brahm1, Samaya, K1madhenu

Va0itva
Lit. 'fitness for subjection' One of the eight yogic powers of keeping others under control vide also Siddhi, A=7asiddhi A=7asiddhi

V1sodhauti
Cleaning by cloth as one of the H4d Dhauti-s in order to cure many diseases

Vasti
vide Basti

Va0ya
The subjecting to one's will by Mantra-s, Yantra-s, etc.

Va0ya Siddhi
The power of subjugation vide also Siddhi

V1ta
One of the three Do=a-s In !yurveda system a deficiency of air as a cause to diseases.

V1tas1ra Dhauti
One of the Antardhauti-s, as air purification

V1tsalya
Affection; one of the Bh1va-s of Bhakti Yoga, also one of the Rasa-s

Vau=at
A certain Mantra

V1yav2 Dh1ra91
The Dh1ra91 Dh1ra91 on air as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91-s

V1yu
Lit. 'wind, air, breath' Air, vital air; the god of air The A%0a-s of V1yu in the Pi98198a are the five major vital airs viz. Ap1na, Sam1na, Pr19a, Ud1na, Vy1na and the five minor airs viz, N1ga, K3rma, K4kara, Devadatta and Dhana6jay1. In the $g Veda, V1yu is the god of the wind. 185

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality

vide also Bh3ta, Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Devasu=i

V1yutattva
The Tattva of V1yu

Veda
Lit. 'knowledge, wisdom' A collection of writings structured in four parts Sa%hit1, Br1hma9a, !ra9yaka !ra9yaka and Upani=ad vide also $tvija, Brahma Tantra, Sat Cit !nanda The main Sa%hit1-s are $g, Yajur, S1ma and Atharva. As religion the Veda-s are called the !rya Dharma (path of noble people). The gods of Vedic trinity are Indra, Agni and S3rya. Soma is also a very important deity, so the fourfold godhead of the Veda-s are Indra, Agni, Soma and S3rya.

Ved1c1ra
The Veda-s based division of Tantra It involves specific practices of meditation in order to raise Ku98ali92 through the will power. vide Tantra

Vedana Vedana
The sense of supernormal touching vide also Pr1tibha

Ved1nta
Lit. 'end of Veda' One of the +ad Dar0ana-s teaching the essence of the Veda-s

Veda S1dhana
A practice from Veda-s vide S1dhana

Veda Vidy1
The knowledge of Veda-s There is a wide variety of Veda Veda Vidy1-s, their practice is called Veda S1dhana. An attempt for their classification is made in the Dv1tri%0at Vidy1-s taxonomy, however there are other Veda Vidy1-s outside it. This knowledge that comes from Vedic scriptures is considered to be higher Yoga and a subject to be learned from a qualified person. The most important works on various Veda Vidy1-s are seen to be Ch1ndogya and B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad-s, Ved1nta S3tra, Satapatha Br1hma9a, Kau=2tak2 Upani=ad. The purpose of Veda Vidy1-s is the knowledge of Brahman. vide also Veda, Ved1c1ra, Dv1tri%0at Vidy1

Vedha Siddhi
The power to be pious and faithful vide also Siddhi

Vedi (also Ved2)
Sacrificial ground vide also Vai0v1nara Vidy1 186

V

Vedyagni
The fire on the Vedi

Vega
Lit. 'agitation, emotion, excitement; effect of poison; flood of water or tears; semen virile' vide Ana^gavegan2

Vibhu
The hall in the Brahmaloka standing for Aha%k1ra vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

Vibh3ti
The power of an enlightened Soul; the supernatural power known also as Siddhi described in the third chapter of Yoga S3tra

Vicak=a9a
The throne in the Brahmaloka standing for Mahat vide also Parya^ka Vidy1

Vic1ra
The state of consciousness flowing without the basis of )abda (as word) and being able to discriminate Vic1ra is a S3k=ma (subtle) kind of Vi=aya.

Vidve=a9akarma
Lit. 'action of exciting enmity' One of the +a7karma-s which gives the power of creating ill-feelings and separating two parties like friends, lovers, relatives, etc. One of the five malefic magical rites in the Tantra-s.

