$'(9

1.1,QIHUHQ

5ù,9$/,',7$7( 

úLUD LRQDPHQW

Într-R DFFHS LXQH SRSXODU  – SH FkW GH IDFLO  úL GH VXJHVWLY  SH
DWkWGHSX LQULJXURDV –, logica este FDUDFWHUL]DW GUHSWúWLLQ DJkQGLULL
corecte, presupunându-VH F  SULQFLSDOD GDF  QX VLQJXUD  HL XWLOLWDWH
FRQVW  vQ IDSWXO F  QH vQYD  FXP V  JkQGLP IHULQGX-ne de erori. Ce-i
GUHSW VWXGLXO ORJLFLL DU SXWHD úL DU WUHEXL V  QH RIHUH EHQHILFLXO XQHL

gândiri mai riguroase, cevQDLQWHD] 

PDLVLJXUVSUHDIODUHDXQRUDGHY UXUL

ELQHvQWHPHLDWHHYLWkQGFXVSRULW  FLUFXPVSHF LHFDSFDQHOH úLDSDUHQ HOH
vQúHO WRDUH'DUIRORDVHOHHYHQWXDOHSHFDUHOHSRDWHDGXFHVWXGLXOORJLFLL
VSRULQG DELOLWDWHD úL SURIXQ]LPHD JkQGLULL FXLYD QX UHSUH]LQW  FkWXúL GH
SX LQWU V WXULGHILQLWRULLDOHDFHVWXLGRPHQLXWHRUHWLF

–DúDFXPIDSWXOF 

QHDMXW V QHLOXPLQ PvQF SHULOHRULV DVFXOW PPX]LF ODFDVHWRIRQQX
VXQWWU V WXULGHILQLWRULLDOHFXUHQWXOXLHOHFWULF
ÌQ HOHJHUHD ORJLFLL FD úWLLQ 

D

gândirii corecte induce presu-

SR]L LD JUHúLW  F  DGHY UXULOH ORJLFLL V DU ED]D FXPYD SH FRQVHQVXO úL SH

-

X]DQ HOH PRGXOXL HIHFWLY vQ FDUH RDPHQLL vúL vQO Q XLH LGHLOH úL FXYLQWHOH

îndemnându-QH SDUF  V  DVRFLHP úWLLQ D ORJLFLL FX JUDPDWLFD 1XPDL F 
aceast  DSDUHQW  vQUXGLUH HVWH LQH[LVWHQW  5HJXOLOH GH PRUIRORJLH úL 
JUDPDWLFD VXQW YDODELOH vQWUXFkW FODULILF  úLVLVVLQWD[  SH FDUH OH HQXQ
WHPDWL]HD]  R SHUIRUPDQ 
OLQJYLVWLF  X]XDO  vQWU-un anumit stadiu de
HYROX LH D XQHL OLPEL HIHFWLY YRUELWH $ VSXQH F  µ(LYRUEHúWH prea mult’
VDXF µ9RLWUHEXL LV PDLvQY D L¶F µ7XHúWL mai superior¶RULF µ1X
VH PHULW  V  PHUJL OD PDUH¶ HWF VXQW FRQVWUXF LL JUDPDWLFDO HURQDWH în
OLPEDURPkQ SHQWUXF QXDúDVHYRUEHúWHFRUHFWURPkQHúWH –FKLDUGDF 

ideile exprimate într-R
3ULQFLSLXOORJLFDOLGHQWLW

IRUP  JUDPDWLFDO  HURQDW  SRW IL SHUWLQHQWH
LLSURSULHW

LOHLPSOLFD LHLPDWHULDOHVDXOHJLOH

VLORJLVPXOXL GH SLOG  VXQW vQV  YDODELOH QX SHQWUX F  PDMRULWDWHD
RDPHQLORU OH FXQRVF úL OH DSOLF  HIHFWLY vQ PRG

ul lor de gândire, ci

vQWUXFkW VH VXV LQ SULQ GHPRQVWUD LL ULJXURDVH FDUH
FRQVWUXF LD XQRU VLVWHPH GH HQWLW

LQ H[FOXVLY GH

L úL UHOD LL SXU LGHDOH

– WRW DúD FXP
teoremele lui Thales, Pitagora VDX)HUPDWV VSXQHPELQRPXOOXL1HZWRQ
sau geometriile neeucOLGLHQH QX VH vQWHPHLD]  SH FXQRDúWHUHD úL

VXV LQHUHD ORU GH F WUH PDMRULWDWHD LQGLYL]LORU FL QXPDL SH DUJXPHQWHOH
JkQGLULL PDWHPDWLFH FDUH HVWH XQLYHUVDO  úL DWHPSRUDO  Ä1X SXWHP
H[SOLFD UD LXQHD SULQWU R GHVFULHUH QDWXUDOLVW  D SUDFWLFLORU OLPEDMXOXL

-

DILUP  7KRPDV 1DJHO >@ ÌQ P VXUD vQ FDUH SUDFWLFLOH OLQJYLVWLFH QH
GH]Y OXLH SULQFLSLLOHJkQGLULLVDXQHLQGLF GHSLOG FHYD GHVSUHQDWXUD
SURSR]L LLORU DULWPHWLFH DFHVW OXFUX QX VH GDWRUHD]  IDSWXOXL F  ORJLFD
HVWH R JUDPDWLF  FL IDSWXOXL F  J

ramatica se supune logicii. Un ‘limbaj’
în care modus ponensQXDUILRLQIHUHQ YDOLG VDXvQFDUHLGHQWLWDWHDQX
1
DUILWUDQ]LWLY Q-ar putea fi folosit pentru a exprima nici un fel de idei.“
/RJLFLHQLL GH DVW ]L UHVSLQJ vQ HOHJHUHD ORJLFLL FD úWLLQ
JkQGLULL FRUHFWH úL SHQWUX F 

gândirea HVWH R DFWLYLWDWH SVLKLF 

D 

GHRVHELW

GH FRPSOH[  FDUH VH GHVI úRDU  vQ PLQ LOH RDPHQLORU DYkQG GH ILHFDUH
GDW  R LQDOLHQDELO  QRW  VXELHFWLY  SULQ FDUH LQGLYL]LL VH GHRVHEHVF PDL
PXOWVDXPDLSX LQXQXOGHDOWXO*

psihologie,

úWLLQ

ândirea este un obiect de studiu pentru 

H[SHULPHQWDO  FDUH XUP UHúWH V  GHWHUPLQH SULQ

REVHUYD LH P VXUDUH FRPSDUDUH VLPXODUH PRGHODUH HWF FHHD FH

de
sau vQ PRG RELúQXLW GHFXUJH vQ PRG µQRUPDO¶ vQ PLQ LOH
oamenilor, sinteti]kQG úL LQIRUPD LLOH H[WUHP GH GLYHUVLILFDWH SH FDUH OH
IXUQL]HD]  GLVFLSOLQH SUHFXP FLEHUQHWLFD WHRULD LQIRUPD LHL QHXURUHJXO

IL]LRORJLDúLDOWHOH
ÌQUXGLW PXOWPDLvQGHDSURDSHFXPDWHPDWLFD

sau gramatica, logica QXHVWHRúWLLQ 

H[SHULPHQWDO

decât cu psihologia
, F FLHDQXGHVFULHúL

QX H[SOLF  PRGXO FRQFUHW vQ FDUH RDPHQLL GH WRW IHOXO JkQGHVF HIHFWLY

îndrumându-LFXVIDWXULúLUHFRPDQG ULSHFDUHHLVXQWOLEHULV OHXUPH]H
sau nu, cu rezultate ierarhizabile pe diferite VFDOH GH SHUIRUPDQ 
NeinteresaW GHFRQ LQXWXODFWHORUGHJkQGLUHLQGLIHUHQW ID GHVHQVXOúL
YDORDUHD LQIRUPD LRQDO  D ©LGHLORUª ORJLFD VWXGLD]  VWUXFWXUL GH UHOD LL

QHFHVDUH

vQWUH HQWLW
L LGHDOH DEVWUDFWH – VWUXFWXUL GH SURJUHVLY 
generalitate, izomorfe nu numai cu actele cogniWLYH FL úL FX QHQXP UDWH
VLVWHPHQDWXUDOHVDXDUWLILFLDOHGLQOXPHDIHQRPHQDO 
,DW  GH FH O VkQG JkQGLUHDvQ VHDPDSVLKRORJLORUúLYRUELUHDFRUHFW
vQ VHDPD ILORORJLORU YRP VSXQH F  ORJLFD VWXGLD] 

GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH

. ÌQ HOHJem prin LQIHUHQ orice extragere sau
derivare dintr-una sau mai multeSURSR]L LLGDWHQXPLWHSUHPLVHDXQHL noi
SURSR]L LL QXPLW  concluzie. Cu alte cuvinte, fiind reunite n premise,
printr-R LQIHUHQ  FRUHFW  GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH ORJLF HVWH SRVLELO  VDu

IRUPDO LQIHUHQ HOH YDOLGH

QHFHVDU  DILUPDUHD XQHL DQXPLWH FRQFOX]LL FDUH VH GHVSULQGH VDX UH]XOW 
GLQSUHPLVHOHGDWHúLDFFHSWDWH

–LQGLIHUHQWFkWGHPXO LVDXFkWGHSX LQL

DUILLQGLYL]LLFDSDELOLV HIHFWXH]HPLQWDOGHVSULQGHUHDFRQFOX]LHLFRUHFWH
úL LQGLIHUHQW FkW GH PDUH VD

u de mic ar fi efortul intelectual necesar

SHQWUX vQ HOHJHUHD PHFDQLVPXOXL ORJLF SULQ FDUH FRQFOX]LD GHULY  GLQ
SUHPLVHOHVDOH6SXQH3HLUFHÄ1XVHSXQHFkWXúLGHSX LQSUREOHPDGDF 
DWXQFL FkQG PLQWHD QRDVWU  DFFHSW  SUHPLVHOH VLP LP LPEROGXO V 

accept

P úL FRQFOX]LD (VWH DGHY UDW F  GLQ ILUH UD LRQ P vQ JHQHUDO

FRUHFW $FHVWD HVWH vQV  XQ DFFLGHQW FRQFOX]LD DGHY UDW  DU U PkQH
DGHY UDW úLGDF QXDPVLP LQLFLXQLPEROGGHDRDFFHSWDLDUFHDIDOV 
DUU PkQHIDOV FKLDUGDF QXDPSXWHDUH]LVWDSRU

nirii de a crede în ea.“2

,DW FkWHYDH[HPSOHGHLQIHUHQ HHOHPHQWDUH  
'DW ILLQGSUHPLVDµ

x = 10’, putem infera concluzia ‘x = 5’.
(2) Din premisa ‘x2 ¶UH]XOW SULQLQIHUHQ µx = 4 sau
x = (–4)’.
(3) )LLQG GDWH GUHSWHOH D  E  úL F  SUHFXP úL UHOD LD GH
SDUDOHOLVP GLQ SUHPLVHOH µ D  __ E ¶ úL µ E  __ F ¶ UH]XOW 

concluzia: ‘(a) || (c)’.
(4) Date fiind premisele:
µ7RDWHSDWUXODWHUHOHVXQWSROLJRDQH¶úL

‘Toate romburile sunt patrulatere’,
se poate infera concluzia:
‘Toate romburile sunt poligoane’.
(5)

'DF DPUHPDUFDWXQLQVQHFXQRVFXWFXFDUHQXDPGLVFXWDW

QLPLFGDUFDUHDYHDWHQXOJDOEHQRFKLREOLFLHUDVFXQGúLSXUWDRFKHODUL

SXWHPLQIHUD F UHVSHFWLYXOLQGLYLG WUHEXLH V ILHXQDVLDWLFGLQ([WUHPXO

Orient.
(6) Intrând într-R FDPHU 

DS V SH FRPXWDWRU úL QX VH DSULQGH

OXPLQD IDSWXO FD DWDUH FRURERUDW FX QR LXQLOH SH FDUH OH SRVHG GHVSUH
LQVWDOD LLOHHOHFWULFHP IDFV SUHVXSXQF IHQRPHQXOVHGDWRUHD] XQHLD
GLQWUH XUP WRDUHOH FDX]H SRVLELOH QX HVWH FXUHQW vQ UH HD V

-a ars

filamentul becului; s-a defectat comutatorul etc.
ÌQO Q XLUHD ORJLF  GLQWUH SUHPLVH úL FRQFOX]LH VH PDL QXPHúWH úL

argument – WHUPHQ SUHIHUDW GH F
LQIHUHQ

WUH XQLL ORJLFLHQL vQ ORFXO FHOXL GH 

vQWUXFkW HVWH VDX FHO SX LQ SDUH  PDL IDPLOLDU7RWXúL

, cei doi
termeni nu sunt, credem noi, pe deplin sinonimi. A argumenta sau a

FRQVWUXL XQ DUJXPHQW vQVHDPQ  FkWHRGDW  D GHULYD GLQ SUHPLVH GDWH úL
DFFHSWDWHRDQXPLW FRQFOX]LH

– cu alte cuvinte, a infera; în multe cazuri,

vQV  D DUJXPHQWD vQVHDPQ  D VXV LQH FX DQXPLWH WHPHLXUL R SURSR]L LH
GDW  DO F UHL DGHY U QX HVWH FHUW $OWIHO VSXV D FRQVWUXL XQ DUJXPHQW
SRDWH V  vQVHPQH D GHVFRSHUL DQXPLWH SUHPLVH GLQ FDUH SURSR]L LD GH
VXV LQXW GHULY  ORJLF GUHSW FRQFOX]LD ORU ,DW  FkWHYD H[HPSOH GH

argumente de acest tip:  
$ILUPD LDF DULDXQXLFHUFQXSRDWHILvQQLFLXQFD]HJDO FX
DULD XQXL S WUDW IDLPRDVD SUREOHP  FXQRVFXW  vQ LVWRULD PDWHPDWLFLL
GUHSW µFYDGUDWXUD FHUFXOXL¶  QX HVWH FkWXúL GH SX LQ GH OD VLQH HYLGHQW 
'H FH úL FXP V  QH FRQYLQJHP GH DGHY UXO HL" $YHP QHYRLH GH XQ
DUJXPHQW $FHVWD D IRVW IRUPXODW vQ DQXO  GH F WUH PDWHPDWLFLDQXO

