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Data Communication and Networking

Data Communication and Networking

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1.Introduction

Data Communication is a system consisting of carries and related devices used to transport data
from one point to another. Communication means to convey a message, an idea, a picture or speech
that is received and understood clearly and correctly by the person for whom it is conveyed.
Ancient Methods of Communication and Their Demerits – Message were sent in olden times
either through horse riders or by using pigeons. There was no surety that the messenger will be able to
convey the message exactly in the same form as told to him verbally.
Electronic Methods of Communication – With the invention of telephone instrument and the
communication satellites, the means of electronic communication has become very popular in India
even though the cost of installation and maintenance of telephones is still very high and beyond the
means of a common man.
Limitations of Telephonic Communication:
(a)Both the sender and the receiver of the message should be available at the same time and
should speak the same language to understand.
(b)Telephone communication is not a secured means of communication because anyone can
overhear the message.
(c)It is not suitable to send picture or any other type of message except a spoken message.
(d)It is affected by the electrical interference or by the people digging roads etc.
(e)It is still quite costly to make a telephone call outside the city or the country.
Computerized Communication – Since the time computers have started playing an important role in
the field of communications. The main reason for this is that computers can send data extremely fast.
They can even transmit pictures and sound in a much secured manner. Further, PCs can send
information on the existing telephone line.
Advantage of Computerized Communication
(a)Telephonic calls, using Internet, can be made to any part of the world with the same expenses
as a local telephone call made within the city.
(b)Pictures, sound and written matter can be sent within minutes and a confirmation about it
reaching at the destination can be obtained immediately.
(c)Message can be sent in coded form so that they are not understood by anybody else except the
person who is sending and the person who is receiving them.
(d)Message can be sent in any language from any place of world to any place.
(e)Users need not take highly specialized training for sending or receiving message.
2.Communication Systems

A Communication system is the combination of hardware, software and data transfer links that
make up a communication facility for transferring data in a cost effective and efficient manner. A
communication system itself can be either analog or digital. The technique by which a digital signal is
converted to its analog form is known as Modulation. The reverse process i.e. conversion of analog
signal to digital signal is known as Demodulation. These processes of conversions carried out by a
special device called Modem.
Advantage of Digital Transmission over Analog Transmission:–
(a)The voice data, music and images can be interspersed to make more efficient use of the same
circuits and equipment.
(b)Much higher transmission rates are possible using telephone lines.
(c)Digital transmission is much cheaper than analog transmission.
(d)Maintenance of a digital system is easier than maintenance of analog system.
(e)A digital signal can pass through an arbitrary number of regenerators in with no loss in signal
and thus travel long distances with no information loss. In contrast, analog signal always suffer
some information loss when amplified, and this loss is cumulative.

3.Signal And Data

Data in a communication system can be either digital data or analog data.
Digital Data – On the hockey playground, the referee blows a whistle and all the players in the field
understand the message instantaneously. The whistle blown in short bursts of high pitched sound like
PEE, PE or it may have a long burst PEEEEEEE. The first one is indication to the players to start the
game and the second long whistle is to stop the match immediately. The message conveyed by the
sound energy in short pulses is very clear to all the players. This is an example of Digital Data
Transmission.
Analog Data – When we sit in a concert hall where many musical instrument being played by different
players. For example say one player to playing sitar and other is playing tabla. This is an analog data
communication. Both sitar and tabla are sending sound waves in the same sequence and there is a
rhythm and harmony between the two. Any music system conveys the songs in the analog form.
Different Characteristics of Analog and Digital Data Communication: -

NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR

43

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

Item

Analog Transmission

Digital Transmission

Form

It is in the form of continuous
variable of physical quantities

It is in the form of discrete
quantities and has binary digits

Cost of transmissionLow

High

Efficiency

Low

high

Maintenance cost of
equipment

High

Low

Effect of noise

High

Low

Attenuation

High

Low

Example

TV transmission from DoorDarshan

Data transmission from hard
disk to memory

4.Channel Characteristics

A communication channel provides the medium to move electromagnetic energy from a source
to one or more destination points. It is a pathway over which data are transferred between remote
devices.
Characteristics: -

(a)It should be able to deliver maximum amount of electromagnetic energy from the transmitter to
the receiver with minimum cost.
(b)It should not add much noise on the way so that the receiver is able to understand the message

correctly.

(c)There should not be any restriction on the distances between the transmitter where the sender
is located and the receiver where the signal is received.
Types of Communication Channels: -
There are two types of communication channel used in data communication. These are:
(a)A public telephone system
(b)A commercial radio station
Both these channels are used for transfer of voice in analog form. The other type of channel is used for
the transmission of the data between a PC and a printer. This carries digital data and transmits square
waves. The digital signal between a PC and printer also gets attenuated if the distance of the printer is
long.
Digital Channel Capacity: -

The capacity of a digital channel is the number of data bits a channel conveys in one second.
The measurement is in bits per second (bps). It is also known as bit rate of channel. The bit rate of
networking ranges from kilobits per second or Kbps to millions of bits per second. The duration of a
binary digit determines the bit rate. The shorter duration of bit is the cause of the greater the bps
rating of the signal.