Vidy1 Vidy1
Lit. 'that which expands' Science, knowledge, learning; meditation conducting to knowledge; non-duality vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1, Mah1vidy1, J61na, Kaivalya, Sahaja

Vidy1dhara
A kind of being possessing of magical powers attending upon )iva in the Him1laya Him1laya-s; fairy

Vidy1 Ka6cuka
Form of )akti limiting the perception of the real knowledge as being one with the primordial unity of )iva )akti vide also Tattva, Vidy1tattva

Vidy1p27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the )r2 Vidy1 (i.e. the )r2 Yantra ) vide also Pitha

Vidy1r1ja
The Royal Science 187

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vide Pa9cada02

Vidy1tattva
The Tattva of Vidy1 Ka6cuka

Vighne0vara
Lit. 'remover of obstacles' A name of Ga9e=a

Vijay1
One of the Nity1 )akti-s; ever victorious

Vij61na
Perception; direct perception of Brahman as manifestation (i.e. Sagu9a Brahman) vide also J61na, Bh3ma Vidy1

Vij61namaya Ko0a
The body of intellect as sphere of consciousness known also as Buddhimaya Ko0a it is the expression and experience of the intellect and has the seat in the Vi0uddhi Vi0uddhi and !j61 Cakra-s.

Vikalpa
A part, aspect or concept as object of meditation; one of the five Cittav4tti-s vide also Savikalpa Sam1dhi, Nirvikalpa Sam1dhi

Vikara9a Bh1va
The state of perception without the instrumentality of J61nendriya-s and Karmendriya Karmendriya-s

Vik=epa
Lit. 'what distracts or diverts' Distraction on the path of Yoga There are nine Vik=epa-s in the form of Citta V4tti-s (vide). Vik=epa is also one of the two functions of M1y1 as the illusion of believing that Self-realization lies without.

Vik=epasahabh3
Associate obstructive distraction on the path of Yoga (vide Yoga S3tra I.31) There are four Vik=epasahabh3-s namely Du5kha, Daurmanasya, A^gamejayatva and )v1sa Pra0v1sa connected to the Ko0a-s (except !nandamaya Ko0a which transcends distraction). The four Vik=epasahabh3-s are associated to the nine Citta Vik=epa-s as obstructive distractions in Yoga.

Vik=ipta
Agitated state as one of the five Cittabh3mi-s

Vimal1
The afflicting One One of the V1gdev2-s corresponding to the mental activity of Du5kha (distressed) vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra

Vim1na
The celestial chariot 188

V

Vimar0a )akti
Manifested Power Aspect of )akti inclined towards creation. )iva is the other aspect called Prak10a. According to K1makal1vil1sa work, it is the pure mirror in which )iva reflects Himself. vide also )iva, )akti, )iva )akti, !dy10akti

V291
The Indian lute usually having seven strings The most celebrated one is V29a of Sarasvat2. There is also a Tantra called V291 Tantra. vide also Tantr2

Vipar2ta Kara92
Lit. 'inverted effect' The reversal polarity as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s

Viparyaya
Incorrect knowledge as a form of Avidy1 and one of the five Cittav4tti-s vide also Pram19a

V2ra
A kind of S1dhaka at a level between Pa0u and Divya in the Tantra-s; heroism as one of the Rasa-s In a V2ra kind of person the Rajas Gu9a is predominant. vide also S1dhaka

V2ra Bh1va
One of the Bh1va-s as a state of human personality based on activity and motion, therefore of Rajas nature vide also S1dhaka

V2r1c1ra
The second kind of initiation in the Tantra S1dhana vide Tantra S1dhana

Viraj1
The ageless river in the Brahmaloka whose crossing enable the devotee never to grow old, but to live to the age of Brahm1 i.e. to attain Self-realization

V2r1sana
The hero !sana

Viri6ci
Lit. 'he who creates' A name of Brahm1

V2rya
Physical and mental energy; courage to overcome obstacles on the path of Yoga It represents the energy accumulated by sublimation of sexual energy in order to stimulate the 189

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unfolding of consciousness.

V2ryayojan1
Lit. 'energy union' The process in which the Guru gives to the disciple the power of a Mantra

Visarga
The symbol of two dots (:) pronounced like H with a distinctly audible aspiration; the act of evacuation of excrement Esoterically is the symbol of )iva )akti as a double Bindu. vide also Bindu, Ana^gavegan2

Visarjana
The act of throwing the image of a deity into holy water as a rite of bidding farewell at the end of a festival or worship It has either practical or symbolical aspects.

