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# Con--Div Diffuser

Con
Ø With most present day aircraft engines, it is
necessary to decelerate the air to subsonic
velocity before passing it to the engine, this
deceleration also increases the pressure of the
incoming air. The deceleration is carried out in
the diffuser.
Ø The deceleration potentially being shock-
shock-less at
the design flight Mach number of the aircraft.
In such a case the flow through the
diffuser will be as shown in the following figure.

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Diffuser with different Inlet Mach number

M < Mdes

Cont..

M > Mdes

## n Increase in Mach number will cause the Shock

wave to be “swallowed” by the diffuser and the
shock wave then settles in the divergent portion
of the diffuser as shown in the above figure.

Cont..

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Diffuser Performance

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Stagnation pressure ratio versus Mach number

P – Static Pr .
Pt - Total Pr .

Cont..

T – Static Temp.
Tt - Total Temp.

M ≈ 0.8

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Cont..
Area ratio versus Mach number

M ≈ 1.5

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Limitations of Gas tables
1. They do not show trends or the ‘big
picture.’
2. There is almost always the need for
interpolation.
3. They display only one or at most a few
values of γ.
4. They do not necessarily have the
required accuracy.

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Question 1
How to locate sonic state on the T-
T-s diagram?
If the flow is subsonic, the sonic state will be below its
static state.
If the flow is supersonic, the sonic state will be above its
static state.

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Question 2
A large supply chamber containing air at 6.0 atm and
300K is connected to a converging nozzle on the left
side and a C-
C-D nozzle on the right side. Both nozzles
share the same minimum passage area of 100 sq.cm.
The C-
C-D nozzle has an exit-
exit-to-
to-throat area ratio of 1.2

Pamb

## a) Let us consider the converging nozzle at the left and

compare the pressure level at point A, C, and D.

Cont..

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Cont..
b) If the ambient pressure is reduced to 5.0 atm. What is the
mass flow rate in the nozzle?

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Cont..
From the T emperature ratio Texit is
Texit = 284.8 K

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Cont..
How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure to
reach the choking point of this converging nozzle?
For a converging nozzle, the ambient pressure has to be
lower than 52.8% of the chamber pressure to choke the
converging nozzle. This corresponds to an ambient
pressure of
Pamb ≤ 3.17 atm
If Pamb is lower than 3.17 atm, the exit plane pressure
will not be the same as the ambient value (pressure
mismatch). Pamb will keep staying at 3.17 atm. This is
because no downstream pressure information can
propagate upstream past the sonic point (exit plane).
The flow within the nozzle becomes invariant once the
sonic condition is attained at the exit.

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What is the mass flow rate at choking condition?

For a con. nozzle the ambient pressure has to be lower than 52.8% of
the chamber pressure to choke the con. Nozzle. This corresponds to
an amb. Pr . of Pamb ≤ 3.17 atm.

When Pamb = 3.17 atm, the Mach no. at the exit plane just reaches
unity. From Isentropiv table at M = 1

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Let us consider C-
C-D nozzle on the right
If the ambient pressure is set at 5.0 atm, do you expect the mass
flow rate in the C-D nozzle to be the same as that in the converging
nozzle computed before?
n For this C-D nozzle case, we also need to check if the nozzle is
choked at Pamb = 5.0 atm. The main difference between the C-D
nozzle and the converging nozzle is that the choking pressure ratio
is dependent on the exit-to-throat area ratio (not a universal
constant anymore).
n With an area ratio of 1.20, we find from the isentropic flow table
that the subsonic solution gives a pressure ratio

## n Hence, we conclude that

- the ambient pressure is high enough that the flow is
not choked
- the flow remains subsonic within the C-D nozzle
- ρexit, Mexit and Texit are the same as those in the converging nozzle
case

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Cont..
Since the exit area is 1.20 times as large as that of the
converging nozzle, we expect a 20 % increase in the
mass flow rate. Hence, m.f.r is 12.96 kg/m3.

How much do we need to lower the ambient pressure for the nozzle
to operate at its first critical point?
The first critical point corresponds to an isentropic, subsonic solution
with Mach 1.0 flow at the throat.
We obtain from the isentropic flow table that

What is the corresponding mass flow rate at the first critical point?
Once this converging-
converging-diverging nozzle is choked at its first critical
point, we know that Mach 1.0 is achieved at its minimum flow area,
i.e. at the throat. We expect that same m.f.r as that of the
converging nozzle choked case

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Cont..
At the design point (third critical)
What is the ambient pressure?
The third critical point corresponds to an isentropic, supersonic
solution in the C-
C-D nozzle.
For an area ratio of 1.20, we obtain a supersonic solution from the
isentropic flow table Mexit = 1.534
This solution gives a pressure ratio Pamb/P0 = 0.25922, so
Pamb = 1.55 atm

## n How do you compare the ambient pressure which is

required to choke the converging and C-
C-D nozzle? Which
one is higher? Can you explain it?

Cont..

Cont..

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Isentropic Nozzle flow

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1-D Flow through constant area ducts

## a) Adiabatic duct flow with Friction

( Fanno Flow)
b) Duct flow with Heat Transfer and
negligible friction ( Rayleigh Flow)