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The Golden Ratio

Advisor: Jack Heidel
Jessica Stein
Abstract: This report will discuss the many appearances of the Golden Ratio (also
represented as Phi in nature and in the arts and its association with !eauty" The Golden
Ratio is not #ust a num!er !ecause of its ama$in% characteristics and its ama$in% a!ility to
fascinate humankind throu%hout the centuries !ecause of its u!i&uity" 't is an entire
su!#ect in itself !ecause it is so comple( and yet it is so !eautifully simple" The
)i!onacci *um!er Se&uence often occurs in nature and that fact that this series conver%es
to the Golden Ratio is nothin% !ut incredi!le" The Golden Ratio is often associated with
!eauty !ut it has !een ar%ued that the connection !etween the Golden Ratio and !eauty is
va%ue" An attempt will !e made to connect the mathematical information and the
intuitive nature of Phi"
The Golden Ratio
An 'ntroduction
The Golden Ratio is not #ust a num!er !ecause of its ama$in% characteristics and
its ama$in% a!ility to fascinate many civili$ations throu%hout the centuries" 't is an entire
su!#ect in itself !ecause the Golden Ratio is so comple( and yet it is so !eautifully
simple" Represented as + this num!er has captured my attention in the infancy of my
mathematical #ourney and the Golden Ratio has inspired me to continue in this study" '
am not a math person or a science person !y any means !ut ' feel a deep connection with
this num!er like many others throu%hout history" The si%nificance of Phi has captured
the attention of many intellects over the span of time includin% ,uclid- .eonardo /a
0inci- and Johannes 1epler" 'nterestin%ly 2"3245 is associated with !eauty and
ironically this num!er seemin%ly appears almost everywhere in nature and in the arts"
Mathematical Properties of the Golden Ratio
The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World’s most astonishing Number
6ario .ivio
7hat is the Golden Ratio8 ,uclid of Ale(andria contri!uted %reatly to the
discovery of the Golden Ratio as he descri!es it in his own words" 9A strai%ht line is said
to have !een cut in e(treme and mean ratio when- as the whole line is to the %reater
se%ment- so is the %reater to the lesser: (.ivio ;" <onsider the line A= intersected at <"
7hat can !e concluded is that A= is to A< as A< is to <= or A<><= ? A=>A<" 'f the
len%th of the line A= is e&ual to Phi then A< will e&ual one and <= will e&ual Phi minus
one as shown !elow"
2 +A2
Then rearran%in% thin%s a !it: if A< is called ( and <= is called one and !ecause A= is to
A< as A< is to <= the proportionality !ecomes (>2?2>((A2" The proportionality then
yields the &uadratic e&uation (BA(A2?C and when the positive solution is determined it is
found that ( ? (2D EF>G which is the Golden Ratio"
( 2
The Golden Ratio can !e defined as a continued fraction that will infinitely !reak
down almost like a fractal" 6ario .ivio descri!es the nature of a fractal as- 9endless
se&uences of motifs repeatin% themselves within motifs- on many scales: (.ivio G2F"
An e(ample of this special case of a continuin% fraction let Phi e&ual H2D2>(2D25I"
Then the section (2D2 will !reak down to H2D2>(2D25I and the result !ecomes 2DH2>
(2D2>H2D25II and the process will continue to repeat !reakin% (2D2 down and the ne(t
result is (2DH2>(2D2>H2D2>(2D25II" As this procedure pro%resses the fraction !ecomes
Phi? 2DH2>(2DH2>(2DH2>(2D(2>H2D5III" An interestin% find is that when this happens
the evaluated fraction will eventually !ecome Phi when it is !roken down an infinite
amount of times" ,ach time the fraction !reaks down the evaluated fraction will osculate
and a more accurate form of the Golden Ratio will appear as shown"
2D2>(2D2>(2D2 ? 2"33333333J
2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2 ?2"3CCCCCCCC
2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2 ?2"3GFCCCCCCC
2D2>(2D2>(2D>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2 ? 2"32F;4K32FK
2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2 ? 2"32LCKJ32LC
2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D(2>(2D2 ? 2"32J3KJCF44
2D2>(2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D2>(2D(2>(2D(2>(2D2 ? 2"324242424G
The Golden Ratio as a continued fraction !rin%s up an interestin% point" How can
the Golden Ratio !e achieved usin% a similar concept8 't has !een discovered that the