Vi=aya
An object of sense perception , knowledge or meditation vide also Vic1ra, Vitarka

Vi=ayak1ra
The active state of Citta in which identifies itself with the senses

Vi=ayak1ra V4tti
The V4tti of Vi=ayak1ra state

Vi=ayavat2 Prav4tti
The sense experience as kind of Dh1ra91 on Tanm1tra-s

Vi0e=a
Lit. 'without difference' One of the four Gu9aparva-s in which Savitarka Sam1dhi is experienced The difference has to be seen as the distinction between Puru=a and Prak4ti, in Yoga an essential experience. vide also !tmabh1va

Vi=9u
Lord Vi=nu one of the Hindu trinity (Trimurti) protector of the Universe, presiding over the preservation of the Brahm198a; the Devat1 of !p Bh3ta His vehicle is Garu8a, the Eagle. Lord Vi=nu is the consort of Lak=m2. There are ten incarnations (Avat1ra-s) of Vi=nu namely Fish (Matsya), Tortoise (K3rma), Boar (Var1ha), Man-lion (Narasi%ha), Dwarf (V1mana), Para0ur1ma, R1ma, K4=9a, Buddha and Kalki as evolutionary unfolding of the universe. Vi=nu is also one of the twelve !ditya-s.

Vi=9ugranthi
Lit. 'knot of Vi=nu' Located in the S3rya Kha98a represents the attachment to Krodha (anger) and Moha (infatuation)

Vi0ok1
190

V

The process of removal of sorrow vide also Jyoti=mat2

Vi0uddhi Cakra (also Vi0uddha Cakra)
Lit. 'purification Cakra' The Cakra located on the vertebral column behind the throat pit This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of )rotra, the Karmendriya of V1k, the Tanm1tra of )abda, is the center for Ud1na V1ya and the seat of Vij61namaya Ko0a, the level of awareness is Janarloka. vide also S1kin2

Vi0va
All pervading, universe

Vi0vadar1 N182
The N182 connected to the right cheek vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvakar=i92

Vi0vakarman
Lit. 'the one who creates everything' A Vedic god personifying the creative force

Vi=van1tha
Lit. 'Lord of the universe' A name of )iva

Vi0va Puru=a
A mental consciousness of the world as kind of Puru=a of the conscious mind

Vi0var3pa
The cosmic form

Vitalaloka
vide Loka

V2tar1ga
A person who has renounced attachment (R1ga)

Vitarka
The state of consciousness flowing with the basis of )abda (as word) and being able to discriminate; intention Vitarka is a Sth3la (gross) kind of Vi=aya.

Vivasvat
Harmony in nature as one of the twelve !ditya-s

Viveka
Discrimination between real and unreal, reality and illusion as a process of J61na Yoga It is the level of awareness of Satyaloka and the expression of freedom from Mada (pride). 191

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vide also Pa6c1gni, Vajra

Viveka J61na
Discriminative knowledge vide also Satyaloka

Vivekakhy1ti
The knowledge through Viveka as a continuous process of awareness of the reality (Sat) and fulfilment of H1na (liberation) vide also Pratiprasava, Khy1ti

Vrata
Lit. 'vow; service' A rite of devotion or vow of austerity; a rite of Goddess worship In the Veda-s signifies the milk as the only food after taking the vow of such austerity.

V4k=1sana
The tree !sana

V4nd1vana
The village on the river where K4=9a spent his youth, today an important place of pilgrimage

V4=abha
In the Veda-s a name for the bull (known also as V4=an) representing the power behind the creation complementing Dhenu (the milk cow). V4=abha has to be seen as the symbol of the male principle in the Veda-s, a parallel concept with Puru=a in Yoga.

V4=abha Dhenu
In the Veda-s the bull and the milk cow as symbols of two polarities viz. heaven and earth, father and mother, male and female, a parallel concept with Puru=a and Prak4ti in Yoga. The heavenearth unity is often personified in the Veda-s as Varu9a.

