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**Performance of Induction Motor Drives
**

P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

Abstract In industries, more than 85 % of the motors are Induction Motors,

because of the low maintenance and robustness. Maximum torque and efﬁciency is

obtained by the speed control of induction motor. Using Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AI)

techniques, particularly the neural networks, performance and operation of

induction motor drives is improved. This paper presents dynamic simulation of

induction motor drive using neuro controller. The integrated environment allows

users to compare simulation results between conventional, Fuzzy and Neural

Network controller (NNW). The performance of fuzzy logic and artiﬁcial neural

network based controller’s are compared with that of the conventional proportional

integral controller. The dynamic modeling and simulation of Induction motor is

done using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the dynamic performance of induction

motor drive has been analyzed for artiﬁcial intelligent controller.

Keywords Neuro network (NNW)

Á

PI controller

Á

Fuzzy logic controller

(FLC)

Á

Sugeno fuzzy controller

Á

Hebbian learning algorithm

P. M. Menghal (&)

Faculty of Degree Engineering, Military College of Electronics and Mechanical

Engineering, Secunderabad 500015, India

e-mail: prashant_menghal@yahoo.co.in

Department of EEE, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur 515002,

Andhra Pradesh, India

A. Jaya Laxmi

Department of EEE, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, College of Engineering,

Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500085, Andhra Pradesh, India

e-mail: ajl1994@yahoo.co.in

M. Pant et al. (eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Soft

Computing for Problem Solving, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 259,

DOI: 10.1007/978-81-322-1768-8_48, Ó Springer India 2014

539

1 Introduction

Three phase Induction Motor have wide applications as electrical machines. About

half of the electrical energy generated in a developed country is ultimately con-

sumed by electric motors, of which over 90 % are induction motors. For a rela-

tively long period, induction motors have mainly been deployed in constant-speed

motor drives for general purpose applications. The rapid development of power

electronic devices and converter technologies in the past few decades, however,

has made possible efﬁcient speed control by varying the supply frequency, giving

rise to various forms of adjustable-speed induction motor drives. In about the same

period, there were also advances in control methods and Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AI)

techniques. Artiﬁcial Intelligent techniques mean use of expert system, fuzzy

logic, neural networks and genetic algorithm. Researchers soon realized that the

performance of induction motor drives can be enhanced by adopting artiﬁcial-

intelligence-based methods. The Artiﬁcial Intelligence (AI) techniques, such as

Expert System (ES), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Artiﬁcial Neural Network (ANN), and

Genetic Algorithm (GA) have recently been applied widely in control of induction

motor drives. Among all the branches of AI, the NNW seems to have greater

impact on power electronics and motor drives area that is evident by the publi-

cations in the literature. Since the 1990s, AI-based induction motor drives have

received greater attention. Apart from the control techniques that exist, intelligent

control methods, such as fuzzy logic control, neural network control, genetic

algorithm, and expert system, proved to be superior. Artiﬁcial Intelligent Con-

troller (AIC) could be the best controller for Induction Motor control [1–6]. Fuzzy

controller conventionally is totally dependent to memberships and rules, which are

based broadly on the intuition of the designer. This paper tends to show Neuro

Controller has edge over fuzzy controller. Sugeno fuzzy controller is used to train

the fuzzy system with two inputs and one output [7–11]. The performance of fuzzy

logic and artiﬁcial neural network based controllers is compared with that of the

conventional proportional integral controller.

2 Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Induction Motor

Drive

The induction motors dynamic behavior can be expressed by voltage and torque

which are time varying. The differential equations that belong to dynamic analysis

of induction motor are so sophisticated. Then with the change of variables the

complexity of these equations decrease through movement from poly phase

winding to two phase winding (q-d). In other words, the stator and rotor variables

like voltage, current and ﬂux linkages of an induction machine are transferred to

another reference model which remains stationary [1–6].