Ferdinand Lindemann (1852 -   GXS  FXP XUPHD]  DULD S WUDWXOXL
l2 – latura lDYkQGvQRULFHVLWXD LHROXQJLPH
(valoare numHULF  vQ VLVWHPXO PHWULF  ILQLW  DVWIHO vQFkW úL VXSUDID D

VHFDOFXOHD]  GXS IRUPXOD

S WUDWXOXL HVWH FX QHFHVLWDWH ILQLW  DULD FHUFXOXL VH FDOFXOHD]  GXS 

formula π r2 QXP UXO π ILLQG LUD LRQDO FX XQ QXP U LQILQLW GH ]HFLPDOH
astfel încât aria nici unui cerc nu poate avea o vaORDUH QXPHULF  ILQLW 

'HDLFL UH]XOW FXFHUWLWXGLQHH[DFWSURSR]L LDLQL LDO GHFDUHDFXPVXQWHP
FRQYLQúLSULQWU RDUJXPHQWDUHULJXURDV 

-

(8)

2DPHQLLGHGHPXOW DX IRVW H[WUHP GH FRQWUDULD LDWXQFLFkQG

XQLL µvQ HOHS L¶

– filosofi, matematicieni, astronomi din Antichitate – au

VXV LQXW F  S PkQWXO QX HVWH SODW FL VIHULF VDX µURWXQG¶ DILUPD LH DIODW 

într-XQYLROHQWFRQIOLFWFXHYLGHQ HOHSHUFHSWLYH,DW 

FHIHOGHDUJXPHQWH

DGXFH GH SLOG  $ULVWRWHO vQ VSULMLQXO DFHVWHL DILUPD LL DWXQFL FkQG R

corabie dispare în larg, la limita orizontului, se pierde din vedere mai
vQWkLFRFDVDXFRUSXOQDYHLúLDELDSHXUP GLVSDUHúLFDWDUJXOFDúLFXP

corabia s-ar scufunda în mare –úLLQYHUVDWXQFLFkQGRFRUDELHVHLYHúWH
din larg mai întâLL VH ] UHúWHFDWDUJXOúLDELDSHXUP DSDUHGLQYDOXULúL
FRFD QDYHL FD úL FXP FRUDELD V-ar ridica din mare; umbra pe care o
SURLHFWHD]  S PkQWXO SH VXSUDID D OXQLL vQ WLPSXO HFOLSVHORU GH OXQ  HVWH

întotGHDXQDFLUFXODU –QLFLRGDW 

HOLSWLF VDXOLQLDU DúDFXPDUWUHEXLV 

VH vQWkPSOH P FDU GLQ FkQG vQ FkQG GDF  S PkQWXO DU IL DúD FXP V

-a

FUH]XWPXOWWLPSXQGLVFSODWvQVIkUúLWFXFkWQHULGLF PODRODWLWXGLQH
PDL vQGHS UWDW  GH (FXDWRU FX DWkW XQJKLXO VXE FDUH VH vQDO 

VRDUHOH OD

zenit este mai mic. Toate aceste fapte nu se pot explica altcumva decât
GDF QHUHSUH]HQW PS PkQWXOFDSHXQFRUSFHUHVFGHPDULGLPHQVLXQLúL
GH IRUP  VIHULF  DELD PDL WkU]LX V D DIODW FX FHUWLWXGLQH F  SODQHWD

-

QRDVWU  HVWH XQ JHRLG GH URWD LH DGLF  R VIHU  WXUWLW  OD SROL GLQ FDX]D
IRU HL FHQWULIXJH SH FDUH R GH]YROW  PLúFDUHD GH URWD LH D S PkQWXOXL vQ

jurul axei sale).  
8Q FRSLO SRDWH IL FRQWUDULDW DWXQFL FkQG vL VSXQHP F  GHOILQLL
QX VXQW SHúWL FL PDPLIHUH FD úL QRL RDPHQLL
YLD

– GHúL SULQ PHGLXO ORU GH 

SULQ IRUP  úL PRG GH ORFRPR LH VH DVHDP Q  L]ELWRU FX SHúWLL

'UHSWDUJXPHQWHYRPIRORVLGHILQL LLOHQR LXQLORUGHSHúWHúLGHPDPLIHU
SUHFXP úL R VHULH GH REVHUYD LL FDUH DWHVW  F  GHOILQLL QX VXQW SHúWL


întrucât nu au ‘sânge rece’, nu se înPXO HVF SULQ LFUH úL QX UHVSLU  SULQ
branhii, ci sunt mamifere, deoarece au ‘sânge cald’, nasc pui vii, pe care
vL KU QHVF FX ODSWH úL UHVSLU  SULQ SO PkQL DYkQG GH DFHHD QHYRLH V  VH

ULGLFHGLQFkQGvQFkQGODVXSUDID DDSHLSHQWUXDQXVHVXIRFD
6  UHPDUF P IDSWXO F  vQ H[HPSOHOH   úL   FRQFOX]LD GHFXUJH

nemijlocit dintr-R VLQJXU  SUHPLV  – DúD FXP VH vQWkPSO  úL vQ LQIHUHQ H
de genul:
(10) ùWLLQG F  µ1LFL R SDV UH QX HVWH SDWUXSHG¶ UH]XOW  F  µ1LFL
XQSDWUXSHGQXHVWHSDV UH¶

(11)

'DF DUILDGHY UDWF µ7R LPDJLVWUD LLVXQWLQWHJUL¶ I FkQG

DEVWUDF LHGHIDSWXOUHJUHWDELOF vQUHDOLWDWHOXFUXULOHQXVWDXFKLDUDúD 

s-DU SXWHD LQIHUD GH DLFL F
magistrat’. 

µ1LFL XQ RP OLSVLW GH LQWHJULWDWH QX HVWH

$VWIHO GH WUHFHUL GLUHFWH GH OD R VLQJXU  SUHPLV  OD FRQFOX]LH VH

numesc LQIHUHQ

HLPHGLDWHÌQH[HPSOHOH  úL  FRQFOX]LDUH]XOW GLQ

FkWHGRX  SUHPLVHDF URU FRQVLGHUDUH vPSUHXQ HVWH DEVROXWQHFHVDU úL
VXILFLHQW  SHQWUX D VH UHDOL]D LQIHUHQ D vQ QHQXP UDWH DOWH FD]XUL
H[WUDJHUHD XQHL FRQFOX]LL QHFHVLW  QX QXPDL GRX

, ci n premise,

FRQVLGHUDWH ODRODOW  2UL GH FkWH RUL FRQFOX]LD GHFXUJH GLQ GRX  VDX PDL

multe premise avem de-DIDFHFXLQIHUHQ HPHGLDWHVDXUD

1.,QGXF

LRQDPHQWH

.

LHúLGHGXF LH

'XS PRGXOvQFDUHFRQFOX]LDGHFXUJHGLQSUHPLVHLQIHUHQ HOHVH

împarW vQ GRX  PDUL FDWHJRULL ORJLF necesare sau deductive úL LQIHUHQ H
probabileVDXLQGXFWLYH'HGXF LDúLLQGXF LDVXQWPRGDOLW LIXQGDmental
GLIHULWHGHvQO Q XLUHRUGRQDW DµLGHLORU¶SULQFDUHGLQDQXPLWHSURSR]L LL
GDWH VH RE LQ SURSR]L LL QRL VDX SULQ FDUH DQXPLWH SURSR]L LL LQFHUWH VXQW
vQWHPHLDWHSHDOWHSURSR]L LL GH FDUHVXQWHPVLJXUL 'HRVHELUHDHVHQ LDO 
vQWUHLQGXF LHúLGHGXF LHHVWHXUP WRDUHD

a)

,QIHUHQ HOH LQGXFWLYH ÄDX GRX  FDUDFWHULVWLFL SUHPLVHOH

DGHY UDWH VXV LQ FRQFOX]LD GDU QX R JDUDQWHD]  úL FRQFOX]LD FRQ LQH R

inforPD LHFDUHQX H[LVW vQSUHPLVH³3ÌQLQIHUHQ HOHLQGXFWLYHFRQFOX]LD
nu decurge cu necesitate logLF GLQSUHPLVH – motiv pentru care concluziile
vQWHPHLDWH LQGXFWLY QX VXQW QLFLRGDW  DEVROXW FHUWH FL PDL PXOW VDX mai
SX LQ SUREDELOH 2EVHUYD LD HVWH YDODELO  vQ FD]XO LQGXF LLORU incomplete
FDUHVHED]HD] SHXUP WRUXOPHFDQLVPLQIHUHQ LDODYkQGGHLQYHVWLJDWR
PXO LPH QHQXP UDELO  VH SRW H[DPLQD XQXO FkWH XQXO GRDU R SDUWH GLQ
HOHPHQWHOHHLGDF vQWRDWHFD]XULOHH[DPLQDWHVHFRQVWDW I U H[FHS LL
R DQXPLW  SURSULHWDWH VDX UHOD LH VH JHQHUDOL]HD]  FRQVWD

tarea pentru
toate elemeQWHOHPXO LPLLGHIHQRPHQHLQYHVWLJDWHLQFOXVLY acelea care nu au
SXWXW V  ILH H[DPLQDWH GLUHFW vQWUXFkW se presupune F  QX SRW V  DSDU 

H[FHS LL FDUH V  LQILUPH JHQHUDOL]DUHD IRUPXODW  'H FHOH PDL PXOWH RUL
vQV  DFHDVW  SUH]XP LH HVWH PDL GHYUHPH VDX PDL WkU]LX LQILUPDW  úL
FKLDU

GDF 

vQ

XQHOH

FD]XUL

H[FHS LLOH

vQF 

QX

V

-au produs, iar

SUREDELOLWDWHD ORU HVWH LQILP  LPSRVLELOLWDWHD ORU DEVROXW  QX SRDWH IL
SUREDW  SULQ PLMORDFH LQGXFWLYH ,DW  úL H[HPSOXO FODVLF PXOW  YUHPH

HXURSHQLL DX FUH]XW F  µ7RDWH OHEHGHOH VXQW DOEH¶ SHQWUX PRWLYXO GHEXQ
VLP  F  QLFL XQ HXURSHDQ QX Y ]XVH OHEHGH GH DOW  FXORDUH

– SkQ  FkQG
exploratRULLDXGHVFRSHULWvQHPLVIHUDDXVWUDO OHEHGHQHJUH
ÌQWUXFkW DILUP  GHVSUH orice HOHPHQW DO XQHL PXO LPL FHHD FH VH
FXQRDúWHQXPDLGHVSUHuneleGLQHOHPHQWHOHDFHVWHLDLQGXF LDLQFRPSOHW 
QXSRDWHIXUQL]DDGHY UXULFHUWHFLQXPDLGLIHULWHJUDGHGHSUREabilitate,
LDU FRQFOX]LLOH vQWHPHLDWH LQGXFWLY QX GHFXUJ FX QHFHVLWDWH ORJLF  GLQ

premisele lor deoarece sunt mai generale decât acestea; cu alte cuvinte,
FRQFOX]LDXQHLLQIHUHQ HLQGXFWLYHVSXQHPDLPXOWGHFkWFHHDFHVHSRDWH

extrage din premisele asumate.
b) În LQIHUHQ HOH GHGXFWLYH concluzia decurge cu necesitate
ORJLF  GLQ SUHPLVH FX DOWH FXYLQWH ILLQG GDWH úL DFFHSWDWH SUHPLVHOH
FRQFOX]LDUH]XOW GLQHOHQHDS UDW,QIHUHQ HOH  

acest sens. Unul dintre motivele care explLF

– (4) sunt ilustrative în 

DFHDVW  SURSULHWDWH HVWH

DFHOD F  QLFLRGDW  FRQFOX]LD XQHL GHGXF LL QX HVWH PDL JHQHUDO  GHFkW
SUHPLVHOHGLQFDUHGHFXUJHRFRQFOX]LHvQWHPHLDW SULQGHGXF LHH[SULP 
QXPDLFHHDFHUH]XOW GLQFRQVLGHUDUHDvPSUHXQ DSUHPLVHORU

În vreme ce asupra iQIHUHQ HORULQGXFWLYHQXVHSRWIRUPXODGHFkW
XQHOH UHFRPDQG UL PHWRGRORJLFH vQ FDUH VH FRQGHQVHD]  UH]XOWDWHOH úL
H[SHULHQ D DFXPXODWH vQ GHFXUVXO FHUFHW ULORU úWLLQ LILFH vQVXPkQGX

-se
, 
FKLDU IRUPX-

FRQVLGHUD LL GH QDWXU  ORJLF  SVLKRORJLF  HSLVWHPRORJLF  LVWRULF
ILORVRILF  HWF  LQIHUHQ HOH GHGXFWLYH SHUPLW VDX QHFHVLW

