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You are on page 1of 68

2008-2009

Ant enna Lab Manual

EELE5133

ﻲﻋاذﻹا ﺚﺒﻟاو تﺎﻴﺋاﻮﻬﻟا ﺮﺒﺘﺨﻣ

Prepared By

Dr. Mohammed Ouda

Eng. Saied Emghary

2

Table of contents

Title Page

Preface 3

Syllabus 4

Experiment 1 Antenna Parameters 5

Experiment 2 Wire Antennas 9

Experiment 3 • Linear Arrays Introduction

• Broadside Array

• End-Fire Array

23

29

34

Experiment 4 Yagi-Uda antenna 39

Experiment 5 Horn antennas 50

Experiment 6 Reflector Antennas 61

3

Preface

This Lab manual is prepared to help antenna course students to deal with

the most popular softwares that used in the design of the antennas beside

the investigation of the topics covered in the course, Some of the labs are

taken from an old lab manual prepared by Eng. Mohammed Al-Absi by

using a new versions of the softwares used there, some labs are prepared

newly, a new multi-purpose software is used here which is 4nec2.

4

Syllabus

Digital Signal Processing Laboratory (EELE 4110)

Objectives:

• To be familiar with the most popular antenna design programs

• To investigate the different parameters associated with the specific antenna.

• To deal with various wire antennas, dipole , loop, helix … etc.

• To get close to arrays and the different parameters that control the shape of the pattern.

• To design yagi antenna using design graphs and software programs.

• To investigate the high directional antennas such as Horn and Reflector antennas.

Course Plan

1st Week Discussion: Antenna Parameters

2nd Week Lab: Antenna Parameters

3rd Week Discussion: Wire Antennas

4th Week Lab: Wire Antennas

5th Week Discussion: Linear Arrays

6th Week Lab: Linear Arrays (Broadside Array)

7th Week Lab: Linear Arrays (End-Fire Array)

8th Week MIDTERM EXAM

9th Week Discussion: Yagi-Uda Antenna

10th Week Lab: Yagi-Uda Antenna

11th Week Discussion: Horn Antenna

12th Week Lab: Horn antenna

13th Week Discussion: Reflector antennas

14th Week Lab: Reflector Antennas

15th Week PROJECT EVALUATION

16th Week FINAL EXAM

: References

• Class Notes

• Antenna Design, Balanis ,2

nd

Ed.

: Grades

10 Pts Attendance……………………..

15 Pts Midterm Exam………………....

30 Pts Final Exam………………….....

15 Pts Reports…………………………

20 Pts Project…………………………

10 Pts Quizzes………………………...

: Lab Policy

• No late reports or pre-labs will be accepted

• Reports should be done individually.

• Mid term Exam will be at the end of Lab(6)

Office Hours: Open-door policy, by appointment or as posted.

5

Experiment

1

Antenna Parameters

Objective:

• Studying antenna parameters, Radiation pattern, Pattern beamwidth, Radiation

intensity, Directivity, Gain, radiation efficiency.

• Using "MATLAB" to plot radiation intensity, calculating dirctivity and half-

power beamwidths.

Theoretical Background:

• HPBW: is the angle between two vectors, originating at the pattern's origin

and passing through these points of the major lobe where the radiation

intensity id half its maximum

• FNBW: is the angle between two vectors, originating at the pattern's origin

and tangent to the main beam at its base. It is very often approximately true

that FNBW≈ 2HPBW.

6

• Radiation intensity U: in a given direction is the power per unit solid angle

radiated in this direction by the antenna.

φ θ θ d d d sin = Ω

There is a direct relation between the radiation intensity U and the radiation power

density P (that is pointing vector magnitude of the far field) since

2

/ , m W

ds

dP

W

rad

=

2 2

, sin m d d r ds φ θ θ =

Then

rad

W r U

2

=

| | | | H E

v v

η =

η

η

2

2

| |

2

1

| |

2

1 E

H W

rad

r

v

= =

2

2

| |

2

) , ( E

r

U

r

η

φ θ =

• Directivity:

Can be defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity of the antenna in a given

direction and the radiation intensity of an isotropic radiator fed by the same amount of

power.

rad Isotropic

P

U

U

U

D

) , (

4

) , (

) , (

φ θ

π

φ θ

φ θ = =

rad Isotropic

P

U

U

U

D

max max

0

4π = =

7

∫ ∫

=

π π

φ θ θ φ θ

2

0 0

sin ) , ( d d U P

rad

• Gain:

The gain G of an antenna is the ratio of the radiation intensity U in a given direction

and the radiation intensity that would be obtained, if the power fed to the antenna

were radiated isotropically.

in

P

U

G

) , (

4 ) , (

φ θ

π φ θ =

The gain is dimensionless quantity, which is very similar to the directivity D. when

the antenna has no losses, i.e. when Pin=Prad, then G(θ,φ)=D(θ,φ). Thus, the gain of

the antenna takes into account the losses in the antenna system. It is calculated via the

input power Pin, which is measurable quantity, unlike the directivity, which is

calculated via the radiated power prad.

The radiated power is related to the input power through a coefficient called radiation

efficiency:

in rad

eP P =

) , ( ) , ( φ θ φ θ eD G =

• The beam solid angle Ω

A

:

Is the solid angle through which all the power of the antenna whould flow if its

radiation intensity were constant and equal to the maximum radiation intensity U

0

for

all angles within Ω

A

.

r r A

o

d d

U

U

D

2 1

2

0 max

0

4 4

sin

) , (

1

4

θ θ

π π

φ θ θ

φ θ

π

π π

≈

Ω

= =

∫ ∫

The relation between the maximum directivity and the beam solid angle is obvious.