V4=an
In the Veda-s the bull vide V4=abha

V4=1sana
The bull !sana

V4tra
In the Veda-s the dragon as symbol of ignorance vide also Avidy1, Aj61na

V4trahan
In the Veda-s a name of Indra as destroyer of V4tra

V4tti
Condition of a mental activity having as background the Citta The V4tti-s are of three kinds namely waking (J1grat), dreaming (Svapna) and dreamless sleep (Su=upti) 192

V

The suppression of V4tti-s is an essential condition of the state of Yoga (vide Cittav4tti), their superimposition on Citta will cease only when the state of Dharmamegha Sam1dhi is reached. vide also Avasth1

V4ttinirodha
The non-rise of any kind of V4tti in the Citta as a state of Yoga vide also Cittav4ttinirodha

Vy1dhi
The state of disease as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa-s

Vy1kara9a
Lit. 'separation, explanation' Revelation; grammar

Vy1khy1na Mudr1
The gesture of explanation

Vy1khy1t4tva Vy1khy1t4tva
The ability of clear explanation vide also Pa98itya

Vyakta
The manifested principle of creation made up of the three Gu9a-s vide also Avyakta, Prasava, Pratiprasava, Abhivyaktik1ra9a

Vy1na
The V1yu which distributes and circulates the energy all over the body vide also V1yu, Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra, Sarvapriya%kar2, Devasu=i

Vy1pti
Lit. 'attainment' Acquisition of a Tattva

Vyoma
Ether; space vide also Bh3ta

Vyoma Pa6caka
The five subtle spaces as intermediate stages of Dh1ra9a viz. Gu9a Rahita !k10a, Param1k10a, Mah1k10a, Tattv1k10a and S3ry1k10a.

Vyomatattva
vide !k10atattva

Vyutkrama
Yogic technique of taking water through both nostrils and expelling it through the mouth as one of the three Kap1labh1ti-s.

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Y
Y1ga
Worship as general term in all Indian traditions The Dev2's worship is of three kinds: Antary1ga (or K1yika), Bahiry1ga (B1hyay1ga or V1cika) and Bh1vana (or M1nasa). A special kind of worship is Mah1y1ga.

Yajm1na
A priest presiding over Yaj6a

Yaj6a (also Y1j6a)
Lit. 'worship, prayer, devotion; oblation, offering, sacrifice' The fire sacrifice as altar of the Vedic fire Y1j6a means also sacrifice as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat-s. Y1j6a is basically an expression of consciousness in a Vedic ritual form in order to obtain awareness, therefore a parallel concept to Sam1dhi in Yoga. vide also !tm1rpa9a, $tvija, Puru=a Vidy1, Agni, Homa, Cidagni, Cidagni Ku98a

Y1j6avalkya
A sage householder in the B4had1ra9yaka Upani=ad vide also Maitrey2 Vidy1

Yajur Veda
One of the four Veda-s known also as the sacrificial Veda vide Veda

Y1kin2
The )akti residing in Sahasr1ra Cakra

Yak=a
A class of semi-divine beings

Yama
In the Veda-s the god who rules the spirits of the dead and presides over the Pit4-s; in Yoga one of the eight A^ga-s of the A=71^gaYoga of Pata6jali. It contains five moral codes of conduct viz. Ahi%s1, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacarya, Aparigraha all as expressions of a balanced state of mind.

Y1mala
A class of Tantra works vide )iva, Tantra

Yamun1
A river in India commonly known as Jumn1 vide also Pray1ga, Trive92 194

Y

Yantra
Lit. 'amulet; mystical diagram' A form-symbol of a deity; a Tantric symbol of unity of Macrocosm (Brahm198a) and Microcosm (Pi98198a); an expression of the supreme consciousness as diagram or symbol The most celebrated Yantra is )r2 Yantra. A fundamental concept is that the human body as Microcosm is a Yantra therefore subject to meditation of various kinds. vide also Ma98ala, +ada^ga

Yantrop1sana
Meditation on Yantra

Ya0ovat2 N182
The N182 connected to the right thigh vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra, Sarvastambhi92

Y1tr1
Expedition, pilgrimage, campaign with a spiritual purpose

Yoga (from the root Y3j i.e. to connect)
Lit. 'joining, yoking' The state of union with the Divine; one of the +a8 Dar0ana-s; disunion between Puru=a Puru=a and Prak4ti Yoga consists of different physiological, mental and spiritual practices of union, knowledge, awareness and understanding leading to self-discovery of the individual nature as well as the higher nature or cosmic Self. Traditionally Lord )iva was the first Yog2 who taught the Yoga Vidy1 as part of Tantra to his wife P1rvat2, the first )i0ya. Any conscious step upwards is Yoga. There are many classifications of Yoga-s depending of kinds of practices. The main paths are considered to be J61na Yoga Yoga, Karma Yoga and Bhakti Yoga as described in the Bhagavad G2t1 by K4=9a. vide also Pratiprasava, Yog2, Yog1c1ra, Trim3rti, Yoga Avasth1

Yoga Anu=7h1na
The Anu=7h1na related to practices of Yoga as spiritual union

Yoga Avasth1
The Yoga state known also as Bh3mik1 There are four Yoga states namely !ra%bha, Gha7a, Paricaya and Ni=patti as gradual experiences of Ku98alin2 ascending (i.e. !roha9a) the Su=umn1 N182.