540 P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

In Fig. 1 stator inductance is the sum of the stator leakage inductance and

magnetizing inductance (L

ls

= L

s

? L

m

), and the rotor inductance is the sum of

the rotor leakage inductance and magnetizing inductance (L

lr

= L

r

? L

m

). From

the equivalent circuit of the induction motor in d-q frame, the model equations are

derived. The ﬂux linkages can be achieved as:

1

x

b

dw

qs

dt

¼ v

qs

À

x

e

x

b

w

ds

ÀR

s

i

qs

ð1Þ

1

x

b

dw

ds

dt

¼ v

ds

À

x

e

x

b

w

qs

ÀR

s

i

ds

ð2Þ

1

x

b

dw

qr

dt

¼ v

qr

À

ðx

e

Àx

r

Þ

x

b

w

dr

ÀR

s

i

qr

ð3Þ

1

x

b

dw

dr

dt

¼ v

dr

þ

ðx

e

Àx

r

Þ

x

b

w

qr

ÀR

s

i

dr

ð4Þ

By substituting the values of ﬂux linkages in the above equations, the following

current equations are obtained as:

i

qs

¼

w

qs

Àw

mq

À Á

X

ls

ð5Þ

i

ds

¼

w

ds

Àw

md

ð Þ

X

ls

ð6Þ

i

qr

¼

w

qr

Àw

mq

À Á

X

ls

ð7Þ

Fig. 1 d q model of induction motor

Neural Network Based Dynamic Performance 541

i

dr

¼

w

dr

Àw

md

ð Þ

X

ls

ð8Þ

where w

mq

and w

md

are the ﬂux linkages over L

m

in the q and d axes. The ﬂux

equations are written as follows:

w

mq

¼ X

ml

w

qs

X

ls

þ

w

qr

X

lr

ð9Þ

w

md

¼ X

ml

w

ds

X

ls

þ

w

dr

X

lr

ð10Þ

X

ml

¼

1

1

X

m

þ

1

X

ls

þ

1

X

lr

ð11Þ

In the above equations, the speed x

r

is related to the torque by the following

mechanical dynamic equation as:

T

e

¼ T

load

þJ

dx

m

dt

¼ T

load

þ

J2

p

dx

r

dt

ð12Þ

then x

r

is achievable from above equation, where:

p: number of poles.

J: moment of inertia (kg/m

2

).

In the previous section, dynamic model of an induction motor is expressed. The

model constructed according to the equations has been simulated by using

MATLAB/SIMULINK as shown in Fig. 2 in conventional mode of operation of

induction motor. A 3 phase source is applied to conventional model of an

induction motor and the equations are given by:

V

a

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

2

p

V

rms

sin xt ð Þ ð13Þ

V

b

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

2

p

V

rms

sin xt À

2p

3

ð14Þ

V

c

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

2

p

V

rms

sin xt þ

2p

3

ð15Þ

By using Parks Transformation, voltages are transformed to two phase in the

d-q axes, and are applied to induction motor. In order to obtain the stator and rotor

currents of induction motor in two phase, Inverse park transformation is applied in

the last stage [4].

542 P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

3 Fuzzy Logic Controller

The speed of induction motor is adjusted by the fuzzy controller. The membership

function of D

e

, e and three scalar values of each triangle are applied into this

controller. In Table 1, the fuzzy rules decision implemented into the controller are

given. The conventional simulated induction motor model as shown in Fig. 2 is

modiﬁed by adding Fuzzy controller and is shown in Fig. 3. Speed output terminal

of induction motor is applied as an input to fuzzy controller, and in the initial start

of induction motor the error is maximum, so according to fuzzy rules fuzzy

controller produces a crisp value. Then this value will change the frequency of sine

wave in the speed controller. The sine wave is then compared with triangular

waveform to generate the ﬁring signals of IGBTs in the PWM inverters. The

frequency of these ﬁring signals also gradually changes, thus increasing the fre-

quency of applied voltage to Induction Motor [9].

As discussed earlier, the crisp value obtained from Fuzzy Logic Controller is

used to change the frequency of gating signals of PWM inverter. Thus the output

AC signals obtained will be variable frequency sine waves. The sine wave is

generated with amplitude, phase and frequency which are supplied through a GUI.