For antennas with narrow major lobe and with negligible minor lobes, the beam solid

angle Ω

A

is approximately equal the product of the HPBWs in two orthogonal planes.

• The effective area A

e

:

The effective area A

e

of an antenna is the value corresponding to the direction of

maximal gain Gmax. We write in this case:

2

max

4

λ

π

e

A

G =

8

Experimental Procedure:

Part I

The normalized radiation intensity of a lossless antenna is given by:

⎩

⎨

⎧ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤

=

elsewhere

F

, 0

0 , 0 , sin sin

) , (

2

π φ π θ φ θ

φ θ

Using MATLAB:

a) Plot radiation intensity at polar coordinates on x-y, y-z planes.

b) Find the azimuthal and elevation plane HPBWs in degrees.

c) Find the maximum directivity (D

max

)

d) Find the approximate directivity using results in (b)

Part II

The normalized radiation intensity of a lossless antenna is given by:

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ + −

=

elsewhere

F

, 0

0 , 0 |, )

6

sin( )

6

sin( | sin sin 2

) , (

π φ π θ

π

φ

π

φ φ θ

φ θ

Using MATLAB:

a) Plot radiation intensity at polar coordinates on x-y plane.

b) Find the azimuthal HPBW in degrees.

c) Find the maximum directivity (D

max

)

d) Find the ratio of the radiation & field intensities between the main and first

side lobes.

9

Experiment

2

Wire Antenna

Types of wire antennas

• Linear

1. Dipole

2. monopole

• Loop

1. circular

2. rectangular

• Helix

• Yagi

• Arrays

1. Broadside Linear

2. End-Fire Linear

• …………..

Software: EMMCAP "ElectroMagnetic Modeling Computation and Analysis Program"

1. Introduction:

EMMCAP is a program system for the modeling of 3D arbitrarily shaped wire

structures and for the computation and analysis of their electromagnetic behavior

including radiation and scattering problems.

EMMCAP computes the current distribution on a thin-wire structure operating in

the frequency domain. Using a Method of Moments (MoM) approach with curved

segments simulates the current distribution. This means that the structure is first

divided into segments which exactly follow the contour of the wires instead of the

typical approximation with straight wire segments. The straight wire approximation

often requires a large number of segments to adequately approximate the curved wire

geometry. Because of this by using curved segments the number of unknowns and

memory space can be reduced allowing for the simulation of bigger problems.

Next a basis function is defined on each pair of adjacent segments representing

an unknown current. Then an Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is converted

into a system of linear equations which has to be solved for the unknown currents.

Afterwards field strengths radiated power and other parameters of interest can be

computed.

10

In using the EMMCAP program system simulating a wire structure is a four-step

procedure:

Defining the program's configuration.

Drawing the wire geometry.

Performing the computation.

Visualizing the computed results.

The program's configuration refers to the definition of the operating frequency or

range of frequencies of the system the permittivity and permeability of the medium

and other options defining the type of simulation such as a free space computation or

a simulation over a perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground plane.

2. Defining the configuration:

Selecting "Computation | Configure..." in the main menu can set the program

configuration. The "Configuration" dialog box has the following pages: Frequency

,Medium ,Options ,Far-Field and Incident Wave Fig. 2.1.

1. Frequency page

The Frequency page has three different options: Single, List and Sweep. By

choosing one option the computation can either be performed for a single

frequency, for frequencies taken from a list or for a frequency sweep, Fig. 2.1.

2. Medium page

The relative permittivity and permeability of the medium can be defined in

this page, Fig 2.2. Two sets of values have to be defined, the medium's constants

for the computation of currents and the medium's constants for the computation of

far-fields.

3. Options page

11

Four options for the type of simulation are available, Fig. 2.3. If "Ground

Plane" is checked an infinite PEC ground plane will be placed at the specified

height from the xy-plane. Thus, the ground plane is parallel to the xy-plane. If

"Height" is positive the ground plane will be over the xy-plane, if "Height" is

negative the ground plane will be under the xy-plane, and if "Height" is set to zero

the ground plane will be the xy-plane.

12

3. Drawing Wires

1. Attributes page

EMMCAP has different types of wires. Each wire has its own input parameters

and attributes that can be set in its specific dialog box. Each wire has to be divided

into a given number of segments. An unknown current on each segment must be

found in the simulation process. This number is set automatically by considering the

wavelength and the length of the wire, but can also be set manually by the user. The

"Attributes" page in the "Draw" dialog box for the wire "Line" is shown in Fig. 3.1.

The "Draw" dialog box for each type of wire has its own "Attributes" page with the

same features described above.

2. Wire Line

Wire "Line" refers to a straight wire. By clicking with the right mouse button in

any part of the screen a pop-up menu where the type of wire can be chosen will be

shown. Selecting "Draw | Edit " in the main menu can also choose the type of wire By

selecting "Line" the "Draw" dialog box where the parameters and attributes of the

wire can be set will be shown Fig. 3.2. On the "Line" page of the "Draw" dialog box

there are two options available: "2 Points" and "Start - Direction - Length". The "2

Points" option allows to enter the straight wire by giving two points: "From Point"

and "To Point" Fig. 3.2.

