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Gas Dynamics and Propulsion / BY Dr.G.KUMARESAN, / PROFESSOR, / ANNA UNIVERSITY

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Con

Ø With most present day aircraft engines, it is

necessary to decelerate the air to subsonic

velocity before passing it to the engine, this

deceleration also increases the pressure of the

incoming air. The deceleration is carried out in

the diffuser.

Ø The deceleration potentially being shock-

shock-less at

the design flight Mach number of the aircraft.

In such a case the flow through the

diffuser will be as shown in the following figure.

Diffuser with different Inlet Mach number

M < Mdes

Cont..

M > Mdes

wave to be “swallowed” by the diffuser and the

shock wave then settles in the divergent portion

of the diffuser as shown in the above figure.

Cont..

Diffuser Performance

Stagnation pressure ratio versus Mach number

P – Static Pr .

Pt - Total Pr .

Cont..

T – Static Temp.

Tt - Total Temp.

M ≈ 0.8

Cont..

Area ratio versus Mach number

M ≈ 1.5

Limitations of Gas tables

1. They do not show trends or the ‘big

picture.’

2. There is almost always the need for

interpolation.

3. They display only one or at most a few

values of γ.

4. They do not necessarily have the

required accuracy.

Question 1

How to locate sonic state on the T-

T-s diagram?

If the flow is subsonic, the sonic state will be below its

static state.

If the flow is supersonic, the sonic state will be above its

static state.

Question 2

A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and

300K is connected to a converging nozzle on the left

side and a C-

C-D nozzle on the right side. Both nozzles

share the same minimum passage area of 100 sq.cm.

The C-

C-D nozzle has an exit-

exit-to-

to-throat area ratio of 1.2

Pamb

compare the pressure level at point A, C, and D.

Cont..

Cont..

b) If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm. What is the

mass flow rate in the nozzle?

Cont..

From the T emperature ratio Texit is

Texit = 284.8 K

Cont..

How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure to

reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?

For a converging nozzle, the ambient pressure has to be

lower than 52.8% of the chamber pressure to choke the

converging nozzle. This corresponds to an ambient

pressure of

Pamb ≤ 3.17 atm

If Pamb is lower than 3.17 atm, the exit plane pressure

will not be the same as the ambient value (pressure

mismatch). Pamb will keep staying at 3.17 atm. This is

because no downstream pressure information can

propagate upstream past the sonic point (exit plane).

The flow within the nozzle becomes invariant once the

sonic condition is attained at the exit.

What is the mass flow rate at choking condition?

For a con. nozzle the ambient pressure has to be lower than 52.8% of

the chamber pressure to choke the con. Nozzle. This corresponds to

an amb. Pr . of Pamb ≤ 3.17 atm.

When Pamb = 3.17 atm, the Mach no. at the exit plane just reaches

unity. From Isentropiv table at M = 1

Let us consider C-

C-D nozzle on the right

If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass

flow rate in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging

nozzle computed before?

n For this C-D nozzle case, we also need to check if the nozzle is

choked at Pamb = 5.0 atm. The main difference between the C-D

nozzle and the converging nozzle is that the choking pressure ratio

is dependent on the exit-to-throat area ratio (not a universal

constant anymore).

n With an area ratio of 1.20, we find from the isentropic flow table

that the subsonic solution gives a pressure ratio

- the ambient pressure is high enough that the flow is

not choked

- the flow remains subsonic within the C-D nozzle

- ρexit, Mexit and Texit are the same as those in the converging nozzle

case

Cont..

Since the exit area is 1.20 times as large as that of the

converging nozzle, we expect a 20 % increase in the

mass flow rate. Hence, m.f.r is 12.96 kg/m3.

How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle

to operate at its first critical point?

The first critical point corresponds to an isentropic, subsonic solution

with Mach 1.0 flow at the throat.

We obtain from the isentropic flow table that

What is the corresponding mass flow rate at the first critical point?

Once this converging-

converging-diverging nozzle is choked at its first critical

point, we know that Mach 1.0 is achieved at its minimum flow area,

i.e. at the throat. We expect that same m.f.r as that of the

converging nozzle choked case

Cont..

At the design point (third critical)

What is the ambient pressure?

The third critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic

solution in the C-

C-D nozzle.

For an area ratio of 1.20, we obtain a supersonic solution from the

isentropic flow table Mexit = 1.534

This solution gives a pressure ratio Pamb/P0 = 0.25922, so

Pamb = 1.55 atm

required to choke the converging and C-

C-D nozzle? Which

one is higher? Can you explain it?

Cont..

Cont..

Isentropic Nozzle flow

1-D Flow through constant area ducts

( Fanno Flow)

b) Duct flow with Heat Transfer and

negligible friction ( Rayleigh Flow)

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