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Solar-Powered Reverse Osmosis Water Purification System

Section 074 | Group 07


ENGR 103: Engineering Design Lab III
Maissoun Ksara
Lenora Dieyi
Colton Terrace
David Rowell
Hadi Almeer
Dr. Peter Herczfeld
Donald Bucci
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Group Members Advisor
Fellow
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1. Problem Overview
2. Project Objective
3. Existing Solutions
4. Proposed Solution
5. Technical Activities
a. Schematic
b. Matching Inputs and Outputs
c. Technical Constraints
d. Solar Array Configuration
6. Results
7. Future Work
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Outline
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Problem Overview
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Certain regions in Africa do not have access to clean water
Nairobi, Kenya
Lack technological advancement and funds
Water: Most necessary element for survival
Average human needs 2.5 L of water per day for survival
Poor muscle tone, digestive complications, muscle soreness,
water-retention and nutrition problems
*http://www.ready.gov/water
*http://www.naturodoc.com/library/nutrition/water.htm
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Existing Solutions
Boiling Water
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Existing Solutions
Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)
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Existing Solutions
Ceramic Filters
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Existing Solutions
Slow Sand and BioSand Filters
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Solar Energy
Project Objective
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Clean Water
Project Objective
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Clean Water
Project Objective
Sun: valuable and readily available resource
Capable of sustaining population with drinking water using
this clean, renewable source of energy
Targeted audience: a small village or household
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??
Proposed Solution
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Proposed Solution
?
Effective
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Proposed Solution
?
Effective Sustainable
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Proposed Solution
?
Effective Sustainable Renewable
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Proposed Solution
Reverse Osmosis
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Proposed Solution
How it works:

Applies pressure to force impure water through a


semipermeable membrane in the direction opposite to that of
normal osmosis

Uses a diaphragm pump - electric outlet


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Proposed Solution
How it works:

Applies pressure to force impure water through a


semipermeable membrane in the direction opposite to that of
normal osmosis

Uses a diaphragm pump - electric outlet


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Proposed Solution
Benefits:

Removes contaminants such as arsenic, nitrates, sodium,


copper, lead, fluoride

Pathogen-free water

Easily operated and time efficient

Sustainable
* http://www.freshwatersystems.com/images/RO-Flow-Chart.jpg
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Proposed Solution
Benefits:

Removes contaminants such as arsenic, nitrates, sodium,


copper, lead, fluoride

Pathogen-free water

Easily manageable

Inexpensive
Clean Water
* http://www.freshwatersystems.com/images/RO-Flow-Chart.jpg
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Proposed Solution
Reverse Osmosis System:

iSpring 75 GDP 5-Stage System

Filters 75 gallons of water per day


Problem:

Operates with a pump that uses electric outlet


Goal:

Use solar energy that is abundant in Kenya

Re-engineer the system to function with solar cells instead of


electricity

Match solar input with specifications of the pump to run the


system
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Proposed Solution
Reverse Osmosis System
+
Solar PV Cells
+
Solar Charge Controller
+
Battery
=
Solar-Powered
Reverse Osmosis
Water Purification System
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
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Technical Activities: Schematic
Clean Water
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
24 VDC 0.65 A 28 LPH
Diaphragm Pump Technical Specifications:
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
24 VDC 0.65 A
28 LPH
x = 15.6 W
Diaphragm Pump Technical Specifications:
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
24 VDC 0.65 A
28 LPH
x =
15.6 W x 14 hours ! 218 W!h or 0.218 kW!h
Therefore, an input of 218 W!h is required to function the pump
and run the system effectively
Requirement is easily obtained due to abundant solar radiation in
Kenya
Diaphragm Pump Technical Specifications:
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
Table-1: Solar Radiation and Energy Data for Nairobi, Kenya
* http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/version1/version1_index.html#map
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
Table-1: Solar Radiation and Energy Data for Nairobi, Kenya
* http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/pvwatts/version1/version1_index.html#map
Peak Radiated Energy in January
Lowest Radiated Energy in June
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Average solar radiation per year in Kenya is 5.08 kWh/m^2/day
Total solar energy emitted for a year is 1311 kWh
Peak energy is 131 kW!h in January; lowest is in June
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
86 kW!h
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
Average solar radiation per year in Kenya is 5.08 kWh/m^2/day
Total solar energy emitted for a year is 1311 kWh
Peak energy is 131 kW!h in January; lowest is in June
30 days
= 2.87 kW!h per day
86 kW!h
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86 kW!h
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Technical Activities: Matching Inputs and Outputs
30 days
= 2.87 kW!h per day
2.87 kW!h
Average solar radiation per year in Kenya is 5.08 kWh/m^2/day
Total solar energy emitted for a year is 1311 kWh
Peak energy is 131 kW!h in January; lowest is in June
0.218 kW!h
"
The pump requirement is easily fulfilled in Nairobi
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Technical Activities: Technical Constraints
Budget - $300
Limited ability to design working prototype
Attempted to conceive the least expensive system that would still
function effectively
This would alter the way solar array is configured
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
With respect to budget, least expensive solar panel would function
with the system is 20 W
LiteFuze 20W Mono-crystalline Solar Panel
Solar Panel:
* http://www.nairobi.climatemps.com/sunlight.php
**http://www.amazon.com/LiteFuze-Mono-crystalline-Solar-Panel-Watt/dp/B0079OA7SK
Maximum Power (Pmax): 20W
Voltage at Pmax (Vmp) 17.4V, Current
at Pmax (Imp) 1.15A
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 21.6V, Short
Circuit Current (Isc): 1.27A
Weight 5.51 lbs, Size: 24.21" x 11.22" x 1"
Durable Heavy Duty Long Lasting
Frame**
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
Duration:
Average of 12 daylight hours annually in Kenya*
1.55 worst-weather multiplier is used as a safety factor***
12 hours
1.55
=
7.742 sunshine hours

