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2 Technical English

2 Technical English

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Table 1.

Typical metal content of European automobiles
Weight Metal Uses
cast iron cylinder block, gearbox
,
15 kg
,
carbureftor
radiator pipes, electrics
al umi ni um
5 K g baftery
vehicle body
Table 2. Typical distribution of materials in US automobiles
1979
Wei ght , l b
' 1985
(est.)
% Wei ght , l b
-/o
2000 1 500
cast rron 5 1 5 330 13
100 3 170
other metals 65 50
190 5 250
other materials 380 12 300 10
32s0 100 2600 100
F. Understanding a printed text
(2)
Read the following text carefully, looking up anything you do not understand.
DESIGN
EXAMPLE-MATERIALS
SYSTEMS
Engineered
systems
contain many components'
and for each a material must be
selected.
The automoUii.
it "". most familiar
engineering
system and one that is
undergoing
a major.t ung. in the materials
used ior its construction.
These trends
in materials
selection ,.nJ.t the great effort that is being made to decrease the fuel
consumption
of cars L1, i"*"ii"ing.
the designs and adopting
weight'saving
mat eri al s' Maj orshi f t si nmat eri al ssel ect i onsuchasareshowni nTabl e6-8can
have large economic
consequences'
Frequently,complexands' ut"serviceconditionscanbemeteconomically
only by combining,.**i*",rrials
into a single component.
The surface harden-
ing of gears and other automotive
componJntr
uy iarburizing
or nitridingr is
agoodexample.Herethehighhardness' strength,andwearresistanceofahigh.
carbon steel is producJin
tie surface layers of a ductile and tougher low-carbon
steel.
Materials selection
Combining matetials
Y
Valve materials
Valve problens
An excellent
example
of a complex
materials
Y*1-T:1fft:l1t"1ti"t1;
oxidation-resistance
properties to res€t
p::t
l1u"',-'ii:"'*iHlll"".**'irs0
il;d;;F.
ir'.v *u't irave 1) sulficient
::ilT:T"::::*11Tff :"i,ffi?l?ilru*,iu*..,"iesistra'ureand2)suit-
high-temperafure
laugus
streutsL'
css vtvvr '
uli. not hardness
to resist wear and abrasion'
The critical
failure
regions
in an exhaust
valve
it:tPIl-:l^:t:::-t:J,Y::;
io ut.ut A and C. Corrosion
and oxidation
'T
111:'::"::llii:'::ilffi;llii,,l"u,rhead
area of the varve, area c,
ffi
'J,iff
ffi:ii,ffi
liil'Jfr
'W*fi'1.,.'"'t'#f
lJ'iJ:::,:Ht:
n : t - - - - - ^ . , ^ ^ ^ r r t
qi
I
failure
mav occur
"t:::::ji:"1'11""i"",t;ilil;rile
sear. However,
if an
l"*:::::1'j:::1,
.Tif:::::ffi ""i". r"..1 't can lead to burning.
Also, the valve
insulating
deposlt
bullos up on urE ":'"",'*:..'-
- r--^r ^-L ,ro-noirc The valve stem i
HHf
ffi
'*iffi;;il;;ivau'asiu'PTl9il,""'j"",:*":*::':il;:
:::T:i;:
tf, fff;: ;:
jlHffi;;;**.'i"un"
is needed surrace
wear or the
^-^^ n ^"I-,"^ii" *",,{hon. which will cause the valve to stick open
valve stem, atea D'
E, where
the valve contacts
the rocker
arm'
and burn.
Y::: *"T:#';i:'* ""rir.
,.", with higher than
normal
forces.
will cause
v
EventuallY,
Exhaust gas
Figure Gl2 Typical exhaust valve show-
ing critical regions of failure.
rmplngement
From G. Dieter Engineering Daign. A Material and. ProcesingApproath, pp. 192-193. McGraw-Hill.
:
:
:
b...., i
v
C. Check
your understanding
1. Answer the following questions:
e What is the purpose of
'down-sizing
designs and adopting weighrsaving
materials' in the automobiles?
o What is a good example of combining
several materials into a single
component?
c What properties must valve materials
have to resist'burhing' in extremely
high temperature ranges?
o What property is necessary in the
valve stem?
e What will wear at the valve tip
eventuallv cause?
2.
(a)
To what, precisely, do the following
refer?
o ar eaC r ar eaB o ar eaD r ar eaE
(b) What can occur in the following
areas, and what may be the result of it?
r area C
r area B
r area D
o area E
3. Find words in the passage which have a
similar meaning and forms to those
below.
o chosen
o important
r changes
a extreme
o withstand
o functions
r lead to
. touches
H. Understandi ng di scourse
On your tape, you will hear instructions for conducting three simple experiments to
demonstrate the effect of heat treatment on steel. Below are incomplete notes about the
materials required and the steps in each experiment. As you listen, try to complete the notes.
From the complete notes, write summaries of the three experiments.
Materials
two steel rods
-
thin and . . .,
Pair
of
. . ... of sandpaper, water and
Experiment 1
Bend rod to measure toughness and spring. Hold rod
mak i ngs ur e, . . . , . near . Heat r od unt i l . .
. . . . . a n d d i p . . . . . i n t o w a t e r .
Known as
' . . . . . . . . . ' . R o d h a s b e c o me
. . ' . . a n d w i l l
break
Experiment 2
Ta k e . . . r o d a n d h e a t u n t i l
. ' . . Ke e p r o d i n
heat for about . . . . a{ter it turns red. Remove from
h e a t . . . . a n d a l l o w. . . . g r a d u a l l y .
This is' annealing' . Rod can bend
Experiment 3
Heat . . . . rod again to bright red.
Quench
it and
with sandpaper. Hold it in heat again until
Rod must not become . Remove rod, allow to
' Temoer ed'
r odi s . . . . but l es s . . .
50urce,
v
i

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