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refrigeration system

Zhi - j i u Chen and We i - han Li n

Shanghai Ji ao Tong Uni versi t y, Shanghai , Peopl es Republ i c of Chi na

Re c e i v e d 3 Oc t obe r 1990

This paper describes a principle and method of optimal matching to reduce energy consumption in small-

scale refrigeration systems, based on systems analysis. A knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of a

refrigeration system is important for predicting the performance of the system. A simulation model of a

refrigeration system consisting of a compressor, an evaporator, a condenser and a capillary tube has been

established to illustrate optimal matching. For each component a mathematical model has been developed,

in which the concept of transient and distributive parameters is introduced. On the basis of dynamic

simulation, a method of optimal matching to minimize power consumption is recommended. To test the

reliability of the theoretical models, an experiment was carried out on a small-scale refrigeration system.

The experimental data were compared with the theoretical results and it is shown that the theory is valid.

(Keywords: energy efficiency; simulations; mathematical modelling)

Simulation dynamique et ad6quation optimale d'un

syst6me frigorifique de petite dimension

Cet article dbcrit le principe et une mbthode d' adbquation optimale, en vue de rbduire la consommation

d'bnergie, dans un pet i t syst bme frigorifique, f ondbe sur l' analyse du systOme. II est important de connaftre les

caractbristiques dynamiques d'un syst bme frigorifique pour prbvoir sa performance. On a concu un module de

simulation d'un syst kme frigorifique qui se compose d'un compresseur, d'un bvaporateur, d'un condenseur et

d'un tube capillaire pour illustrer l' optimisation de son adbquation. On a dbveloppb un modble mat hbmat i que

pour chaque composant, dans lequel on introduit le concept des paramkt res transitoires et de distribution. En se

f ondant sur la simulation dynamique, on recommande une mbthode d'adbquation opt i ma& pour minimiser la

consommat i on d'blectricitb. Afin d' essayer la fiabilitb des modules thboriques, on a effectub une expbrience sur

un systOme frigorifique de pet i t e dimension. On a comparb les donnbes expbrimentales avec les rbsultats

th~oriques, et on mont re la validitb de la thborie.

(Mots cl+s: efficacit6 6nerg&ique; simulation; mod61isation math6matique)

Ref r i ger at i on syst ems consi st i ng of a hermet i c com-

pressor, a t ube-coi l evapor at or , a capi l l ar y t ube and a

t ube-coi l condenser are widely used, especially in smal l -

scale r ef r i ger at or s and ai r condi t i oners. As refri gerat i on

syst ems cons ume a l arge a mount of energy, knowl edge of

the oper at i ng behavi our of the refri gerat i on syst em is

i mpor t ant in energy efficiency studies, not onl y for pre-

dicting t he syst em per f or mance, but al so f or opt i mi zi ng

t he combi nat i on of syst em component s dur i ng the desi gn

process.

Heat and mass t r ansf er are i nvol ved in the refri ger-

at i on process. As var i ous par amet er s such as t emper a-

ture, pressure, ent hal py and mas s fl ow-rat e var y at

di fferent t i mes and l ocat i ons, the refri gerat i on process is

bot h dynami c and di st r i but ed in nat ure. All the par a-

met er s are funct i ons of t i me and space. To i ncrease the

coefficient of per f or mance ( COP) of a refri gerat i on

syst em, the mat chi ng charact eri st i cs bet ween each com-

ponent shoul d be t hor oughl y studied. I f the mat hemat i -

cal model s of each c ompone nt and t he whol e syst em

cor r ect l y reflect t he act ual refri gerat i on behavi our , it is

desi rabl e f or syst em desi gners to be abl e to desi gn a

refri gerat i on syst em on a comput er .

Ma ny mat hemat i cal model s have been pr opos ed in t he

past f or model l i ng refri gerat i on syst ems. Resear ch i nt o

si mul at i on model s for refri gerat i on syst ems falls i nt o t wo

cat egori es: (1) small changes occurri ng on the refri gerant

side, such as an i nst abi l i t y phenomenon called ' hunt i ng'

or behavi our duri ng an oper at i ng mode of capaci t y

cont rol ; and (2) large changes occurri ng on the refriger-

ant side, such as in the st ar t - up modes.

Mos t research is concer ned wi t h the first cat egory.

