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cerned with the protection, devel-

opment, and efficient management

of water resources for beneficial

purposes. It involves planning, design, and con-

struction of projects for supply of water for domes-

tic, commercial, public, and industrial purposes,

flood prevention, hydroelectric power, control of

rivers and water runoff, and conservation of water

resources, including prevention of pollution.

Water resources engineering primarily deals

with water sources, collection, flow control, trans-

mission, storage, and distribution. For efficient man-

agement of these aspects, water resources engineers

require a knowledge of fluid mechanics; hydraulics

of pipes, culverts, and open channels; hydrology;

water demand, quality requirements, and treat-

ment; production of water from wells, lakes, rivers,

and seas; transmission and distribution of water

supplies; design of reservoirs and dams; and pro-

duction of hydroelectric power. These subjects are

addressed in the following articles.

21.1 Dimensions and Units

A list of symbols and their dimensions used in this

section is given in Table 21.1. Table 21.2 lists conver-

sion factors for commonly used quantities, includ-

ing the basic equivalents between the English and

metric systems. For additional conversions to the

metric system (SI) of units, see the appendix.

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics describes the behavior of water

under various static and dynamic conditions. This

theory, in general, has been developed for an ideal

liquid, a frictionless, inelastic liquid whose parti-

cles follow smooth flow paths. Since water only

approaches an ideal liquid, empirical coefficients

and formulas are used to describe more accurately

the behavior of water. These empiricisms are

intended to compensate for all neglected and

unknown factors.

The relatively high degree of dependence on

empiricism, however, does not minimize the

importance of an understanding of the basic theo-

ry. Since major hydraulic problems are seldom

identical to the experiments from which the empir-

ical coefficients were derived, the application of

fundamentals is frequently the only means avail-

able for analysis and design.

21.2 Properties of Fluids

Specific weight or unit weight w is defined as

weight per unit volume. The specific weight of

water varies from 62.42 lb/ft

3

at 32 F to 62.22 lb/ft

3

at 80 F but is commonly taken as 62.4 lb/ft

3

for the

majority of engineering calculations. The specific

weight of sea water is about 64.0 lb/ft

3

.

Density is defined as mass per unit volume and

is significant in all flow problems where acceleration

21

WATER RESOURCES

ENGINEERING

*

M. Kent Loftin

Chief Civil Engineer

South Florida Water Management District

West Palm Beach, Florida

*Revised and updated from Sec. 21, Water Engineering, by Samuel B. Nelson, in the third edition.

21.1

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21.2

I

Section Twenty-One

Symbol Terminology Dimensions Units

A Area L

2

ft

2

C Chezy roughness coefficient L

1/ 2

/ T ft

1/ 2

/s

C

1

Hazen-Williams roughness coefficient L

0.37

/ T ft

0.37

/s

d Depth L ft

d

c

Critical depth L ft

D Diameter L ft

E Modulus of elasticity F/ L

2

psi

F Force F lb

g Acceleration due to gravity L/ T

2

ft/s

2

H Total head, head on weir L ft

h Head or height L ft

h

f

Head loss due to friction L ft

L Length L ft

M Mass FT

2

/ L lbs

2

/ ft

n Manning's roughness coefficient T/ L

1/3

s/ ft

1/3

P Perimeter, weir height L ft

P Force due to pressure F lb

p Pressure F/ L

2

psf

Q Flow rate L

3

/ T ft

3

/ s

q Unit flow rate L

3

/ TL ft

3

/ (sft)

r Radius L ft

R Hydraulic radius L ft

T Time T s

t Time, thickness T, L s, ft

V Velocity L/ T ft / s

W Weight F lb

w Specific weight F/ L

3

lb/ft

3

y Depth in open channel, distance from solid boundary L ft

Z Height above datum L ft

Size of roughness L ft

Viscosity FT/ L

2

lbs/ ft

Kinematic viscosity L

2

/ T ft

2

/ s

Density FT

2

/ L

4

lbs

2

/ ft

4

Surface tension F/ L lb/ft

Shear stress F/ L

2

psi

Symbols for dimensionless quantities

Symbol Quantity

C Weir coefficient, coefficient of discharge

C

c

Coefficient of contraction

C

Coefficient of velocity

F Froude number

f Darcy-Weisbach friction factor

K Head-loss coefficient

R Reynolds number

S Friction slopeslope of energy grade line

S

c

Critical slope

Efficiency

Sp. gr. Specific gravity

Table 21.1 Symbols, Dimensions, and Units Used in Water Engineering

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.3

is important. It is obtained by dividing the specific

weight w by the acceleration due to gravity g. The

variation of g with latitude and altitude is small

enough to warrant the assumption that its value is

constant at 32.2 ft/s

2

in hydraulics computations.

The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio

of its density at some temperature to that of pure

water at 68.2 F (20 C).

Modulus of elasticity E of a fluid is defined as

the change in pressure intensity divided by the cor-

responding change in volume per unit volume. Its

value for water is about 300,000 psi, varying slight-

ly with temperature. The modulus of elasticity of

water is large enough to permit the assumption

that it is incompressible for all hydraulics problems

except those involving water hammer (Art. 21.13).

Surface tension and capillarity are a result of

the molecular forces of liquid molecules. Surface

tension is due to the cohesive forces between liq-

uid molecules. It shows up as the apparent skin

that forms when a free liquid surface is in contact

with another fluid. It is expressed as the force in

the liquid surface normal to a line of unit length

drawn in the surface. Surface tension decreases

with increasing temperature and is also dependent

on the fluid with which the liquid surface is in con-

tact. The surface tension of water at 70F in contact

with air is 0.00498 lb/ ft.

Capillarity is due to both the cohesive forces

between liquid molecules and adhesive forces of

liquid molecules. It shows up as the difference in

liquid surface elevations between the inside and

outside of a small tube that has one end sub-

merged in the liquid. Since the adhesive forces of

water molecules are greater than the cohesive

forces between water molecules, water wets a sur-

Area

1 acre = 43,560 ft

2

1 mi

2

= 640 acres

Volume

1 ft

3

= 7.4805 gal

1 acre-ft = 325,850 gal

1 MG = 3.0689 acre-ft

Power

1 hp = 550 ft lb/s

1 hp = 0.746 kW

1 hp = 6535 kWh/ year

Weight of water

1 ft

3

weighs 62.4 lb

1 gal weighs 8.34 lb

Table 21.2 Conversion Table for Commonly Used Quantities

Discharge

1 ft

3

/s = 449 gal/min = 646,000 gal/day

1 ft

3

/s = 1.98 acre-ft/day = 724 acre-ft/year

1 ft

3

/s = 50 miners inches in Idaho, Kansas,

Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, and

South Dakota

1 ft

3

/s = 40 miners inches in Arizona, California,

Montana, and Oregon

1 MGD* = 3.07 acre-ft/day = 1120 acre-ft/year

1 MGD* = 1.55 ft

3

/s = 694 gal/min

1 million acre-ft/year = 1380 ft

3

/s

Pressure

1 psi = 2.31 ft of water

= 51.7 mm of mercury

1 in of mercury = 1.13 ft of water

1 ft of water = 0.433 psi

1 atm

Metric equivalents

Length: 1 ft = 0.3048 m

Area: 1 acre = 4046.9 m

2

Volume: 1 gal = 3.7854 L

1 m

3

= 264.17 gal

Weight: 1 lb = 0.4536 kg

*Prefix M indicates million; for example, MG = million gallons

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21.4

I

Section Twenty-One

face and rises in a small tube, as shown in Fig. 21.1.

Capillarity is commonly expressed as the height of

this rise. In equation form,

(21.1)

where h = capillary rise, ft

= surface tension, lb/ft

w

1

and w

2

= specific weights of fluids below and

above meniscus, respectively, lb/ft

= angle of contact

r = radius of capillary tube, ft

Capillarity, like surface tension, decreases with

increasing temperature. Its temperature variation,

however, is small and insignificant in most problems.

Surface tension and capillarity, although negli-

gible in many water engineering problems, are sig-

nificant in others, such as capillary rise and flow of

liquids in narrow spaces, formation of spray from

water jets, interpretation of the results obtained on

small models, and freezing damage to concrete.

Atmospheric pressure is the pressure due to the

weight of the air above the earths surface. Its value

at sea level is 2116 psf or 14.7 psi. The variation in

atmospheric pressure with elevation from sea level

to 10,000 ft is shown in Fig. 21.2. Gage pressure, psi,

is pressure above or below atmospheric. Absolute

pressure, psia, is the total pressure including

atmospheric pressure. Thus, at sea level, a gage

pressure of 10 psi is equivalent to 24.7 psia. Gage

pressure is positive when pressure is greater than

atmospheric and is negative when pressure is less

than atmospheric.

Vapor pressure is the partial pressure caused

by the formation of vapor at the free surface of a

liquid. When the liquid is in a closed container, the

partial pressure due to the molecules leaving the

surface increases until the rates at which the mole-

cules leave and reenter the liquid are equal. The

vapor pressure at this equilibrium condition is

called the saturation pressure. Vapor pressure

increases with increasing temperature, as shown in

Fig. 21.3.

Cavitation occurs in flowing liquids at pres-

sures below the vapor pressure of the liquid. Cavi-

tation is a major problem in the design of pumps

and turbines since it causes mechanical vibrations,

pitting, and loss of efficiency through gradual

destruction of the impeller. The cavitation phe-

nomenon may be described as follows:

Because of low pressures, portions of the liquid

vaporize, with subsequent formation of vapor cav-

ities. As these cavities are carried a short distance

downstream, abrupt pressure increases force them

Fig. 21.1 Capillary action raises water in a

small-diameter tube. Meniscus, or liquid surface, is

concave upward.

Fig. 21.2 Atmospheric pressure decreases with

elevation above mean sea level. The curve is based

on the ICAO standard atmosphere.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.5

to collapse, or implode. The implosion and ensu-

ing inrush of liquid produce regions of very high

pressure, which extend into the pores of the metal.

(Pressures as high as 350,000 psi have been mea-

sured in the collapse of vapor cavities by the Fluid

Mechanics Laboratory at Stanford University.)

Since these vapor cavities form and collapse at

very high frequencies, weakening of the metal

results as fatigue develops, and pitting appears.

Cavitation may be prevented by designing

pumps and turbines so that the pressure in the liq-

uid at all points is always above its vapor pressure.

Viscosity, of a fluid, also called the coefficient

of viscosity, absolute viscosity, or dynamic viscos-

ity, is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is

expressed as the ratio of the tangential shearing

stresses between flow layers to the rate of change

of velocity with depth:

(21.2)

where = shearing stress, lb/ft

2

V = velocity, ft/s

y = depth, ft

Viscosity decreases as temperature increases but

may be assumed independent of changes in pres-

sure for the majority of engineering problems.

Water at 70 F has a viscosity of 0.00002050 lbs/ft

2

.

Kinematic viscosity is defined as viscosity

divided by density . It is so named because its

units, ft

2

/s, are a combination of the kinematic units

of length and time. Water at 70 F has a kinematic

viscosity of 0.00001059 ft

2

/s.

In hydraulics, viscosity is most frequently

encountered in the calculation of Reynolds num-

ber (Art. 21.8) to determine whether laminar, tran-

sitional, or completely turbulent flow exists.

21.3 Fluid Pressures

Pressure or intensity of pressure p is the force per

unit area acting on any real or imaginary surface

within a fluid. Fluid pressure acts normal to the

surface at all points. At any depth, the pressure acts

equally in all directions. This results from the

inability of a fluid to transmit shear when at rest.

Liquid and gas pressures differ in that the varia-

tion of pressure with depth is linear for a liquid

and nonlinear for a gas.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure due to

depth. It may be derived by considering a sub-

merged rectangular prism of water of height h, ft,

and cross-sectional area A, ft

2

, as shown in Fig. 21.4.

The boundaries of this prism are imaginary. Since

the prism is at rest, the summation of all forces in

both the vertical and horizontal directions must be

zero. Let w equal the specific weight of the liquid,

lb/ft

3

. Then, the forces acting in the vertical direc-

tion are the weight of the prism wA h, the force

due to pressure p

1

, psf, on the top surface, and the

force due to pressure p

2

, psf, on the bottom surface.

Summing these vertical forces and setting the total

equal to zero yields

Fig. 21.3 Vapor pressure of water increases rapidly with temperature.

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21.6

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.3a)

Division of Eq. (21.3a) by A yields

(21.3b)

For the special case where the top of the prism

coincides with the water surface, p

1

is atmospheric

pressure. Since most hydraulics problems involve

gage pressure, p

1

is zero (gage pressure is zero at

atmospheric pressure). Taking h to be h, the depth

below the water surface, ft, then p

2

is p, the pres-

sure, psf, at depth h. Equation (21.3b) then becomes

(21.4)

Equation (21.4) gives the depth of water h of

specific weight w required to produce a gage pres-

sure p. By adding atmospheric pressure p

a

to Eq.

(21.4), absolute pressure p

ab

is obtained as shown in

Fig. 21.4. Thus,

(21.5)

21.3.1 Pressures on Submerged

Plane Surfaces

This is important in the design of weirs, dams,

tanks, and other water control structures. For hor-

izontal surfaces, the pressure-force determination

is a simple matter since the pressure is constant.

For determination of the pressure force on inclined

or vertical surfaces, however, the summation con-

cepts of integral calculus must be used.

Figure 21.5 represents any submerged plane

surface of negligible thickness inclined at an angle

with the horizontal. The resultant pressure force

P, lb, acting on the surface is equal to p dA. Since

p = wh and h = y sin , where w is the specific

weight of water, lb/ft

3

,

(21.6)

Equation (21.6) can be simplified by setting

ydA = y

surface, ft

2

; and y

sin = h

troid, ft. Therefore,

(21.7)

Fig. 21.4 Hydrostatic pressure varies linearly with depth.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.7

where p

cg

is the pressure at the centroid, psf.

The point on the submerged surface at which

the resultant pressure force acts is called the center

of pressure (c.p.). It is below the center of gravity

because the pressure intensity increases with

depth. The location of the center of pressure, rep-

resented by the length y

p

, is calculated by summing

the moments of the incremental forces about an

axis in the water surface through point W (Fig.

21.5). Thus, Py

p

= y dP. Since dP = wy sin dA and

P = wy sin dA,

(21.8)

The quantity y

2

dA is the moment of inertia of

the area about the axis through W. It also equals

AK

2

+ Ay

2

, where K is the radius of gyration, ft, of

the surface about its centroidal axis. The denomi-

nator of Eq. (21.8) equals y.

A. Hence

(21.9)

and K

2

/y

center of pressure.

Values of K

2

for some common shapes are given

in Fig. 21.6 (see also Fig. 6.29). For areas for which

radius of gyration has not been determined, y

p

may

be calculated directly from Eq. (21.8).

The horizontal location of the center of pres-

sure may be determined as follows: It lies on the

vertical axis of symmetry for surfaces symmetrical

about the vertical. It lies on the locus of the mid-

points of horizontal lines located on the sub-

merged surface, if that locus is a straight line. Oth-

erwise, the horizontal location may be found by

taking moments about an axis perpendicular to the

one through W in Fig. 21.5 and lying in the plane

of the submerged surface.

Example 21.1: Determine the magnitude and

point of action of the resultant pressure force on a

5-ft-square sluice gate inclined at an angle of 53.2

to the horizontal (Fig. 21.7).

From Eq. (21.7), the total force P = wh

A, with

Fig. 21.5 Total pressure on a submerged plane surface depends on pressure at the center of gravity

(c.g.) but acts at a point (c.p.) that is below the c.g.

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21.8

I

Section Twenty-One

Thus, P = 62.4 4 25 = 6240 lb. From Eq. (21.9),

its point of action is a distance y

p

= y

+ K

2

/y

from

point G, and y

= 2.5 +

1

/2(5.0) = 5.0 ft. Also, K

2

=

b

2

/12 = 5

2

/12 = 2.08. Therefore, y

p

= 5.0 + 2.08/5 =

5.0 + 0.42 = 5.42 ft.

21.3.2 Pressure on Submerged

Curved Surfaces

The resultant pressure force on submerged curved

surfaces cannot be calculated from the equations

developed for the pressure force on submerged

plane surfaces because of the variation in direction

of the pressure force. The resultant pressure force

can be calculated, however, by determining its hor-

izontal and vertical components and combining

them vectorially.

A typical configuration of pressure on a sub-

merged curved surface is shown in Fig. 21.8. Con-

sider ABC a 1-ft-thick prism and analyze it as a free

body by the principles of statics. Note:

1. The horizontal component P

H

of the resultant

pressure force has a magnitude equal to the

Fig. 21.6 Radius of gyration and location of centroid (c.g.) of common shapes.

Fig. 21.7 Sluice gate (crosshatched) is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. (See Example 21.1.)

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21.9

pressure force on the vertical projection AC of

the curved surface and acts at the centroid of

pressure diagram ACDE.

2. The vertical component P

V

of the resultant pres-

sure force has a magnitude equal to the sum of

the pressure force on the horizontal projection

AB of the curved surface and the weight of the

water vertically above ABC. The horizontal

location of the vertical component is calculated

by taking moments of the two vertical forces

about point C.

When water is below the curved surface, such

as for a taintor gate (Fig. 21.9), the vertical compo-

nent P

V

of the resultant pressure force has a mag-

nitude equal to the weight of the imaginary vol-

ume of water vertically above the surface. P

V

acts

upward through the center of gravity of this imag-

inary volume.

Example 21.2: Calculate the magnitude and

direction of the resultant pressure on a 1-ft-wide

strip of the semicircular taintor gate in Fig. 21.9.

The magnitude of the horizontal component P

H

of the resultant pressure force equals the pressure

force on the vertical projection of the taintor gate.

From Eq. (21.7), P

H

= wh

The magnitude of the vertical component of the

resultant pressure force equals the weight of the

imaginary volume of water in the prism ABC above

the curved surface. The volume of this prism is

R

2

/4 = 3.14 25/4 = 19.6 ft

3

, so the weight of the

water is 19.6w = 19.6 62.4 = 1220 lb = P

V

.

The magnitude of the resultant pressure force

equals

The tangent of the angle the resultant pressure

force makes with the horizontal = P

V

/P

H

=

1220/780 = 1.564. The corresponding angle is 57.4.

The positions of the horizontal and vertical

components of the resultant pressure force are not

required to find the point of action of the resultant.

Its angle with the horizontal is known, and for a

constant-radius surface, the resultant must act per-

pendicular to the surface.

Fig. 21.8 Hydrostatic pressure on a submerged

curved surface. (a) Pressure variation over the sur-

face. (b) Free-body diagram.

Fig. 21.9 Taintor gate has submerged curved

surface under pressure. Vertical component of

pressure acts upward. (See Example 21.2.)

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21.10

I

Section Twenty-One

21.4 Submerged and Floating

Bodies

The principles of buoyancy govern the behavior of

submerged and floating bodies and are important in

determining the stability and draft of cargo vessels.

The buoyant force acting on a submerged body equals

the weight of the volume of liquid displaced.

A floating body displaces a volume of liquid equal to

its weight.

The buoyant force acts vertically through the center

of buoyancy c.b., which is located at the center of gravi-

ty of the volume of liquid displaced.

For a body to be in equilibrium, whether floating

or submerged, the center of buoyancy and center of

gravity must be on the same vertical line AB (Fig.

21.10a). The stability of a ship, its tendency not to

overturn when it is in a nonequilibrium position, is

indicated by the metacenter. It is the point at which a

vertical line through the center of buoyancy inter-

sects the rotated position of the line through the

centers of gravity and buoyancy for the equilibrium

condition AB (Fig. 21.10b). The ship is stable only if

the metacenter is above the center of gravity since

the resulting moment for this condition tends to

right the ship.

The distance between the ships metacenter

and center of gravity is called the metacentric height

and is designated by y

m

in Fig. 21.10b. Given in feet

by Eq. (21.10) y

m

is a measure of degree of stability

or instability of a ship since the magnitudes of

moments produced in a roll are directly propor-

tional to this distance.

(21.10)

where I = moment of inertia of ships cross

section at waterline about longitudi-

nal axis through 0, ft

4

V = volume of displaced liquid, ft

3

y

s

= distance, ft, between centers of

buoyancy and gravity when ship is

in equilibrium

The negative sign should be used when the center

of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.

21.5 Manometers

A manometer is a device for measuring pressure. It

consists of a tube containing a column of one or

two liquids that balances the unknown pressure.

The basis for the calculation of this unknown pres-

sure is provided by the height of the liquid col-

umn. All manometer problems may be solved with

Eq. (21.4), p = wh. Manometers indicate h, the pres-

sure head, or the difference in head.

The primary application of manometers is mea-

surement of relatively low pressures, for which

aneroid and Bourdon gages are not sufficiently

Fig. 21.10 Stability of a ship depends on the location of its metacenter relative to its center of gravity (c.g.).

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.11

accurate because of their inherent mechanical lim-

itations. However, manometers may also be used

in precise measurement of high pressures by

arranging several U-tube manometers in series

(Fig. 21.12c). Manometers are used for both static

and flow applications, although the latter is most

common.

Three basic types are used (shown in Fig.

21.11): piezometer, U-tube manometer, and differ-

ential manometer. Following is a brief discussion of

the basic types.

The piezometer (Fig. 21.11a) consists of a tube

with one end tapped flush with the wall of the con-

tainer in which the pressure is to be measured and

the other end open to the atmosphere. The only liq-

uid it contains is the one whose pressure is being

measured (the metered liquid). The piezometer is a

sensitive gage, but it is limited to the measurement

of relatively small pressures, usually heads of 5 ft of

water or less. Larger pressures would create an

impractically high column of liquid.

Example 21.3: The gage pressure p

c

in the pipe

of Fig. 21.11a is 2.17 psi. The liquid is water with w

= 62.4 lb/ft

3

. What is h

m

?

Fig. 21.11 Basic types of manometers. (a) Piezometers; (b) U-tube manometer; (c) differential

manometer.

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21.12

I

Section Twenty-One

For pressures greater than 5 ft of water, the U-

tube manometer (Fig. 21.11b) is used. It is similar to

the piezometer except that it contains an indicat-

ing liquid with a specific gravity usually much

larger than that of the metered liquid. The only

other criteria are that the indicating liquid should

have a good meniscus and be immiscible with the

metered liquid.

The U-tube manometer is used when pressures

are either too high or too low for the piezometer.

High pressures can be measured by arranging U-

tube manometers in series (Fig. 21.12c). Very low

pressures, including negative gage pressures, can

be measured if the bottom of the U tube extends

below the center line of the container of the

metered liquid. The most common use of the U-

tube manometer is measurement of the pressures

of flowing water. In this application, the usual indi-

cating liquid is mercury.

A movable scale, as opposed to a fixed scale,

facilitates reading the U-tube manometer. The

scale is positioned between the two vertical legs

and moved to adjust for the variation in distance

h

m

from the center line of the pressure vessel to the

Fig. 21.12 Manometer shapes: (a) Sump in manometer to damp flow disturbances. (b) Inverted U for mea-

suring pressures on liquids with low specific gravity. (c) Series arrangement for measuring high pressures.

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21.13

indicating liquid. This zero adjustment enables a

direct reading of the heights h

i

and h

m

of the liquid

columns. The scale may be calibrated in any con-

venient units, such as ft of water or psi.

The differential manometer (Fig. 21.11c) is

identical to the U-tube manometer but measures

the difference in pressure between two points. (It

does not indicate the pressure at either point.) The

differential manometer may have either the stan-

dard U-tube configuration or an inverted U-tube

configuration, depending on the comparative spe-

cific gravities of the indicating and metered liq-

uids. The inverted U-tube configuration (Fig.

21.12b) is used when the indicating liquid has a

lower specific gravity than the metered liquid.

Example 21.4: A differential manometer (Fig.

21.11c) is measuring the difference in pressure

between two water pipes. The indicating liquid is

mercury (specific gravity = 13.6), h

i

is 2.25 ft, h

m1

is

9 in, and z is 1.0 ft. What is the pressure differential

between the two pipes?

The pressure at B, psf, is

p

B

= p

c2

+ w

2

h

m2

= p

c2

+ 62.4 2.0 = p

c2

+ 125

The pressure at A, psf, is

p

A

= p

c1

+ w

1

h

m1

+ w

i

h

i

= p

c1

+ 62.4 0.75 + 13.6 62.4 2.25

= p

c1

+ 1957

Since the pressure at A must equal that at B,

p

c2

+ 125 = p

c1

+ 1957

Hence, the pressure differential between the pipes is

p

c2

p

cl

= 1832 psf = 12.7 psi

When small pressure differences in water are

measured, if the specific gravity of the indicating

liquid is between 1.0 and 2.0 and the points at

which the pressure is being measured are at the

same level, the actual pressure difference, when

expressed in feet of water, is magnified by the dif-

ferential manometer. For example, if the actual dif-

ference is 0.50 ft of water and the indicating liquid

has a specific gravity of 1.40, the magnification will

be 2.5; that is, the height of the liquid column h

i

will

be 1.25 ft of water. The closer the specific gravities

of the metered and indicating liquids, the greater

the magnification and sensitivity. This is true only

up to a magnification of about 5. Above 5, the

increased sensitivity may be deceptive because the

meniscus between the two liquids becomes poorly

defined and sluggish in movement.

Many factors affect the accuracy of manome-

ters. Most of them, however, may be neglected in

the majority of hydraulics applications since they

are significant only in precise reading of manome-

ters, such as might be required in laboratories. One

factor, however, is significant: the existence of

surges in the manometer caused by the pulsations

and disturbances in the flow of water resulting

from turbulence. These surges make reading of the

manometer difficult. They may be reduced or elim-

inated by installing a large-diameter section, or

sump, in the manometer, as shown in Fig. 21.12a.

This sump will damp the pulsations and keep the

distance from the center line of the conduit to the

indicating liquid essentially at a constant value.

21.6 Fundamentals of Fluid

Flow

For fluid energy, the law of conservation of energy

is represented by the Bernoulli equation:

(21.11)

where Z

1

= elevation, ft, at any point 1 of flow-

ing fluid above an arbitrary datum

Z

2

= elevation, ft, at downstream point in

fluid above same datum

p

1

= pressure at 1, psf

p

2

= pressure at 2, psf

w = specific weight of fluid, lb/ft

3

V

1

= velocity of fluid at 1, ft/s

V

2

= velocity of fluid at 2, ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

The left side of the equation sums the total ener-

gy per unit weight of fluid at 1, and the right side,

the total energy per unit weight at 2. Equation

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21.14

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.11) applies only to an ideal fluid. Its practical use

requires a term to account for the decrease in total

head, ft. through friction. This term h

f

, when added

to the downstream side of Eq. (21.11), yields the

form of the Bernoulli equation most frequently used:

(21.12)

The energy contained in an elemental volume

of fluid thus is a function of its elevation, velocity,

and pressure (Fig. 21.13). The energy due to eleva-

tion is the potential energy and equals WZ

a

, where

W is the weight, lb, of the fluid in the elemental

volume and Z

a

is its elevation, ft, above some arbi-

trary datum. The energy due to velocity is the

kinetic energy. It equals WV

2

a

/ 2g, where V

a

is the

velocity, ft/s. The pressure energy equals Wp

a

/w,

where p

a

is the pressure lb/ft

2

, and w is the specific

weight of the fluid, lb/ft

3

. The total energy, in the

elemental volume of fluid is

(21.13)

Dividing both sides of the equation by Wyields the

energy per unit weight of flowing fluid, or the total

head ft:

(21.14)

p

a

/w is called pressure head; V

2

a

/2g, velocity head.

As indicated in Fig. 21.13, Z + p/w is constant

for any point in a cross section and normal to the

flow through a pipe or channel. Kinetic energy at

the section, however, varies with velocity. Usually,

Z + p/w at the midpoint and the average velocity

at a section are assumed when the Bernoulli equa-

tion is applied to flow across the section or when

total head is to be determined. Average velocity,

ft/s = Q/A, where Q is the quantity of flow, ft

3

/s,

across the area of the section A, ft

2

.

Example 21.5: Determine the energy loss

between points 1 and 2 in the 24-in-diameter pipe in

Fig. 21.14. The pipe carries water flowing at 31.4 ft

3

/s.

Fig. 21.13 Energy in a liquid depends on ele-

vation, velocity, and pressure.

Fig. 21.14 Flow from an elevated reservoirapplication of the Bernoulli equation. (See Example 21.5.)

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21.15

Average velocity in the pipe = Q/A = 31.4/ 3.14

= 10 ft/s. Select point 1 far enough from the reser-

voir outlet that V

1

can be assumed to be 0. Since the

datum plane passes through point 2, Z

2

= 0. Also,

since the pipe has free discharge, p

2

= 0. Thus sub-

stitution in Eq. (21.12) yields

where h

f

is the friction loss, ft. Hence, h

f

= 50 1.55

= 48.45 ft.

Note that in this example h

f

includes minor losses

due to the pipe entrance, gate valve, and any bends.

The Bernoulli equation and the variation of

pressure may be represented graphically, respec-

tively, by energy and hydraulic grade lines (Fig.

21.15). The energy grade line, sometimes called the

total head line, shows the decrease in total energy

per unit weight Hin the direction of flow. The slope

of the energy grade line is called the energy gradi-

ent or friction slope. The hydraulic grade line lies a

distance V

2

/2g below the energy grade line and

shows the variation of velocity or pressure in the

direction of flow. The slope of the hydraulic grade

line is termed the hydraulic gradient. In open-

channel flow, the hydraulic grade line coincides

with the water surface, while in pressure flow, it

represents the height to which water would rise in

a piezometer (see also Example 21.7, Art. 21.9).

Momentumis a fundamental concept that must

be considered in the design of essentially all water-

works facilities involving flow. A change in momen-

tum, which may result from a change in either

velocity, direction, or magnitude of flow, is equal to

the impulse, the force F acting on the fluid times the

period of time dt over which it acts. Dividing the

total change in momentum by the time interval

over which the change occurs gives the momentum

equation, or impulse-momentum equation:

Fig. 21.15 Energy grade line and hydraulic grade line indicate variations in energy and pressure

head, respectively, in a liquid as it flows along a pipe or channel.

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21.16

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.15)

where F

x

= summation of all forces in X direc-

tion per unit time causing change in

momentum in X direction, lb

= density of flowing fluid, lbs

2

/ft

4

(specific weight divided by g)

Q = flow rate, ft

3

/s

V

x

= change in velocity in X direction, ft/s

Similar equations may be written for the Y and Z

directions. The impulse-momentum equation often

is used in conjunction with the Bernoulli equation

[Eq. (21.11) or (21.12)] but may be used separately.

Example 21.6: Calculate the resultant force on

the reducer elbow in Fig. 21.16. The pipe center

line lies in a horizontal plane. The pipe reduces

from 48 in in diameter to 16 in. The pressure at the

upstream side of the reducer bend (point 1) is 100

psi, and the water flow is 100 ft

3

/s. (Neglect friction

loss at the bend.)

Velocity at points 1 and 2 is found by dividing

Q = 100 ft

3

/s by the respective areas: V

1

= 100

4/4

2

= 7.96 ft/s and V

2

= 100 4/1.33

2

= 71.5 ft/s.

With p

1

known, the Bernoulli equation for the

flow in the elbow is:

Solution of the equation yields the pressure at 2:

p

2

= 9500 psf

The total pressure force at 1 is P

1

= p

1

A

1

= 181,000

lb, and at 2, P

2

= p

p

A

2

= 13,200 lb.

Let R be the force, lb, exerted by the pipe on the

fluid (equal and opposite in direction to the force

against the pipe, which is to be determined). Then,

the force F changing the momentum of the fluid

equals the vector sum P

1

P

2

+ R. To find F, apply

Eq. (21.15) first in the X direction, then in the Y

direction, and determine the resultant of the forces:

In the X direction, since V

x

= (7.96 sin 53.2

71.5) = 65.1 and the density = 62.4/ 32.2= 1.94,

F

x

= 181,000 cos 53.2 13,200 + R

x

= 1.94 100 65.1

R

x

= 82,600 lb

In the Y direction, since V

y

= (7.96 cos 53.2 0)

= 4.78,

F

y

= 181,000 sin 53.2 + R

y

= 1.94 100 4.78

R

y

= 145,700 lb

The resultant R =

R

x

2

+R

y

2

at an angle with the horizontal such that tan =

145,700/82,600; so = 60.5. The force against the

pipe acts in the opposite direction.

Fig. 21.16 Flow induces forces in a pipe at bends and at changes in size of sectionapplication of

momentum equation. (See Example 21.6.)

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21.17

21.7 Water Resources

Modeling

A model is a tool that can be used to determine the

likely response of a system to a given set of stimuli

without having to actually impose those stimuli on

the system. In water resources engineering, models

are used to determine the likely response of a sys-

tem, such as a river, aquifer, or drainage basin, to a

given set of stimuli, such as storm rainfall, droughts,

alternative management schemes, or proposed

works. Models are cost-effective and convenient for

such investigations. See also Art. 1.7.

Models can typically be categorized as one of

three major types:

Physical Models

I

The system (prototype) is

modeled with physical components that represent

components of the system. Usually, scale factors

are applied to set the model at only a fraction of

the size and cost of the prototype. Physical models

are expensive to build, operate, and maintain but

are especially useful in analyzing complex phe-

nomena that are not easy or presently possible to

express mathematically.

Analog Models

I

The system (prototype) is

modeled with electronic circuits that represent

components of the system. Some conveyance and

resistance phenomena such as those found in

transmission networks and groundwater analyses

are easily modeled with analog techniques inas-

much as electric current flow and water flow

behave similarly in certain instances. Analog mod-

els are an abstraction of the prototype. Popular

before the advent of digital computers, analog

models are now infrequently used in view of the

efficiency and portability of mathematical models.

Mathematical Models

I

The system (proto-

type) is modeled with sets of mathematical expres-

sions that represent components of the system.

Mathematical models are normally programmed in

an appropriate computer language, and through

execution of the computer program, simulations of

prototype behavior are possible. Mathematical

models are limited only by the model creators abil-

ity to describe the prototype mathematically, the

capability of the computing resources, or availabili-

ty of data to support the modeling effort. They can

be as simple or as complex as a given analysis

requires and are among the most cost-effective

means to perform certain analyses.

A fourth mode of modeling, hybrid modeling,

employs both physical and mathematical models.

It exploits the advantages of these types of models

while avoiding their limitations. For instance, com-

plex three-dimensional flow patterns, erosional

scour, and sediment deposition occurring in the

immediate vicinity of a bridge pier or water control

structure can be best modeled with a physical

model while the overall water surface, momen-

tum, and velocity profile over the encompassing

river reach can be best modeled by an appropriate

mathematical model.

With hybrid models, one model often provides

input to or verification of the other model. In the

preceding example, the mathematical model

would provide depth and velocity profile input to

the physical model, and the physical model may

be able to provide a more accurate estimate of local

head loss at the pier or structure. In this way, the

two models can be executed interactively until all

common boundary conditions synchronize. The

resulting hybrid model will consist of a mathemat-

ical model that properly accounts for overall

hydraulic effects and local head loss at the pier or

structure and a physical model that properly

accounts for localized forces affecting the stability

or performance of the pier or structure.

21.7.1 Similitude for Physical Models

A physical model is a system whose operation can

be used to predict the characteristics of a similar

system, or prototype, usually more complex or

built to a much larger scale. A knowledge of the

laws governing the phenomena under investiga-

tion is necessary if the model study is to yield accu-

rate quantitative results.

Forces acting on the model should be propor-

tional to forces on the prototype. The four forces

usually considered in hydraulic models are inertia,

gravity, viscosity, and surface tension. Because of

the laws governing these forces and because the

model and prototype are normally not the same

size, it is usually not possible to have all four forces

in the model in the same proportions as they are in

the prototype. It is, however, a simple procedure to

have two predominant forces in the same propor-

tion. In most models, the fact that two of the four

forces are not in the same proportion as they are in

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21.18

I

Section Twenty-One

the prototype does not introduce serious error. The

inertial force, which is always a predominant force,

and one other force are made proportional.

Ratios of the forces of gravity, viscosity, and sur-

face tension to the force of inertia are designated,

respectively, Froude number, Reynolds number,

and Weber number. Equating the Froude number

of the model and the Froude number of the proto-

type ensures that the gravitational and inertial

forces are in the same proportion. Similarly, equat-

ing the Reynolds numbers of the model and proto-

type ensures that the viscous and inertial forces

will be in the same proportion. And equating the

Weber numbers ensures proportionality of surface

tension and inertial forces.

The Froude number is

(21.16)

where F = Froude number (dimensionless)

V = velocity of fluid, ft/s

L = linear dimension (characteristic, such

as depth or diameter), ft

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

For hydraulic structures, such as spillways and

weirs, where there is a rapidly changing water-sur-

face profile, the two predominant forces are inertia

and gravity. Therefore, the Froude numbers of the

model and prototype are equated:

(21.17a)

where subscript m applies to the model and p to

the prototype. Squaring both sides of Eq. (21.17a)

and grouping like terms yields

(21.17b)

Let V

r

= V

m

/V

p

and L

r

= L

m

/L

p

. Then

(21.18)

The subscript r indicates ratio of quantity in model

to that in prototype.

If the ratios of all the physical dimensions of a

model to all the corresponding physical dimen-

sions of the prototype are equal to the length ratio,

the model is termed a true model. In a true model

where the Froude number is the governing design

criterion, the length ratio is the only variable. Once

the length ratio has been set, all the physical

dimensions of the model are fixed. The discharge

ratio is determined as follows:

(21.19a)

Since V

r

= L

r

1/2

and A

r

= area ratio = L

2

r

,

(21.19b)

By this method all the necessary characteristics of a

spillway or weir model can be determined.

The Reynolds number is

(21.20)

R is dimensionless, and is the kinematic viscosity

of fluid, ft

2

/s. The Reynolds numbers of model and

prototype are equated when the viscous and inertial

forces are predominant. Viscous forces are usually

predominant when flow occurs in a closed system,

such as pipe flow where there is no free surface. The

following relations are obtained by equating

Reynolds numbers of the model and prototype:

(21.21a)

(21.21b)

The variable factors that fix the design of a true

model when the Reynolds number governs are the

length ratio and the viscosity ratio.

The Weber number is

(21.22)

where = density of fluid, lbs

2

/ft

4

(specific

weight divided by g)

= surface tension of fluid, psf

The Weber numbers of model and prototype

are equated in certain types of wave studies, the

formation of drops and air bubbles, entrainment of

air in flowing water, and other phenomena where

surface tension and inertial forces are predomi-

nant. The velocity ratio is determined as follows:

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21.19

(21.23a)

(21.23b)

The fluid properties and the length ratio fix the

design of a model governed by the Weber number.

In some cases, such as a morning-glory spill-

way, inertial, viscous, and gravity forces all have an

important effect on the flow. In these cases it is

usually not possible to have both the Reynolds and

Froude numbers of the model and prototype

equal. The solution to this type of problem is most-

ly empirical and may consist of an attempt to eval-

uate the effects of viscosity and gravity separately.

For the flow of water in open channels and

rivers where the friction slope is relatively flat,

model designs are often based on the Manning

equation. The relations between the model and

prototype are determined as follows:

(21.24)

where n = Manning roughness coefficient (T/L

1/3

,

T representing time)

R = hydraulic radius (L)

S = loss of head due to friction per unit

length of conduit (dimensionless)

= slope of energy gradient

For true models, S

r

= 1, R

r

= L

r

. Hence,

(21.25)

In models of rivers and channels, it is necessary for

the flow to be turbulent. The U.S. Waterways

Experiment Station has determined that flow will

be turbulent if

(21.26)

where V = mean velocity, ft/s

R = hydraulic radius, ft

= kinematic viscosity, ft

2

/s

If the model is to be a true model, it may have to be

uneconomically large for the flow to be turbulent.

Another problem also encountered in true models

is surface tension. In a true model of a wide river

where the depth may be only a fraction of an inch,

the surface tension will distort the flow to such an

extent that the model may be useless. To overcome

the effect of surface tension and to get turbulent

flow, the depth scale is often made much larger

than the length scale. This type of model is called a

distorted model.

The relations between a distorted model of a

channel and a prototype are determined in the

same manner as was Eq. (21.24). The only differ-

ence is that the slope ratio S

r

equals the depth ratio

d

r

and the hydraulic-radius ratio is a function of the

width ratio and depth ratio.

One type of model, called a movable-bed

model, is used to study erosion and transportation

of silt in riverbeds. Because the laws governing the

transportation of material are not fully understood,

movable-bed models are built largely on the basis

of experience and give only qualitative results.

