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2008-2009
Ant enna Lab Manual
EELE5133
ﻲﻋاذﻹا ﺚﺒﻟاو تﺎﻴﺋاﻮﻬﻟا ﺮﺒﺘﺨﻣ
Prepared By

Dr. Mohammed Ouda
Eng. Saied Emghary
2
Table of contents

Title Page
Preface 3
Syllabus 4
Experiment 1 Antenna Parameters 5
Experiment 2 Wire Antennas 9
Experiment 3 • Linear Arrays Introduction
• Broadside Array
• End-Fire Array

23
29

34
Experiment 4 Yagi-Uda antenna 39
Experiment 5 Horn antennas 50
Experiment 6 Reflector Antennas 61



















3
Preface

This Lab manual is prepared to help antenna course students to deal with
the most popular softwares that used in the design of the antennas beside
the investigation of the topics covered in the course, Some of the labs are
taken from an old lab manual prepared by Eng. Mohammed Al-Absi by
using a new versions of the softwares used there, some labs are prepared
newly, a new multi-purpose software is used here which is 4nec2.





















4
Syllabus

Digital Signal Processing Laboratory (EELE 4110)

Objectives:

• To be familiar with the most popular antenna design programs
• To investigate the different parameters associated with the specific antenna.
• To deal with various wire antennas, dipole , loop, helix … etc.
• To get close to arrays and the different parameters that control the shape of the pattern.
• To design yagi antenna using design graphs and software programs.
• To investigate the high directional antennas such as Horn and Reflector antennas.

Course Plan

1st Week Discussion: Antenna Parameters
2nd Week Lab: Antenna Parameters
3rd Week Discussion: Wire Antennas
4th Week Lab: Wire Antennas
5th Week Discussion: Linear Arrays
6th Week Lab: Linear Arrays (Broadside Array)
7th Week Lab: Linear Arrays (End-Fire Array)
8th Week MIDTERM EXAM
9th Week Discussion: Yagi-Uda Antenna
10th Week Lab: Yagi-Uda Antenna
11th Week Discussion: Horn Antenna
12th Week Lab: Horn antenna
13th Week Discussion: Reflector antennas
14th Week Lab: Reflector Antennas
15th Week PROJECT EVALUATION
16th Week FINAL EXAM

: References
• Class Notes
• Antenna Design, Balanis ,2
nd
Ed.

: Grades
10 Pts Attendance……………………..
15 Pts Midterm Exam………………....
30 Pts Final Exam………………….....
15 Pts Reports…………………………
20 Pts Project…………………………
10 Pts Quizzes………………………...

: Lab Policy

• No late reports or pre-labs will be accepted
• Reports should be done individually.
• Mid term Exam will be at the end of Lab(6)

Office Hours: Open-door policy, by appointment or as posted.
5

Experiment
1



Antenna Parameters



Objective:

• Studying antenna parameters, Radiation pattern, Pattern beamwidth, Radiation
intensity, Directivity, Gain, radiation efficiency.
• Using "MATLAB" to plot radiation intensity, calculating dirctivity and half-
power beamwidths.

Theoretical Background:

• HPBW: is the angle between two vectors, originating at the pattern's origin
and passing through these points of the major lobe where the radiation
intensity id half its maximum

• FNBW: is the angle between two vectors, originating at the pattern's origin
and tangent to the main beam at its base. It is very often approximately true
that FNBW≈ 2HPBW.

6



• Radiation intensity U: in a given direction is the power per unit solid angle
radiated in this direction by the antenna.

φ θ θ d d d sin = Ω

There is a direct relation between the radiation intensity U and the radiation power
density P (that is pointing vector magnitude of the far field) since

2
/ , m W
ds
dP
W
rad
=

2 2
, sin m d d r ds φ θ θ =

Then
rad
W r U
2
=

| | | | H E
v v
η =

η
η
2
2
| |
2
1
| |
2
1 E
H W
rad
r
v
= =

2
2
| |
2
) , ( E
r
U
r
η
φ θ =
• Directivity:

Can be defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity of the antenna in a given
direction and the radiation intensity of an isotropic radiator fed by the same amount of
power.
rad Isotropic
P
U
U
U
D
) , (
4
) , (
) , (
φ θ
π
φ θ
φ θ = =

rad Isotropic
P
U
U
U
D
max max
0
4π = =

7
∫ ∫
=
π π
φ θ θ φ θ
2
0 0
sin ) , ( d d U P
rad

• Gain:

The gain G of an antenna is the ratio of the radiation intensity U in a given direction
and the radiation intensity that would be obtained, if the power fed to the antenna
were radiated isotropically.

in
P
U
G
) , (
4 ) , (
φ θ
π φ θ =

The gain is dimensionless quantity, which is very similar to the directivity D. when
the antenna has no losses, i.e. when Pin=Prad, then G(θ,φ)=D(θ,φ). Thus, the gain of
the antenna takes into account the losses in the antenna system. It is calculated via the
input power Pin, which is measurable quantity, unlike the directivity, which is
calculated via the radiated power prad.

The radiated power is related to the input power through a coefficient called radiation
efficiency:

in rad
eP P =
) , ( ) , ( φ θ φ θ eD G =


• The beam solid angle Ω
A
:

Is the solid angle through which all the power of the antenna whould flow if its
radiation intensity were constant and equal to the maximum radiation intensity U
0
for
all angles within Ω
A
.

r r A
o
d d
U
U
D
2 1
2
0 max
0
4 4
sin
) , (
1
4
θ θ
π π
φ θ θ
φ θ
π
π π


= =
∫ ∫


The relation between the maximum directivity and the beam solid angle is obvious.
For antennas with narrow major lobe and with negligible minor lobes, the beam solid
angle Ω
A
is approximately equal the product of the HPBWs in two orthogonal planes.