Yas uda et al ? i nvest i gat ed a si mul at i on model of a

va pour compr essi on refri gerat i on syst em, based on

conser vat i on of energy in the compr essor , condenser and

evapor at or . By utilizing l umped model s for the con-

denser and di st ri but i ve model s for the evapor at or , the

t r ansi ent behavi our of a l abor at or y- scal e refri gerat i on

syst em was predi ct ed by Ma c Ar t hur 2.

The second t ype of research is i l l ust rat ed by the wor k

of Dha r and SoedeP, who carri ed out a t r ansi ent anal ysi s

of a va pour compr essi on refri gerat i on syst em in 1979.

Chi and Di di on 4 devel oped a si mul at i on model of a heat

pump by utilizing a l umped model for each component .

The pur pose of this paper is to present a si mul at i on

model of a smal l -scal e refri gerat i on syst em in whi ch the

concept of t r ansi ent and di st ri but i ve par amet er s is i nt ro-

duced. Based on the conser vat i on and bal ance equat i ons

for i ndi vi dual component s of the system, mat hemat i cal

model s of each component are deri ved and combi ned to

0140-7007/91/060329~)7

© 1991 Butterworth Heinemann Ltd and I I R Rev. Int. Froid 1991 Vol 14 Nove mbr e 329

Si mul ati on of a small-scale refrigeration system: Z- J . Chen and W.-H. Lin

No me nc l a t ur e

A

C

C

D

E

f

G

g

h

L

1

m

m

P

Q

q

T

t

U

U

V

V

W

Area (m 2)

Fl ow capaci t y of valve (m 3 s-~)

Specific heat (J kg-J K-1)

Di amet er of t ube (m)

Energy t ransferred by mass flow (k J)

Int erfaci al drag force (N m -3)

Mass flux (kg m 2 s-1)

Gr avi t at i onal const ant (m s -2)

Ent hal py (kJ mol - i )

Lengt h of connect i on r od (m)

Pipe length (m)

Mass in cyl i nder (kg)

Mass flow-rate (kg s-1)

Pressure (N m-2)

Heat (J K- i )

Heat flux per unit length

Temper at ur e or peri od (K)

Ti me (s)

Int ernal energy

Specific internal energy for compr essor model

or velocity of refri gerant for heat exchanger

model

Vol ume (m 3)

Specific vol ume

Power of electric mot or (W)

X

~X

P

CO

0

Di st ance al ong the rube (m)

Heat t ransfer coefficient

Densi t y (kg m-3)

Angul ar Speed of compr essor shaft

Rot at i on angle of compr essor shaft

Superscripts

i Inside

in Inward

o Outside

out Out war d

Subscripts

a, amb Ambi ent

cln Cyl i nder

com Compr essor

cond Condenser

cap Capi l l ary

d Di scharge

eva Evapor at or

i Inside

o Out si de

r Refri gerant

s Suct i on

v Pert ai ni ng to the valve

w Wall

simulate a small-scale refri gerat i on system. Fr om the

detailed results of the simulation, a met hod of opt i mi zi ng

refri gerat i on systems is described. Thi s paper also sub-

stantiates the t heoret i cal investigation by report i ng the

results of an experi ment . It is very difficult to finely

cont r ol the vari at i ons of a cert ai n par amet er in a small-

scale refri gerat i on system with few cont r ol devices, such

as a capillary tube. However; if auxi l i ary cont r ol devices

are installed in such a small system, the dat a woul d be

difficult to compar e with the model, as t he auxiliary

cont r ol devices woul d affect the experi ment al dat a.

Therefore, the second type of si mul at i on is utilized,

r at her t han the first.

De s c r i pt i on o f a s i mul at i on mode l

Four mat hemat i cal model s of the system component s

and a mat hemat i cal model of the combi ned system were

developed. The f our mat hemat i cal models are of a her-

metic reci procat i ng compressor, a tube-coil condenser, a

capillary t ube and a dr y expansi on evapor at or . The

actual system used in this st udy is shown in Figure 1.

Compressor model

The changes which occur as t he refri gerant flows t hr ough

the hermet i c compr essor can be divided into t hree steps:

(1) suction heat exchange; (2) compressi on of the gas;

and (3) discharge heat exchange. These are illustrated in

Figure 2. Each step influences the ot her t wo steps. For

instance, the discharge t emper at ur e influences the suc-

tion heat exchange and t hen changes the suction t emper-

at ure, and the suction t emper at ur e changes the mass

flow-rate of the compressor.