ODUHD XQRU UHJXOL úLSULQFLSLL FODUH SUHFLVHúLRUGRQDWHVLVWHPDWLF ,DW  GH

ce logica în sens strict WUHEXLH SULYLW  FD VWXGLX IRUPDO FRQVDFUDW QXPDL
i pe scurt, ca WHRULH D GHGXF LHLÌQJUDQL H
PDL SX LQ VWULFWH DúD-numita ORJLF  JHQHUDO  DERUGHD]  úL DOWH SUREOHPH
– FXP VXQW FHOH SULYLQG OLPEDMXO FRQFHSWHOH WHRUHWLFH GHILQL LD
FODVLILFDUHD LQGXF LD HWF –, probleme abordate, cu metode diferite, úL GH
alte discipline, logica neavând exclusivitate în cercetarea lor, dar oferind
R SHUVSHFWLY  SURSULH úL HOXFLG UL GLQWUH FHOH PDL LPportante. Aceste

LQIHUHQ HORU GHGXFWLYH VDX PD

LQFXUVLXQL

DOH

FHUFHW ULORU

ORJLFH

GLQFROR

GH

JUDQL HOH

VWULFWH

DOH

LQIHUHQ HORUGHGXFWLYHQXVXQWFkWXúLGHSX LQDUWLILFLDOHVDXJUDWXLWHFLVH
LPSXQ GHRDUHFH FRQVWUXF LD VLVWHPHORU GHGXFWLYH QX VH SRDWH OLSVL GH
XQHOH FODULILF UL DSURIXQGDWHDOHSUREOHPHORUPDL VXV PHQ LRQDWH$YkQG
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PDQXDOXOGHID 

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ogicii, 

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1DWXUD RULJLQHD úL FULWHULLOH DGHY UXOXL UHSUH]LQW  R WHP  KLSHU

-

FRPSOH[  úL GH H[WUHP  GLILFXOWDWH FDUH vL IU PkQW  GH PXOWH VHFROH SH

teologi, metafizicieni, epistemologi, psihologi sau logicieni. În scurtele
FRQVLGHUD LL FDUH XUPHD]  YRP IDFH vQ PRG GHOLEHUDW DEVWUDF LH GH
DVSHFWHOH PHWDIL]LFHúLWHRORJLFHDOHUHIOHF LHLGHVSUHDGHY U
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– aspecte ce

L DGkQFL úL PLVWHULRDVH FH SDU D GHS úL

SXWHUHD QRDVWU  GH vQ HOHJHUH 'DF  SULYLP DGHY UXO QX FD SH R HQWLWDWH
VDX FDSHXQDWULEXW HVHQ LDODO)LLQ HLFLQXPDLFDSURSULHWDWHDµLGHLORU¶

noastre despre realitate, comunicabile prin intermediul limbajului, atunci
FHD PDL ILUHDVF  úLPDLHYLGHQW PRGDOLWDWHGHGHILQLUHDDGHY UXOXLSDUH
D IL DFHHD SURSXV  GH F WUH

A r i s t o t e l în Metafizica

úL DQXPH

FRUHVSRQGHQ D LGHLORU QRDVWUH FX UHDOLWDWHD VDX DOWIHO VSXV FRQFRUGDQ D
GLQWUHHQXQ XULúLVW ULOHGHIDSWODFDUHDFHVWHDVHUHIHU 
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- 

FRQVLGHU  F  ÄDGHY UXO HVWH XQ FRQFHSW UHOD LRQDO FD úL QR LXQHD GH

‘unchi’, constând într-R UHOD LH GH FRUHVSRQGHQ  FX XQ IDSW &LQHYD
devinHXQFKLDYkQGXQQHSRWVDXRQHSRDW  2LGHHVDXRSURSR]L LHHVWH
DGHY UDW  vQ DFHOH FD]XUL úL QXPDL vQ DFHOH FD]XUL vQ FDUH H[LVW XQIDSW
FRUHVSXQ] WRUFRQ LQXWXOXLORU 8QE UEDWHVWHXQFKLQXPDLvQFD]XULOHvQ

4

FDUHH[LVW XQQHSRWVDXRQHSRDW vQUXGLW FXHO ³

$ULVWRWHO GHILQHúWH FRQFHSWXO GH DGHY U vQ FkWHYD IUDJPHQWH
FODVLFHúLPXOWDQDOL]DWHGLQFXSULQVXO

(Γ  HO VSXQH ÄD HQXQ D F

Metafizicii. Mai întâi, în Cartea IV 

FHHD FH HVWH QX HVWH VDX F  FHHD FH QX HVWH

FRQVWLWXLH R SURSR]L LH IDOV  GLPSRWULY  R HQXQ DUH DGHY UDW  H DFHHD
SULQFDUHVSXLF HVWHFHHDFHHVWHúLF QXHVWHFHHDFHQXHVWH³

5

Aici se

SDUH F  $ULVWRWHO UHSHW  QXPDL R LGHH FXUHQW  GHVSUH DGHY U D úFROLL
SODWRQLFLHQHGLQFDUHHOvQVXúLDI FXWSDUWHPXOW YUHPHSkQ OD

moartea
Republica, VSXQH F  ÄD RSLQD
6 
D DYHD SDUWH GH DGHY U³ , iar în Sofistul VXV LQH F 

PDHVWUXOXL V X 3ODWRQ & FL úL DFHVWD vQ
FHHD FH HVWH vQVHDPQ

ÄWH]D FXP F  QX VXQW FHOH FH VXQW úL F  VXQW FHOH FH QX VXQW YD WUHEXL
VRFRWLW IDOV ³

7

În acest fragment din Metafizica lui Aristotel, accentul se

SXQH SH UDSRUWXO GLQWUH H[LVWHQ D LGHDO  JkQGLW  úL URVWLW  úL H[LVWHQ D
UHDO RELHFWLY UDSRUWFDUDFWHULVWLFSURSR]L LLORUH[LVWHQ LDOHFDUHDILUP 
VDX QHDJ  ILLQ D XQRU OXFUXUL GH JHQXO µ([LVW  H[WUDWHUHúWUL¶ µ1X H[LVW 
SROLWLFLHQL VLQFHUL¶ µ6XQW úL RDPHQL FLQVWL L¶ µ1X VH DIO  SH OXPH FRSLL
FXPLQ LúLEDEHIUXPRDVH¶HWF 
ÌQ &DUWHD 9, (  $ULVWRWHO VH UHIHU  PDL GHJUDE  OD SURSR]L LLOH
GH SUHGLFD LH vQ FDUH VH DILUP  RUL VH QHDJ  SRVHVLD GH F WUH XQ OXFUX D
XQHL DQXPLWH vQVXúLUL VDX SURSULHW

L – GH JHQXO µ= SDGD HVWH DOE ¶
‘Mercurul este un metal lichid’, ‘Aurul nu este oxidabil’, ‘Mamiferele nu
DX SHQH¶ HWF $YkQG vQ YHGHUH VROLGDULWDWHD GLQWUH DGHY U úL )LLQ 

respectiv aceea dintre falsúL1HILLQ FDWHUPHQLRQWRORJLFFRQWUDdictorii,
FDUH QX VH SRW DIOD GHRGDW  vQWU-XQD úL DFHHDúL UHDOLWDWH UHVSHFWLY vQ
GHVI úXUDUHD XQHL VLQJXUH LGHL $ULVWRWHO SULYHúWH SURSR]L LD FD SH R
ÄXQLUH úL VHSDUDUH³ D VXELHFWXOXL úL D DWULEXWXOXL V X ÌQ DFHDVW 
SHUVSHFWLY ÄDGHY UDW HVWHDILUPD LDGHVSUHFHHDFHvQUHDOLWDWHHVWHXQLW
úL QHJD LD GHVSUH FHHD FH vQ UHDOLWDWH HVWH GHVS U LW LDU IDOVXO FRQVW  vQ
RSR]L LD ID 

GH DFHDVW  DILUPD LH VDX QHJD LH³

8

Importante în acest al

GRLOHDIUDJPHQWVXQWGRX SUHFL] ULVXSOLPHQWDUHD DGHY UXOHVWHFRUHODW
QXPDL FX DúD QXPLWHOH DVHU LXQL

-

–SURSR]L LL FDUHDILUP 

VDX QHDJ FHYD

E  IDOVXO QX PDL SULPHúWH R GHILQL LH GH VLQH VW W WRDUH FL HVWH SULYLW FD
RSXVDODGHY UXOXL

Θ), 10, 105E$ULVWRWHOUHLDGHILQL LDGH

ÌQVIkUúLWvQ&DUWHD,;

PDL VXV FX SUHFL]DUHD VXSOLPHQWDU  F  vQ UDSRUWXO GH FRUHVSRQGHQ 

GLQWUH LGHL úL OXFUXUL UHDOLWDWHD FRQGL LRQHD]  DGHY UXO JkQGLULL úL QX
LQYHUV Ä&DOHD DGHY UXOXL VSXQH $ULVWRWHO DSDU LQH DFHOXL FDUH VRFRDWH

drept desS

U LW FHHD FH HVWH vQ UHDOLWDWH GHVS U LW úL FD XQLW FHHD FH HVWH

XQLW SUHFXP HVWH vQ HURDUH DFHOD FDUH JkQGHúWH FRQWUDU GH FXP VXQW

lucrurile în realitate. Se pune acum întrebarea: Când are loc ceea ce noi
QXPLP DGHY UDW VDX IDOV" $FHDVWD H FKHVWLXQHD FH WUHEXLH H[DPLQDW 

Într-DGHY

UWXGHSLOG QXHúWLDOESHQWUXF QRLFUHGHPSHGUHSWFXYkQW

F  WX HúWL DOE FL SHQWUX F  WX HúWL DOE VXQWHP SH FDOHD DGHY UXOXL FkQG
DILUP PDFHVWOXFUX³
6FRODVWLFD

9

PHGLHYDO 

S VWUHD] 

WHRULD

adev UXO-FRUHVSRQGHQ  SH FDUH R UH]XP
„Verum este adæquatio rei et intellectus“.

DULVWRWHOLF 

GHVSUH 

vQWU R FHOHEU  GHILQL LH

-

5HQDúWHUHD úL (SRFD 0RGHUQ  vQ FDUH VH LYHVF SULPHOH WHRULL
úWLLQ LILFH FRQVWUXLWH SH REVHUYD LH úL H[SHULPHQW DOH F URU GDWH VXQW

expuse matematic VH SUHRFXS 

PDL SX LQ GH IRUPXODUHD XQHL GHILQL LL D

DGHY UXOXL úL vúL FRQFHQWUHD]  DWHQ LD DVXSUD GHVFRSHULULL XQHL

metode

VLJXUHSULQDF UHLDSOLFDUHV SXWHPGHRVHELI U JUHúDGHY UXOGHIDOV
5HQp 'HVFDUWHV GHILQHúWH DGHY UXO SULQ DQXPLWH FDOLW i subiective, psihologice: „Verum est quod clarae ac distincte percipio“. Cu alte
cuvinte, HYLGHQ D LQWXLWLY  HVWH FHHD FH SULQ DWULEXWHOH LGHLORU FODUH úL
GLVWLQFWH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  WRDWH LGHLOH DGHY UDWH &RPHQWkQG IDLPRVXO V X

principiu – dubito, ergo cogito; cogito, ergo sum –, Descartes spune:
Ä2EVHUYkQG F  QX H[LVW  vQ DFHVW gândesc, deci exist QLPLF FDUH V  P 
DVLJXUHF VSXQDGHY UXOvQDIDU GHIDSWXOF Y GIRDUWHFODUF SHQWUXD
JkQGL WUHEXLH V  H[LúWL DP FRQVLGHUDW F  SRW V  DGRSW R UHJXO  JHQHUDO 
DQXPH F  OXFUXULOH SH FDUH OH FRQFHSHP IRDUWH FODU úL GLVWLQFW VXQW WRDWH
DGHY UDWH³
VXELHFWLY 

10 

'HVFDUWHV

DMXQJH

V 

JHQHUDOL]H]H

DFHDVW 

VXV LQHUH

D DGHY UXOXL vQWUXFkW DUH vQ YHGHUH QXPDL SURSR]L LLOH

PDWHPDWLFH DúD FXP SXWHDX IL HOH LQWHUSUHWDWH GH úWLLQ D úL ILORVRILD
YUHPLL VDOH &RQVWUXF LD XOWHULRDU  D XQRU VLVWHPH úL WHRULL PDWHPDWLFH

nonintuitive (precum geometriile non-HXFOLGLHQH GH H[HPSOX  DYHD V 

úWHDUJ  UHOHYDQ D HYLGHQ HL GUHSW FULWHULX GH DGHY U &X DWkW PDL SX LQ

poate fi accepWDW 

HYLGHQ D vQ FD]XO HQXQ XULORU FX UHIHUHQ LDO RELHFWLY

Ä1X FRQWHD]  DLFL FkWXúL GH SX LQ LQWHQVLWDWHD FRQYLQJHULORU VXELHFWLYH

VSXQH .DUO 3RSSHU SRW V  ILX SH GHSOLQ S WUXQV GH DGHY UXO XQXL HQXQ 
GH HYLGHQ D XQHL SHUFHS LL GH SXWH

rea de convingeUH D XQHL WU

LUL

orice

vQGRLDO  SRDWH V  PL VH SDU  DEVXUG  'DU SRDWH WRWXúL úWLLQ D V  DFFHSWH
SH

DFHVW

WHPHL

HQXQ XO

PHX"

3RDWH

HD

RDUH

V

-l întemeieze pe

FRQVLGHUHQWXO F  GRPQXO 1 1 HVWH S WUXQV GH DGHY UXO OXL" 5 VSXQVXO
HVWH QHJDWLY XQ DOW U VSXQV DU IL LQFRPSDWLELO FX LGHHD RELHFWLYLW
úWLLQ LILFH³

LL

11

6HVL]kQGVO ELFLXQHDHYLGHQ HLOXDWHGUHSWFULWHULXVXSUHPDODGH

-

Y UXOXL/HLEQL]vúLSURSXQHV GHVFRSHUHXQDOWFULWHULXFDUHV JDUDQWH]H
FHUWLWXGLQHD HQXQ XULORU WHRUHWLFH ILH DFHVWHD PDWHP

atice, logice sau

metafizice.(OVHPQDOHD] 

FHOGLQWkLH[LVWHQ DXQHLGLIHUHQ HUDGLFDOHvQWUH

GRX WLSXULGHSURSR]L LLILHFDUHWLSDYkQGDOWHFULWHULLGHDGHY UÄ([LVW  
GRX  IHOXUL GH DGHY

UXUL

, cele de

UD LRQDPHQW úL FHOH

de fapt.