21.7.2 Types and Applications of

Mathematical Models

Used in many applications of water resources engi-

neering, mathematical models are, in particular,

applied in hydrologic and hydraulic investigations

of man-made and natural systems for both surface-

water and groundwater purposes. The system

(prototype) is modeled with sets of mathematical

expressions that represent components of the sys-

tem. These expressions, in turn, are linked togeth-

er to represent the system as a whole.

Mathematical models are used for both analysis

and design. They are normally programmed in an

appropriate computer language, and through exe-

cution of the computer program, simulations of

prototype behavior are possible. They may be sin-

gle-purpose (for a specific site) or general purpose

(applicable to a variety of sites).

Single-purpose models typically represent the

specific temporal and spatial descriptions of the

prototype directly in the computer code. For

instance, the logical representation of prototypes,

such as flow networks, catchment areas, and infil-

tration parameters, may be part of the source code

and is said to be hardwired into the computer pro-

gram. For such models, the software (the computer

program code) and the application input codes

(hydrologic and hydraulic parameters) are bound

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21.20

I

Section Twenty-One

into one entity. This, however, usually has more dis-

advantages than advantages, especially when mod-

ifications of the model are required or when the

model has to be applied by engineers who were not

involved in the original program coding. The pre-

ferred approach in modeling is instead to develop

general-purpose models by writing software that is

essentially independent of application input code.

General-purpose models are used for specific

analytical tasks. These may be as simple as deter-

mination of excess rainfall, given rainfall and rain-

fall-loss parameters, or as complex as long-period

simulation of flow and pollutant transport in com-

bined groundwater and surface-water systems.

Advances are continually being made in com-

puter resources and use of models is becoming

more widespread. As a result, the desirability of

more uniformity of software packages and of

object-oriented software has become apparent. In

object-oriented software, every program compo-

nent is generalized as much as feasible and the

entire program is essentially a collection of modu-

lar software components. This approach, when

fully implemented, will provide complete compat-

ibility among all types of water resources software.

Also, this approach will provide nearly complete

compatibility of all databases, of all databases and

software, and among water resources modelers in

the government, academia, and private sectors.

The result will be a reduction in duplication of the

efforts of software developers and modelers and

an increase in the efficiency of water-resources

engineering investigations.

Typical applications of mathematical models

include the following: stochastic processes; evapo-

ration and irrigation; hydrodynamics; hydrologic

forecasting; watershed hydrology; design of

hydraulic structures; reservoir regulation; flood or

drought impacts; flow routing; channel and river

hydraulics; sediment or pollutant transport; quan-

tity and quality of water supply; ecosystem

impacts and restoration; impacts of dam breaks;

wave or tidal analyses; landfill leachate analyses;

and groundwater yield, seepage, or pollution.

Several different models varying in complexity

or sophistication, or both, and in application type

may be required in many types of investigations.

As a general rule, if comparisons of different plans

are required, the fewer the number of models

employed in a given study, the greater the chance

that meaningful results will be produced. The

availability and quality of data for calibration and

verification, the model output required for design

or evaluation, and the general acceptance by the

engineering community should be considered in

selection of a model or group of models for any

investigation.

Mathematical modeling is one of the fastest

changing fields in engineering. Applications

should be upgraded accordingly if their continued

use is expected.

(D. R. Maidment, Handbook of Hydrology, D.

H. Hoggan, Computer-Assisted Floodplain

Hydrology and Hydraulics, N. S. Grigg, Water

Resources Planning, V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen,

Davis Handbook of Applied Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill, New York.)

Pipe Flow

The term pipe flow as used in this section refers to

flow in a circular closed conduit entirely filled with

fluid. For closed conduits other than circular, rea-

sonably good results are obtained in the turbulent

range with standard pipe-flow formulas if the

diameter is replaced by four times the hydraulic

radius. But when there is severe deviation from a

circular cross section, as in annular passages, this

method gives flows significantly underestimated.

(J. F. Walker, G. A. Whan, and R. R. Rothfus, Fluid

Friction in Noncircular Ducts, Journal of the Ameri-

can Institute of Chemical Engineers, vol. 3, 1957.)

21.8 Laminar Flow

In laminar flow, fluid particles move in parallel lay-

ers in one direction. The parabolic velocity distrib-

ution in laminar flow, shown in Fig. 21.17, creates a

shearing stress = dV/dy, where dV/dy is the rate

of change of velocity with depth and is the coef-

ficient of viscosity (see Viscosity, Art. 21.2). As this

shearing stress increases, the viscous forces

become unable to damp out disturbances, and tur-

bulent flow results. The region of change is depen-

dent on the fluids velocity, density, and viscosity

and the size of the conduit.

A dimensionless parameter called the Reynolds

number has been found to be a reliable criterion

for the determination of laminar or turbulent flow.

It is the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces, and

is given by

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.21

(21.27)

where V = fluid velocity, ft/s

D = pipe diameter, ft

= density of fluid, lbs

2

/ft

4

(specific

weight divided by g, 32.2 ft/s

2

)

= viscosity of fluid lbs/ft

2

= / = kinematic viscosity, ft

2

/s

For a Reynolds number less than 2000, flow is lam-

inar in circular pipes. When the Reynolds number

is greater than 2000, laminar flow is unstable; a dis-

turbance will probably be magnified, causing the

flow to become turbulent.

In laminar flow, the following equation for head

loss due to friction can be developed by consider-

ing the forces acting on a cylinder of fluid in a pipe:

(21.28)

where h

f

= head loss due to friction, ft

L = length of pipe section considered, ft

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

w = specific weight of fluid, lb/ft

3

Substitution of the Reynolds number yields

(21.29)

For laminar flow, Eq. (21.29) is identical to the

Darcy-Weisbach formula Eq. (21.30) since in lami-

nar flow the friction f = 64/ R.

(E. F. Brater, handbook of Hydraulics, 6th ed.,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.9 Turbulent Flow

In turbulent flow, the inertial forces are so great

that viscous forces cannot dampen out distur-

bances caused primarily by the surface roughness.

These disturbances create eddies, which have both

a rotational and translational velocity. The transla-

tion of these eddies is a mixing action that affects

an interchange of momentum across the cross sec-

tion of the conduit. As a result, the velocity distrib-

ution is more uniform, as shown in Fig. 21.18, than

for laminar flow (Fig. 21.17).

For a Reynolds number greater than 2000 but to

the left of the dashed line in Fig. 21.l9, there is a

transition from laminar to turbulent flow. In this

region, there is a laminar film at the boundaries that

covers some of the smaller roughness projections.

This explains why the friction loss in this region has

both laminar and turbulent characteristics. As the

Reynolds number increases, this laminar boundary

layer decreases in thickness until, at completely tur-

bulent flow, it no longer covers any of the rough-

ness projections. To the right of the dashed line in

Fig. 21.19, the flow is completely turbulent, and vis-

cous forces do not affect the friction loss.

Because of the random nature of turbulent

flow, it is not practical to treat it analytically. There-

fore, formulas for head loss and flow in the turbu-

lent regions have been developed through experi-

mental and statistical means. Experimentation in

turbulent flow has shown that:

The head loss varies directly as the length of the pipe.

The head loss varies almost as the square of the

velocity.

Fig. 21.17 Velocity distribution for lamellar

flow in a circular pipe is parabolic. Maximum veloc-

ity is twice the average velocity.

Fig. 21.18 Velocity distribution for turbulent

flow in a circular pipe is more nearly uniform than

that for lamellar flow.

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21.22

I

Section Twenty-One

The head loss varies almost inversely as the diameter.

The head loss depends on the surface roughness of

the pipe wall.

The head loss depends on the fluids density and

viscosity.

The head loss is independent of the pressure.

21.9.1 Darcy-Weisbach Formula

One of the most widely used equations for pipe

flow, the Darcy-Weisbach formula satisfies the

above condition and is valid for laminar or turbu-

lent flow in all fluids.

(21.30)

where h

f

= head loss due to friction, ft

f = friction factor (see Fig. 21.19)

L = length of pipe, ft

D = diameter of pipe, ft

V = velocity of fluid, ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

It employs the Moody diagram (Fig. 21.19) for eval-

uating the friction factor f. (L. F. Moody, Friction

Factors for Pipe Flow, Transactions of the American

Society of Mechanical Engineers, November 1944.)

Because Eq. (21.30) is dimensionally homoge-

neous, it can be used with any consistent set of units

without changing the value of the friction factor.

Fig. 21.19 Chart relates friction forces for flow in pipe to Reynolds numbers and condition of pipes.

, ft

Steel pipe:

Severe tuberculation and incrustation 0.03 0.008

General tuberculation 0.008 0.003

Heavy brush-coat asphalts, enamels,

and tars 0.003 0.001

Light rust 0.001 0.0005

New smooth pipe, centrifugally

applied enamels 0.0002 0.00003

Hot-dipped asphalt; centrifugally

applied concrete linings 0.0005 0.0002

Steel-formed concrete pipe, good

workmanship 0.0005 0.0002

New cast-iron pipe 0.00085

Table 21.3 Typical Values of Roughness for Use

in the Moody Diagram (Fig. 21.19) to Determine f

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21.23

Roughness values (ft) for use with the Moody

diagram to determine the Darcy-Weisbach friction

factor f are listed in Table 21.3.

The following formulas were derived for head

loss in waterworks design and give good results

for water-transmission and -distribution calcula-

tions. They contain a factor that depends on the

surface roughness of the pipe material. The accu-

racy of these formulas is greatly affected by the

selection of the roughness factor, which requires

experience in its choice.

21.9.2 Chezy Formula

This equation holds for head loss in conduits and

gives reasonably good results for high Reynolds

numbers:

(21.31)

where V = velocity, ft/s

C = coefficient, dependent on surface

roughness of conduit

S = slope of energy grade line or head

loss due to friction, ft/ft of conduit

R = hydraulic radius, ft

Hydraulic radius of a conduit is the cross-sec-

tional area of the fluid in it divided by the perime-

ter of the wetted section.

21.9.3 Mannings Formula

Through experimentation, Manning concluded

that the C in the Chezy equation [Eq. (21.31)]

should vary as R

1/6

(21.32)

where n = coefficient, dependent on surface rough-

ness. (Although based on surface roughness, n in

practice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter

for all head losses.) Substitution into Eq. (21.31) gives

(21.33a)

Upon substitution of D/4, where D is the pipe

diameter, for the hydraulic radius of the pipe, the fol-

lowing equations are obtained for pipes flowing full:

(21.33b)

(21.33c)

(21.33d)

(21.33e)

where Q = flow, ft

3

/s.

Tables 21.4 and 21.11 (p. 21.47) give values of n

for the foot-pound-second system. See also Table

22.3 for velocity and flow at various slopes.

21.9.4 Hazen-Williams Formula

This is one of the most widely used formulas for

pipe-flow computations of water utilities, although

it was developed for both open channels and pipe

flow:

(21.34a)

For pipes flowing full:

(21.34b)

(21.34c)

(21.34d)

(21.34e)

where V = velocity, ft/s

C

1

= coefficient, dependent on surface

roughness

R = hydraulic radius, ft

S = head loss due to friction, ft/ft of pipe

D = diameter of pipe, ft

L = length of pipe, ft

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21.24

I

Section Twenty-One

Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

h

f

= friction loss, ft

The C

1

terms in Table 21.5 are in the foot-pound-

second system.

Determination of flow in branching pipes illus-

trates the use of friction-loss equations and the

hydraulic-grade-line concept.

Example 21.7: Figure 21.20 shows a typical

three-reservoir problem. The elevations of the

hydraulic grade lines for the three pipes are equal

at point D. The Hazen-Williams equation for fric-

tion loss [Eq. (21.34d)] can be written for each pipe

meeting at D. With the continuity equation for

quantity of flow, there are as many equations as

there are unknowns:

(21.35a)

(21.35b)

(21.35c)

(21.36)

where p

D

= pressure at D

w = unit weight of liquid

With the elevations Z of the three reservoirs and

the pipe intersection known, the easiest way to

solve these equations is by trying different values

of p

D

/w in Eqs. (21.35) and substituting the values

obtained for Q into Eq. (21.36) for a check. If the

value of Z

d

+ p

D

/w becomes greater than Z

b

, the

sign of the friction-loss term is negative instead of

positive. This would indicate water is flowing from

reservoir A into reservoirs B and C. Flow in pipe

network is easily determined with available com-

puter programs, many of which are specialized to

solve specific pipe design problems efficiently.

21.10 Minor Losses in Pipes

Energy losses occur in pipe contractions, bends,

enlargements, and valves and other pipe fittings.

These losses can usually be neglected if the length

of the pipeline is greater than 1500 times the pipes

diameter. However, in short pipelines, because

Variation Use in designing

Material of pipe

From To From To

Clean cast iron 0.011 0.015 0.013 0.015

Dirty or tuberculated cast iron 0.015 0.035

Riveted steel or spiral steel 0.013 0.017 0.015 0.017

Welded steel 0.010 0.013 0.012 0.013

Galvanized iron 0.012 0.017 0.015 0.017

Wood stave 0.010 0.014 0.012 0.013

Concrete 0.010 0.017

Good workmanship 0.012 0.014

Poor workmanship 0.016 0.017

Table 21.4 Values of n for Pipes, to Be Used with the Manning Formula

Fig. 21.20 Flow between reservoirs. (See Exam-

ple 21.7.)

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21.25

these losses may exceed the friction losses, minor

losses must be considered.

21.10.1 Sudden Enlargements

The following equation for the head loss, ft, across

a sudden enlargement of pipe diameter has been

determined analytically and agrees well with

experimental results:

(21.37)

where V

1

= velocity before enlargement, ft/s

V

2

= velocity after enlargement, ft/s

g = 32.2 ft/s

2

It was derived by applying the Bernoulli equation

and the momentum equation across an enlargement.

Another equation for the head loss caused by

sudden enlargements was determined experimental-

ly by Archer. This equation gives slightly better agree-

ment with experimental results than Eq. (21.37):

(21.38)

A special application of Eq. (21.37) or (21.38) is the dis-

charge from a pipe into a reservoir. The water in the

reservoir has no velocity, so a full velocity head is lost.

21.10.2 Gradual Enlargements

The equation for the head loss due to a gradual con-

ical enlargement of a pipe takes the following form:

(21.39)

where K = loss coefficient (see Fig. 21.21).

Since the experimental data available on grad-

ual enlargements are limited and inconclusive, the

values of K in Fig. 21.21 are approximate. (A. H.

Gibson, Hydraulics and Its Applications, Consta-

ble & Co., Ltd., London.)

21.10.3 Sudden Contraction

The following equation for the head loss across a

sudden contraction of a pipe was determined by

the same type of analytical studies as Eq. (21.37):

(21.40)

where C

c

= coefficient of contraction (see Table

21.6)

V = velocity in smaller-diameter pipe, ft/s

This equation gives best results when the head loss

is greater than 1 ft. Table 21.6 gives C

c

values for

sudden contractions, determined by Julius Weis-

bach (Die Experiments-Hydraulik).

Another formula for determining the loss of

head caused by a sudden contraction, determined

experimentally by Brightmore, is

(21.41)

This equation gives best results if the head loss is

less than 1 ft.

A special case of sudden contraction is the

entrance loss for pipes. Some typical values of

the loss coefficient K in h

L

=KV

2

/ 2g, where V is

the velocity in the pipe, are presented in Table 21.7.

Type of pipe C

1

Cast iron:

New All sizes, 130

5 years old All sizes up to 24 in, 120

24 in and over, 115

10 years old 12 in, 110

4 in, 105

30 in and over, 85

40 years old 16 in, 80

4 in, 65

Welded steel Values the same as for cast-iron

pipe, 5 years older

Riveted steel Values the same as for cast-iron

pipe, 10 years older

Wood stave Average value, regardless of

age, 120

Concrete or Large sizes, good workmanship,

concrete-lined steel forms, 140

Large sizes, good workmanship,

wood forms, 120

Centrifugally spun, 135

Vitrified In good condition, 110

Table 21.5 Values of C

1

in Hazen and Williams

Formula

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21.26

I

Section Twenty-One

21.10.4 Bends and Standard Fitting

Losses

The head loss that occurs in pipe fittings, such as

valves and elbows, and at bends is given by

(21.42)

Table 21.8 gives some typical K values for these

losses.

The values in Table 21.8 are only approximate.

K values vary not only for different sizes of fitting

but with different manufacturers. For these rea-

Fig. 21.21 Head-loss coefficients for a pipe with diverging sides depend on the angle of divergence

of the sides.

A

2

/A

1

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

C

c

0.62 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.89 1.0

Table 21.6 C

c

for Contractions in Pipe Area from A

1

to A

2

Pipe projecting into reservoir K = 0.80

Sharp-cornered entrance K = 0.50

Bellmouth entrance K = 0.05

Slightly rounded entrance K = 0.25

Table 21.7 Coefficients for Entrance Losses

Fitting K

Globe valve, fully open 10.0

Angle valve, fully open 5.0

Swing check valve, fully open 2.5

Gate valve, fully open 0.2

Closed-return bend 2.2

Short-radius elbow (r/ D 1.0)* 0.9

Long-radius elbow (r/ D 1.5) 0.6

45 elbow 0.4

*r = radius of bend; D = pipe diameter.

Table 21.8 Coefficients for Fitting Losses and

Losses at Bends

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21.27

sons, manufacturers data are the best source for

loss coefficients.

Experimental data available on bend losses

cover a rather narrow range of laboratory experi-

ments utilizing small-diameter pipes and do not

give conclusive results. The data indicate the loss-

es vary with surface roughness, Reynolds number,

ratio of radius of bend r to pipe diameter D, and

angle of bend. The data are in agreement that the

head loss, not including friction loss, decreases

sharply as the r/D ratio increases from zero to

around 4 or 5. When r/D increases above 4 or 5,

there is disagreement. Some experiments indicate

that the head loss, not including friction loss in the

bend, increases significantly with an increasing

r/D. Experiments on smooth pipes, indicate that

this increase is very slight and that above an r/D of

4, the bend loss essentially remains constant. (H.

Ito, Pressure Losses in Smooth Pipe Bends, Trans-

actions of the American Society of Civil Engineers,

series D, vol. 82, no. 1, 1960.)

Because experiments have produced such

widely varying data, bend-loss coefficients give

only an approximation of losses to be expected.

Figure 21.22 gives values of K for 90 bends for use

with Eq. (21.42). (K. H. Beij, Pressure Losses for

Fluid Flow in 90 Pipe Bends, Journal of Research,

National Bureau of Standards, vol. 21, July 1938.)

To obtain losses in bends other than 90, the fol-

lowing formula may be used to adjust the K values

given in Fig. 21.22:

(21.43)

where = deflection angle, deg

The K value may be used in place of K in Eq.

(21.42).

Minor losses are often given as the equivalent

length of pipe that has the same energy loss for the

same discharge. (V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen,

Davis Handbook of Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed.,

McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.11 Orifices

An orifice is an opening with a closed perimeter

through which water flows. Orifices may have any

shape, although they are usually round, square, or

rectangular.

21.11.1 Orifice Discharge into

Free Air

Discharge through a sharp-edged orifice may be

calculated from

(21.44)

where Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

C = coefficient of discharge

a = area of orifice, ft

2

g = acceleration due to gravity, ft/s

2

h = head on horizontal center line of ori-

fice, ft

Coefficients of discharge C are given in Table

21.9 for low velocity of approach. If this velocity is

significant, its effect should be taken into account.

Equation (21.44) is applicable for any head for

which the coefficient of discharge is known. For

low heads, measuring the head from the center

line of the orifice is not theoretically correct; how-

ever, this error is corrected by the C values.

The coefficient of discharge C is the product of

the coefficient of velocity C

contraction C

c

. The coefficient of velocity is the

ratio obtained by dividing the actual velocity at the

vena contracta (contraction of the jet discharged)

by the theoretical velocity. The theoretical velocity

may be calculated by writing Bernoullis equation

for points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21.23.

(21.45)

Fig. 21.22 Recommended values of head-loss

coefficients K for 90 bends in closed conduits.

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21.28

I

Section Twenty-One

With the reference plane through point 2, Z

1

= h,

V

1

= 0, p

1

/w = p

2

/w = 0, and Z

2

= 0, and Eq. (21.45)

becomes

(21.46)

The actual velocity, determined experimentally, is

less than the theoretical velocity because of the

energy loss from point 1 to point 2. Typical values

of C

The coefficient of contraction C

c

is the ratio of

the smallest area of the jet, the vena contracta, to

Dia. of circular orifices, ft Side of square orifices, ft

0.02 0.04 0.1 1.0 0.02 0.04 0.1 1.0

0.637 0.618 0.4 0.643 0.621

0.655 0.630 0.613 0.6 0.660 0.636 0.617

0.648 0.626 0 610 0.590 0 8 0.652 0.631 0.615 0.597

0.644 0.623 0.608 0.591 1 0.648 0.628 0.613 0.599

0.637 0.618 0.605 0.593 1.5 0.641 0.622 0.610 0.601

0.632 0.614 0.604 0.595 2 0.637 0.619 0.608 0.602

0.629 0.612 0.603 0.596 2.5 0.634 0.617 0.607 0.602

0.627 0.611 0.603 0.597 3 0.632 0.616 0.607 0.603

0.623 0.609 0.602 0.596 4 0.628 0.614 0.606 0.602

0.618 0.607 0.600 0.596 6 0.623 0.612 0.605 0.602

0.614 0.605 0.600 0.596 8 0.619 0.610 0.605 0.602

0.611 0.603 0.598 0.595 10 0.616 0.608 0.604 0.601

0.601 0.599 0.596 0.594 20 0.606 0.604 0.602 0.600

0.596 0.595 0.594 0.593 50 0.602 0.601 0.600 0.599

0.593 0.592 0.592 0.592 100 0.599 0.598 0.598 0.598

*Hamilton Smith, Jr., Hydraulics, 1886.

Table 21.9 Smiths Coefficients of Discharge for Circular and Square Orifices with Full Contraction*

Head,

ft

Fig. 21.23 Fluid jet takes a parabolic path.

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21.29

the area of the orifice. Contraction of a fluid jet will

occur if the orifice is square-edged and so located

that some of the fluid approaches the orifice at an

angle to the direction of flow through the orifice.

This fluid has a momentum component perpen-

dicular to the axis of the jet which causes the jet to

contract. Typical values of the coefficient of con-

traction range from 0.61 to 0.67.

If the water entering the orifice does not have

this momentum, the contraction is completely sup-

pressed. Figure 21.24a is an example of a partly

suppressed contraction; no contraction occurs at

the bottom of the jet. In Fig. 21.24b, the edges of the

orifice have been rounded to reduce or eliminate

the contraction. With a partly suppressed orifice,

the increased area of jet caused by suppressing the

contraction on one side is partly offset because

more water at a higher velocity enters on the other

sides. The result is a slightly greater coefficient of

contraction.

21.11.2 Submerged Orifices

Flow through a submerged orifice may be comput-

ed by applying Bernoullis equation to points 1 and

2 in Fig. 21.25.

(21.47)

where h

L

= losses in head, ft, between 1 and 2.

Assuming V

1

0, setting h

1

h

2

= h, and using

a coefficient of discharge C to account for losses,

Eq. (21.48) is obtained.

(21.48)

Values of C for submerged orifices do not differ

greatly from those for nonsubmerged orifices. (For

table of values of coefficients of discharge for sub-

merged orifices, see E. F. Brater, Handbook of

Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York.)

21.11.3 Discharge under Falling

Head

The flow from a reservoir or vessel when the

inflow is less than the outflow represents a condi-

tion of falling head. The time required for a certain

quantity of water to flow from a reservoir can be

calculated by equating the volume of water that

flows through the orifice or pipe in time dt to the

Fig. 21.24 Types of orifices: (a) Sharp-edged with partly suppressed contraction. (b) Round-edged with

no contraction.

Fig. 21.25 Discharge through a submerged

orifice.

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21.30

I

Section Twenty-One

volume decrease in the reservoir (Fig. 21.26):

(21.49)

Solving for dt yields

(21.50)

where a = area of orifice, ft

2

A = area of reservoir, ft

2

y = head on orifice at time t, ft

C = coefficient of discharge

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

Expressing the area as a function of y[A = F(y)] and

summing from time zero, when y = h

1

, to time t,

when y = h

2

, Eq. (21.50) becomes

(21.51)

If the area of the reservoir is constant as y varies,

Eq. (21.51) upon integration becomes

(21.52)

where h

1

= head at the start, ft

h

2

= head at the end, ft

t = time interval for head to fall from h

1

to h

2

, s

21.11.4 Fluid Jets

Where the effect of air resistance is small, a fluid

discharged through an orifice into the air will fol-

low the path of a projectile. The initial velocity of

the jet is

(21.53)

where h = head on center line of orifice, ft

C

= coefficient of velocity

The direction of the initial velocity depends on

the orientation of the surface in which the orifice is

located. For simplicity, the following equations

were determined assuming the orifice is located in

a vertical surface (Fig. 21.23). The velocity of the jet

in the X direction (horizontal) remains constant.

(21.54)

The velocity in the Y direction is initially zero and

thereafter a function of time and the acceleration

of gravity:

(21.55)

The X coordinate at time t is

(21.56)

The Y coordinate is

(21.57)

where V

avg

= average velocity over period of time

t. The equation for the path of the jet [Eq. (21.58)],

obtained by solving Eq. (21.57) for t and substitut-

ing in Eq. (21.56), is that for a parabola:

(21.58)

Equation (21.58) can be used to determine C

(21.59)

The X and Y coordinates can be measured in a lab-

oratory and C

Fig. 21.26 Discharge from a reservoir with

dropping water level.

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21.31

21.11.5 Orifice Discharge into

Short Tubes

When water flows from a reservoir into a pipe or

tube with a sharp leading edge, the same type of

contraction occurs as for a sharp-edged orifice. In

the tube or pipe, however, the water contracts and

then expands to fill the tube. If the tube is dis-

charging at atmospheric pressure, a partial vacu-

um is created at the contraction, as can be seen by

applying the Bernoulli equation across points 1

and 2 in Fig. 21.27. This reduced pressure causes

the flow through a short tube to be greater than

that through a sharp-edged orifice of the same

dimensions. If the head on the tube is greater than

50 ft and the tube is short, the water will shoot

through the tube without filling it. When this hap-

pens, the tube acts as a sharp-edged orifice.

For a short tube flowing full, the coefficient of

contraction C

c

= 1.00 and the coefficient of veloci-

ty C

C = 0.82. Solving for head loss as a proportion of

final velocity head, a K value for Eq. (21.42) of 0.5 is

obtained as follows: The theoretical velocity head

with no loss is V

2

T

/ 2g. Actual velocity head is V

2

a

/2g

= (0.82 V

T

)

2

/2g = 0.67 V

2

T

/2g. The head loss h

L

=

1.00 V

2

T

/ 2g 0.67V

2

T

/ 2g = 0.33V

2

T

/ 2g. From h

L

=

KV

2

a

/ 2g, where V

2

a

/ 2g is the actual velocity head,

K = 2gh

L

/V

2

a

= (0.33 V

2

T

2g)/(2g 0.67 V

2

T

) = 0.5

For a reentrant tube projecting into a reservoir

(Fig. 21.28), the coefficients of velocity and discharge

equal 0.75, and the loss coefficient K equals 0.80.

21.11.6 Orifice Discharge into

Diverging Conical Tubes

This type of tube can greatly increase the flow

through an orifice by reducing the pressure at the

orifice below atmospheric. Equation (21.60) for the

pressure at the entrance to the tube is obtained by

writing the Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3

and points 1 and 2 in Fig. 21.29.

(21.60)

where p

2

= gage pressure at tube entrance, psf

w = unit weight of water, lb/ft

3

h = head on center line of orifice, ft

a

2

= area of smallest part of jet (vena con-

tracta, if one exists), ft

2

a

3

= area of discharge end of tube, ft

2

Fig. 21.27 Flow from a reservoir through a

tube with a sharp-edged inlet.

Fig. 21.28 Flow from a reservoir through a

reentrant tube resembles that through a flush tube

(Fig. 21.27) but the head loss is larger.

Fig. 21.29 Diverging conical tube increases

flow from a reservoir through an orifice by reduc-

ing the pressure below atmospheric.

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21.32

I

Section Twenty-One

Discharge is also calculated by writing the

Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 3 in Fig. 21.29.

For this analysis to be valid, the tube must flow

full, and the pressure in the throat of the tube must

not fall to the vapor pressure of water. Experiments

by Venturi show the most efficient angle to be

around 5.

21.12 Siphons

A siphon is a closed conduit that rises above the

hydraulic grade line and in which the pressure at

some point is below atmospheric (Fig. 21.30). The

most common use of a siphon is the siphon spillway.

Flow through a siphon can be calculated by

writing the Bernoulli equation for the entrance

and exit. But the pressure in the siphon must be

checked to be sure it does not fall to the vapor pres-

sure of water. This is accomplished by writing the

Bernoulli equation across a point of known pres-

sure and a point where the elevation head or the

velocity head is a maximum in the conduit. If the

pressure were to fall to the vapor pressure, vapor-

ization would decrease or totally stop the flow.

The pipe shown in Fig. 21.31 is also commonly

called a siphon or inverted siphon. This is a mis-

nomer since the pressure at all points in the pipe is

above atmospheric. The American Society of Civil

Engineers recommends that the inverted siphon

be called a sag pipe to avoid the false impression

that it acts as a siphon.

21.13 Water Hammer

Water hammer is a change in pressure, either above

or below the normal pressure, caused by a variation

of the flow rate in a pipe. Every time the flow rate is

changed, either increased or decreased, it causes

water hammer. However, the stresses are not critical

in small-diameter pipes with flows at low velocities.

The water flowing in a pipe has momentum

equal to the mass of the water times its velocity.

When a valve is closed, this momentum drops to

zero. The change causes a pressure rise, which

begins at the valve and is transmitted up the pipe.

The pressure at the valve will rise until it is high

enough to overcome the momentum of the water

and bring the water to a stop. This pressure

buildup travels the full length of the pipe to the

reservoir (Fig. 21.32).

At the instant the pressure wave reaches the

reservoir, the water in the pipe is motionless, but at

a pressure much higher than normal. The differen-

tial pressure between the pipe and the reservoir

then causes the water in the pipe to rush back into

the reservoir. As the water flows into the reservoir,

the pressure in the pipe falls.

At the instant the pressure at the valve reaches

normal, the water has attained considerable momen-

tum up the pipe. As the water flows away from the

closed valve, the pressure at the valve drops until dif-

ferential pressure again brings the water to a stop.

Fig. 21.30 Siphon between reservoirs rises

above hydraulic grade line yet permits flow of

water between them.

Fig. 21.31 Sag pipe permits flow between two reservoirs despite a dip and a rise.

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21.33

This pressure drop begins at the valve and continues

up the pipe until it reaches the reservoir.

The pressure in the pipe is now below normal,

so water from the reservoir rushes into the pipe.

This cycle repeats over and over until friction

damps these oscillations. Because of the high

velocity of the pressure waves, each cycle may take

only a fraction of a second.

The equation for the velocity of a wave in a

pipe is

(21.61)

where U = velocity of pressure wave along pipe,

ft/s

E = modulus of elasticity of water, 43.2

10

6

psf

= density of water, 1.94 lbs/ft

4

(specific

weight divided by acceleration due to

gravity)

D = diameter of pipe, ft

E

p

= modulus of elasticity of pipe material,

psf

t = thickness of pipe wall, ft

21.13.1 Instantaneous Closure

The magnitude of the pressure change that results

when flow is varied depends on the rate of change

of flow and the length of the pipeline. Any gradual

movement of a valve that is made in less time than

it takes for a pressure wave to travel from the valve

to the reservoir and be reflected back to the valve

produces the same pressure change as an instanta-

neous movement. For instantaneous closure:

(21.62)

where L = length of pipe from reservoir to valve,

ft

T = time required to change setting of

valve, s

A plot of pressure vs. time for various points

along a pipe is shown in Fig. 21.32 for the instanta-

neous closure of a valve. Equation (21.63a) for the

pressure rise or fall caused by adjusting a valve

was derived by equating the momentum of the

water in the pipe to the force impulse required to

bring the water to a stop.

(21.63a)

In terms of pressure head, Eq. (21.63a) becomes

(21.63b)

where p = pressure change from normal due to

instantaneous change of valve set-

ting, psf

h = head change from normal due to

instantaneous change of valve set-

ting, ft

V= change in the velocity of water

caused by adjusting valve, ft/s

If the closing or opening of a valve is instanta-

neous, the pressure change can be calculated in

one step from Eq. (21.63).

21.13.2 Gradual Closure

The following method of determining the pressure

change due to gradual closure of a valve gives a

quick, approximate solution. The pressure rise or

head change is assumed to be in direct proportion

to the closure time:

(21.64)

Fig. 21.32 Variation with time of pressure at

three points in a penstock, for water hammer from

instantaneous closure of a valve.

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21.34

I

Section Twenty-One

where h

g

= head change due to gradual closure, ft

t

i

= time for wave to travel from the

valve to the reservoir and be reflect-

ed back to valve, s

T = actual closure time of valve, s

h = head rise due to instantaneous clo-

sure, ft

L = length of pipeline, ft

V = change in velocity of water due to

instantaneous closure, ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

Arithmetic integration is a more exact method

for finding the pressure change due to gradual

movement of a valve. The calculations can be read-

ily programmed for a computer and are available

in software packages. Integration is a direct means

of studying every physical element of the process

of water hammer. The valve is assumed to close in

a series of small movements, each causing an indi-

vidual pressure wave. The magnitude of these

pressure waves is given by Eq. (21.63). The indi-

vidual pressure waves are totaled to give the pres-

sure at any desired point for a certain time.

The first step in this method is to choose the

time interval for each incremental movement of

the valve. (It is convenient to make the time inter-

val some submultiple of L/U, such as L/aU, where a

equals any integer, so that the pressure waves

reflected at the reservoir will be superimposed

upon the new waves being formed at the valve.

The wave formed at the valve will be opposite in

sign to the water reflected from the reservoir, so

there will be a tendency for the waves to cancel

out.) Assuming a valve is fully open and requires T

seconds for closing, the number of incremental

closing movements required is T/t, where t, the

increment of time, equals L/aU.

Once the time interval has been determined, an

estimate of the velocity change Vduring each time

interval must be made, to apply Eq. (21.63). A rough

estimate for the velocity following the incremental

change is V

n

= V

o

(A

n

/A

o

), where V

n

is the velocity

following a certain incremental movement, V

o

the

original velocity, A

n

the area of the valve opening

after the corresponding incremental movement,

and A

o

the original area of the valve opening.

The change in head can now be calculated

with Eq. (21.63). With the head known, the esti-

mated velocity V

n

can be checked by the following

equation:

(21.65)

where H

o

= head at valve before any movement

of valve, ft

H

o

+ h = total pressure at valve after particu-

lar movement; this includes pres-

sure change caused by valve move-

ment plus effect of waves reflected

from reservoir, ft

A

n

= area of valve opening after n incre-

mental closings; this area can be

determined from closure character-

istics of valve or by assuming its

characteristics, ft

2

If the velocity obtained from Eq. (21.65) differs

greatly from the estimated velocity, then that

obtained from Eq. (21.65) should be used to recal-

culate h.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook

of Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc.,

New York.)

Example 21.8: The following problem illustrates

the use of the preceding methods and compares

the results: Steel penstock, length = 3000 ft, diam-

eter = 10 ft, area = 78.5 ft

2

, initial velocity = 10 ft/s,

penstock thickness = 1 in, head at turbine with

valve open = 1000 ft, and modulus of elasticity of

steel = 43.2 10

8

psf.

(For penstocks as shown in Fig. 21.32, thickness

and diameter normally vary with head. Thus, the

velocity of the pressure waves is different in each

section of the penstock. Separate calculations for

the velocity of the pressure wave should be made

for each thickness and diameter of penstock to

obtain the time required for a wave to travel to the

reservoir and back to the valve.)

Velocity of pressure wave, from Eq. (21.61), is

= 3180 ft/s

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21.35

The time required for the wave to travel to the

reservoir and be reflected back to the valve = 2L/U

= 6000/3180 = 1.90 s.

If closure time T of the valve is less than 1.90 s,

the closure is instantaneous, and the pressure rise,

from Eq. (21.63), is

Assuming T = 4.75 s, approximate equation

(21.64) gives the following result:

21.13.3 Surge Tanks

It is uneconomical to design long pipelines for

pressures created by water hammer or to operate a

valve slowly enough to reduce these pressures.

Usually, to prevent water hammer, a surge tank is

installed close to valves at the end of long conduits.

A surge tank is a tank containing water and con-

nected to the conduit. The water column, in effect,

floats on the line.

When a valve is suddenly closed, the water in

the line rushes into the surge tank. The water level

in the tank rises until the increased pressure in the

surge tank overcomes the momentum of the water.

When a valve is suddenly opened, the surge tank

supplies water to the line when the pressure

drops. The section of pipe between the surge tank

and the valve (Fig. 21.33) must still be designed for

water hammer; but the closure time to reduce the

pressures for this section will be only a fraction of

the time required without the surge tank.

Although a surge tank is one of the most com-

monly used devices to prevent water hammer, it is

by no means the only one. Various types of relief

valves and air chambers are widely used on small-

diameter lines, where the pressure of water ham-

mer may be relieved by the release of a relatively

small quantity of water.

Pipe Stresses

21.14 Pipe Stresses

Perpendicular to the

Longitudinal Axis

The stresses acting perpendicular to the longitudi-

nal axis of a pipe are caused by either internal or

external pressures on the pipe walls.

Internal pressure creates a stress commonly

called hoop tension. It may be calculated by taking a

free-body diagram of a 1-in-long strip of pipe cut by

a vertical plane through the longitudinal axis (Fig.

21.34). The forces in the vertical direction cancel out.

The sum of the forces in the horizontal direction is

(21.66)

where p = internal pressure, psi

D = outside diameter of pipe, in

F = force acting on each cut of edge of

pipe, lb

Hence, the stress, psi, on the pipe material is

(21.67)

where A = area of cut edge of pipe, ft

2

t = thickness of pipe wall, in

Fig. 21.33 Surge tank is placed near a valve on

a penstock to prevent water hammer.

Fig. 21.34 Internal pipe pressure produces hoop

tension.

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21.36

I

Section Twenty-One

From the derivation of Eq. (21.67), it would

appear that the diameter used for calculations

should be the inside diameter. However, Eq. (21.67)

is not theoretically exact and gives stresses slightly

lower than those actually developed. For this reason

the outside diameter often is used (see also Art. 6.10).

Equation (21.67) is exact for all practical purpos-

es when D/t is equal to or greater than 50. If D/t is

less than 10, this equation will usually be quite con-

servative and therefore will yield an uneconomical

design. For steel pipes, Eq. (21.67) gives directly the

thickness required to resist internal pressure.

For concrete pipes, this analysis is approximate,

however, since concrete cannot resist large tensile

stresses. The force F must be carried by steel rein-

forcing. The internal diameter is used in Eq. (21.67)

for concrete pipe.

When a pipe has external pressure acting on it,

the analysis is much more complex because the

pipe material no longer acts in direct tension. The

external pressure creates bending and compressive

stresses that cause buckling.

(S. P. Timoshenko and J. M. Gere, Theory of

elastic Stability, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Book Com-

pany, New York.)

21.15 Pipe Stresses Parallel

to the Longitudinal Axis

If a pipe is supported on piers, it acts like a beam. The

stresses created can be calculated from the bending

moment and shear equations for a continuous circu-

lar hollow beam. This stress is usually not critical in

high-head pipes. However, thin-walled pipes usual-

ly require stiffening to prevent buckling and exces-

sive deflection from the concentrated loads.

21.16 Temperature Expansion

of Pipe

If a pipe is subject to a wide range of temperatures,

the pipe should be the stress due to temperature

variation designed for or expansion joints should

be provided. The stress, psi, due to a temperature

change is

(21.68)

where E = modulus of elasticity of pipe material,

psi

T = temperature change from installation

temperature

c = coefficient of thermal expansion of

pipe material

The movement that should be allowed for, if

expansion joints are to be used, is

(21.69)

where L = movement in length L of pipe

L = length between expansion joints

21.17 Forces Due to Pipe

Bends

It is common practice to use thrust blocks in pipe

bends to take the forces on the pipe caused by the

momentum change and the unbalanced internal

pressure of the water.

In all bends, there will be a slight loss of head

due to turbulence and friction. This loss will cause

a pressure change across the bend, but it is usually

small enough to be neglected. When there is a

change in the cross-sectional area of the pipe, there

will be an additional pressure change that can be

calculated with the Bernoulli equation (see Exam-

ple 6, Art. 21.6). In this case, the pressure differen-

tial may be large and must be considered.

The force diagram in Fig. 21.35 is a convenient

method for finding the resultant force on a bend.