It is inadvisable, al t hough mor e precise, to use a distri-

butive model for a hermet i c compressor. This is because,

in such a model , the probl em will be t hree-di mensi onal

and a l ot of comput at i on time will be required. Ot her

model s are one-di mensi onal and relatively easy to solve.

It woul d be unsat i sfact ory for t he maj ori t y of the time to

be spent on the compr essor model al one in a si mul at i on

process. For this reason, a l umped model was devel oped

for the hermet i c compressor.

The compressi on step can be described by a l umped

model for an open- t ype compressor. The model of an

open- t ype compr essor was deri ved based on the follow-

ing assumptions: (1) the state of refri gerant in the

cylinder is homogeneous; (2) the compr essor shaft

rot at es at a const ant angul ar speed; (3) the discharge and

suction valve are t wo-posi t i on elements, and the dynami c

behavi our of the valves is ignored; (4) t here is no pressure

vi brat i on in the pl enum chamber or suct i on and dis-

charge lines; and (5) heat t ransferred f r om the cylinder

wall to the refri gerant in the cylinder or vice versa can

i nst ant aneousl y affect all the refri gerant in the cylinder.

Basic equat i ons were derived f r om the physical laws of

mass and energy conservat i on:

dU=dQ- PdV+dE

dm = dms + dmd (1)

For the f our phases of a compressor cycle, the basic

equat i ons were specified as follows:

Compressi on phase: mdu = dQ - Pd V (2)

Di scharge phase: mdu = dQ - Pd Vd + Pvdm (3)

Expansi on phase: mdu = dQ - Pd V (4)

Suct i on phase: mdu = dQ - Pd Vs + ( hs - u)dm (5)

3 3 0 I nt . J. Refri g. 1991 Vo114 November

Simulation of a small-scale refrigeration system: Z- J. Chen and W.-H. Lin

Evaporator

/

/

P. t

/ / ~.~ Signal from

/ 286 measured

points (2 pressure, 284 temperature )

~Copillary

\

z ~

?

i - - ~ M a s s storage ]

O~ ° O ~ ~ ' ~ ~ J l ~ [ ~ j ~ P rinter ]

Graph

plotter ]

Compressor!

Figure 1

Figure l

V

Schematic diagram of experimental system

Schema du syst~me expbrimental

hpsss_ ~ Link of } Ts [ L ink of Link of

suction heat open-type discharge

exchange compressor heat

exchange

t

Figure 2 Model of hermetic compressor

Figure 2 ModUle du compresseur herm~tique

J - . . . . . I

~ '4"~ L dE D _.. ~

- F : . . . . . , . -

' - ~ % !

y _ _ ~ dQ

Figure 3 Simulation model of refrigeration system

Figure 3 ModUle de simulation du syst~me frigorifique

Wher e d V/ dt is det ermi ned by t he kinetic equat i on of t he

piston, as illustrated in Fi gure 3:

1/ ~2 . I . . . . . k2Sin0Cos0 ]

d V/ d t = [ (1 - X2Sin2~.) '/2]

(6)

d Q/ d t is det ermi ned by t he heat exchange equat i on:

dQ/dt = ~clnAcln(Tw - T r) (7)

and d m/ d t is det ermi ned by t he equat i on of the mass

flow-rate t hr ough the valves:

d m/ d t = ~ [2(h, - h2)] '/'

( 8 )

The entire hermet i c compr essor was consi dered as an

open- t ype compr essor + suction heat exchange + dis-

charge heat exchange. Consi deri ng t hat a typical herme-

tic compr essor consists of an electric mot or , a shell, a

cylinder and its pert i nent parts, and oil, the ent i re com-

pressor can be divided into t wo part s f r om the vi ewpoi nt

of heat exchange. One par t is made up of the cyl i nder

and its pert i nent parts, and the ot her of the electric

mot or , the shell and t he oil. Accordi ng to the laws of

energy conservat i on:

(co V)¢l,d Tctn/dt = Wm - Q2 - Q3 - Q7 (9)

f or t he cyl i nder and its pert i nent parts, and:

(c o V)d T/ dt = Q3 + Q5 + Q6 + Q1 - Q4 (lO)

f or anot her part , where Wm is t he friction work, QI is

the heat t ransferred t o the envi ronment , Q2 is the heat

exchanged between refri gerant and cyl i nder while the

refri gerant impinges the head of the cylinder, Q3 is the

Rev. Int. Froi d 1991 Vol 14 Novembr e 331

Simulation of a small-scale refrigeration system: Z-J. Chen and W.-H. Lin

heat exchanged between the cyl i nder and the refri gerant

out of the cylinder, Q4 is the heat absorbed by the incom-

ing refrigerant, Q5 is the heat t ransferred f r om the dis-

charge t ube to refrigerant, Q6 is the heat pr oduced by the

electric mot or , and Q7 is the heat exchanged between the

refri gerant inside the cyl i nder and the cyl i nder wall.

