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Enthalpy change of reaction between

Phosphoric Acid (H
3
PO
4
) and Sodium
Hydroide (!aOH) using "offee#cup
"alorimetry
Valentin Uzunov (author) & Francesca Frattaroli (lab partner)
PSU ID#: 96!""#$$
%&' (()&* +ab (6!* Due: #!,"!,!
A$S%&A"%
In the -ollo.in/ e0peri1ent the chan/e in enthalp2 -or the neutralization reaction o- phosphoric
aci3 .ith so3iu1 h23ro0i3e .as 3eter1ine3 usin/ a co--ee4cup cup calori1eter5 6he 7&rn0 .as
calculate3 an3 co1pare3 to the accepte3 literature value* to assess vali3it2 an3 e--ectiveness o- the
co--ee4cup calori1eter in 3eter1inin/ enthalp2 o- a8ueous reaction55 6he results collecte3 b2 author
.ere invali3ate3 3ue to inaccurate 1easure1ent volu1e o- 9a:&* thereb2 intro3ucin/ s2ste1atic
error in subse8uent calculations5 6he 7&rn0 usin/ the results 2iel3 an enthalp2 o- 4!;#56# <=,1ol*
>65$( <=,1ol (s3* .ith !5) ? error5 6he class 1ean 7&r0n .as 4!#(5;9 <= , 1ol* >!;59) (s3* .hich
has a !;5( ? error 3i--erence co1pare3 to the literature value* 4!;65 <=,1ol5 6he 1ean 76 -or the
reaction .as )56 @%* >"5#) (s3 -or the e0peri1ental 3ata an3 )5) @%* >"5;$ (s35 Aase3 on the
results its not possible to accuratel2 3eter1ine the li<el2 causes -or the lar/e 3i--erence bet.een
literature value an3 class 3ata5 It is possible that .ith better proce3ural control* 1ore trials a hi/her
accurac2 coul3 be achieve35
'!%&O()"%'O!
6he -ollo.in/ e0peri1ent* ai1e3 to 3eter1ine i- the enthalp2 chan/e ( 7&r0n ) associate3 .ith the
neutralization reaction o- phosphoric aci3 .ith so3iu1 h23ro0i3e coul3 accuratel2 be 3eter1ine3
usin/ a co--ee4cup calori1eter5 6he results o- the e0peri1ent coul3 be veri-ie3 a/ainst literature
accepte3 values5 It .as h2pothesize3 that 3espite the si1ple calori1eter setup* it .ill be an e--ective
1etho3 -or 3eter1inin/ 7&r0n in solution5
Bnthalp2 (&) is a 1easure o- the total ener/2 in a ther1o32na1ic s2ste1:
& C U D pV EB85 !F
.here U is internal ener/2 o- the s2ste1* or ener/2 re8uire3 to create the s2ste1* p is pressure an3
V is the volu1e occupie3 b2 the s2ste15 6he pV pro3uct can be thou/ht o- as the ener/2 ( .or< )
re8uire3 to 1a<e roo1 -or the s2ste15 Since enthalp2 is 3erive3 -ro1 pressure* volu1e* an3 internal
ener/2* all o- .hich are state -unctions* enthalp2 is also a state -unction5 Gs such* un3er constant
pressure con3itions .here there is ver2 little to no chan/e in size o- the s2ste1 the chan/e in
enthalp2 o- the s2ste1 beco1es e8ual to the heat release3 b2 the s2ste1 3urin/ che1ical reaction
7& C 8p EB85 !F
6he che1ical s2ste1 un3er un3er investi/ation in this e0peri1ent .as the reaction bet.een the
phosphoric aci3 an3 so3iu1 h23ro0i3e5