13

3. Adding sources/loads

By clicking with the right mouse button in any part of a wire a pop-up menu

where the "Source / Load" option can be chosen will be shown Fig. 3.4. The "Source

/ Load" option can also be chosen by first selecting a wire by clicking with the left

mouse button on it and next selecting " Source / Load " under "Edit" in the main

menu Fig. 3.5. When the "Source / Load" option has been chosen a special tool-bar at

the bottom of the screen will be shown Fig. 3.6.

14

o Adding source

By clicking on the "Add Source" button a dialog box is shown Fig. 3.7. In the

"Add Source" dialog box the type of source its amplitude and phase and its inner

impedance can be set.

15

o Adding load

By clicking on the "Add Load" button a dialog box is shown Fig. 3.8. In the "Add

Load" dialog box the type of lumped load and its resistance and

inductance/capacitance can be set. By selecting the type of impedance a load element

can either represent a resistance in series with an inductance or a resistance in series

with a capacitance.

In the "Add Load" dialog box the type of lumped load and its resistance and

inductance/capacitance can be set. By selecting the type of impedance a load element

can either represent a resistance in series with an inductance or a resistance in series

with a capacitance.

4. Performing computations

When the configuration the geometry and the excitation are defined EMMCAP is

ready to compute the currents on the segments. Pressing "Computation | Run

Currents" in the main menu Fig. 4.1 can run this simulation.

Pressing "Computation | Run Far-Field" in the main menu Fig. 4.2 can run this

simulation.

16

5. Visualizing computed results

1. Current plot

A 2D plot of the current distribution along a particular wire can be shown by

clicking on the wire with the right mouse button and selecting "Plot Current" in the

pop-up menu Fig. 5.1.

Choosing this option executes the EMMPLOT program where the current is

plotted in amplitude vs. position along the wire Fig 5.2. The current distribution can

also be shown in phase real and imaginary parts by selecting these options under

"View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu.

17

2. Radiation pattern plot

The computed radiation pattern can be shown as a 2D rectangular plot by selecting

"View | Plot Far-Field | 2D Plot" in the main menu Fig 5.3.

Choosing this option shows the "Radiation Pattern Cut" dialog box where two

kinds of plots can be produced: conical and vertical. Conical plots are for fixed Theta

with Phi varying and vertical plots are for fixed Phi with Theta varying Fig 5.4.

Selecting a kind of radiation pattern cut executes the EMMPLOT program where

the average Poynting vector is plotted vs. Phi if a conical plot was chosen (for fixed

Theta) or vs. Theta if a vertical plot was chosen (for fixed Phi) Fig 5.5.

18

Selecting these options under "View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu can also

show the total E-field the E-theta and E-phi field components and the directivity

patterns. The radiation patterns can also be plotted in a 2D polar chart by pressing

"Polar/Ortho" under "View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu Fig 5.6.

3. Listing results

Clicking with the right mouse button on a particular wire shows a pop-up menu

Fig. 5.7. Pressing "List ..." in the pop-up menu shows a tool-bar Fig.5.8.

19

The tool-bar has a "Track-Bar". Each position of the Track-Bar corresponds to the

position of a segment in the selected wire. Thus this Track-Bar allows selecting a

particular segment in the wire. By clicking on the "Current vs. Freq" button a dialog

box with a list of the current in the selected segment is shown Fig. 5.9.

This list shows the current in the segment vs. frequency and pressing the "Plot"

button in the dialog box can plot these data. If the selected segment has a source on it

the "Input List" button is enabled. Choosing this option shows the list of the input

impedance vs. frequency that can be plotted by pressing the "Plot" button Fig. 5.10.

20

6. procedure "Simulation of a cylindrical antenna"

A straight wire with a voltage source at its center can simulate a center-fed

cylindrical antenna. Following the steps listed below can perform the simulation.

Step 1: Select "Computation | Configure..." in the main menu. In the "Frequency"

page of the "Configuration" dialog box choose "Sweep" and fill the "Frequency

Sweep" box as shown in Fig. 6.1.

Step 2: Select "Edit | Draw | Line" in the main menu. The "Draw" dialog box for

the wire "Line" will be shown. Fill the pages "Line" and "Attributes" as shown in Fig.

6.2 and Fig 6.3. A straight wire with 17 segments will be drawn.

21

Step 3: Clicking with the right mouse button on the wire shows a pop-up menu

where the "Source/Load" option can be selected. Put a voltage source in the segment

no. 9 i.e. at the middle point of the wire. The source voltage can be 1 (0º) V.

Step 4: Press "Computation | Run Currents" in the main menu. Once the

simulation has finished press "Computation | Run Far-Field".

22

Step 5: Clicking on the wire with the right mouse button and selecting "Plot

Current" in the pop-up menu can show a plot of the current distribution.

Step 6:Plot input impedance vs. frequency

Step 7:Plot Real part of the input impedance vs. frequency

Step 8:Plot Imaginary part of the input impedance vs. frequency

23

Experiment

3 Introduction

Linear Arrays

Introduction

All the individual radiators of an array are usually similar, with the most common

array element being the half-wave dipole. The radiation pattern of an array in free-

space depends on four factors:

• The relative positions of the individual radiators with respect to each other

• The relative phases of the currents of fields in them

• The relative magnitudes of the individual radiator currents or fields

• The patterns of the individual radiators

The basic theory of arrays is developed in terms of the first three factors. The fourth

factor assumes that the individual radiators are fictional isotropic point sources. An

isotropic point source is one that radiates with uniform intensity in all directions and

has no physical size and also no ‘electrical’ size, hence, it does not block or otherwise

affect the radiation of the other elements of the array. An array radiation pattern can

be calculated on the basis of these assumptions and then a correction to it can be made

to take into account that in reality the individual radiators do affect each other and do

not radiate isotropically.