$GHY UXULOH GH UD LRQDPHQW VXQW QHFHVDUH úL RSXVXO ORU H LPSRVLELO LDU

cele de fapt VXQW FRQWLQJHQWH úL RSXVXO ORU HVWH SRVLELO &kQG XQ DGHY U
vându-O vQ LGHL úL
12
DGHY UXULPDLVLPSOHSkQ FkQGDMXQJHPODFHOHSULPitive“.
'HILQL LD DULVWRWHOLF  D DGHY UXOXL - FRUHVSRQGHQ  HVWH DGHFYDW 
HVWH QHFHVDU vL SXWHP J VL WHPHLXO SULQ DQDOL]  UH]RO

vQFD]XOSURSR]L LLORUFDUHVHUHIHU ODRELHFWHúLVW ULGHIDSWHPSLULFHGH
DF URUH[LVWHQ 

QHFRQYLQJHPSULQUHFXUVXOODH[SHULHQ DVHQVLELO ùWLP

F  ] SDGD HVWH DOE  GHRDUHFH VLP XULOH GDF  QX VXQW DOWHUDWH  QH
GRYHGHVFDFHVWOXFUX/HLEQL]QXPHúWHDGHFYD LDDFHVWXLJHQGHSURSR]L LL

vérité de fait µDGHY

U GH IDSW¶  &RUHVSRQGHQ D GHYLQH vQV  FX WRWXO

LUHOHYDQW  vQ PDWHPDWLF  DOH F UHL HQXQ XUL QX VH UHIHU  OD RELHFWH

seQVLELOH FL OD HQWLW
H[SHULHQ

L úL UHOD LL SXU LGHDOH FH QX SRW IL YHULILFDWH vQ 

7HRUHPHOH WULXQJKLXOXL VDX DOH FHUFXOXL GLQ JHRPHWULH V 

VSXQHP QX VXQW vQ PRG FHUW DGHY UDWH SULQ FRUHVSRQGHQ 

SHQWUX

VLPSOXO PRWLY F  QX H[LVW  vQ OXPHD SHUFHSWLELO  ILJXUL JHRPHWULFH
SHUIHFWH D F URU REVHUYDUH HPSLULF  V  QH FRQYLQJ  GH DGHY UXO ORU
$VWIHOGHSURSR]L LLVXQWµDGHY UXULGHUD LXQH¶

vérité de raison), de care
– ce poate fi, ca fapt

QH FRQYLQJHP QX DWkW SULQ HYLGHQ D FDUWH]LDQ 

subiectiv, neconclXGHQW  – FL SULQ DSOLFDUHD DEVROXW ULJXURDV 

D XQRU

SURFHGHHLQIHUHQ LDOHYDOLGHFHDVLJXU GHGXF LLLQIDLOLELOH

Immanuel Kant (1724 -   S

VWUHD]  DFHDVW  GLVWLQF LH IROR

VLQG vQV  DOWH GHQXPLUL FDUH RSXQ µDGHY UXO IRUPDO¶ úL

a priori (ce

DSDU LQH OHJLORU ORJLFH úL SURSR]L LLORU PDWHPDWLFLL SXUH  úL µDGHY UXO

material’, a posteriori FH QX SRDWH IL VWDELOLW GHFkW SULQ H[SHULHQ 

vQ

FD]XOSURSR]L LLORUFDUHVHUHIHU ODGDWHOHHPSLULFHÄ$VWIHOGHFXQRúWLQ H
XQLYHUVDOH FDUH DX WRWRGDW  FDUDFWHUXO QHFHVLW
LQGHSHQGHQW GH H[SHULHQ

LL LQWHUQH WUHEXLH V  ILH 

FODUH úL FHUWH SULQ HOH vQVHOH GH DFHHD VH

QXPHVF FXQRúWLQ H D SULRUL GLPSRWULY  FHHD FH HVWH RE LQXW QXPDL GLQ
H[SHULHQ 

QX HVWH FXQRVFXW FXP VH VSXQH GHFkW D SRVWHULRUL VDX

empiric“.13
7RW.DQWRSHUHD] úLGLVWLQF LDGLQWUHMXGHF

Lanalitice – în toate
a priori GHRDUHFH vQWUH VXELHFWXO úL SUHGLFDWXO SURSR]L LHL
H[LVW  R UHOD LH ORJLF QHFHVDU  DVWIHO vQFkW FRQFHSHUHD VXELHFWXOXL SUHVXpune asocierea lui cu predicatul ce-i este, oarecum, inerent – úL MXGHF L
sintetice, numite astfel deoarece se construiesc prin asocierea unor
FD]XULOH úL

QR LXQL FDUH QX VH SUHVXSXQ XQD SH FHDODOW  úL QX VXQW vQWRWGHDXQD
FRQFHSXWHODRODOW ÄÌQWRDWHMXGHF

LOHvQ care este gândit raportul dintre un
subiHFW úL XQ SUHGLFDW – spune Kant – DFHVW UDSRUW HVWH SRVLELO vQ GRX 
feluri. Sau predicatul B DSDU LQH VXELHFWXOXL A ca ceva ce e cuprins
(implicit) în acest concept, sau B VHJ VHúWHFXWRWXOvQDIDUDFRQFHSWXOXL
AGHúLVW vQOHJ WXU FXHOÌQFD]XOGLQtâi numesc judecata DQDOLWLF , în
FHO ODOWVLQWHWLF 

-XGHF

LOHDQDOLWLFH DILUPDWLYH VXQWGHFLDFHOHDvQFDUH

OHJ WXUD SUHGLFDWXOXL FX VXELHFWXO HVWH JkQGLW  SULQ LGHQWLWDWH LDU DFHOHD
vQ FDUH DFHDVW  OHJ WXU  HVWH JkQGLW  I U  LGHQWLWDWH WUHEXLH V  IL
MXGHF

LVLQWHWLFH3HFHOHGLQWkLOH DPSXWHDQXPLúLMXGHF

-

pe cHOHODOWH MXGHF

e numite
,

LH[SOLFDWLYH

L H[WHQVLYH ILLQGF  FHOH GLQWkL QX DGDXJ  SULQ SUHGLFDW

QLPLF OD FRQFHSWXO VXELHFWXOXL FL QXPDL vO GHVFRPSXQ SULQ DQDOL]  vQ
FRQFHSWHOHOXLSDU LDOHFDUHHUDXGHMDJkQGLWHvQHO GHúLFRQIX] SHFkQG
FHOHGLQXUP DGDXJ ODFRQFHSWXOVXELHFWXOXLXQ SUHGLFDWFDUHQXHUDGH

14

ORF JkQGLW vQ HO úL QX SXWHD IL VFRV SULQ GHVFRPSXQHUHD OXL³

Epistemo-

ORJLD NDQWLDQ  vúL SURSXQH V  GHPRQVWUH]H F  SH OkQJ  MXGHF

sintetice a posteriori
DVRFLHULL

XQRU

LOH

vQ FDUH H[SHULHQ D QH RIHU  VLQJXUXO WHPHL DO

QR LXQL 

PDL H[LVW  úL MXGHF

L VLQWHWLFH

IXQGDPHQWDOH vQ HODERUDUHD IL]LFLL WHRUHWLFH MXGHF

a priori,

L vQ FDUH OHJ WXUD

GLQWUHVXELHFWXOúLSUHGLFDWXOSURSR]L LHLHVWHQHFHVDU GHúLQXVHED]HD] 
SH H[SHULHQ 

FL SH DQXPLWH VFKHPH VDX IRUPH

RULF UXLDFWGHJkQGLUHDO(X

a priori, constitutive

-lui transcendental.

/RJLFD PRGHUQ  vQGHRVHEL VXE LQIOXHQ D OXL 5XGROI &DUQDS
XWLOL]HD] 

GLVWLQF LD

HOLPLQkQG VXEWLOLW

GLQWUH

DGHY UXULOH

LOH úL REVFXULW

DQDOLWLFH

úL

FHOH

VLQWHWLFH

LOH GLVWLQF LHL FRPSOHPHQWDUH GLQ

filosofia kanWLDQ vQWUHMXGHF La prioriúLa posteriori.
Cercetându-VH vQ SULPXO UkQG DGHY UXO FD SURSULHWDWH D SURSR]LLLORU FRJQLWLYH FRQWkQG vQ PRG VSHFLDO DFHOHD FDUH LQWU  vQ DOF WXLUHD
WHRULLORU úWLLQ LILFH  V DX LPSXV DúDGDU GRX  PRGDOLW

-

L SULQFLSDOH GH

vQ HOHJHUHDFRQFHSWXOXLGHDGHY UWHRULDFODVLF DULVWRWHOLF DDGHY

- FRUHVSRQGHQ

UXOXL 

UHvQW ULW  GH FHUFHW ULOH VHPDQWLFH DOH OXL 7DUVNL úL GH

UHIOHF LLOHORJLFR HSLVWHPRORJLFHDOHXQRUJkQGLWRULLPSRUWDQ LSUHFXP*

-

)UHJH % 5XVVHOO 5 &DUQDS ú D  úL WHRULD DGHY

UXOXL

- FRHUHQ ,
-

DSOLFDELO  vQ VSHFLDO DVXSUD SURSR]L LLORU GLQ VLVWHPHOH IRUPDOH ORJLFR

matematice.

Cu toate aFHVWHDvQOLPEDMXOYLH LLFRWLGLHQHRDPHQLLFRQWLQX 

V 

XWLOL]H]H úL DOWH VHPQLILFD LL DOH WHUPHQXOXL µDGHY U¶ OHJDWH QX QXPDL GH
SURFHVHOH VWULFW FRJQLWLYH FL úL GH R PDUH YDULHWDWH GH FRQWH[WH SUDFWLFH
vQFDUHDGHY UXOHVWHDWULEXLWXQRUSURSR]L LLFHQXH[SULP FXQRúWLQ HVDX
LQIRUPD LL FL GRULQ H UXJ PLQ L DSUHFLHUL VROLFLW UL PLU UL HWF 'LQ
FRQVLGHUDUHD DFHVWRU PRGDOLW

L QRQFRJQLWLYH DOH OLPEDMXOXL SULYLWH FD

LQVWUXPHQWHXWLOHvQDGDSWDUHDSUDFWLF DDJHQWXOXLODVROLFLW ULOHPHGLXOXL

social în care trebXLH V  DF LRQH]H V-D Q VFXW WHRULD SUDJPDWLVW a
DGHY UXOXL – utilitate, LQL LDW  GH DPHULFDQLL &KDUOHV 6DQGHUV 3HLUFH
(1839 -   úL :LOOLDP -DPHV  -   3RWULYLW FRQFHS LHL
pragmatiste, R LGHH HVWH DGHY UDW  GDF úL QXPDLGDF HVWHXWLO FULWHULXO
XWLOLW

LL ILLQGQXPDL DFWLYLWDWHDSUDFWLF 5H]XPkQGFRQFHS LDOXL 3HLUFH

SH FDUH úL R vQVXúHúWH úL R DPSOLILF  :LOOLDP -DPHV VSXQH XUP WRDUHOH

-

ÄvQ JHQHUDO DGHY UXO FUHGLQ HORU QRDVWUH FRQVW  vQ IDSWXO F  HOH GDX

“.15 ÎQ DOW

VDWLVIDF LH 

SDUWH -DPHV SUHFL]HD]  ÄFUHGLQ HOH

sunt reguli pentru

DF LXQH úL vQWUHDJD IXQF LH D JkQGLULL QX HVWH GHFkW XQ SDV vQ SURGXFHUHD
RELFHLXULORU DFWLYH >@ 3HQWUX D RE LQH R FODULWDWH SHUIHFW  vQ JkQGXULOH
QRDVWUH GHVSUH XQ RELHFW WUHEXLH GRDU V  FKLE]XLP FH VHQ]D LL LPHGLDWH
VDX vQWkU]LDWH SXWHP DúWHSWD GH OD HO úL FH FRQGXLW  WUHEXLH V  QH
SUHJ WLP vQ FD] F  DFHVWD HVWH DGHY UDW >@ DGHY UDW HVWH FHHD FH
IXQF LRQHD] ELQH³

16

3UDJPDWLVPXO D IRVW SH QHGUHSW UHGXV OD VWDWXWXO XQHL FRQFHS LL

triviale, neinteresate de nimic altceva decât de rezultatul palpabil al
DF LXQLL ÌQ UHDOLWDWH DFHDVW  YL]LXQH ULGLF  R SUREOHP  LPSRUWDQW 
Ä$GPL kQG F  R LGHH VDX R FUHGLQ 

HVWH DGHY UDW  FH LPSRUWDQ 

FRQFUHW  YD DYHD vQ YLD D FRWLGLDQ  D FXLYD IDSWXO F  HD HVWH DGHY UDW "
&XPYDILSHUFHSXWDGHY UXO"&HH[SHULHQ HDUILGLIHULWHGHFkWVXQWGDF 
FUHGLQ D DU IL IDOV " 3H VFXUW FDUH HVWH YDORDUHD