Then the clock signal which is sampling time of simulation is divided by crisp

value which is obtained from Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). So by placing three

sine waves with different phases, one can compare them with triangular waveform

and generate necessary gating signals of PWM inverter. So at the ﬁrst sampling

point the speed is zero and error is maximum. Then whatever the speed rises, the

error will decrease, and the crisp value obtained from FLC will increase. So, the

frequency of sine wave will decrease which will cause IGBTs switched ON and

OFF faster. It will increase the AC supply frequency, and the motor will speed up.

Figure 3 shows the Fuzzy logic induction motor model.

Torque

Speed

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

teta

Iabc

Ir-abc

Vqs

Vds

TL

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

Te

Wr

induction motor d-q model

Va

Vb

Vc

teta

Vqs

Vds

abc to d-q

Park transformation

XY Graph

ICONR

To Workspace 2

ICONS

To Workspace 1

SCON

To Workspace

Scope1

Scope

1/s

Integrator

Final speed value

0

Constant 1

Va

Vb

Vc

AC Source

Fig. 2 Simulated induction motor model with conventional controller

Neural Network Based Dynamic Performance 543

4 Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Controller

In the designing of a controller, the main criterion is the controllability of torque in

an induction motor with good transient and steady state responses. With certain

drawbacks, PI controller is able to achieve these characteristics. The main draw-

backs are (1) The gains cannot be increased beyond certain limit. (2) Non linearity

is introduced, making the system more complex for analysis. The shortcomings of

PI controller are overcome by artiﬁcial intelligent techniques. One such technique

is the use of Fuzzy Logic in the design of controller either independently or in

hybrid with PI controller. The draw-backs of Fuzzy Logic Control and Artiﬁcial

Neural Network are replaced by Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

(ANFIS). Adaptive neuro fuzzy combines the learning power of neural network

with knowledge representation of fuzzy logic. A neuro fuzzy system is based on a

fuzzy system which is trained by a learning algorithm derived from neural network

theory. Depending on the applications, one can use either ANN or FIS, or com-

bination of both. In this paper, the inputs will be e(k) and D

e

(k) [9, 12, 17]. A ﬁrst-

order Sugeno fuzzy model has rules which are as follows:

Table 1 Modiﬁed fuzzy rule decision

D

e

NB NS ZZ PS PB

e PB ZZ NS NS NB NB

PS PS ZZ NS NS NB

ZZ PS PS ZZ NS NS

NS PB PS PS ZZ NS

NB PB PB PS PS ZZ

Speed contrller

d-q to abc

Park transformation

stator current Scope

rotor current Scope

Continuous

powergui

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

teta

Iabc

Ir-abc

Vqs

Vds

TL

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

Te

Wr

induction motor d-q model

Va

Vb

Vc

teta

Vqs

Vds

abc to d-q

Park transformation

Torque Scope

I

n

1

143652

Speed Scope

IGBT1

IGBT4

IGBT3

IGBT6

IGBT5

IGBT2

Va

Vb

Vc

PWM ac source

0

Load Torque

1/s

Integrator

Feedback

Reference

U(k)

Fuzzy controller

Divide

1710

1

Fig. 3 Fuzzy control induction motor model

544 P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

• Rule1: If x is A

1

and y is B

1

, then f

1

= p

1

x ? q

1

y ? r

1

• Rule2: If x is A

2

and y is B

2

, then f

2

= p

2

x ? q

2

y ? r

2

.

In the Sugeno model if–then rules are used, and output of each rule is linear

combination of inputs plus a constant value. The learning algorithm applied to this

model is Hebbian. This method is feed forward and unsupervised and the weights

will be adjusted by the following formula:

w

i

new ð Þ ¼ w

i

old ð Þ þx

i

y ð16Þ

The ANFIS layout is shown in Fig. 4. It states that if the cross product of output

and input is positive, then it results in increase of weight, otherwise decrease of

weight.