The forces can be resolved into X and Y compo-

nents to find the magnitude and direction of the

resultant force on the pipe. In Fig. 21.35:

V

1

= velocity before change in size of

pipe, ft/s

V

2

= velocity after change in size of pipe,

ft/s

p

1

= pressure before bend or size change

in pipe, psf

p

2

= pressure after bend or size change in

pipe, psf

A

1

= area before size change in pipe, ft

2

A

2

= area after size change in pipe, ft

2

F

2m

= force due to momentum of water in

section 2 = V

2

Qw/g

F

1m

= force due to momentum of water in

section 1 = V

1

Qw/g

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21.37

P

2

= pressure of water in section 2 times

area of section 2 = p

2

A

2

P

1

= pressure of water in section 1 times

area of section 1 = p

1

A

1

w = unit weight of liquid, lb/ft

3

Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

If the pressure loss in the bend is neglected and there

is no change in magnitude of velocity around the

bend, Eqs. (21.70) and (21.71) give a quick solution.

(21.70)

(21.71)

where R = resultant force on bend, lb

= angle R makes with F

1m

p = pressure, psf

w = unit weight of water, 62.4 lb/ft

3

V = velocity of flow, ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

A = area of pipe, ft

2

= angle between pipes (0 < < 180)

Although thrust blocks are normally used to

take the force on bends, in many cases the pipe

material takes this force. The stress caused by this

force is directly additive to other stresses along

the longitudinal axis of the pipe. In small pipes,

the force caused by bends can easily be carried by

the pipe material; however, the joints must also

be able to take these forces.

Culverts

A culvert is a closed conduit for the passage of sur-

face drainage under a highway, a railroad, canal, or

other embankment. The slope of a culvert and its

inlet and outlet conditions are usually determined

by the topography of the site. Because of the many

combinations obtained by varying the entrance con-

ditions, exit conditions, and slope, no single formula

can be given that will apply to all culvert problems.

The basic method for determining discharge

through a culvert requires application of the

Bernoulli equation between a point just outside

the entrance and a point somewhere downstream.

An understanding of uniform and nonuniform

flow is necessary to understand culvert flow fully.

However, an exact theoretical analysis, involving

detailed calculation of drawdown and backwater

curves, is usually unwarranted because of the rela-

Fig. 21.35 Forces produced by flow at a pipe bend and change in diameter.

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21.38

I

Section Twenty-One

tively low accuracy attainable in determining

runoff. Neglecting drawdown and backwater

curves does not seriously affect the accuracy but

greatly simplifies the calculations.

21.18 Culverts on Critical

Slopes or Steeper

In a culvert with a critical slope, the normal depth

(Art. 21.22) is equal to the critical depth (Art. 21.23).

Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged

but Free Exit

I

If a culvert is on critical slope or

steeper, that is, the normal depth is equal to or less

than the critical depth, the discharge will be entire-

ly dependent on the entrance conditions (Fig.

21.36). Increasing the slope of the culvert past crit-

ical slope (the slope just sufficient to maintain flow

at critical depth) will decrease the depth of flow

downstream from the entrance. But the increased

slope will not increase the amount of water enter-

ing the culvert because the entrance depth will

remain at critical.

The discharge is given by the equation for flow

through an orifice if the entrance is submerged, or

by the equation for flow over a weir if the entrance

is not submerged. Coefficients of discharge for weirs

and orifices give good results, but they do not cover

the entire range of entry conditions encountered in

culvert problems. For this reason, computer soft-

ware, charts, and nomographs have been devel-

oped and are used almost exclusively in design.

(Handbook of Concrete Culvert Pipe Hydraulics,

EB058W, Portland Cement Association.)

Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Sub-

merged

I

In this case, the submergence of the exit

will cause a hydraulic jump to occur in the culvert

(Fig. 21.37). The jump will not affect the culvert dis-

charge, and the control will still be at the inlet.

Entrance and Exit Submerged

I

When

both the exit and entrance are submerged (Fig.

21.38), the culvert flows full, and the discharge is

independent of the slope. This is normal pipe flow

and is easily solved by using the Manning or

Darcy-Weisbach formula for friction loss [Eq.

(21.33d) or (21.30)]. From the Bernoulli equation for

the entrance and exit, and the Manning equation

for friction loss, the following equation is obtained:

(21.72)

Solution for the velocity of flow yields

(21.73)

Fig. 21.36 Flow through a culvert with free discharge. Normal depth d

n

is less than critical depth d

c

;

slope is greater than the critical slope. Discharge depends on the type of inlet and the head H.

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21.39

where H = elevation difference between head-

water and tailwater, ft

V = velocity in culvert, ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

K

e

= entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21.20)

n = Manning s roughness coefficient

L = length of culvert, ft

R = hydraulic radius of culvert, ft

Equation (21.72) can be solved directly since the

velocity is the only unknown.

21.19 Culverts on Subcritical

Slopes

Critical slope is the slope just sufficient to maintain

flow at critical depth. When the slope is less than

critical, the flow is considered subcritical (Art. 21.23).

Entrance Submerged or Unsubmerged

but Free Exit

I

For these conditions, depending

on the head, the flow can be either pressure or

open-channel.

The discharge, for the open-channel condition

(Fig. 21.39), is obtained by writing the Bernoulli

equation for a point just outside the entrance and

a point a short distance downstream from the

entrance. Thus,

(21.74)

The velocity can be determined from the Man-

ning equation:

(21.75)

Substituting this into Eq. (21.74) yields

(21.76)

where H = head on entrance measured from bot-

tom of culvert, ft

K

e

= entrance-loss coefficient (Art. 21.20)

Fig. 21.37 Flow through a culvert with entrance

unsubmerged but exit submerged. When slope is

less than critical, open-channel flow takes place, and

d

n

> d

c

. When slope exceeds critical, flow depends

on inlet condition, and d

n

< d

c

.

Fig. 21.38 With entrance and exit of a culvert

submerged, normal pipe flow occurs. Discharge is

independent of slope. The fluid flows under pres-

sure. Discharge may be determined from Bernoulli

and Manning equations.

Fig. 21.39 Open-channel flow occurs in a cul-

vert with free discharge and normal depth d

n

greater than the critical depth d

c

when the entrance

is unsubmerged or slightly submerged. Discharge

depends on head H, loss at entrance, and slope of

culvert.

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21.40

I

Section Twenty-One

S = slope of energy grade line, which for

culverts is assumed to equal slope of

bottom of culvert

R = hydraulic radius of culvert, ft

d

n

= normal depth of flow, ft

To solve Eq. (21.76), it is necessary to try differ-

ent values of d

n

and corresponding values of R

until a value is found that satisfies the equation. If

the head on a culvert is high, a value of d

n

less than

the culvert diameter will not satisfy Eq. (21.76).

This means the flow is under pressure (Fig. 21.40),

and discharge is given by Eq. (21.72).

When the depth of the water is slightly below

the top of the culvert, there is a range of unstable

flow fluctuating between pressure and open chan-

nel. If this condition exists, it is good practice to

check the discharge for both pressure flow and

open-channel flow. The condition that gives the

lesser discharge should be assumed to exist.

Short Culvert with Free Exit

I

When a

culvert on a slope less than critical has a free exit,

there will be a drawdown of the water surface at

the exit and for some distance upstream. The mag-

nitude of the drawdown depends on the friction

slope of the culvert and the difference between the

critical and normal depths. If the friction slope

approaches critical, the difference between normal

depth and critical depth is small (Fig. 21.39), and

the drawdown will not extend for any significant

distance upstream. When the friction slope is flat,

there will be a large difference between normal

and critical depth. The effect of the drawdown will

extend a greater distance upstream and may reach

the entrance of a short culvert (Fig. 21.41). This

drawdown of the water level in the entrance of the

culvert will increase the discharge, causing it to be

about the same as for a culvert on a slope steeper

than critical (Art. 21.18). Most culverts, however,

are on too steep a slope for the backwater to have

any effect for an appreciable distance upstream.

Entrance Unsubmerged but Exit Sub-

merged

I

If the level of submergence of the exit is

well below the bottom of the entrance (Fig. 21.37),

the backwater from the submergence will not

extend to the entrance. The discharge for this case

will be given by Eq. (21.76).

If the level of submergence of the exit is close to

the level of the entrance, it may be assumed that

the backwater will cause the culvert to flow full and

Fig. 21.40 Culvert with free discharge and normal depth d

n

greater than critical depth d

c

flows full when

the entrance is deeply submerged. Discharge is given by equations for pipe flow.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.41

a pipe flow condition will result. The discharge for

this case is given by Eqs. (21.72) and (21.73).

When the level of submergence falls between

these two cases and the project does not warrant a

trial approach with backwater curves, it is good

practice to assume the condition that gives the less-

er discharge.

21.20 Entrance Losses for

Culverts

Flow in a culvert may be significantly affected by loss

in head because of conditions at the entrance (Arts.

21.18 and 21.19). Table 21.10 lists coefficients of

entrance loss K

e

for some typical entrance conditions.

These values are for culverts flowing full. When

the entrance is not submerged, the coefficients are

usually somewhat lower. But because of the many

unknowns entering into determination of culvert

flow, the values tabulated can be used for sub-

merged or unsubmerged cases without much loss

of accuracy.

Example 21.9: Given: Maximum head above the

top of the culvert = 5 ft, slope = 0.01, length = 300

ft, discharge Q = 40 ft

3

/s, n = 0.013, and free exit.

Find: size of culvert.

Procedure: First assume a trial culvert; then

investigate the assumed section to find its dis-

charge. Assume a 2 2 ft concrete box section. Cal-

culate Q assuming entrance control, with Eq.

(21.44) for discharge through an orifice. The coeffi-

cient of discharge C for a 2-ft-square orifice is about

0.6. Head h on center line of entrance = 5 +

1

/2 2

= 6 ft. Entrance area a = 2 2 = 4 ft

2

.

For entrance control, the flow must be supercritical

and d

n

must be less than 2 ft. First find d

n

.

To calculate the hydraulic radius, assume the

depth is slightly less than 2 ft. since this will give

the maximum possible value of the hydraulic

radius for this culvert.

Application of Eq. (21.33a) gives

Since d

n

is greater than the culvert depth, the flow

is under pressure, and the entrance will not control.

Since the culvert is under pressure, Eq. (21.72)

applies. But

H = 5 + 0.01 300 = 8 ft

(see Fig. 21.40). The hydraulic radius for pipe flow

is R = 2

2

/8 =

1

/2. Substitution in Eq. (21.72) yields

Q =Va = 9.95 4 = 39.8 ft

3

/s

Fig. 21.41 Drawdown of water surface at a free

exit of a short culvert with slope less than critical

affects depth at entrance and controls discharge.

Inlet condition K

e

Sharp-edged projecting inlet 0.9

Flush inlet, square edge 0.5

Concrete pipe, groove or bell, projecting 0.15

Concrete pipe, groove or bell, flush 0.10

Well-rounded entrance 0.08

Table 21.10 Entrance Loss Coefficients for

Culverts

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21.42

I

Section Twenty-One

Since the discharge of tile assumed culvert sec-

tion under the allowable head equals the maxi-

mum expected runoff, the assumed culvert would

be satisfactory.

Open-Channel Flow

Free surface flow, or open-channel flow, includes

all cases of flow in which the liquid surface is open

to the atmosphere. Thus, flow in a pipe is open-

channel flow if the pipe is only partly full.

21.21 Basic Elements of Open

Channels

A uniform channel is one of constant cross section.

It has uniform flow if the grade, or slope, of the

water surface is the same as that of the channel.

Hence, depth of flow is constant throughout.

Steady flowin a channel occurs if the depth at any

location remains constant with time.

The discharge Qat any section is defined as the

volume of water passing that section per unit of

time. It is expressed in cubic feet per second, ft

3

/s,

and is given by

(21.77)

where V = average velocity, ft/s

A = cross-sectional area of flow, ft

2

When the discharge is constant, the flow is said to

be continuous and therefore

(21.78)

where the subscripts designate different channel

sections. Equation (21.78) is known as the continu-

ity equation for continuous steady flow.

In a uniform channel, varied flow occurs if the

longitudinal water-surface profile is not parallel with

the channel bottom. Varied flow exists within the

limits of backwater curves, within a hydraulic jump,

and within a channel of changing slope or discharge.

Depth of flow d is taken as the vertical distance,

ft, from the bottom of a channel to the water sur-

face. The wetted perimeter is the length, ft, of a line

bounding the cross-sectional area of flow, minus

the free surface width. The hydraulic radius R

equals the area of flow divided by its wetted

perimeter. The average velocity of flow V is defined

as the discharge divided by the area of flow,

(21.79)

The velocity head H

V

, ft, is generally given by

(21.80)

where V = average velocity from Eq. (21.79), ft/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

Velocity heads of individual filaments of flow vary

considerably above and below the velocity head

based on the average velocity. Since these veloci-

ties are squared in head and energy computations,

the average of the velocity heads will be greater

than the average-velocity head. The true velocity

head may be expressed as

(21.81)

where is an empirical coefficient that represents

the degree of turbulence. Experimental data indi-

cate that may vary from about 1.03 to 1.36 for

prismatic channels. It is, however, normally taken

as 1.00 for practical hydraulic work and is evaluat-

ed only for precise investigations of energy loss.

The total energy per pound of water relative to

the bottom of the channel at a vertical section is

called the specific energy head H

e

. It is composed

of the depth of flow at any point, plus the velocity

head at the point. It is expressed in feet as

(21.82)

A longitudinal profile of the elevation of the spe-

cific energy head is called the energy grade line, or

the total-head line. A longitudinal profile of the

water surface is called the hydraulic grade line.

The vertical distance between these profiles at any

point equals the velocity head at that point.

Figure 21.42 shows a section of uniform open

channel for which the slopes of the water surface

S

w

and the energy grade line S equal the slope of

the channel bottom S

o

.

Loss of head due to friction h

f

in channel length

L equals the drop in elevation of the channel Z in

the same distance.

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21.43

21.22 Normal Depth of Flow

The depth of equilibrium flow that exists in the

channel of Fig. 21.42 is called the normal depth d

n

.

This depth is unique for specific discharge and

channel conditions. It may be computed by a trial-

and-error process when the channel shape, slope,

roughness, and discharge are known. A form of the

Manning equation has been suggested for this cal-

culation. (V. T. Chow. Open-Channel Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

(21.83)

where A = area of flow, ft

2

R = hydraulic radius, ft

Q = amount of flow or discharge, ft

3

/s

n = Mannings roughness coefficient

S = slope of energy grade line or loss of

head, ft, due to friction per lin ft of

channel

AR

2/3

is referred to as a section factor. Depth d

n

for

uniform channels may be computed with computer

software or for manual computations simplified by

use of tables that relate d

n

to the bottom width of a

rectangular or trapezoidal channel, or to the diame-

ter of a circular channel. (See, for example, E. F.

Brater, Handbook of Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-

Hill Book Company, New York.)

In a prismatic channel of gradually increasing

slope, normal depth decreases downstream, as

shown in Fig. 21.43, and specific energy first

decreases and then increases as shown in Fig. 21.44.

The specific energy is high initially where the

channel is relatively flat because of the large nor-

mal depth (Fig. 21.43). As the depth decreases

downstream, the specific energy also decreases. It

reaches a minimum at the point where the flow

satisfies the equation

(21.84)

in which T is the top width of the channel, ft. For a

rectangular channel, Eq. (21.84) reduces to

Fig. 21.42 Characteristics of uniform open-channel flow.

Fig. 21.43 Prismatic channel with gradually

increasing bottom slope. Normal depth increases

downstream as slope increases.

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21.44

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.85)

where V = Q/A = mean velocity of flow, ft

3

/s

d = depth of flow, ft

This indicates that the specific energy is a minimum

where the normal depth equals twice the velocity

head. As the depth continues to decrease in the

downstream direction, the specific energy increases

again because of the higher velocity head (Fig. 21.44).

21.23 Critical Depth of Open-

Channel Flow

The depth of flow that satisfies Eq. (21.84) is called

the critical depth d

c

. For a given value of specific

energy, the critical depth gives the greatest dis-

charge, or conversely, for a given discharge, the

specific energy is a minimum for the critical depth

(Fig. 21.44).

In the section of mild slope upstream from the

critical-depth point in Fig 21.43, the depth is

greater than critical. The flow there is called sub-

critical flow, indicating that the velocity is less

than that at critical depth. In the section of steeper

slope below the critical-depth point, the depth is

below critical. The velocity there exceeds that at

critical depth, and flow is supercritical.

Critical depth may be computed for a uniform

channel once the discharge is known. Determina-

tion of this depth is independent of the channel

slope and roughness since critical depth simply rep-

resents a depth for which the specific energy head

is a minimum. Critical depth may be calculated by

trial and error with Eq. (21.84), or it may be found

directly from tables (E. F. Brater, Handbook of

Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York). For rectangular channels, Eq. (21.84)

may be reduced to

(21.86)

Fig. 21.44 Specific energy head H

e

changes with depth for constant discharge in a rectangular channel

of changing slope. H

e

is a minimum for flow with critical depth.

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21.45

where d

c

= critical depth, ft

Q = quantity of flow or discharge, ft

3

/s

b = width of channel, ft

Critical slope is the slope of the channel bed

that will maintain flow at critical depth. Such slopes

should be avoided in channel design because flow

near critical depth tends to be unstable and exhibits

turbulence and water-surface undulations.

Critical depth, once calculated, should be plot-

ted for the full length of a uniform channel,

regardless of slope, to determine whether the nor-

mal depth at any section is subcritical or supercrit-

ical. [As indicated by Eq. (21.85), if the velocity

head is less than half the depth in a rectangular

channel, flow is subcritical, but if velocity head

exceeds half the depth, flow is supercritical.] If

channel configuration is such that the normal

depth must go from below to above critical, a

hydraulic jump will occur, along with a high loss of

energy. Critical depth will change if the channel

cross section changes, so the possibility of a

hydraulic jump in the vicinity of a transition

should be investigated.

For every depth greater than critical depth,

there is a corresponding depth less than critical that

has an identical value of specific energy (Fig. 21.44).

These depths of equal energy are called alternate

depths. The fact that the energy is the same for

alternate depths does not mean that the flow may

switch from one alternate depth to the other and

back again; flow will always seek to attain the nor-

mal depth in a uniform channel and will maintain

that depth unless an obstruction is met.

It can be seen from Fig. 21.44 that any obstruc-

tion to flow that causes a reduction in total head

causes subcritical flow to experience a drop in

depth and supercritical flow to undergo an

increase in depth.

If supercritical flow exists momentarily on a flat

slope because of a sudden grade change in the

channel (Fig. 21.52b, p. 21.57), depth increases sud-

denly from the depth below critical to a depth

above critical in a hydraulic jump. The depth fol-

lowing the jump will not be the alternate depth,

however. There has been a loss of energy in mak-

ing the jump. The new depth is said to be sequent

to the initial depth, indicating an irreversible

occurrence. There is no similar phenomenon that

allows a sudden change in depth from subcritical

flow to supercritical flow with a corresponding

gain in energy. Such a change occurs gradually,

without turbulence, as indicated in Fig. 21.45.

21.24 Mannings Equation for

Open Channels

One of the more popular of the numerous equa-

tions developed for determination of flow in an

open channel is Mannings variation of the Chezy

formula,

(21.87)

Fig. 21.45 Change in flow stage from subcritical to supercritical occurs gradually.

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21.46

I

Section Twenty-One

where R = hydraulic radius, ft

V = mean velocity of flow, ft/s

S = slope of energy grade line or loss of

head due to friction, ft/lin ft of channel

C = Chezy roughness coefficient

Manning proposed

(21.88)

where n is the coefficient of roughness in the earli-

er Ganguillet-Kutter formula (see also Art. 21.25).

When Mannings C is used in the Chezy formula,

the Manning equation for flow velocity in an open

channel results:

(21.89)

Since the discharge Q = VA, Eq. (21.89) may be

written

(21.90)

where A = area of flow, ft

2

Q = quantity of flow, ft

3

/s

Roughness Coefficient for Open Channels.

Values of the roughness coefficient n for Man-

nings equation have been determined for a wide

range of natural and artificial channel construction

materials. Excerpts from a table of these coeffi-

cients taken from V. T. Chow, Open-Channel

Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, are in Table 21.11. Dr. Chow compiled data

for his table from work by R. E. Horton and from

technical bulletins published by the U.S. Depart-

ment of Agriculture.

Channel roughness does not remain constant

with time or even depth of flow. An unlined channel

excavated in earth may have one n value when first

put in service and another when overgrown with

weeds and brush. If an unlined channel is to have a

reasonably constant n value over its useful lifetime,

there must be a continuing maintenance program.

Shallow flow in an unlined channel will result

in an increase in the effective n value if the channel

bottom is covered with large boulders or ridges of

silt since these projections would then have a larg-

er influence on the flow than for deep flow. A deep-

er-than-normal flow will also result in an increase

in the effective n value if there is a dense growth of

brush along the banks within the path of flow.

When channel banks are overtopped during a

flood, the effective n value increases as the flow

spills into heavy growth bordering the channel.

(Although based on surface roughness, n in prac-

tice is sometimes treated as a lumped parameter for

all head losses.) The roughness of a lined channel

experiences change with age because of both dete-

rioration of the surface and accumulation of foreign

matter; therefore, the average n values given in

Table 21.11 are recommended only for well-main-

tained channels. (See also Art. 21.9 and Table 21.4.)

21.25 Water-Surface Profiles

for Gradually Varied

Flow

Examples of various surface curves possible with

gradually varied flow are shown in Fig. 21.46.

These surface profiles represent backwater curves

that form under the conditions illustrated in exam-

ples (a) through (r).

These curves are divided into five groups,

according to the slope of the channel in which they

appear (Art. 21.23). Each group is labeled with a let-

ter descriptive of the slope: M for mild (subcritical),

S for steep (supercritical), C for critical, H for hori-

zontal, and A for adverse. The two dashed lines in

the left-hand figure for each class are the normal-

depth line N.D.L. and the critical-depth line C.D.L.

The N.D.L. and C.D.L. are identical for a channel of

critical slope, and the N.D.L. is replaced by a hori-

zontal line, at an arbitrary elevation, for the chan-

nels of horizontal or adverse slope.

There are three types of surface-profile curves

possible in channels of mild or steep slope, and

two types for channels of critical, horizontal, and

adverse slope.

The M1 curve is the familiar surface profile from

which all backwater curves derive their name and is

the most important from a practical point of view. It

forms above the normal-depth line and occurs when

water is backed up a stream by high water in the

downstream channel, as shown in Fig. 21.46a and b.

The M2 curve forms between the normal- and

critical-depth lines. It occurs under conditions

shown in Fig. 21.46c and d, corresponding to an

increase in channel width or slope.

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21.47

The M3 curve forms between the channel bot-

tom and critical-depth line. It terminates in a

hydraulic jump, except where a drop-off in the

channel occurs before a jump can form. Examples

of the M3 curve are in Fig. 21.46e and f (a partly

opened sluice gate and a decrease in channel

slope, respectively).

The S1 curve begins at a hydraulic jump and

extends downstream, becoming tangent to a hori-

zontal line (Fig. 21.46g and h) under channel condi-

tions corresponding to those for Fig. 21.46a and b.

The S2 curve, commonly called a drawdown

curve, extends downstream from the critical depth

and becomes tangent to the normal-depth line

under conditions corresponding to those for Fig.

21.46i and j.

The S3 curve is of the transitional type. It forms

between two normal depths of less than critical

Min Avg Max

A. Open-channel flow in closed conduits

1. Corrugated-metal storm drain 0.021 0.024 0.030

2. Cement-mortar surface 0.011 0.013 0.015

3. Concrete (unfinished)

a. Steel form 0.012 0.013 0.014

b. Smooth wood form 0.012 0.014 0.016

c. Rough wood form 0.015 0.017 0.020

B. Lined channels

1. Metal

a. Smooth steel (unpainted) 0.011 0.012 0.014

b. Corrugated 0.021 0.025 0.030

2. Wood

a. Planed, untreated 0.010 0.012 0.014

3. Concrete

a. Float finish 0.013 0.015 0.016

b. Gunite, good section 0.016 0.019 0.023

c. Gunite, wavy section 0.018 0.022 0.025

4. Masonry

a. Cemented rubble 0.017 0.025 0.030

b. Dry rubble 0.023 0.032 0.035

5. Asphalt

a. Smooth 0.013 0.013

b. Rough 0.016 0.016

C. Unlined channels

1. Excavated earth, straight and uniform

a. Clean, after weathering 0.018 0.022 0.025

b. With short grass, few weeds 0.022 0.027 0.033

c. Dense weeds, high as flow depth 0.050 0.080 0.120

d. Dense brush, high stage 0.080 0.100 0.140

2. Dredged earth

a. No vegetation 0.025 0.028 0.033

b. Light brush on banks 0.035 0.050 0.060

3. Rock cuts

a. Smooth and uniform 0.025 0.035 0.040

b. Jagged and irregular 0.035 0.040 0.050

Table 21.11 Values of the Roughness Coefficient n for Use in the Manning Equation

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21.48

I

Section Twenty-One

depth under conditions corresponding to those for

Fig. 21.46k and l.

Examples in Fig. 21.46m through r show condi-

tions for the formation of C, H, and A profiles.

The curves in Fig. 21.46 approach the normal-

depth line asymptotically and terminate abruptly

in a vertical line as they approach the critical depth.

The curves that approach the bottom intersect it at

Fig. 21.46 Typical flow profiles for channels with various slopes. N.D.L. indicates normal-depth line;

C.D.L., critical-depth line.

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21.49

a definite angle but are imaginary near the bottom

since velocity would have to be infinite to satisfy

Eq. (21.77) if the depth were zero. The curves are

shown dotted near the critical-depth line as a

reminder that this portion of the curve does not

possess the same degree of accuracy as the rest of

the curve because of neglect of vertical components

of velocity in the calculations. These curves either

start or end at what is called a point of control.

A point of control is a physical location in a

prismatic channel at which the depth of steady

flow may readily be determined. This depth is usu-

ally different from the normal depth for the chan-

nel because of a grade change, gate, weir, dam, free

overfall, or other feature at that location that caus-

es a backwater curve to form. Calculations for the

length and shape of the surface profile of a back-

water curve start at this known depth and location

and proceed either up or downstream, depending

on the type of flow. For subcritical flow conditions,

the curve proceeds upstream from the point of

control in a true backwater curve. The surface

curve that occurs under supercritical flow condi-

tions proceeds downstream from the point of con-

trol and might better be called a downwater curve.

The point of control is always at the down-

stream end of a backwater curve in subcritical flow

and at the upstream end for supercritical flow. This

is explained as follows: A backwater curve may be

thought of as being the result of some disruption

of uniform flow that causes a wave of disturbance

in the channel. The wave travels at a speed, known

as its celerity, which always equals the critical

velocity for the channel. If a disturbance wave

attempts to move upstream against supercritical

flow (flow moving at a speed greater than critical),

it will be swept downstream by the flow and have

no effect on conditions upstream. A disturbance

wave is held steady by critical flow and moves

upstream in subcritical flow.

When a hydraulic jump occurs on a mild slope

and is followed by a free overfall (Fig. 21.51), back-

water curves form both before and after the jump.

The point of control for the curve in the supercrit-

ical region above the jump will be located at the

vena contracta that forms just below the sluice

gate. The point of control for the backwater curve

in the subcritical region below the jump is at the

free overfall where critical depth occurs. Computa-

tions for these backwater curves are carried toward

the jump from their respective points of control

and are extended across the jump to help deter-

mine its exact location. But a backwater curve can-

not be calculated through a hydraulic jump from

either direction. The surface profiles involved ter-

minate abruptly in a vertical line as they approach

the critical depth, and a hydraulic jump always

occurs across critical depth. See Art. 21.27.5.

(R. H. French, Open-Channel Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.26 Backwater-Curve

Computations

The solution of a backwater curve involves compu-

tation of a gradually varied flow profile. Solutions

available include the graphical-integration, direc-

tion-integration, and step methods. Explanations of

both the graphical- and direct-integration methods

are in V. T. Chow, Open-Channel Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Two variations of the step method include the

direct or uniform method and the standard

method. They are simple and widely used and are

available in many software packages.

For step-method computations, the channel is

divided into short lengths, or reaches, with rela-

tively small variation. In a series of steps starting

from a point of control, each reach is solved in suc-

cession. Step methods have been developed for

channels with uniform or varying cross sections.

Direct step method of backwater computation

involves solving for an unknown length of channel

between two known depths. The procedure is

applicable only to uniform prismatic channels with

gradually varying area of flow.

For the section of channel in Fig. 21.47, Bernoullis

equation for the reach between sections 1 and 2 is

(21.91)

where V

1

and V

2

= mean velocities of flow at

sections 1 and 2, ft/s

d

1

and d

2

= depths of flow at sections 1

and 2, ft

g = acceleration due to gravity,

32.2 ft/s

2

S

friction, ft/ft of channel

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21.50

I

Section Twenty-One

S

o

= slope of channel bottom

L = length of channel between

sections 1 and 2, ft

Note that S

o

L = z, the change in elevation, ft, of

the channel bottom between sections 1 and 2, and

S

L = h

f

, the head loss, ft, due to friction in the same

reach. (For uniform, prismatic channels, h

i

, the

eddy loss, is negligible and can be ignored.) S

in the reach but may be approximated by the aver-

age of the values of friction slope S for the depths

at sections 1 and 2.

Solving Eq. (21.91) for L gives

(21.92)

where H

e1

and H

e2

are the specific energy heads for

sections 1 and 2, respectively, as given by Eq.

(21.82). The friction slope S at any point may be

computed by the Manning equation, rearranged as

follows:

(21.93)

where R = hydraulic radius, ft

n = roughness coefficient (Art. 21.24)

Note that the slope S used in the Manning

equation is the slope of the energy grade line, not

the channel bottom. Note also that the roughness

coefficient n is squared in Eq. (21.93), and its value

must therefore be chosen with special care to avoid

an exaggerated error in the computed friction

slope. The smaller the value of n, the longer the

backwater curve profile, and vice versa. Therefore,

the smallest n possible for the prevailing condi-

tions should be selected for computation of a back-

water curve if knowledge of the longest possible

flow profile is required.

The first step in the direct step method involves

choosing a series of depths for the end points of

each reach. These depths will range from the

depth at the point of control to the ending depth

for the backwater curve. This ending depth is often

the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21.22) but

Fig. 21.47 Channel with constant discharge and gradually varying cross section.

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21.51

may be some intermediate depth, such as for a

curve preceding a hydraulic jump. Depths should

be chosen so that the velocity change across a

reach does not exceed 20% of the velocity at the

beginning of the reach. Also the change in depth

between sections should never exceed 1 ft.

The specific energy head H

e

should be comput-

ed for the chosen depth at each of the various sec-

tions and the change in specific energy between

sections determined. Next, the friction slope S

should be computed at each section from Eq.

(21.93). The average of two sections gives the fric-

tion slope S

ence between S

o

should be computed and the length of reach deter-

mined from Eq. (21.92).

Standard step method allows computation of

backwater curves in both nonprismatic natural

channels and nonuniform artificial channels as

well as in uniform channels. This method involves

solving for the depth of flow at various locations

along a channel with Bernoullis energy equation

and a known length of reach.

A surface profile is determined in the following

manner: The channel is examined for changes in

cross section, grade, or roughness, and the loca-

tions of these changes are given station numbers.

Stations are also established between these loca-

tions such that the velocity change between any

two consecutive stations is not greater than 20% of

the velocity at the former station. Data concerning

the hydraulic elements of the channel are collected

at each station. Computation of the surface curve is

then made in steps, starting from the point of con-

trol and progressing from station to stationin an

upstream direction for subcritical flow and down-

stream for supercritical flow. The length of reach in

each step is given by the stationing, and the depth

of flow is determined by trial and error.

Nonprismatic channels do not have well-

defined points of control to aid in determining the

starting depth for a backwater curve. Therefore,

the water-surface elevation at the beginning must

be determined as follows:

The step computations are started at a point in

the channel some distance upstream or downstream

from the desired starting point, depending on

whether flow is supercritical or subcritical, respec-

tively. Then, computations progress toward the ini-

tial section. Since this step method is a converging

process, this procedure produces the true depth for

the initial section within a relatively few steps.

The energy balance used in the standard step

method is shown graphically in Fig. 21.47, in which

the position of the water surface at section 1 is Z

1

and at section 2, Z

2

, referred to a horizontal datum.

Writing Bernoullis equation [Eq. (21.11)] for sec-

tions 1 and 2 Yields

(21.94)

where V

1

and V

2

are the mean velocities, ft/s, at sec-

tions 1 and 2; the friction loss, ft, in the reach (S

L)

is denoted by h

f

; and the term h

i

is added to

account for eddy loss, ft.

Eddy loss, sometimes called impact loss, is a

head loss caused by flow running contrary to the

main current because of irregularities in the chan-

nel. No rational method is available for determina-

tion of eddy loss, and it is therefore often accounted

for, in natural channels, by a slight increase in Man-

nings n. Eddy loss depends mainly on a change in

velocity head. For lined channels, it has been

expressed as a coefficient k to be applied as follows:

(21.95)

The coefficient k is 0.2 for diverging reaches, from

0 to 0.1 for converging reaches, and about 0.5 for

abrupt expansions and contractions.

The total head at any section of the channel is

(21.96)

where Z equals the elevation of the channel bot-

tom above the given datum plus the depth of flow

d at that section. Friction slope S is computed from

Eq. (21.93). Then, S

the reach, is calculated as the mean of the slope for

the section and the preceding section. Friction loss

h

f

is the product of S

Eddy loss h

i

is found from Eq. (21.95). Next, total

head H, ft, is obtained from Eq. (21.94), which, after

substitution of H from Eq. (21.96), becomes

(21.97)

where H

1

and H

2

equal the total head of sections 1

and 2, respectively. The value of total head com-

puted from Eq. (21.97) must agree with the value of

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21.52

I

Section Twenty-One

total head calculated previously for the section or

the assumed water-surface elevation Z

1

is incorrect.

Agreement is assumed if the two values of total

head are within 0.1 ft in elevation. If the two values

of total head do not agree, a new water-surface ele-

vation must be assumed for Z

1

and the computa-

tions repeated until agreement is obtained. The

value that finally leads to agreement gives the cor-

rect water-surface elevation.

Backwater curves for natural river or stream

channels (irregularly shaped channels) are calcu-

lated in a manner similar to that described for reg-

ularly shaped channels. However, some account

must be taken of the varying channel roughness

and the differences in velocity and capacity in the

main channel and the overbank or floodplain por-

tions of the stream channel. The most expeditious

way of determining the backwater curves is to plot

the channel cross section to a scale convenient for

measurement of lengths and areas; subdivide the

cross section into main channels and floodplain

areas; and determine the discharge, velocity, and

friction slope for each subarea at selected water-

surface elevations. Utilizing the above data, deter-

mine the total discharge (the sum of the subarea

discharges), the mean velocity (the total discharge

divided by the total area), and (the energy coef-

ficient or coriolis coefficient to be applied to the

velocity head). Many of the available computer

software packages that compute backwater pro-

files are applicable to irregular channels and flood-

ed overbank areas.

The backwater curve is usually started by

assuming normal depth at a point some distance

downstream from the start of the reach under

analysis. Several intermediate cross sections

should be taken between the point where normal

depth is assumed and the start of the reach for

which a detailed water-surface profile is required.

This allows the intermediate sections to dampen

out any minor errors in the assumed starting

water-surface elevation.

The accuracy or validity of the water-surface

profile is contingent on an accurate evaluation of

the channel roughness and judicious selection of

cross-section location. A greater number of cross

sections generally enhances the validity of the

water-surface profile; however, because of the

extensive calculations involved with each cross

section, their number should be limited to as few

as accuracy permits.

The effect of bridges, approach roadways, bridge

piers, and culverts can be determined using proce-

dures outlined in R. H. French, Open-Channel

Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, and J. N. Bradley, Hydraulics of Bridge Water-

ways, Hydraulics Design Series no. 1, 2nd ed., U.S.

Department of Transportation, Federal Highway

Administration, Bureau of Public Roads, 1970.

21.27 Hydraulic Jump

This is an abrupt increase in depth of rapidly flow-

ing water (Fig. 21.48). Flow at the jump changes

from a supercritical to a subcritical stage with an

accompanying loss of kinetic energy (Art. 21.23).

A hydraulic jump is the only means by which

the depth of flow can change from less than critical

to greater than critical in a uniform channel. A jump

will occur either where supercritical flow exists in a

channel of subcritical slope, as shown in Figs. 21.51

and 21.52b, or where a steep channel enters a reser-

voir. The first condition is met in a mild channel

downstream from a sluice gate or ogee overflow

spillway, or at an abrupt change in channel slope

from steep to mild. The second condition occurs

where flow in a steep channel is blocked by an over-

flow weir, a gate, or other obstruction.

A hydraulic jump can be either stationary or

moving, depending on whether the flow is steady

or unsteady, respectively.

21.27.1 Depth and Head Loss in a

Hydraulic Jump

Depth at the jump is not discontinuous. The change

in depth occurs over a finite distance, known as the

length of jump. The upstream surface of the jump,

known as the roller, is a turbulent mass of water,

Fig. 21.48 Hydraulic jump.

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21.53

which is continually tumbling erratically against the

rapidly flowing sheet below.

The depth before a jump is the initial depth,

and the depth after a jump is the sequent depth.

The specific energy for the sequent depth is less

than that for the initial depth because of the ener-

gy dissipation within the jump. (Initial and

sequent depths should not be confused with the

depths of equal energy, or alternate depths.)

According to Newtons second law of motion,

the rate of loss of momentum at the jump must

equal the unbalanced pressure force acting on the

moving water and tending to retard its motion.

This unbalanced force equals the difference

between the hydrostatic forces corresponding to

the depths before and after the jump. For rectan-

gular channels, this resultant pressure force is

(21.98)

where d

1

= depth before jump, ft

d

2

= depth after jump, ft

w = unit weight of water, lb/ft

3

The rate of change of momentum at the jump per

foot width of channel equals

(21.99)

where M = mass of water, lbs

2

/ft

V

1

= velocity at depth d

1

, ft/s

V

2

= velocity at depth d

2

, ft/s

q = discharge per foot width of rectan-

gular channel, ft

3

/s

t = unit of time, s

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

Equating the values of F in Eqs. (21.98) and (21.99),

and substituting V

1

d

1

for q and V

1

d

1

/d

2

for V

2

, the

reduced equation for rectangular channels becomes

(21.100)

Equation (21.100) may then be solved for the

sequent depth:

(21.101)

If V

2

d

2

/d

1

is substituted for V

1

, in Eq. (21.100),

(21.102)

Equation (21.102) may be used in determining the

position of the jump where V

2

and d

2

are known.

Relationships may be derived similarly for chan-

nels of any cross section.

The head loss in a jump equals the difference in

specific-energy head before and after the jump.

This difference (Fig. 21.49) is given by

(21.103)

where H

e1

= specific-energy head of stream before

jump, ft

H

e2

= specific-energy head of stream after

jump, ft

The specific energy for free-surface flow is given

by Eq. (21.82).

The depths before and after a hydraulic jump

may be related to the critical depth by the equation

(21.104)

where q = discharge, ft

3

/s per ft of channel

width

d

c

= critical depth for the channel, ft

It may be seen from this equation that if d

1

= d

c

, d

2

must also equal d

c

.

21.27.2 Jump in Horizontal

Rectangular Channels

The form of a hydraulic jump in a horizontal rec-

tangular channel may be of several distinct types,

depending on the Froude number of the incoming

flow F = V/(gL)

1/2

[Eq. (21.16)], where L is a charac-

teristic length, ft; V is the mean velocity, ft/s; and g

= acceleration due to gravity, ft/s

2

. For open-chan-

nel flow, the characteristic length for the Froude

number is made equal to the hydraulic depth d

h

.

Hydraulic depth is defined as

(21.105)

where A = area of flow, ft

2

T = width of free surface, ft

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21.54

I

Section Twenty-One

For rectangular channels, hydraulic depth equals

depth of flow.

Various forms of hydraulic jump, and their rela-

tion to the Froude number of the approaching flow

F

1

, were classified by the U.S. Bureau of Reclama-

tion and are presented in Fig. 21.49.

For F

1

= 1, the flow is critical and there is no

jump.

For F

1

= 1 to 1.7, there are undulations on the

surface. The jump is called an undular jump.

For F

1

= 1.7 to 2.5, a series of small rollers devel-

op on the surface of the jump, but the downstream

water surface remains smooth. The velocity

throughout is fairly uniform and the energy loss is

low. This jump may be called a weak jump.