The system of partial differential equat i ons repre-

sented by Equat i ons (11), (12) and (14) can be solved

numeri cal l y by dividing the entire t ube length into a large

number of sections and appl yi ng t he finite difference

technique. Al t hough this is t i me-consumi ng to calculate,

it is mor e precise t han l umped models.

Model l i ng o f an evaporat or and a condenser

As evapor at i on and condensat i on are very compl i cat ed,

the following assumpt i ons are pr oposed to simplify the

mat hemat i cal models: (1) refri gerant flowing in the t ube

is one-di mensi onal al ong t he t ube axis; (2) in any cross-

section of the evapor at or and the condenser, the refriger-

ant is homogeneous and, hence, values of any par amet er

are identical in any cross-section of the ducts; and (3)

energy and mass t ransfer occur onl y by convect i on.

The dynami c, one-di mensi onal forms of the conser-

vat i on and bal ance equat i ons for the refri gerant flowing

in the duct may be wri t t en as:

Model l i ng o f a capi l l ary t ube

To model the capi l l ary tube, the same assumpt i ons as for

the evapor at or and the condenser are used, and, hence,

the same bal ance and conservat i on equat i ons can be

empl oyed. In cont r ast to the entire refri gerat i on system,

the time const ant of the capillary t ube is much short er

when the flow in the capi l l ary is in a dynami c state. This

means t hat t he timewise partial differential terms in

Equat i ons (11), (12) and (14) are zero, as O/Ot=O.

Hence we have:

d ( u p ) / d x = 0 ( 2 0)

Conservat i on of mass equat i on: Op/~t + Q(up)/Ox = 0

(11)

Moment um equat i on: #G/Ot + O(uG + P) / Ox = f + pgcos0

(12)

wh e r e f i s the drag force per unit vol ume exert ed on the

refri gerant in the di rect i on of flow by the t ube wall, and

can be stated as:

r 441

; = Ui' ~ pu" (13)

For hori zont al flow c os 0=0, and for vertical upflow

cos0 = 1.

A cont r ol vol ume energy bal ance in t he t ube of length

dx with the t ube wall yields:

Energy equat i on:

8(ph* - P)/c~t + 8( uph*) / ~x = q + uOC+ pgcos0) (14)

where q denot es the heat t ransfer per unit vol ume f r om

the t ube wall to the refri gerant , and can be stated as:

q = 4/ D~r ( Tw - Tr) (15)

For the t ube wall, the energy equat i on is:

c mLdTw/ dt =%nDor l ( T~ - Tw) +~. r nDi ( Tr - Tw) (16)

The boundar y condi t i ons for the evapor at or and the

condenser are the ent hal py and the mass flow-rate at the

t ube inlet and the mass flow-rate at the t ube outlet, given

by:

hb=o=h, , (17)

GI, - o = G~. (18)

and

G[, _L= Gout (19)

d( uG + P) / d x = f + pgcos0

d( uph*) / dx = q + u ( f + pgcos0)

Fr om Equat i on (20) we have:

G = up = const ant

(21)

(22)

(23)

The following equat i ons can be derived from Equat i ons

(21) and (22):

~v 0h dP

Gd h / d x - u d P/ d x = q (25)

The system of the above equat i ons can be written in the

following vect or form:

A d X / d x = B (26)

where X is the vect or of variables, i.e.:

X = [P,h] T (27)

Consi deri ng mat ri x A, i f the det er mi nant of A,

det ( A) =0, the equat i on has no solution, and under this

condi t i on, the flow in the duct reaches its critical state, as

shown below:

3( 0v / _ ,

d e t ( A ) = - G ~c~p ! - G - u - v ~ }

= - G ~ - - G

\ 0v!