• The effective area A
e
:

The effective area A
e
of an antenna is the value corresponding to the direction of
maximal gain Gmax. We write in this case:

2
max
4
λ
π
e
A
G =



8
Experimental Procedure:

Part I
The normalized radiation intensity of a lossless antenna is given by:


⎧ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
=
elsewhere
F
, 0
0 , 0 , sin sin
) , (
2
π φ π θ φ θ
φ θ
Using MATLAB:
a) Plot radiation intensity at polar coordinates on x-y, y-z planes.
b) Find the azimuthal and elevation plane HPBWs in degrees.
c) Find the maximum directivity (D
max
)
d) Find the approximate directivity using results in (b)



Part II
The normalized radiation intensity of a lossless antenna is given by:





≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ + −
=
elsewhere
F
, 0
0 , 0 |, )
6
sin( )
6
sin( | sin sin 2
) , (
π φ π θ
π
φ
π
φ φ θ
φ θ
Using MATLAB:
a) Plot radiation intensity at polar coordinates on x-y plane.
b) Find the azimuthal HPBW in degrees.
c) Find the maximum directivity (D
max
)
d) Find the ratio of the radiation & field intensities between the main and first
side lobes.






















9

Experiment
2



Wire Antenna



Types of wire antennas
• Linear
1. Dipole
2. monopole
• Loop
1. circular
2. rectangular
• Helix
• Yagi
• Arrays
1. Broadside Linear
2. End-Fire Linear
• …………..

Software: EMMCAP "ElectroMagnetic Modeling Computation and Analysis Program"

1. Introduction:

EMMCAP is a program system for the modeling of 3D arbitrarily shaped wire
structures and for the computation and analysis of their electromagnetic behavior
including radiation and scattering problems.

EMMCAP computes the current distribution on a thin-wire structure operating in
the frequency domain. Using a Method of Moments (MoM) approach with curved
segments simulates the current distribution. This means that the structure is first
divided into segments which exactly follow the contour of the wires instead of the
typical approximation with straight wire segments. The straight wire approximation
often requires a large number of segments to adequately approximate the curved wire
geometry. Because of this by using curved segments the number of unknowns and
memory space can be reduced allowing for the simulation of bigger problems.

Next a basis function is defined on each pair of adjacent segments representing
an unknown current. Then an Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE) is converted
into a system of linear equations which has to be solved for the unknown currents.
Afterwards field strengths radiated power and other parameters of interest can be
computed.

10
In using the EMMCAP program system simulating a wire structure is a four-step
procedure:

Defining the program's configuration.
Drawing the wire geometry.
Performing the computation.
Visualizing the computed results.

The program's configuration refers to the definition of the operating frequency or
range of frequencies of the system the permittivity and permeability of the medium
and other options defining the type of simulation such as a free space computation or
a simulation over a perfect electric conductor (PEC) ground plane.
2. Defining the configuration:

Selecting "Computation | Configure..." in the main menu can set the program
configuration. The "Configuration" dialog box has the following pages: Frequency
,Medium ,Options ,Far-Field and Incident Wave Fig. 2.1.



1. Frequency page

The Frequency page has three different options: Single, List and Sweep. By
choosing one option the computation can either be performed for a single
frequency, for frequencies taken from a list or for a frequency sweep, Fig. 2.1.

2. Medium page

The relative permittivity and permeability of the medium can be defined in
this page, Fig 2.2. Two sets of values have to be defined, the medium's constants
for the computation of currents and the medium's constants for the computation of
far-fields.

3. Options page

11
Four options for the type of simulation are available, Fig. 2.3. If "Ground
Plane" is checked an infinite PEC ground plane will be placed at the specified
height from the xy-plane. Thus, the ground plane is parallel to the xy-plane. If
"Height" is positive the ground plane will be over the xy-plane, if "Height" is
negative the ground plane will be under the xy-plane, and if "Height" is set to zero
the ground plane will be the xy-plane.













12
3. Drawing Wires

1. Attributes page

EMMCAP has different types of wires. Each wire has its own input parameters
and attributes that can be set in its specific dialog box. Each wire has to be divided
into a given number of segments. An unknown current on each segment must be
found in the simulation process. This number is set automatically by considering the
wavelength and the length of the wire, but can also be set manually by the user. The
"Attributes" page in the "Draw" dialog box for the wire "Line" is shown in Fig. 3.1.
The "Draw" dialog box for each type of wire has its own "Attributes" page with the
same features described above.




2. Wire Line

Wire "Line" refers to a straight wire. By clicking with the right mouse button in
any part of the screen a pop-up menu where the type of wire can be chosen will be
shown. Selecting "Draw | Edit " in the main menu can also choose the type of wire By
selecting "Line" the "Draw" dialog box where the parameters and attributes of the
wire can be set will be shown Fig. 3.2. On the "Line" page of the "Draw" dialog box
there are two options available: "2 Points" and "Start - Direction - Length". The "2
Points" option allows to enter the straight wire by giving two points: "From Point"
and "To Point" Fig. 3.2.