Definition of Antenna Pattern

If an antenna is imagined to be located at the centre of a spherical coordinate system,

its radiation pattern is determined by measuring the electric field intensity over the

surface of a sphere at some fixed distance r. Since the field E is then a function of the

two variables θ and φ, it is written E(θ, φ).

A measurement of the electric field intensity E(θ, φ) of an electromagnetic filed in

free space is equivalent to a measurement of the magnetic field intensity H(θ, φ),

since the magnitudes of the two quantities are directly related by the expression E =

377H. Vectorially E and H are at right angles to each other and their phase angles are

equal. Therefore, the pattern could equally well be given in terms of E or H. It is

customary, however, to discuss patterns in terms of the electric field intensity E.

The power density of the field P(θ, φ), can also be computed when E(θ, φ) is known.

The relation being P = E

2

/377. Therefore a plot of the antenna pattern in terms of P(θ,

φ) conveys the same information as a plot of the magnitude of E(θ, φ).

24

Assuming free-space propagation, a pattern that represents field strength as a function

of angular direction at a fixed distance from the antenna is identical to a plot of

distance for constant field strength. Therefore, a field-strength pattern can be

interpreted in either of these ways, by simply changing the labelling of the radial

coordinate scale. A similar statement, however, is not true for power-density patterns.

Relative pattern

Often the pattern is plotted in relative terms, that is, the field strength or power

density is represented in terms of its ratio to some reference value. The reference

usually chosen is the field level in the maximum-field-strength direction. The field

strength or power density is given the value unity in this direction and fractional

values in other directions. This relative pattern provides as much information about

the antenna as does an absolute pattern and therefore relative patterns are usually

plotted when it is desired to describe only the properties of the antenna, without

reference to an associated transmitter or receiver.

Two-Isotropic-element Array

The simplest array comprises two isotropic point-source radiators. It is discussed here

because it covers most of the principles of multi radiator arrays.

The meaning of the term phase as applied to the radiating elements of an array is

illustrated by considering the following; At some distant point the fields of the two

radiating elements are examined and are found to be in phase with each other. If then

the phase of the current in Radiator 2 is changed by an amount α radians and the

phase of the current in Radiator 1 is left unchanged, it will be observed that the two

fields at the distant point are now out-of-phase by the amount α radians. The phase of

a radiating element in an array is always discussed in relation to the phases of the

other elements. If the phases of the two radiators in a two-element array are changed

by the same amount, the array pattern is unaffected, but changing the phases between

the two elements affects the way that the individual fields of the tow radiators add up

at a specified distant point.

Figure 1 shows the significant geometry of a two-element isotropic-point-source

array.

Figure 1 – Array of two isotropic sources

25

The coordinates of P are ‘r’ and φ are two coordinates of the spherical coordinate

system. The third spherical coordinate θ, is not shown because only a plane in which

θ is constant is being considered here, namely, the xy-plane in which

2

π

θ = radians.

The point P is the field point, that is, any point in space where the field is to be

calculated. Hence, an expression of the field strength a P applies to all points and thus

defines the radiation pattern of the array. Calculation of the field due to the array at

an arbitrary point P is the basic problem of array theory. Because the distances r

1

and

r

2

are much larger than the distance d, the amplitudes of the separate fields of the two

radiators at point P will be very nearly the same due to the large attenuation that the

radiation from each radiator experiences.

On the other hand, the relative phases of the two fields at P arising from the two

radiators will be dependent on δ, where

2 1

r r δ = − , as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 – Two-element array geometry

The resulting phase difference of the fields due to δ is equal to

2πδ

λ

− radians,

where Radiator 1 or R

1

is taken to be the reference phase. To this difference must be

added the initial phase difference α, between the two radiators themselves. The total

phase difference ψ of the two fields at P is then given by

2πδ

ψ α

λ

= − (1)

The resultant field at P is the superposition of two fields of equal amplitude, E

o

, and

phase difference ψ. If two fields of the same amplitude E

o

, are considered as two

vectors separated by an angle ψ, then the resultant field E, can be found by using the

cosine rule, as

2 cos

2

o

E E

ψ

⎛ ⎞

=

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

(2)

This is the first step toward finding the radiation pattern of the array, which is an

expression of E as a function of φ, the angle of the direction of P from the centre of

the array. To obtain the radiation pattern, it is necessary to express ψ in terms of φ.

From figure 2,

sin d δ φ = (3)

On substituting equation 3 into equation 1 and the resultant back into equation 2,

gives the equation for the field E(φ) at P.

26

( )

sin

2 cos

2

o

d

E E

α π φ

φ

λ

⎡ ⎤

= −

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

(4)

Equation 4 is the expression for the field at P as a function of the angle φ that the

direction of P makes with the line perpendicular to the line of the array. Equation 4

gives the shape of the pattern in the xy-plane or

2

π

θ = plane. The absolute-value

brackets are used to indicate that the field intensity being calculated is proportional to

the amplitude or to the rms value and is therefore a positive number, although the

expression inside the brackets may be signed.

In order to obtain the relative pattern, for which the field strength in the maximum-

intensity direction has the value unity, equation 4 must be divided by the maximum

value of E, which is usually, but not always 2E

0

.

