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Earthwork is the process that involving excavate, transported and compacted the surface of
the earth at another location. There are four main process in earthwork that is excavation,
transportation, unloading and compaction. Earthwork mainly carried out at earlier stage of
construction. Completion of earthwork within the prescribed proggramme time is often the
key to the completion on time of the whole project, that means the earthwork is the
importance work in construction project. In earthwork there are three type of work:
a) Site clearance
The work that removal of light scrub, trees, existing structure and topsoil
b) Excavation of trenches and foundation
The small size of excavation happen when large bulk earthmoving plant cannot be
c) Bulk excvation
The excavation that make the larger excavation work such as cut and fill, shallow cut
and fill and also basement excvation.
Planning of the earthwork is important before the project will start. The planning of the
eartwork can give the contractor positive result to their profit and quality of the project.
Whereby, while planning the earthwork they should analysis the work to be carried out and
determined the types and numbers of plant that would be most suited to the sequence of
operations and from this analysis, the cost can be determined.. the planning shoul be carried
out at tender stage and construction stage.

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The task given is to study about the earthworks at residential project. Based on the
case study, earthworks is done can be identified. Earthworks machineries also
identified. There are also problems that arise during the earthworks done.This case
study is lacated at Seksyen U13, 40170 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan. The
project name is Cadangan Membina Dan Menyiapkan 10 Unit Rumah Berkembar 3
Tingkat Di Atas Sebahagian PT 7718 (FASA 1). The cost for this project is RM
26,681,078.10. This project is handling by a Ibrahim Mian Sdn. Bhd. and the client is
PKNS. This project is by contractor class A. This project started from 9hb November
2012 and the date of end project is 19hb November 2013. Ibrahim Mian Sdn.Bhd. is
spearheaded by the Group Executive Chairman, Dato' Md. Ibrahim Mian. Though 20
years of it's chairman excellent leadership and dynamic entrepreneur skills, the group
has moved into a new paradigm and has excelled significantly on property
development and the construction business.

Pitcure 1.1: case study photo
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Diagram 1.1: site plan

Diagram 1.2: Location plan

Site project
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1.1 Earthworks
Type earthworks and their machineries
For this case study, earthworks like excavation, compaction, transportation and rock
breaking is doing for this project. Rock bracking work done as the soil condition is rocky. So
that, the haudraulic bracker is use for this work. The excavation work is doing for excavate
soil for pad foundation, land leveling , and for slope the hill. The excavator and backhoe is
use for excavation. The compaction work is doing for compact of soil surface like land
leveling and compact a soil after the rock bracking work. Transportation work is done use a
dumper truck.
1.1.1 Excavation

Diagram 1.3: Excavation work
Excavation work is doing on this project to excavate the soil. The excavated soil will be
transferred to trucks or lorry to be changed to another place. In this project, excavator and
backhoe is use to excavate. Excavator is choose because the uneven surface of soil in this
location. Excavator also can have the bucket customized to fit the job needed, because
there are many types of buckets available for construction use. Other than that, excavator is
use for large excavation than backhoe. Backhoe is use for smaller excavation for this site. In
this site, excavator is mostly use because a uneven surface of soil and have a large
excavation work in a hill.

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1.1.2 Transportation

Diagram 1.5: transportation work
Transportation work is process of transfer the soil to another place. Transportation work
conduct by a dumper truck. Excavator or backhoe will be used to scoop up soil into dumper
truck. The soil will be transfer to another place to buried elsewhere or transferred to the
1.1.3 Compaction

Diagram 1.6: compaction work
Compactor is use in compaction. Compaction work doing to compact a soil. After the
excavation, buried, and broken rock work done, compactor use to compact the soil to get a
flat surface.

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1.1.4 Drilling work

Diagram1.7: Drill work
This area is rocky hill. So that, rock broken work must be do. A hydraulic bracker is use. For
this site, demolition is not suitable to use. This is because distributor water tank is nearest
from this site. So that, rock broken work maybe take a long time to finish.

According to the Roy Chudley and Roger Greeno (2004), there are a few factors that
affecting the using of plants and machineries on the site such as general considerations,
economic considerations, plants costing and maintenance considerations.
3.1 General Considerations
General consideration is such a major factors that need to be considered before
planning a work. We can get many benefits if the plan successfully done. Besides
that, they also can avoid the deterioration that they can get if they do not manage the
planning carefully. The benefit that they can get is;
3.1.1 Increased production
Every company sure needs to improve their product in order to generate
money and get more profit. This is because they can use the money for the
next project.
3.1.2 Reduction in overall construction cost
In such project, the contractors surely want to reduce the cost to gain more
profit from that. But the contractor need to make sure that if they reduced the
cost they still can get to fulfill the clients need.
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3.1.3 Eliminate heavy manual works
In our life now, there is many technology that can be used to make such work
to become more easily. With the technology, they will reducing the fatigue and
as a consequence will increasing the productivity.
3.1.4 Replacing labour
Because of the decreasing of the labour in work, they can replace the labour
where there is a shortage of personnel with the necessary skills.