13



3. Adding sources/loads

By clicking with the right mouse button in any part of a wire a pop-up menu
where the "Source / Load" option can be chosen will be shown Fig. 3.4. The "Source
/ Load" option can also be chosen by first selecting a wire by clicking with the left
mouse button on it and next selecting " Source / Load " under "Edit" in the main
menu Fig. 3.5. When the "Source / Load" option has been chosen a special tool-bar at
the bottom of the screen will be shown Fig. 3.6.




14







o Adding source

By clicking on the "Add Source" button a dialog box is shown Fig. 3.7. In the
"Add Source" dialog box the type of source its amplitude and phase and its inner
impedance can be set.






15
o Adding load

By clicking on the "Add Load" button a dialog box is shown Fig. 3.8. In the "Add
Load" dialog box the type of lumped load and its resistance and
inductance/capacitance can be set. By selecting the type of impedance a load element
can either represent a resistance in series with an inductance or a resistance in series
with a capacitance.




In the "Add Load" dialog box the type of lumped load and its resistance and
inductance/capacitance can be set. By selecting the type of impedance a load element
can either represent a resistance in series with an inductance or a resistance in series
with a capacitance.

4. Performing computations

When the configuration the geometry and the excitation are defined EMMCAP is
ready to compute the currents on the segments. Pressing "Computation | Run
Currents" in the main menu Fig. 4.1 can run this simulation.




Pressing "Computation | Run Far-Field" in the main menu Fig. 4.2 can run this
simulation.

16



5. Visualizing computed results

1. Current plot

A 2D plot of the current distribution along a particular wire can be shown by
clicking on the wire with the right mouse button and selecting "Plot Current" in the
pop-up menu Fig. 5.1.



Choosing this option executes the EMMPLOT program where the current is
plotted in amplitude vs. position along the wire Fig 5.2. The current distribution can
also be shown in phase real and imaginary parts by selecting these options under
"View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu.



17

2. Radiation pattern plot

The computed radiation pattern can be shown as a 2D rectangular plot by selecting
"View | Plot Far-Field | 2D Plot" in the main menu Fig 5.3.




Choosing this option shows the "Radiation Pattern Cut" dialog box where two
kinds of plots can be produced: conical and vertical. Conical plots are for fixed Theta
with Phi varying and vertical plots are for fixed Phi with Theta varying Fig 5.4.

Selecting a kind of radiation pattern cut executes the EMMPLOT program where
the average Poynting vector is plotted vs. Phi if a conical plot was chosen (for fixed
Theta) or vs. Theta if a vertical plot was chosen (for fixed Phi) Fig 5.5.






18



Selecting these options under "View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu can also
show the total E-field the E-theta and E-phi field components and the directivity
patterns. The radiation patterns can also be plotted in a 2D polar chart by pressing
"Polar/Ortho" under "View" in the EMMPLOT's main menu Fig 5.6.



3. Listing results

Clicking with the right mouse button on a particular wire shows a pop-up menu
Fig. 5.7. Pressing "List ..." in the pop-up menu shows a tool-bar Fig.5.8.
19





The tool-bar has a "Track-Bar". Each position of the Track-Bar corresponds to the
position of a segment in the selected wire. Thus this Track-Bar allows selecting a
particular segment in the wire. By clicking on the "Current vs. Freq" button a dialog
box with a list of the current in the selected segment is shown Fig. 5.9.







This list shows the current in the segment vs. frequency and pressing the "Plot"
button in the dialog box can plot these data. If the selected segment has a source on it
the "Input List" button is enabled. Choosing this option shows the list of the input
impedance vs. frequency that can be plotted by pressing the "Plot" button Fig. 5.10.
20




6. procedure "Simulation of a cylindrical antenna"

A straight wire with a voltage source at its center can simulate a center-fed
cylindrical antenna. Following the steps listed below can perform the simulation.

Step 1: Select "Computation | Configure..." in the main menu. In the "Frequency"
page of the "Configuration" dialog box choose "Sweep" and fill the "Frequency
Sweep" box as shown in Fig. 6.1.




Step 2: Select "Edit | Draw | Line" in the main menu. The "Draw" dialog box for
the wire "Line" will be shown. Fill the pages "Line" and "Attributes" as shown in Fig.
6.2 and Fig 6.3. A straight wire with 17 segments will be drawn.



21





Step 3: Clicking with the right mouse button on the wire shows a pop-up menu
where the "Source/Load" option can be selected. Put a voltage source in the segment
no. 9 i.e. at the middle point of the wire. The source voltage can be 1 (0º) V.

Step 4: Press "Computation | Run Currents" in the main menu. Once the
simulation has finished press "Computation | Run Far-Field".

22
Step 5: Clicking on the wire with the right mouse button and selecting "Plot
Current" in the pop-up menu can show a plot of the current distribution.

Step 6:Plot input impedance vs. frequency

Step 7:Plot Real part of the input impedance vs. frequency

Step 8:Plot Imaginary part of the input impedance vs. frequency





































23
Experiment
3 Introduction




Linear Arrays


Introduction

All the individual radiators of an array are usually similar, with the most common
array element being the half-wave dipole. The radiation pattern of an array in free-
space depends on four factors:

• The relative positions of the individual radiators with respect to each other
• The relative phases of the currents of fields in them
• The relative magnitudes of the individual radiator currents or fields
• The patterns of the individual radiators

The basic theory of arrays is developed in terms of the first three factors. The fourth
factor assumes that the individual radiators are fictional isotropic point sources. An
isotropic point source is one that radiates with uniform intensity in all directions and
has no physical size and also no ‘electrical’ size, hence, it does not block or otherwise
affect the radiation of the other elements of the array. An array radiation pattern can
be calculated on the basis of these assumptions and then a correction to it can be made
to take into account that in reality the individual radiators do affect each other and do
not radiate isotropically.