Three-dimensional pattern

Equation 4 describes the array pattern in the xy-plane, in which the angle θ of a three-

dimensional coordinate system is constant (

2

π

θ = ). Because the angle θ is constant

it does not appear in equation 4.

The three-dimensional pattern is obtained by revolving the xy-pattern about the y-

axis, which is the line of the array. This is possible as the xy-pattern is identical in

shape and size at any value of rotation in the yz-plane. The pattern in the yz-plane is

expressed as a function of the angle θ instead of the angle φ. In other planes, both

angles are involved. The expression for the complete three-dimensional pattern is

given by,

( )

sin sin

, 2 cos

2

o

d

E E

α π θ φ

θ φ

λ

⎡ ⎤

= −

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

(4a)

Parallel dipole two-element array

The pattern defined by equation 4 can be plotted as a function of the angle φ for

different values of the parameters d and α. (Note that a parameter is defined in

mathematics as a quantity that can vary but is held constant in a particular problem so

that the effect of some other variable may be studied, uncontaminated by any

variation of the parameter.) Although the various resulting patterns obtained are for an

array of isotropic elements, they also represent the patterns of an array of two dipoles

in the plane perpendicular to their axis. Providing that the dipoles are parallel to each

other and perpendicular to the line joining their centres (line of the array), as shown in

Figure 3. This diagram may be thought of as the horizontal-plane patterns of a pair of

vertical dipoles or monopoles separated by a distance d and with currents having a

phase difference α.

27

Figure 3 – Geometrical positioning of pattern for two dipoles

It should be noted that when the two elements are in phase (α = 0°), the radiation is

always maximum in the direction perpendicular to the line joining the elements, that

is in the x-direction in Figure 3 above. That is, because the distances from the

elements to the field point P are equal in that direction (φ = 0°), the phase difference

due to path difference is zero also; hence the total phase difference of the

superimposed fields is ψ = 0°. Consequently, the fields add directly and the maximum

possible resultant field is obtained. When α = 0° and the pattern maximum is in the

direction perpendicular to the array line, as shown in Figure 3, the antenna is called a

broadside array.

For certain conditions the resultant field in some directions is zero, that is when the

sum of the radiator phase difference α, and the phase difference due to path difference

2πδ

λ

is an odd integral multiple of π radians. The fields of the individual radiators

are in this case, of equal amplitude and opposite phase, so they cancel. This occurs,

for example, when α = 0° and d = λ/2, in the φ = 90° and 270° directions, since in

these directions the field phase-difference is 180 degrees, whereas the phase

difference due to radiator phase difference is zero. The same result occurs when the

180 degrees net phase difference is due to a combination of path difference and

radiator phase difference. These directions of zero intensity in a pattern are called

nulls.

Certain combinations of d and α result in maximum radiation in the direction of the

line joining the array elements. The array is then said to be operating as an endfire

array. The radiation of an endfire array may be either bidirectional or unidirectional.

A bidirectional array is where the radiation lobes are in both directions along the line

of the array. Whereas, a unidirectional array has a lobe in one direction and a null in

the opposite direction.

Multi-element Uniform Linear Arrays

When more than two elements are used in an array, the principle of calculating the

pattern (from which in turn the beamwidth and directive gain can be computed) is the

same as for a two-element array. Except that the fields of all the elements must be

superposed at the field point. The simplest type of multi-element array is one in which

all the radiators are in a line, with equal spacing between adjacent pairs. This is shown

in Figure 4 below. The method of analysis is suggested by showing a field-point P

28

joined by ray lines to each element. Such an array is called a linear array. When all

the elements are radiating with equal intensity and the phase difference between

adjacent elements is constant, the array is called uniform. The applet provided

demonstrates a uniform linear array of up to nine elements.

Figure 4 – Linear array of four radiating elements

Radiation Pattern

If the array contains n isotropic point-source elements, with equal spacing d and phase

difference α between adjacent elements, the pattern in a plane containing the line of

the array can be shown to be

sin

sin

2

sin

sin

2

rel

d

n

E

d

n

π φ α

λ

π φ α

λ

⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞

−

⎜ ⎟

⎢ ⎥

⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

=

⎡ ⎤

−

⎢ ⎥

⎣ ⎦

(5)

For n = 2, this expression reduces to equation 4.

As in the two-element case, the three dimensional pattern is obtained simply by

replacing sinφ by the product sinφ.sinθ. The factor n in the denominator of equation 5

is a normalizing factor that is used to make E

rel

a true relative pattern. That is, it

permits E

rel

= 1 for the particular values of φ in the direction of maximum field

intensity, in accordance with the definition of relative pattern given above.

It is equation 5 that is used in the applet to determine the polar pattern of an n element

array.

29

Experiment

3 PART A

Broadside Linear Arrays

When α = 0°, all the elements are in phase and pattern maxima occur at φ = 0° and