-cash (cash-value) a

DGHY UXOXLvQWHUPHQLLH[SHULHQ HL"³ 

3HLUFH-DPHVúL'HZH\DXLQL LDWR

17

serie de ceUFHW
FXQRúWLQ HOH
HSLVWHPRORJLF

vQ

UL

IHFXQGH

H[LVWHQ D

DVXSUD

DFWLY 

UROXOXL
XPDQLW

SH
LL

FDUH

vO

vPERJ

vQGHSOLQHVF
LQG

WHRULD 

úLWHRULDDF LXQLLFXRVHULHGHFRQWULEX LLLPSRUWDQWH'LQ

punct de vedere strict logic vQV
GLILFXOW

D 

WHRULD SUDJPDWLVW  VH FRQIUXQW  FX

L FRQVLGHUDELOH 9LFLXO HVHQ LDO DO DFHVWHL FRQFHS LL FRQVW  vQ

IDSWXO F  GRX  SURSR]L LL FRQWUDGLFWRULL SRW IL GHRSRWULY  DGHY UDWH GDF 

VH J VHVF GRL RDPHQL GLIHUL L FDUH V  J VHDVF  ILHFDUH vQ IHOXO V X R

utilitate într-una sau alWDGLQFHOHGRX
1.3.2$GHY 

SURSR]L LL

UXOFDYDORDUHORJLF 

DSURSR]L LLORU

2GDW  FH DP FRQYHQLW DVXSUD IDSWXOXL F  ORJLFD vQ VHQV VWULFW 
HVWH XQ VWXGLX IRUPDO DO LQIHUHQ HORU GHGXFWLYH WUHEXLH V  FODULILF P
URVWXO úL ILQDOLWDWHD DFHVWRUD 2 GHGXF LH ELQH FRQVWUXLW  FDUH vúL
vQGHSOLQHúWH PHQLUHD HVWH DFHHD FDUH QH FRQGXFH OD R FRQFOX]LH vQ PRG
FHUW DGHY UDW  ÌQF  GH OD vQFHSXWXULOH HL ORJLFD D IRVW FRQFHSXW  úL
UHDOL]DW  FD XQ LQVWUXPHQW LQGLVSHQVDELO SHQWUX DIODUHD úL vQWHPHLHUHD
FXQRúWLQ HORU DGHY UDWH

–

UHVSHFWLY SHQWUX GHSLVWDUHD úL HOLPLQDUHD

RSLQLLORU IDOVH & XWkQG XQ PD[LPXP GH FODULWDWH ORJLFD WUHEXLH V  IDF 
SH FkW SRVLELO DEVWUDF LH GH FRPSOLFD LL úL VXEWLOLW

L PHWDIL]LFH GkQG

DGHY UXOXLRVHPQLILFD LHµWHKQLF ¶úLFDDWDUHRSHUD LRQDO 
ÌQFHOHFHXUPHD] YRPFRQVLGHUDF DGHY

el, falsitatea sunt, din punct de vedere logic
QHDS UDW PHWDIL]LF VDX WHRORJLF  QLúWH SURSULHW
DSDU LQ

lucrurilor VDX HQWLW

LORU UHDOH

UXOúLvQRSR]L LHFX
úL

epistemologic (nu

L VDX vQVXúLUL FDUH QX

, aIODWH vQDIDUDFRQúWLLQ HLQRDVWUH ci

QXPDL FXQRúWLQ HORU VDX LGHLORU QRDVWUH GHVSUH OXFUXUL LGHL H[SULPDWH vQ
SURSR]L LL GHFODUDWLYH VDX DVHU LXQL &X DOWH FXYLQWH PDVD SH FDUH VFULX
FDVD vQ FDUH P  DIOX F U LOH FDUH P  vQFRQMRDU  HWF QX VXQW úL QX
QLFLFXPúLQLFLRGDW DGHY

UDWH

pot fi
sau false din punct de vedere logic – chiar

GDF vQDPELJXLWDWHDSOLQ GHVXJHVWLLúLVXEvQ HOHVXULDOHOLPELLQDWXUDOH
SXWHP YRUEL FX VHQV GHVSUH R PDV  R FDV  RUL R FDUWH µDGHY UDW ¶ DGLF 
EXQ  GHRVHELW  DSUHFLDELO  HWF 6XE DVSHFWORJLFvQV OXFUXULOHVXQWVDX

nu sunt reale, H[LVW sau QXH[LVW 

vQPRGHIHFWLY$GHY UDWHVDXIDOVHSRW

ILQXPDLDILUPD LLOHVDXQHJD LLOHFRQVWUXLWHvQWU

-un anumit limbaj, despre

lucruri – FHHD FH DP GHQXPLW GUHSW SURSR]L LL GHFODUDWLYH VDX DVHU LXQL
'XS  FXP DP Y ]XW vQ SDUDJUDIXO DQWHULRU QX WRDWH DVHU LXQLOH SRW IL
DGHY UDWHVDXIDOVHvQDFHOHDúLFRQGL LLúLFRQIRUPDFHORUDúLFULWHULL

Vom numi analitice

SURSR]L LLOH FDUH VH UHIHU  H[FOXVLY OD

RELHFWH LGHDOHúLOD UDSRUWXULOH GLQWUHHOH$GHY UXOORUGHSLQGHQXPDL GH
FRUHFWLWXGLQHD JkQGLULL ILLQG LQGLIHUHQW ID 

GH RULFH IDSW VDX HYHQLPHQW

UHDO FXQRVFXW vQ H[SHULHQ 

ÌQ WHUPLQRORJLD NDQWLDQ  SURSR]L LLOH

analitice sunt toate a prioriDGLF 

SXUFRQFHSWLELOHvQDLQWHúLLQGH

pendent
-

GHRULFHFRQWDFWHPSLULFFXUHDOLWDWHDFXOXPHDµH[WHULRDU ¶JkQGLULL8U
P WRDUHOHDVHU LXQLVXQWDQDOLWLFH

(1) ‘Toate unghiurile cu laturile în prelungire sunt congruente.’
(2) ‘2ULFHQXP UQDWXUDOHVWHSDUVDXLPSDU¶
(3) ‘'DF  GRX  P ULPL $ úL % VXQW ILHFDUH HJDO  FX R D WUHLD
P ULPH&DWXQFL$ 

%¶

(4) ‘Toate mamiferele sunt vivipare.’
$GHY UXO

DFHVWRU

SURSR]L LL

VWDELOLW

H[FOXVLY SULQ H[HUFL LXO

gândirii, HVWH DQDOLWLF GHRDUHFH HO GHFXUJH QXPDL GLQ DQXPLWH SURSULHW L
ale unor idei acceSWDWH I U  GHPRQVWUD LH FD QHvQGRLHOQLFH ILH GDWRULW 
µHYLGHQ HL¶ORULQWXLWLYHILHSULQFRQYHQ LHVDXSULQGHILQL LH 3URSR]L LLOH
DQDOLWLFH QX QH IXUQL]HD]  LQIRUPD LL GHVSUH OXPH úL QX H[WLQG FXQRú
WLQ HOH QRDVWUH GHRDUHFH HOH H[WUDJ QXPDL úL H[SOLFLWHD]  SURSULHW

-

L úL

UHOD LLSHFDUHLGHLOHµSULPLWLYH¶VDX µRULJLQDUH¶ OHFRQ LQ vQ PRGLPSOLFLW
'LQ GHILQL LD S WUDWXOXL GH H[HPSOX FD µURPE FX XQ XQJKL GUHSW¶
GHFXUJH QXPDL SULQ DQDOL]D FRQFHSWHORU SURSR]L LD µ7RDWH XQJKLXULOH
S WUDWXOXL VXQW FRQJUXHQWH¶ ÌQ VFKLPE SURSR]L LD µ7ULXQJKLXO GUHSWXQ

-

JKLF$%& DUH WRDWH XQJKLXULOH DVFX LWH¶ HVWH DQDOLWLF IDOV  GHRDUHFH SULQ
GHILQL LHWULXQJKLXOGUHSWXQJKLFDUHXQXQJKLGUHSW

Vom numi sintetice
SURSULHW

SURSR]L LLOH FDUH VH UHIHU  OD RELHFWH

L UHOD LL HYHQLPHQWH UHDOH $VWIHO GH SURSR]L LL VXQW DGHY UDWH

GDF  UHOD LD GLQWUH FRPSRQHQWHOH SURSR]L LHL FRUHVSXQGH XQHL VW UL GH
IDSW

FRQWURODELO 

úL

YHULILFDELO 

vQ

H[SHULHQ 

'LQ

DFHVW

PRWLY

SURSR]L LLOH GH DFHVW JHQ VH PDL QXPHVF úL
WHUPLQRORJLD NDQWLDQ 

factuale, având – în
– un caracter a posteriori, întrucât nu putem

DILUPD VDX QHJD FHYD GHFkW GXS  R FRQVWDWDUH HPSLULF  FH QH IXUQL]HD] 
DQXPLWH LQIRUPD LL GHVSUH VW ULOH GH IDSW GLQ OXPH 6XQW IDFWXDOH
SURSR]L LLGHJHQXO

(5) ‘3ORX ¶ vQORFXOSúi la momentul t)
(6) ‘Aluminiul este inoxidabil.’
(7) ‘6WUDGD&UkQJXOXLP VRDU P¶
(8) ‘Mercurul este mai greu decât aurul.’
(9) ‘Ion e fratele lui Mihai.’

3URSR]L LLOH VLQWHWLFH VDX IDFWXDOH IXUQL]HD]  LQIRUPD LL GHVSUH

lume,O

UJLQGVIHUDFXQRúWLQ HORUQRDVWUHGHRDUHFHDVRFLD] LGHLvQWUHFDUH

QX VH SRW VWDELOL FRQH[LXQL DQDOLWLFH 'DW ILLQG IDSWXO F  QLFL XQD GLQWUH
S U LOH XQHL DVWIHO GH SURSR]L LL QX OH SUHVXSXQH ORJLF SH FHOHODOWH
DVRFLHUHD GLQWUH HOH VH ED]HD]  SH FHOH FRQVWDWDWH vQ H[SHULHQ
]L LDµ2PXOHVWHRILLQ 

3URSR

- 

UD LRQDO ¶HVWHDQDOLWLFDGHY UDW SHQWUXF LGHHD

VDX FRQFHSWXO GH RP LPSOLF  UD LRQDOLWDWHD vQV  SURSR]L LD µ2PXO

este

LQIOXHQ DW QHJDWLY GH H[SOR]LLOH VRODUH úL GH ID]HOH OXQLL¶ HVWH IDFWXDO 
DGHY UXOVDXIDOVLWDWHD

ei bazându-VHSHIUHFYHQ DVWDWLVWLF 

DFD]XULORUFH

FRQILUP  VDX LQILUP  UHOD LD HQXQ DW  QLFLFXP GLQ FRQFHSWXO GH XPDQL
WDWH QX VH SRDWH GHULYD R FRQVHFLQ

- 

GHGXFWLY  vQ OHJ WXU  FX H[SOR]LLOH

VRODUHúLID]HOHOXQLLVDXLQYHUV
) U  D LQWUD vQ GHWDOLLOH QXPHURDVH úL GLILFLOH  DOH GLVWLQF LHL
GLQWUH DQDOLWLF úL VLQWHWLF vQ SURFHVXO FXQRDúWHULL WUHEXLH V  SUHFL] P F 
ORJLFD QX vúL SURSXQH VWDELOLUHD úL YHULILFDUHD DGHY UXOXL VDX IDOVLW
SURSR]L LLORU FD DWDUH DFHDVW  PLVLXQH UHYLQH GLIHULWHORU GRPH

LL

nii ale

úWLLQ HL /RJLFD vúL SURSXQH V  FHUFHWH]H IRUPHOH VDX WLSXULOH GH LQIHUHQ H

valide, D F URU XWLOL]DUH HVWH XQD GLQWUH FRQGL LLOH FDUH DVLJXU
ideilor noastre.
1.9DOLGLWDWHDFDSURSULHWDWHORJLF 

DLQIHUHQ HORU

'DF  DGHY UXO úL IDOVLWDWHD VXQW SURSULHW

declarative, validitatea VDX FRUHFWLWXGLQHD IRUPDO
WDWHD ORJLF  VXQW SURSULHW 

DGHY UXO

L DOH SURSR]L LLORU 
UHVSHFWLY LQYDOLGL

-

L DOH LQIHUHQ HORU FD vQO Q XLUL GH SURSR]L LL

Robert Blanché VSXQH F  ÄQX WUHEXLH V  VH FRQIXQGH validitatea unui
UD LRQDPHQW cu DGHY UXO SURSR]L LLORU FDUH vO FRPSXQ³ GkQG GRX 
exemple în acest sens: (i) ‘Orice triunghi este trilater, deci orice trilater
este triunghi’; (ii) ‘Orice triunghi este patrulater, deci unele patrulatere
VXQWWULXQJKLXUL¶Ä2FOLS GHUHIOHF LHYDDU WDF SULPDLQIHUHQ
YDOLG  GHúL FHOH GRX  SURSR]L LL VXQW DGHY UDWH úL F  FHD GH
YDOLG GHúLFHOHGRX SURSR]L LLVXQWIDOVH³

18

)LHDVHU LXQLOH  
µ2ULFHDQLPDOFXS USHSLHSWLXEHúWHPDQHOHOH¶ 

QXHVWH

-a doua este

(11) ‘Vacile nebuQHDXS

USHSLHSW¶

'LQDFHVWHGRX SURSR]L LLSXWHPLQIHUDFRQFOX]LD

(12) ‘Vacile nebune iubesc manelele.’
6H SRDWH RELHFWD F  SUHPLVHOH VXQW DLXULWH GDF  QX GH