Golden Ratio and the )i!onacci *um!er Se&uence are very much related" The )i!onacci
*um!er Se&uence is computed as )
? )
D )
which %enerates the se&uence
2- 2- G- ;- F- 4- 2;- G2- ;K- FF- 4L- 2KK- G;;- ;JJ- 32C- L4J5 The )i!onacci *um!er
Se&uence is affiliated with many natural occurrences includin% the !reedin% of ra!!its-
the optics of li%ht rays- and the arran%ements of the %rowth of leaves (.ivio LJA2CL" The
limit as n approaches infinity of consecutive ratios of The )i!onacci *um!er Se&uence
conver%es e(actly to the Golden Ratio as shown H+ ?.im
A2I" *otice that
the evaluated ratios of consecutive )i!onacci *um!ers are e(actly the same as that of the
continued fraction demonstrated earlier"

2>2 ? 2"CCCCCC
;>G ? 2"FCCCCC
F>; ? 2"333333
4>F ? 2"3CCCCC
2;>4 ? 2"3GFCC
G2>2; ?2"32F;4F
;K>G2 ? 2"32LCK4
FF>;K ? 2"32J3KJ
4L>FF ? 2"32424G
2KK>4L ? 2"32JLJ4
G;;>2KK ? 2"324CF3
;JJ>G;; ? 2"324CG3
32C>;JJ ? 2"324C;J
L4J>32C ? 2"324C;; (.ivio 2C2
After the line A= is divided into two parts accordin% to the Golden Ratio then a
second dimension can !e added which results in a Golden Rectan%le" The Golden
Rectan%le is nothin% short of impressive" To %eometrically construct the Golden
Rectan%le let the width of the rectan%le e&ual one and the len%th e&ual to the Golden
Ratio" This rectan%le can !e cut accordin% to the Golden Ratio as demonstrated earlier in
the line A=" 'f the len%th of the rectan%le is e&ual to Phi then it can !e cut precisely at
one" As a result two sections remain" One section is a s&uare with sides of len%th one
and ama$in%ly enou%h the other section is in fact another Golden Rectan%le"

The proportionality remains the same even thou%h it is a smaller Golden Rectan%le" 'f
the smaller rectan%le is taken and reset with the len%th e&ual to Phi then the width will !e
e&ual to one" 'f the process of splittin% Golden Rectan%les can happen once why then it
mi%ht as well !e that the process can happen an infinite num!er of times" The fact is that
the Golden Rectan%le has very remarka!le characteristics !ecause of its infinite nature
and this can !e done" As a result of splittin% an infinite amount of Golden Rectan%les the
%eometric structure will !e as shown" These rectan%les can !e infinitely lar%e as well as
infinitely small"
Psin% the same %eometric structure of the splittin% of Golden Rectan%les another
concept evolves" A Golden Spiral can !e derived from the Golden Rectan%les" Also
known as a lo%arithmic spiral its shape remains constant as it %ets infinitely lar%e and
infinitely small #ust like the Golden Rectan%les" 'ts de!ut in nature is completely
!reathtakin%" 9*ature loves lo%arithmic spirals" )rom sunflowers- seashells- and
whirlpools- to hurricanes and %iant spiral %ala(ies-: (.ivio 22J" Here is how it works as
descri!ed !y astrophysicist 6ario .ivio- 9'f you connect the successive points where
these 9whirlin% s&uares: divide the sides in Golden Ratios- you o!tain a lo%arithmic
spiral that coils inward toward a pole: (22L"
*otice that the spiral occurs in the s&uares only and travels from one corner to the
opposite corner and enters the ne(t s&uare at the point of intersection at where the Golden
Rectan%le is cut into two parts that correspond to the Golden Ratio"
To think that the Golden Rectan%le is the only %eometric composition would !e
thinkin% inside the !o(" An isosceles trian%le can !e derived from the ori%inal line A=
intersected at < to construct this trian%le" .et the two sides of identical len%th e&ual one
as A< is e&ual to one and let the third side e&ual +A2 as <= is e&ual to one" This creates
a trian%le with the smaller an%le e&ual to ;3 de%rees and the two an%les that are e&ual to
each other then !ecome JG de%rees"
The Golden Trian%le is associated with a symmetrical penta%ram" This shape had divine
meanin% to the ancient Greeks" 9The construction of the penta%ram was the main reason
for the Greek interest in the Golden Ratio: (.ivio JL" 'f the Golden Trian%le is inserted
in the penta%ram it would !e e(actly proportional" One of the five sides of the penta%ram
is taken and would e&ual the len%th of the !ase of the Golden Trian%le which is +A2" The
distance from of the points at the !ase of the Golden Trian%le to the point that is opposite
to the !ase is e&ual to one" Addin% the distances of the !ase of the trian%le and the len%th