By appl yi ng the definition of sonic speed:

2 c~h c~h

(28)

(29)

where h~,, Gin and Gou~ are known for the model s of the

evapor at or and condenser, respectively.

where s represents an isentropic process, the det er mi nant

A becomes:

3 3 2 I nt . J . Re f r i g . 1 9 9 1 V o l 1 4 N o v e m b e r

Si mul ati on of a small-scala refrigeration system: Z- J . Chen and W.-H. Li n

Tom b

' * t

%°

Figure 4

Figure 4

~

m b

i

I

I

Optimal matching principle for system

Principe d'adbquation optimale du systOme

(30)

I f u/c= 1, t hen det ( A) =0. Thi s implies t hat Equat i on

(26) has no sol ut i on i f the velocity of flow in t he capi l l ary

t ube reaches its local sonic speed. As this condi t i on is

oft en f ound at t he out l et of t he capi l l ary tube, by using

this condi t i on, the mass flux of refri gerant in t he capill-

ary t ube can be det ermi ned.

The system of t wo differential equat i ons with the

initial condi t i on of the ent hal py and the pressure at the

capi l l ary i nt ake was ent ered i nt o the comput er pr ogr am

f or numeri cal sol ut i on; the numeri cal i nt egrat i on was

i mpl ement ed by a Hammi ng pr ocedur e wi t h t he Runge -

Kut t a pr ocedur e f or the first t hree steps. The pr ogr am

aut omat i cal l y searches f or t hat val ue of mass flux which

satisfies the condi t i on specified by the equat i on

det(A) = 0 at the end of t he capillary.

Modelling of the refrigeration system

The component model s are combi ned t o confi gure a

si mul at i on model f or the ent i re refri gerat i on system. As

t he system is a hermet i cal l y sealed circuit, in dynami c

analysis out put s f r om one component const i t ut e inputs

for the nei ghbour i ng component s; in ot her words, out-

put s f r om one component can be i nput s not onl y of the

downst r eam component , but also of t hose upst ream.

These ki nds of connect i ons f or m a series system with

feedbacks t o each component . The st ruct ure of the simu-

l at i on model is illustrated in Figure 4 with mass flow-

rate, ent hal py and pressure as the basic i nput s and out -

put s of each component . Al t hough t emper at ur e is a sig-

nificant and commonl y used par amet er in refri gerat i on,

ent hal py is mor e coher ent and conveni ent in t he analysis

of energy t ransfer. The i nput s and out put s represent ed

by m, P, h are not adequat e f or the si mul at i on model .

Each component has its own i nput s which have no di rect

influence on ot her component s, such as ambi ent t emper-

at ure for the compr essor .and t he condenser, r ot at i on

speed of the shaft f or the compr essor and t he out si de

t emper at ur e for the evapor at or .

The comput at i on of the dynami c si mul at i on model

was carri ed out with a large FORTRAN pr ogr am with 80

subrout i nes and funct i ons, including subrout i nes and

T ( *C )

\ l _ T _1

T i me, t

Figure 5 Simulation model of refrigeration system

Figure 5 ModUle de simulation du syst~me frigorifique

funct i ons f or cal cul at i ng the refri gerant propert i es. For

consi st ency with the experi ment al val i dat i on, a st udy of

per f or mance in t he st art -up mode was under t aken. It was

assumed t hat t he i nt ernal refri gerant ci rcui t ry was stable

and t hat t he pressure and t emper at ur e were equal

t hr oughout t he system. The numeri cal si mul at i on was

ar r anged such that:

. I f the nt h step had been compl et ed, t he initial i nput

values of t he compr essor f or the (n + 1)th step were

assumed to the same as t he i nput values of t he nt h

step, t hat is:

1 7 i n 3 (0) __ i n

,~ com,,+ l - (Ucom)n (31)

2. The out put values of the compressor, the condenser,

t he capi l l ary and the evapor at or were comput ed in

t ur n and anot her gr oup of i nput values was obt ai ned

( U, i n "t ( l )

f o r t h e c o mp r e s s o r f o r t h e ( n + ] ) t h s t ep , ~ c omJ, +t.