φ = 180°, that is, in the directions perpendicular to the line of the array. This

configuration is called a broadside array. The pattern will be maximum in these

directions regardless of the element spacing, d. These will be the only primary

maxima if d < λ. If d = λ, additional maxima occur at φ = 90° and φ = 270°. As d is

increased still further, additional maxima occur as cones of radiation about the axis of

the array. They are known as grating lobes, analogous to the lobes observed in the

optical study of a diffraction or reflection grating. Ordinarily, therefore, the spacing of

elements in a broadside array is kept less than a wavelength. However, there is an

advantage in spacing the elements of an array by more than half a wavelength. For a

two-element array the optimum spacing is about 0.7λ, for a four-element array it is

about 0.8λ and for a large number of elements the optimum is about 0.95λ. The

directivity increases gradually as the spacing is increased until the optimum is

reached, then drops rather sharply with further increase. The advantage of the wider

spacing is in the directivity obtainable with a given number of elements. In terms of

the ratio of the directivity to the total length of the array, there is no advantage in the

wider spacing. These observations can be seen in the applet. Although the above

discussion is based on a uniform linear broadside array of point-source isotropic

radiators, they apply also to a similar array of dipoles. These dipoles have their

centres on the array line and their axes perpendicular to the array line and parallel to

each other. The pattern is in the plane perpendicular to the dipole axes, that is, the xy-

plane as shown in Figure 3. The polarization of the array follows the direction of the

dipoles. If the array line is horizontal and the dipole axes are vertical, the radiation is

vertically polarized. If the array line is horizontal and the dipole axes are horizontal,

as shown in Figure 5, the radiation is horizontally polarized.

Figure 5 shows a broadside array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d = 0.7λ and α = 0°.

30

Figure 5 – Linear broadside array of six radiating dipoles all elements in phase

showing the position of the polar pattern

The in-phase currents in the individual dipoles, required for a broadside pattern, may

be obtained by properly connecting a branched transmission line to the feed point of

each dipole. That is, if the total line length from the transmitter to each dipole is the

same the dipoles will be fed in phase. It is important to ensure that the same side of

the line is connected to the same side of each dipole. Reversing this connection

reverses the phase.

Broadside arrays may also b e formed from other types of elements, such as horns,

slots, helixes and polyrods. If the elements are unidirectional radiators, such as

sectoral or pyramidal horns, waveguide slots, axial mode helixes and polyrods, a

unidirectional broadside array results.

Beamwidth and Gain of Broadside Linear Arrays

Isotropic elements spaced a half-wavelength

For a uniform broadside linear array of n isotropic elements spaced a half-wavelength

apart, the beamwidth is given by

• For n = 2 60°.

• For n = 3 36°.

• For n >3 102/n°.

The directivity of such an array is equal to n

Isotropic elements spaced other than a half-wavelength

When the element spacing is not half-wavelength but is not greatly different from this

value, the beamwidth formula becomes

51

BW

nd

λ

= (6)

31

Procedure:

Use 4nec2 software to implement a broadside array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d =

0.7λ and α = 0°

32

33

34

Experiment

3 PART B

Endfire Linear Arrays

If in equation 5 the phase-difference α between adjacent elements is equal to

2 d π

λ

radians, the condition for a maximum of radiation is satisfied when φ = 90° and for

this value only, provided that d < λ/2. The maximum field intensity is radiated in a

direction along the line of the array, “off the end” rather than off the side. Hence the

name endfire array. The maximum is toward only one of the ends of the array, rather

than in both the endfire directions.

In terms of Figure 4, if the progressive phase change is a retardation going in the

direction of the positive y-axis by the amount α per element, the beam will be in the φ

= 90° direction. If the sign of α is changed, or its amount is increased by 180 degrees

without changing the element spacing, the beam will be in the direction φ = 270°.

Although the condition stated above for the value of α results in an endfire array, it

does not result in an endfire pattern with the maximum possible directivity and

narrowest possible beam. Hansen and Woodyard showed that an endfire beam with a

greater gain results if the phase change per element satisfies

Hansen-Woodyard condition

2 d

n

π π

α

λ

⎛ ⎞

= +

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

radians (7)

This condition does not necessarily result in a unidirectional pattern as does the basic

endfire condition. The basic endfire analysis assumes isotropic radiators, but it applies

also to other radiators that have radiation along the line of the array. Thus, parallel

dipoles can be used buy not collinear dipoles. For isotropic elements the beam has

three-dimensional axial symmetry where the horizontal and vertical beamwidths are

the same.

The case where d = λ/8 with α = 135° and d = λ/4 with α = 90° provide a complete

null or zero field intensity in the back direction for a 2 element array. These patterns

are advantageous in applications where a high front-to-back ratio is required. The

condition for a null condition for any uniform linear endfire array with an even

number of elements is given by

Condition for null in one endfire direction

2

1

d

α π

λ

⎛ ⎞

= ±

⎜ ⎟

⎝ ⎠

radians (8)

A null is never absolute because of unavoidable imperfections in the spacing and

phasing of the elements and many-element arrays are more susceptible to such

imperfections than those of few elements. Figure 6 shows an endfire arrangement.

35

Figure 6 – Linear endfire array of six radiating dipoles all elements in phase

showing the position of the polar pattern.

Parasitically Excited Endfire Arrays

It is not necessary to feed each element of an endfire array by direct connection to a

transmission line. If only one dipole as such an array is directly fed, or driven the field

that it sets up will cause currents to flow in adjoining elements. This process is called

parasitic excitation and the elements thus excited are parasitic elements. Endfire

arrays employing this principle are known as Yagi-Uda antennas, which are often just

called Yagis. (Professor Uda first described these antennas in Japanese and H. Yagi

was the first to describe the antenna in English, giving full credit to Uda’s work.) The

Yagi-Uda antenna can also be regarded as a surface-wave antenna.

Parasitic excitation cannot be employed in broadside arrays. To produce the in-phase

currents required for a broadside pattern, a full-wavelength element spacing would be

required. There would then be two endfire lobes of radiation as well as the two

broadside lobes. This type of pattern is not a true broadside pattern. Therefore,

broadside arrays are always driven arrays rather than parasitic arrays.