For F

1

= 2.5 to 4.5, an oscillating jet is entering

the jump. The jet moves from the channel bottom

to the surface and back again with no set period.

Each oscillation produces a large wave of irregular

period, which, very commonly in canals, can trav-

el for miles, doing extensive damage to earth banks

and riprap surfaces. This jump may be called an

oscillating jump.

For F

1

= 4.5 to 9.0, the downstream extremity of

the surface roller and the point at which the high-

velocity jet tends to leave the flow occur at practi-

cally the same vertical section. The action and posi-

tion of this jump are least sensitive to variation in

tailwater depth. The jump is well-balanced, and

the performance is at its best. The energy dissipa-

tion ranges from 45 to 70%. This jump may be

called a steady jump.

For F

1

= 9.0 and larger, the high-velocity jet grabs

intermittent slugs of water rolling down the front

face of the jump, generating waves downstream and

causing a rough surface. The jump action is rough

but effective, and energy dissipation may reach 85%.

This jump may be called a strong jump.

Note that the ranges of the Froude number

given for the various types of jump are not clear-

cut but overlap to a certain extent, depending on

local conditions.

21.27.3 Hydraulic Jump as an

Energy Dissipator

A hydraulic jump is a useful means for dissipating

excess energy in supercritical flow (Art. 21.23). A

jump may be used to prevent erosion below an

overflow spillway, chute, or sluice gate by quickly

reducing the velocity of the flow over a paved

apron. A special section of channel built to contain

a hydraulic jump is known as a stilling basin.

If a hydraulic jump is to function ideally as an

energy dissipator, below a spillway, for example,

the elevation of the water surface after the jump

must coincide with the normal tailwater elevation

for every discharge. If the tailwater is too low, the

high-velocity flow will continue downstream for

some distance before the jump can occur. If the tail-

water is too high, the jump will be drowned out,

and there will be a much smaller dissipation of total

head. In either case, dangerous erosion is likely to

occur for a considerable distance downstream.

The ideal condition is to have the sequent-depth

curve, which gives discharge vs. depth after the

jump, coincide exactly with the tailwater-rating

curve. The tailwater-rating curve gives normal

depths in the discharge channel for the range of

flows to be expected. Changes in the spillway

design that can be made to alter the tailwater-rating

Fig. 21.49 Type of hydraulic jump depends on

Froude number.

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21.55

curve involve changing the crest length, changing

the apron elevation, and sloping the apron.

Accessories, such as chute blocks and baffle

blocks are usually installed in a stilling basin to

control the jump. The main purpose of these acces-

sories is to shorten the range within which the

jump will take place, not only to force the jump to

occur within the basin but to reduce the size and

therefore the cost of the basin. Controls within a

stilling basin have additional advantages in that

they improve the dissipation function of the basin

and stabilize the jump action.

21.27.4 Length of Hydraulic Jump

The length of a hydraulic jump L may be defined as

the horizontal distance from the upstream edge of

the roller to a point on the raised surface immedi-

ately downstream from cessation of the violent tur-

bulence. This length (Fig. 21.48) defies accurate

mathematical expression, partly because of the

nonuniform velocity distribution within the jump.

But it has been determined experimentally. The

experimental results may be summarized conve-

niently by plotting the Froude number of the

upstream flow F

1

against a dimensionless ratio of

jump length to downstream depth L/d

2

. The result-

ing curve (Fig. 21.50) has a flat portion in the range

of steady jumps. The curve thus minimizes the

effect of any errors made in calculation of the

Froude number in the range where this information

is most frequently needed. The curve, prepared by

V. T. Chow from data gathered by the U.S. Bureau of

Reclamation, was developed for jumps in rectangu-

lar channels, but it will give approximate results for

jumps formed in trapezoidal channels.

For other than rectangular channels the depth

d

1

used in the equation for Froude number is the

hydraulic depth given by Eq. (21.105).

21.27.5 Location of a Hydraulic

Jump

It is important to know where a hydraulic jump

will form since the turbulent energy released in a

jump can extensively scour an unlined channel or

destroy paving in a thinly lined channel. Special

reinforced sections of channel must be built to

withstand the pounding and vibration of a jump

and to provide extra freeboard for the added depth

at the jump. These features are expensive to build;

therefore, a great savings can be realized if their

use is restricted to a limited area through a knowl-

edge of the jump location.

The precision with which the location is pre-

dicted depends on the accuracy with which the

friction losses and length of jump are estimated

and on whether the discharge is as assumed. The

method of prediction used for rectangular chan-

nels is illustrated for a sluice gate in Fig. 21.51.

Fig. 21.50 Length of hydraulic jump in a horizontal channel depends on sequent depth d

2

and the

Froude number of the approaching flow.

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21.56

I

Section Twenty-One

The water-surface profiles of the flow approach-

ing and leaving the jump, curves AB and ED in Fig.

21.51, are type M3 and M2 backwater curves,

respectively (Fig. 21.46e and c).

Backwater curve ED has as its point of control

the critical depth d

c

, which occurs near the channel

drop-off. Critical depth does not exist exactly at the

edge, as theory would indicate, but instead occurs

a short distance upstream. The distance is small

(from three to four times d

c

) and can be ignored for

most problems. The actual depth at the brink is

71.5% of critical depth, but it is normally assumed

to be 0.7d

c

for simplicity.

The point of control for backwater curve AB is

taken as the depth at the vena contracta, which

forms just downstream from the sluice gate. The

distance from the gate to the vena contracta L

e

is

nearly equal to the size of gate opening h. The

amount of contraction varies with both the head

on the gate and the gate opening. Depth at the

contraction ranges from 50 to over 90% of h. The

depth of flow at the vena contracta may be taken

as 0.75h in the absence of better information.

Jump location is determined as follows: The

backwater curves AB and ED are computed in

their respective directions until they overlap, using

the step methods of Art. 21.26. With values of d

2

obtained from Eq. (21.101), CB, the curve of depths

sequent to curve AB, is plotted through the area

where it crosses curve ED. A horizontal intercept

FG, equal in length to L, the computed length of

jump, is then fitted between the curves CB and ED.

The jump may be expected to form between the

points H and G since all requirements for the for-

mation of a jump are satisfied at this location.

If the downstream depth is increased because

of an obstruction, the jump moves upstream and

may eventually be drowned out in front of the

sluice gate. Conversely, if the downstream depth

is lowered, the jump moves to a new location

downstream.

When the slope of a channel has an abrupt

change from steeper than critical (Art. 21.23) to

mild, a jump forms that may be located either

above or below the grade change. The position of

the jump depends on whether the downstream

depth d

2

is greater than, less than, or equal to the

depth d

1

sequent to the upstream depth d

1

. Two

possible positions are shown in Fig. 21.52.

It is assumed, for simplicity, that flow is uni-

form, except in the reach between the jump and

the grade break. If the downstream depth d

2

is

greater than the upstream sequent depth d

1

, com-

puted from Eq. (21.101) with d

1

given, the jump

occurs in the steep region, as shown in Fig. 21.52a.

The surface curve EO is of the S1 type (Fig. 21.46)

and is asymptotic to a horizontal line at O. Line CB

is a plot of the depth d

1

sequent to the depth of

approach line AB. The jump location is found by

producing a horizontal intercept FG, equal to the

computed length of the jump, between lines

CBand EO. A jump will form between H and G

since all requirements are satisfied for this location.

As depth d

2

is lowered, the jump moves down-

stream to a new position, as shown in Fig. 21.52b. If

d

2

is less than d

1

, computed from Eq. (21.102), the

Fig. 21.51 Graphical method for locating hydraulic jump beyond a sluice gate.

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21.57

jump will form in the mild channel and can be

located as described for Fig. 21.51.

(R. H. French, Open-Channel Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.28 Flow at Entrance to a

Steep Channel

The discharge Q, ft

3

/s, in a channel leaving a reser-

voir is a function of the total head H, ft, on the

channel entrance, the entrance loss, ft. and the

slope of the channel. If the channel has a slope

steeper than the critical slope (Art. 21.23), the flow

passes through critical depth at the entrance, and

discharge is at a maximum. If the channel entrance

is rectangular in cross section, the critical depth d

c

=

2

/3H

e

[according to Eqs. (21.82) and (21.85)],

where H

e

is the specific energy head, ft, in the

reservoir and datum is the elevation of the lip of

the channel (Fig. 21.53a).

From Q = AV, with the area of flow A = bd

c

=

2

/3bH

e

and the velocity

the discharge for rectangular channels, ignoring

entrance loss, is

(21.106)

where b is the channel width, ft.

If the entrance loss must be considered, or if the

channel entrance is other than rectangular, the

inlet depth must be solved for by trial and error

since the discharge is unknown. The procedure for

finding the correct discharge is as follows:

A trial discharge is chosen. Then, the critical

depth for the given shape of channel entrance is

determined (see those in E. F. Brater, Handbook of

Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York.) Adding d

c

to its associated velocity

head gives the specific energy in the channel

entrance, to which the resulting entrance loss is

added. This sum then is compared with the specif-

ic energy of the reservoir water, which equals the

depth of water above datum plus the velocity head

of flow toward the channel. (This velocity head is

normally so small that it may be taken as zero in

most calculations.) If the specific energy computed

for the depth of water in the reservoir equals the

sum of specific energy and entrance loss deter-

mined for the channel entrance, then the assumed

discharge is correct; if not, a new discharge is

assumed, and the computations continued until a

balance is reached.

A first trial discharge may be found from Q =

A

2g(H

e

d)

, where (H

e

d) gives actual head pro-

ducing flow (Fig. 21.53). A reasonable value for the

depth d would be

2

/

3

H

e

for steep channels and an

even greater percentage of H

e

for mild channels.

The entrance loss equals the product of an

empirical constant k and the change in velocity

head H

reservoir is assumed to be zero, then the entrance

loss is k(V

2

1

/ 2g), where V

1

is the velocity computed

for the channel entrance. Safe design values for

the coefficient vary from about 0.1 for a well-

rounded entrance to slightly over 0.3 for one with

squared ends.

Fig. 21.52 Hydraulic jump may occur at a change

in bottom slope, or (a) above it, or (b) below it.

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21.58

I

Section Twenty-One

21.29 Flow at Entrance to a

Channel of Mild Slope

When water flows from a reservoir into a channel

with slope less than the critical slope (Art. 21.23),

the depth of flow at the channel entrance equals

the normal depth for the channel (Art. 21.22). The

entrance depth and discharge are dependent on

each other. The discharge that results from a given

head is that for which flow enters the channel

without forming either a backwater or drawdown

curve within the entrance. This requirement neces-

sitates the formation of normal depth d since only

at this equilibrium depth is there no tendency to

change the discharge or to form backwater curves.

(In Fig. 21.53b, d is normal depth.)

A solution for discharge at entrance to a chan-

nel of mild slope is found as follows: A trial dis-

charge, ft

3

/s, is estimated from Q = A

2g(H

e

d)

,

where H

e

d is the actual head, ft, producing flow.

H

e

is the specific energy head, ft, of the reservoir

water relative to datum at lip of channel; A is the

cross-sectional area of flow, ft

2

; and g is acceleration

due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

. The normal depth of the

channel is determined for this discharge from Eq.

(21.83). The velocity head is computed for this

depth-discharge combination, and an entrance-loss

calculation is made (see Art. 21.33). The sum of the

specific energy of flow in the channel entrance and

the entrance loss must equal the specific energy of

the water in the reservoir for an energy balance to

exist between those points (Fig. 21.53b). If the trial

discharge gives this balance of energy, then the dis-

charge is correct; if not, a new discharge is chosen,

and the calculations continued until a satisfactory

balance is obtained.

Fig. 21.53 Flow at entrance to (a) steep channel; (b) mild-slope channel.

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21.59

21.30 Channel Section of

Greatest Efficiency

If a channel of any shape is to reach its greatest

hydraulic efficiency, it must have the shortest possi-

ble wetted perimeter for a given cross-sectional area.

The resulting shape gives the greatest hydraulic

radius and therefore the greatest capacity for that

area. This can be seen from the Manning equation

for discharge [Eq. (21.83)], in which Q is a direct

function of hydraulic radius to the two-thirds power.

The most efficient of all possible open-channel

cross sections is the semicircle. There are practical

objections to the use of this shape because of the

difficulty of construction, but it finds some use in

metal flumes where sections can be preformed.

The most efficient of all trapezoidal sections is the

half hexagon, which is used extensively for large

water-supply channels. The rectangular section

with the greatest efficiency has a depth of flow

equal to one-half the width. This shape is often

used for box culverts and small drainage ditches.

21.31 Subcritical Flow around

Bends in Channels

Because of the inability of liquids to resist shearing

stress, the free surface of steady uniform flow is

always normal to the resultant of the forces acting

on the water. Water in a reservoir has a horizontal

surface since the only force acting on it is the force

of gravity.

Water reacts in accordance with Newtons first

law of motion: It flows in a straight line unless

deflected from its path by an outside force. When

water is forced to flow in a curved path, its surface

assumes a position normal to the resultant of the

forces of gravity and radial acceleration. The force

due to radial acceleration equals the force required

to turn the water from a straight-line path, or

mV

2

/ r

c

for m, a unit mass of water, where V is its

average velocity, ft / s, and r

c

the radius of curva-

ture, ft, of the center line of the channel.

The water surface makes an angle with the

horizontal such that

(21.107)

The theoretical difference y, ft. in water-surface

level between the inside and outside banks of a

curve (Fig. 21.54) is found by multiplying tan by

the top width of the channel T, ft. Thus,

(21.108)

where the radius of curvature r

c

of the center of the

channel is assumed to represent the average cur-

vature of flow. This equation gives values of y

smaller than those actually encountered because of

the use of average values of velocity and radius,

rather than empirically derived values more repre-

sentative of actual conditions. The error will not be

great, however, if the depth of flow is well above

critical (Art. 21.23). In this range, the true value of

y would be only a few inches.

The difference in surface elevation found from

Eq. (21.108), although it involves some drop in sur-

face elevation on the inside of the curve, does not

allow a savings of freeboard height on the inside

bank. The water surface there is wavy and thus

needs a freeboard height at least equal to that of a

straight channel.

The top layer of flow in a channel has a higher

velocity than flow near the bottom because of the

retarding effect of friction along the floor of the chan-

nel. A greater force is required to deflect the high-

velocity flow. Therefore, when a stream enters a

curve, the higher-velocity flow moves to the outside

of the bend. If the bend continues long enough, all

the high-velocity water will move against the outer

bank and may cause extensive scour unless special

bank protection is provided.

Fig. 21.54 Water-surface profile at a bend in a

channel with subcritical flow.

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21.60

I

Section Twenty-One

Since the higher-velocity flow is pressed direct-

ly against the bank, an increase in friction loss

results. This increased loss may be accounted for in

calculations by assuming an increased value of the

roughness coefficient n within the curve. Scobey

suggests that the value of n be increased by 0.001

for each 20 of curvature in 100 ft of flume. His val-

ues have not been evaluated completely, however,

and should be used with discretion. (F. C. Scobey,

The Flow of Water in Flumes, U.S. Department of

Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 393.)

21.32 Supercritical Flow

around Bends in

Channels

When water, traveling at a velocity greater than

critical (Art. 21.23), flows around a bend in a chan-

nel, a series of standing waves are produced. Two

waves form at the start of the curve. One is a posi-

tive wave, of greater-than-average surface eleva-

tion, which starts at the outside wall and extends

across the channel on the line AME (Fig. 21.55).

The second is a negative wave, with a surface ele-

vation of less-than-average height, which starts at

the inside wall and extends across the channel on

the line BMD. These waves cross at M, are reflect-

ed from opposite channel walls at D and E, recross

as shown, and continue crossing and recrossing.

The two waves at the entrance form at an angle

with the approach channel known as the wave

angle

o

. This angle may be determined from the

equation

(21.109)

where F

1

represents the Froude number of flow in

the approach channel [Eq. (21.16)] .

The distance from the beginning of the curve to

the first wave peak on the outside bank is deter-

mined by the central angle

o

. This angle may be

found from

(21.110)

where T is the normal top width of channel and r

c

is the radius of curvature of the center of channel.

The depths along the banks at an angle <

o

are

given by

(21.111)

where the positive sign gives depths along the

outside wall and the negative sign, depths along

the inside wall. The depth of maximum height for

the first positive wave is obtained by substituting

the value of

o

found from Eq. (21.110) for in Eq.

(21.111).

Standing waves in existing rectangular chan-

nels may be prevented by installing diagonal sills

at the beginning and end of the curve. The sills

introduce a counterdisturbance of the right magni-

tude, phase, and shape to neutralize the undesir-

able oscillations that normally form at the change

of curvature. The details of sill design have been

determined experimentally.

Good flow conditions may be ensured in new

projects with supercritical flow in rectangular chan-

nels by providing transition curves or by banking

the channel bottom. Circular transition curves aid

in wave control by setting up counterdisturbances

in the flow similar to those provided by diagonal

sills. A transition curve should have a radius of cur-

vature twice the radius of the central curve. It

should curve in the same direction and have a cen-

tral angle given, with sufficient accuracy, by

(21.112)

Transition curves should be used at both the begin-

ning and end of a curve to prevent disturbances

downstream.

Banking the channel bottom is the most effec-

tive method of wave control. It permits equilibri-

um conditions to be set up without introduction of

a counterdisturbance. The cross slope required for

Fig. 21.55 Plan view of supercritical flow

around a bend in an open channel.

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21.61

equilibrium is the same as the surface slope found

for subcritical flow around a bend (Fig. 21.54). The

angle the bottom makes with the horizontal is

found from the equation

(21.113)

21.33 Transitions in Open

Channels

A transition is a structure placed between two

open channels of different shape or cross-sectional

area to produce a smooth, low-head-loss transfer

of flow. The major problems associated with

design of a transition lie in locating the invert and

determining the various cross-sectional areas so

that the flow is in accord with the assumptions

made in locating the invert. Many variables, such

as flow-rate changes, wall roughness, and channel

shape and slope, must be taken into account in

design of a smooth-flow transition.

When proceeding downstream through a tran-

sition, the flow may remain subcritical or super-

critical (Art. 21.23), change from subcritical to

supercritical, or change from supercritical to sub-

critical. The latter flow possibility may produce a

hydraulic jump.

Special care must be exercised in the design if

the depth in either of the two channels connected

is near the critical depth. In this range, a small

change in energy head within the transition may

cause the depth of flow to change to its alternate

depth. A flow that switches to its subcritical alter-

nate depth may overflow the channel. A flow that

changes to its supercritical alternate depth may

cause excessive channel scour. The relationship of

flow depth to energy head can be shown on a plot

such as Fig. 21.44, p. 21.44.

To place a transition properly between two

open channels, it is necessary to determine the

design flow and calculate normal and critical

depths for each channel section. Maximum flow is

usually selected as the design flow. Normal depth

for each section is used for the design depth. After

the design has been completed for maximum flow,

hydraulic calculations should be made to check the

suitability of the structure for lower flows.

The transition length that produces a smooth-

flowing, low-head-loss structure is obtained for an

angle of about 12.5 between the channel axis and

the lines of intersection of the water surface with

the channel sides, as shown in Fig. 21.56. The

length of the transition L

t

is then given by

(21.114)

where T

2

and T

1

are the top widths of sections 2

and 1, respectively.

In design of an inlet-type transition structure,

the water-surface level of the downstream channel

must be set below the water-surface level of the

upstream channel by at least the sum of the

increase in velocity head, plus any transition and

friction losses. The transition loss, ft, is given by

K(V

2

/2g), where K, the loss factor, equals about 0.1

for an inlet-type structure; V is the velocity

change, ft/s; and g = 32.2 ft/s

2

. The total drop in

water surface y

d

across the inlet-type transition is

then 1.1 [(V

2

/2g)], if friction is ignored.

For outlet-type structures, the average velocity

decreases, and part of the loss in velocity head is

recovered as added depth. The rise of the water

surface for an outlet structure equals the decrease

in velocity head minus the outlet and friction loss-

es. The outlet loss factor is normally 0.2 for well-

designed transitions. If friction is ignored, the total

rise in water surface y

r

across the outlet structure is

0.8[(V

2

/2g)].

Many well-designed transitions have a reverse

parabolic water-surface curve tangent to the water

surfaces in each channel (Fig. 21.57). After such a

water-surface profile is chosen, depth and cross-

sectional areas are selected at points along the

transition to produce this smooth curve. Straight,

angular walls usually will not produce a smooth

parabolic water surface; therefore, a transition

with a curved bottom or sides has to be designed.

Fig. 21.56 Plan view of a transition between

two open channels with different widths.

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21.62

I

Section Twenty-One

The total transition length L

t

is split into an even

number of sections of equal length x. For Fig. 21.57,

six equal lengths of 10 ft each are used, for an

assumed drop in water surface y

d

of 1 ft. It is

assumed that the water surface will follow parabola

AC for the length L

t

/ 2 to produce a water-surface

drop of y

d

/ 2 and that the other half of the surface

drop takes place along the parabola CB. The water-

surface profile can be determined from the general

equation for a parabola, y = ax

2

, where y is the verti-

cal drop in the distance x, measured from A or B.

The surface drops at sections 1 and 2 are found

as follows: At the midpoint of the transition, y

3

=

ax

2

= y

d

/ 2 = 0.5 = a(30)

2

, from which a = 0.000556.

Then y

1

= ax

2

1

= 0.000556(10)

2

= 0.056 ft and y

2

=

ax

2

2

= 0.000556(20)

2

= 0.222 ft.

21.34 Weirs

A weir is a barrier in an open channel over which

water flows. The edge or surface over which the

water flows is called the crest. The overflowing

sheet of water is the nappe.

If the nappe discharges into the air, the weir has

free discharge. If the discharge is partly under water,

the weir is submerged or drowned.

21.34.1 Types of Weirs

A weir with a sharp upstream corner or edge such

that the water springs clear of the crest is a sharp-

crested weir (Fig. 21.58). All other weirs are classed

as weirs not sharp-crested. Sharp-crested weirs are

classified according to the shape of the weir open-

ing, such as rectangular weirs, triangular or V-

notch weirs, trapezoidal weirs, and parabolic

weirs. Weirs not sharp-crested are classified

according to the shape of their cross section, such

as broad-crested weirs, triangular weirs, and, as

shown in Fig. 21.59, trapezoidal weirs.

The channel leading up to a weir is the channel

of approach. The mean velocity in this channel is

the velocity of approach. The depth of water pro-

ducing the discharge is the head.

Sharp-crested weirs are useful only as a means

of measuring flowing water. In contrast, weirs not

sharp-crested are commonly incorporated into

Fig. 21.57 Profile of reverse parabolic water-surface curve for well-designed transitions.

Fig. 21.58 Sharp-crested weir. Fig. 21.59 Weir not sharp-crested.

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21.63

hydraulic structures as control or regulation

devices, with measurement of flow as their sec-

ondary function.

21.34.2 Rectangular Sharp-Crested

Weirs

Discharge over a rectangular sharp-crested weir is

given by

(21.115)

where Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

C = discharge coefficient

L = effective length of crest, ft

H = measured head = depth of flow

above elevation of crest, ft

The head should be measured at least 2.5Hupstream

from the weir, to be beyond the drop in the water

surface (surface contraction) near the weir.

Numerous equations have been developed for

finding the discharge coefficient C. One such equa-

tion, which applies only when the nappe is fully

ventilated, was developed by Rehbock and simpli-

fied by Chow:

(21.116)

where P is the height of the weir above the chan-

nel bottom (Fig. 21.58) (V. T. Chow, Open-Chan-

nel Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York).

The height of weir P must be at least 2.5H for a

complete crest contraction to form. If P is less than

2.5H, the crest contraction is reduced and said to be

partly suppressed. Equation (21.116) corrects for

the effects of friction, contraction of the nappe,

unequal velocities in the channel of approach, and

partial suppression of the crest contraction and

includes a correction for the velocity of approach

and the associated velocity head.

To be fully ventilated, a nappe must have its

lower surface subjected to full atmospheric pres-

sure. A partial vacuum below the nappe can result

through removal of air by the overflowing jet if

there is restricted ventilation at the sides of the

weir. This lack of ventilation causes increased dis-

charge and a fluctuation and shape change of the

nappe. The resulting unsteady condition is very

objectionable when the weir is used as a measur-

ing device.

At very low heads, the nappe has a tendency to

adhere to the downstream face of a rectangular

weir even when means for ventilation are provid-

ed. A weir operating under such conditions could

not be expected to have the same relationship

between head and discharge as would a fully ven-

tilated nappe.

A V-notch weir (Fig. 21.60) should be used for

measurement of flow at very low heads if accuracy

of measurement is required.

End contractions occur when the weir open-

ing does not extend the full width of the

approach channel. Water flowing near the walls

must move toward the center of the channel to

pass over the weir, thus causing a contraction of

the flow. The nappe continues to contract as it

passes over the crest. Hence, below the crest, the

nappe has a minimum width less than the crest

length.

Fig. 21.60 V-notch weir.

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21.64

I

Section Twenty-One

The effective length L, ft, of a contracted-width

weir is given by

(21.117)

where L = measured length of crest, ft

N = number of end contractions

H = measured head, ft

If flow contraction occurs at both ends of a weir,

there are two end contractions and N = 2. If the

weir crest extends to one channel wall but not the

other, there is one end contraction and N = 1. The

effective crest length of a full-width weir is taken

as its measured length. Such a weir is said to have

its contractions suppressed.

21.34.3 Triangular or V-Notch

Sharp-Crested Weirs

The triangular or V-notch weir (Fig. 21.60) has a dis-

tinct advantage over a rectangular sharp-crested

weir (Art. 21.34.2) when low discharges are to be

measured. Flow over a V-notch weir starts at a

point, and both discharge and width of flow

increase as a function of depth. This has the effect of

spreading out the low-discharge end of the depth-

discharge curve and therefore allows more accurate

determination of discharge in this region.

Discharge is given by

(21.118)

where = notch angle

H = measured head, ft

C

1

= discharge coefficient

The head H is measured from the notch elevation

to the water-surface elevation at a distance 2.5H

upstream from the weir. Values of the discharge

coefficient were derived experimentally by Lenz,

who developed a procedure for including the

effect of viscosity and surface tension as well as the

effect of contraction and velocity of approach (A. T.

Lenz, Viscosity and Surface Tension Effects on V-

Notch Weir Coefficients, Transactions of the Ameri-

can Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 69, 1943). His val-

ues were summarized by Brater, who presented

the data in the form of curves (Fig. 21.61) (E. F.

Brater Handbook of Hydraulics, 6th ed.,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York).

A V-notch weir tends to concentrate or focus

the overflowing nappe, causing it to spring clear of

the downstream face for even the smallest flows.

This characteristic prevents a change in the head-

discharge relationship at low flows and adds mate-

rially to the reliability of the weir.

21.34.4 Trapezoidal Sharp-

Crested Weirs

The discharge from a trapezoidal weir (Fig. 21.62)

is assumed the same as that from a rectangular

weir and a triangular weir in combination.

(21.119)

where Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

L = length of notch at bottom, ft

H = head, measured from notch bottom, ft

Z = b/H [substituted for tan (/2) in Eq.

(21.118)]

Fig. 21.61 Chart gives discharge coefficients

for sharp-crested V-notch weirs. The coefficients

depend on head and notch angle.

Fig. 21.62 Trapezoidal sharp-crested weir.

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21.65

b = half the difference between lengths

of notch at top and bottom, ft

No data are available for determination of coeffi-

cients C

2

and C

3

. They must be determined experi-

mentally for each installation.

21.34.5 Submerged Sharp-Crested

Weirs

The discharge over a submerged sharp-crested

weir (Fig. 21.63) is affected not only by the head on

the upstream side H

1

but by the head downstream

H

2

. Discharge also is influenced to some extent by

the height P of the weir crest above the floor of the

channel.

The discharge Q

s

, ft

3

/s, for a submerged weir is

related to the free or unsubmerged discharge Q,

ft

3

/s, for that weir by a function of H

2

/H

1

. Ville-

monte expressed this relationship by the equation

(21.120)

where n is the exponent of H in the equation for

free discharge for the shape of weir used. (The

value of n is

3

/2 for a rectangular sharp-crested weir

and

5

/2 for a triangular weir.) To use the Villemonte

equation, first compute the rate of flow Q for the

weir when not submerged, and then, using this

rate and the required depths, solve for the sub-

merged discharge Q

s

. (J. R. Villemonte, Sub-

merged-Weir Discharge Studies, Engineering

News-Record, Dec. 25, 1947, p. 866.)

Equation (21.120) may be used to compute the

discharge for a submerged sharp-crested weir of

any shape simply by changing the value of n. The

maximum deviation from the Villemonte equation

for all test results was found to be 5%. Where great

accuracy is essential, it is recommended that the

weir be tested in a laboratory under conditions

comparable with those at its point of intended use.

21.34.6 Weirs Not Sharp-Crested

These are sturdy, heavily constructed devices, nor-

mally an integral part of hydraulic projects (Fig.

21.59). Typically, a weir not sharp-crested serves as

the crest section for an overflow dam or the

entrance section for a spillway or channel. Such a

weir can be used for discharge measurement, but

its purpose is normally one of control and regula-

tion of water levels or discharge, or both.

The discharge over a weir not sharp-crested is

given by

(21.121)

where Q = discharge, ft

3

/s

C = coefficient of discharge

L = effective length of crest, ft

H

t

= total head on crest including veloci-

ty head of approach, ft

The head of water producing discharge over a

weir is the total of measured head H and velocity

head of approach H

approach is accounted for by the discharge coeffi-

cient for sharp-crested weirs but must be consid-

ered separately for weirs not sharp-crested. Thus,

for such weirs, Eq. (21.115) is rewritten in the form

(21.122)

where H = measured head, ft

V = velocity of approach, ft/s

V

2

/2g = H

neglecting degree of turbulence

given by Eq. (21.81)

g = acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/s

2

Since velocity and discharge are dependent on

each other in this equation and both are unknown,

discharge must be found by a series of approxima-

tions, which may be done as follows: First, com-

pute a trial discharge from the measured head,

neglecting the velocity head. Then, using this dis-

charge, compute the velocity of approach, velocity

head, and finally total head. From this total head,

Fig. 21.63 Submerged sharp-crested weir.

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21.66

I

Section Twenty-One

compute the first corrected discharge. This correct-

ed discharge will be sufficiently accurate if the

velocity of approach is small. But the process

should be repeated, starting with the corrected dis-

charge, where approach velocities are high.

The discharge coefficient C must be determined

empirically for weirs not sharp-crested. If a weir of

untested shape is to be constructed, it must be cal-

ibrated in place or a model study made to deter-

mine its head-discharge relationship. The problem

of establishing a fixed relation between head and

discharge is complicated by the fact that the nappe

may assume a variety of shapes in passing over the

weir. For each change of nappe shape, there is a

corresponding change in the relation between

head and discharge. The effect is most critical for

low heads. A nappe undergoes several changes in

succession as the head varies, and the successive

shapes that appear with an increasing stage may

differ from those pertaining to similar stages with

decreasing head. Therefore, care must be exercised

when using these weirs for flow measurement to

ensure that the conditions are similar to those at

the time of calibration.

Large weirs not sharp-crested often have piers

on their crest to support control gates or a road-

way. These piers reduce the effective length of

crest by more than the sum of their individual

widths because of the formation of flow contrac-

tions at each pier. The effective crest length for a

weir not sharp-crested is given by

(21.123)

where L = effective crest length, ft

L = net crest lengths, ft = measured

length minus width of all piers

N = number of piers

K

p

= pier-contraction coefficient

K

a

= abutment-contraction coefficient

H

t

= total head on crest including veloci-

ty head of approach, ft

(U.S. Department of the Interior, Design of Small

Dams, Government Printing Office, Washington,

DC 20402.)

The pier-contraction coefficient K

p

is affected by

the shape and location of the pier nose, thickness

of pier, head in relation to design heads, and

approach velocity. For conditions of design head

H, the average pier-contraction coefficients are as

shown in Table 21.12.

The abutment-contraction coefficient K

a

is

affected by the shape of the abutment, the angle

between the upstream approach wall and the axis

of flow, the head in relation to the design head,

and the approach velocity. For conditions of design

head H

d

, average coefficients may be assumed as

shown in Table 21.13.

21.34.7 Submergence of Weirs Not

Sharp-Crested

Spillways and other weirs not sharp-crested are

submerged when their tailwater level is high

enough to affect their discharge. Because of the

surface disturbance produced in the vicinity of the

crest, such a spillway or weir is unsatisfactory for

accurate flow measurement.

Approximate values of discharge may be found

by applying the following rules proposed by E. F.

Brater: (1) If the depth of submergence is not

greater than 0.2 of the head, ignore the submer-

gence and treat the weir as though it had free dis-

charge. (2) For narrow weirs having a sharp

upstream leading edge, use a submerged-weir for-

mula for sharp-crested weirs. (3) Broad-crested

Condition K

p

Square-nosed piers with corners rounded on a

radius equal to about 0.1 of the pier thickness 0.02

Rounded-nosed piers 0.01

Pointed-nosed piers 0

Table 21.12 Pier-Contraction Coefficients

Condition K

a

Square abutment with headwall at 90 to

direction of flow 0.20

Rounded abutments with headwall at 90 to

direction of flow when 0.5H

d

> r* > 0.15H

d

0.10

Rounded abutments where r* > 0.5H

d

and

headwall is placed not more than 45 to

direction of flow 0

*r = radius of abutment rounding.

Table 21.13 Abutment-Contraction Coefficients

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21.67

weirs are not affected by submergence up to

approximately 0.66 of the head. (4) For weirs with

narrow rounded crests, increase discharge

obtained by a formula for submerged sharp-crest-

ed weirs by 10% or more. Of the above rules, 1, 2,

and 3 probably apply quite accurately, while 4 is

simply a rough approximation.

21.34.8 The Ogee-Crested Weir

The ogee-crested weir was developed in an attempt

to produce a weir that would not have the undesir-

able nappe variation normally associated with weirs

not sharp-crested. A shape was needed that would

force the nappe to assume a single path for any dis-

charge, thus making the weir consistent for flow

measurement. The ogee-crested weir (Fig. 21.64) has

such a shape. Its crest profile conforms closely to the

profile of the lower surface of a ventilated nappe

flowing over a rectangular sharp-crested weir.

The shape of this nappe, and therefore of an

ogee crest, depends on the head producing the dis-

charge. Consequently, an ogee crest is designed for

a single total head, called the design head H

d

.

When an ogee weir is discharging at the design

head, the flow glides over the crest with no inter-

ference from the boundary surface and attains

near-maximum discharge efficiency.

For flow at heads lower than the design head,

the nappe is supported by the crest and pressure

develops on the crest that is above atmospheric but

less than hydrostatic. This crest pressure reduces

the discharge below that for ideal flow. (Ideal flow

is flow over a fully ventilated sharp-crested weir

under the same head H.)

When the weir is discharging at heads greater

than the design head, the pressure on the crest is

less than atmospheric, and the discharge increases

over that for ideal flow. The pressure may become

so low that separation in flow will occur. According

to Chow, however, the design head may be safely

exceeded by at least 50% before harmful cavitation

develops (V. T. Chow, Open-Channel Hydraulics,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York).

The measured head H on an ogee-crested weir

is taken as the distance from the highest point of

the crest to the level of the water surface at a dis-

tance 2.5H upstream. This depth coincides with

the depth measured between the upstream water

level and the bottom of the nappe, at the point of

maximum contraction, for a sharp-crested weir.

This relationship is shown in Fig. 21.65.

Discharge coefficients for ogee-crested weirs are

therefore determined from sharp-crested-weir coef-

ficients after an adjustment for this difference in

head. These coefficients are a function of the

approach velocity, which varies with the ratio of

height of weir P to actual total head H

t

, where dis-

charge is given by Eq. (21.122). Figure 21.66 for an

ogee weir with a vertical upstream face gives coeffi-

cient C

d

for discharge at design head H

d

. (U.S.

Department of the Interior, Design of Small Dams,

Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

20402. This manual and V. T. Chow, Open-Channel

Fig. 21.64 Ogee-crested weir with vertical

upstream face.

Fig. 21.65 Location of origin of coordinates for

sharp-crested and ogee-crested weirs.

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21.68

I

Section Twenty-One

Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New

York, present methods for determining the shape of

an ogee crest profile.) When the weir is discharging

at other than the design head, the flow differs from

ideal, and the discharge coefficient changes from

the discharge coefficient given in Fig. 21.66.

Figure 21.67 gives values of the discharge coef-

ficient C as a function of the ratio H

t

/ H

d

, where H

t

is the actual head being considered and H

d

is the

design head.

Fig. 21.66 Chart gives discharge coefficients at design head H

d

for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs.

(From Design of Small Dams, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.)

Fig. 21.67 Chart gives discharge coefficients for vertical-faced ogee-crested weirs at heads H

t

other

than design head H

d

. (From Design of Small Dams, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.)

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21.69

If an ogee weir has a sloping upstream face,

there is a tendency for an increase in discharge over

that for a weir with a vertical face. Figure 21.68

shows the ratio of the coefficient for an ogee weir

with a sloping face to the coefficient for a weir with

a vertical upstream face. The coefficient of discharge

for an ogee weir with a sloping upstream face, if

flow is at other than the design head, is determined

from Fig. 21.66 and is then corrected for head and

slope with Figs. 21.67 and 21.68.

21.34.9 Broad-Crested Weir

This is a weir with a horizontal or nearly horizontal

crest. The crest must be sufficiently long in the direc-

tion of flow that the nappe is supported and hydro-

static pressure developed on the crest for at least a

short distance. A broad-crested weir is nearly rectan-

gular in cross section. Unless otherwise noted, it will

be assumed to have vertical faces, a plane horizontal

crest, and sharp right-angled edges.

Figure 21.69 shows a broad-crested weir that,

because of its sharp upstream edge, has contrac-

tion of the nappe. This causes a zone of reduced

pressure at the leading edge. When the head H on

a broad-crested weir reaches one to two times its

breadth b, the nappe springs free, and the weir acts

as a sharp-crested weir.

Discharge over a broad-crested weir is given by

Eq. (21.115) since the velocity of approach was

ignored in experiments performed to determine

the coefficient of discharge. These coefficients prob-

ably apply more accurately, therefore, where the

velocity of approach is not high. Values of the dis-

charge coefficient, compiled by King, appear in

Table 21.14. (E. F. Brater, Handbook of Hydraulics,

6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.34.10 Weirs of Irregular Section

This group includes those weirs whose cross sec-

tion deviates from typical broad-crested or ogee-

crested weirs. Weirs of irregular section, fairly com-

mon in waterworks projects, are used as spillways

and control structures. Experimental data are

available on the more common shapes. (See, for

example, E. F. Brater, Handbook of Hydraulics,

6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

Fig. 21.68 Chart gives design coefficients at design head H

d

for ogee-crested weirs with sloping

upstream face. (From Design of Small Dams, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.)

Fig. 21.69 Broad-crested weir.

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21.70

I

Section Twenty-One

21.35 Sediment Transfer and

Deposition in Open

Channels

Sediment from open channels has many undesir-

able effects: Reservoirs have a reduced useful life

because of loss of storage through the accumula-

tion of silt. Sediment causes a hazard in navigable

channels and harbors and an increase in frequency

of flooding due to aggravation of rivers and flood

channels. Silting of arable land by flooding rivers

destroys fertility when the silt originates from

bank or gully erosion rather than from surface, or

soil, erosion. The cost of operating irrigation sys-

tems is increased by the need for frequent dredg-

ing. Water-supply facilities have increased costs

because of the necessity of providing desilting

works and because of the wear on mechanical

equipment, such as gates, valves, and turbines.

21.35.1 Sediment Deposition in

Reservoirs

Deposition of silt results when the transporting

forces of a river are dissipated as the river enters a

body of still water, such as a reservoir. Heavier silt

sizes, those forming the bed load, are deposited in

a delta as the river enters calm water. The smaller

silt sizes, those carried in suspension, travel farther

into the reservoir before deposition.

This incoming water, with its load of suspended

silt, has a specific gravity greater than that of the

clear water in the reservoir and may form a density

current, rather than mixing immediately with the

clear water. A density current, once formed, quickly

moves to the bottom and flows in a dense cloud

down the slopes of the reservoir until it is blocked

by a dam. The dense flow then spreads out in this

deeper area, where the stilling effect of the basin

eventually causes deposition of the sediment.

Deposits of fine sediment form about one-third of

the volume of silt deposits in a reservoir. Much of all

of this fine sediment is transported to its final loca-

tion by density currents. The visible delta formed by

the coarse sediments frequently distracts attention

from the unseen bottom deposits of fine sediment,

which are often of equal consequence.