Definition of Antenna Pattern

If an antenna is imagined to be located at the centre of a spherical coordinate system,
its radiation pattern is determined by measuring the electric field intensity over the
surface of a sphere at some fixed distance r. Since the field E is then a function of the
two variables θ and φ, it is written E(θ, φ).
A measurement of the electric field intensity E(θ, φ) of an electromagnetic filed in
free space is equivalent to a measurement of the magnetic field intensity H(θ, φ),
since the magnitudes of the two quantities are directly related by the expression E =
377H. Vectorially E and H are at right angles to each other and their phase angles are
equal. Therefore, the pattern could equally well be given in terms of E or H. It is
customary, however, to discuss patterns in terms of the electric field intensity E.
The power density of the field P(θ, φ), can also be computed when E(θ, φ) is known.
The relation being P = E
2
/377. Therefore a plot of the antenna pattern in terms of P(θ,
φ) conveys the same information as a plot of the magnitude of E(θ, φ).
24
Assuming free-space propagation, a pattern that represents field strength as a function
of angular direction at a fixed distance from the antenna is identical to a plot of
distance for constant field strength. Therefore, a field-strength pattern can be
interpreted in either of these ways, by simply changing the labelling of the radial
coordinate scale. A similar statement, however, is not true for power-density patterns.

Relative pattern

Often the pattern is plotted in relative terms, that is, the field strength or power
density is represented in terms of its ratio to some reference value. The reference
usually chosen is the field level in the maximum-field-strength direction. The field
strength or power density is given the value unity in this direction and fractional
values in other directions. This relative pattern provides as much information about
the antenna as does an absolute pattern and therefore relative patterns are usually
plotted when it is desired to describe only the properties of the antenna, without
reference to an associated transmitter or receiver.

Two-Isotropic-element Array

The simplest array comprises two isotropic point-source radiators. It is discussed here
because it covers most of the principles of multi radiator arrays.
The meaning of the term phase as applied to the radiating elements of an array is
illustrated by considering the following; At some distant point the fields of the two
radiating elements are examined and are found to be in phase with each other. If then
the phase of the current in Radiator 2 is changed by an amount α radians and the
phase of the current in Radiator 1 is left unchanged, it will be observed that the two
fields at the distant point are now out-of-phase by the amount α radians. The phase of
a radiating element in an array is always discussed in relation to the phases of the
other elements. If the phases of the two radiators in a two-element array are changed
by the same amount, the array pattern is unaffected, but changing the phases between
the two elements affects the way that the individual fields of the tow radiators add up
at a specified distant point.
Figure 1 shows the significant geometry of a two-element isotropic-point-source
array.


Figure 1 – Array of two isotropic sources

25
The coordinates of P are ‘r’ and φ are two coordinates of the spherical coordinate
system. The third spherical coordinate θ, is not shown because only a plane in which
θ is constant is being considered here, namely, the xy-plane in which
2
π
θ = radians.
The point P is the field point, that is, any point in space where the field is to be
calculated. Hence, an expression of the field strength a P applies to all points and thus
defines the radiation pattern of the array. Calculation of the field due to the array at
an arbitrary point P is the basic problem of array theory. Because the distances r
1
and
r
2
are much larger than the distance d, the amplitudes of the separate fields of the two
radiators at point P will be very nearly the same due to the large attenuation that the
radiation from each radiator experiences.
On the other hand, the relative phases of the two fields at P arising from the two
radiators will be dependent on δ, where
2 1
r r δ = − , as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 – Two-element array geometry

The resulting phase difference of the fields due to δ is equal to
2πδ
λ
− radians,
where Radiator 1 or R
1
is taken to be the reference phase. To this difference must be
added the initial phase difference α, between the two radiators themselves. The total
phase difference ψ of the two fields at P is then given by
2πδ
ψ α
λ
= − (1)
The resultant field at P is the superposition of two fields of equal amplitude, E
o
, and
phase difference ψ. If two fields of the same amplitude E
o
, are considered as two
vectors separated by an angle ψ, then the resultant field E, can be found by using the
cosine rule, as
2 cos
2
o
E E
ψ
⎛ ⎞
=
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
(2)
This is the first step toward finding the radiation pattern of the array, which is an
expression of E as a function of φ, the angle of the direction of P from the centre of
the array. To obtain the radiation pattern, it is necessary to express ψ in terms of φ.
From figure 2,
sin d δ φ = (3)
On substituting equation 3 into equation 1 and the resultant back into equation 2,
gives the equation for the field E(φ) at P.
26

( )
sin
2 cos
2
o
d
E E
α π φ
φ
λ
⎡ ⎤
= −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
(4)
Equation 4 is the expression for the field at P as a function of the angle φ that the
direction of P makes with the line perpendicular to the line of the array. Equation 4
gives the shape of the pattern in the xy-plane or
2
π
θ = plane. The absolute-value
brackets are used to indicate that the field intensity being calculated is proportional to
the amplitude or to the rms value and is therefore a positive number, although the
expression inside the brackets may be signed.
In order to obtain the relative pattern, for which the field strength in the maximum-
intensity direction has the value unity, equation 4 must be divided by the maximum
value of E, which is usually, but not always 2E
0
.