of one of the e&ual sides is Phi" 'f the len%th of the !ase of the trian%le and the len%th of
one of the identical sides is strai%htened into a line then the result is the ori%inal line A=
intersected at < accordin% to the Golden Ratio"
The Golden Ratio in Science and Nature
6ost artistic and creative people see incredi!le !eauty nature" This does not
assume that the less artistic people are !lind to this !eauty" The fact that science and
math are there amon%st nature and !eauty is truly fascinatin%" One could ar%ue that
!eauty is merely su!#ective !ut some thin%s are #ust universally !eautiful where the
opinion of !eauty !ecomes insi%nificant" )or centuries many intellectuals have
discovered that this natural !eauty is connected to the Golden Ratio" The Golden Ratio is
a natural phenomena that appears in such thin%s ran%in% from the structure of a little
nautilus shell to %iant %ala(ies" =ecause of the numerous and sometimes surprisin%
appearances of the Golden Ratio in nature it is easy to develop a deeper appreciation for
this ama$in% num!er" 6any scientific #ournals can !e found referrin% to the occurrences
of the Golden Ratio in nature and are nothin% !ut astonishin%" Such articles include
topics concernin% the occurrence of the Golden Ratio in special relativity- &uasicrystals-
atomic and ionic !ond len%ths- and the list vastly continues" Surely anyone with such a
!ack%round would appreciate these articles" 6ore information on these articles can !e
found on the works cited pa%e"
The &uestion is why does the Golden Ratio appear so u!i&uitously in nature8 's it
all coincidence or is it somethin% else8 These are &uestions that one can only attempt to
answer !ut the fact that the Golden Ratio remains present in nature is a proven fact" One
could continue to ponder the laws of mathematics and its application to the Golden Ratio"
6any have done so and discovered the uni&ue mathematical &ualities of Phi" That
knowled%e e(isted even in the ancient days and it continues to !e most valua!le to this
day" Al!ert ,instein mentions the nature of mathematics itself" He said- 9As far as the
laws of mathematics refer to reality- they are not certain- and as far as they are certain-
they do not refer to reality": The reality is that a complete reason to the natural
phenomena of the Golden Ratio mi%ht always remain a mystery !ut it never hurts to
The Golden Ratio in Dance
Entertaining with Science, Educating with ance
Jennifer =ur%- 7ake )orest Pniversity
1arola .uttrin%haus- Al!an ,lved /ance <ompany
An article titled Entertaining with Science, Educating with ance attempts to
!rid%e the seemin%ly the opposite su!#ects of math and art" This article tells of a %roup of
scientists from 7ake )orest Pniversity and the Al!an ,lved /ance <ompany" They
worked to%ether to create somethin% that would mer%e these very different su!#ects" The
scientists developed a fancy computer system for lack of !etter words that could make
this possi!le" The choreo%raphy of the performance called 9)i!onacci and Phi: was
specifically desi%ned to relate to the Golden Ratio" This was done !y a series of fractals
which appeared as animation pro#ected on a very lar%e screen !ehind the dancers as they
performed" These fractals relate directly to the Golden Ratio as seen in the article" The
movements of the dancers coincided with the fractals so it is as they were performin% as
't takes e(treme endurance to put on such a performance" To dance well it takes
years of practice- commitment- and a certain focus !ecause these movements are so
deeply involved" The trainin% is very intense to say the least" Then to chan%e it up a !it
the fractal animation is added and the skill re&uired to pull that off is incredi!le" 'tQs
difficult to write a!out a performance that ' have never seen !efore !ut one can only
ima%ine" The idea to twist science and dance in this way and includin% the Golden Ratio
is a very creative idea !ecause !oth the scientists and artists are a!le to learn a!out each
other" This is important !ecause sometimes these fields can seem so alienated from each
The Golden Ratio in Art
Art is a fascinatin% su!#ect !ecause one can only speculate what the artist is tryin%
to say especially if no description of the piece survives throu%h out history" Throu%h the