H
#
P O

+# N aO HN a
#
PO

+#H
(
O
EH0n F
6he reaction ta<es place insi3e an open top St2ro-oa1 cup suspen3e3 in a lar/e bea<er* to insulate
the solution -ro1 the rest o- the surroun3in/ environ1ent5 Bven thou/h the s2ste1 is open* it is
assu1e3 that no 1ass or heat is lost to the surroun3in/ at1osphere5
In an e0other1ic reaction I such as 3urin/ a neutralization reaction 4 provi3e3 the s2ste1 is un3er
constant pressure an3 the .or< 3one b2 the s2ste1 is onl2 e0pansion .or<* the heat /aine3 b2 the
surroun3in/s (8sol) is e8ual to the heat /iven o-- b2 the s2ste1 (4 8r0n)5 6his convenient relationship
can be use3 to 3eter1ine the enthalp2 chan/e o- a reaction -ro1 the chan/e in te1perature o- the
solution5:
8sol C 1 J %s J 76 EB85 F
7&r0n C 4 8p* r0nC 8sol EB85 ;F
.here 1 is the 1ass o- solution* %s is the speci-ic heat o- the solution*an3 76 is the chan/e in
te1perature o- the solution5 For 3ilute a8ueous solution the speci-ic heat an3 1ass o- the solution is
o-ten appro0i1ate3 b2 those o- .ater5
(A%A
%able # 6he 1ean an3 ( st3 -or .hole class 3ata .ere calculate3 as 76 @% K 0 C )5)* (st3 3ev C
"5;$* -or 7&n <L , 1olK 0 C 4!#(5;9 * (st3 3ev C !;59) 5 6he authors 3ata .as o1itte3 -ro1 results
an3 3ata point #! .as 3eter1ine3 to be an outliers an3 .as 3iscar3e3 -ro1 anal2sis5
Data
Point
76 %han/e in
6e1perature ( @%)
7&r0n Bntalp2 o-
9eutralization
(<L,1ol)
! M 65!6 49;5($
( )5!; 4!!$5$
# )5; 4!!95#)
)5;# 4!(!59(
; )5;$ 4!((5)9
6 )56" 4!((59)
$ )56" 4!(5)
) )56) 4!(65";
9 )5$; 4!(65;!
!" )5$6 4!#!5)
!! )5)( 4!#!59#
!( )5)# 4!##5"!
!# )5); 4!#5(;
! )5)) 4!#;5)
!; )5)9 4!#65)$
!6 )59" 4!#$5#
!$ )59; 4!#$5
!) )596 4!#$59
!9 )59$ 4!#$56
(" 95"" 4!#)5
(! 95"; 4!#)5$!
(( 95") 4!#95##
(# 95!" 4!"5$
( 95!" 4!!5"(
(; 956" 4!)5$
&ES)*%S
6he neutralization reaction bet.een Phosphoric Gci3 (;"1+* "56" ') an3 So3iu1 &23ro0i3e ( 6;
1+* !5); ' ) procee3e3 i11e3iatel2 as in3icate3 b2 the sharp rise in heat 1easure3 over the
interval bet.een ! sec an3 (! secon3s5 6he reaction lasts appro0i1atel2 $sec an3 raisin/ the
solutions te1perature b2 )56 @%5 S2ste1 an3 surroun3in/ reach ther1al e8uilibriu1 at ()59" @%5
%able #B0peri1ental results collecte3 3urin/ co--ee cup calori1etr25
6rial
Volu1e o-
&#P:
(1+)
M Volu1e
o- 9a:&
(1+)
6e1perature
( @% ) 76 ('a0 I
'in) (@%)
7&
(<L,1ol)
? Brror
-ro1 true
7&n o-
&#P:
'in 'a0
! ;"5" N ("5#" ()59" )56 4!;(596 4(5((?
( ;"5" N ()59# ("5(# )5$" 4!;5$# 4!5"9
# ;"5" N ()59! ("5"6 )5); 4!;$5! "56(?
;"5" N ()5)( ("5( )5 4!95" 45;?
'ean 0 ;"5" 6; (65$ ((5 )56 4!;#56# 4!5)?
St3 Dev
((s)
" " >5(9 >95$ >"5#) >65$(
M 6he 9a:& volu1e .as not recor3e3 precisel2* an3 an 6;1+ appro0i1ate value .as use3 -or all
reaction calculations5
6he results in table ! sho. that the 1ean chan/e in te1perature -or the reaction .as )56 @%* >"5#)
( s35 Aecause the e0act volu1e o- 9a:& .as not 1easure3 precisel2* an appro0i1ate value o- 6;
1+ .as use3 to calculate the chan/e in enthalp2 -or each trial5
6he enthalp2 chan/e o- the neutralization reaction -or phosphoric aci3 is /iven in literature as
4!;65 <=,1ol E!F5 Fro1 the results collecte3 the 1ean 7&rn0 .as 3eter1ine3 to be 4!;#56# <=,1ol*
>65$( <=,1ol (s3* un3eresti1atin/ the literature value b2 !5)?5 6he results collecte3 3urin/ the
e0peri1ent are in a/ree1ent .ith literature 8uote3 values* ho.ever the 3ate is <no.n to be bias5
Fro1 the class 3ata* the 1ean 7&rn0 .as calculate3 to be 4!#(5;9 <= , 1ol* >!;59) ( s35 6he error
3i--erence bet.een the class 1ean 7&rn0 value an3 the literature value .as !;5( ? error* an3 !#5$?
Figure 1 The neutralization reaction between H3PO4 and NaOH lasts approximatel ! sec"
in which time the temperature o# the solution increases b $%& '(" with a calculated )Hneut o#
*1+3 ,-.mol