Three-dimensional pattern

Equation 4 describes the array pattern in the xy-plane, in which the angle θ of a three-
dimensional coordinate system is constant (
2
π
θ = ). Because the angle θ is constant
it does not appear in equation 4.
The three-dimensional pattern is obtained by revolving the xy-pattern about the y-
axis, which is the line of the array. This is possible as the xy-pattern is identical in
shape and size at any value of rotation in the yz-plane. The pattern in the yz-plane is
expressed as a function of the angle θ instead of the angle φ. In other planes, both
angles are involved. The expression for the complete three-dimensional pattern is
given by,
( )
sin sin
, 2 cos
2
o
d
E E
α π θ φ
θ φ
λ
⎡ ⎤
= −
⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
(4a)

Parallel dipole two-element array

The pattern defined by equation 4 can be plotted as a function of the angle φ for
different values of the parameters d and α. (Note that a parameter is defined in
mathematics as a quantity that can vary but is held constant in a particular problem so
that the effect of some other variable may be studied, uncontaminated by any
variation of the parameter.) Although the various resulting patterns obtained are for an
array of isotropic elements, they also represent the patterns of an array of two dipoles
in the plane perpendicular to their axis. Providing that the dipoles are parallel to each
other and perpendicular to the line joining their centres (line of the array), as shown in
Figure 3. This diagram may be thought of as the horizontal-plane patterns of a pair of
vertical dipoles or monopoles separated by a distance d and with currents having a
phase difference α.

27

Figure 3 – Geometrical positioning of pattern for two dipoles

It should be noted that when the two elements are in phase (α = 0°), the radiation is
always maximum in the direction perpendicular to the line joining the elements, that
is in the x-direction in Figure 3 above. That is, because the distances from the
elements to the field point P are equal in that direction (φ = 0°), the phase difference
due to path difference is zero also; hence the total phase difference of the
superimposed fields is ψ = 0°. Consequently, the fields add directly and the maximum
possible resultant field is obtained. When α = 0° and the pattern maximum is in the
direction perpendicular to the array line, as shown in Figure 3, the antenna is called a
broadside array.
For certain conditions the resultant field in some directions is zero, that is when the
sum of the radiator phase difference α, and the phase difference due to path difference
2πδ
λ
is an odd integral multiple of π radians. The fields of the individual radiators
are in this case, of equal amplitude and opposite phase, so they cancel. This occurs,
for example, when α = 0° and d = λ/2, in the φ = 90° and 270° directions, since in
these directions the field phase-difference is 180 degrees, whereas the phase
difference due to radiator phase difference is zero. The same result occurs when the
180 degrees net phase difference is due to a combination of path difference and
radiator phase difference. These directions of zero intensity in a pattern are called
nulls.
Certain combinations of d and α result in maximum radiation in the direction of the
line joining the array elements. The array is then said to be operating as an endfire
array. The radiation of an endfire array may be either bidirectional or unidirectional.
A bidirectional array is where the radiation lobes are in both directions along the line
of the array. Whereas, a unidirectional array has a lobe in one direction and a null in
the opposite direction.

Multi-element Uniform Linear Arrays

When more than two elements are used in an array, the principle of calculating the
pattern (from which in turn the beamwidth and directive gain can be computed) is the
same as for a two-element array. Except that the fields of all the elements must be
superposed at the field point. The simplest type of multi-element array is one in which
all the radiators are in a line, with equal spacing between adjacent pairs. This is shown
in Figure 4 below. The method of analysis is suggested by showing a field-point P
28
joined by ray lines to each element. Such an array is called a linear array. When all
the elements are radiating with equal intensity and the phase difference between
adjacent elements is constant, the array is called uniform. The applet provided
demonstrates a uniform linear array of up to nine elements.

Figure 4 – Linear array of four radiating elements

Radiation Pattern

If the array contains n isotropic point-source elements, with equal spacing d and phase
difference α between adjacent elements, the pattern in a plane containing the line of
the array can be shown to be
sin
sin
2
sin
sin
2
rel
d
n
E
d
n
π φ α
λ
π φ α
λ
⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟
⎢ ⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦
=
⎡ ⎤

⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦
(5)

For n = 2, this expression reduces to equation 4.
As in the two-element case, the three dimensional pattern is obtained simply by
replacing sinφ by the product sinφ.sinθ. The factor n in the denominator of equation 5
is a normalizing factor that is used to make E
rel
a true relative pattern. That is, it
permits E
rel
= 1 for the particular values of φ in the direction of maximum field
intensity, in accordance with the definition of relative pattern given above.
It is equation 5 that is used in the applet to determine the polar pattern of an n element
array.