span of time the Golden Ratio has made its appearance known in these compositions"
Artists are very aware of the Golden Ratio as evidence to its numerous appearances in art
whether they reali$e it or not"
A few famous masterworks include: !athers !y Seurat- St "erome !y .eonardo
/a 0inci- The #ona $isa !y .eonardo /a 0inci- and self%&ortrait !y Rem!randt" 't has
!een speculated whether or not the e(istence of the Golden Ratio in countless works of
art were done so with a conscious attempt !y the artist" 'n other words was it done on
purpose8 =ecause many ori%inal documents !y /a 0inci have survived a!out his interest
in the Golden Ratio it can !e easily concluded that he was aware of these proportions"
7ith other artists the connection !etween the Golden Ratio and their art work is a
mystery" =ecause of the accuracy and precise proportion of the Golden Ratio in these
works- it is difficult to say one way or another" 'n many cases the artists pro!a!ly did not
use the proportions of the Golden Ratio on purpose"
How is it possi!le that these artists can create a piece without reali$in% that they
are in fact usin% the Golden RatioQs proportions8 't is sort of a parado( in its own ri%ht"
Professor =ryce Speed from the Pniversity of *e!raskaAOmahaQs art department
descri!ed this parado(:
Artists have an innate stron% visual aptitude for desi%n and harmony" Some artists
are always strivin% for harmony and !alance and a way to or%ani$e their
compositions" These choices are successful of not successful !ased on their a!ility
to sustain the viewer" 7hile an artist may not !e aware that they are usin% the
%olden section- they possess some a!ility to compose their canvases in a
harmonious way to where most %ood desi%ns can somehow take on the
proportions of the %olden mean" 6ost masterworks can !e !roken down accordin%
to this"
Others call it pure intuition" 7hen somethin% in a composition is not !alanced it is
o!vious to the artist when others mi%ht not even notice" This intuition is a feelin% or even
an instinct" Any result of attemptin% to descri!e an artistQs intuition would !e horri!ly
va%ue" To descri!e intuition would result in a sacrifice to oneQs academic credi!ility"
However sometimes there is a need to attempt to descri!e this" The Golden Ratio has a
certain !alance that appeals to artists !ecause it is in fact !eautiful" 'n art !alance e&uals
!eauty in most cases and this is how artists connect the Golden Ratio with !eauty" Some
could say that it is #ust pure coincidence that the !eautiful ratios used in art are in fact the
Golden Ratio even if the Golden Ratio was used on purpose or not" On the contrary the
Golden Ratio appears too often to call it #ust pure coincidence" 'n !oth cases more
research could !e done to determine if the appearance of the Golden Ratio in art is #ust a
red herrin% or if it does have a deeper meanin% !ut when dealin% with the intuition of an
artist this task could prove very difficult"
The Golden Ratio in Music
6usic itself has a very mathematical !ack%round that has !een around since the
ancient days and still it is implemented today"
,very strin% &uartet and symphony orchestra today still uses Pytha%orasQ
discovery of wholeAnum!er relationships amon% the different musical tones"
)urthermore- in the ancient Greek curriculum and up to medieval times- music
was considered a part of mathematics- and musicians concentrated their efforts on
the understandin% of the mathematical !asis of tones (.ivio 24;"
Pytha%oras noticed that 95the musical intervals and the pitch of the note correspond to
the relative len%ths of vi!ratin% strin%s" He o!served that dividin% a strin% !y
consecutive inte%ers yields (up to a point harmonious and pleasin% intervals": (.ivio G4"
'nterestin%ly there are only certain com!inations of these len%ths that are pleasin% to the
ear" Such ratios include 2:2- 2:G- G:;- ;:K- etc (.ivio GL" )indin% the harmonic
pro%ressions in the notes of a musical scale was a hu%e discovery in music" 't could !e in
fact one of the %reatest finds in music throu%hout history" Pytha%orasQ discovery of the
relationship of musical tones set the sta%e for the all of the music that was to come"
The speculation of the Golden Ratio appearin% in music is &uite natural !ecause
there is a stron% relationship !etween mathematics and music (.ivio 24K" .ivio e(plains