-a dreptul

IDOVH úL F  vQWUHJXO UD LRQDPHQW HVWH VWXSLG ùL WRWXúL UD LRQDPHQWXO HVWH

coreFW GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH IRUPDO GDF 

DGPLWHP SUHPLVHOH DGHY UXO

FRQFOX]LHL GHFXUJH GLQ HOH VDX HVWH IRUPDO LPSOLFDW GH SULPHOH GRX 
SURSR]L LL
6  DQDOL] P XQ H[HPSOX PDL SX LQ EL]DU )RORVLQG DFHHDúL
VFKHP LQIHUHQ LDO YRPOXDSUHPLVHOH

‘Numerele naturDOHFDUHVHGLYLGQXPDLFXúLFXHOHvQVHOHVXQW
numere prime.’
µVHGLYLGHQXPDLFXúLFXHOvQVXúL¶
'HFLµHVWHQXP USULP¶
ÌQFHFRQGL LLHVWHDGHY UDW FRQFOX]LDDFHVWXLUD LRQDPHQW"

a)
este

0DL vQWkL HVWH QHFHVDU FD SUHPLVHOH V  ILH DGHY

rate; aceasta
- 

QXPLW  DVWIHO vQWUXFkW HVWH FHULQ D FD UD LRQD

FRQGL LD PDWHULDO

PHQWXOV H[WUDJ FRQFOX]LDGLQSUHPLVHvQWHPHLDWHFHHDFHSUHVXSXQHFD
µPDWHULDOXO¶ VDX FRQ LQXWXO GLQ FDUH VH DOF WXLHúWH UD LRQDPHQWXO V  ILH
QR LXQL FODUH úL SUHPLVH vQ PRG VLJXU DGHY UDWH ÌQ H[HPSOXO GHPDLVXV
WUHEXLH V  YHULILF P SULQ FDOFXO DSOLFkQG UHJXOLOH GH GLYL]LELOLWDWH GDF 
QXP UXOHVWHvQWU DGHY UGLYL]LELOQXPDLFXúLFXHOvQVXúL

-

E  $ GRXD FRQGL LH FHD IRUPDO 

FHUH FD LQIHUHQ D GHGXFWLY  V 

ILH YDOLG FRQFOX]LDWUHEXLHV GHFXUJ FXQHFHVLWDWHORJLF GLQSUHPLVH
ÌQH[HPSOXODQDOL]DWYDOLGLWDWHDLQIHUHQ HLHVWHLQWXLWLYHYLGHQW 
'H UHJXO  FRQFOX]LD XQHL LQIHUHQ H HVWH DGHY UDW  GDF  VXQW

îndeplinite ambeleFRQGL LL– dar nu întotdeauna.)LHUD LRQDPHQWXO
7RDWHvQRW WRDUHOHVXQWSHúWL
(fals)
%DOHQHOHVXQWvQRW WRDUH
%DOHQHOHVXQWSHúWL

DGHY UDW

(fals)

3ULPD SUHPLV  HVWH IDOV  úL GDWRULW  DFHVWXL IDSW H IDOV  úL
FRQFOX]LDGHúL DIRVWGHGXV SULQWU RVFKHP LQIHUHQ LDO YDOLG ÌQ

-

acest

FD] VFKHPD GH GHGXF LH IXQF LRQHD]  FRUHFW GDU µWUDQVSRUW ¶ IDOVXO GLQ
SULPD SUHPLV  vQ FRQFOX]LH FX DOWH FXYLQWH µPDWHULDOXO¶ GLQ FDUH V

-a

DOF WXLW UD LRQDPHQWXO QX HVWH EXQ 8QHRUL vQV  GLQ SUHPLVH IDOVH VH

SRDWH RE LQH vQ PRG

accidental sau artificios R FRQFOX]LH DGHY

UDW  6 

DSOLF PDFHHDúLVFKHP LQIHUHQ LDO FRUHFW VDXYDOLG 
7R LURPkQLLVXQWSRH L

(fals)

Lucian Blaga a fost român
Deci, Lucian Blaga a fost poet
sau
Toate numerele divizibile cu 3 sunt pare
14 este divizibil cu 3
'HFLHVWHQXP USDU

DGHY UDW
DGHY UDW

(fals)
(fals)
DGHY UDW

5HPDUF P IDSWXO VXUSULQ] WRU F  DGHY UXO SUHPLVHORU QX HVWH R
FRQGL LH

sine qua non SHQWUX GHGXF LD XQRU FRQFOX]LL DGHY UDWH FRQWUDU
remise – fie acestea
UDWH VDX IDOVH &H VH SRDWH VSXQH GHVSUH YDOLGLWDWHD VDX FRUHF-

EXQXOXL VLP  DGHY UXO UH]XOW  GLQ RULFH IHO GH S
DGHY

WLWXGLQHD IRUPDO  D UD LRQDPHQWHORU" )LH R VFKHP  LQIHUHQ LDO  YDOLG  GH
DOW FRQVWUXF LHORJLF GHDVHPHQHD GHRFDPGDW LQWXLWLYHYLGHQW 

'DF DSULQGEHFXOvQFDPHU HVWHOXPLQ

DGHY UDW

Am aprins becul

DGHY UDW

'HFLvQFDPHU HVWHOXPLQ

DGHY UDW

3UHVXSXQkQG F  SUHPLVHOH VXQW DGHY UDWH SULQWU R LQIHUHQ

- 

YDOLG  DP RE LQXW R FRQFOX]LH DGHY UDW  vQ PRG FHUW úL FDUH QX PDL
QHFHVLW DILYHULILFDW vQH[SHULHQ 

GHRDUHFHFRQFRUGDQ DHLFXVWDUHDGH

IDSWHVWHJDUDQWDW SULQUHVSHFWDUHDFHORUGRX FRQGL LLGHYDOLGLWDWH

– atât

FHD PDWHULDO  F FL DPEHOH SUHPLVH VXQW DGHY UDWH FkW úL FHD IRUPDO 
GHRDUHFH VFKHPD LQIHUHQ LDO  HVWH YDOLG  6  DOF WXLP LQIHUHQ D vQWU

-o

RUGLQHGLIHULW 

'DF DSULQGEHFXOvQFDPHU HVWHOXPLQ

DGHY UDW

Nu aprind becul

DGHY UDW

'HFLvQFDPHU QXHVWHOXPLQ

?

3UHVXSXQkQG F  SUHPLVHOH VXQW DGHY UDWH FRQFOX]LD
DGHY UDW 

– QX HVWH FRUHFW vQWHPHLDW

– aparent 

(VWH SUHPDWXUV DU W PDLFLvQFH

FRQVW YLFLXOGHIRUP DOLQIHUHQ HLGDULQWXLWLYQHSXWHPGDVHDPDF vQ
FDPHU  SRDWH IL OXPLQ  FKLDU úL FX EHFXO VWLQV SHQWUX F  QH DIO P vQ
WLPSXO ]LOHL 'LQ DFHOHDúL PRWLYH VHVL] P F  úL XUP WRUXO UD LRQDPHQW

este incorect:
'DF DSULQGEHFXOvQFDPHU HVWHOXPLQ

DGHY UDW

ÌQFDPHU HVWHOXPLQ

DGHY UDW

Am aprins becul

?

&RQVWDW PGHDFHDVW GDW F QHUHVSHFWDUHDFRQGL LHLIRUPDOHGH
YDOLGLWDWH D VFKHPHORU LQIHUHQ LDOH HVWH R FRQGL LH

sine qua non pentru

DGHY UXO FHUW DO FRQFOX]LHL RUL GH FkWH RUL VH FRPLWH R HURDUH vQ
FRQVWUXF LD IRUPDO  DXQXLUD LRQDPHQWFKLDU GDF VH SRUQHúWHGHOD FHOH
PDL VROLGH SUHPLVH FRQFOX]LD HVWH IDOV  RUL vQ FHO PDL EXQ FD]
vQGRLHOQLF  vQWUXFkW GRDU XQHRUL VH vQWkPSO  FD IDSWHOH V  FRLQFLG  FX
UH]XOWDWXOXQHLGHGXF LLLQFR

recte.
Putem sesiza acum mai bine în ce sens logica este un instrument

HVHQ LDO

SHQWUX

GHVFRSHULUHD

úL

GHPRQVWUDUHD

DGHY UXOXL

QX

SULQ

YHULILFDUHD HPSLULF  D SURSR]L LLORU IDFWXDOH FL SULQ GHGXF LD ULJXURDV  D
XQRU SURSR]L LL QHFXQRVFXWH VDX LQFHUWH GLQ SURSR]L LL FXQRVFXWH VDX
SUHVXSXVH FDDGHY UDWHJDUDQ LDGHFHUWLWXGLQHDDGHY UXOXLSURSR]L LLORU
GHULYDWHILLQGYDOLGLWDWHDIRUPDO DLQIHUHQ HORUHIHFWXDWH
ÌQO Q XLULOH GH UD LRQDPHQWH GHGXFWLYH FDUH VDWLVIDF DWkW FRQGL LD
PDWHULDO  FkW úL SH FHD IRUPDO  GH YDOLGLWDWH VH QXPHVF GHPRQVWUD LL

logica vQ VHQV VWULFW ILLQG vQ FHD PDL VXPDU
IRUPDODOGHPRQVWUD LHL. 

GHILQL LH SRVLELO 


studiul

1.4 Principiile logice
&D WHRULH IRUPDO  D GHPRQVWUD LHL ORJLFD vQ HOHJH vQDLQWHD
RULF UHL DOWH UHIOHF LL úWLLQ LILFH VDX ILORVRILFH F  RULFH µVLVWHP GH LGHL¶
FXSULQGH XQ QXP U ILQLW GH SURSR]L LL úL F  vQWU

-un anumit sistem, nu
toate propo]L LLOH GLQ DOF WXLUHD OXL SRW IL GHPRQVWUDWH & FL GDF 
demonstrD LD vQVHDPQ  GHULYDUHD ORJLF FRUHFW  D XQHL FRQFOX]LL GLQ

SUHPLVH

vQ

PRG

FHUW

DGHY UDWH

DU

WUHEXL

V 

vPSLQJHP

SURFHVXO

GHPRQVWUDWLY

OD

LQILQLW

DYkQG

PHUHX

GH

VXV LQXW

SUHPLVHOH

XQXL

UD LRQDPHQW SULQ DOWH UD LRQDPHQWH úL WRW DúD vQWU R UHJUHVLXQH I U 

-

VIkUúLWFHHDFHHVWHFXQHSXWLQ

de 

'HPRQVWUD LD WUHEXLH V  vQFHDS  FX DQXPLWH ©SURSR]L LL SULPLWLYHª
GH DO F URU DGHY U VXQWHP FRQYLQúL VDX vO DFFHSW P I U  GHPRQVWUD LH

ILH F  HVWH YRUED GH FRQVWDW UL IDFWXDOH FH úL DX WHPHLXO vQ H[SHULHQ D

-

percepWLY 

LPHGLDW  µ= SDGD HVWH DOE ¶ µ$XUXO HVWH JDOEHQ¶ µ&HUXO H

VHQLQ¶ HWF  ILH F  DYHP GH D IDFH FX µHYLGHQ H¶ UD LRQDOH DO F URU WHPHL

-

HVWH DSDUHQWD  QHSXWLQ
DOWFXPYD µ'DF $ 

D JkQGLULL QRDVWUH GH D OH UHVSLQJH VDX JkQGL

>%úL%> C, atunci A > &¶VDXµ'RX 

P ULPL;úL<

ILHFDUH HJDO  FX R D WUHLD P ULPH = VXQW HJDOH vQWUH HOH¶ HWF  $OWHRUL
SURSR]L LLOHSULPLWLYHVHGDXSULQGHILQL LHµ7ULXQJKLXOHVWHSROLJRQXOFX
WUHL ODWXUL¶ µ1XPLP PDPLIHU RULFH YHUWHEUDW FDUH QDúWH SXL YLL úL

-i

KU QHúWHFXODSWH¶úDPG
ÌQ DIDU  GH DFHVWH SURSR]L LL SULPitive, acceptate ca premise
adeY UDWH I U  V  IL IRVW DUJXPHQWDWH GHPRQVWUD LD vQV úL VH FRQVWUXLHúWH
pe baza câtorva ‘reguli primitive¶DF URUDFFHSWDUHHVWHDEVROXWQHFHVDU 
pentru precizarea uQRU FRQGL LL VDX FULWHULL GH YDOLGLWDWH LQIHUHQ LDO  ÌQ
ORJLFD

WUDGL LRQDO 

VDX

FODVLF 

DX

IRVW

FRQVDFUDWH

FkWHYD

UHJXOL

fundamentale ale gândirii corecte, numite cel mai adesea principii logice. 
3ULQFLSLXOLGHQWLW

LL

ÌQFHDPDLVLPSO úLLQWXLWLY IRUPXODUHSULQFLSLXOLGHQWLW

LLFHUH

FD vQ WRDW  GHVI úXUDUHD XQHL DUJXPHQW UL WHUPHQLL úL SURSR]L LLOH
vQO Q XLWH GHPRQVWUDWLY V  QX úL PRGLILFH vQ HOHVXO úL YDORDUHD ORJLF 

-

2GDW  FH DP LQWURGXV vQ GLVFXUV SURSR]L LD µ&DSUD YHFLQXOXL H PDL JUDV 
GHFkW D PHD¶ RUL GH FkWH RUL YRP PDL YRUEL vQ FRQWLQXDUH GHVSUH µFDSU ¶
YRP vQ HOHJH SULQ DFHVW FXYkQW QXPDL DQLPDOXO QX DOWFHYD