29
Experiment
3 PART A




Broadside Linear Arrays



When α = 0°, all the elements are in phase and pattern maxima occur at φ = 0° and
φ = 180°, that is, in the directions perpendicular to the line of the array. This
configuration is called a broadside array. The pattern will be maximum in these
directions regardless of the element spacing, d. These will be the only primary
maxima if d < λ. If d = λ, additional maxima occur at φ = 90° and φ = 270°. As d is
increased still further, additional maxima occur as cones of radiation about the axis of
the array. They are known as grating lobes, analogous to the lobes observed in the
optical study of a diffraction or reflection grating. Ordinarily, therefore, the spacing of
elements in a broadside array is kept less than a wavelength. However, there is an
advantage in spacing the elements of an array by more than half a wavelength. For a
two-element array the optimum spacing is about 0.7λ, for a four-element array it is
about 0.8λ and for a large number of elements the optimum is about 0.95λ. The
directivity increases gradually as the spacing is increased until the optimum is
reached, then drops rather sharply with further increase. The advantage of the wider
spacing is in the directivity obtainable with a given number of elements. In terms of
the ratio of the directivity to the total length of the array, there is no advantage in the
wider spacing. These observations can be seen in the applet. Although the above
discussion is based on a uniform linear broadside array of point-source isotropic
radiators, they apply also to a similar array of dipoles. These dipoles have their
centres on the array line and their axes perpendicular to the array line and parallel to
each other. The pattern is in the plane perpendicular to the dipole axes, that is, the xy-
plane as shown in Figure 3. The polarization of the array follows the direction of the
dipoles. If the array line is horizontal and the dipole axes are vertical, the radiation is
vertically polarized. If the array line is horizontal and the dipole axes are horizontal,
as shown in Figure 5, the radiation is horizontally polarized.
Figure 5 shows a broadside array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d = 0.7λ and α = 0°.

30

Figure 5 – Linear broadside array of six radiating dipoles all elements in phase
showing the position of the polar pattern

The in-phase currents in the individual dipoles, required for a broadside pattern, may
be obtained by properly connecting a branched transmission line to the feed point of
each dipole. That is, if the total line length from the transmitter to each dipole is the
same the dipoles will be fed in phase. It is important to ensure that the same side of
the line is connected to the same side of each dipole. Reversing this connection
reverses the phase.
Broadside arrays may also b e formed from other types of elements, such as horns,
slots, helixes and polyrods. If the elements are unidirectional radiators, such as
sectoral or pyramidal horns, waveguide slots, axial mode helixes and polyrods, a
unidirectional broadside array results.

Beamwidth and Gain of Broadside Linear Arrays

Isotropic elements spaced a half-wavelength
For a uniform broadside linear array of n isotropic elements spaced a half-wavelength
apart, the beamwidth is given by
• For n = 2 60°.
• For n = 3 36°.
• For n >3 102/n°.
The directivity of such an array is equal to n
Isotropic elements spaced other than a half-wavelength
When the element spacing is not half-wavelength but is not greatly different from this
value, the beamwidth formula becomes
51
BW
nd
λ
= (6)

31
Procedure:
Use 4nec2 software to implement a broadside array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d =
0.7λ and α = 0°




32



33























34
Experiment
3 PART B




Endfire Linear Arrays



If in equation 5 the phase-difference α between adjacent elements is equal to
2 d π
λ

radians, the condition for a maximum of radiation is satisfied when φ = 90° and for
this value only, provided that d < λ/2. The maximum field intensity is radiated in a
direction along the line of the array, “off the end” rather than off the side. Hence the
name endfire array. The maximum is toward only one of the ends of the array, rather
than in both the endfire directions.
In terms of Figure 4, if the progressive phase change is a retardation going in the
direction of the positive y-axis by the amount α per element, the beam will be in the φ
= 90° direction. If the sign of α is changed, or its amount is increased by 180 degrees
without changing the element spacing, the beam will be in the direction φ = 270°.
Although the condition stated above for the value of α results in an endfire array, it
does not result in an endfire pattern with the maximum possible directivity and
narrowest possible beam. Hansen and Woodyard showed that an endfire beam with a
greater gain results if the phase change per element satisfies
Hansen-Woodyard condition
2 d
n
π π
α
λ
⎛ ⎞
= +
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
radians (7)
This condition does not necessarily result in a unidirectional pattern as does the basic
endfire condition. The basic endfire analysis assumes isotropic radiators, but it applies
also to other radiators that have radiation along the line of the array. Thus, parallel
dipoles can be used buy not collinear dipoles. For isotropic elements the beam has
three-dimensional axial symmetry where the horizontal and vertical beamwidths are
the same.
The case where d = λ/8 with α = 135° and d = λ/4 with α = 90° provide a complete
null or zero field intensity in the back direction for a 2 element array. These patterns
are advantageous in applications where a high front-to-back ratio is required. The
condition for a null condition for any uniform linear endfire array with an even
number of elements is given by
Condition for null in one endfire direction
2
1
d
α π
λ
⎛ ⎞
= ±
⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
radians (8)
A null is never absolute because of unavoidable imperfections in the spacing and
phasing of the elements and many-element arrays are more susceptible to such
imperfections than those of few elements. Figure 6 shows an endfire arrangement.
35



Figure 6 – Linear endfire array of six radiating dipoles all elements in phase
showing the position of the polar pattern.

