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Nosocomial Infection

Nosocomial Infection

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Published by: wabaly on Nov 20, 2009
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Introduction Definitions Epidemiology Nosocomial infections sites Microorganisms Reservoirs and transmission


Nosocomial comes from the Greek word nosokomeion (νοσοκομείον) meaning hospital (nosos = disease, komeo = to take care of). Definition

A localized or systemic condition that results from adverse reaction to the presence of an infectious agent(s) or its toxin which was not present or incubating at the time of admission to the hospital


A prevalence of 8.7% of hospital patients had nosocomial At any time, over 1.4 million people worldwide suffer from infectious complications acquired in hospital .

The highest frequencies of nosocomial

infections were reported from hospitals in the Eastern Mediterranean and South-East Asia Regions

Nosocomial Infection Sites

The most frequent nosocomial infections are infections of surgical wounds, urinary tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections. Highest prevalence in intensive care units and in acute surgical and orthopaedic wards. Infection rates are higher among patients with increased susceptibility because of old age, underlying disease, or chemotherapy.


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Commensals Pathogenic bacteria

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Viruses Parasites/Fungi

Reservoirs & Transmission

The permanent or transient flora of the patient (endogenous infection) Flora from another patient or member of staff (exogenous cross-infection). Flora from the health care environment (endemic or epidemic exogenous environmental infections)

Control of Nosocomial Infections
OUTLINE  Aims  Prevention  Investigation of Epidemics  Surveillance  Antimicrobial Use

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Removal of source of infection Interrupting the chain of transmission Increasing the resistance of the patient

Reducing person to person transmission


Hand decontamination, personal hygiene, clothing, masks, gloves, safe injection practices Cleaning of hospital environment, use of hot/superheated water; Disinfection of patient equipment, Sterilization

Preventing transmission from the environment

Prevention of common endemic nosocomial infections

UTI, SSI, Operating room environment/staff, preintervention preparation of the patient, antimicrobial prophylaxis, surgical wound surveillance, Nosocomial respiratory infections

Infection control precautions in patient care

Prevention continued
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Environment: Buildings ( planning, segregation, traffic flow, materials) Air (air-borne contamination/transmission, ventilation, operating theatre, ultra clean air) Water (drinkable water, baths, pharmaceutical water, microbiological monitoring) Food (agents of food poisoning/ food borne infections, prevention of food poisoning) Waste ( Definition/classification, handling, storage, transport


Role of Microbiologist, Physician, Surgeon , Pharmacist and other members of Hospital Surveillance Committee An understanding of nosocomial infections, their route of transmission and control are essential steps in providing quality and safe care in hospitalized patients.

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