in detail how this works" The ma#or si(th and minor si(th are said to !e the most
aesthetically pleasin% of all musical intervals (24F" ,ach note has its own fre&uency that
identifies a particular pitch" The note A vi!rates at KKC vi!rations per second and the
note < vi!rates G3K vi!rations per second" A ma#or si(th is produced when these notes
are com!ined to%ether" 'nterestin%ly the ratio of these fre&uencies is KKC>G3K with
!ecomes F>;" The same occurs with a minor si(th with Hi%h < that vi!rates at FG4
vi!rations per second and , that vi!rates at ;;C vi!rations per second" The ratio of these
fre&uencies !ecomes FG4>;;C and this results in a ratio of )i!onacci num!ers when
reduced to F>;" Althou%h it is said that these are the most pleasin% intervals it is still
&uite va%ue" Still the value is not diminished !ecause it is a little unclear (243"

The Golden Ratio is said to appear in music !ut patterns in music are more su!tle
as e(plained !y Roy Howat in the article 9/e!ussy- Ravel- and =artok: Towards Some
*ew <oncepts of )orm": 9Of all traditional compositional techni&ues5'n paintin% and
architecture this facet of the craft is self evident to a far %reater de%ree- workin% as it does
in spatial dimensionsR in music it is less o!vious- since there it must operate in temporal
terms": Professor Sever Tipei- 6ana%er of <omputer 6usic Pro#ect of the Pniversity of
'llinois ,(perimental 6usic Studios responded to a student who in&uired a!out the
Golden Ratio in music" Since /r" Tipei formulated his words so intelli%ently here are his
e(act words"
The %olden mean ratio can !e found in many compositions mainly !ecause it is a
SnaturalS way of dealin% with divisions of time" One can find it in a lot of works
!y 6o$art- =eethoven- <hopin- etc"- etc" 't is a &uestion if it was used in a
deli!erate way or #ust intuitively (pro!a!ly intuitively" On the other hand-
composers like /e!ussy and =artok have made a conscious attempt to use this
ratio and the )i!onacci series of num!ers which produces a similar effect
(ad#acent mem!ers of the series %ive ratios %ettin% closer and closer to the %olden
mean ratio" =artok intentionally writes melodies which contain only intervals
whose si$es can !e e(pressed in )i!onacci num!ers of semitones" He also divides
the formal sections of some of his pieces in ratios correspondin% to the %olden
mean" 7ithout %oin% into much detail- /e!ussy also does this in some of his
,rno .endvai was a Hun%arian musicolo%ist that claimed that the Golden Ratio
occurs in =artokQs compositions like #usic for Strings, Percussion and 'eleste" )rom
the words of .endvai concernin% the Golden Ratio in =artokQs music- 9from stylistic
analyses of =artokQs music ' have !een a!le to conclude that the chief feature of his
chromatic techni&ue is o!edience to the laws of Golden Section in every movement:
(.ivio 244" There has !een hardly any or no scholarly criticism on the !ooks .endvai
has written on the su!#ect at hand (Howat G43" Howat continues to mention the
calculations of .endvai- 96any of the calculations indeed are not particularly accurate"
However they are near enou%h fre&uently enou%h to show some clear cases of musical
structures accordin% almost totally to the principle of the Golden Ratio: (Howat G43"
*ot only does the Golden Ratio appear in the structure of =artokQs work !ut in the
dynamics as well as mentioned in the same article- 9/e!ussy- Ravel- and =artok:
Towards Some *ew <oncepts of )orm": 9A wellAknown aspect of the Golden Ratio-
which .endvai also mentions- is that it is usually a dynamic division- implyin% tension-
whereas symmetrical division tends to !e static and neutral" 5the point of ma(imum
tension from the tonic at G- the tritone- is situated at the Golden 6ean !etween the
!e%innin% and the return to the openin% tonality-: (Howat G4L" Althou%h some parts of
the Golden Ratio occurrin% in music is somewhat va%ue" The evidence of the Golden
Ratio in the works of =artok and others is more solid"

A Connection/Conclusion
The Golden Ratio has in fact many names and is referred to as the Golden
*um!er- the Golden Section- the Golden 6ean- and it has even !een called the /ivine
Proportion (.ivio ;" The names are different !ut the ma%ic is still the same" There are
any names !ut it is all one num!er- 2"324""" The Golden Ratio is e&ually incredi!le in all