Parasitically Excited Endfire Arrays

It is not necessary to feed each element of an endfire array by direct connection to a
transmission line. If only one dipole as such an array is directly fed, or driven the field
that it sets up will cause currents to flow in adjoining elements. This process is called
parasitic excitation and the elements thus excited are parasitic elements. Endfire
arrays employing this principle are known as Yagi-Uda antennas, which are often just
called Yagis. (Professor Uda first described these antennas in Japanese and H. Yagi
was the first to describe the antenna in English, giving full credit to Uda’s work.) The
Yagi-Uda antenna can also be regarded as a surface-wave antenna.
Parasitic excitation cannot be employed in broadside arrays. To produce the in-phase
currents required for a broadside pattern, a full-wavelength element spacing would be
required. There would then be two endfire lobes of radiation as well as the two
broadside lobes. This type of pattern is not a true broadside pattern. Therefore,
broadside arrays are always driven arrays rather than parasitic arrays.
The phases of the currents in parasitic dipole elements are determined by their spacing
from the adjacent element and also by their lengths. A parasitic dipole cut exactly a
half wavelength or slightly longer will be inductive and the phase of its current will
lag the induced emf. A dipole cut shorter than a half wavelength will be capacitive
and the current in it will lead the induced emf. Comparatively close spacing of
elements is used in parasitic arrays to obtain good excitation and the induction fields
of the elements play a major role. The exact analysis is very complicated. Properly
spaced dipole elements slightly shorter than a half wavelength act as directors,
reinforcing the field of the driven element in the direction away from the driven
element. Thus, a line of directors may be used with each one exciting the next one. On
the other hand, an element one-half-wavelength long or slightly longer will act as a
reflector, if correctly spaced. This reflector reinforces the field of the driven element
in a direction toward the driven element from the reflector. Therefore, if a reflector
element is placed adjacent to a driven element, another element placed beyond the
reflector will not be appreciably excited. Although parasitic elements are usually
longer or shorter than a half wavelength when used as reflectors or directors,
respectively, they may also be one half-wavelength long and made to act as reflectors
or directors by proper spacing.
36
For these reasons a Yagi-Uda endfire array usually consist of one driven element, one
reflector on one side of it, and a number of directors on the other side of it. Antennas
of this type offer the advantages of a unidirectional beam of moderate directivity with
light weight, simplicity of feed design and low cost. The design becomes critical if
high directivity is attempted trough the use of many elements. Up to fie or six may be
used without difficulty and arrays of thirty or forty elements are possible. The input
impedance of a yagi-Uday array tends ot be low and the bandwidth is limited to
around 2%, typically. Directive gain of around 10 dB is readily achieved with a
moderate number of elements, usually five or six. Higher gains may be achieved by
making a broadside array of which the elements are Yagi-Uda arrays.

Procedure:
Use 4nec2 software to implement an End-Fire array and its polar pattern for n = 6, d =
0.3λ and α = 129°


37



38



39

Experiment
4




Yagi-Uda in VHF Band



Description of The Antenna
The Yagi (or Yagi-Uda) antenna is a linear array of parallel dipoles. One element is
energised directly by a feed transmission line with the others acting as parasitic
radiators. The function of these elements is to enhance the radiation pattern in the
source direction. Generally the reflector will be 5% longer than the driven element (ie
diploe)and the directors will be 5% shorter. Parameter limits are:
• Driven Element: 0.45-0.49 wavelengths.
• Directors: 0.4-0.45 wavelengths.
• Separation between Directors: 0.3-0.4 wavelengths.
• Radii of directors: 0.15-0.25 wavelengths.
• Separation between driven element an parasitics: 0.15-0.25 wavelengths.
Optimization of the Yagi-Uda Antenna can be achieved by simulating the radiation
patterns for various lengths of the elemnets and the spacing between them. Other
factors that effect the radiation pattern are:
• For an antenna with a length of 6 wavelengths or more the overall gain is
independant of the director spacing.
• The reflector size and spacing have negligable effect on the forward gain and
large effects on the backward gain and input impedance.
• The size and spacing of the directors has a large effect on the forward gain,
backward gain and input impedance.
• More than one reflector provides little improvement on the directivity of the
antenna.
• The addition of more directors will increase the gain of the antenna although
after the addition of approximately 5 directors the advantages of adding more
directors decreases significantly.
• The use of a folded dipole will increase the input impedance of the driven
element. This is an advantage as the Yagi design generally has a low input
impedance and the antenna impedance needs to match the transmission line
impedance.

40
System Requirements

It's suggested to design a yagi antenna to receive a TV channel in VHF band this
channel has a bandwidth of 6MHz from 174 to 180 MHz with video carrier at
175.25MHz and DTV carrier at 174.31MHz and audio carrier at 179.75MHz. The
antenna location is of about 50km from the transmitting station (20dBi) and of no
landscape obstacles.

Design Curves

The following design curves enable the optimum selection of the following
variables/characteristics (all as a function of boomlength) related to the
design of a simple Yagi antenna:
* Number of elements
* Gain
* Reflector length
* The ratio of reflector length to director length
* Bandwidth

41

Figure 1 indicates the optimum number of elements for an antenna of
specific boom length

Note: This table is typical performance of Yagi's with the stated number of elements.
Typically, the gain will be within 2 dB of the indicated gain. However, Front-to-back
ratio can vary greatly (as much as 25 dB) from the indicated F/B. F/B is much more
sensitive to adjustments to the element length and spacing.
42

The gain resulting from using the optimum number of elements is shown in
figure 2 as a function of boom length.

This curve can be used to obtain the gain that will be achieved from a given
boomlength in a boom length limited design, or vice versa. Figure 3 shows
the reflector length required to achieve optimum gain as a function of boom
length.
43

The director length can be obtained using the known reflector length, and the
curve of the ratio of reflector length to director length shown in Figure 4.

Finally the bandwidth for the particular antenna can be obtained using figure
5.
If a greater bandwidth is required, the reflector to director ratio can be
adjusted to give an increased bandwidth as shown by the red and magenta
plots.

44
Antenna special parameters

Yagi-Forward gain:

The ratio of the intensity in a given direction to the radiation intensity that would
be obtained if the power accepted by the antenna where radiated isotropically.

Standard value: >10dBi

Front to back ratio:

The ratio of the maximum intensity in the direction of maximum radiation to the
radiation intensity of the back lobe in the opposite direction.

Standard value: >25dB

Front to rear ratio:

The ratio of the maximum intensity in the direction of maximum radiation to the
maximum radiation intensity of the side lobes.