– capra de la
-a capra’ sau

WU VXU  SH FDUH VW  YL]LWLXO FDSUD GH W LDW OHPQH MRFXO µGH

vreun nume propriu –

LDU SURSR]L LD HQXQ DW  FD DGHY UDW  R YRP

FRQVLGHUD QXPDL DGHY UDW  RUL GH FkWH RUL YRP UHYHQL DVXSUD HL
HQXQ kQG

-o din nou.
Într-R IRUPXODUH GHVWXO GH DSUR[LPDWLY 

FX VHQVXUL PDL GHJUDE 

RQWRORJLFH GHFkW VWULFW ORJLFH $ULVWRWHO GHILQHúWH LGHQWLWDWHD DVWIHO

„IdeQWLF vQ VLQH VH ]LFH GHVSUH OXFUXULOH D F

URU PDWHULH H XQD ILH FD

VSHFLHILHFDQXP UFkWúLGHVSUHDFHOHDDF URUVXEVWDQ 

HXQD'HDLFL

UHLHVHOLPSHGH F LGHQWLWDWHDHVWHXQIHOGHXQLWDWHRXQLWDWHGHH[LVWHQ
D XQHL SOXUDOLW 

L VDX DFHHD FDUH UH]XOW  GLQ FRQVLGHUDUHD PDL PXOWRU

OXFUXUL FD XQXO FD DWXQFL FkQGVSXQHP F XQ OXFUX H LGHQWLF FXVLQHFD]
vQFDUHDFHODúLOXFUXHVRFRWLWFDGRX OXFUXUL³

19

&HO FDUH D IRUPXODW FX SUHFL]LH SULQFLSLXO LGHQWLW

LL D IRVW

Leibniz. În Noi eseuri asupra intelectului omenesc, el spune: „Fiecare
OXFUX HVWH FHHD FH HVWH ùL vQ DWkWHD H[HPSOH FkWH YUH L $ HVWH $ % HVWH
%9RLILFHHDFHYRLIL$PVFULVFHHDFHDPVFULVùLQLPLFvQYHUVXULFD
úL vQ SUR]  HVWH QLPLF VDX SX LQ OXFUX 'UHSWXQJKLXO HFKLODWHUDO DFHDVW 
ILJXU  HVWH XQ GUHSWXQJKL 1RQ
XUPHD] F $HVWHQRQ

-A este non-$ 'DF 

$ HVWH QRQ

-B,

-B...“20

3ULYLW  VXSHUILFLDO IRUPXOD µ$ HVWH $¶ SULQ FDUH VH H[SULP 
SULQFLSLXO LGHQWLW
PHWDIL]LF L
D LPRELOLW

LL SDUH XQ WUXLVP WRWDO LUHOHYDQW $EVROXWL]DUHD OXL

-aFRQGXVSHHOHD LL3DUPHQLGH úL=HQRQ ODRVWUDQLHILORsofie
LL vQ FDUH GLYHUVLWDWHD úL GHYHQLUHD OXFUXULORU VXQW GRDU

DSDUHQ H vQúHO WRDUH DOH VLP XULORU vQWUXFkW )LLQ D HVWH )LLQ 

vQ FDUH QX

VH SRDWH FRQFHSH GLIHUHQ D úL WUHFHUHD GH OD R VWDUH OD DOWD DGLF  GH OD
1HILLQ 

OD )LLQ

LGHQWLW

LL vO IDFH SH $QWLVWHQH V  VXV LQ  F  QXPDL WDXWRORJLLOH VXQW 

úL LQYHUV ,DU DEVROXWL]DUHD ORJLF  D SULQFLSLXOXL

întemeiate; res de re non predicatur – nu se poate spune un lucru despre
alt lucru, nu se poate atribui unui subiect nici un predicat diferit de
DFHVWD *UHúLP GDF  VSXQHP µ2PXO HVWH EXQ¶ DYHP YRLH V  VXV LQHP
QXPDLF µRPXOHVWHRP¶úLµEXQXOHVWHEXQ¶
&D UHJXO  SH FDUH VH ED]HD]  FRQVWUXF LD XQHL GHPRQVWUD LL vQV 
SULQFLSLXOLGHQWLW

LLLPSXQHRFHULQ 

REOLJDWRULHGHFODULWDWHúLFRHUHQ

D F UHL vQF OFDUH DQXOHD]  YDOLGLWDWHD RULF UHL GHVI úXU UL DUJX

,
mentative,

GXFkQGODFRPLWHUHDXQRUVRILVPHúLSDUDORJLVPH
'LQFROR GH VHPQLILFD LD µWHKQLF ¶ D XQHL UHJXOL IRUPDOH FX

caracter tautologic, principiul ‘A este A’ SUHFL]HD] 

F  $ FDUH SRDWH IL

XQ RELHFW UHDO R QR LXQH VDX R SURSR]L LH  HVWH HO vQVXúL QHSXWkQG IL
WRWRGDW  úL DOWFHYD 3HWUH %RWH]DWX DUDW  F  ÄYHUEXO µ

este’ are în acest

FRQWH[W XQ vQ HOHV GHRVHELW QX H[SULP  QLFL SRVHVLD XQHL vQVXúLUL GH

exemplu, ‘omul este bun¶  QLFL DSDUWHQHQ D OD R FODV 

GH H[HPSOX

‘%XFXUHúWL HVWH R PHWURSRO ’), nici incluziunea subclasei într-R FODV  GH
exemplu, ‘balenele sunt mamifere¶  QLFL SXU úL VLPSOX H[LVWHQ D GH
exemplu, ‘este cald’) úL QLFL FKLDU RSHUD LD GH LGHQWLILFDUH GH H[HPSOX
‘%XFXUHúWL HVWH FDSLWDOD 5RPkQLHL’). Pare paradoxal, dar principiul
LGHQWLW

LL QX VH UHIHU  OD VLPSOD UHOD LH GH LGHQWLWDWH GLQWUH RELHFWH VDX

QR LXQLFLHQXQ 

FHYDSURIXQGSHUVLVWHQ DVXEVWDQ HLDHVHQ HLOXFUXOXL

,

GLQFROR GH YLFLVLWXGLQLOH DFFLGHQWHORU 2PXO HVWH RP úL QX DOWFHYD

obiectul indicat de termenul ‘om’ este omulúLQXDOW 

ILLQ 

VDXOXFUX³

21

1.4.2 Principiul non-FRQWUDGLF LHL
ÌQ OXPHD IHQRPHQDO  GH RELHFWH úL SURFHVH SH FDUH OH VHVL] P
HPSLULF FRQWUDGLF LD HVWH DQWDJRQLVPXO GLQWUH DQXPLWH HQWLW
HQHUJLL VDX SURSULHW

L IRU H

L FDUH VH H[FOXG vQWUH HOH RUL WLQG V  VH DQLKLOH]H

UHFLSURF/DQLYHOXOXQHLIRORVLULHOHPHQWDUHDOLPEDMXOXLúLDJkQGLULLSDU

neînGRLHOQLFH RSR]L LL WUDQúDQWH DEVROXWH GH JHQXO GDF 

µ

X este alb’ nu

SRDWHILWRWRGDW úLQHJUXYHUGHDOEDVWUXHWFGDF µ%UDúRYXOHVWHODQRUG
GH%XFXUHúWL¶DWXQFLQXVHSRDWHDGPLWHvQDFHODúLWLPSF RUDúXOGHVXE
7kPSDHVWHúLODVXGGHFDSLWDOD5RPkQLHLúDPG
/D R SULYLUH PDL DWHQW  VH FRQVWDW  F 

în realitate HVWH SRVLELO 

FKLDUQHFHVDU FkWHRGDW FRH[LVWHQ DvQDFHHDúLHQWLWDWHDXQRUSURFHVHúL
UHOD LLFRQWUDGLFWRULL RULFHQXDQ 

GH JULHVWHXQDPHVWHFGHDOEúLQHJUX

PHWDEROLVPXO HVWH RSR]L LD GLQDPLF  GLQWUH DVLPLOD LH úL GH]DVLPLOD LH
YLD D SVLKLF  HVWH SULQWUH DOWHOH R HFKLOLEUDUH SHUPDQHQW  vQWUH H[FLWD LH
úL LQKLEL LH vQ RULFH PDJQHW FRH[LVW  vQ PRG QHFHVDU SROXO QRUG úL SROXO
VXG HWF ÌQ ILORVRILH JkQGLUHD GLDOHFWLF 

– vQFHSXW  GH +HUDFOLW Socrate
mentalul sistem hegelian

VDX 3ODWRQvQ$QWLFKLWDWHúLvQFXQXQDW GHPRQX

– IDFH GLQ QDWXUD FRQWUDGLFWRULH D RULF

UXL OXFUX VDX SURFHV XQ SULQFLSLX

IXQGDPHQWDO SULQ FDUH VH H[SOLF  SHUPDQHQWD SUHIDFHUH úL GHYHQLUH D

lumii reale.
În domeniul ideal

SH FDUH vO VWXGLD]  ORJLFD FRQWUDGLF LD HVWH XQ

UDSRUW vQWUH GRX  SURSR]L LL GLQWUH FDUH XQD DILUP  FHHD FH RSXVD HL
FRQWUDGLFWRULH QHDJ  3URSR]L LD µ2PXO HVWH R ILLQ
DU WUHEXL V  IDFHP XQ SRVWXODW DO ORJLFLL 

UD LRQDO ¶

– HVWH FRQWUD]LV

– din care 

GH SURSR]L LD

FRQIRUP F UHLD µ2PXO QX HVWH R ILLQ 

UD LRQDO ¶ FHHD FH GLQ S FDWH VH

DGHYHUHúWHPXOWPDLGHVGHFkWQHSODFHV RUHFXQRDúWHP

Principiul logic al non-FRQWUDGLF LHL VDX DO FRQWUDGLF LHL H[FOXVH
arecare nu poate fi decât

VH ED]HD]  SH SUHVXSR]L LD F  R SURSR]L LH R

DGHY UDW  VDX IDOV  úL VXV LQH F  QX SXWHP DGPLWH F  XQD úL DFHHDúL
SURSR]L LH HVWH vQ DFHODúL WLPS úL SULYLW  vQ DFHODúL FRQWH[W WRWRGDW 
DGHY UDW  úL IDOV  &X DOWH FXYLQWH R DILUPD LH úL QHJD LD HL QX SRW IL
DGHY UDWH

vQ

funGDPHQWDO

DFHODúL

IRUPXOD

FDUH

H[SULP 

DFHDVW 

UHJXO 

-A’.

$ULVWRWHO HQXQ
SXWLQ

WLPS 

DORJLFLLILLQGµ(VWHH[FOXV$úLQRQ 

SULQFLSLXO QRQ FRQWUDGLF LHL DVWIHO ÄHVWH SHVWH

- 

FDXQXLDúLDFHOXLDúLVXELHFWV LVHSRWULYHDVF úLWRWRGDW V QXL

se potriYHDVF 

VXE DFHODúL UDSRUW XQXO úL DFHODúL SUHGLFDW >@ $FHVW

SULQFLSLX PDL VSXQH $ULVWRWHO H FHO PDL VLJXU GLQ WRDWH F FL  H SHVWH
SXWLQ 

FD XQ RP V

-úL SRDW 

vQFKLSXL F  XQXO úL DFHODúL OXFUX HVWH úL

22

WRWRGDW  QX HVWH³

ea cRQWUDGLF LHL SULQFLSLXO
funGDPHQWDO DO ORJLFLL $ULVWRWHO vL DFRUG  vQ PRG H[SOLFLW R HYLGHQ 
axioPDWLF  precizând F  OHJHD QRQ-FRQWUDGLF LHL QX SRDWH IL GHGXV 
dintr-R DOW  OHJH PDL JHQHUDO  &HO PXOW DILUP  HO DFHVW SULQFLSLX VH
poate sus- LQHSULQtr-RGHPRQVWUD LHLQGLUHFW VDXSULQPHWRGDUHGXFHULLOD
absurd.
/HLEQL]

FRQVLGHUkQG

F  

) FkQG GLQ UHVSLQJHU

SDUH

FkWHRGDW 

SULQFLSLXO

V 

DFRUGH

QRQ FRQWUDGLF LHL

-

SULRULWDWH

HVWH

IRUPD

LGHQWLW

LL

QHJDWLY 

D

DFHVWXLD R GDW  FH XQ OXFUX HVWH FHHD FH HVWH úL DúD FXP HVWH vQWU

-o

SURSR]L LH  HO QX SRDWH IL WRWRGDW  úL FHHD FH QX HVWH úL DOWIHO GHFkW HVWH

(cum s-DUHQXQ DvQQHJD LDSULPHLSURSR]L LL 
&HUW HVWHF  SULQFLSLXOQRQ-FRQWUDGLF LHLDUHRHYLGHQ 

VSRQWDQ 

FKLDU úL OD QLYHOXO VLP XOXL FRPXQ 1LPHQL QX DUH QHYRLH GH X

n studiu
sistematic al logicii teoretice pentru a-úL GD LQWXLWLY VHDPDGH IDSWXOF R

GHPRQVWUD LHVDXXQGLVFXUVvQFDUHVHVXV LQSURSR]L LLFRQWUDGLFWRULLVXQW

incorecte, iar concluziile lor inacceptabile. Cu atât mai mult în elaborarea
unor sisteme formale, logico-matematice, excluderea contraGLF LHL VH
LPSXQH FD R SULP  úL HOHPHQWDU  FHULQ
DUJXPHQWD

