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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

SKUDAI, JOHOR

GROUP ASSIGNMENT
SEE 4443: POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
LECTURER: DR. SAIFULNIZAM BIN ABD KHALID

GROUPS MEMBER :

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

NAME
FATIN HAMIMAH BINTI MOHAMED SALLEH
MOHD FAIZAL BIN OMAR
SHAIK ABDUL ANUAR BIN ABDUL RASHID
MOHD SHAFIZAN BIN BAHARUDDIN

MATRIX NO.
SX090583EEJ03
SX090597EEJ03
SX090629EEJO
3
SX090591EEJ03

Using Iteration Method

Converting Impedance to Admittance

Line
Bus to bus
1-2
1-3
2-3

Impedance (Z)
R(p.u)
X(p.u)
0.01008
0.0504
0.00744
0.0372
0.01008
0.0504

Admittance (y)
y(p.u)
3.8156-j19.0781
5.1696-j25.8478
3.8156-j19.0781

= Y

21

Y
Y

31

11

BUS

12

22

32

Shunt Y
Y(p.u)
0.1025
0.0775
0.1025

Y
Y

13

23

33

jB jB
Y11 = y12 + y13 + 12 + 13
2 2
j 0.1025 j 0.0775
+

2
2

= 3.8156 - 19.0781j + 5.1696 - 25.8478j +


= 8.9852 - j44.8359
Y12 = Y21 = y12 = - 3.8156 +19.0781j

Y13 = Y31 = y13 = - 5.1696 + 25.8478j

jB jB
Y22 = y 21 + y 23 + 21 + 23
2 2
j 0.1025 j 0.1025
+

2
2

= 3.8156 - j19.0781 + 3.8156 - j19.0781 +


= 7.6312 - j38.0537
Y23 = Y32 = y 23

= - 3.8156 + j19.0781

jB jB
Y33 = y31 + y 32 + 31 + 32
2 2
j 0.0775 j 0.1025
+

2
2

= 5.1696 - j25.8478 + 3.8156 - j19.0781 +


= 8.9852 - j44.8359

BUS

8.9852 - j44.8359

- 3.8156 + j19.0781

- 5.1696 + j 25.8478

-3.8156 +19.0781j
7.6312 - j38.0537
- 3.8156 + j19.0781

-5.1696 + 25.8478j

- 3.8156 + j19.0781
8.9852 - j44.8359

Bus Voltage Magnitude & Phase Angle

i)

Note that,
Bus 1 = Slack Bus
Bus 2 = PQ Bus/ Load Bus
Bus 3 = PV Bus

Given

V1

(0)

= 1.03+j0

----------constant

V2

(0)

= 0.9596-j0.1248

----------flat voltage

V3

(0)

= 1.0199-j0.0135

----------flat voltage

At Bus 2:

S2

sch

P2 + jQ2
100

500 j100
100

...................................

P2 = PG 2 PL 2 = 0 500 = -500

Q2 = QG 2 QL 2 = 0 100 = -100

= -5 j1 p.u

(1)

V2

1 P2 jQ2 (0) (0)


Y21V1 + Y23V3

Y22 V2 *

1 5+ j ( -3.8156+ 19.0781j) (1.03+ j0) +


7.6312- j38.0537 0.9596+ j0.1248 ( -3.8156+ j19.0781) (1.019 - j0.0135)


1

= 7.6312 - j38.0537 [ 4.9906 + j1.6911 [3.9301 + j19.6504 3.6340 + j19.5093]]


= 0.9596 j0.1248 p.u
= 0.9677 7.4104 0 p.u

To stop iteration,
V2

(1)

V2

(0)

0.9596 - 0.9596

0.001
0.001

< 0.001

0.000

Then,
V2

= 0.9677

2 = -7.4104

At Bus 3:

S3

sch

P3 + jQ3
100

...................................

200 + j 42.53
100

P3 = PG 3 PL 3 = 200 - 0 = 200

Q3 = QG 3 Q L 3 = 42.53 - 0 =

42.53
= 2 + j0.4253 p.u

V3

(1)

1 P3 jQ3 (0) (1)


Y31V1 + Y32V2

Y33 V3 *

1 2 j0.4253 ( -5.1696+ j25.8478) (1.03+ j0) +


8.9852- j4 .8359 1.019 + j0.0135 ( -3.8156+ j19.0781) ( 0.9596- j0.1248 )


1

= 8.9852 - j44.8359 [1.9551 j 0.4429 [5.3247 + j 26.6232 1.2805 + j18.7835]]


= 1.0200 j0.0135 p.u
= 1.0200 0.7565 0 p.u

To stop iteration,
7

V3(1) V3( 0)

0.001

1.0200 - 1.0199

0.001

0.000

< 0.001

Then,

3 = -0.7565

V3

= 1.0200

ii)

Generation and load at each bus in MW and MVar

Line current flow:

I 12 =

V1 V2
Z 12
1.03 (0.9596 - j0.1248)
0.01008 + j 0.0504

= 2.6496 j0.8669 p.u

I 21 = I 12 = - 2.6496 + j0.8669 p.u

I 13 =

V1 V3
Z 13
1.03 (1.0200 - j0.0135)
0.00744 + j 0.0372

= 0.4006 j0.1887 p.u

I 31 = I 13 = - 0.4006 + j0.1887 p.u

I 23 =

V2 V3
Z 23
(0.9596 - j0.1248) (1.0200 - j0.0135)
0.01008 + j 0.0504

= -2.3539 + j0.7276 p.u

I 32 = I 23 = 2.3539 j0.7276 p.u

Line flows:

S12 =

V1 I 12 *

= 1.03( 2.6496 + j0.8669 )


= 2.7291 + j0.8929 p.u ..........................272.91MW + j89.29Mvar

S 21 =

V2 I 21 *

= ( 0.9596 - j0.1248 )( 2.6496 - j0.8669 )


= -2.6507 j0.5012 p.u ......................-265.07MW j50.12MVar

S13 =

V1 I 13 *
9

= 1.03( 0.4006 + j0.1887 )


= 0.4126 + j0.1944 p.u ..........................41.26MW+ j19.44MVar

S 31 =

V3 I 31 *

= (1.0200 - j0.0135 )( - 0.4006 - j0.1887 )


= -0.4112 - j0.1871 p.u ..........................-41.12MW - j18.71MVar

S 23 =

V2 I 23 *

= ( 0.9596 - j0.1248 )( - 2.3539 - j0.7276 )


= -2.3496 j0.4044 p.u ..........................-234.96MW j40.44MVar

S 32 =

V3 I 32 *

= (1.0200 - j0.0135 )( 2.3539 + j0.7276 )


= 2.4108 + j0.7103 p.u ..........................241.08MW + j71.03MVar

Line loses

S L12 = S12 + S 21

= (272.91MW + j89.29Mvar)+( -265.07MW j50.12Mvar)


= 7.84MW + j39.17MVar

S L13 = S13 + S 31

= (41.26MW+ j19.44Mvar) + (-41.12MW - j18.71Mvar)


= 0.14MW + j0.73Mvar

10

S L 23 = S 23 + S 32

= (-234.96MW j40.44Mvar) + (241.08MW + j71.03Mvar)


= 6.12MW + j30.59MVar

iii)

The Total MW and Mvar loses in the system

S TOTALLOSES = S L12 + S L13 + S L 23

= (7.84MW + j39.17Mvar) + (0.14MW + j0.73Mvar) + (-476.04MW + j30.59Mvar)


= - 468.06MW + j70.49MVar

Using Power World


11

Branch data for 3-Bus system

12

Result

At Bus 1

At Bus 2
13

At Bus 3
14

15

Comparison Table
Parameter

Bus voltage,
magnitude and
phase angle

Calculation result

Simulation result

Bus 1: 1.03<0 p.u

Bus 1: 1.03<0 p.u

Bus 2: 0.9677 7.4104 0


p.u

Bus 2: 0.9677 7.4104 0 p.u


Bus 3: 1.0200 0.7565 0 p.u

Bus 3: 1.0200 0.7565 0 p.u

I 12 = 2.6496 j0.8669 p.u


I 12 = -2.6496 + j0.8669 p.u
Generation and
load at each bus in
MW and MVar

I 13 = 0.4006 j0.1887 p.u


I 31 = - 0.4006 + j0.1887 p.u
I 23 = -2.3539 + j0.7276 p.u
I 32 = 2.3539 j0.7276 p.u

The flow of MW and


Mvar from that bus
over each
transmission line
connected to the
bus

The total MW and


Mvar losses in the
system

S12 = 272.91MW + j89.29Mvar

S12 = 272.88MW + j83.86Mvar

S 21 = -265.07MW j50.12Mvar

S 21 = -265.05MW j54.93Mvar

S13 = 41.26MW+ j19.44Mvar

S13 = 41.21MW+ j15.58Mvar

S 23 = -234.96MW j40.44Mvar

S 23 =-234.95MW j45.07Mvar

S 32 = 241.08MW + j71.03MVar

S 32 =241.07MW + j65.52MVar

SL12 = 7.833MW + j28.928Mvar


SL12 = 7.84MW + j39.17Mvar

SL13 = 0.146MW j7.411Mvar

SL13 = 0.14MW + j0.73Mvar

SL23 = 6.17MW + j20.453Mvar

SL23 = 6.12MW + j30.59MVar

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STOTAL LOSSES =-468.06MW +


j70.49MVar

STOTAL LOSSES =14.0279MW + j41.97

Discussion
Discuss the methods to ensure that good operating condition of power system is
maintained when there is appreciable drop in voltage on the primary of a transformer
caused by a change of load.

To ensure that good operating condition of power system is maintained when there is
appreciable drop in voltage on the primary of a transformer caused by a change of
load.Its could be done by power flow analysis which examines normal steady state and
contingency conditions in an electrical system. The results are used to optimize the
loading of electrical distribution equipment, establish reactive power flows needed to
stabilize bus voltages, determine transformer tap settings and minimize system losses.

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