Most reservoirs trap from 70 to almost 100% of

the incoming sediment, depending on whether

the reservoir is used for flood control or storage.

Breadth of crest of weir, ft

0.50 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 4.00 5.00 10.00 15.00

0.2 2.80 2.75 2.69 2.62 2.54 2.48 2.44 2.38 2.34 2.49 2.68

0.4 2.92 2.80 2.72 2.64 2.61 2.60 2.58 2.54 2.50 2.56 2.70

0.6 3.08 2.89 2.75 2.64 2.61 2.60 2.68 2.69 2.70 2.70 2.70

0.8 3.30 3.04 2.85 2.68 2.60 2.60 2.67 2.68 2.68 2.69 2.64

1.0 3.32 3.14 2.98 2.75 2.66 2.64 2.65 2.67 2.68 2.68 2.63

1.2 3.32 3.20 3.08 2.86 2.70 2.65 2.64 2.67 2.66 2.69 2.64

1.4 3.32 3.26 3.20 2.92 2.77 2.68 2.64 2.65 2.65 2.67 2.64

1.6 3.32 3.29 3.28 3.07 2.89 2.75 2.68 2.66 2.65 2.64 2.63

1.8 3.32 3.32 3.31 3.07 2.88 2.74 2.68 2.66 2.65 2.64 2.63

2.0 3.32 3.31 3.30 3.03 2.85 2.76 2.72 2.68 2.65 2.64 2.63

2.5 3.32 3.32 3.31 3.28 3.07 2.89 2.81 2.72 2.67 2.64 2.63

3.0 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.20 3.05 2.92 2.73 2.66 2.64 2.63

3.5 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.19 2.97 2.76 2.68 2.64 2.63

4.0 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.07 2.79 2.70 2.64 2.63

4.5 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 1.88 2.74 2.64 2.63

5.0 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.07 2.79 2.64 2.63

5.5 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 3.32 2.88 2.64 2.63

Table 21.14 Values of C in Q = CLH

3/2

for Broad-Crested Weirs

Measured

head

H, ft

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21.71

Flood-control reservoirs are normally emptied

shortly after a storm, so the suspended materials

are carried out with the water before settling can

occur. This procedure reduces new deposits by

almost 30% after each storm. Storage reservoirs

used for water supply or power generation pur-

poses, on the other hand, normally retain any

inflow long enough for settlement of all suspend-

ed matter to occur. Their discharges are regulated

to allow generation of power or to produce a uni-

form flow downstream with no thought to the

venting of silt-laden storm flows.

The greater part of the annual suspended silt

load in a stream may be carried in a relatively short

time. The stream runs comparatively clear during

the remainder of the year.

Venting of much of the annual suspended silt

load is feasible through the use of density currents.

These currents are stable, once formed, and often

extend to the reservoir outlet. If density currents

are observed and their time of arrival at the outlet

determined, appropriate gates can be opened and

much of the fine sediment entering a storage reser-

voir can be vented before it has time to form per-

manent deposits. This venting operation can

extend the life of a reservoir by many years.

Numerous phenomena can destroy a reservoir,

such as loss of storage capacity by landslide and

loss of the dam by earthquake, landslide, overtop-

ping, or failure of materials. The most common

manner of destruction, however, is through loss of

storage by deposition of silt. Redemption of reser-

voir capacity lost through silting is almost always

economically unfeasible because of the wide distri-

bution of deposits in a reservoir and the large

quantity present. The most practicable means of

avoiding a loss in reservoir capacity are to prevent

formation of permanent deposits by taking advan-

tage of density currents and to control rate of sed-

iment production from eroding areas. When nei-

ther can be done, sufficient storage space must be

provided in the design of the reservoir to compen-

sate for depletion by silting during a reasonable

economic lifetime.

Sediment production and its transportation to

reservoirs or navigable waters cannot be prevent-

ed at costs proportionate to the resulting benefits.

However, nature may be economically improved

at times through a program of erosion control,

reducing sediment production to less than that

normally found under virgin conditions.

The deposits of silt that form in a storage reser-

voir are categorized into two distinct types: Delta

deposits, formed from the bed load, are coarse-

grained, with an in-place weight of about 80 lb/ft

3

.

Deposits produced from the suspended load are

fine-grained, with an average weight of about 30

lb/ft

3

. They constitute about one-sixth of the total

weight of sediment delivered but account for

about one-third of the volume of all deposits in a

storage reservoir because of their low density. If

sediment deposits are periodically above water,

because of fluctuations in the reservoir water level,

their density increases and the volume ratios given

above for continued submergence no longer apply.

21.35.2 Prediction of Sediment-

Delivery Rate

Two methods of approach are available for pre-

dicting the rate of sediment accumulation in a

reservoir; both involve predicting the rate of sedi-

ment delivery.

One approach depends on historical records of

the silting rate for existing reservoirs and is purely

empirical. By this method, the silting records of a

reservoir may be used to predict either the silting

rate for that reservoir or the probable pattern of

silt accumulation for a proposed reservoir in a

similar area. This method allows transposition of

data from one watershed to another because the

measured annual sediment accumulation of a

reservoir is expressed as a rate of sediment deliv-

ery per unit area of its watershed. Of course, the

rate is not uniform during the year, or from year to

year, because of variations in rainfall, but it should

average the computed annual amount over the

life of the project. The annual silt accumulation in

a reservoir is determined by surveying exposed

deltas and taking depth soundings. The resulting

volume is adjusted to account for any silt loss

through sluice gates or over the spillway and is

then expressed as silt delivery per square mile of

drainage area. This silt-delivery figure is further

adjusted for rainfall and runoff conditions, to give

a figure that could reasonably be expected during

a year of average rainfall. If this adjusted figure is

to be transposed to a neighboring drainage basin,

adjustments should be made to account for both

soil cover and rainfall differences between the

basins. (For a discussion of the factors upon which

this adjustment is based, see Art. 21.39.)

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I

Section Twenty-One

Silt-delivery measurements or estimates do not

give total silt production for an area because part of

the silt produced in a basin is deposited on flood-

plains and in channels before it reaches a reservoir.

The difference between the amount of silt pro-

duced and that delivered increases as the size of the

drainage area increases because of the increased

chance that the silt will be deposited before it

reaches the reservoir. Therefore, if a silt-delivery

measurement or estimate is to be transposed to a

basin of different size, an adjustment should be

made to account for this discrepancy as well. The

information for this adjustment can come only

from field reconnaissance of the two areas to deter-

mine differences that might account for a variation

in deposition of silt along the water courses.

The second general method of calculating sedi-

ment-delivery rate involves determining the rate

of sediment transport as a function of stream dis-

charge and density of suspended silt. The total

sediment inflow for the year is then computed

from these relationships and the recorded stream-

discharge data.

The total quantity of sediment carried by a river

is assumed transported either as suspended load or

as bed load (Art. 21.35.1). The division is based on

particle size but depends on velocity of flow as well.

There is no sharp line of demarcation between the

two classes. According to Witzig, about 80% of the

volume of all sediment is produced by streambank

erosion; the remaining 20% is produced by land-

surface erosion. Constant erosion of the stream-

banks keeps the streambed well supplied with the

coarse silt that travels as bed load. The fine silt that

travels in suspension is produced in small amounts

by streambank erosion. But for the most part, this

silt comes from land-surface erosion, which gener-

ally occurs only during a storm.

The total quantity of sediment in suspension is

not necessarily related directly to discharge at all

times. The quantity is affected by seasonal varia-

tions in the supply and source of fine sediment

and by distribution of rainfall and runoff from the

watershed. Therefore, measurement of the sedi-

ment load for a given discharge does not necessar-

ily indicate the amount that may be carried by an

equal discharge at another time.

The bed load consists of the silt particles too

large to be held in suspension. This size range

includes particles of coarse sand, gravel, and boul-

ders. The bed-load particles are moved by rolling

along the bed of the stream. Some of the finer bed-

load particles are moved in a series of steps or

jumps representing a transition between trans-

portation as bed load and suspended load.

The quantity of bed load is considered a con-

stant function of the discharge because the sedi-

ment supply for the bed-load forces is always

available in all but lined channels. An accepted for-

mula for the quantity of sediment transported as

bed load is the Schoklitsch formula:

(21.124)

where G

b

= total bed load, lb/s

D

g

= effective grain diameter, in

S = slope of energy gradient

Q

i

= total instantaneous discharge, ft

3

/s

b = width of river, ft

q

o

= critical discharge, ft

3

/s per ft of river

width

= (0.00532/S

4/3

)D

g

An approximate solution for bed load by the

Schoklitsch formula can be made by determining

or assuming mean values of slope, discharge, and

a single grain size representative of the bed-load

sediment. A mean grain size of 0.04 in in diameter

(about 1 mm) is reasonable for a river with a slope

of about 1.0 ft/mi.

The size of grains moving on the bed of a river

depends on velocity of flow, which varies with

both slope and discharge. Therefore, the mean

grain size changes as the flow increases during a

storm or as the river changes slope along its course.

It is obvious that considerable error could result

from the use of Eq. (21.124) if it is necessary to

guess at a mean grain diameter in the absence of

carefully collected field data. Frequently, however,

if insufficient data or lack of money prevent more

thorough investigations, this shortcut can give

results of sufficient accuracy.

Numerous formulas have been developed to

represent the condition of flow involved in trans-

portation of suspended sediment. These formulas

express the degree of turbulent energy involved in

suspension of the sediment and the mode of transfer

of this energy to the silt and other fluid particles. The

formulas require a number of empirical constants

but are based on a sound physical and rational foun-

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21.73

dation. They require information as to the sediment

composition by grain size, the actual quantity of silt

in suspension at a given depth, and the stream

velocity. (See H. A. Einstein, The Bed-Load Func-

tion for Sediment Transportation in Open-Channel

Flows, U.S. Department of Agriculture.)

An approximate determination of suspended

load may be made without using these complicat-

ed formulas. The weight of suspended sediment

transported by a river in an average year normally

equals about 20% of the weight transported as bed

load. The total weight of material annually moved

by a river is therefore equal to 120% of the weight

of material transported as bed load during the year

as computed from Eq. (21-124).

(W. H. Graf, Hydraulics of Sediment Trans-

port, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.36 Erosion Control

The various methods used in erosion control are

collectively called upstream engineering. They con-

sist of soil conservation measures such as refor-

estation, check-dam construction, planting of

burned-over areas, contour plowing, and regula-

tion of crop and grazing practices. Also included

are measures for proper treatment of high

embankments and cuts and stabilization of stream-

banks by planting or by revetment construction.

One phase of reforestation that may be applied

near a reservoir is planting of vegetation screens.

Such screens, planted on the flats adjacent to the

normal stream channel at the head of a reservoir,

reduce the velocity of silt-laden storm inflows that

inundate these areas. This stilling action causes

extensive deposition to occur before the silt reach-

es the main cavity of the reservoir. Use of vegeta-

tion screens, debris barriers, or desilting basins

above a reservoir should be planned with future

development in mind. For instance, if the dam is

raised at a later date, the accumulated silt in this

area would detract from the added storage that

might otherwise have been obtained.

Hydrology

Hydrology is the study of the waters of the earth,

their occurrence, circulation, and distribution,

their chemical and physical properties, and their

reaction with their environment, including their

relation to living things. A major concern is the cir-

culation, on or near the land surface, of water and

its constituents throughout the hydrologic cycle. In

this cycle, water evaporation from oceans, rivers,

lakes, and other sources is carried over the earth

and precipitated as rain or snow. The precipitation

forms runoff on the land, infiltrates into the soil,

recharges groundwater, discharges into streams,

and then flows into the oceans and lakes, from

which evaporation restarts the cycle. Thus hydrol-

ogy deals with precipitation, evaporation, infiltra-

tion, groundwater flow, runoff, and stream flow

21.37 Precipitation

The primary concern with precipitation in water

resources engineering is forecasting it. The means

for doing so are based on either current or past

data, or a combination of the two.

Current data, in the form of synoptic weather

charts, are published daily by the U.S. Weather

Bureau. These charts summarize the various mete-

orological factors, such as wind, temperature, and

pressure, through whose interaction precipitation

is produced.

Past data are primarily in the form of rainfall

records for a standard period, such as an hour, day,

or year. They are the major source of data for deter-

mination of the recurrence interval for storms of a

definite magnitude and the magnitude of storms

in a definite recurrence interval.

Rainfall records are obtained from rain gages,

which are of two types. The first type is a record-

ing or automatic gage. It continually records, by

ink pen and revolving drum, or digital microchip

technology, the variation in rainfall intensity as

well as the total rainfall volume. The second type is a

nonrecording gage; it measures only the total rain

volume that fell during the period between observa-

tions. The standard observation time for nonrecord-

ing gages for the U.S. Weather Bureau is 24 h.

Corrections must be made to rain-gage records

to account for the mean precipitation over the

entire drainage basin, for hourly rainfall rates when

only daily volumes are given, and for errors arising

out of the location of the gage. Most methods used

in runoff determinations are based on the assump-

tion that rainfall is uniform over the entire drainage

basin. This necessitates development of a correc-

tion factor to balance out the rainfall variation

caused by various topographical features in the

watershed. Rain gages tend to give rainfall volumes

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21.74

I

Section Twenty-One

that are too small. This error is caused by the move-

ment of wind around the gage, and it increases as

wind velocity increases. This windage error is

much more pronounced when the rain gage is near

the top or bottom of a cliff or near other big obstruc-

tions. Care must be exercised in placement of rain

gages to ensure accuracy.

The probable maximum precipitation is the

greatest rainfall intensity or volume that could

ever be expected to occur in a specific drainage

basin. This rainfall magnitude is frequently used as

the design storm for major hydraulic structures to

serve the basin when the rainfall records are short

and extrapolation to the desired design-storm fre-

quency could be grossly inaccurate. The magni-

tude of probable maximum precipitation is based

on simultaneous occurrence of the maximum val-

ues of the meteorological factors that combine to

form precipitation. The two most important factors

are wind and air-mass moisture content. An idea of

the magnitude of the probable maximum precipi-

tation can also be obtained by transposing the

greatest rainfall that has occurred in a meteorolog-

ically homogeneous region. For methods for deter-

mining the probable maximum precipitation, see

D. R. Maidment, Handbook of Hydrology,

McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.

Not all rain reaches the ground. A portion may

evaporate as it falls, while another portion may be

caught on leaves, branches, and other vegetation

surfaces. This phenomenon, called interception, is

a loss from a runoff standpoint since the rain

evaporates and never reaches the ground. Inter-

ception may be significant for small-intensity

storms occurring with little or no wind over an

area with heavy vegetation growth.

21.38 Evaporation and

Transpiration

These are processes by which moisture is returned

to the atmosphere. In evaporation, water changes

from liquid to gaseous form. In transpiration,

plants give off water vapor during synthesis of

plant tissue.

Evapotranspiration, commonly termed con-

sumptive use, refers to the total evaporation from

all sources such as free water, ground, and plant-

leaf surfaces. On an annual basis, the consumptive

use may vary from 15 in/year for barren land to 35

in/year for heavily forested areas and 40 in/year in

tropical and subtropical regions. Evapotranspira-

tion is important because, on a long-term basis, pre-

cipitation minus evapotranspiration equals runoff.

Evaporation may occur from free-water, plant,

or ground surfaces. Of the three, free-water sur-

face evaporation is usually the most important. It

must be considered in the design of a reservoir,

especially if the reservoir is shallow, has a relative-

ly large surface area, and is located in a semiarid or

arid region. Evaporation is a direct function of the

wind and temperature and an inverse function of

atmospheric pressure and amount of soluble solids

in the water.

The rate of evaporation is dependent on the

vapor-pressure gradient between the water sur-

face and the air above it. This relation is known as

Daltons law. The Meyer equation [Eq. (21.125)],

developed from Daltons law, is one of many evap-

oration formulas and is popular for making evapo-

ration-rate calculations.

(21.125)

(21.126)

where E = evaporation rate, in 30-day month

C = empirical coefficient, equal to 15 for

small, shallow pools and 11 for

large, deep reservoirs

e

w

= saturation vapor pressure, in of mer-

cury, corresponding to monthly

mean air temperature observed at

nearby stations for small bodies of

shallow water or corresponding to

water temperature instead of air

temperature for large bodies of deep

water

e

a

= actual vapor pressure, in of mercury,

in air based on monthly mean air

temperature and relative humidity

at nearby stations for small bodies of

shallow water or based on informa-

tion obtained about 30 ft above the

water surface for large bodies of

deep water

w = monthly mean wind velocity, mi/h

at about 30 ft above ground

= wind factor

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21.75

As an example of the evaporation that may occur

from a large reservoir, the mean annual evapora-

tion from Lake Mead is 6 ft.

Evaporation from free-water surfaces is usually

measured with an evaporation pan. This pan is a

standard size and is located on the ground near

the body of water whose evaporation is to be

determined. The depth of water in this pan is

checked periodically and corrections made for fac-

tors other than evaporation that may have raised

or lowered the water surface. A pan coefficient is

then applied to the measured pan evaporation to

get the reservoir evaporation.

The standard evaporation pan of the National

Weather Service, called a Class A Level Pan, is in

widespread use. It is 4 ft in diameter and 10 in

deep. It is positioned 6 in above the ground. Its pan

coefficient is commonly taken as 0.70, although it

may vary between 0.60 and 0.80, depending on the

geographical region. Annual evaporation from the

pan ranges from 25 in in Maine and Washington to

120 in along the Texas-Mexico and California-Ari-

zona borders.

Evaporation rates from reservoirs may be

reduced by spreading thin molecular films on the

water surface. Hexadeconal, or cetyl alcohol, is one

such film that has been effective on small reser-

voirs where there is little wind. On large reser-

voirs, wind tends to push the film to the shore.

Since hexadeconal is removed by wind, birds,

insects, aquatic life, and biologic attrition, it must

be applied periodically for maximum effectiveness.

Hexadeconal appears to have no adverse effects on

either humans or wildlife.

Evaporation from ground surfaces is usually of

minor importance, except in arid, tropical, and

subtropical regions having high water tables and

where it pertains to the determination of initial

soil-moisture conditions in a runoff analysis.

(D. R. Maidment, Handbook of Hydrology,

McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.39 Runoff

This is the residual precipitation remaining after

interception and evapotranspiration losses have

been deducted. It appears in surface channels,

natural or manmade, whose flow is perennial or

intermittent. Classified by the path taken to a

channel, runoff may be surface, subsurface, or

groundwater flow.

Surface flow moves across the land as overland

flow until it reaches a channel, where it continues

as channel or stream flow. After joining stream flow,

it combines with the other runoff components in

the channel to form total runoff.

Subsurface flow, also known as interflow, subsur-

face runoff, subsurface storm flow, and storm seepage,

infiltrates only the upper soil layers without joining

the main groundwater body. Moving laterally, it

may continue underground until it reaches a chan-

nel or returns to the surface and continues as over-

land flow. The time for subsurface flow to reach a

channel depends on the geology of the area. Com-

monly, it is assumed that subsurface flow reaches a

channel during or shortly after a storm. Subsurface

flow may be the major portion of total runoff for

moderate or light rains in arid regions since surface

flow under those conditions is reduced by unusual-

ly high evaporation and infiltration.

Groundwater flow, or groundwater runoff, is

that flow supplied by deep percolation. It is the

flow of the main groundwater body and requires

long periods, perhaps several years, to reach a

channel. Groundwater flow is responsible for the

dry-weather flow of streams and remains practi-

cally constant during a storm. Groundwater flow is

primarily the concern of water-supply engineers.

Surface and subsurface flow are of interest to

flood-control engineers.

In practice, direct runoff and base flow are the

only two divisions of runoff used. The basis for this

classification is travel time rather than path. Direct

runoff leaves the basin during or shortly after a

storm, whereas base flow from the storm may not

leave the basin for months or even years.

Runoff is supplied by precipitation. The portion

of precipitation that contributes entirely to direct

runoff is called effective precipitation, or effective rain

if the precipitation is rain. That portion of the pre-

cipitation which contributes entirely to surface

runoff is called excess precipitation, or excess rain.

Thus, effective rain includes subsurface flow,

whereas excess rain is only surface flow.

The two major characteristics that affect runoff

are climatic and drainage-basin factors. The num-

ber of factors is an indication of the complexity of

accurately determining runoff:

1. Climatic characteristics

a. Precipitationform (rain, hail, snow, frost,

dew), intensity, duration, time distribution,

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21.76

I

Section Twenty-One

seasonal distribution, areal distribution,

recurrence interval, antecedent precipitation,

soil moisture, direction of storm movement

b. Temperaturevariation, snow storage,

frozen ground during storms, extremes dur-

ing precipitation

c. Windvelocity, direction, duration

d. Humidity

e. Atmospheric pressure

f. Solar radiation

2. Drainage-basin characteristics

a. Topographicsize, shape, slope, elevation,

drainage net, general location, land use and

cover, lakes and other bodies of water, artifi-

cial drainage, orientation, channels (size,

shape of cross section, slope, roughness,

length)

b. Geologicsoil type, permeability, ground-

water formations, stratification

21.40 Sources of Hydrologic

Data

The importance of exhausting all possible sources

of hydrologic data, both published and unpub-

lished, as the first step in design of a hydraulic

project cannot be overemphasized. The majority

of hydrologic data is collected and published by

government agencies, those of the Federal gov-

ernment being the largest and most important.

The principal source of precipitation data is the

U.S. Weather Bureau. Its extensive system of gages

supplies complete precipitation data as well as all

other types of hydrologic data. These data are

compiled and presented in monthly and yearly

summaries in the Bureaus Climatological Data.

In addition to the monthly and yearly summaries,

special-interest items, such as rainfall intensity for

various durations and recurrence intervals, are

published in Weather Bureau technical papers.

Other sources are Water Bulletins of the Interna-

tional Boundary Commission, the U.S. Agricultur-

al Research Service, and various state and local

agencies.

The principal source of runoff data is the Water

Supply Papers of the U.S. Geological Survey. These

papers contain records of daily flow, mean flow,

yearly flow volume, extremes of flow, and statisti-

cal data pertaining to the entire record. Also

included in the Papers are lists of reports covering

unusually large floods and records of discharge

collected by agencies other than the U.S. Geologi-

cal Survey. The Water Supply Papers are published

yearly in 14 parts; each part is for an area whose

boundaries coincide with natural-drainage fea-

tures, as shown in Fig. 21.70.

Other agencies that collect and publish stream-

flow and flood records are the Corps of Engineers,

TVA, International Boundary Commission, and

Weather Bureau. The Corps of Engineers publishes

data on floods in which loss of life and extensive

property damage occurred. Less obvious sources

of stream-flow data are water-right decrees by dis-

trict courts, county records of water-right filings

and State Engineer permits, and annual reports of

various interstate-compact commissions.

21.41 Methods for Runoff

Determinations

The method selected to determine runoff depends

on its applicability to the area of concern, the quan-

tity and type of data available, the detail required

in the final answer, and the accuracy desired.

Applicability depends on the characteristics of the

particular area and the assumptions from which

the method was developed. Quantity and type of

data available refer to the length, detail, and com-

pleteness of the hydrologic records, which may be

either precipitation or stream flow. An example of

the variation of detail in the final result may be

Fig. 21.70 Drainage subdivisions of the United

States for stream-flow records published in Water

Supply Papers, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.77

found in the determination of flood runoff. Sever-

al methods yield only peak discharge; others give

the complete hydrograph. Accuracy is limited by

the cost of performing analyses and assumptions

made in the development of a method.

The methods that follow are a convenient

means for solving typical runoff problems encoun-

tered in water resources engineering. One method

pertains to minor hydraulic structures, the second

to major hydraulic structures. A minor structure is

one of low cost and of relatively minor importance

and presents small downstream damage potential.

Typical examples are small highway and railroad

culverts and low-capacity storm drains. Major

hydraulic structures are characterized by their

high cost, great importance, and large downstream

damage potential. Typical examples of major

hydraulic structures are large reservoirs, deep cul-

verts under vital highways and railways, and high-

capacity storm drains and flood-control channels.

21.41.1 Method for Determining

Runoff for Minor Hydraulic

Structures

The most common means for determining runoff for

minor hydraulic structures is the rational formula

(21.127)

where Q = peak discharge, ft

3

/s

C = runoff coefficient = percentage of

rain that appears as direct runoff

I = rainfall intensity, in/h

A = drainage area, acres

The assumptions inherent in the rational formula

are:

1. The maximum rate of runoff for a particular

rainfall intensity occurs if the duration of rain-

fall is equal to or greater than the time of con-

centration. The time of concentration is com-

monly defined as the time required for water to

flow from the most distant point of a drainage

basin to the point of flow measurement.

2. The maximum rate of runoff from a specific

rainfall intensity whose duration is equal to or

greater than the time of concentration is direct-

ly proportional to the rainfall intensity.

3. The frequency of occurrence of the peak dis-

charge is the same as that of the rainfall intensi-

ty from which it was calculated.

4. The peak discharge per unit area decreases as

the drainage area increases, and the intensity of

rainfall decreases as its duration increases.

5. The coefficient of runoff remains constant for

all storms on a given watershed.

Since these assumptions apply reasonably well

for urbanized areas with simple drainage facilities

of fixed dimensions and hydraulic characteristics,

the rational formula has gained widespread use in

the design of drainage systems for these areas. Its

simplicity and ease of application have resulted in

its being used for more complex urban systems

and rural areas where the assumptions are not so

applicable.

The rational formula is criticized for expressing

runoff as a fraction of rainfall rather than as rainfall

minus losses and for combining all the complex

factors that affect runoff into a single coefficient.

Although these and similar criticisms are valid, use

of a more complicated formula is not justified

because the time and money spent to obtain the

necessary data would not be warranted for minor

hydraulic structures.

Numerous refinements have been developed

for the runoff coefficient. As an example, the Los

Angeles County Flood Control District gives

runoff coefficients as a function of the soil and area

type and of the rainfall intensity for the time of

concentration. Other similar refinements are possi-

ble if the resources are available. Careful selection

of the runoff coefficient C will give values of peak

runoff consistent with project significance. The

values of C in Table 21.15 for urban areas are com-

monly recommended design values (V. T. Chow,

Hydrologic Determination of Waterway Areas for

the Design of Drainage Structures in Small

Drainage Basins, University of Illinois Engineering

Experimental Station Bulletin 426, 1962).

After selection of the design-storm frequency of

occurrence, for example, a 50- or 100-year-frequency

storm, the rainfall intensity I may be determined

from any of a number of formulas or from a statisti-

cal analysis of rainfall data if enough are available.

Chow lists 24 rainfall-intensity formulas of the form

(21.128)

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21.78

I

Section Twenty-One

where I = rainfall intensity, in/h

K, b, n, and n

1

= respectively, coefficient, fac-

tor, and exponents depend-

ing on conditions that affect

rainfall intensity

F = frequency of occurrence of

rainfall, years

t = duration of storm, min

= time of concentration

Perhaps the most useful of these formulas is the

Steel formula:

(21.129)

where K and b are dependent on the storm fre-

quency and region of the United States (Fig. 21.71

and Table 21.16).

Equation (21.129) gives the average maximum

precipitation rates for durations up to 2 h.

The time of concentration T

c

at any point in a

drainage system is the sum of the overland flow

time; the flow time in streets, gutters, or ditches;

and the flow time in conduits. Overland flow time

may be determined from any number of formulas

developed for the purpose. (See D. R. Maidment,

Handbook of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,

New York.) The flow time in gutters, streets, ditch-

es, and conduits can be determined from a calcula-

tion of the average velocity using the Manning

equation [Eq. (21.89)] . The time of concentration is

usually expressed in minutes.

After determining the time of concentration,

calculate the corresponding rainfall intensity from

either Eq. (21.128) or Eq. (21.129), or any equivalent

method. Then select the runoff coefficient from

Table 21.15 and determine the peak discharge from

Eq. (21.127).

Since the rational formula assumes a constant

uniform rainfall for the time of concentration over

the entire area, the area A must be selected so that

this assumption applies with reasonable accuracy.

Adhering to this assumption may necessitate sub-

dividing the drainage area.

21.41.2 Method for Determining

Runoff for Major Hydraulic

Structures

The unit-hydrograph method, pioneered in 1932 by

LeRoy K. Sherman, is a convenient, widely accept-

Type of Runoff

Drainage Area Coefficient C

Business:

Downtown areas 0.70 0.95

Neighborhood areas 0.50 0.70

Residential:

Single-family areas 0.30 0.50

Multiunits, detached 0.40 0.60

Multiunits, attached 0.60 0.75

Suburban 0.25 0.40

Apartment dwelling areas 0.50 0.70

Industrial:

Light areas 0.50 0.80

Heavy areas 0.60 0.90

Parks, cemeteries 0.10 0.25

Playgrounds 0.20 0.35

Railroad-yard areas 0.20 0.40

Unimproved areas 0.10 0.30

Streets:

Asphaltic 0.70 0.95

Concrete 0.80 0.95

Brick 0.70 0.85

Drives and walks 0.75 0.85

Roofs 0.75 0.95

Lawns:

Sandy soil, flat, 2% 0.05 0.10

Sandy soil, avg, 27% 0.10 0.15

Sandy soil, steep, 7% 0.15 0.20

Heavy soil, flat, 2% 0.13 0.17

Heavy soil, avg, 27% 0.18 0.22

Heavy soil, steep, 7% 0.25 0.35

Table 21.15 Common Runoff Coefficients

Fig. 21.71 Regions of the United States for use

with the Steel formula.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.79

ed procedure for determining runoff for major

hydraulic structures. (Leroy K. Sherman, Stream-

flow from Rainfall by Unit-Graph Method, Engi-

neering News-Record, vol. 108, pp. 501-505, January-

June 1932.) It permits calculation of the complete

runoff hydrograph from any rainfall after the unit

hydrograph has been established for the particular

area of concern.

The unit hydrograph is defined as a runoff

hydrograph resulting from a unit storm. A unit

storm has practically constant rainfall intensity for

its duration, termed a unit period, and a runoff vol-

ume of 1 in (water with a depth of 1 in over a unit

area, usually 1 acre). Thus, a unit storm may have a

2-in/h effective intensity lasting

1

/2 h or a 0.2-in/h

effective intensity lasting 5 h. The significant part of

the definition is not the volume but the constancy

of intensity. Adjustments can be made within unit-

hydrograph theory for situations where the runoff

volume is different from 1 in, but corrections for

highly variable rainfall rates cannot be made.

The unit hydrograph is similar in concept to

determining a set of factors for a specific drainage

basin. The set consists of one factor for each vari-

able that affects runoff. The unit hydrograph is

much quicker, easier, and more accurate than any

such set of factors. The method is summarized by

the formula

(21.130)

The unit hydrograph thus is the link between rain-

fall and runoff. It may be thought of as an integral

of the many complex factors that affect runoff. The

unit hydrograph can be derived from rainfall and

stream-flow data for a particular storm or from

stream-flow data alone.

Assumptions made in the development of the

unit-hydrograph theory are:

1. Rainfall intensity is constant for its duration or

a specified period of time. This requires that a

storm of short duration, termed a unit storm, be

used for the derivation of the unit hydrograph.

2. The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed

over the drainage basin. This specifies that the

drainage area be small enough for the rainfall to

be essentially constant over the entire area. If

the watershed is very large, subdivision may be

required; the unit-hydrograph theory is then

applied to each subarea.

3. The base of the hydrograph of direct runoff is

constant for any effective rainfall of unit dura-

tion. This needs no clarification except that the

base of a hydrograph, that is, the time of storm

runoff, is largely arbitrary since it depends on

the method of base-flow separation.

4. The ordinates of the direct runoff hydrographs

of a common base time are directly proportional

to the total amount of direct runoff represented

Region

Coefficients

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 K 206 140 106 70 70 68 32

b 30 21 17 13 16 14 11

4 K 247 190 131 97 81 75 48

b 29 25 19 16 13 12 12

10 K 300 230 170 111 111 122 60

b 36 29 23 16 17 23 13

25 K 327 260 230 170 130 155 67

b 33 32 30 27 17 26 10

50 K 315 350 250 187 187 160 65

b 28 38 27 24 25 21 8

100 K 367 375 290 220 240 210 77

b 33 36 31 28 29 26 10

Table 21.16 Coefficients for Steel Formula

Frequency,

years

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21.80

I

Section Twenty-One

by each hydrograph. Illustrated in Fig. 21.72,

this is basically the principle of superposition or

proportionality. It enables calculation of the

runoff for a storm of any intensity or duration

from a unit storm, which is of fixed intensity and

duration. A given storm may be resolved into a

number of unit storms. Then, the runoff may be

calculated by superimposing that number of

unit hydrographs.

5. The hydrograph of direct runoff for a given

period of rainfall reflects all the combined phys-

ical characteristics of the basin (commonly

referred to as the principle of time invariance).

This assumption implies that the characteristics

of the drainage basin have not changed since

the unit hydrograph was derived. Because this

applies with varying degrees of accuracy to

watersheds, the characteristics of the drainage

basin must be fixed or specified. Daily and

weekly variations in initial soil moisture are

probably the greatest source of error in this

method since they are largely unknown. Man-

made alterations and stream-flow conditions

can be accounted for much more easily.

For ease of manipulation, the unit hydrograph

is frequently expressed in histogram form as a dis-

tribution graph (Fig. 21.73), which illustrates the

percentages of total runoff that occur during suc-

cessive unit periods. The ordinate for each unit

period is the mean value of runoff for that period.

Since the unit hydrograph is derived for a unit

storm of specific duration, it may be used only for

storms divided into unit periods of that length.

Usually, because of storm variations, the unit peri-

od must be different from that for which the unit

hydrograph was derived. This requires the recal-

culation of the unit hydrograph for the new unit

Fig. 21.72 Unit hydrograph (a) prepared for a unit storm is used to develop a composite hydrograph

(b) for any storm.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.81

period. This is accomplished by offsetting two S

hydrographs by a time equal to the duration of the

desired unit period (Fig. 21.74). An S hydrograph is

a representation of the cumulative percentages of

runoff that occur during a storm which has a con-

tinuous constant rainfall. It is calculated by cumu-

latively plotting the distribution percentages that

make up the distribution graph. The distribution

percentages for the new unit hydrograph are

determined by taking the difference between

mean ordinates for the two offset S hydrographs

and dividing by the new unit period.

Transposition of a unit hydrograph from one

basin to another similar basin may be made by cor-

relating their respective shape and slope factors.

This method was developed by Franklin F. Snyder

(Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, vol.

19, pt. I, pp. 447454). Also, since S hydrographs

are a characteristic of a drainage basin, those from

various basins may be compared to obtain an idea

of the variations that might exist when transposing

data from one basin to another.

In the application of the unit-hydrograph

method, a loss rate must be established to deter-

mine effective rain. This loss, during heavy storms,

is usually considered to be entirely infiltration. The

infiltration capacity of a soil may be determined

experimentally by lysimeter or infiltrometer tests.

(R. K. Linsley et al., Hydrology for Engineers,

3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.42 Groundwater

Groundwater is subsurface water in porous strata

within a zone of saturation. It supplies about 20%

of the United States water demand. Where

groundwater is to be used as a water-supply

source, the extent of the groundwater basin and

the rate at which continuing extractions may be

made should be determined.

Aquifers are groundwater formations capable

of furnishing an economical water supply. Those

formations from which extractions cannot be made

economically are called aquicludes.

Permeability indicates the ease with which

water moves through a soil and determines

whether a groundwater formation is an aquifer or

aquiclude.

The rate of movement of groundwater is given

by Darcys law:

(21.131)

where Q = flow rate, gal/day

K = hydraulic conductivity, ft/day or

m/day

I = hydraulic gradient, ft/ft or m/m

A = cross-sectional area, perpendicular

to direction of flow, ft

2

or m

2

Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the ability

of a soil to transmit water. It is a nonlinear function

of volumetric soil water content and varies with

soil texture. Many methods are available for deter-

mining hydraulic conductivity. (See D. R. Maid-

ment, Handbook of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill,

Inc., New York.)

Fig. 21.73 Distribution graph represents a unit

hydrograph as a histogram.

Fig. 21.74 Distribution percentages are deter-

mined from an offset S hydrograph.

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21.82

I

Section Twenty-One

Transmissibility is another index for the rate of

groundwater movement and equals the product of

hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the

aquifer. Transmissibility indicates for the aquifer as

a whole what hydraulic conductivity indicates for

the soil.

An aquifer whose water surface is subjected to

atmospheric pressure and may rise and fall with

changes in volume is a free or unconfined aquifer. An

aquifer that contains water under hydrostatic pres-

sure, because of impermeable layers above and

below it, is a confined or artesian aquifer. If a well is

drilled into an artesian aquifer, the water in this

well will rise to a height corresponding to the

hydrostatic pressure within the aquifer. Frequent-

ly, this hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to cause

the water to jet beyond the ground surface into the

atmosphere. An artesian aquifer is analogous to a

large-capacity conduit with full flow in that extrac-

tions from it cause a decrease in pressure, rather

than a change in volume. This is in contrast to a

free aquifer, where extractions cause a decrease in

the elevation of the groundwater table.

Groundwater Management

I

With increas-

ing use being made of groundwater resources,

effective groundwater management is an absolute

necessity. Adequate management should include

not only quantity but quality. Quantity manage-

ment consists of effective control over extractions

and replenishment. Quality management consists

of effective control over groundwater pollution

resulting from waste disposal, recycling, poor-qual-

ity replenishment waters, or other causes.

Several steps or investigations are necessary for

developing an effective management program. First

is a comprehensive geologic investigation of the

groundwater basin to determine the characteristics of

the aquifers. Second is a qualitative and quantitative

hydrologic study of both surface water and ground-

waters to determine historical surpluses and defi-

ciencies, safe yield, and overdraft. (Safe yield is the

magnitude of the annual extractions from an aquifer

that can continue indefinitely without bringing some

undesirable result. Deteriorating water quality, need

for excessive pumping lifts, or infringement on the

water rights of others are examples of undesirable

results that could define safe yield. Regardless of

how it is defined, safe yield applies only to a specific

set of conditions based largely on judgment as to

what is desirable. Extractions in excess of the safe

yield are termed overdrafts.) In conjunction with the

hydrologic study, present and future water demands

should be determined. A detailed water-quality

study should be made not only of the groundwater

within the basin but also of all surface waters, waste-

waters, and other waters that replenish the ground-

water basin. Undesirable water-quality and -quantity

conditions should be identified.

Following the preceding preliminary work,

alternative management plans should be formulat-

ed. These management plans should consider vari-

ations in the quantity of extractions; groundwater

levels; quality, quantity, and location of artificial

replenishment; source, quantity, and quality of

water supply; and methods of wastewater dispos-

al. All alternative plans must recognize all legal

and jurisdictional constraints.

The final step is the operational-economic evalu-

ation of the alternatives and the selection of a rec-

ommended groundwater management plan. Oper-

ations and economic studies are normally

conducted by superimposing present and future

conditions in each alternative plan on historical

hydrologic conditions that occurred during a base

period. (A base period is a period of time, usually a

number of years, specifically chosen for detailed

hydrologic analysis because conditions of water

supply and climate during the period are equivalent

to a mean of long-term conditions and adequate

data for such hydrologic analysis are available.)

Economic evaluation of alternative plans should

consider cost of water-supply facilities, cost of

replenishment water, cost of wastewater-disposal

facilities, cost of pumping groundwater at the vari-

ous operational levels considered, and indirect

water-quality use costs, among others. (Indirect

water-quality use costs are those indirect costs

incurred by water distributors and consumers as a

result of using water of different qualities. These

costs include increased soap costs, water softening

costs, and costs associated with the more rapid dete-

rioration of plumbing and waterworks equip-

mentall of which increase as the hardness and

salinity of the water increase.)

Operational studies should determine the most

efficient manner of joint operation of surface and

groundwater systems (conjunctive use).

Use of computers and the development of a

mathematical model for the groundwater basin are

almost essential because of the number of repeti-

tive calculations involved.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.83

Upon completion of the operational and eco-

nomic studies, the most favorable management

scheme should be selected as the recommended

plan. This selection should be based not only on

economic and operational considerations but on

social, institutional, legal, and environmental fac-

tors. The plan should be capable of being readily

implemented, flexible enough to accommodate

different growth rates, financially feasible, and

generally acceptable to the water and wastewater

agencies operating in the basin.

An operating agency should be designated or

formed to implement the recommended plan. The

agency should have adequate powers to control or

cooperate in the control of surface-water supplies

groundwater recharge sites, surface-water deliv-

ery facilities, amount and location of groundwater

extractions, and wastewater treatment and dispos-

al facilities. The operating agency should develop a

comprehensive monitoring network and a data

collection and evaluation program to determine

the effectiveness of the management plan and to

implement any changes in the plan deemed neces-

sary. This monitoring network may consist of

selected wells where groundwater levels and

chemical characteristics are measured and certain

surface-water sampling locations where both

quantitative and qualitative factors are measured.