In layer 2 of ANFIS layout, the triangular membership function is same as that

of the fuzzy controller model. The output of layer 2 is given by:

O

2

¼ l

1

; l

2

; l

3

ð17Þ

Layer 3 indicates the pro (product) layer and its output is product of inputs,

which is given by:

O

3

¼ l

i

e ð Þ Á l

j

De ð Þ ð18Þ

Layer 4 represent Norm and it calculates the ratio of ith ﬁring strength to sum of

all ﬁring strengths. The obtained output is normalized ﬁring strength, which is

given by:

Fig. 4 ANFIS layout

Neural Network Based Dynamic Performance 545

O

4

¼

w

i

P

w

ð19Þ

Layer 5 is an adaptive node with functionality as follows:

O

5

¼ w

i

f

i

¼ w

i

p

i

e ð Þ þq

i

De ð Þ þr

i

ð Þ ð20Þ

where p

i

, q

i

, r

i

are consequent parameters, which are initially are set to 0.48, 0.25

and 1 respectively. Then they are adaptively adjusted with Hebbian learning

algorithm. Layer 6 calculates the output which is given by:

O

6

¼

P

w

i

f

i

P

w

i

ð21Þ

Figure 5 shows the overall structure of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy controller.

5 Neuro Controller

The most important feature of Artiﬁcial Neural Networks (ANN) is its ability to

learn and improve its operation using neural network training [13, 14]. The

objective of Neural Network Controller (NNC) is to develop a back propagation

algorithm such that the output of the neural network speed observer can track the

target one. The network structure of the NNC, indicates that the neural network has

three layered network structure. The ﬁrst is formed with ﬁve neuron inputs

D(x

ANN

(K ? 1)), D(x

ANN

(K)), x

ANN

, x

S

(K - 1), D(x

S

(K - 2)). The second

layer consists of ﬁve neurons. The last one contains one neuron to give the

command variation D(x

S

(K)). The aim of the proposed NNC is to compute the

Speed contrller

d-q to abc

Park transformation

stator current Scope

rotor current Scope

Continuous

powergui

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

teta

Iabc

Ir-abc

Vqs

Vds

TL

iqs

ids

iqr

idr

Te

Wr

induction motor d-q model

Va

Vb

Vc

teta

Vqs

Vds

abc to d-q

Park transformation

Torque Scope

I

n

1

143652

Speed Scope

IGBT1

IGBT4

IGBT3

IGBT6

IGBT5

IGBT2

Va

Vb

Vc

PWM ac source

0

Load Torque

1/s

Integrator

Feedback

Reference

U(k)

Fuzzy controller

Divide

1710

1

Fig. 5 Adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller simulation model

546 P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

command variation based on the future output variation D(x

ANN

(K ? 1)). Hence,

with this structure, a predictive control with integrator has been realised. At time k,

the neural network computes the command variation based on the output at time

(k ? 1), while the later isn’t deﬁned at this time. In this case, it is assumed that

x

ANN

(K ? 1) : x

ANN

(K). The control law is deduced using the recurrent

equation given by,

x

S

K ð Þ ¼ x

S

K À1 ð Þ þGD x

S

K ð Þ ð Þ:

It can be seen that the d axis and q axis voltage equations are coupled by the

terms d

E

and q

E

. These terms are considered as disturbances and are cancelled by

using the proposed decoupling method. If the decoupling method is implemented,

the ﬂux component equations become

U

dr

¼ G s ð Þv

ds

U

qr

¼ G s ð Þv

qs

Large values of g may accelerate the ANN learning and consequently fast

convergence but may cause oscillations in the network output, whereas low values

will cause slow convergence. Therefore, the value of g has to be chosen carefully

to avoid instability. The proposed neural network controller is shown in Fig. 6.

6 Simulation Results and Discussion

Modeling and simulation of Induction motor in conventional, fuzzy and adaptive

neuro fuzzy are done on MATLAB/SIMULINK. A complete simulation model

and dynamic performance for inverter fed induction motor drive incorporating the

proposed FLC, adaptive neuro fuzzy controller and Neuro controller has been

2

is

1

wo

Wo

idq

Vdq

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

Y6

Y7

Sub system 1

Pure linear

Neuron2

Pure linear

Neuron1

Ia

Ib

Va1

Vb1

TL

W

Mech_ANN

1

s

Integrator6

1

s

Integrator1

mu

2

TL

1

V

Fig. 6 Neural network controller

Neural Network Based Dynamic Performance 547

developed. The proposed neuro controller is proved to be more superior as com-

pared to adaptive by comparing the response of conventional PI, with FLC,

Adaptive neuro fuzzy speed controller based IM drive. The results of simulation

for induction motor with its characteristics are listed in Appendix ‘A’. Figures 7, 8