the places it makes its de!ut whether it is in music- in art- in mathematics- in nature- or in
what ever it may !e" These occurrences stirred the fascination of Phi that has never
ceased" There is a rich history of the Golden Ratio that can only !e descri!ed as
ma%nificent !ecause Phi has captured the attention and hearts of many %enerations
throu%hout the centuries"
6any if not all thin%s are descri!ed in terms of mathematics as illustrated !y
Al!ert ,instein- 96athematics is only a means for e(pressin% the laws that %overn
phenomena: (.ivio ;C" 6athematics %overns our universe and also the reality in which
we live" Someone once said- 9'f itTs not mathematical in nature- then it cannot !e": The
association !etween art and !eauty and nature and !eauty is &uite o!vious !ut
mathematics is also very !eautiful" Pnfortunately- mathematical !eauty is often
unnoticed and under appreciated" That fact is that everythin% is mathematical in nature
and this makes it !eautiful"
The nature of mathematics as a description of reality !rin%s up an interestin%
point" 7hat is reality8 This &uestion of metaphysics !ranches off into three cate%ories"
They are: what is !ein%- what is the hi%hest form of !ein%- and what is the cosmos8 The
Pytha%orean school of thou%ht was- 95if musical harmony can !e e(pressed in num!er-
why not the entire cosmos8: (.ivio GL" 't has !een discovered that mathematics does in
fact e(press the cosmos as we know it" =ut !ecause the complete knowled%e of reality is
limited !y our perception of reality these are &uestions that cannot !e answered fully" An
interestin% fact a!out our perception of reality is that the human !rain processes KCC
!illion !its of information per second !ut we are only aware of a!out G-CCC of them" So
what else is out there8 6athematics is !eyond what we perceive to !e reality !ecause it
is perfect" They way the laws of nature are conducted throu%h mathematics is nothin%
!ut spectacular !ecause these laws are virtually flawless" The truth is we will pro!a!ly
never have an omniscient %rasp of reality !ut if one searches for a!solute truth it can !e
found in mathematics"
7hat does this have to do with the Golden Ratio8 )rom a mathematical
perspective the fact is the uni&ue characteristics of Phi define a part of reality" The
Golden Ratio has %reat si%nificance !ecause it is so u!i&uitous and perfect" The &uestion
is why8 't is truly a %reat phenomenon that the Golden Ratio is so consistent in nature
and in art" Goin% !ack to Pytha%orasQ concept of num!ers definin% the cosmos is a %ood
place to start to search for the answers" =ut to attempt to find a!solute truth as to why
this happens may prove to !e a difficult task"
How is the Golden Ratio connected mathematically to the arts8 6ath and art can
seem completely opposite !ut the truth is they are one in the same" ,very curve- every
shape- every color- every te(ture- every line can somehow !e defined mathematically" 't
#ust so happens that ratios that seem to !e the most harmonious in art seem to !e the
Golden Ratio or somethin% very close to it" To try to e(plain completely why this
happens would result in steppin% into %rey areas" To prove anythin% in art can !e
complicated !ecause it is so su!#ective" Artistically speakin% the Golden Ratio is
universally pleasant and !eautiful without reason"
The Golden Ratio is stunnin% and impressive" An attempt has !een made to
connect the seemin%ly opposite and different characteristics of Phi" Hopefully some %rey
areas were covered and some conclusion was reached even thou%h it would not !e much
more than the ori%inal material" Attached to this report is a mathematical #ourney of the
Golden Ratio !y /irk Huyle!rouck" 't includes a different mathematical approach to the
Golden Ratio !y optimi$ation"

7orks <ited
=ur% and .uttrin%haus" 9,ntertainin% 7ith Science- ,ducatin% with /ance": 'om&uters
in Entertainment" K"G" Apr"AJune GCC3" 'S(" Pniversity of *e!raska- Omaha
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Technology ;F"G 6ar"AApr" GCCK: GFLAG32 (cademic Search Premier" ,=S<O"
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Golden Ratio and +ibonacci Numbers" Tipei- Sever" Pniversity of 'llinois ,(perimental
6usic Studios" GG 6ar" GCCJ
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