The phases of the currents in parasitic dipole elements are determined by their spacing

from the adjacent element and also by their lengths. A parasitic dipole cut exactly a

half wavelength or slightly longer will be inductive and the phase of its current will

lag the induced emf. A dipole cut shorter than a half wavelength will be capacitive

and the current in it will lead the induced emf. Comparatively close spacing of

elements is used in parasitic arrays to obtain good excitation and the induction fields

of the elements play a major role. The exact analysis is very complicated. Properly

spaced dipole elements slightly shorter than a half wavelength act as directors,

reinforcing the field of the driven element in the direction away from the driven

element. Thus, a line of directors may be used with each one exciting the next one. On

the other hand, an element one-half-wavelength long or slightly longer will act as a

reflector, if correctly spaced. This reflector reinforces the field of the driven element

in a direction toward the driven element from the reflector. Therefore, if a reflector

element is placed adjacent to a driven element, another element placed beyond the

reflector will not be appreciably excited. Although parasitic elements are usually

longer or shorter than a half wavelength when used as reflectors or directors,

respectively, they may also be one half-wavelength long and made to act as reflectors

or directors by proper spacing.

36

For these reasons a Yagi-Uda endfire array usually consist of one driven element, one

reflector on one side of it, and a number of directors on the other side of it. Antennas

of this type offer the advantages of a unidirectional beam of moderate directivity with

light weight, simplicity of feed design and low cost. The design becomes critical if

high directivity is attempted trough the use of many elements. Up to fie or six may be

used without difficulty and arrays of thirty or forty elements are possible. The input

impedance of a yagi-Uday array tends ot be low and the bandwidth is limited to

around 2%, typically. Directive gain of around 10 dB is readily achieved with a

moderate number of elements, usually five or six. Higher gains may be achieved by

making a broadside array of which the elements are Yagi-Uda arrays.

Procedure:

Use 4nec2 software to implement an End-Fire array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d =

0.3λ and α = 129°

37

38

39

Experiment

4

Yagi-Uda in VHF Band

Description of The Antenna

The Yagi (or Yagi-Uda) antenna is a linear array of parallel dipoles. One element is

energised directly by a feed transmission line with the others acting as parasitic

radiators. The function of these elements is to enhance the radiation pattern in the

source direction. Generally the reflector will be 5% longer than the driven element (ie

diploe)and the directors will be 5% shorter. Parameter limits are:

• Driven Element: 0.45-0.49 wavelengths.

• Directors: 0.4-0.45 wavelengths.

• Separation between Directors: 0.3-0.4 wavelengths.

• Radii of directors: 0.15-0.25 wavelengths.

• Separation between driven element an parasitics: 0.15-0.25 wavelengths.

Optimization of the Yagi-Uda Antenna can be achieved by simulating the radiation

patterns for various lengths of the elemnets and the spacing between them. Other

factors that effect the radiation pattern are:

• For an antenna with a length of 6 wavelengths or more the overall gain is

independant of the director spacing.

• The reflector size and spacing have negligable effect on the forward gain and

large effects on the backward gain and input impedance.

• The size and spacing of the directors has a large effect on the forward gain,

backward gain and input impedance.

• More than one reflector provides little improvement on the directivity of the

antenna.

• The addition of more directors will increase the gain of the antenna although

after the addition of approximately 5 directors the advantages of adding more

directors decreases significantly.

• The use of a folded dipole will increase the input impedance of the driven

element. This is an advantage as the Yagi design generally has a low input

impedance and the antenna impedance needs to match the transmission line

impedance.

40

System Requirements

It's suggested to design a yagi antenna to receive a TV channel in VHF band this

channel has a bandwidth of 6MHz from 174 to 180 MHz with video carrier at

175.25MHz and DTV carrier at 174.31MHz and audio carrier at 179.75MHz. The

antenna location is of about 50km from the transmitting station (20dBi) and of no

landscape obstacles.

Design Curves

The following design curves enable the optimum selection of the following

variables/characteristics (all as a function of boomlength) related to the

design of a simple Yagi antenna:

* Number of elements

* Gain

* Reflector length

* The ratio of reflector length to director length

* Bandwidth

41

Figure 1 indicates the optimum number of elements for an antenna of

specific boom length

Note: This table is typical performance of Yagi's with the stated number of elements.

Typically, the gain will be within 2 dB of the indicated gain. However, Front-to-back

ratio can vary greatly (as much as 25 dB) from the indicated F/B. F/B is much more

sensitive to adjustments to the element length and spacing.

42

The gain resulting from using the optimum number of elements is shown in

figure 2 as a function of boom length.

This curve can be used to obtain the gain that will be achieved from a given

boomlength in a boom length limited design, or vice versa. Figure 3 shows

the reflector length required to achieve optimum gain as a function of boom

length.

43

The director length can be obtained using the known reflector length, and the

curve of the ratio of reflector length to director length shown in Figure 4.

Finally the bandwidth for the particular antenna can be obtained using figure

5.

If a greater bandwidth is required, the reflector to director ratio can be

adjusted to give an increased bandwidth as shown by the red and magenta

plots.

44

Antenna special parameters

Yagi-Forward gain:

The ratio of the intensity in a given direction to the radiation intensity that would

be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna where radiated isotropically.

Standard value: >10dBi

Front to back ratio:

The ratio of the maximum intensity in the direction of maximum radiation to the

radiation intensity of the back lobe in the opposite direction.

Standard value: >25dB

Front to rear ratio:

The ratio of the maximum intensity in the direction of maximum radiation to the

maximum radiation intensity of the side lobes.