The program should also include quantitative

evaluation of extractions, water used, wastewater

disposed, and natural and artificial replenishment.

Integration of the above data with the computer

model of the groundwater basin is an efficient

method of evaluating the groundwater manage-

ment scheme.

(Ground Water Management, Manual and

Report on Engineering Practice, no. 40, American

Society of Civil Engineers, 1987; J. Bear, Hydraulics

of Ground Water, N. S. Grigg, Water Resources

Planning, A. I. Kashef, Groundwater Engineering,

R. K. Linsley et al., Hydrology for Engineers, 3rd

ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

Water Supply

A waterworks system is created or expanded to

supply a sufficient volume of water at adequate

pressure from the supply source to consumers for

domestic, irrigation, industrial, fire-fighting, and

sanitary purposes. A primary concern of the engi-

neer is estimation of the quantity of potable water

to be consumed by the community since the engi-

neer must design adequately sized components of

the water-supply system. Water-supply facilities

consist of collection, storage, transmission, pump-

ing, distribution, and treatment works.

To assure continuous service to the consumer for

fire-fighting and sanitary purposes in the event of an

earthquake, fire, flood, or other unforeseen emer-

gency, careful consideration must be given to the

selection of standby equipment and alternative sup-

plies of water. Maximum protection must be given to

power sources and pumps that must be available to

operate continuously during emergency conditions.

A dependable supply with sufficient pressure for

fighting fires considerably increases capital expendi-

tures for system construction. The smaller the sys-

tem, the larger the percentage of the total cost

chargeable to dependable fire flow.

21.43 Water Consumption

The size of a proposed water-supply project is usu-

ally based on an average annual per capita con-

sumption rate. Therefore, forecasts of population

for the design period are of the greatest impor-

tance and must be made with care to ensure that

components for the project are of adequate size.

Estimation of future population, however, is a very

difficult task.

Several mathematical methods are available for

use in predicting populations of cities. Some meth-

ods commonly used are arithmetical increase, per-

centage increase, decreasing percentage increase,

graphical comparison with other cities, and the

ratio method of comparing a community with a

state or country of which the community is a part.

Great care and judgment must be exercised in pop-

ulation prediction since many factors, such as

industrial development, land speculation, geo-

graphical boundaries, and age of the city, may

drastically alter mathematical estimates.

The total water supply of a city is usually dis-

tributed among the following four major classes of

consumers: domestic, industrial, commercial, and

public.

Domestic use consists of water furnished to

houses, apartments, motels, and hotels for drink-

ing, bathing, washing, sanitary, culinary, and

lawn-sprinkling purposes. Domestic use accounts

for between 30 and 60% (50 to 60 gal per capita per

day) of total water consumption in an average city.

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21.84

I

Section Twenty-One

Commercial water is used in stores and office

buildings for sanitary, janitorial, and air condition-

ing purposes. Commercial use of water amounts to

about 10 to 30% of total consumption.

Industrial uses of water are diverse but consist

mainly of heat exchange, cooling, and cleaning. No

direct relationship exists between the amount of

industrial water used and the population of the

community, but 20 to 50% of the total quantity of

water used per capita per day is normally charged

to industrial usage. Usually the larger-sized cities

have a high degree of industrialization and show a

correspondingly greater percentage of total con-

sumption as industrial water.

Public use of water for parks, public buildings,

and streets contributes to the total amount of water

consumed per capita. Fire demands are usually

included in this class of water use. The total quan-

tity of water used for fire fighting may not be large,

but because of the high rate at which it is required,

it may control the design of the facilities. About 5

to 10% of all water used is for public uses.

Waste and miscellaneous usage of water include

that lost because of leakage in mains, meter mal-

functions, reservoir evaporation, and unauthorized

uses. About 10 to 15% of total consumption may be

charged to waste and miscellaneous uses.

Water Demand Rate

I

Many factors, such

as the climate, size of the city, standard of living,

degree of industrialization, type of service

(metered or unmetered), lawn sprinkling, air con-

ditioning, cost, pressure, and quality of the water,

influence the demand rate for water.

Presence of industries usually increases the total

per capita use of water but decreases the demand

fluctuation. A good estimate of the potential indus-

trial water demand can be made by relating demand

to the percent of land zoned for industrial use.

Small cities frequently have a low per capita

demand for water, especially if portions of the city

are unsewered. Fluctuations in demand are greater

in small cities, mainly because of the lack of large

industries. High standards of living increase water

demand and fluctuations in rate of use.

Warm and dry climates have a higher rate of

water consumption because of sprinkling and air

conditioning. Cold weather sometimes increases

consumption because water is allowed to run to

prevent pipes from freezing.

Demand for water is related to water-service

meters, cost, quality, and pressure. Metering water

reduces the quantity of water consumed by 10 to

25% because of the usual increase in total cost of

consumers if they continue to use water at the

unmetered rate. High water pressures increase

demand because of greater losses at leaking

mains, valves, and faucets. Normally, if the cost of

water increases, the demand for it decreases.

Demand for water usually increases with an

improvement in quality.

Demand rates vary with time of day, month,

and year. Table 21.17 is a comparison between

water-demand rates for the city of Los Angeles

and a national average calculated from data in a

U.S. Public Health Service Report. The national

demand-rate data, as presented in Table 21.17, are

the average of a range of values, including some

very high and very low rates due to variations in

climatic conditions, degree of industrialization,

and time of day. Examples of divergent average

daily demand rates for various United States cities

are: 230 gal per capita per day for Chicago, 210 gal

per capita per day for Denver, 150 gal per capita

per day for Baltimore, and 135 gal per capita per

day for Kansas City, Mo.

The California Water Atlas, 1979, State of Cal-

ifornia Office of Planning and Research, presents

National avg Los Angeles, Calif.

Gal per capita % of avg Gal per capita % of avg

per day annual rate per day annual rate

Avg day 160 100 175 100

Max day 265 165 280 160

Max h 400 250 420 240

Table 21.17 Water-Demand Rates

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21.85

average monthly demand rates for water use in

four coastal and four inland cities for the period

1966 to 1970. In the atlas, the effect of warm, dry

climatic conditions is indicated for each location by

the ratio of average monthly use to the annual

average gallon per capita per day. The maximum

monthly water-demand rates ranged from 119 to

141% of the annual rate for the coastal cities and

from 144 to 187% of the annual rate for the dry,

inland, valley cities. Moreover, the annual demand

rates for the inland areas averaged 78% higher

than those for the coastal cities. The difference is

due primarily to the great amount of lawn sprin-

kling in Los Angeles. Past water-demand records

of both the city being considered and other cities of

similar size, industrialization, climate, and so on

should be considered and incorporated in

demand-rate projections for water systems.

The total quantity of water used for fighting

fires is normally quite small, but the demand rate is

high. The fire demand as established by the Amer-

ican Insurance Association is

(21.132)

where G = fire-demand rate, gal/min

P = population, thousands

The required fire flows computed from this formula

are listed in Table 21.18. When calculating the total

flow to be used in design, fire flow should be added

to the average consumption for the maximum day.

21.44 Water-Supply Sources

The major sources of a water supply are surface

water and groundwater. In the past, surface sources

have included only the commonly occurring natur-

al fresh waters, such as lakes, rivers, and streams,

but with rapid population expansion and increased

per capita water use associated with a higher stan-

dard of living, consideration must be given to

desalination and waste-water reclamation as well.

In selection of a source of supply, the various

factors to be considered are adequacy and reliabil-

ity, quality, cost, legality, and politics. The criteria

are not listed in any special order since they are, to

a large extent, interdependent. Cost, however, is

probably the most important because almost any

source could be used if consumers are willing to

pay a high enough price. In some local areas, as

increasing demands exceed the capacity of existing

sources, the increasing cost of each new supply

focuses attention on reclamation of local supplies

of wastewater and desalination.

Adequacy of supply requires that the source be

large enough to meet the entire water demand.

Total dependence on a single source, however, is

frequently undesirable, and in some cases, diversi-

fication is essential for reliability. The source must

Avg area served per hydrant

in high-value districts, ft*

gal/min MGD

1,000 1,000 1.4 4 0.3 100,000 120,000

2,000 1,500 2.2 6 0.6 90,000

4,000 2,000 2.9 8 1.0 85,000 110,000

10,000 3,000 4.3 10 1.8 70,000 100,000

17,000 4,000 5.8 10 2.4 55,000 90,000

28,000 5,000 7.2 10 3.0 40,000 85,000

40,000 6,000 8.6 10 3.6 40,000 80,000

80,000 8,000 11.5 10 4.8 40,000 60,000

125,000 10,000 14.4 10 6.0 40,000 48,000

200,000 12,000 17.3 10 7.2 40,000 40,000

* American Insurance Association.

Table 21.18 Required Fire Flow, Hydrant Spacing, and Fire Reserve Storage*

Population

Duration,

h

Reserve

storage,

MG

Fire Flow

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21.86

I

Section Twenty-One

also be capable of meeting demands during power

outages and natural or created disasters. The most

desirable supplies from a reliability standpoint, in

order, are (1) an inexhaustible supply, whether

from surface or groundwater, which flows by grav-

ity through the distribution system; (2) a gravity

source supplemented by storage reservoirs; (3) an

inexhaustible source that requires pumping; and

(4) sources that require both storage and pumping.

As demand increases and supplies become over-

taxed, conservation practices in everyday use

become a valuable management tool.

Quality of the source determines both accept-

ability and cost; it varies considerably between

regions. Preliminary estimates of quality can be

made by examining the source, geology, and cul-

ture of the area.

Legality of supply is determined by doctrines

and principles of water rights, such as appropria-

tion, riparian, and ownership rights. Appropria-

tion right gives the first right priority over later

rights: first in time means first in right. Riparian

right permits owners of land adjacent to a stream

or lake to take water from that stream or lake for

use on their land. Ownership right gives a

landowner possession of everything below and

above the land. Legality is especially important for

groundwater supplies or where there is transfer of

water from one watershed to another.

A political problem with water supply exists

because political boundaries seldom conform to

natural-drainage boundaries. This problem is espe-

cially acute in extensive water-importation plans,

but it even exists in varying forms for wastewater

reclamation and desalination projects.

Desalination processes are of two fundamental

types: those that extract salt from the water, such as

electrodialysis and ion exchange, and those that

extract water from the salt, such as distillation,

freezing, and reverse osmosis. The energy cost of

the former processes is dependent on the salt con-

centration. Hence, they are used mainly for brack-

ish water. The energy costs for the water-extraction

processes are essentially independent of salinity.

These processes are used for seawater conversion.

Very large dual-purpose nuclear power and desali-

nation plants, which take advantage of the

economies realized by enormous facilities, have

been proposed, but such plants are feasible only

for those large urban areas located on coasts. Trans-

mission and pumping costs make inland use

uneconomical. Although desalination may have

advantages as a local source, it is not at present a

panacea that will irrigate the deserts.

Acceptance of wastewater reclamation as a

water source for direct domestic use is hindered by

public opinion and uncertainty regarding viruses.

Much effort has been expended to solve these

problems. But until such time as they are solved,

wastewater reclamation will have only limited use

for water supply. In the meantime, reclaimed

water is being used for irrigation in agricultural

and landscaping applications.

(D. W. Prasifka, Current Trends in Water-Sup-

ply Planning, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.45 Quality Standards for

Water

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 mandated

that nationwide standards be established to help

ensure that the public receives safe water through-

out the United States. National Interim Primary

Drinking Water Standards were adopted in 1975,

based largely on the 1962 U.S. Public Health Ser-

vice Standards (Publication no. 956), which were

used for control of water quality for interstate car-

riers. These earlier standards had been widely

adopted voluntarily by both public and private

utilities and received the immediate endorsement

of the American Water Works Association as a min-

imum standard for all public water supplies in the

United States. Similar standards were developed

by the World Health Organization as standards for

drinking-water quality at international ports

(International Standards for Drinking Water,

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland).

Heightened concern over our changing environ-

ment and its health effect on water supplies was a

major cause of the change from voluntary to

mandatory water-quality standards.

The Safe Drinking Water Act defines contami-

nant as any physical, chemical, biological, or radio-

logical substance or matter in water. Maximum

contaminant level (MCL) indicates the maximum

permissible level of a contaminant in water that is

delivered to any user of a public water system. The

act clearly delineates between health-related qual-

ity contaminants and aesthetic-related contami-

nants by classifying the former as primary and the

latter as secondary contaminants.

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21.87

Primary Standards

I

Tables 21.19 to 21.21 list

tests and maximum contaminant levels required by

the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regu-

lations (Federal Register 40, no. 248, 5956659588,

Dec. 24, 1975). Following are explanatory material

and testing frequency for compliance with the reg-

ulations. Enforcement responsibility rests with the

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or with

those states electing to take primary responsibility

for ensuring compliance with the regulations. The

EPA updates standards periodically.

Microbiological Quality

I

The major dan-

ger associated with drinking water is the possibili-

ty of its recent contamination by wastewater con-

taining human excrement. Such wastewater may

contain pathogenic bacteria capable of producing

typhoid fever, cholera, or other enteric diseases.

The organisms that have been most commonly

employed as indicators of fecal pollution are

Escherichia coli and the coliform group as a whole.

Table 21.19 outlines the coliform test results

required to meet the MCL for bacteriological qual-

ity. When organisms of the coliform group occur in

three or more of the 10-mL portions of a single

standard sample, in all five of the 100-mL portions

of a single standard sample, or exceed the given

values for a standard sample with the membrane-

filter test, remedial measures should be undertak-

en until daily samples from the same sampling

point show at least two consecutive samples to be

of satisfactory quality.

The minimum number of samples to be taken

from the distribution system and examined each

month should be in accordance with the population

served. A minimum of 1 sample should be taken in

any case, with 11 samples taken for 10,000 popula-

tion, 100 for 100,000 population, 300 for 1,000,000

population, and 500 for 5,000,000 and over. For

details of methods, see Standard Methods for the

Examination of Water and Wastewater, American

Public Health Association, American Water Works

Association, Water Pollution Control Federation.

Turbidity

I

A limit on turbidity has been set as

a primary contaminant because high turbidity may

interfere with disinfection efficiency, especially in

virus inactivation, and excessive particulates may

Type of contaminant Maximum contaminant levels (MCL)

all water systems

Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than one sample if less than 20

samples are collected per month

Or 4 colonies/100 mL in more than 5% of the samples if 20 or

more samples are examined per month

When using the multiple-tube fermentation test: (10-mL portions)

Coliform shall not be present in more than 10% of the portions

per month

Not more than one sample may have three or more portions positive

when less than 20 samples are examined per month

Or not more than 5% of the samples may have three or more portions

positive when 20 or more samples are examined per month

Turbidity in surface water 1 TU monthly average (5 TU monthly average may apply at state option)

systems only

Or 5 TU average of two consecutive days

* From Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems, American Water Works Asso-

ciation, 1979.

TU = turbidity unit.

Table 21.19 Primary Drinking Water StandardsMicrobiological and Turbidity*

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21.88

I

Section Twenty-One

stimulate growth of microorganisms in a distribu-

tion system. Daily turbidity sampling of surface

water as it enters the distribution system is

required, with certain exceptions in systems that

practice disinfection and maintain an active resid-

ual disinfectant in the system.

Chemical Substances

I

The MCL for inor-

ganic and organic chemicals are listed in Table

21.20. Testing for these substances to determine

compliance must be performed yearly for commu-

nity water systems utilizing surface-water sources

and every 3 years for systems using groundwater.

Noncommunity water systems supplied by surface

or groundwater must repeat the tests every 5 years.

If the routine test results indicate that the level

of any substance listed exceeds the MCL, addition-

al check samples are required. For the inorganic

and organic chemicals, except nitrates, if one or

more MCL are exceeded, the data are reported to

the state within 7 days and three additional sam-

ples are taken at the same sampling point within 1

month. If the average value of the original and

three check samples exceeds the MCL, this is

reported to the state within 48 h, the public is noti-

fied, and then a monitoring frequency designated

by the state should continue until the MCL has not

been exceeded in two successive samples or until a

monitoring schedule is set up as a condition to a

variance, exemption, or enforcement action.

Table 21.20 Primary Drinking Water StandardsChemicals and Radioactivity*

Maximum contaminant

Type of contaminant levels (MCL)

Arsenic 0.05 mg / L

Barium 1 mg / L

Cadmium 0.010 mg / L

Chromium 0.05 mg / L

Lead 0.05 mg / L

Mercury 0.002 mg / L

Selenium 0.01 mg / L

Silver 0.05 mg / L

Nitrate (as N) 10 mg / L

Organic chemicals in surface water systems only

Endrin 0.0002mg / L

Lindane 0.004 mg / L

Methoxychlor 0.1 mg / L

Toxaphene 0.005 mg / L

2, 4-D 0.1 mg / L

2, 4, 5-TP (Silvex) 0.01 mg / L

Radiological contaminants (natural) in all water systems

Combined Ra-226 and Ra-228 5 pCi / L

Radiological contaminants (synthetic) in surface-water systems for

populations of 100,000 or more

Gross Beta 50 pCi / L

Tritium 20,000 pCi / L

Strontium-90 8 pCi / L

* From Safe Water: A Fact Book on the Safe Drinking Water Act for Non-Community Water Systems, American Water Works Asso-

ciation, 1979.

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21.89

When the nitrate test results indicate that the

MCL has been exceeded, one additional check

sample must be taken within 24 h. If the average of

the original and check sample exceeds the MCL,

the water supplier should report this to the state

within 48 h and notify the public. Continued mon-

itoring follows the same rules as indicated for the

other chemical substances.

Trihalomethanes

I

Amendments to the

interim primary regulations in 1979 set a limit for

chloroform and three related organic chemicals of

the trihalomethane group. The MCL for total tri-

halomethanes, including chloroform, bromo-

dichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and

bromoform, is 0.10 mg/L. Monitoring and compli-

ance are required of community water systems

serving populations greater than 10,000 that add

disinfectant to the treatment process of surface and

groundwaters. For each treatment plant in the sys-

tem, a minimum of four samples must be taken for

each quarter of a year. All samples must be taken

on the same day: 25% of the samples must be taken

at the extreme ends of the distribution system; the

remainder may be taken from the central portion

of the distribution system. To determine compli-

ance with the MCL, the total trihalomethane con-

centrations of all samples taken for the quarter are

averaged. Next, the average concentration for the

current quarter and for the three previous quarters

are averaged, yielding the running annual average. If

this average is less than 0.10 mg/L, the water sys-

tem is in compliance.

For more information on monitoring require-

ments and modification of treatment techniques to

lower the trihalomethane concentration, if that is

required, see Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water,

American Water Works Association; Federal Regis-

ter 44, no. 281, 68624-68707, Nov. 29, 1979; and R. L.

Jolley, Water Chlorination, Environmental Impact,

and Health Effects, vols. 1 and 2, Ann Arbor Sci-

ence, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Fluoride Limits

I

Fluoride is considered an

essential constituent of drinking water for preven-

tion of tooth decay in children. Conversely, excess

fluorides may give rise to dental fluorosis (spotting

of the teeth) in children. The recommended lower,

optimum, and upper control limits for fluoride

concentrations, taken from the 1962 Drinking

Water Standards, are shown in Table 21.21. They

also recommended that fluoride in average con-

centrations greater than twice the optimum values

shall constitute grounds for rejection of the supply.

The latter concentrations, based on average air

temperature (Table 21.21, MCL column), were used

to set the MCL for the primary drinking water reg-

ulations.

Water suppliers may continue to use these

guidelines for optimum levels of fluoridation to

control dental caries in children at the discretion of

the state because the Safe Drinking Water Act pre-

cludes Federal regulations that may require the

addition of any substance for preventive health

care purposes unrelated to contamination of

drinking water.

Recommended control limits,

fluoride concentrations, mg/ L

Annual avg of max or ppm* Maximum

daily air contaminant

temperatures

53.7 or lower 0.9 1.2 1.7 2.4

53.8 58.3 0.8 1.1 1.5 2.2

58.4 63.8 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0

63.9 70.6 0.7 0.9 1.2 1.8

70.7 79.2 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.6

79.3 90.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 1.4

* From Drinking Water Standards, U.S. Public Health Service, no. 956, 1962.

Table 21.21 Allowable Fluoride Concentration

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21.90

I

Section Twenty-One

When fluoridation (supplementation of fluoride

in drinking water) is practiced, the average fluoride

concentration should be kept within the upper and

lower limits in Table 21.21. In addition, fluoridated

and defluoridated supplies should be sampled with

sufficient frequency to determine that the desired

fluoride concentration is maintained.

Radioactivity

I

The limiting values in Table

21.20 for radioactive substance apply to the aver-

age result obtained from analysis of four quarterly

samples or to one composite test sample formed

from four quarterly samples. All water systems

serving surface water or groundwater should be

tested for the natural radiological contaminants.

But only those systems serving surface water to

populations exceeding 100,000 are required to test

for synthetic contaminants.

When the average gross alpha activity is greater

than 5 pCi/L, additional tests should be run to

determine the levels of radium 226 and 228 sepa-

rately. If the combined alpha activity exceeds 5

pCi/L, the data should be reported to the state

within 48 h and the public notified. Monitoring

should be continued at quarterly intervals until the

annual average concentration no longer exceeds

the maximum contaminant level.

When the gross beta activity is greater than 50

pCi/L, an analysis should be performed to identify

the major radioactive constituents present. The

appropriate organ and total body doses should be

calculated to determine whether the maximum con-

taminant level of 4 millirem/year has been exceeded.

This calculation is required when tritium and stron-

tium-90 are both present in any concentration.

Special Monitoring

I

Among amendments

to the interim primary drinking water regulations

in 1980 were requirements for monitoring of sodi-

um concentration levels and corrosivity character-

istics. Samples for sodium analysis should be col-

lected annually for systems using surface waters

and every 3 years for systems supplying ground-

water exclusively.

The corrosivity sampling program requires that

two samples per plant be collected annually for

systems using surface-water sourcesone during

midwinter and one during midsummer. Only one

sample is needed for groundwater sources. The

measurements should include pH, calcium hard-

ness, alkalinity, temperature, total dissolved solids,

and calculation of the Langelier index. (See also

Art. 21.50 and Standard Methods for the Exami-

nation of Water and Wastewater, American Public

Health Association, American Water Works Associ-

ation, and Water Pollution Control Federation.) At

the discretion of the state, monitoring for addition-

al corrosivity characteristics, such as sulfates and

chlorides, and determination of the Aggressive

index may be required.

No maximum contaminant levels have been pro-

mulgated with respect to any of these parameters.

Secondary Standards

I

The aesthetic con-

taminants are covered by the secondary drinking

water regulations. The limits are called secondary

maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) and are listed

in Table 21.22. These levels represent reasonable

goals for drinking-water quality but are not Federal-

ly enforceable. The states may use these SMCL as

guidelines and establish higher or lower levels that

may be appropriate, dependent on local conditions,

such as unavailability of alternate source waters or

other compelling factors, if public health and wel-

fare are not adversely affected. (See National Sec-

ondary Drinking Water Regulations, U.S. Environ-

mental Protection Agency 570/9-76-000.)

Source Protection

I

The U.S. Public Health

Service Drinking Water Standards recognized the

need for protecting the source of water supplies, as

indicated by the following extract:

Maximum contaminant

Type of contaminant levels

Chloride 250 mg/L

Color 15 color units

Copper 1 mg/L

Corrosivity Noncorrosive

Foaming agents 0.5 mg / L

Iron 0.3 mg / L

Manganese 0.05 mg / L

Odor 3 threshold odor number

pH 6.5 8.5

Sulfate 250 mg / L

Total dissolved solids (TDS) 500 mg / L

Zinc 5 mg / L

Table 21.22 Secondary Drinking-Water

Standards

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21.91

The water supply should be obtained from the most

desirable source feasible, and effort should be made to

prevent or control pollution of the source. If the

source is not adequately protected against pollution

by natural means, the supply shall be adequately pro-

tected by treatment.

Sanitary surveys shall be made of the water-supply

system, from the source of supply to the connection of

the customers service piping, to locate and correct

any health hazards that might exist. The frequency of

these surveys shall depend upon the historical need.

Adequate capacity shall be provided to meet peak

demands without development of low pressures and

the possibility of backflow of polluted water from cus-

tomer piping.

Case histories and monitoring programs have

been reported indicating that active source protec-

tion can enhance water quality with minimal extra

expense. (See R. B. Pojasek, Drinking-Water Qual-

ity Enhancement through Source Protection, Ann

Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.)

Water Treatment

Water is treated to remove disease-producing bac-

teria, unpleasant tastes and odors, particulate and

colored matter, and hardness and to lower the lev-

els of any contaminants when necessary to meet

water-quality standards. Some of the more com-

mon methods of treatment are plain sedimentation

and storage, coagulation-sedimentation, slow and

rapid sand filtration, disinfection, and softening

(see also Art. 21.51).

Long-term storage of water reduces the

amount of disease-producing bacteria and particu-

late matter. But economic conditions usually com-

pel water purveyors to use more efficient methods

of treatment, such as those mentioned above.

21.46 Sedimentation

Processes

Sedimentation or clarification is a process of

removing particulate matter from water through

gravity settlement in a basin by reducing the flow-

through velocity. Factors that affect the settling

rate of particulate matter suspended in water are

size, shape, and specific gravity of the suspended

particles; temperature and viscosity of the water;

and size and shape of the settling basin.

The settling velocity

s

of spherically shaped

particles in a viscous liquid can be found by use of

Stokes law if the Reynolds number R = d/, cal-

culated with =

s

, is equal to or less than 1.

(21.133)

where

s

= settling velocity of particle, m/s

g = acceleration due to gravity, m/s

2

= absolute viscosity of the fluid, Pas

1

= density of particle, g/mm

3

= density of fluid, g/mm

3

d = particle diameter, mm

If R > 2000, Newtons law applies:

(21.134)

where C

D

is the drag coefficient. Figure 21.75

shows a plot of C

D

values vs. Reynolds numbers, to

be used in Eq. (21.134).

In the region where 1.0 < R < 2000, there is a

transition from Stokes law to Newtons. The set-

tling velocity in this region is somewhere between

the values given by Newtons law and those given

by Stokes law; however, no exact expression has

been developed to give the velocity.

Figure 21.76 shows the relationship of settling

velocity to diameter of spherical particles with spe-

cific gravity S between 1.001 and 5.0.

21.46.1 Plain Sedimentation

The ideal settling basin (Fig. 21.77) is a sedimentation

tank in which flow is horizontal, velocity is constant,

and concentration of particles of each size is the

same at all points of the vertical cross section at the

inlet end. The basin has a volumetric capacity C,

depth h

o

, and width B. The surface loading rate or

overflow velocity

o

, equal to the settling velocity of

the smallest particle to be completely removed, can

be determined by dividing the flow rate Qby the set-

tling surface area A. For this ideal basin, the overflow

velocity therefore is

o

= Q/A = Q/BL

o

, where Q =

Bh

o

V and L

o

is the length of settling zone, V the flow-

through velocity. (Usually,

o

is expressed in gallons

per day per square foot of surface area.) The deten-

tion time t = h

o

/

o

= L

o

/V also equals the volumetric

capacity C divided by the rate of flow Q.

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21.92

I

Section Twenty-One

Fig. 21.75 Newton drag coefficients for spheres in fluids. (Observed curves, after Camp, Transactions of

the American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. 103, p. 897, 1946.)

Fig. 21.76 Chart gives settling velocities of spherical particles with specific gravities S, at 10 C.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.93

Particles with a settling velocity

s

>

o

, and

those that enter the settling zone between f and j

(at left in Fig. 21.77) with a settling velocity

s

larg-

er than (

1

= h

1

V/L

o

) but less than

o

, are removed

in this basin. The particles with a settling velocity

s

<

1

that enter the settling zone between f and e

are not removed in this basin.

The efficiency of a sedimentation basin is the

ratio of the flow-through period to the detention

time. The flow-through period is the time required

for a dye, salt, or other indicator to pass through

the basin. Settling-basin efficiencies are reduced by

many factors such as cross currents, short circuit-

ing, and eddy currents. A well-designed tank

should have an efficiency of 30 to 50%.

Some design criteria for sedimentation tanks are:

Period of detention2 to 8 h

Length-to-width ratio of flow-through channel

3:1 to 5:1

Depth of basin10 to 25 ft (15 ft average)

Width of flow-through channelnot over 40 ft (30

ft most common)

Diameter of circular tank35 to 200 ft (most com-

mon, 100 ft)

Flow-through velocitynot to exceed 1.5 ft/min

(most common velocity, 1.0 ft/min)

Surface loading or overflow velocity, gal per day

per ft

2

of surface areabetween 500 and 2000 for

most settling basins

Sedimentation tanks may be built in any of a

variety of shapes, for example, rectangular (Fig.

21.78a) or circular (Fig. 21.78b). Multistory tanks,

such as the two-story basin with a single tray in Fig.

27.8c, occupy less site area than the single-story

basin. The tubular settler (Fig. 21.78d) with parallel

flow upward provides very high surface areas.

(American Water Works Association and Amer-

ican Society of Civil Engineers, Water Treatment

Plant Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York; G. M.

Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun, Water and

Wastewater Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

New York.)

21.46.2 Coagulation-Sedimentation

To increase the settling rate and remove finely

divided particles in suspension, coagulants are

added to the water. Without coagulants, finely

Fig. 21.77 Longitudinal section through an ideal settling basin.

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21.94

I

Section Twenty-One

Fig. 21.78 Types of sedimentation tanks: (a) Rectangular settling basin. (b) Circular clarifier. (c) Two-

story sedimentation basin. (d) Tubular settler.

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21.95

divided particles do not settle out because of their

high ratio of surface area to mass and the presence

of negative charges on them. The velocity at which

drag and gravitational forces are equal is very low,

and the negative charges on the particles produce

electrostatic forces of repulsion that tend to keep

the particles separated and prevent agglomeration.

When coagulating chemicals are mixed with water,

however, they introduce highly charged positive

nuclei that attract and neutralize the negatively

charged suspended matter.

Iron and aluminum compounds are commonly

used as coagulants because of their high positive

ionic charge. The alkalinity of the water being treat-

ed must be high enough for an insoluble hydroxide

or hydrate of these metals to form. These insoluble

flocs of iron and aluminum, which combine with

themselves and other suspended particles, precipi-

tate out when a floc of sufficient size is formed.

The more common coagulants are aluminum

sulfate, commonly known as alum [Al

2

(SO

4

)

3

.

18H

2

O]; ferrous sulfate (FeSO

4

7H

2

O); ferric chlo-

ride (FeCl

3

); and chlorinated copperas (a mixture of

ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate). The type and

amount of coagulant necessary to clarify a specified

water depend on the qualities of water to be treat-

ed, such as pH, temperature, turbidity, color, and

hardness. Jar tests are usually made in a laboratory

to determine the optimum amount of coagulant.

Some organic polymers are alternatives to the

metallic coagulants. Polymers are long-chain, high-

molecular-weight, organic polyelectrolytes. They

are available in three types: cationic, or positively

charged; anionic, or negatively charged; and non-

ionic, or neutral in charge. Cationic polymers are

generally the most suitable for use as primary

coagulants. Anionic polymers, however, are often

used as flocculant aids in conjunction with an iron

or aluminum salt to cause the formation of larger

floc particles. Thereby, lesser amounts of metallic

salt are needed to effect good coagulation.

Because of differences in the characteristics of

the suspended matter found in natural waters, not

all waters can be treated with equal success with

the same polymer or the same dosages. Jar tests

should be run with several dosages of the various

polymers available to aid in selecting the material

best suited for each water supply, considering both

cost and performance.

There are several reasons for considering the

use of polymers: increased settling rate and

improved filtrability of the floc, production of a

smaller volume of sludge, and easier dewatering.

Also, polymers have a minor effect on pH; conse-

quently, the need for final pH adjustment in the

finished water may be reduced.

Process Steps

I

The complete clarification

process is usually divided into three stages: (1)

rapid chemical mixing; (2) flocculation or slow stir-

ring, to get the small floc to agglomerate; and (3)

coagulation-sedimentation in low-flow-velocity

settling basins. Rapid chemical mixing may be

accomplished with many devices, such as mechan-

ical stirrers, centrifugal pumps, and air jets. The

time necessary for mixing ranges from a few sec-

onds to 20 min. Flocculation or slow stirring

increases floc size and speeds up settling. The

speed of the agitators must be great enough, how-

ever, to cause contact between the small floc but

not so great that the larger floc is broken up. Floc-

culator detention time should be in the 20- to 60-

min range. The coagulation-sedimentation process

takes place in a clarifier basin nearly identical to a

plain sedimentation basin. The detention period

for a clarifier should be between 2 and 8 h.

(G. L. Culp and R. L. Culp, New Concepts in

Water Purification, Van Nostrand Reinhold Com-

pany, New York; American Water Works Associa-

tion, Water Quality and Treatment, 4th ed., T. J.

McGhee, Water Supply and Sewerage, R. A. Cor-

bitt, Standard Handbook of Environmental Engi-

neering, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.47 Filtration Processes

Passing water through a layer of sand removes

much of the finely divided particulate matter and

some of the larger bacteria. The filtering process has

many components, such as physical straining,

chemical and biological reactions, settling, and neu-

tralization of electrostatic charges.

Direct Filtration

I

It is possible by use of

direct filtration to eliminate the sedimentation

step, in some instances, for treatment of raw

waters that are low in turbidity, color, coliform

organisms, plankton, and suspended solids, such

as paper fiber. Direct filtration is a water-treatment

process in which raw water is not settled prior to

the filtration step. It usually includes addition of a

coagulant to destabilize the colloidal particles and

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21.96

I

Section Twenty-One

a polymer as a flocculant aid. The process requires

rapid mixing, agitation in a well-designed floccula-

tor for 10 to 30 min, addition of a polymer as a fil-

ter aid, and dual- or mixed-media filtration.

Pilot plant tests are essential for selecting the

best combination of coagulant and flocculant aid to

obtain a strong floc and to provide criteria for

design of the filtration units.

The principal advantages of direct filtration are

its lower capital and operation costs. Elimination of

settling basins can result in capital cost savings of

20 to 30%, and operational cost may be cut 10 to

30% by reduced chemical doses. Direct filtration

merits investigation before construction of new

facilities if the turbidity of the source water aver-

ages less than 25 TU.

Slow Sand Filters

I

These consist of an

underdrained, watertight container containing a 2-

to 4-ft layer of sand supported by a 6- to 12-in layer

of gravel. The effective size of the sand should be

in the 0.25- to 0.35-mm range. (The effective size is

the size of a sieve, in millimeters, that will pass

10%, by weight, of the sand. The uniformity coef-

ficient is the ratio of the size of a sieve that will

pass 60% of the sample to the effective size.) The

uniformity coefficient of the sand should be less

than 3. The sand is normally submerged under 4 or

5 ft of water. The water passes through the filter at

a rate of 3 to 6 MG per acre per day, depending on

the turbidity. The slow filter is not as versatile or as

efficient as rapid sand filters.

Rapid Sand Filtration

I

This is normally

preceded by chemical treatment, such as floccula-

tion-coagulation and disinfection, so the water can

be passed through the sand at a higher rate. Usu-

ally, the effluent from a rapid filter needs further

disinfection or chlorination because the bacteria

are not completely removed in this process. A dia-

gram of a typical gravity-type rapid sand filter is

shown in Fig. 21.79.

The normal order of flow through the varying

components of the filter is from the clarifiers (set-

tling tanks) to the top of the sand layer, through the

sand and gravel layers, through the underdrain lat-

erals to the main drain, and then through the con-

troller to the clear well for storage. Wash (cleaning)

water flow takes place in a reverse direction after

the filter effluent line has been closed. The wash-

Fig. 21.79 Gravity-type rapid sand filter.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.97

water flow is through the main drain to the laterals,

from the laterals upward through the gravel and

sand to the wash-water troughs. The troughs carry

the water to the gullet, which is drained to waste.

Some common design factors for rapid sand fil-

ters are:

Effective grain size0.35 to 0.55 mm

Uniformity coefficient1.20 to 1.75

Thickness of sand layer24 to 30 in depending on

grain size

Thickness of gravel layer15 to 24 in

Gravel sizefrom

1

/8 to 1

1

/2 in

Filtration rate2 to 4 gal/minft

2

(125 to 250 MG

per acre per day)

Total depth of each basin8 to 10 ft

Maximum head loss allowed before washing

sand8 to 10 ft

Sand expansion during washing25 to 50%

Wash-water rate15 to 20 gal/minft

2

Distance from top edge of wash-water trough to

top of unexpanded sand24 to 30 in

Length of filter runs between washings12 to 72 h

Spacing between wash-water troughs4 to 6 ft

Ratio of length to width of each basin1.25 to 1.35

Rapid sand filters are operated until the partic-

ulate matter and unsettled floc cover the openings

between the sand grains, creating a high head loss

across the filter. This high head loss slows down the

flow rate and may force some of the particulate

matter through the sand and gravel layers. Filters

are usually backwashed when the particulate-mat-

ter concentration increases in the filter effluent or

when the head loss reaches 8 to 10 ft. Backwashing

a filter consists of forcing filtered water through the

filter from the drains upward to the wash-water

troughs. The lightweight sediment is washed from

the sand grains by the moving water and some-

times by other agitating devices, such as rakes,

water sprays, and air jets. Filters must be washed

thoroughly or difficulties with mud balls, bed

cracking, or sand incrustation will be encountered.

Immediately after washing, filters pass water at

a high rate, which produces an undertreated efflu-

ent. Either manual or automatic rate control must

be used to prevent such an occurrence. Many

treatment plants control the rate of filtration by

using venturi tube devices, which throttle the filter

effluent line when there is high-velocity flow. As

clogging begins to occur in the filter, the velocity of

flow in the effluent line decreases, and the rate

controller then opens to increase the velocity.

A negative head is produced on the filter when

the head loss across the filter is greater than the

depth of water on the sand. Negative heads can

produce a condition known as air binding, which

is caused by removal of dissolved gases from the

water and formation between sand grains of bub-

bles that decrease filter capacity.

The underdrains of a filter are commonly made

of perforated pipe or porous plates. The under-

drains should be arranged so that each area filters

and distributes its proportionate share of water.

The ratio of total area of perforations to the total fil-

ter-bed area is normally in the 0.002:1 to 0.005:1

range. The diameter of the perforations varies

between

1

/4 and

3

/4 in.

Wash-water troughs should be evenly spaced,

and water should not have to travel more than 3 ft

horizontally to get to a wash-water gutter. The

depth of water flow in a horizontal gutter may be

calculated from

(21.135)

where Q = total flow received by trough,

gal/min

b = width of trough, in

y = water depth at upstream end of

trough, in

The total gutter depth can be found by adding 2 or

3 in of freeboard to the calculated depth y.

Other Processes

I

Anthracite coal may be

used in place of sand in gravity-type filters. The effec-

tive grain size is greater than that of sand, thus per-

mitting higher filtration rates and longer filter runs.

Dual-media, mixed-media, or deep coarse-media filters,

however, may be more advantageous. They operate

at the higher filtration rates of 4 to 8 gal/minft

2

.

A pressure filter is composed of a gravity-filter

medium enclosed in a watertight vessel. The filter-

ing medium may be sand, diatomaceous earth, or

anthracite coal. Pressure filters are primarily sup-

plemental and are used for specialized industrial

uses and for clarifying swimming pool water.

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21.98

I

Section Twenty-One

Filter galleries are made up of horizontal, perfo-

rated, or open-joint pipes, placed in shallow sand or

gravel aquifers. Galleries typically are fed by diver-

sion or pumping from streams into spreading basins

with gravel or sand bottoms. Some, however, may be

located in aquifers with high groundwater table. The

filtered water may be pumped from the gallery or

allowed to flow out one end by gravity.

(G. L. Culp and R. L. Culp, New Concepts in

Water Purification, Van Nostrand Reinhold Com-

pany, New York; American Water Works Associa-

tion, Water Quality and Treatment, 4th ed., and

American Society of Civil Engineers, Water Treat-

ment Plant Design, and T. J. McGhee, Water Sup-

ply and Sewerage, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York; G. M. Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D.

A. Okun, Water and Wastewater Engineering,

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.)

21.48 Water Softening

Presence of the bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates,

and chlorides of calcium and magnesium in water

causes hardness. Three major classifications of hard-

ness are: (1) carbonate (temporary) hardness caused

by bicarbonates, (2) noncarbonate (permanent)

hardness, and (3) total hardness. Municipal treat-

ment plants generally use either the lime-soda (pre-

cipitation) process or the base-exchange (zeolite)

process to reduce the hardness of the water to below

100 mg/L (about 100 ppm) of CaCO

3

equivalence.