3.2 Economic Considerations
Commonly, the introduction of plants does not always will get the good result in
economic savings. This is because it may have the extra temporary site works such
as roadwork that need to use the plant to solve the problem.
The planning of the site layout and the circulation may have to be planned around the
plant position or park. Its rather than planning it around the material and
accommodation such as near the site office or workers house. The plant and
machineries must be fully utilized and not left it standing idle. This is because the
plant or machineries whether hired or owned, it will have to be paid for even if it is
The full utilization of the plant is usually considered to be in the region of 85% of on
the site time. Thus, the good planning of for the plant and machineries need to be
carried out to avoid as far as practicable plant breakdowns which could disrupt the
construction project.

3.3 Maintenance Considerations
Normally, the plant and machineries will not operate smoothly if it is not serviced and
it usually happened to the old plant and machineries. Thus, this problem will disturb
the progress of work. To avoid this problem from happen, there has solution such as
employ a skilled mechanic to be on site.
The mechanic can carry out all the necessary maintenance that need to done daily. It
will prevent the plant from breakdown and if this problem still happened, they can
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repair the plant or machineries on the site without waste time to get the mechanic
from other placed.

3.4 Plant Costing
The plant and machineries that used in the site can be bought or hired from other
company. But, it not includes the small plant that is usually purchased. With the
purchased of the plant, it will give more benefit to them because for the other project,
they can save cost from hire that plant.
3.4.1 Advantages of Hiring Plant
a) The plant that need to used can be hired for short period.
b) All maintenance and replacement are usually the responsibility of the hire
c) Plant will return to the hire company after there is no used in site, thus it
will prevent the contractor from to get problem because of finding more
work for the plant to justify its purchase or retention.
d) The operator cost, fuel and oil included in the hire rate.

3.4.2 Advantages of Buying Plant
a) Plant availability is totally within the control of the contractor.
b) The hourly cost for the purchased plant is generally less than hired plant

In general, excavation means to loosen and .take out materials leaving space above
or below ground. Sometimes in civil engineering term earthwork is used which include
backfilling with new or original materials to voids, spreading and levelling over an
area. British Standard CP6031 gives standards and recommendation to earthworks
covering embarkment and cuttings, levelling and compacting, and the use of
earthmoving plants etc (McGraw Hill 1988). Plant and machineries are ranging from
small hand held power tool to larger of plant such as mechanical excavator and
breaker can be consider for use for one or more of the following reason(Chudley and
a) increased production
b) reduction in overall construction cost
c) carry out activities which cannot be carried out by the traditional manual methods in
the context of economics
d) eliminate heavy manual works thus reducing fatigue and as a consequence
increasing productivity.
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e) replacing labour where there is a shortage of personnel with neccessary skills.
f) maintain the high standards required particularly in the context of structural
engineering works.
4.0.1 Advantages of using mechanical plant in excavation (McGraw Hill 1988):
a) work done quicker,
b) avoid dangerous condition of work by human workers, say, existence of ground
water or collapse of soil,
c) achieve greater depth,
d) use fewer manpower and work done in lower cost (for larger scale work only)
4.0.2 Disadvantages(McGraw Hill 1988)
a) involve larger running and maintenance costs,
b) require a larger operating area,
c) access provision to working area,
d) less flexible in work planning,
e) idling time increase cost of work

The machine that use to drill or break the hard soil like rock. This is another plan
without using bomb in site which can cause high cost using demolation. The breaker
machine are combination of hydraulic system and can reduce sound pollution.
4.1.1 Powered Drill

Diagram 4.1:Breaker Machine
The machine that use to cutting of larger boulders or rock. Usually the drill or breaker
is pneumatically operated and mounted on tracked base. Oftenly, the breaker
machine is convertible to a backhoe with the bucket replaced by the drill to gain
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flexibility and minimize capital input. On site, the contractor buy a secondhand
breaker machine because high cause is renting from another company with the price
RM800 per day. The secondhand breaker price is RM40,000. The breaker is from
manufacturer case, and the model series is 580. The breaker work with 1.8m2 per
minute which use because the site is rock surface. The use of breaker is more
efficient than the excavator and demolition work. This us the main machine use in this

The most famous machineries in earth work project. These are primarily item to
excavate and load most types of soil. In this site, theres are several type of
excavating machines use to done earth work.
4.2.1 Excavator