Standard value: >20dB

Drive impedance / SWR:

Due to the mis-match between the load and the feeding system the reflected wave

together with incident wave form a standing wave the SWR is the ratio of Vmax to

Vmin of this standing wave and is related to impedance of the load and the

characteristic impedance if the feeder.

Standard value: <2.5

45

Design Using Yagi Designer Software

Optimization Using QuickYagi Software

46

47

Simulation Using 4nec2 Software

48

49

50

Experiment

5

Horn Antennas

Horn Antennas:

flared waveguides that produce a nearly uniform phase front larger than the

waveguide itself

constructed in a variety of shapes such as sectoral E-plane, sectoral H-plane,

pyramidal, conical, etc.

Application Areas:

used as a feed element for large radio astronomy, satellite tracking and

communication dishes

A common element of phased arrays

used in the calibration, other high-gain antennas

used for making electromagnetic interference measurements

Horn Antenna Types:

1. E-Plane Sectoral Horn

E-Plane

H-Plane

E- and H-Plane Patterns

0

0

0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

150

0

120

0

90

0

60

0

30

10 20 30

10

20

30 R

e

la

t

iv

e

p

o

w

e

r

(

d

B

d

o

w

n

)

51

2. H-Plane Sectoral Horn

E-Plane

H-Plane

E- and H-Plane Patterns

3. Pyramidal Horn

E-Plane

H-Plane

E and H-Plane Patterns

0

0

0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

150

0

120

0

90

0

60

0

30

10 20 30

10

20

30 R

e

la

t

iv

e

p

o

w

e

r

(

d

B

d

o

w

n

)

0

0

0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

150

0

120

0

90

0

60

0

30

10 20 30

10

20

30 R

e

la

t

iv

e

p

o

w

e

r

(

d

B

d

o

w

n

)

52

4. Conical Horn Antenna

E-Plane

H-Plane

E- and H-Plane Patterns

Other horn antenna types:

Multimode Horns

Corrugated Horns

Hog Horns

Biconical Horns

Dielectric Loaded Horns

Horn advantages:

Frequency above 1GHz

High gain

Wide bandwidth

Low weight

Easy to construct

0

0

0

30

0

60

0

90

0

120

0

150

0

180

0

150

0

120

0

90

0

60

0

30

10 20 30

10

20

30 R

e

la

t

iv

e

p

o

w

e

r

(

d

B

d

o

w

n

)

53

Horn Antenna Design:

Design a pyramidal horn so that the gain is 17.05 dbi at f=11GHz.

54

55

56

57

Horn Antenna Analysis:

Use Sabor software to analyze the designed horn above.

58

59

60

61

Experiment

6

Reflector Antennas

Objective:

a) The main objective is to know the main characteristics and parameters that

effect on the parabolic reflector antenna.

b) Plotting the radiation pattern of parabolic antenna

c) See the effect of changing it's parameter on radiation pattern such as

• Frequency of operation

• Diameter of the dish

• Focal length to diameter ration F/D

Theoretical Background:

Antennas based on parabolic reflectors are most common type of directive antennas

when a high gain is required. The main advantage is that they can be made to have

gain and directivity as large as required . the main disadvantage is that big dishes are

difficult to mount and are likely to have a large windage.

The basic property of a perfect parabolic reflector is that it converts a spherical wave

irradiating from a point source placed at the focus into plane waves.

Conversely, all the energy received by the dish from a distant source is reflected to a

single point at the focus of the dish. The position of the focus, or focal length, is given

by:

c

D

f

16

2

=

Where D is the dish diameter and c is the depth of the parabola at its center.

The size of the dish is the most important factor since it determines the maximum

gain that can be achieved at the given frequency and the resulting beamwidth. The

gain and beamwidth obtained are given by:

( )

2

2

λ

πD

e G =

D

BW

λ 70

=

Where D is the diameter of the dish and e is the efficiency.

62

Total Efficiency

It has been fairly easy to calculate efficiency for an idealized feed horn pattern due to

illumination taper and spillover but there are several other factors that can

significantly reduce efficiency. Because the feed horn and its supporting structures are

in the beam of the dish part of the radiation is blocked or deflected. A real feed horn

also has sidelobes so part of its radiation is in undesired directions and thus wasted.

Finally no reflector is a perfect parabola so the focusing of the beam is not perfect.

We end up with quite a list of contributions to total efficiency:

• Illumination taper

• Spillover loss

• Asymmetries in E- and H-Planes

• Focal point error

• Feedhorn sidelobes

• Blockage by feed horn

• Blockag by supporting structures

• Imperfections in parabolic surface.

• Feedlineloss

Each time the diameter of a dish is doubled the gain is four times or 6db greater, if

both stations doubles the diameter the signal strength will be increased by 12dB, the

total efficiency can be assumed 50% for hand built antenna.

The ratio f/D is the fundamental factor governing the design of the feed for dish. He

ratio is directly related to the beamwidth of the feed necessary to illuminate the dish

effectively. Two dished of the same diameter but different focal lengths require

different design of feed if both are to be illuminated efficiently. The value of .25

correspond to the common focal-plane dish in witch the focus is in the same plane as

the rim of the dish.

Scattering

Diffraction

Spillover

63

Design steps:

64

65

66

Effect of changing the parabolic parameter on radiation:

4

a) Changing Frequency to 4GHz

b) Changing Diameter to 50cm

67

c) Changing F/D ratio to .3

68

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