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CBB 1033 Chem. Eng.

Fluid Mechanics January 2011


1


Chapter 2
Solution to Tutorial Question


1. The pressure in a steam pipeline is measured to be 500 kN/m
2
. Express this pressure as a head of
water. If the atmospheric pressure is 1.013 bar, what is the absolute pressure of the steam in
kN/m
2
.

Solution:

P
g
= 500 kPa = gh
h =
81 . 9 1000
10 500
3

= 50.97 m
P
abs
=
bar 1.013
kPa 101.3
bar 1.013 kPa 500 +
= 601.3 kPa

2. A mercury barometer reads 760 mm at sea level and 750 mm on top of a mountain. How high is
the mountain above the sea level? Assume a constant density of air of 1.2 kg/m
3
and the specific
gravity of mercury to be 13.6.

Solution:

P
2
P
1
= g Ah

Ah

=
( )
2 . 1
1000 6 . 13 10 750 760
3


= 113.3 m


3. The hydraulic press shown in the figure below is expected to give a load M of 2 tonnes at the end
of a 120 mm piston. What force F will be required at the plunger, which is of 20 mm? (SG for oil
used in the hydraulic press is 0.8)






C 120 mm






C 20 mm





F
W
1 m
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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Solution:

Taking P
1
at the entry of C 20 mm piston, and P
2
at the end of C 120 mm piston.

P
1
- gh = P
2

( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
N 548
1 1000
10 120
4

2000
10 20
4

9.81
h
A
m
g A F
A
W
gh
A
F
2
3
2
3
120mm
20mm
120mm
oil
20mm
=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=



4. The hydraulic brakes in a motorcar are worked by a plunger pump of diameter 2.0 cm. The four-
wheel cylinders are of diameter 3.0 cm each. If the operator applies a force of 35 N at the plunger,
what will be the force exerted at each wheel cylinder Assume that all components are at the same
horizontal plane.

Solution:

35 N









Since all the cylinders are at horizontal position, h = 0

And P
P1
= P
P2
= P
P3
= P
P4


( )
( )
( )
N 78.75
2
3
35 F
A
F
A
F
2
3
P
cm 3
P
2cm
= =
=









5. Water contained in a sealed tank with air occupying the space above the water, as shown in the
figure below. A mercury U-tube manometer is connected to the air space as shown. A pressure
gage is connected 2 m below the surface of the water. If the manometer level in the U-tube reads
0.2 m, what pressure will the pressure gage read in kPa? (SG for mercury = 13.6)
F
P1
F
P2

F
P3

F
P4

A

B

CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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Solution:

Assumption: All liquids are incompressible fluids. Pressure of air in the tank acts in all direction and
equal to the pressure at the surface of water.

P
gage P

water
gh = P
surface
=
Hg
gh + P
atm

P
gage P
=
water
gh
Hg
gh + P
atm

= (1000)(9.81)(2) (13.6)(1000)(9.81)(0.2) + 0
= 7.063 kPa

6. A mercury manometer is connected to a closed oil tank which has a layer of water at the bottom.
Calculate the pressure of the air above the oil.


Solution:

Assumption: All liquids are incompressible fluids so that the densities are constant.

P
air
+ P
oil
+ P
water
P
Hg
= P
atm

P
air
= P
Hg
P
water
Poil + P
atm

= (1000)(9.81)[(13.6)(0.5) (5) (0.8)(2)]
= 1962 Pa

2 m
0.2 m
5 m
2 m
Air
Oil (SG = 0.8)
Water
0.5 m
Mercury (SG = 13.6)
Pressure
gage
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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7. Oil of specific gravity 0.85 is flowing in a pipeline as shown below. A manometer containing water
is connected as shown. Calculate the pressure in the pipeline.



Solution:

Assumption: All liquids are incompressible fluids so that the densities are constant.

Taking P
2
at the manometer entry at the pipe wall, and P
1
= P
atm


P
2
= P
1
+
water
gh +
oil
gh
= 0 + (1000)(9.81)(0.150 0.100) + (0.85)(1000)(9.81)(0.100)
= 1324.4 Pa

8. In the system shown on the next page, the pressure gage reading at A is 2 kPa. Specific gravity of
oil is 0.8. Calculate:
a. The length of the water column Y in the open piezometer tube B.
b. The difference of the mercury columns, h, in the U-tube manometer. (SG
mercury
= 13.6)



Solution:

a. Assumption: Air in the tank acts in all directions. All liquids are incompressible fluid with
constant densities.