FRUHFW

5HVSHFWDUHD

FX

consecveQ DORJLF

vQVHDPQ 

VWULFWH H

D

vQ

SULPXO 

F FL D GHPRQVWUD VDX D
UkQG

SULQFLSLXOXL 

DGHPRQVWUD LHL

D

QX

WH

FRQWUD]LFH

QRQ FRQWUDGLF LHL

-

DVLJXU 

1.3ULQFLSLXOWHU XOXLH[FOXV
3ULQFLSLXO WHU XOXL H[FOXV QX DUH R HYLGHQ 

D[LRPDWLF  DúD FXP

SDUH V  ILH FD]XO QRQ FRQWUDGLF LHL HO HVWH PDL GHJUDE  XQ SRVWXODW vQ

-

VHQVXO FODVLF HXFOLGLDQ  FDUH GHFUHWHD] 
FkWXúLGHSX LQHYLGHQW

–F

– I

U  GHPRQVWUD LH GHúL QX H 

QXH[LVW GHFkWGRX YDORULORJLFHµDGHY UDW¶

úLµIDOV¶$OWIHOVSXVRULFHSURSR]L LHHVWHVDXDGHY UDW VDXIDOV DWUHLD
SRVLELOLWDWHILLQGH[FOXV 

– tertium non datur.
În vreme ce principiul non-contraGLF LHLVXV LQHF SURSR]L LLOH$
úLQHJD LDHLQRQ-A nu pot fivQDFHODúLWLPSúLVXEDFHODúLUDSRUW ambele
DGHY UDWH XQD GLQ HOH WUHEXLQG V  ILH IDOV  – SULQFLSLXO WHU XOXL H[FOXV
VXV LQH F  GRX  SURSR]L LL FRQWUDGLFWRULL $ úL QRQ-A nu pot fi ambele
falseXQDGLQWUHHOHLQGLIHUHQWFDUHWUHEXLHvQRULFHFD]V ILHDGHY UDW 
În Despre interpretare –XQDGLQWUHOXFU ULOHFHLQWU vQDOF WXLUHD
operei logice a lui AristotelLQWLWXODW GHFRQWLQXDWRULLúLFRPHQWDWRULLV L
Organon – sH VSXQH ÄRULFH DILUPD LH VDX QHJD LH HVWH DGHY UDW  VDX
23

IDOV ³ 

$ULVWRWHO QX DFRUG  vQV  WHU XOXL H[FOXV YDORDUHD XQXL SULQFLSLX

ORJLF OD IHO GH VWULQJHQW FD úL QRQ FRQWUDGLF LD FRQVLGHUkQG F  DSOLFDUHD

regulii tertium non datur HVWH XWLO 

QXPDL vQ GHPRQVWUD LD LQGLUHFW 

Ä3ULQFLSLXO F  XQ SUHGLFDW WUHEXLH V  ILH RUL DILUPDW RUL QHJDW GHVSUH XQ
VXELHFW HVWH FHUXW GH GHPRQVWUD LD FDUH XWLOL]HD]  UHGXFHUHD ODLPSR

sibil,

GDUúLDWXQFLQXWRWGHDXQDXQLYHUVDO³

24

/D UkQGXO V X /HLEQL] FRQVLGHU  WHU XO H[FOXV PDL GHJUDE  R

completare sau un corolar al non-FRQWUDGLF LHL DWXQFL FkQG VFULH
„Principiul non-FRQWUDGLF LHL HVWH DFHOD F  vQ JHQHUDO R SURSR]L LH HVWH
VDX DGHY
F  DGHY

UDW 

VDX IDOV 

FHHD FH FRQ LQH GRX  HQXQ XUL DGHY UDWH XQXO

UXO úL IDOVXO QX VXQW FRPSDWLELOH vQ DFHHDúL SURSR]L LH VDX F  R

SURSR]L LHQXDUSXWHDV ILHDGHY UDW úLIDOV vQDFHODúLWLPSFHO ODOWF 
RSXVXOVDXQHJD LDDGHY UDWXOXLúLIDOVXOXLQXVXQWFRPSDWLELOHVDXF QX
H[LVW PLMORFLXvQWUHDGHY UDWúLIDOVVDXF 
QXILHQLFLDGHY

UDW 

QLFLIDOV

nXVHSRDWHFDRSURSR]L LHV 

“.25

3ULQFLSLXO WHU XOXL H[FOXV HVWH PDL VODE GHFkW QRQ FRQWUDGLF LD

-

DYkQG R JHQHUDOLWDWH PDL UHVWUkQV  3ULQFLSLXO QRQ FRQWUDGLF LHL FHUH FD

-

SUHGLFDWHOH V  VH H[FOXG  XQXO SH DOWXO GDU QX OLPLWHD]  QXP UXO ORU

'DF  XQ FRUS HVWH DOE DWXQFL HO QX SRDWH IL YHUGH JDOEHQ URúX DO

bastru

HWF GDF  XQ PDPLIHU HVWH FDO DWXQFL HO QX SRDWH IL vQ DFHODúL WLPS OXS
XUV JLUDI  F PLO  HWF 'LPSRWULY  SULQFLSLXO WHU XOXL H[FOXV LQWURGXFH R
FRQGL LH VXSOLPHQWDU  vQWUXFkW UHVWUkQJH QXP UXO SUHGL
GRX 

– tertium non daturµ8QQXP

catelor la numai

UQDWXUDOHVWHSDUVDXLPSDU¶µ3LHVHOH

MRFXOXLGHúDKSRWILDOEHVDXQHJUH¶HWF
/RJLFDWUDGL LRQDO V DFRQVWUXLW VSRQWDQ SHSULQFLSLXOELYDOHQ HL

-

potriviW F

UXLD SURSR]L LLOH QX SRW DYHD GHFkW XQD VDX DOWD GLQWUH GRX  úL

QXPDLGRX YDORULORJLFHµDGHY UDW¶úLµIDOV¶

–FRQGL LHFDUHIDFHSRVLELO 

UHJXOD WHU XOXL H[FOXV 2U GH PXOWH RUL QH DIO P vQ ID D XQRU SURSR]L LL
F URUD QX OH SXWHP DWULEXL FX FHUWLWXGLQH QXPDL XQD GLQ FHOH GRX  YDORUL
ORJLFH GLQ YDULLPRWLYHSHFDUHQXOHGHWDOLHP DLFL µ$GDP HUDEUXQHWúL
(YDURúFDW ¶µ5RúXHVWHRFXORDUHPDLFDOG GHFkWSRUWRFDOLX¶µÌQFk LYD

ani, cel mult, se va produce un mare cutremur’; ‘Universul este infinit în
VSD LX úL WLPS QHFUHDW úL LQGHVWUXFWLELO¶HWFVXQWGRDUFkWHYDH[HPSOH GH
SURSR]L LL F URUD QX OL VH SRDWH DWULEXL FX FHUWLWXGLQH YDORDUHD ORJLF 
µDGHY UDW¶VDXµIDOV¶SXWHPVSXQHGHVSUHHOHFHOPXOWF VXQWSODX]LELOH

probabile, inteligibile, FUHGLELOH ú D P G /RJLFD PRGHUQ  D HODERUDW
sisteme polivalente, cu n YDORUL ORJLFH vQ FDUH SULQFLSLXO WHU XOXL H[FOXV
VH DSOLF  HYHQWXDO vQ IRUPH JHQHUDOL]DWH úL QHLQWXLWLYH GHPRQVWUDELOH úL

inteligibile numai formal.
Marea utilitate a principiulXL WHU XOXL H[FOXV FRQVW 

GXS  FXP

REVHUY $ULVWRWHOvQIDSWXOF IDFHSRVLELO GHPRQVWUD LDSULQUHGXFHUHOD
DEVXUG ÌQWUXFkW GRX  SURSR]L LL FRQWUDGLFWRULL QX SRW IL DPEHOH IDOVH
UH]XOW  F  SUREkQG IDOVLWDWHD SURSR]L LHL FDUH QHDJ  WH]D GH GHPRQVWUDW
úL SH FDUH QX R SXWHP DUJXPHQWD GLUHFW

– DP GRYHGLW WRWRGDW

– 

F  WH]D

HVWHDGHY UDW  

3ULQFLSLXOUD LXQLLVXILFLHQWH
)RUPXODW GH F WUH /HLEQL] FD SLDWU  XQJKLXODU  D ILORVRILHL VDOH
SULQFLSLXO UD LXQLL VXILFLHQWH QX HVWH SURSULX ]LV R UHJXO  IRUPDO  GH

-

FRQVWUXF LH D LQIHUHQ HORU GHGXFWLYH FRUHFWH FL PDL GHJUDE  R UHJXO 
PHWRGRORJLF GHILQLWRULHSHQWUXVSLULWXOúWLLQ LILF

/HLEQL] DUH QHYRLH GH HQXQ DUHD DFHVWXL SULQFLSLX GLQ PRPHQWXO

în care a sesizat deosebirea – PHQ LRQDW 

DQWHULRU

– întrH DGHY

UXULOH GH

UD LRQDPHQW DQDOLWLFH QHFHVDUH úL ULJXURV GHPRQVWUDELOH GHGXFWLY  úL
DGHY UXULOH GH IDSW FRQWLQJHQWH úL vQWHPHLDWH HPSLULF  $GHY UXULOH
UD LRQDOH VH vQWHPHLD]  SH FHOH WUHL SULQF

ipii anterioare, între care
fundamental este principiul non-FRQWUDGLF LHL vQ YUHPH FH DGHY UXULOH
IDFWXDOHvúLDXWHPHLXOvQDFHVWDOSDWUXOHDSULQFLSLXDOUD LXQLLVXILciente.
Ä5D LRQDPHQWHOHQRDVWUHVSXQH/HLEQL]vQ Monadologie, sunt întemeiate
pe GRX  PDUL SULQFLSLL SULQFLSLXO FRQWUDGLF LHL, în virtutea F UXLD
socotim fals WRW FH FXSULQGH vQ VLQH R FRQWUDGLF LH úL DGHY UDW ceea ce
HVWH RSXV IDOVXOXL DGLF  vQ FRQWUDGLF LH FX DFHVWD úL SULQFLSLXO UD LXQLL

suficiente vQ YLUWXWHD F

UXLD FRQVLGHU P F  QLFL XQ IDSW QX SRDWH IL

DGHY UDW VDX UHDO QLFL R SURSR]L LH YHULGLF  I U  V  H[LVWH XQ WHPHL R
UD LXQH VXILFLHQW  SHQWUX FDUH OXFUXULOH VXQW DúD úL QX DOWIHO GHúL

temeiurile acestea de cele mai multe ori nu ne pot fi cunoscute“.26
ÌQFRQFHS LDOXL/HLEQL]SULQFLSLXOUD LXQLLVXILFLHQWHHVWHVROLGDU

cu o YL]LXQHPHWDIL]LF 

FHSRVWXOHD] FRQH[LXQHDXQLYHUVDO WRDWHS U LOH

FH DOF WXLHVF 8QLYHUVXO RULFkW GH PLFL

– PHUJkQG SkQ 

OD IDL

moasele

PRQDGH µDWRPLL SVLKLFL¶ FH UHSUH]LQW  VWUDWXO XOWLP HOHPHQWDU vQ

arhitectonica lumii –VHLQWHUFRUHOHD] 

vQWU

-o ‘DUPRQLHSUHVWDELOLW

¶DVWIHO

vQFkW ILHFDUH PRQDG  RJOLQGHúWH WRDWH VFKLPE ULOH GLQ 8QLYHUV úL ILHFH
PRGLILFDUHvQO XQWUXOXQHLPRQDGHVHU VIUkQJHvQWRDWHFHOHODOWH)LHFDUH
HQXQ  WUHEXLH DFFHSWDW QXPDL SH ED]D XQRU WHPHLXUL vQWUXFkW ILHFDUH

eveniment în sfera realului se produce în virtutea unei cauze – pe care
/HLEQL] R H[SOLF  vQWU-R PDQLHU  PHWDIL]LF  FX WRWXO DSDUWH GH FDUH
XOWHULRUVSLULWXOúWLLQ LILFV-DSXWXWGLVSHQVDFXGHVWXO XúXULQ 
'HYHQLQG R UHJXO  GH ED]  vQ PHWRGRORJLD úWLLQ LILF  principiul
UD LXQLL VXILFLHQWH UHVSLQJH vQ HJDO  P VXU  dogmatismul – acceptarea
QHFRQGL LRQDW DXQRUµHYLGHQ H¶VDXµUHYHOD LL¶FHQXPDLH[SULP I U V 
DUJXPHQWH]H

QLúWH

scepticismul –

SUHWLQVH

DGHY UXUL

DEVROXWH

LQIDLOLELOH

FkW

úL

FDUH SRVWXOHD]  LQFDSDFLWDWHD LUHPHGLDELO  D PLQ LL

RPHQHúWL GH D DYHD YUHR FHUWLWXGLQH vQWHPHLDW  3ULQFLSLXO UD LXQLL
VXILFLHQWH QH FHUH V  UHVSLQJHP DILUPD LLOH QHVXV LQXWH GH QLFL XQ
DUJXPHQW UHOHYDQW GDU QH vQFXUDMHD]  V  QX QH vQGRLP OD QHVIkUúLW GH
DFHOH HQXQ XUL FDUH VXQW vQWHPHLDWH SH DQXPLWH GRYH]L úL SUREH

suficient

GH WDUL SHQWUX D QH IXQGDPHQWD FRQYLQJHUHD F  VXQWHP QX QXPDL
VXELHFWLYvQSRVHVLDXQRUDGHY UXULQHvQGRLHOQLFH
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