In the lime-soda process, lime (CaO), hydrated

lime [Ca(OH)

2

], and soda ash (Na

2

CO

3

) are added

to the water in sufficient quantities to reduce the

hardness to an acceptable level. The amounts of

lime and soda ash required for softening to a resid-

ual hardness can be determined by use of chemical-

equivalent weights, taking into account that com-

mercial grades of lime and hydrated lime are about

90 and 68% CaO, respectively. Residual hardness of

50 to 100 mg/L as CaCO

3

remains in the treated

water because of the very slight solubility of both

CaCO

3

and Mg(OH)

2

. Hardness of water is normal-

ly expressed in grains per gallon (gpg) or mg/L of

CaCO

3

, where 1 gpg = 17.1 mg/L.

Chemical equations for the common lime-soda

softening processes are

(21.136)

(21.137)

(21.138)

(21.139)

Since the carbonate and magnesium hydroxide

particles settle out in sedimentation basins, facili-

ties must be provided for particle removal and dis-

posal. Deposition of CaCO

3

and Mg(OH)

2

on sand

grains, in clear wells, and in distribution pipes can

be prevented by recarbonation with CO

2

before

sand-filter treatment.

Hardness in water can be reduced to zero by

passing the water through a base-exchange or zeo-

lite material. These materials remove cations, such

as calcium and magnesium, from water and

replace them with soluble sodium and hydrogen

cations. Calcium can be removed from water as

shown by the following reaction:

(21.140)

where Ca

2+

is the calcium hardness ion removed,

Na

+

is the sodium ion replacing the Ca

2+

in water,

and R is the zeolite material. The reaction can be

reversed (from right to left) by increasing the Na

+

concentration to a high value, as generally is done

in regeneration of the softening unit.

Sodium chloride (table salt) is commonly used

to regenerate the unit. Regeneration requires

between 0.3 and 0.5 lb of salt per 1000 grains of

hardness removed.

Some hardness-removal capacities per cubic

foot of base-exchange material are: natural zeo-

lite2500 to 3000 grains, synthetic zeolite5000 to

30,000 grains (1 lb = 7000 grains).

(American Water Works Association, Water

Quality and Treatment, 4th ed., and American

Society of Civil Engineers, Water Treatment Plant

Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.49 Disinfection with

Chlorine

Chlorine in either the liquid, gas, or hypochlorite

form is frequently used for destroying bacteria in

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.99

water supplies. Other disinfectants are iodine,

bromine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, ultraviolet light,

and lime.

The reaction of chlorine with water is

(21.141)

The hypochlorous acid (HOCI) reacts with the

organic matter in bacteria to form a chlorinated com-

plex that destroys living cells. The amount of chlo-

rine (chlorine dose) added to the water depends on

the amount of impurities to be removed and the

desired residual of chlorine in the water. Chlorine

residuals of 0.1 or 0.2 mg/L are normally maintained

in water-treatment-plant effluent streams as a factor

of safety for the water as it travels to the consumer.

The concern over trihalomethane formation fol-

lowing chlorination of waters containing apprecia-

ble amounts of natural organic materials (Art. 21.62)

has led to use of alternate disinfectants. The prime

candidates are ozone and chlorine dioxide. The

benefits of ozone should be investigated for new or

modified treatment plants, particularly if there are

color or taste and odor problems in the raw water.

(American Water Works Association and Amer-

ican Society of Civil Engineers, Water Treatment

Plant Design, and T. J. McGhee, Water Supply

and Sewerage, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

21.50 Carbonate Stability

Water may either corrode or place a protective car-

bonate film on the interior surfaces of pipes. Which

it does depends on the nature and amount of

chemicals dissolved in the water.

An approximation of the stability of a water sup-

ply can be obtained by adding an excess of calcium

carbonate powder to one-half of a water sample. Stir

or shake each half sample at 5-min intervals for about

1 h. Filter both solutions; then, either take the pH or

determine the methyl orange alkalinity of each sam-

ple. If the untreated water has a higher alkalinity or

pH than the CaCO

3

-treated water, the water is satu-

rated with carbonate and may deposit protective

films in pipes. If the untreated water has a lower pH

or alkalinity value than the treated water, the water is

unsaturated with carbonate and may be corrosive. If

the pH or alkalinity is the same in both samples, the

water is in equilibrium in regard to carbonates.

The greater the difference in either alkalinity or

pH between the two samples, the greater the

amount of either unsaturation or saturation with

respect to carbonates. If the untreated water has a

much higher pH or alkalinity than the treated

water, the water is highly saturated with carbon-

ates. It can cause a problem with heavy carbonate

deposits in pipes and appurtenances of the pur-

veyor and consumer.

(G. M. Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun, Water

and Wastewater Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., New York.)

21.51 Miscellaneous

Treatments

Many different methods of treatment are used to

remove such undesirable elements as color, taste,

odor, excessive fluorides, detergents, iron, man-

ganese, and substances exceeding the water-quali-

ty maximum contaminant levels (Art. 21.45).

Activated carbon is commonly used for taste and

odor removal. The carbon can be applied as a pow-

der to the water and later removed by a sand filter,

or the water can be passed through a bed of carbon

to remove natural and synthetic organic chemicals.

Treatment techniques for removal of inorganic

contaminants include conventional coagulation,

lime softening, cation exchange, anion exchange,

activated carbon, reverse osmosis, and electrodial-

ysis. Concerns over the potential for lead poison-

ing from lead in drinking water passing through

lead pipes installed long ago but still in use or from

leaded solder used for pipe joints have encouraged

abandonment of such practices. Where the pres-

ence of lead is detected in a water supply, despite

its low solubility, its concentration can be nearly

completely removed with lime softening or alum

and ferric sulfate coagulation.

(American Water Works Association and Amer-

ican Society of Civil Engineers, Water Treatment

Plant Design, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

Water Collection Storage and

Distribution

21.52 Reservoirs

The basic purpose of impounding reservoirs is to

hold runoff during periods of high runoff and

release it during periods of low runoff. The specif-

ic functions of reservoirs are hydroelectric, flood

control, irrigation, water supply, and recreation

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21.100

I

Section Twenty-One

(see also Art. 21.52.1). Many large reservoirs are

multipurpose, as a consequence of which the spe-

cific functions may dictate conflicting design and

operating criteria. Also, equitable cost allocation is

more difficult.

Sizing of a reservoir for a project where the

demand for water is much greater than the mean

stream flow is an economic balance between bene-

fits and costs. A preliminary study of available

reservoir sites should be made to obtain the relative

costs for various size reservoirs. The dependable

flow that can be obtained from various-size reser-

voirs can be determined from the mass diagram for

stream flow. An economic comparison should then

be made of the benefits of various flows and the

costs of various reservoirs. The reservoir size that

will give the maximum benefit should be selected.

When the demand rate is known, as is the case

for many water-supply projects, the required size

of the reservoir can be determined directly from a

mass diagram of stream flow.

The mass diagram(Fig. 21.80) is a graphical plot

of total stream-flow volume against time. The

slope of the curve is the rate of flow.

Selection of the critical period of years for a mass

curve depends on the function of the reservoir. For

a water-supply or hydroelectric development, min-

imum flows will be critical, whereas for flood-con-

trol reservoirs, maximum flows will govern.

Reservoir capacity for a certain demand can be

obtained by drawing a line with a slope equal to

the demand tangent to the mass curve at the

beginning of a selected dry period, as shown by

lines AB and AC in Fig. 21.80. The ordinates d and

e represent the storage required to maintain

demands AB and AC.

Once a reservoir site has been selected, area-

volume curves (Fig. 21.81) are drawn to give the

characteristics of the site. The plot of volume vs.

water elevation is determined by planimetering

the area of selected contours within the reservoir

site and multiplying by the contour interval. Aeri-

Fig. 21.80 Mass diagram of stream flow.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.101

al mapping has made it possible to obtain accurate

contour maps at only a fraction of the costs of older

methods.

Another important consideration in the design

of reservoirs is deposition of sediment (see Arts.

21.35 and 21.52.2).

In selection of a site for a water-supply reser-

voir, give special attention to water quality. If pos-

sible, the watershed should be relatively uninhab-

ited to reduce the amount of treatment required.

(Water from practically all sources should be disin-

fected in the distribution system to ensure against

pollution and contamination.) Shallow reservoirs

usually give more problems with color, odor, and

turbidity than deep reservoirs, particularly in

warm climates or during warm seasons of the year.

Runoff heavily laden with silt and debris should be

diverted from the reservoir or treated before it is

mixed with the water supply. Alum is mixed into

reservoirs to reduce turbidity, and copper sulfate is

used to kill vegetation.

In deep reservoirs, during the summer months

the upper part of the reservoir will be warmed,

while below a certain level the temperature may be

many degrees cooler. The zone where the abrupt

temperature change takes place, which may be only

a few feet thick, is called the thermocline. The

waters above and below the thermocline circulate,

but there is no circulation across this zone. The water

in the lower level becomes low in dissolved oxygen

and develops bad tastes and odors. When the tem-

perature drops in the fall, the water at the upper

level becomes heavier than the water at the lower

level and the two levels become intermixed, causing

bad tastes and odors in the entire reservoir. To oxi-

dize organic matter and prevent poor water quality

in lower levels of reservoirs during summer months,

chlorine or compressed air should be released at var-

ious points on the bottom of the reservoirs.

21.52.1 Distribution Reservoirs

The two main functions of distribution reservoirs

are to equalize supply and demand over periods of

varying consumption and to supply water during

equipment failure or for fire demand. Major

sources of supply for some cities, such as New

York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, are large dis-

tances from the city. Because of the large cost of

aqueducts, it is usually economical to size them for

the mean annual flow and provide terminal stor-

age for daily and seasonal fluctuations of demand.

Terminal storage is also necessary because of the

possibility of a failure along an aqueduct.

It is usually economical to have equalizing

reservoirs at various points in the distribution sys-

tem so that main supply lines, pumping plants, and

treatment plants can be sized for maximum daily

instead of maximum hourly demand. During hours

of maximum demand, water flows from these

reservoirs to the consumers. When the demand

drops off, the flow refills the reservoir. A mass dia-

Fig. 21.81 Area-capacity curves for a reservoir.

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21.102

I

Section Twenty-One

gram (Fig. 21.80) can be used to determine the

required capacity of the reservoir.

Equalizing reservoirs are usually built at the

opposite end of the system from the source of sup-

ply, so that during peak flows the maximum dis-

tance from the supply to the consumer is cut in half.

It is necessary for an equalizing reservoir to have an

elevation high enough to provide adequate pres-

sure throughout the system served. For the correct

hydraulic grade, it is necessary to build the reser-

voir above the area it serves. If the topography will

not allow a surface reservoir, a standpipe or an ele-

vated tank must be constructed. Standard elevated

tanks are available in capacities up to 2 MG.

21.52.2 Reservoir Trap Efficiency

The methods of Art. 21.35.2 for determining the

quantities of sediment delivered to a reservoir

require knowledge of the trap efficiency of the reser-

voir before the percentage of the incoming silt that

will remain to reduce storage can be determined.

Studies of trap efficiency were made by G. M. Brune,

who developed a curve to express the relationship

between trap efficiency and what he called the capac-

ity-inflow ratio for a reservoir (Fig. 21.82) (G. M. Brune,

Trap Efficiency of Reservoirs, Transactions of the

American Geophysical Union, vol. 34, no. 3, June 1953).

The higher the capacity-inflow ratio, acre-feet

of storage per acre-foot of annual inflow, the

greater the percentage of sediment trapped in a

reservoir. For any given storage reservoir, the trap

efficiency decreases with time since the capacity-

inflow ratio decreases as sediment builds up. The

rate of silting of a storage reservoir decreases when

the capacity is reduced to an amount such that

some spillage of silt-laden water occurs with each

major storm. This rate decrease occurs because an

increasing percentage of the annual suspended silt

load is vented before sedimentation can occur.

21.53 Wells

A gravity well is a vertical hole penetrating an

aquifer that has a free-water surface at atmospher-

ic pressure (Fig. 21.83). A pressure or artesian well

passes through an impervious stratum into a con-

fined aquifer containing water at a pressure greater

than atmospheric (Fig. 21.84). A flowing artesian

Fig. 21.82 Chart indicates percentage of incoming sediment trapped in reservoirs.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.103

Fig. 21.83 Gravity well in a free aquifer.

Fig. 21.84 Artesian well in a pressure aquifer.

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21.104

I

Section Twenty-One

well is an artesian well extending into a confined

aquifer that is under sufficient pressure to cause

water to flow above the casing head. A gallery or

horizontal well is a horizontal or nearly horizontal

tunnel, ditch, or pipe placed normal to groundwa-

ter flow in an aquifer.

21.53.1 Drawdown

When water is pumped from a well, the water

level around the well draws down and forms a

cone of depression (Fig. 21.83). The line of intersec-

tion between the cone of depression and the origi-

nal water surface is called the circle of influence.

Interference between two or more wells is

caused by the overlapping of circles of influence.

Drawdown for each interfering well is increased

and the rate of water flow is decreased for each

well in proportion to the degree of interference.

Interference between two or more closely spaced

wells may increase to the extent that the system of

wells produces one large cone of depression.

Since nearly all soils are heterogeneous, pump-

ing tests should be made in the field to determine

the value of the hydraulic conductivity K. A per-

meability analysis of a soil sample that is not rep-

resentative of the soil throughout the aquifer

would produce an unreliable value for K.

21.53.2 Flow From Wells

The steady flow rate Q can be found for a gravity

well by using the Dupuit formula:

(21.142)

where Q = flow, gal/day

K = hydraulic conductivity, ft/day under

1:1 hydraulic gradient

H = total depth of water from bottom of

well to free-water surface before

pumping, ft

h = H minus drawdown, ft

D = diameter of circle of influence, ft

d = diameter of well, ft

The steady flow, gal/day, from an artesian well is

given by

(21.143)

where t is the thickness of confined aquifer, ft (Fig.

21.84).

A long time elapses between the beginning of

pumping and establishment of a steady-flow con-

dition (a circle of influence with constant diame-

ter). Hence, correct values for drawdown and the

circle of influence can be obtained only after long

periods of continuous pumping.

A nonequilibrium formula developed by Theis

and a modified nonequilibrium formula produced

by Jacob are used in analyzing well flow conditions

where equilibrium has not been established. Both

methods utilize a storage coefficient S and the coef-

ficient of transmissibility T to eliminate complica-

tions due to the time lag before reaching steady

flow. (C. V. Theis, The Significance of the Cone of

Depression in Groundwater Bodies, Economic

Geology, vol. 33, p. 889, December 1938; C. E. Jacob,

Drawdown Test to Determine Effective Radius of

Artesian Well, Proceedings of the American Society of

Civil Engineers, vol. 72, no. 5, p. 629, 1940.) Comput-

er software packages are available for analysis of

groundwater flow with finite-element models.

21.53.3 Excavation of Wells

Wells may be classed by the method by which

they are constructed and their depth. Shallow

wells (less than 100 ft deep) are usually dug,

bored, or driven. Deep wells (depth greater than

100 ft) are usually drilled by either the standard

cable-tool, waterjet, hollow-core, or hydraulic

rotary methods.

21.53.4 Well Equipment

Essential well equipment consists of casing, screen,

eductor or riser pipe, pump (Art. 21.57), and motor.

The casing keeps the wall material and polluted

water from entering the well and prevents the

leakage of good water from the well.

The screen is placed below the casing to con-

tain the walls of the aquifer, to allow water to pass

from the aquifer into the well, and to stop move-

ment of the larger sand particles into the well. The

pump, motor, and eductor pipe are utilized to

move the water from the aquifer to the collecting

lines at the ground surface.

(G. M. Fair, J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun, Water

and Wastewater Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,

Inc., New York; T. J. McGhee, Water Supply and

Sewerage, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York.)

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.105

21.54 Water Distribution

Piping

A water-distribution system should reliably provide

potable water in sufficient quantity and at adequate

pressure for domestic and fire-protection purposes.

To provide adequate domestic service, the pressure

in the main at house service connections usually

should not be below 45 psi. But if oversized plumb-

ing is provided, 35 psi is adequate. In steep hillside

areas, the system is usually divided into several dif-

ferent pressure zones, interconnected with pumps

and pressure regulators. Since each additional zone

causes increased expenses and decreased reliability,

it is desirable to keep their number to a minimum.

The American Water Works Association has recom-

mended 60 to 75 psi as a desirable range for pres-

sures; however, in areas of steep topography where

local elevation differences may be over 1000 ft, such

a narrow range is not practical.

House plumbing is designed to withstand a

maximum pressure of between 100 and 125 psi.

When the pressure in distribution lines is above

125 psi, it is necessary to install pressure regulators

at each house to prevent damage to appliances,

such as water heaters and dishwashers.

21.54.1 Water for Fire Fighting

Pressure requirements for fire fighting depend on

the technique and equipment used. Four methods

of supplying fire protection are:

1. Use of mobile pumpers which take water from

a hydrant. This method is used in most large

communities that have full-time, well-trained

fire departments. The required pressure in the

immediate area of the fire is 20 psi.

2. Maintenance of adequate pressure at all times

in the distribution system to allow direct con-

nection of fire hoses to hydrants. This technique

is commonly used in small communities that do

not have a full-time fire department and mobile

pumpers. The pressure in the distribution sys-

tem in the vicinity of a fire should be between

50 and 75 psi.

3. Use of stationary fire pumps located at various

points in the distribution system, to boost the

pressure during a fire and allow direct connec-

tion of hoses to hydrants. This method is not so

reliable or so widely used as the first two.

4. Use of a separate high-pressure distribution sys-

tem for fire protection only. There are only rare

instances in high-value districts of large cities

where this method is used because the cost of a

dual distribution system is usually prohibitive.

21.54.2 Hydraulic Analysis of

Distribution Piping

Distribution systems are usually laid out on a grid-

iron system with cross connections at various

intervals. Dead-end pipes should be avoided

because they cause water-quality problems.

Economic velocities are usually around 3 to 4 ft/s,

although during fires they can be much higher. Two-

and four-inch-diameter pipe can be used for short

lengths in residential areas; however, the American

Insurance Association (AIA) requires 6-in pipe for

fire service in residential areas. Also, maximum

length between cross connections is limited to 600 ft.

In high value districts, the AIA requires an 8-in pipe,

with cross connection at all intersecting streets. The

AIA standards also require that gate valves be locat-

ed so that no single case of pipe breakage, outside

main arteries, requires shutting off from service an

artery or more than 500 ft of pipe in high valued dis-

tricts, or more than 800 ft in any area. All small dis-

tribution lines branching from main arteries should

be equipped with valves. (Standard Schedule for

Grading Cities and Towns of the United States with

Reference to Their Fire Defenses and Physical Con-

ditions, American Insurance Association.)

Adequate service requires a knowledge of the

hydraulic grade at many points in a distribution

system for various flows. Several methods, based

on the following rules, have been developed for

analysis of complex networks:

1. The head loss in a conduit varies as a power of

the flow rate.

2. The algebraic sum of all flows into and out of

any pipe junction equals zero.

3. The algebraic sum of all head losses between

any two points is the same by any route, and

the algebraic sum of all head losses around a

loop equals zero.

A convenient device for simplifying complex

networks of various size pipes is the equivalent pipe.

For a series of different size pipes or several parallel

pipes, one pipe of any desired diameter and one

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21.106

I

Section Twenty-One

specific length or any desired length and one spe-

cific diameter can be substituted; this will give the

same head loss as the original for all flow rates if

there are no take-outs or inputs between the two

end points. In complex networks, the equivalent

pipe is used mainly to simplify calculation.

Example 21.10: Determine the equivalent 8-in-

diameter pipe that will have the same loss of head

as the sections of pipe from A to D in Fig. 21.85a.

First, transform pipes CD, AB, and BD into

equivalent lengths of 8-in pipe; then, transform the

resulting sections into a single 8-in pipe with the

same head loss. The head loss may be calculated

from Eqs. (21.34d).

Assume any convenient flow through CD, say

500 gal/min. Equation (21.34d) indicates that loss of

head in 1000 ft of 6-in pipe is 32 ft and in 1000 ft of

8-in pipe, 7.8 ft. Then, the equivalent length of 8-in

pipe for CD is 500 32/7.8 = 2050 ft. Similarly, the

equivalent pipe for AB should be 165 ft long, and

for BD, 420 ft long. The network of 8-in pipe is

shown in Fig. 21.85b. It consists of pipe 1, 3000 +

2050 = 5050 ft long, connected in parallel to pipe 2,

165 + 420 = 585 ft long.

To reduce the parallel pipes to an equivalent 8-in

pipe, assume a flow of 1000 gal/min through pipe 2.

For this flow, the head loss in an 8-in pipe per 1000 ft

is 29 ft. Hence the head loss in pipe 2 would be 29

585/ 1000 = 17 ft. Since the pipes are connected in

parallel, the head loss in pipe 1 also must be 17 ft, or

3.37 ft /1000 ft. The flow that will produce this head

loss in an 8-in pipe is 310 gal/min [Eq. (21.34c)]. The

equivalent pipe, therefore, must carry 1000 + 310 =

1310 gal/min with a head loss of 17 ft. For a flow of

1310 gal/min, an 8-in pipe would have a head loss of

48 ft in 1000 ft, according to Eq. 21.34d. For a loss of

17 ft, an 8-in pipe would have to be 1000 17/ 48 =

350 ft long. So the pipes between A and D in Fig.

21.85a are equivalent to a single 8-in pipe 350 ft long.

Pipe Network Equations

I

For hydraulic

analysis of a water distribution system, it is conve-

nient to represent the network by a mathematical

model. Generally, it is useful to include in the

model only the major elements needed for a math-

ematical description of the basic network. (For

models that are to be used for such conditions as

low pressures in a small service region, however, it

may be necessary to include all the distribution

mains in the system.) The three analysis rules on p.

21.105 can then be used to develop a system of

simultaneous equations that can be solved for flow

and pressure in the network.

Typically, either the Darcy-Weisbach or the

Hazen-Williams formula is used to relate the char-

acteristics of each pipe in the system. Consequent-

ly, the equations for each pipe are nonlinear. As a

result, a direct solution generally is not available.

In practice, the equations are solved by an iteration

process, in which the values of some variables are

assumed to make the equations linear and then the

equations are solved for the other variables. The

initial assumptions are corrected and used to

develop new linear equations, which are solved to

obtain more accurate values of the variables.

One example of this technique is the Hardy

Cross method, a controlled trial-and-error method,

which was widely used before the advent of com-

puters. Flows are first assumed; then consecutive

adjustments are computed to correct these assumed

values. In most cases, sufficient accuracy can be

obtained with three adjustments; however, there

are rare cases where the computed adjustments do

not approach zero. In these cases, an approximate

method must be used.

Fig. 21.85 Distribution loop (a) may be

replaced by equivalent loop (b).

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21.107

Assumed flows in a loop are adjusted in accor-

dance with the following equation:

(21.144)

where KQ

n

= h

f

= loss of head due to friction.

When the Hazen-Williams equation, used in Exam-

ple 21.10, is put in the form h

f

= KQ

n

then K =

4.727L/D

4.87

C

1

1.85

and n = 1.85. The expression

nKQ

n-1

equals (nKQ

n

/Q). In the Hazen-Williams

formula n = 1.85 for all pipes and can therefore be

taken outside the summation sign. Hence, the

adjustment equation becomes

(21.145)

It is important that a consistent set of signs be

used. The sign convention chosen for the follow-

ing example makes clockwise flows and the losses

from these flows positive; counterclockwise flows

and their losses are negative.

Approaches generally used for formulating the

equations for analysis of a water distribution net-

work include the following:

Flow method, in which pipe flows are the

unknowns.

Node method, in which pressure heads at the

pipe end points are the unknowns.

Loop method, in which the energy in each

independent loop is expressed in terms of the

flows in each pipe in the loop. In turn, the actual

flow in each pipe is expressed in terms of an

assumed flow and a flow correction factor for

each loop.

Computer software packages are available for

analysis of networks by such methods. They can

perform not only steady-state analyses of pres-

sures and flows in pipe networks but also time-

dependent analyses of pressure and flow under

changing system demands and of flow patterns

and basic water quality.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook

of Applied Hydraulics, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New

York; AWWA, Distribution Network Analysis for

Water Utilities, Manual of Water Supply Practices

M32, American Water Works Association, Denver,

Colo.; T. M. Walski, Analysis of Water Distribution

Systems, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.)

21.54.3 Cover over Buried Pipes

The cover required over distribution pipes

depends on the climate, size of main, and traffic. In

northern areas, frost penetration, which may be as

deep as 7 ft. is usually the governing factor. In

frost-free areas, a minimum of 24 in is required by

the AIA. If large mains are placed under heavy

traffic, the stress produced by wheel loads should

be investigated.

21.54.4 Maintenance of Water

Pipes

Maintenance of distribution systems involves keep-

ing records, cleaning and lining pipe, finding and

repairing leaks, inspecting hydrants and valves,

and many other functions necessary to eliminate

problems in operation. Valves should be inspected

annually and fire hydrants semiannually. Records

of all inspections and repairs should be kept.

Unlined distribution pipes, after years of usage,

lose much of their capacity because of corrosion

and incrustations. Cleaning and lining with

cement mortar restores the original capacity. Dead-

end pipes should be flushed periodically to reduce

the accumulation of rust and organic matter.

21.54.5 Economic Sizing of

Distribution Piping

When designing any major project, the designer

should choose the most economical of numerous

alternatives. Most of these alternatives can be sep-

arated and studied individually. An example of

two alternatives for a distribution system is one

serving peak hourly demands totally by pumps

and one doing it by pumps and equalizing reser-

voirs. The total costs of each plan should be com-

pared by an annual or present-worth cost analysis.

A method of determining minimum cost that

can readily be adapted to many conditions is set-

ting the first derivative of the total cost, taken with

respect to the variable in question, equal to zero. In

the sizing of pipes in a distribution system supplied

by pumps, the total costs of the pipes, pumping

plant, and energy may be expressed as an equation.

To find the most economical diameter of pipe, the

first derivative of the total cost, taken with respect

to the pipe diameter, should be set equal to zero.

The following equation for the most economical

pipe diameter was derived in that manner:

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21.108

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.146)

where D = pipe diameter, ft

f = Darcy-Weisbach friction factor

b = value of power, dollars/hp per year

Q

a

= average discharge, ft

3

/s

S = allowable unit stress in pipe, psi

a = in-place cost of pipe, dollars/pound

i = yearly fixed charges for pipeline

(expressed as a fraction of total capi-

tal cost)

H

a

= average head on pipe, ft

21.54.6 Pipe Materials

Cast iron, steel, concrete, and plastics, such as

polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polybutylene, and

glass-fiber-reinforced thermosetting resins, are the

most common materials used in distribution pipes.

Wood pipelines are still in existence, but wood is

rarely used in new installations. Copper, lead, zinc,

brass, bronze, and plastic are materials used in small

pipes, valves, pumps, and other appurtenances.

Common pipe-joint materials are: cement, sand;

rubber, plastic, and sulfur compounds.

Cast iron is the most common material for city

water mains. Standard sizes range from 2 to 24 in

in diameter. Cast iron is resistant to corrosion and

usually has good hydraulic characteristics. If it is

cement-lined, the Hazen-Williams C value may be

as high as 145. In unlined pipes, however, iron

tubercles may form and seriously affect flow

capacity. Tuberculation can be prevented by lining

with cement or tar materials. The relatively high

cost of cast-iron pipe is only a slight disadvantage,

largely offset by the long average life of trouble-

free service. Bell-and-spigot and flange are the

most common joints in cast-iron pipe.

Steel is commonly used for large pipelines and

trunk mains but rarely for distribution mains. Steel

pipes with either longitudinal or spiral joints are

formed at steel mills from flat sheets. The tranverse

joints between pipe sections are usually made by

welding, riveting, bell-and-spigot with rubber gas-

ket, sealed flanges, or Dresser-type couplings.

Since steel is stronger than iron, thinner and

lighter pipes can be used for the same pressures.

Some disadvantages of thin steel pipe are inability

to carry high external loads, possibility of collapse

due to negative gage pressures, and high mainte-

nance costs due to higher corrosion rates and thin-

ner pipe walls. Steel pipes are usually corrosion-

protected on both the outside and inside with coal

tar or cement mortar. Under favorable conditions,

the life of steel pipe is between 50 and 75 years.

Concrete pipe may be precast in sections and

assembled on the job or cast in place. A machine

that produces a monolithic, jointless concrete pipe

without formwork has been developed for gravity-

flow and low-pressure applications. Most of the

precast-concrete pipe is reinforced or prestressed

with steel. Concrete pipe may be made watertight

by insertion of a thin steel cylinder in the pipe

walls. High-strength wire is frequently wound

around the thin steel cylinder for reinforcement.

Concrete is placed inside and outside the steel

cylinder to prevent corrosion and strengthen the

pipe. Some advantages of concrete pipe are low

maintenance cost, resistance to corrosion under

normal conditions, low transportation costs for

materials if water and aggregate are available local-

ly, and ability to withstand external loads. Some

disadvantages to be considered are leaching of free

lime from the concrete, the tendency to leak under

pressure due to the cracking and permeability of

concrete, and corrosion in strong acids or alkalies.

21.55 Corrosion in Water

Distribution Systems

Many millions of dollars are expended every year

to replace pipes, valves, hydrants, tanks, and

meters destroyed by corrosion. Some causes of cor-

rosion are the contact of two dissimilar metals with

water or soil, stray electric currents, impurities and

strains in metals, contact between acids and met-

als, bacteria in water, or soil-producing compounds

that react with metals.

Electrochemical corrosion of a metal occurs

when an electrolyte and two electrodes, an anode

and a cathode, are present. (Water may serve as an

electrolyte.) At the anode, the metal in contact with

the electrolyte changes into a positively charged par-

ticle, which goes into solution or forms an oxide film.

(The ease with which a metal changes to a metallic

ion when it is in contact with water depends on its

oxidation potential or solution pressure. Metals can

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.109

be arranged in an electromotive series of decreasing

oxidation potentials. Metals high in the electromo-

tive series corrode more readily than metals located

in a lower position.) For an iron pipe exposed to

water, for example, the anode reaction is Fe (metal)

Fe

2+

+ 2e, where e is an electron. At the cathode,

the metal having the excess electrons gives them up

to a charged particle, such as hydrogen in solution:

2H

+

+ 2e H

2

(gas). If the hydrogen gas produced

at the cathode is removed from the cathode by reac-

tion with oxygen to produce water molecules or by

water movement (depolarization), the corrosion

process continues (Fig. 21.86). Indications of corro-

sion in an inaccessible iron or steel pipeline are dis-

charges of rusty-colored water (due to the loosening

of rust and scale) and metallic-tasting water.

A marked decrease in capacity and pressure in

a pipe section usually indicates tuberculation

inside the line. Tuberculation is caused by the

deposition and growth of insoluble iron com-

pounds inside a pipe. Iron-consuming bacteria in

water can produce ferrous oxide directly if the iron

concentration is about 2 ppm. A continuous supply

of soluble iron in the presence of iron-consuming

bacteria or dissolved oxygen and basic substances

in the water increases the size of the tubercles.

Tubercles may become so large and decrease the

capacity in the pipe to such an extent that it has to

be cleaned or replaced.

Several factors influence the type and quantity

of metallic corrosion:

Presence of protective films. Some metals form

oxide films that act as protective layers for the

metal. Aluminum, zinc, and chromium are exam-

ples of this type of metal.

Strains, cracks, and undissolved impurities in a

metal act as sites for corrosion.

Agitation or movement of water increases the

corrosion rate of a metal because the oxygen sup-

ply rate to the cathode and the removal rate of

metal ions from the anode are increased. The pres-

ence of ionic compounds in the water speeds up

corrosion because the ions act as conductors of

electricity, and the more ions, the faster electrons

can move through the water.

Alternate wetting and drying tends to break up

the rust or oxide film, thus facilitating penetration

of the film by oxygen and water and lead to

increased corrosion.

High hydrogen-ion concentrations increase

corrosion rates because of the greater accessibility

of the hydrogen ions to the cathode.

Corrosion may be prevented or retarded by

proper selection of materials, use of protective coat-

ings, and treatment of the water. When selecting

materials, the engineer should take into account the

characteristics of the water and soil conditions

encountered. Protective coatings for metals may be

metallic or nonmetallic and applied on both the

inside and outside surfaces of the pipe. Common

nonmetallic coatings are cement and asphalt. Zinc is

an example of metallic coating materials used. Steel

pipe dipped in zinc (galvanized) or copper tubing is

commonly used for small service lines.

Also, to prevent corrosion, water may be treat-

ed with bases, such as soda ash, caustic soda, and

Fig. 21.86 Electrochemical corrosion of iron in low-pH water.

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21.110

I

Section Twenty-One

lime, to reduce hydrogen-ion concentration and to

induce precipitation of thin films of carbonates,

hydroxides, oxides, and so on on the walls of the

pipes. These thin films reduce the ability of water

to corrode otherwise unprotected metal surfaces.

Corrosion, however, normally precedes deposition

of scale because iron must be in solution to react

with the basic substances and dissolved oxygen in

the water to form scale.

Electrochemical corrosion of external surfaces of

pipelines and water tanks can be retarded by appli-

cation of a direct current to the metal to be protected

and to another metal that acts as a sacrificial anode

(Fig. 21.87). The potential applied to or produced by

the two metal surfaces must be large enough to

make the protected metal act as a cathode. The sacri-

ficial anode corrodes and must be replaced periodi-

cally. Zinc, magnesium, graphite, and aluminum

alloys are commonly used for anode materials.

(American Water Works Association, Water

Quality and Treatment, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill,

Inc., New York.)

21.56 Centrifugal Pumps

The purpose of any pump is to transform mechan-

ical or electrical energy into pressure energy. The

centrifugal pump, the most common waterworks

pump, accomplishes that in two steps. The first

transforms the mechanical or electrical energy into

kinetic energy with a spinning element, or impeller.

The kinetic energy is then converted to pressure

energy by diffuser vanes or a gradually diverging

discharge tube, called a volute (Fig. 21.88).

Water enters at the center, or eye, of the

impeller and is forced outward toward the casing

by centrifugal force. The discharge head of a cen-

trifugal pump is a function of the impeller diame-

ter and speed of rotation.

Design factors requiring consideration in the

selection of a centrifugal pump are net positive

suction head required, efficiency, horsepower, and

the head-discharge relationship.

Net positive suction head (NPSH) is the ener-

gy in the liquid at the center line of the pump. To

have practical meaning, it must be referred to as

either the required or available NPSH. Required

NPSH is a characteristic of the pump and is given

by the manufacturer. Available NPSH is a charac-

teristic of the system and is determined by the

engineer. It is the pressure in the liquid over and

above its vapor pressure at the suction flange of

the pump and is given, in feet, by

(21.147)

where p

a

= pressure, psia, on free-water surface

or at center line of closed conduit

p

pumping temperature

h

f

= friction loss in suction line, ft of

water

z = elevation difference, ft, between

pump center line and water surface

w = unit weight of liquid, lb/ft

3

If the suction water surface is below the pump cen-

ter line, z is negative. To prevent cavitation, it is nec-

essary to have the available NPSH always greater

Fig. 21.87 Cathodic protection of a metal.

Fig. 21.88 Volute-type centrifugal pump.

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21.111

than the required NPSH. For that reason, it is cus-

tomary to analyze a required NPSH vs. discharge

curve with the brake horsepower, head, and effi-

ciency curves when selecting a pump.

The operating point of a centrifugal pump is

determined by the intersection of the pumps head-

capacity curve and the system head curve, as shown

in Fig. 21.89. (Also included in Fig. 21.89 are the

other curves used in pump selection.) A system

head curve is a plot of the head losses in the system

vs. pump discharge. This curve shows the head dif-

ferential that must be supplied by the pump. In a

typical water-system analysis, there may be three or

four pertinent system head curves corresponding

to various consumption rates. The intersection of

these curves with the head vs. Q curve define a

range of operation rather than a single point.

Selection of a centrifugal pump is largely a mat-

ter of matching one of the many pumps available

to the system characteristics. An important consid-

eration is that the point of maximum efficiency

should be at or near the operating point. Centrifu-

gal pumps are available in almost any capacity

desired, with lifts of up to 700 ft per stage. Efficien-

cies may be as high as 93% for large pumps.

See also Art. 21.57 and check valves in Art. 21.58.

(I. J. Karassik et al., Pump Handbook, 2nd ed.,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.57 Well Pumps

These are classified as centrifugal, propeller, jet,

helical, rotary, reciprocating, and air lift. Although

centrifugal pumps (Art. 21.56) are the most com-

mon for both shallow-well and deep-well pumps,

circumstances may dictate one of the other types.

Centrifugal pumps are used in wells over 6 in in

diameter. They have capacities up to 4000 or 5000

gal/min and heads up to 1200 ft, depending on the

number of stages. Efficiencies may be as high as

90% for the larger capacities; however, below 200

gal/min, the maximum efficiency is 75 to 80%.

Fig. 21.89 Curves used in selection of a centrifugal pump.

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21.112

I

Section Twenty-One

Propeller pumps are an axial-flow type. They

are used in high-capacity low-head applications.

Jet pumps (Fig. 21.90) operate by discharging

water through a nozzle and diverging conical tube,

which are located at the well bottom. The diverg-

ing conical tube creates lift by converting the high-

velocity head to pressure head. The suction con-

nection is made between the nozzle and entrance

to the diverging tube. Jet pumps have low efficien-

cies. They are used in small-capacity low-lift appli-

cations, especially where the water contains sand

or other impurities.

Helical pumps are a positive-displacement

type with a metal helical rotor rotating inside a

rubber helical stator. The screw action of the rotor

forces water through the pump and up the dis-

charge pipe. Helical pumps are small-capacity

high-lift pumps. They may be used in wells over 4

in in inside diameter.

Rotary pumps are also of the displacement

type. They have a fixed chamber in which gears,

vanes, cams, or pistons rotate with very close tol-

erances. These pumps have relatively constant

partial-load efficiencies. Full-load efficiencies range

from 50 to 85%. Because of the close tolerances,

they can be used only for sediment-free water.

Reciprocating pumps, either hand- or motor-

driven, utilize piston action to move water. Their

present-day use is primarily for small-capacity

low-lift private applications.

Air-lift pumps generate lift by using air bubbles

to decrease the specific weight of the column of

water in the discharge pipe below that of the sur-

rounding water in the well and create a pressure dif-

ferential that forces the water out of the well. Air-lift

pumps are the simplest and most foolproof of well

pumps since they have no submerged moving parts.

They can be used in any well but have the disad-

vantage of efficiencies below 50%.

Specific speed N

s

is a widely used criterion for

pump selection. It is the impeller speed corre-

sponding to a discharge of 1 gal/min at 1 ft of head

for the most efficient design.

(21.148)

where n = impeller speed, r/min

Q = discharge, gal/min

H = head, ft

The favorable design range of N

s

for radial-flow

(centrifugal) pumps is from 1500 to 4100. For N

s

between 4100 and 7500, mixed-flow pumps having

both radial and axial characteristics should be

used, and for N

s

above 7500, axial-flow (propeller)

pumps should be used.

Shallow-well pumps have their motors and

impellers at ground level, so that the entire lift is

suction. Since excessive suction lifts cause cavita-

tion, the lift is limited by atmospheric pressure and

the velocity head at the impeller, which is a func-

tion of specific speed. At sea level, the maximum

practical lift for a shallow-well pump is about 25 ft.

Deep-well pumps have their impellers close

enough to the water surface to eliminate cavita-

Fig. 21.90 Section through a jet pump (simpli-

fied).

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.113

tion. The motor may be at ground level with a long

shaft connecting it to the impellers, or it may be at

the bottom of the well, below and directly adjacent

to the impellers. The former type is called a deep-

well turbine pump and the latter a submersible pump.

Deep-well turbine pumps can be used only for

straight wells. The pump shaft is supported at

intervals of about 10 ft by rubber or metal bearings,

which are water- or oil-lubricated, respectively. If

sand is carried out with the water, an enclosed-

shaft or submersible pump must be used to pre-

vent bearing damage. Submersible pumps may be

used in crooked wells. Other advantages include

ease of increasing the well depth or lift and silent

operation. One disadvantage is that the motors are

difficult to reach for repairs.

(I. J. Karassik et al., Pump Handbook, 2nd ed.,

McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

21.58 Valves

Water facilities use many different types of valves.

These are generally classified according to the

function they perform. The two major water-valve

classifications are isolating and controlling.