and 9 shows the torque–speed characteristics, torque and speed responses of

conventional, FLC, adaptive neuro fuzzy controller and neuro controller respec-

tively. It appears the rise time drastically decreases when neuro controller is added

to simulation model and both the results are taken in same period of time. In neural

network based simulation, it is apparent from the simulation results shown in

Fig. 7c and d, torque-speed characteristic converges to zero in less duration of time

when compared with conventional Controller and FLC, which is shown in Fig. 7a

and b. Neuro controller has no overshoot and settles faster in comparison with FLC

and adaptive neuro fuzzy controller. It is also noted that there is no steady-state

error in the speed response during the operation when neuro controller is activated.

In conventional controller, oscillations occur, whereas in neuro controller, adap-

tive neuro fuzzy and FLC, no oscillations occur in the torque response before it

ﬁnally settles down as shown in Fig. 8 good torque response is obtained with

Neuro controller as compared to conventional, FLC and adaptive neuro fuzzy

controller at all time instants and speed response is better than conventional

controllers, FLC and adaptive neuro fuzzy controller. There is a negligible ripple

in speed response with neuro fuzzy controller in comparison with conventional

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

-5

0

5

10

15

20

Speed

T

o

r

q

u

e

-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Speed

T

o

r

q

u

e

-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Speed

T

o

r

q

u

e

-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Speed

T

o

r

q

u

e

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 7 Torque-speed characteristics. a Torque-speed characteristics with conventional control-

ler. b Torque-speed characteristics withfuzzy controller. c Torque-speed adaptive neuro fuzzy

controller. d Torque speed characteristics with neuro controller

548 P. M. Menghal and A. Jaya Laxmi

0 500 1000 1500

-5

0

5

10

15

20

Time

T

o

r

q

u

e

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x 10

5

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Time

T

o

r

q

u

e

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x 10

5

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Time

T

o

r

q

u

e

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

x 10

4

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Time

T

o

r

q

u

e

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 8 Torque characteristics. a Conventional controller. b Fuzzy controller. c Adaptive neuro

fuzzy controller. d Neuro controller

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

x 10

6

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time

S

P

E

E

D

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x 10

5

-200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time

S

p

e

e

d

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x 10

5

-200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time

p

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x 10

5

-200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Time

S

p

e

e

d

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 9 Speed characteristics. a Conventional controller. b Fuzzy controller. c Adaptive neuro

fuzzy controller. d Neuro controller

Neural Network Based Dynamic Performance 549

controller, FLC and adaptive neuro controller under dynamic conditions which are

shown in Fig. 8. With the neuro controller, speed reaches its steady state value

faster as compared to Conventional, FLC and adaptive neuro fuzzy controller.

7 Conclusion

In this paper, comparison of simulation results of the induction motor are pre-

sented with different types of controller such as conventional, fuzzy control,

Adaptive neuro fuzzy and neuro controller. From the speed waveforms, it is

observed that with adaptive fuzzy and neuro controller the rise time decreases

drastically, in the manner which the frequency of sine waves are changing

according to the percentage of error from favourite speed. According to the direct

relation of induction motor speed and frequency of supplied voltage, the speed will

also increase. Fuzzy controller has better performance than the conventional

controller. By comparing neuro controller, Adaptive neuro fuzzy model with FLC

model, it is apparent that by adding learning algorithm to the control system will

decrease the rising time more than expectation and it proves neuro controller has

better dynamic performance as compared to FLC and Adaptive neuro fuzzy

controller.

Appendix A

The following parameters of the induction motor are chosen for the simulation

studies:

V = 220 f = 60 HP = 3 R

s

= 0.435 R

r

= 0.816 X

ls

= 0.754

X

lr

= 0.754 X

m

= 26.13 p = 4 J = 0.089 rpm = 1,710

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