P
gage
+ P
oil
+ P
water
P
water
= P
atm


2000 + (0.8)(1000)(9.81)(0.5) + (1000)(9.81)(0.8) (1000)(9.81)(Y) = 0
Y = 1.4 m

b. Taking the opening of tube as P
1
and opening of piezometer tube as P
2

P
1
+ (13.6)(1000)(9.81)(h) (1000)(9.81)(1.4+ 0.6) = P
2

h = 0.147 m
150 mm
100 mm
Oil
Water
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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9. Two pipes A and B carry water and oil, respectively. A differential manometer is connected as
shown. The relevant measurements are shown in the figure. Find the difference of pressure in the
pipes A and B. Specific gravity of oil is 0.6 and that of mercury is 13.6.







Solution:

P
A
+ (1000)(9.81)(0.75 0.5) (13.6)(1000)(9.81)(0.65 0.6) (0.6)(1000)(9.81)(0.7 0.65) = P
B

P
B
P
A
= (1000)(9.81)[0.75 0.5 (13.6)(0.65 0.6) (0.6)(0.7 0.65)]
= 4512.6 Pa
Air
Oil
Water
0.8 m
0.5 m
0.6 m
Y
h
B
A
0.7 m 0.65 m
0.6 m
0.5 m
0.75 m
Water Air
Mercury
Oil
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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10. A U-tube manometer containing water is connected to two tanks. Find the pressure difference in
the air in the two tanks.


Solution:

P
x
+ (0.9)(1000)(9.81)(0.8+1.2) (1000)(9.81)(0.8) (0.8)(1000)(9.81)(0.5 + (1.2 0.8)) = P
Y

P
Y
P
X
= 2746.8 Pa

11. An inverted U-tube manometer is used to measure the difference of water pressure between two
points in a pipe.
a. Find the difference of pressure between the points.
b. If the pressure at one point is reduced by 2.5 kPa, what will be the new difference of levels
of water in the manometer?

Solution:

a. P
A
+ (1000)(9.81)(x) (1000)(9.81)(0.45 + x + 0.23) = P
B

P
B
P
A
= (1000)(9.81)(0.45 + 0.23)
= 6670.8 Pa

b. Say New P
A
= P
A
2500 Pa

P
A
2500 Pa + (1000)(9.81)(x) (1000)(9.81)(y + x + 0.23) = P
B

P
B
P
A
+ 2500 Pa = (1000)(9.81)(y + 0.23)
6670.8 + 2500 = (1000)(9.81) y + 2256.3
y = 0.705 m

Say new P
B
= P
B
2500
P
A
+ (1000)(9.81)(x) (1000)(9.81)(y + x + 0.23) = P
B
2500 Pa
P
B
P
A
2500 Pa = (1000)(9.81)(y + 0.23)
6670.8 2500 = (1000)(9.81) y + 2256.3
y = 0.195 m
0.8 m
1.2 m
0.8 m
Oil
(SG = 0.9)
0.5 m
Liquid A
(SG = 0.8)
Air Air
Tank X Tank Y
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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12. X and Y are two pipes carrying water. Inverted U-tube manometer containing oil is connected as
shown. Find the difference of pressure, p
x
p
y
.



Solution:

P
x
(1000)(9.81)(0.6 + a + 200) + (0.85)(1000)(9.81)(0.2) + (1000)(9.81)(a) = P
Y

P
X
P
X
= (1000)(9.81)(0.6 + a + 0.2) (0.85)(1000)(9.81)(0.2) (1000)(9.81)(a)
= 6180.3 Pa



0.45 m
0.23 m
Air
Water
Water
Pipe A Pipe B
+
+
200 mm
600 mm
Oil (SG = 0.85)
Pipe X
Pipe Y
CBB 1033 Chem. Eng. Fluid Mechanics January 2011
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13. In the compound U-tube manometer shown, find the specific gravity of the gauge liquid B. The
gage pressure at A is 10 kPa and the liquid in pipe A is water.



Solution:

Assumption: density of air is very low compared to manometer liquids, so the pressure exerted by air in
the tube is relatively negligible compared to the pressure exerted by the manometer liquids.

P
A
+
w
gh
500mm
-
air
gh +
B
gh
400mm
= P
atm

10 10
3
+ (1000)(9.81)(500 10
-3
) +
B
(9.81)(400 10
-3
) = 0

B
=
( )
) 4 . 0 )( 81 . 9 (
) 5 . 0 )( 81 . 9 ( 1000 10
3
10
= 1298.4 kg/m
3

Specific gravity, SG = 1.298

Pipe A
500 mm
400
mm
Air
Liquid B
+