Yog1c1ra
The Yoga based division of Tantra The Tantric path based of yogic techniques vide Tantra Tantra

Yoga Dar0ana
The Indian system of philosophy of Yoga vide also +a8 Dar0ana

Yogam1y1 S1dhana
The magical practices in the Tantra-s 195

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vide also +a7karma

Yog1^ga
The steps of Yoga vide also A=71^ga Yoga

Yoga Nidr1
The yogic technique of conscious sleep by rotating the consciousness through the different parts of the body Through Yoga Nidr1, the space of knowledge (i.e. Cid1k10a) is contacted. In the modern times Yoga Nidr1 was reformulated by Svam2 Saty1nanda Sarasvat2 (of Deoghar) from the Tantric tradition as an introduction to meditation (Dhy1na). vide also Sa%kalpa

Yoga S1dhana
The practice of Yoga vide S1dhana

Yog1sana
The union !sana

Yoga S3tra
The book of Yoga by Pata6jali teaching the eight-fold path towards attaining spiritual liberation (Nirv19a or Sam1dhi) vide also A=71^ga Yoga

Yoga Vidy1
The knowledge of Yoga

Yog2 (also Yogi)
A male practitioner of Yoga; ascetic; one who has attained Yoga As levels of spiritual realization there are four kinds of Yog2 namely Prathamakalpika, Madhubh3mika, Praj61jyoti Praj61jyoti, Atikr1ntabh1van2ya. The necessary conditions for a Yog2 to step from one level to another and use Siddhi-s is to be able to overcome gradually Sa^ga (attachment) and Smaya (pride). Then the Devat1-s will pay attention to the Yog2. After achieving the experience of Dharmamegha Sam1dhi the Yog2 becomes !ptak1ma, !ptaj61na and Antasa^kalpa since the veil of knowledge has been removed. vide also T2vrasa%vega, Yogin2, Maithuna

Yogin2
Female Yog2 Tantric female Yog2 having magical powers (Siddhi-s). A Yogin2 is also a female representing a goddess who is subject to adoration. Traditionally there are sixty-four Yogin2-s (i.e. Cau0atti Yogin2-s). vide also Maithuna, Tantra

Yogyat1
The attitude and quality to be an enjoyer and an object of enjoyment in the same time

Yoni
196

Y

Lit. 'womb; source, origin; place of rest, home; vagina' The matrix of generation as a symbol of cosmic primordial source of the material world

Yoniku98a
A particular Yantra diagram; a place of oblation and worship in the )akta tradition

Yoni Li^ga Li^ga
The symbol of divine energy of creation; the clitoris

Yonima98ala
vide Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra

Yoni Mudr1
The foetus Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bandha-s vide also Laya Siddhi Yoga

Yonimukta
A person released from being born again

Yonip27ha
A symbol of creation as attribute of the Dev2 in the Yoni form vide also P27ha, K1mar3pa P27ha

Yuga
Cosmic age of the world There are four Yuga-s, viz. Satya (or K4ta), Tret1, Dv1para and Kali, comprising an aggregate of 4,320,000 years which constitute a Mah1 Yuga. From Satya Yuga down to Kali Yuga there is a step-by-step deterioration in the condition of the world. Yuga-s are in fact the material macrocosmic expression of the age of a human being, i.e. Brahm198a vs. Pi98198a.

Yuktatrive92
A name for !j61 Cakra as a place of upper intersection of the three main N182-s vide also Pray1ga

197

The author Octavian Sarbatoare was born in Romania in 1952. Since 1987 he has been living in Australia. He completed his BA in Philosophy and Studies in Religion, BA (Honours) in Studies in Religion, Master of Arts with Merit (PACS), all at the University of Sydney. He holds a PhD (Honorary Degree) as well. Octavian is the author of various books of scholarly research and fiction, both in English and Romanian.

Sarbatoare Publications