With respect to budget, least expensive solar panel would function


with the system is 20 W
LiteFuze 20W Mono-crystalline Solar Panel
Solar Panel:
* http://www.nairobi.climatemps.com/sunlight.php
**http://www.amazon.com/LiteFuze-Mono-crystalline-Solar-Panel-Watt/dp/B0079OA7SK
*** http://www.batterystuff.com/kb/tools/solar-calculator.html
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
Average Solar Input:
Two 20 W solar panels are connected in series to result in a 40 W
solar array
40 W
7.742 hours
x
310 W!h or 0.310 kW!h !
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
Average Solar Input:
Two 20 W solar panels are connected in series to result in a 40 W
solar array
40 W
7.742 hours
x
310 W!h or 0.310 kW!h !
A 40 W array is sufficient to provide an input greater than the
requirement
0.310 kW!h 0.218 kW!h >
Least expensive method given the budget constraints
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
* http://www.samlexamerica.com/products/ProductDetail.aspx?pid=157
Charge Controller:
SOLSUM 6.6 F Solar Charge Controller 12V/24V, 6 Amps*
Prevents overcharging and protects the system from over-voltage
Observe the state of charge of the battery bank
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
Charge Controller:
* http://www.samlexamerica.com/products/ProductDetail.aspx?pid=157
** http://www.altestore.com/howto/Solar-Electric-Power/Design-&-Components/Sizing-PWM-Solar-Charge-Controllers/a91/
SOLSUM 6.6 F Solar Charge Controller 12V/24V, 6 Amps*
Prevents overcharging and protects the system from over-voltage
Observe the state of charge of the battery bank
Sizing:
Short circuit current (Isc) of array : 1.27 A
Number of panels: 2
Caution multiplier: 1.56**
1.27 A x 2 ! x 1.56 3.96 A
The model is able to sustain the current
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Technical Activities: Solar Array Configuration
Battery:
Pump voltage requirement is 24 V
Used during dark hours i.e no sunshine available
Stores energy and runs the pump for half a day
This means battery would need to match similar input
Two 12 V batteries connected in series would provide the
necessary voltage requirement*
12V, 18 AH, UB12180
Length 7.13in,Width: 3.01in,Height: 6.57in
Absorbed glass mat technology (AGM)
Used in exit lighting & other equipment
Weight of 12 lbs
*http://www.amazon.com/UPG-UBCD5745-Sealed-Lead-Batteries/dp/B001DL7D1O
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Results
Initial objective of the project was to design a full, working solar
powered water purification system
All the calculations and data required to build the system were
acquired
Unfortunately objective was not entirely achieved due to the high
cost of materials - the project cost is $489
System is effective, sustainable, and manageable; however, it is
expensive and not as efficient as other methods
Only purifies fresh water with a TDS lower than 1,000
Reverse Osmosis is often used on a larger scale
On a scale size of this project, efficiency is low
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Results
http://www.wsc.com.mt/content/reverse-osmosis-plants
Pembroke - Reverse Osmosis Plant
Nominal Capacity : 54,000m3/day
Number of Trains : 6 " 4,400m3/day - 6 " 4,600m3/day
Configuration : Single Pass
Recovery : 45 per cent
Operating Pressure : 83 Bar (1200 PSI)
Feed Intake : Beach Wells
Feed TDS : 39,000 mg/I
Feed Temperature : 19C
Ghar Lapsi - Reverse Osmosis Plant
Nominal Capacity : 24,000m3/day
Number of Trains : 12 " 2,000m3/day
Configuration : Single Pass
Recovery : 33 per cent
Operating Pressure : 69 Bar (1000 PSI)
Feed Intake : Beach Wells
Feed TDS : 39,000 mg/I
Feed Temperature : 19 - 25 C
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Future Work
Research ways to decrease the cost of solar power
Abacus Solar reports that the best way to decrease the
cost of solar energy is to expand the market for it
Market for it would most likely expand and the cost of
producing solar power would decrease
This project can be improved by scaling the system up
or down, depending on regional needs
Utilize larger and more powerful solar cells
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Future Work
Can be modified to purify brackish water and desalinate
salt water
The pressure can be increased either by the addition of
more pumps to the system or the installation of a stronger
pump, as a huge higher PSI would be required for the
purification of brackish water
The most significant part of this project is to find possible
methods of funding the distribution of this system, as it
proves to be very costly.
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Thank you
Q & A
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References
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