Diagram 4.2: Excavator

This machine have a common factor the power unit. The universal power unit is a
track ed based machine with a slewing capacity of 360 and by altering the boom
arrangement and bucket type different excavating functions can be obtained.(
Chudley and greeno,2004). The selected of this machine is for the high output
requirement. Excavator operated with hydraulic or cable and mounted on
track.Bucket are fitted faces away from the machine and used for loosening,
excavating vertical or horizontally.the excavator can excavate any type of soil except
rock. In this site, there is one excavator used for the earth work. For this work , the
excavator is the contractor s not rent from other developer because to cut cost and
increase profit.after breaking work done , the excavator make the removal of spoil.
The manufacturer of this excavator is Hitachi, company from Japan. model code of
the excavator is ZX180LC-3and the operating weight is between 18 300 kg - 19 400
kg. The bucket capacity is between 0.51 1.20m3 the excvator generate in engine
rate is 90.2 kW(121 HP).

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4.2.2 Backhoe.

Diagram 4.3: Backhoe

These machine can perform severals excavating functions having both front and rear
attachment with hydraulical controlled, and design to carry out small excvation
operation of low output.( Chudley and greeno,2004). Wheeled as base are ideally
suited for low excavation plant utilisation requirement.while do operation, using the
backacter bucket the machine is raised off its axles by rear mounted hydraulic
outriggers or jacks and some models placing the front bucket on the ground.(
Chudley and greeno,2004).The variety of the size of the bucket can be attached into
this machines. In this project, There are one backhoe used. The backhoe use to
make clearance and removal of the piecesof rock.there is case 580 series.The Horse
powers range from 79 hp to 108 hp. The Machine weights run from 6350 kg to 9072
kg. Digging depths on the 580 series are almost 4.57 metre and the front bucket
capacity is 1.14 metre. Hoe bucket breakout force is 11,334 ft pounds. This is one
powerful machine.

4.3.1 Dumper truck

Diagram 4.4: Dumper Truck
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These are used for horizontal transportation of material and waste on and off
construction site( Chudley and greeno,2004). The dumper are available in various of
carrying capacities and options for gravity or hydraulic discharge control with front
tipping , side tipping , or elevated tipping facilities. These transport ation vehicle are
designed for large capacity load to be carried out over a long or short distance on or
off site. The normal capacity ranging between 5m3 to 15m3 and the other up to 50m3
or above.Transportation in earthwork from this project is by the dumper truck 10
tonne capacity of load. There is three dumper truck used to transport the soil and rock
from the site. The excvator filling up into the dumper tipping. powered by diesel
engine giving the maximum speed to 90 km/h, with hydraulic steering control. The
dumper also use ten tires to get stability on the site while carrying the load.

4.4.1 Roller Compactor

Diagram 4.5: Roller Compactor
Machines that are used for compacting soils in various construction projects
like roads, highways and buildings. In soil compacting techniques, energy is applied
to loose soil or other material which increases its density and consequently its load-
bearing capacity. There are certain advantages of soil compacting which are as
follows: Water seepage is minimized, Contraction and swelling of soil is reduced to a
certain extent, Prevents damage from frosts and Increases load bearing capacity. The
different type of soils, different type of compactor used. Soil compactor plays an
important role in many infrastructure projects. They have their applications in the
following areas.such as, Soil compactors are useful for compaction in urban areas,
roads and highways.They are also utilized for landfill and paving applications. Soil
compactors are suitable for compacting mixed soils and cohesive soils in thin and
medium layer thicknesses in large areas. They are also applied for landscaping and
preparing sites for building construction.They have their great utility in compaction of
soils and gravels in trenches, around retaining walls and or any other difficult job site.
In site, there use a vibration compactor. After done clearance work and leveling work,
a compactor use to compact the site to get the flat surface. They use compactor
from manufacturer Caterpillar. The compactor are rent by the main contractor. Cost of
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rent is RM600 per day. This machine is generate by diesel engine and used hydraulic
control in steering and compaction.

In conclusion, several factors need to be emphasized to ensure an ongoing project
run smoothly. With this, the contractor can avoid the loss or waste of money to do the repair
work. This is because the repair work will consume more costs to run it than the actual work.
In this case study, we can see that there are some difficulties to be encountered
during the construction process. Among the problems encountered are as rocky hillsides.
Therefore, the correct method should be used that is by using breaker. However, the rental
cost for this equipment may be too expensive and the contractor has decided to buy the
In addition, the top should also play a role by ensuring that the work done is as
planned. In addition, the problem should be dealt with as soon as possible to avoid wastage
of time and cost. If not, they can be fined for not completing the project within the specified
time as agreed in the contract.

J.M. Antill, P. R. (1988). Civil Engineering Construction. Burlington: McGraw Hill.
R. Chudley, R. G. (2004). Building construction Handbook. Burlington: Elsevier Butterworth-