Isolating valves are used for separating or shut-

ting off sections of pipe, pumps, and control

devices from the rest of the system for inspection

and repair purposes. The major types of isolating

valves are gate, plug, sluice gate, and butterfly.

A control valve is normally used for continu-

ously controlling pressures and flow rates. Check,

needle, globe, air-relief, pressure-regulating, pres-

sure-relief, and altitude valves are usually consid-

ered as control valves.

Gate valves are the isolating valves used most

often in distribution systems, primarily because of

their low cost, availability, and low head loss when

fully open. They have limited value as control or

throttling devices because of seat wear and the

downstream deflection and chatter of the gate disk.

Also, the open area and rate of flow through the

valve are not proportional to the percentage open-

ing of the valve when partly open. Corrosion, solids

deposition, tubercle formation, large pressure dif-

ferences, and thermal expansion produce difficul-

ties in opening normally closed gate valves or in

closing normally open gate valves. Periodic inspec-

tion and operation of valves that are infrequently

operated will prevent many operational difficulties.

Some of the larger gate valves have gear-reduction

drives to permit manual operation. Very large

valves are operated by hydraulic and electric power.

A plug valve may be used for both control and

isolation purposes. It consists of a cylindrically

shaped plug (with a rectangular slot or circular ori-

fice) placed in a close-fitting cylindrical seat perpen-

dicular to the direction of flow. Cone and spherical

valves are special types of plug valves. Plug, cone,

and spherical valves can all be fully closed or

opened by a 90 rotation of the plug. The valves

may or may not be lubricated (large iron valves usu-

ally are). Hydraulic or electric power is commonly

utilized for operating the larger valves. Small plug

valves are commonly used for isolation purposes on

domestic and commercial service connections and

are known as service, curb, or corporation cocks.

Usually, because the meter is not directly adjacent to

the distribution pipe, three valves must be used, one

at the service connection, one just upstream of the

meter, and one between the meter and the cus-

tomers service line. Plug and cone valves are also

used for throttling and remote-control shutoff. Low

head loss, in-service lubrication features, and easy,

fast operation, even in the presence of unequal

pressures across the valve, are the major advantages

of plug-type valves. But these valves cost more than

gate, globe, and butterfly valves.

Butterfly valves can be used for throttling and

isolation purposes. The butterfly-valve mechanism

consists of a relatively thin circular disk pivoted on

a horizontal shaft. Hand or motor power, applied

through a gear-reduction device, rotates the disk.

Simplicity of construction and quick, easy opera-

tion are reasons why these valves are replacing

sluice gates and gate valves in many locations. Los

Angeles has replaced many sluice gates in reser-

voir towers with butterfly valves having seats of

corrosion-resistant metal, rubber, or Neoprene. A

disadvantage of butterfly valves is the higher cost

relative to sluice gates or gate valves.

Sluice gates are mainly used on the sides of

reservoir control towers and in open-channel

structures where pressure on one side of the gate

helps to seat it and prevent water leakage. Diffi-

culties with leakage and corrosion of gate frames

and stems are the main disadvantages of sluice

gates. Low cost and ease of operation in open-

channel flow conditions are the major advantages.

A needle valve is made of a streamlined plug or

needle that fits into a small orifice with a carefully

machined seat. Needle valves are used for accurate

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21.114

I

Section Twenty-One

control of water flow because a large movement of

the needle is necessary before any measurable

change of flow rate takes place. Needle valves are

not normally used for isolating purposes because

of the high head losses produced by water flow

through the small orifices. Large-sized needle

valves are used for flow regulation under high

heads, such as for free discharge from reservoirs.

Interior-differential, tube, and hollow-jet are three

of the most common types of large needle valves.

Globe valves are commonly used in smaller sizes

for domestic purposes. The valve mechanism con-

sists of a screw-operated disk that is forced down on

a circular seat. Because of high head losses, globe

valves are rarely used for isolation purposes, but

they are commonly used for pressure regulation in

water-distribution systems. Many automatic control

valves, such as pressure regulators and altitude,

check, and relief valves, have globe-valve bodies

with various types of control mechanisms.

Pressure-regulating valves are used to reduce

pressures automatically. An air-relief and inlet valve

serves the dual purpose of allowing air to either

escape or enter a pipeline. Air that accumulates at

high points in a pipe impedes water flow and should

be allowed to escape through an air-relief valve

placed at this location. Furthermore, draining water

from low elevations in a pipeline may cause negative

pressures at higher elevations and collapse a pipe.

Air should be allowed to enter through air-relief and

inlet valves at the high points to prevent this.

Pressure-relief valves are used to release excess

pressure in an enclosure. Often, these excess pres-

sures are caused by sudden closure of a valve.

Altitude valves are used to control the water

level of elevated reservoirs. A pressure-activated

control closes the altitude valve when the tank is full

and opens the valve to allow water to flow from the

tank when pressure below the valve decreases.

Check valves are used in pipelines to allow for

one-directional flow only. Check valves placed in

centrifugal-pump suction lines are called foot

valves. These valves hold water in the suction line

and pump case so that the pump will not need

manual priming when started. The most common

check valve is the swing type.

21.59 Fire Hydrants

A fire hydrant normally consists of a cast-iron bar-

rel and a gate or compression-type shutoff valve,

which connects the barrel to the main. Two or more

hose outlets are normally located in the barrel

above the ground surface. Usually, an additional

gate valve is required between the hydrant and the

main to allow for shutoff and repair of the hydrant.

The number of 2

1

/2-in-diameter hose outlets on a

hydrant determines its class. For example, a hydrant

with two hose outlets is called a two-way hydrant.

Fire-hydrant construction standards have been

established by the American Water Works Associa-

tion and the American Insurance Association.

These standards relate the diameter of the barrel to

the size of the main-valve opening. A barrel diame-

ter of at least 4 in is required for a two-way hydrant,

5 in for a three-way hydrant, and 6 in for a four-

way hydrant. A minimum of two hose outlets is

required on a fire hydrant. Where pumper service

is necessary for adequate water pressure, a large

pumper outlet must be furnished. This may take

the place of one of the smaller 2

1

/2-in hose outlets.

The minimum allowable diameter for the pipe con-

nection between the main and the hydrant is 6 in.

Fire hydrants usually are either dry or wet bar-

rel, depending on the location of the main valve in

the hydrant. The main valve in the dry-barrel type

should be located below the frost line. When the

valve is in a closed position, a drain should be open

to prevent freezing of water in the barrel. The wet-

barrel, or California type, hydrants have the main

valve located near the hose outlets. Many fire

hydrants have a safety joint above the ground sur-

face to permit removal of the upper part of the bar-

rel with a minimum loss of water.

Hose connections 3

1

/16 in in diameter with 7

1

/2

threads per inch have been selected by the American

Insurance Association as standard to allow for inter-

change of fire-fighting equipment between cities.

Friction losses should not exceed 2

1

/2 psi in a

hydrant and 5 psi between the main and outlet

when flow is 600 gal/min.

21.60 Metering Devices

Metering devices are classified as either velocity or

displacement types. Velocity types measure the

velocity of flow either directly by current-measur-

ing devices or indirectly by venturi-principle

devices and are usually calibrated to indicate the

flow rate directly. The velocity-type metering

devices are applied to measurement of flows in

streams, rivers, and large pipes, such as trunk lines

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.115

of distribution systems. Displacement-type meter-

ing devices indicate flow rate directly, by recording

and integrating the rate at which their measuring

chambers are filled and emptied. Weighing meters

are also displacement-type metering devices, but

they are used primarily in laboratories. Displace-

ment types are used for the smaller flows in distri-

bution systems, such as meters for individual cus-

tomer connections.

Criteria for selection of a type of water meter

include accuracy and range of measurement,

amount of head loss through the meter, durability,

simplicity and ease of repairs, and cost.

Velocity-Type Metering Devices

I

Ven-

turi meters, or modifications thereof, are the most

common velocity-type devices. These meters pro-

duce a regular and predictable fall in the hydraulic

grade line that is related to flow rate. Three devices

that operate on this principle are the venturi, noz-

zle, and orifice plate meters shown in Fig. 21.91.

Straightening vanes are installed upstream from

these and other velocity-type meters if the pipe is of

insufficient length to eliminate helical flow compo-

nents caused by bends or other fittings.

The standard venturi meter (Fig. 21.91a) was

developed to provide a device with minimum

head loss. Since most of the loss is associated with

the diffuser section, its angle is the major factor in

determining the head loss.

Flow through a venturi meter is given by

(21.149)

(21.150)

where Q = flow rate, ft

3

/s

c = empirical discharge coefficient

dependent on throat velocity and

diameter

d

1

= diameter of main section, ft

d

2

= diameter of throat, ft

h

1

= pressure in main section, ft of water

h

2

= pressure in throat section, ft of

water

(For values of c and K for various throat diameters

and velocities, see E. F. Brater, Handbook of

Hydraulics, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New York.)

As in venturi meters, flows through nozzle and

orifice-plate meters are calculated from the pres-

sure difference across the meters. Nozzle and ori-

fice-plate meters are used where conservation of

head is not the prime concern or where head dissi-

pation is desired.

Current meters consist of either a propeller or a

series of cups or vanes mounted on a shaft free to

rotate under the action of the flowing water. The

propeller type has its axis of rotation horizontal

and will not give accurate measurement unless the

current velocity is parallel to the axis of rotation.

The cup-type meter, called a Price meter, has a ver-

tical axis of rotation and measures currents whose

velocity is in any direction in a horizontal plane.

However, vertical velocity components, which do

not affect propeller meters, cause the Price meter

to indicate greater-than-actual velocities. A clicking

noise, made by the making and breaking of an

electrical contact and picked up by a set of ear-

phones, indicates the speed of rotation of the

meter. The clicking noise occurs either once each

revolution or once each five revolutions. Current

meters are used almost exclusively for stream flow,

although the propeller type is occasionally substi-

tuted for a venturi meter in pipe flow.

Displacement-Type Meters

I

These may

be piston, rotary, or nutating-disk types. The nutat-

ing disk is used, almost to the exclusion of the two

other types, for metering domestic-service connec-

tions. Its widespread use stems from its simplicity

of construction and long-term accuracy. The nutat-

ing-disk meter derives its name from the disks

nodding motion, which is similar to that of a top

before it stops. The disk is kept in motion by suc-

cessive volumes of water which enter above and

below it. A hard rubber that softens at high tem-

perature is usually used for the disk, so a backflow-

prevention device is required between a nutating-

disk meter and a water heater. Error of

nutating-disk meters is about 1.5% within the nor-

mal test-flow limits.

Compound meters contain separate measuring

devices for both low and high flows. They are usu-

ally a nutating-disk meter and a propeller-type

current meter, respectively. An automatic pressure-

sensing device directs the flow through the appro-

priate meter.

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21.116

I

Section Twenty-One

21.61 Water Rates

The interests of the public and individual customers

of water-supply systems can best be served by self-

sustained, utility-type enterprises. Rates charged to

finance these systems should be based on sound

engineering and economic principles and designed

to avoid discrimination between classes of cus-

tomers. Gross revenue should cover operating and

maintenance expenses, fixed charges on capital

investment, and development of the system. Billings

for water should be based on metered use and such

fixed charges as are required. Rate structures are typ-

ically based on demand, load factors, fire use, peak

rates of use, seasonal use, and similar items. The sys-

tem of accounting should conform to the legally

established system of accounting prescribed for the

utility, if any, or to some other recognized system.

Rates most commonly used today are flat rate,

step rate, and block rate.

Flat rate is a monthly or quarterly charge that

does not vary with the amount of water used. This

type of charge tends to encourage waste. Although

it has been commonly employed in small commu-

nities where water is not metered, flat rate is falling

into disuse.

Fig. 21.91 Venturi-type metering devices: (a) Standard venturi meter. (b) Nozzle meter. (c) Orifice-

plate meter.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.117

With step rate, customers are charged at one rate

per 1000 gal for all water used. The rate a customer

pays decreases as the total quantity used increases.

The major objection to this method is that a cus-

tomer who uses a quantity slightly less than the

point of rate change will pay more than the cus-

tomer who uses a little more.

The block rate schedule consists of one price per

1000 gal for the first volume or block of water used

per billing period and lesser rates for additional

blocks. This type of pricing tends to discourage

waste but does not restrict usage unnecessarily.

Both the step and block rates can have a monthly

service charge.

When fixing a system of rates, the supplier

should consider the following factors: (1) cost of

collection facilities, treatment chemicals, pumping

energy, and, where applicable, buying water from a

wholesale supplier; (2) cost of distribution and

treatment facilities; and (3) cost, including metering

and billing, of serving an individual customer. Cost

component 1, called the commodity component, is

directly dependent on total usage and therefore

should be distributed equally to all water sold. Cost

component 2, called the demand component,

depends on the peak usage of a customer. If a cus-

tomers usage is zero during peak hour, it will not

appreciably affect the cost or design of distribution

facilities. Since peak-hour demands usually govern

the design of a distribution system, this is a good

criterion for allocating distribution costs. It is gener-

ally recognized that residential areas, where the

majority of small users are, have very high ratios of

peak demand to total usage and should therefore

pay a major share of the demand component. Both

the step and block rates attempt to allocate this cost

to the small user by charging a higher rate for the

first water sold to a customer and charging decreas-

ing rates with increased usage. For most distribu-

tion systems, a large share of the demand compo-

nent also should be allocated to fire service. The

portion attributed to fire service is usually paid by

taxes. Cost component 3, called the customer com-

ponent, is usually distributed to the customer by a

monthly service charge that depends only on the

size of service. This charge is usually small.

Hydroelectric Power and Dams

Hydroelectric plants, which generate electric

power from water dropping a sufficient vertical

distance to drive large hydraulic turbines, supply

an appreciable portion of the electric power con-

sumed in the U. S. Hydroelectric generation is an

attractive power source because it is a renewable

resource and a nonconsumptive use of water. A

typical hydroelectric plant consists of a dam to

divert or store water from a river or stream; canals,

tunnels, penstocks, and a forebay to convey water

to turbines; draft tube, tunnel, or tailrace to return

water downstream to the river or stream; turbines

and governors; generators and exciters; equipment

such as protective devices and regulators; a build-

ing to house the machinery and equipment; and

transformers, switching equipment, and power

transmission lines to deliver the power produced

to a load center for distribution to consumers.

21.62 Hydroelectric-Power

Generation

Hydroelectric power is electrical power obtained

from conversion of potential and kinetic energy of

water. The potential energy of a volume of water is

the product of its weight and the vertical distance

it can fall:

(21.151)

where PE = potential energy

W = total weight of the water

Z = vertical distance water can fall

Because the kinetic energy of the supply source is

very small or zero in most hydropower (hydroelec-

tric power) developments, the kinetic-energy term

does not appear in power formulas.

Power is the rate at which energy is produced

or utilized.

1 horsepower (hp) = 550 ftlb/s

1 kilowatt (kW) = 738 ftlb/s

1 hp = 0.746 kW

1 kW = 1.341 hp

Power obtained from water flow may be computed

from

(21.152a)

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21.118

I

Section Twenty-One

(21.152b)

where kW= kilowatts

hp = horsepower

Q = flow rate, ft

3

/s

w = unit weight of water = 62.4 lb/ft

3

h = effective head = total elevation dif-

ference minus line losses due to fric-

tion and turbulence, ft

= efficiency of turbine and generator

Hydroplants can be classified on a basis of

reservoir capacity and use as run-of-river hydro

without storage, base-load plants, run-of-river

plants with storage, and peak-load plants.

Run-of-River Hydro without Storage

I

This type of plant has no storage facilities. Power

generation is totally dependent on the flow of the

river. A development of this type is usually built for

some other purpose, such as navigation, power

production being only incidental.

The economics of a run-of-river hydroplant

depend on the minimum flow of the river. If the

minimum flow is very low, it will be necessary to

invest money in steam-generation facilities to pro-

vide supplemental power during low-flow peri-

ods. Therefore, the value of the plant will be only

the fuel saved that would otherwise be required

for steam generation.

Base-Load Hydro Plants

I

This type is also

a run-of-river hydroplant without storage, but it is

located on a river that provides a minimum flow

capable of serving the power demand without

supplementary steam-generating facilities. The

reliable plant capacity is set below the expected

minimum flow in the river. This type of run-of-

river hydroplant utilizes only a small proportion of

the flow of a river. It must pass not only high sea-

sonal flows but also the water it cannot utilize dur-

ing hours of low power demand.

Cost of a base-load plant can be compared with

the cost of the steam capacity that would be neces-

sary to serve power demands if hydrogeneration

were not developed.

Run-of-River Plants with Storage

I

A

small amount of storage can greatly increase the

reliable capacity of a hydroplant. The water not

required for generation during hours of low power

demand can be stored and used for generation

during periods of peak demand.

Storage can be provided for a daily, weekly, or

seasonal cycle. On a daily cycle, the required reser-

voir capacity is less than the rivers daily flow vol-

ume. On a weekly cycle, the flow during the periods

of low power demand on weekends is also stored to

give additional capacity for peak periods during the

week. On a seasonal cycle, the high flood flows are

stored to be used during periods of low flow. The

seasonal operation requires many times the storage

necessary for weekly or daily operation and there-

fore may be uneconomical unless the reservoir is

multipurpose. Then, part of its cost can be under-

written by flood-control or irrigation projects.

Peak-Load Plants

I

The power demand on

an electrical system fluctuates from a daily high to

a nightly low. Depending on the size of the utility

and type of customers served, peak demands may

be several times the magnitude of the low

demands encountered at night. These fluctuations

in demand necessitate generation facilities whose

full capacity is used only a few hours a day, during

periods of peak power demand (Fig. 21.92).

Capacity factor is the percentage of the time

the full capacity of a plant is used or the ratio of the

average power the plant produces to the plants

capacity. It can be computed on a daily, weekly, or

yearly basis.

Hydroplants that are used mainly to supply

power for the periods of peak demand are gener-

ally called peak-load plants. The main classes of

peak-load plants are pumped-storage plants and

run-of-river plants with storage.

If sufficient generating capacity and reservoir

storage are planned for a run-of-river hydroplant,

only a relatively small supply of water is needed to

produce a high generation capacity for a few hours

duration. This enables a large utility to use steam

generation at a high capacity factor where it is

most efficient and to supply peak demands from

hydroplants.

Pumped Storage

I

This is a means of storing

large quantities of energy, generated during peri-

ods when excess generating capacity is available, to

be used at some future time. Water is pumped from

a low reservoir to a higher one by energy from

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.119

steam or base-load hydro when power demand is

low. When needed, the water generates power by

flowing through a turbine back into the low reser-

voir. Because of friction loss in the penstock and

losses due to the imperfect efficiencies of pumps

and turbines, only two-thirds of the energy

required to pump the water is recovered.

The balance of energy between pumping and

generating can be on a daily or weekly basis. But

because the weekly cycle requires several times

more reservoir storage than the daily cycle, it usu-

ally is not as economical.

When pumped storage is operated at a high

capacity factor to transfer large quantities of elec-

tric energy from off-peak to peak, the energy loss

may make it uneconomical. This undesirable ener-

gy-loss feature of pumped storage is overcome

when it is used as reserve capacity.

Electrical systems require what is called spin-

ning reserve, which is capacity above that necessary

to serve the expected maximum load, ready

instantly to generate power in case of failure of

generating equipment or an unanticipated high

power demand. Many utilities keep a spinning

reserve capacity equal to the size of their largest

single generating unit, or 15% of their maximum

demand (Fig. 21.92).

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook

of Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York.)

21.63 Dams

Dams are usually classified on the basis of the type

of construction material or the method used to

resist water pressure. The main classifications are

gravity, arch, buttress, earth, and rock-fill.

Gravity dams are concrete or masonry dams

that resist the forces acting on them entirely by

their weight. Figure 21.93 shows the forces that act

on a typical gravity dam. The largest force is usual-

ly the hydrostatic force of the water F

1

. Its distribu-

tion is triangular, varying from zero at the top to

full hydrostatic at the bottom. Force F

2

represents

silt pressure, which results from deposition of silt

at the base of the dam. This silt pressure can be cal-

Fig. 21.92 Daily load curves for generating plants. (Department of Water and Power, Los Angeles, Calif.)

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21.120

I

Section Twenty-One

culated by Rankines theory for earth pressure

using the submerged weight of the silt.

Force F

3

represents ice pressure against the face

of the dam. In cold climates, ice, which forms on

the reservoir surface, expands when the tempera-

ture rises and exerts a force on the top of a dam. In

the past, ice pressures as high as 50,000 psf have

been used for the design of dams in the north;

however, today it is realized these values are much

too high. A method of calculating these forces, pre-

sented by Edwin Rose, gives values ranging from

2000 to 10,000 psf, depending on the rate of tem-

perature rise and restraining conditions at the

edges of the reservoir. (E. Rose, Thrust Exerted by

Expanding Ice, Proceedings of the American Society

of Civil Engineers, May 1946.)

Practically all regions in the United States are

subject to earthquakes of varying intensity. Earth-

quakes cause vertical and horizontal accelerations of

the earth, which create forces on any object resting

on it. The magnitude of these forces equals the mass

of the object times the acceleration from the earth-

quake. These accelerations occur in every direction,

so the effect of the forces must be analyzed for all

directions. Most dams in seismically active regions in

the United States have been designed for an acceler-

ation equal to 0.1 g, where g is the acceleration due

to gravity. The effect of accelerations on the dam is

represented in Fig. 21.93 by forces F

4

and F

5

. Force F

6

represents the inertial force of the water on the face

of the dam. A close approximation of the force, given

by Eq. (21.153), was developed by von Karman.

(Pressure on Dams During Earthquakes, discus-

sion by von Karman, Transactions of the American Soci-

ety of Civil Engineers, vol. 98, p. 434, 1933.)

(21.153)

where w = unit weight of water, lb/ft

3

a = acceleration due to earthquake, ft/s

2

h = depth of water behind dam, ft

The force F

6

acts at a point 0.425h above the base.

Force F

7

is due to the weight of water on an

inclined face. Gravity dams usually have an

inclined upstream face to facilitate construction.

Force F

8

represents an uplift force that acts on

the undersurface of any section taken through the

dam or under the base of the dam. This uplift is

caused by the seepage of water through pores or

Fig. 21.93 Forces acting on a concrete gravity dam.

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Water Resources Engineering

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21.121

imperfections in the foundations or through imper-

fectly bonded construction joints in the masonry. In

the past, engineers assumed that, because of bear-

ing contact, this pressure acted only on some per-

centage of the total area. Recent belief, however, is

that uplift acts on 100% of the area of the base.

A process used to reduce uplift pressures calls

for grouting along the heel and use of drains

behind the grout. When the base is not drained,

the uplift pressure is assumed to vary linearly from

between full and one-half hydrostatic pressure at

the heel to the full tailwater pressure at the toe.

Force F

9

represents the weight of the dam. It

acts at the centroid of the cross-sectional area of

the dam.

Summation of the vertical forces and of

moments about any point yields the foundation

pressure. The foundation pressure at the heel of

the dam should be compressive. Hence, the resul-

tant of all forces acting on the dam should fall

within the middle third of the base of the dam.

The basic modes of failure possible for a gravity

dam are by sliding along a horizontal plane, over-

turning by rotating about the toe, or failure of the

foundation material. The first two modes depend

mainly on the cross-sectional shape of the dam,

whereas the third depends on both the cross-sec-

tional shape and the foundation material.

Gravity dams can be built on earth foundations,

but their height in these cases has been limited to

around 65 ft. The main reason gravity dams are used

is that they can pass large flood flows over their crest

without damage. Their first cost and maintenance

cost are usually greater than those of earth or rock-

fill dams of comparable height and crest length.

Arch dams are concrete dams that carry the

force of the water through arch action. Stresses in

an arch dam may be determined with computers

by the finite-element method or by an approxi-

mate method in which the water force is divided

between elements: a series of horizontal arches

that span between the abutments and a series of

vertical cantilevers fixed at the foundation. The

distribution of load between the arches and can-

tilevers is determined by the trial-load method.

First, a division of the load is assumed and the

deflections in the arches and cantilevers are com-

puted. The deflection of an arch at any point must

equal the deflection of the cantilever at the same

point. If the deflections are not equal, a new divi-

sion of the load is assumed and the deflections

recalculated. This process is continued until equal

deflections are obtained.

The external forces an arch dam must resist are

basically the same as those on a gravity dam; how-

ever, their relative importance is much different.

On arch dams, uplift is not so important, but ice

loads and temperature stress are much more criti-

cal. Arch dams require much less concrete than

gravity dams and usually have a much lower first

cost. They are not suited to most sites, however,

since they must be located in a relatively narrow

canyon supported by good rock abutments.

Buttress dams consist of a watertight membrane

supported by a series of buttresses at right angles to

the axis of the dam. Although there are many types

of buttress dams, those widely used are the flat-slab

and the multiple-arch. These differ in that the water-

supporting membrane for the flat-slab type is a con-

tinuous concrete slab spanning the buttresses. In the

multiple-arch, the membrane is a series of concrete

arches. The multiple-arch requires less reinforcing

steel and can span longer distances between but-

tresses, but its formwork is more expensive.

The upstream face of a buttress dam is usually

inclined at about 45. The weight of the water on

the face is necessary to increase the dams resis-

tance to sliding and overturning.

The forces acting on a buttress dam are exactly

the same as those that act on a gravity dam. How-

ever, the vertical load of the water is much greater

on a buttress dam, and uplift forces are smaller.

The modes of failure are also the same, but the

structural design is much more critical.

Although buttress dams usually require less

than half the volume of concrete required by grav-

ity dams, they are not necessarily less expensive

because of the large amount of formwork and rein-

forcing steel required. With the rapidly increasing

cost of labor over the past several decades, the but-

tress dam has lost much of its earlier popularity.

Earth dams are designed to utilize materials

available at the dam site. They can be constructed

of almost any material with very primitive con-

struction equipment. Successful earth dams have

been built of gravel, sand, silt, rock flour, and clay.

If a large quantity of pervious material, such as

sand and gravel, is available and clayey materials

must be imported, the dam would have a small

impervious clay core, the material available locally

making up the bulk of the dam. Concrete has been

used for an impervious core, but it does not pro-

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21.122

I

Section Twenty-One

vide the flexibility of clay materials. If pervious

material is not available, the dam can be construct-

ed of clayey materials with underdrains of import-

ed sand or gravel under the downstream toe to col-

lect seepage and relieve pore pressures.

Slopes of an earth dam are rarely greater than 2

horizontal to 1 vertical and are usually about 3 to 1.

The governing criterion is usually the stability of

the slopes against slide-out failure. Stability under

the action of seismic forces is especially critical. For

soils in which pore pressure changes develop as a

result of shear strain induced by an earthquake,

determination of appropriate values for yield

acceleration is very difficult. For some types of soil,

no well-defined yield acceleration exists; displace-

ments occur over a wide range of accelerations.

Another factor that sometimes determines the

steepness of the slopes is the amount of seepage

that can be tolerated. If the dam is on a pervious

foundation, it may be necessary to increase the

base width to reduce seepage. The seepage may

also be reduced by placing an impervious blanket

on the upstream side of the dam to increase the

seepage path or by using a cutoff wall in the foun-

dation, such as sheetpiling or a clay-filled trench.

Earth dams can be built to almost any height

and on foundations not strong enough for con-

crete dams. Improvements in earth-moving equip-

ment have resulted in a decreased cost for earth

dams, and rising labor costs have increased the

cost for concrete dams.

Rock-fill dams usually consist of a dumped rock

fill, a rubble cushion of laid-up stone on the upstream

face, bonding into the dumped rock, and an

upstream impervious facing, bearing on the rubble

cushion, with a cutoff wall extending into the foun-

dation. The dumped rock fill may consist of rocks

varying in size from small fragments to boulders

weighing as much as 25 tons. The fill is usually com-

pacted by dropping the rock, sometimes from as high

as 175 ft. onto the fill. Sluicing of the fill with high-

pressure hoses is also used to wash fines from

between contact points of the rock and reduce settle-

ment. The rubble cushion consists of rocks individu-

ally placed to reduce the voids and provide support

for the impervious facing. The facing is usually con-

crete, or wood over concrete, although steel has been

used occasionally. The cutoff wall is usually concrete.

Rock-fill dams are generally designed empiri-

cally. Low rock-fill dams may have an upstream

face as steep as

1

/2 horizontal on 1 vertical. The

downstream face is usually 1.3 on 1, the natural

angle of repose of rock. For dams over 200 ft high,

both the upstream and downstream faces are usu-

ally on a slope of 1.3 on 1.

The major problem encountered in rock-fill dams

is large settlements that occur after construction when

the reservoir is first filled. Vertical settlements and

horizontal displacements in excess of 5% of the height

of the dam have occurred; therefore, the impervious

facing must be very flexible or damage will occur dur-

ing settlement. One solution to this problem has been

to put a temporary facing on the dam and to replace

it with a permanent facing after settlement has taken

place. Temporary facings are usually of wood.

Rock-fill dams are used extensively in remote

locations where cement is expensive and the mate-

rials for an earth dam are not available. Their cost

compares favorably with that of concrete dams.

Leakage should be expected, but rock-fill dams are

very stable and have been overtopped without

suffering major damage.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook

of Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York; Design of Small Dams and

Embankment Dams, U. S. Bureau of Relamation;

Earth and Rockfill Dams: General Design and

Construction Considerations, EM 1110-2-2300, U.

S. Army Corps of Engineers.)

21.64 Hydraulic Turbines

In the past, hydraulic power-generating machines

meant a large number of different types of equip-

ment. Today, however, the turbine is the only type

of importance in hydraulic power generation. Its

function is transformation of the kinetic and

potential energy of water into useful work.

Turbines are classified as impulse turbines and

reaction turbines.

Impulse turbines utilize the energy of water

by first transforming it into kinetic energy, by free

discharge of the water through a nozzle. The noz-

zle is directed at buckets positioned along the

perimeter of a water wheel. The force of the water

striking these buckets causes the wheel to rotate,

providing power.

The only type of water wheel used today in

impulse turbines was developed in 1880 by Pelton

the Pelton wheel (Fig. 21.94). The wheel is covered

by a housing to prevent splashing and to guide the

discharge after the water strikes the wheel.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.123

In most impulse turbines, the water wheel

rotates on a horizontal shaft and is acted on by the

discharge from one or two nozzles. But vertical

shafts may be used with as many as six nozzles, to

obtain a high efficiency for very low loads. In such

installations, efficiencies of 92% for full load and

slightly below 90% for loads as low as one-quarter

of full load have been obtained.

Impulse turbines are commonly used for heads

greater than 1000 ft. (An impulse turbine at the Reis-

seck Power Plant in Austria operates under a net

effective head of 5800 ft.) There is no lower limit of

head for impulse turbines. They have been used for

heads as low as 50 ft; however, the reaction turbine

is usually better suited to low heads at large flows.

Reaction Turbines

I

Types of reaction tur-

bines include the Francis (Fig. 21.95a), the pro-

peller-type (Fig. 21.95b) and the axial flow (Fig.

21.95c). In these, the flow from the headwater to

the tailwater is in a closed conduit system.

The Francis turbine usually consists of four

essential parts: scroll case, wicket gates, runner,

and draft tube.

The scroll case transfers the water from the pen-

stock (supply pipe) to the wicket gates and runner. It

distributes the water so that all points on the perime-

ter of the runner receive the same quantity of water.

The wicket gates, located just outside the

perimeter of the runner, control the amount of

water that enters the turbine. When the power

demand on the turbine changes, a governor actu-

ates a mechanism that opens or closes the gates.

The runner is the part of the turbine that trans-

forms the pressure and kinetic energy of the water

into useful work. As the water flows through the tur-

bine, it changes direction. This creates a force on the

runner, causing it to rotate and turn the generator.

The draft tube is a conical tube with diverging

sides. It decelerates the flow discharged from the

runner, so that the remaining kinetic energy may

be regained by conversion into suction head.

Francis turbines have a maximum efficiency of

about 94% when operated at or close to full load.

However, if the load drops below 50%, their effi-

ciency decreases rapidly. Francis turbines are com-

monly used for heads between 100 and 1000 ft. At

heads above 1000 ft. problems are encountered in

controlling cavitation and in building a scroll case

to take the high pressures. At heads below 100 ft.

the propeller-type turbine is usually more efficient.

Propeller Turbines

I

There are two types of

propeller turbines: the movable-blade type, such as

the Kaplan turbine, and the fixed-blade type. The

only difference between the two is that the pitch of

the propeller blades is adjustable in a Kaplan turbine.

The propeller turbine (Fig. 21.95) has the same

basic parts as the Francis turbine: scroll case, wick-

et gates, runner, and draft tube. The basic differ-

ence between the Francis turbine and the propeller

turbine is in the shape of the runner. The runner of

a propeller-type turbine operates in the same man-

ner as a fan or a ships propeller: The water mov-

ing past the blades creates a force that causes the

runner to rotate.

Propeller-type turbines are used for heads

ranging from a few feet to about 100 ft. The Kaplan

turbine has an efficiency of about 94% for full load

and drops only to 92% for 40% load. The fixed-

blade-type turbine also has an efficiency of about

94% for full load; however, its efficiency drops off

rapidly below full load.

Axial-Flow Turbines

I

These provide

enhanced performance for operation under low-

head and large capacity.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook

of Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York.)

21.65 Methods for Control of

Flows from Reservoirs

Any reservoir with an appreciable drainage area

must have a spillway to discharge flood flows with-

Fig. 21.94 Impulse (Pelton) type of hydraulic

turbine.

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21.124

I

Section Twenty-One

out damage to the dam and to keep the reservoir

water surface below some predetermined level.

21.65.1 Spillways

An overflow spillway allows water to pass over the

crest of a section of the dam. This type of spillway is

widely used for concrete dams because, if designed

correctly, the dam will not be damaged by the water.

To use an overflow spillway for earth or rock-fill

dams, it is necessary to make the spillway a concrete

gravity section. This may not be possible for high

earth dams because the foundation may not be able

to support a high concrete gravity section.

Fig. 21.95 Reaction types of hydraulic turbines: (a) Francis; (b) Kaplan; (c) axial flow.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.125

The discharge over an overflow spillway is

given by the equation for discharge over a weir

(Art. 21.34). Since the discharge varies as the head

to the

3

/2 power, overflow spillways keep the water

level within close limits even when there is a large

variation in flows.

It is desirable for an overflow spillway to have

the form of the underside of the nappe of a sharp-

crested weir. This type of spillway, called an ogee

spillway, should be designedas should all spill-

waysso that separation of the water from the

face of the spillway will not occur. Thus, the dan-

ger of cavitation will be eliminated.

In a chute spillway, water flows over a crest

into a steeply sloping, lined, open channel. The

flow is made supercritical to keep the size and

length of the chute to a minimum. Gradual vertical

curves should be used in the chute to avoid sepa-

ration of the flow from the channel bottom.

Chute spillways are commonly used for earth

and rock-fill dams where the topography allows a

chute to carry the water away from the toe to elim-

inate the danger of undermining. The discharge

over the crest is given by the equations for discharge

over a weir or the entrance to an open channel.

In a side-channel spillway, the flow passes

over a crest into a channel parallel to this crest. The

crest is usually a concrete gravity section, although

it can be concrete laid on the natural embankment.

Side-channel spillways are often used in narrow

canyons where it is not possible to obtain sufficient

crest length for overflow or chute spillways. The

flow in the channel parallel to the crest is deter-

mined by applying the momentum principle in the

direction of flow and assuming the energy of the

water flowing over the crest is completely dissipat-

ed (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Design of Small

Dams, Government Printing Office, Washington,

DC 20402).

In a shaft spillway, sometimes called a morn-

ing-glory spillway, the water flows over a circular

weir into a vertical shaft. The shaft terminates in a

horizontal conduit that carries the water past the

dam. The weir can be sharp-crested, flared, or

ogee in cross section. (This type of spillway should

not be constructed over or through earth dams.) If

the topography is not suitable for a chute or side-

channel spillway, a shaft spillway may be the best

alternative.

There are two conditions of discharge for a

shaft spillway, both depending on the head on the

weir. When the head is relatively low, the dis-

charge is governed by the flow over the weir,

which is directly proportional to the

3

/2 power of

the head on the weir. As the head increases, at

some point the discharge will no longer be con-

trolled by the amount of water that can flow over

the weir but by the amount of water that can flow

through the conduit. The discharge for this condi-

tion is directly proportional to the

1

/2 power of the

elevation difference between the reservoir water

level and the level of discharge of the spillway con-

duit. Once this second condition is reached, a large

increase in head will cause only a small increase in

flow. Since analytical analysis of discharge does

not give good results on this type of spillway,

model tests are usually employed.

A siphon spillway (Fig. 21.96) is a closed conduit

for discharging water over or through a dam. The

entrance to a siphon spillway is usually submerged

below the normal water level so that it will not clog

with debris or ice. The discharge end of the siphon

is usually sealed by deflecting the flow across the

barrel or by submerging it so that air cannot enter.

The air vent shown in Fig. 21.96 determines the

reservoir level at which the siphon flow begins.

When the reservoir water level rises above the vent,

the siphons intake is sealed. Water flowing over the

crest of the siphon removes the air in the siphon and

full flow begins. Because the flow depends on the

siphoning action, siphon spillways hold the water

Fig. 21.96 Siphon spillway.

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21.126

I

Section Twenty-One

level of a reservoir within close limits. But they are

not good for handling large variations in flows

because their discharge is directly proportional to

the square root of the head. They are relatively

expensive because of the cost of forming the barrel.

21.65.2 Intake Structures

The various functions an intake structure may serve

include permitting withdrawal of water from vari-

ous levels of a reservoir, controlling flow, excluding

debris and ice from a conduit, and providing sup-

port for the conduit. The type of intake structure

required depends on the functions and characteris-

tics of the reservoir. The simplest type of intake is a

block of concrete supporting the end of a conduit

equipped with a bar screen to exclude foreign mat-

ter. In contrast, the intake towers at Hoover Dam,

which serve 30-ft-diameter penstocks, are 395-ft-

high concrete towers, with two 32-ft-diameter cylin-

der gates under a maximum head of over 300 ft.

Intake towers are commonly used where there

is a large fluctuation in the water level of a reser-

voir or where it is necessary to control the quality

of water used for a domestic supply. They are usu-

ally made of concrete and have ports at various

levels to permit selection of water from different

elevations. The ports are usually provided with

gates or valves and some type of trash rack.

The main hydraulic consideration in the design

of an intake is to keep losses to a minimum. To do

this, the velocities through the trash racks should

be kept less than 0.5 ft/s, and the standard rules for

reducing hydraulic losses should be observed.

21.65.3 Crest Gates

These include a number of different types of per-

manent and temporary devices that operate on the

crest of spillways to increase the storage of a reser-

voir temporarily while control of spillway flows is

retained. During periods of low flow when the full

spillway capacity is not required, the additional

head and storage gained with crest gates may be

very valuable.

Flashboards and stop logs are the most com-

mon types of crest gates used for small installations

under low head. Flashboards are usually wood

planks that span between vertical pipes that can-

tilever above the spillway crest. When the reser-

voir water surface reaches some predetermined

level, the pipes fail, allowing the full capacity of the

spillway to be utilized. Stop logs are wood planks

that span between slotted vertical piers which can-

tilever above the spillway crest.

On large stop-log installations, the hydrostatic

force creates large frictional forces between the

sliding element and the vertical guide, making

removal difficult. These frictional forces make it

necessary to use a type of gate that depends on

rolling rather than sliding friction and operates

freely under hydrostatic pressure.

Taintor gates and sliding gates mounted on low-

friction roller bearings are the most widely used

types of crest gates on major installations. In a tain-

tor gate (Fig. 21.97), the friction is concentrated in the

trunnion and does not affect the operation. Since

flow passes under taintor and slide gates, there is a

tendency for ice and trash to pile up against them,

causing damage and hampering operation.

Fig. 21.97 Taintor gate.

Fig. 21.98 Bear-trap gate.

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Water Resources Engineering

I

21.127

Bear-trap and drum gates allow the flow to

pass over the top. The bear-trap gate consists of

two leaves hinged, as shown in Fig. 21.98. To raise

a bear-trap gate, water is admitted to the space

under the leaves to force the leaves up. The drum

gate (Fig. 21.99) consists of a segment of a cylinder

that is lowered into a recess in the crest when not

in use. Because of the large recess required in the

dam, drum gates are not suited to small dams.

(V. J. Zipparo and H. Hasen, Davis Handbook of

Applied Hydraulics, 4th ed., and H. E. Babbitt, J. J.

Doland, and J. L. Cleasby, Water Supply Engineer-

ing, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.)

Fig. 21.99 Drum gate.

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