3i--erence .hen co1pare3 to e0peri1ental results5 6his 3i--erence in enthalpies is too lar/e to be
e0plaine3 b2 ran3o1 error alone* it is thus speculate3 that hu1an an3 s2ste1atic errors are li<el25 G
co11on -eature to both sets o- 3ata is* the 1easure3 chan/e in te1perature .hich is "5( 3e/rees
( @% )* bet.een5 Aecause the 1easure1ents are so precise it con-ir1s the lar/e 3i--erence in
calculate3 7&rn0 bet.een class an3 e0peri1ental 3ata is 3ue to the inaccurate 9a:& volu1es use3
b2 author5
6he enthalp2 per ionizable h23ro/en -or the neutralization o- phosphoric aci3 is base3 on literature
4;(5! <=5 Fro1 the 1ean enthalp2 -or the class 3ata* the enthalp2 per h23ro/en ion .as 45( <=5
('S")SS'O!
In the -ollo.in/ e0peri1ent the chan/e in enthalp2 -or the neutralization o- phosphoric aci3 an3
so3iu1 h23ro0i3e .as 3eter1ine3 usin/ a si1ple co--ee4cup calori1eter5 6he obLective .as to
3eter1ine the enthalp2 chan/e o- the reaction* an3 then the 1olar enthalp2 -or phosphoric aci35
6he e0peri1ental results .ere invali3 as a conse8uence o- inaccuratel2 1easurin/ the volu1es o-
9a:& per trial5 A2 3oin/ this a s2ste1atic error .as intro3uce3 .ithout bein/ able to correct -or it5
6he volu1e o- 9a:& are i1portant because the heat o- the reaction is 3epen3ent on the 1ass o- the
solution as 3escribe3 b2 EB85 F56he 1ean 7&rn0 3eter1ine3 -ro1 the e0peri1ental results .as
4!;#56# <=,1ol* .ith >65$( <=,1ol (s3* a !5)? error 3i--erence -ro1 the literature value5 In
co1parison the class 3ata* the 1ean 7&rn0 .as 4!#(5;9 <= , 1ol* >!;59) ( s3 * an3 a !;5( ? error
3i--erence co1parable to the !#5$? -ro1 the e0peri1ental results5 A2 3e-inition to accuratel2
3eter1ine the correct chan/e in enthalp2 -or the neutralization reaction bet.een phosporic aci3 an3
so3iu1 h23ro0i3e* appropriate nu1ber o- e8uivalents o- stron/ base an3 aci3 1ust be use3* this
.as not acco1plishe35
Fro1 the class results a 1ore accurate conclusion can be 1a3e re/ar3in/ the vali3it2 o- the co--ee4
cup 1etho3 as a 1eans o- 3eter1inin/ 7&rn0 o- a reaction5 Aase3 on the 1ean value o- the 7&rn0
-ro1 the class 3ata* an3 the consistent chan/e in te1perature (76) o- the reaction (reporte3 b2 both
sets o- 3ata)5 Its believe3 that the lar/e percent error bet.een the class 1ean enthalp2 o- reaction
value an3 the literature value* is 3ue to the inaccurac2 in 1easure1ents ta<en or -ro1 incorrect
instru1ent calibration5 It is also possible that the assu1ption 1a3e* that no 1ass or heat is
e0chan/e3 bet.een the solution* St2ro-oa1 cup* an3 or at1osphere is not true5 Instea3 the ener/2
e0chan/e is si/ni-icant an3 not accounte3 -or5 It .oul3 be har3 ho.ever to speculate3 .hich -actors
has a /reater e--ect in this case5
6o i1prove the vali3it2 o- the e0peri1ent* 1ore trials are re8uire3* usin/ calibrate3 1easurin/
instru1ents an3 solutions5 Various t2pes o- insulators shoul3 also be teste3 to 3eter1ine ho. 1uch
o- an e--ect the insulator pla2s in the heat loss5
"'%A%'O!
! I O6he Bnthalp2 o- 9eutralization o- Phosphoric Gci35O&onors Peneral %he1istr2 +abs 'anual5
Portlan3: Portlan3 State Universit2* ("!5 !5 Print5
GPPB9DIN 4 SG'P+B %G+%U+G6I:9S
Di0onQs R4test:Detection o- a sin/le outlier
-or 3ata sorte3 such that
x
!
<x
(
<5 55< x
N
/
e x p
=
x
(
x
!
x
N
x
!
=
)5!;65!6
956"65!6
="5;$)))
i # /
e x p
>/
cr i t
t hen xi sa no ut l i er
/crit at 9;? con-i3ence* 9 C (;* is "5#!$
6here-or point ! in class table is an outlier
+ass of solution
0 a s s o # 1 ol ut i o n=d en si t t ot al 2 ol ume
0 a s s o # 1 ol ut i o n=
!5!! g
m 3
!!;m3=!($56; g
Heat of Solution
4
s ol
=m( s)T=!($56; g5!)
5
g6 ' (
)56'(=;9" 5
+oles of H3PO4
"5";"
3"56" mol
! 3
="5"#mol H
#
PO

,Hrn H3PO4
4
r x n
)H
r x n
=
5;9", 5
"5"#mol
=!;#5", 5
'oni-ation of Hydrogens
!;#5", 5
#H d r o g e ns
=;!5"", 5