( l f in "~ (0) with [ r r in $ (1) i f the difference

3. Compar i ng ~.'-'com/n+l ~,~comJn+l,

was not within an accept abl e precision

, ; , , ~ (0) - L o r [ , r in ~ ( 1) _ _ / ' / / in 3n( O ) l " I

' -' coml n+ I ~ " ' L~, ~ ' c o m/ n + 1 I . ~ ' c o m/ + ]

(32)

.

was subst i t ut ed f or ~rr in ~ (0) where R was a relaxa-

\ t l c o m/ n + 1,

t i on coefficient.

Steps 2 and 3 were repeat ed until t he condi t i on t hat

I f i n ~ (1) - . , i n ~, (0)

~'comJ.+ 1 and ~Ucom]n+ 1 were sufficiently similar was

satisfied.

Met hod o f opti mi zati on o f refrigeration system

Consi deri ng t he or di nar y worki ng si t uat i on of a small-

scale refri gerat i on system, as shown by Figure 5, (a) is the

st art -up pr ocedur e and (b) is t he regul ar on- of f pro-

cedure. Most of the time the system works in the mode of

(b), t he regul ar on- of f procedure. Fr om the vi ewpoi nt of

energy saving, the pr obl em of opt i mi zat i on is how to

save energy in this peri od. Thi s can be specified by the

following formul a:

~ITI Wdt = mi ni mum (33)

where W is the i nput power of the electric mot or of t he

compressor, which can be cal cul at ed by the si mul at i on

model .

The condi t i ons and par amet er s of opt i mi zat i on var y

f r om pr obl em t o probl em. As an illustrative example, it

Rev. I n t . Fr o i d 1 9 9 1 V o 1 1 4 N o v e m b r e 3 3 3

Si mul ati on of a small-scale refrigeration system: Z- J . Chen and W.-H. Lin

is assumed t hat a compressor, an evapor at or and a con-

denser have al ready been selected, and t hat onl y t he

capi l l ary is not det ermi ned. The di amet er and length of

the capi l l ary t ube are t he par amet er s of the opt i mi zat i on

and the fol l owi ng t wo inequalities are the condi t i ons of

opt i mi zat i on:

dca p > 0 (34)

/cap > 0 (35)

Mat hemat i cal l y this opt i mi zat i on pr obl em can be repre-

sented by the following mat hemat i cal model:

m i n [ l f T , W ( dcap,lcav)dt ]

(36)

s.t. dcap > 0

l~p>O

To find the poi nt of opt i mal mat chi ng, a penal t y funct i on

is empl oyed:

B(dcap,lcap) = -- ln(dcap) -- 1 n(l~p) (37)

By i nt roduci ng:

Fr( d~.p,l¢.p) = l I T 1 W ( d ~ p , l ~ p ) d t + r B ( dc.p,l~ap) (38)

and searching f or the mi ni mum of Fr(dcap,lcap) until r > 0

and r ~ 0 are satisfied, t he sol ut i on of the opt i mal mat ch-

ing pr obl em is obt ai ned.

Re s ul t s and di s cus s i on

To verify the accuracy of the si mul at i on model, the

numeri cal results were compar ed with experi ment al dat a

acqui red using the equi pment with 284 t her mocoupl es

and t wo piezoelectric crystals shown in F i g u r e 1.

For a small-scale refri gerat i on system, it is difficult to

under t ake experi ment s such as changi ng the mass flow-

rate by changi ng the posi t i on of the valves because addi-

tional valves will i ncur an addi t i onal pressure drop,

which is undesi rabl e in the system, and will i mpai r the

accuracy of the experi ment al dat a. It is bet t er to main-

tain the original refri gerat i on system, addi ng as few

experi ment al i nst rument s as possible to minimize the

effect of experi ment al i nst rument s on the system. A

met hod consi st ent with this r equi r ement is to use the

st art -up mode and to compar e the predi ct ed and experi-

ment al values of t emper at ur e and pressure versus time.

Experi ment s in t he st art -up mode were t herefore con-

duct ed and dat a were obt ai ned by a dat a acquisition

system and r ecor ded by a comput er .

The predi ct ed and experi ment al values of pressure and

t emper at ur e versus time in the st art -up mode are shown

in F i g u r e s 6 and 7. These figures demonst r at e t hat the

predi ct ed behavi our of t he refri gerat i on system in the

st art -up mode is in overall agreement with the dat a

obt ai ned. The compar at i vel y larger devi at i on of refriger-

ant t emper at ur e di scharged f r om the compr essor shell

shown in F i g u r e 7 may be ascribed to the uncert ai nt y of

the heat t ransfer in the compr essor shell, as the heat

8 0 a

6O

?