Standard value: >20dB

Drive impedance / SWR:

Due to the mis-match between the load and the feeding system the reflected wave
together with incident wave form a standing wave the SWR is the ratio of Vmax to
Vmin of this standing wave and is related to impedance of the load and the
characteristic impedance if the feeder.

Standard value: <2.5



















45
Design Using Yagi Designer Software





Optimization Using QuickYagi Software


46






47


Simulation Using 4nec2 Software






48



49



























50

Experiment
5




Horn Antennas

Horn Antennas:

flared waveguides that produce a nearly uniform phase front larger than the
waveguide itself

constructed in a variety of shapes such as sectoral E-plane, sectoral H-plane,
pyramidal, conical, etc.

Application Areas:

used as a feed element for large radio astronomy, satellite tracking and
communication dishes
A common element of phased arrays
used in the calibration, other high-gain antennas
used for making electromagnetic interference measurements

Horn Antenna Types:

1. E-Plane Sectoral Horn












E-Plane
H-Plane


E- and H-Plane Patterns


0
0
0
30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
150
0
120
0
90
0
60
0
30
10 20 30
10
20
30 R
e
la
t
iv
e

p
o
w
e
r

(
d
B

d
o
w
n
)
51
2. H-Plane Sectoral Horn












E-Plane
H-Plane




E- and H-Plane Patterns


3. Pyramidal Horn














E-Plane
H-Plane





E and H-Plane Patterns





0
0
0
30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
150
0
120
0
90
0
60
0
30
10 20 30
10
20
30 R
e
la
t
iv
e

p
o
w
e
r

(
d
B

d
o
w
n
)
0
0
0
30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
150
0
120
0
90
0
60
0
30
10 20 30
10
20
30 R
e
la
t
iv
e

p
o
w
e
r

(
d
B

d
o
w
n
)
52
4. Conical Horn Antenna











E-Plane
H-Plane





E- and H-Plane Patterns

Other horn antenna types:

Multimode Horns
Corrugated Horns
Hog Horns
Biconical Horns
Dielectric Loaded Horns

Horn advantages:

Frequency above 1GHz
High gain
Wide bandwidth
Low weight
Easy to construct












0
0
0
30
0
60
0
90
0
120
0
150
0
180
0
150
0
120
0
90
0
60
0
30
10 20 30
10
20
30 R
e
la
t
iv
e

p
o
w
e
r

(
d
B

d
o
w
n
)
53
Horn Antenna Design:
Design a pyramidal horn so that the gain is 17.05 dbi at f=11GHz.





54







55


















56



















57
Horn Antenna Analysis:

Use Sabor software to analyze the designed horn above.





58




59




60











61

Experiment
6




Reflector Antennas


Objective:

a) The main objective is to know the main characteristics and parameters that
effect on the parabolic reflector antenna.
b) Plotting the radiation pattern of parabolic antenna
c) See the effect of changing it's parameter on radiation pattern such as
• Frequency of operation
• Diameter of the dish
• Focal length to diameter ration F/D

Theoretical Background:

Antennas based on parabolic reflectors are most common type of directive antennas
when a high gain is required. The main advantage is that they can be made to have
gain and directivity as large as required . the main disadvantage is that big dishes are
difficult to mount and are likely to have a large windage.

The basic property of a perfect parabolic reflector is that it converts a spherical wave
irradiating from a point source placed at the focus into plane waves.

Conversely, all the energy received by the dish from a distant source is reflected to a
single point at the focus of the dish. The position of the focus, or focal length, is given
by:
c
D
f
16
2
=
Where D is the dish diameter and c is the depth of the parabola at its center.
The size of the dish is the most important factor since it determines the maximum
gain that can be achieved at the given frequency and the resulting beamwidth. The
gain and beamwidth obtained are given by:


( )
2
2
λ
πD
e G =
D
BW
λ 70
=

Where D is the diameter of the dish and e is the efficiency.



62
Total Efficiency

It has been fairly easy to calculate efficiency for an idealized feed horn pattern due to
illumination taper and spillover but there are several other factors that can
significantly reduce efficiency. Because the feed horn and its supporting structures are
in the beam of the dish part of the radiation is blocked or deflected. A real feed horn
also has sidelobes so part of its radiation is in undesired directions and thus wasted.
Finally no reflector is a perfect parabola so the focusing of the beam is not perfect.
We end up with quite a list of contributions to total efficiency:

• Illumination taper
• Spillover loss
• Asymmetries in E- and H-Planes
• Focal point error
• Feedhorn sidelobes
• Blockage by feed horn
• Blockag by supporting structures
• Imperfections in parabolic surface.
• Feedlineloss




Each time the diameter of a dish is doubled the gain is four times or 6db greater, if
both stations doubles the diameter the signal strength will be increased by 12dB, the
total efficiency can be assumed 50% for hand built antenna.

The ratio f/D is the fundamental factor governing the design of the feed for dish. He
ratio is directly related to the beamwidth of the feed necessary to illuminate the dish
effectively. Two dished of the same diameter but different focal lengths require
different design of feed if both are to be illuminated efficiently. The value of .25
correspond to the common focal-plane dish in witch the focus is in the same plane as
the rim of the dish.



Scattering
Diffraction
Spillover
63
Design steps:









64




65











66
Effect of changing the parabolic parameter on radiation:
4
a) Changing Frequency to 4GHz


b) Changing Diameter to 50cm


67
c) Changing F/D ratio to .3



















68