Z 50

:5o :5

2o

0 1.44 2 . 8 8 4.:52 5.76 Z 2

T ime ( x 103 s )

30 b

I0

~ o

- I o

- 20 -

2

0 1. 44 2 . 8 8 4. 32 5. 76 7.2

T i me ( x 103s )

F i g u r e 6 Vari at i on of t emperat ure wi t h time for a small refrigeration

system. (a) St art -up procedure. (1) Compr essor di scharge tube t emper-

ature; (2) compr essor shell t emperat ure; (3) inlet t emperat ure of lower

condenser; and (4) inlet t emperat ure of mai n condenser. (b) Regul ar

on off procedure. ( l ) Refri gerat or air t emperat ure; (2) freezer air tem-

perat ure. ( - - - ) Calculated; ( 1 ) experi ment al

Figure 6 Var i at i on de la t e mpe r at ur e en f o n c t i o n du t e mps p o u r un

syst Ome f r i g o r i f i q u e de p e t i t e di mensi on. ( a ) pr oc e dur e de dkmar r age.

( 1 ) t empOrat ure de la c ondui t e de r e f oul e me nt du compr es s eur ; ( 2)

t e mp e r a t u r e de l ' envel oppe de compr es s eur ; ( 3 ) t e mp e r a t u r e d' ent r ~e du

condenseur i nf ~ri eur; e t ( 4) t e mp e r a t u r e d' e nt r k e du condens eur pr i nci -

pal . ( b ) f o n c t i o n n e me n t rkgul i er p a r t o u t ou rien. ( 1 ) t e mp e r a t u r e de I' ai r

du r~f ri g~rat eur; ( 2 ) t e mpe r at ur e de I' ai r du congkl at eur. ( . . . . ) cal cu-

I~es; ( - - ) e x p~r i me nt al e s

15

12

6

I I I I

0 1.44 2 . 8 8 4.:52 5. 76 7. 2

T ime ( x l O 3 s )

F i g u r e 7 Predicted ( ) and experi ment al ( - - ) vari at i on of pressure

wi t h time duri ng st art -up mode. (1) Condenser pressure; (2) evapor at or

pressure

Figure 7 Var i at i on pr bv ue ( - ) e t e x p b r i me n t a l e ( - - ) de l a pr es s i on,

en f o n c t i o n du t e mps au cour s du mo d e de dkmar r age. ( 1) pr es s i on du

condens eur ; ( 2) pr e s s i on de l ' ~vapor at eur

t ransfer in the hermet i c compr essor is compl i cat ed and

insufficiently known, especially when oil is involved.

3 3 4 I nt . J. Ref r i g. 1991 Vol 14 No v e mb e r

Simulation of a small-scale refrigeration system: Z.-J. Chen and W.-H. Lin

Co nc l us i o ns

A si mul at i on model of a small-scale refrigeration system,

including separately described mat hemat i cal models for

individual component s (a hermetic reci procat i ng com-

pressor, a dry-t ype evapor at or , a capillary tube and a

tube-coil condenser) was developed for predicting the

behavi our of the system and for opt i mi zi ng the mat chi ng

of each component within the system. A met hod of opti-

mal mat chi ng based on the si mul at i on model was pro-

duced and the penal t y funct i on was i nt roduced into the

met hod. Numeri cal results calculated by a comput er pro-

gram based on this model were tested with the experi-

ment al dat a and the compar i son showed t hat numeri cal

results were in good agreement with the experimental

data. The reliability of the developed model was there-

fore verified.

Ac k n o wl e d g e me n t s

This research is support ed by the NNSF of Chi na and

the Doct or al Project Foundat i on of the State Educat i on

Commi t t ee.

Re f e r e nc e s

1 Yasuda, H. et al. Simulation model of a vapour compression

refrigeration system AS HRAE Trans (1983)

2 MacArthur, J. W. Transient heat pump behaviour, a theoretical

investigation Int J Refrig (1984) 7 123-132

3 Sodel, D. M. Transient analysis of a vapor compression refriger-

ation system International Congress of Refrigeration, Venice.

Italy, 1979

4 Chi, J. and Didion, D. A simulation model of the transient perfor-

mance of a heat pump Int J Refrig (1982) 5 176-184

Rev. Int. Froid 1991 Vo114 Novembre 335

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