Relationship between bit time and bit rate per second: -

Bit time (milli
sec)

Bit rate per
second(bps)

Bit time (milli
sec)

Bit rate per
second(bps)

3.3

300

.833

1200

.416

2400

.104

9600

.052

19200
Baud and Bit Rate: - Baud is a measure of the digital signaling rate in a channel. Bit rate is a measure
of the digital bit values the channel conveys with each baud.
The only way to increase the digital bit rate is to decrease the bit time of the signal. But
electrical characteristics of the material used for conveying the bits limit the reduction in the size of the
bit time and thus fixing the maximum bit rate per second.
Maximum Data Rate of a Channel: - The maximum data rate of a noisy channel whose bandwidth is
in Hertz (Hz), and whose signal-to-noise ratio, shown as S/N in decibels, is given by:
Maximum number of bits/sec = H1092 (1 + S/N)
5.Transmission Modes
There are three modes of data transmission. These are:
(a)Simplex – Simplex communication imply a simple method of communication. In simplex
communications mode, there is a one way communication transmission. Television transmission
is a very good example of this type of communication.
(b)Half-duplex - In half-duplex mode, both units communicate over the same medium, but only one
unit can send at a time. While one is in send mode, the other unit is in receiving mode. It is like
two polite people talking to each other—one talks, the other listens, but neither one talks at the
same time.

(c)Full-duplex - In a half-duplex system, the line must be "turned around" each time the direction is
reversed. This involves a special switching circuit and requires a small amount of time
(approximately 150 milliseconds). With high speed capabilities of the computer, this turn-around

NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR

43

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

time is unacceptable in many instances. Also, some applications require simultaneous
transmission in both directions. In such cases, a full-duplex system is used that allows
information to flow simultaneously in both directions on the transmission path. Use of a full-
duplex line improves efficiency as the line turn-around time required in a half-duplex
arrangement is eliminated. It requires four wires.
6.Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission
Asynchronous Mode: -
Asynchronous mode refers to a series of events that take place which are not
synchronized one after the other.
Asynchronous Transmission: - Asynchronous transmission is often referred to as start-stop
transmission because of its nature, that is the sender can send a character at any time convenient and
the receiver will accept it. Asynchronous communication lines remain in an idle state until the hardware
on the line is ready to transmit. Since the line is idle, a series of bits have to be sent to the receiving
node to notify it that there is more data coming. When data is finished, the node has to be notified that
the transmission is complete and to go back to an idle state, hence the STOP bits are to be sent. This
pattern continues for the duration of the time the link is operative. This is the characteristic of many
terminals when on a terminal, the time spent between successive keystrokes would vary. Thus, in
asynchronous transmission, data is transmitted character by character at irregular intervals.
Synchronous Transmission: - Synchronous devices need not use Start and Stop bits; so coordination
between the two nodes, i.e. the sender and the receiver, is handled differently. In synchronous
communications, there are two "channels" - one for data and another for link Synchronization. The
channel for synchronization uses the integral clock in the hardware for link synchronization between
the two nodes when one of the nodes is ready to transmit data, a unique combination of bits called a
Sync Character is sent to the receiver. Since the first character will probably get trashed, a second one
usually follows to ensure that synchronization is complete.

Comparison between Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission: -

Synchronous communications tend to be more expensive than asynchronous ones as the
hardware involved is more costly due to integral clocking mechanism that have to be used as well
as more sophisticated engineering efforts.
Synchronous transmission is well suited to remote communication between a computer and such
devices as buffered card readers and printers. It is also used for computer to computer
communications.
The primary advantage of synchronous transmission is its efficiency. Not only does it eliminate the
need for individual start-stop bits on each character, but much higher data rates can be used than
with asynchronous transmission.
Asynchronous transmission is well suited to many keyboard type terminals. The advantage of this
method is that it does not require any local storage at the terminal or the computer as
transmission takes place character by character. Hence it is cheaper to implement.
Efficiency of Data Transmission in Synchronous and Asynchronous Modes: - Asynchronous
data incorporates the use of extra framing bits to establish the start and ending (stop) of a data
character word. A receiver responds to the data stream when it detects a start bit. A data character is
decoded and defined after the stop bit is received and confirmed. Asynchronous data are easier to
detect and synchronize, but the efficiency of data transmission is reduced by the addition of framing
bits as overhead (no message data) bits.
A comparison of a single character using the two data types is as follows. For this purpose, the
ASCII code of the letter E (1000101) is used. The order of transmission is to send the Least Significant
Bit (LSB) first. The number of framing bits used for asynchronous data varies depending on the stations
in the communication link. For example, suppose we use 1 start and 2 stop bits. This adds 3 more bits
to the character 'word. Hence total 10 bits are required to send the letter E using asynchronous data.
However, in' the case of synchronous transmission, only 7 bits are required for transmission of the
character E.
The efficiency of transmission is defined as the ratio of the number of message bits to the total number
of transmitted bits:

or

% efficiency =

totalbits

databits

x 100

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC): - In synchronous communications, CRC is used to verify the
integrity of the entire packet or block of data. Integrity of the packet means whether the complete
packet of data is received in its correct form as it was sent at the sending end. In synchronous
communications, parity checking is sufficient to ensure data integrity. In high-speed asynchronous
communications, single bit corrections are not enough. As each packet is created, a CRC check is
placed somewhere in the packet and is verified at the receiving end.
CRC is a calculation method used to check the accuracy of a digital transmission over a
communication link. The sending computer uses one of several formulas to calculate a value from the

NOTES BY-BALJEET SINGH SINWAR

43

DATA COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKING

information contained in the data, and this value is appended to the message block before it is sent.
The receiving computer performs the same calculation on the same data and should derive the same
number. If the two CRCs do not match, indicating that a transmission error has occurred, the receiving
computer asks the sending computer to retransmit the data.
This procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes extra or
redundant error-checking values as well as the data itself. A CRC is generated by dividing the total
number of bits in the block of data being sent by a predetermined binary number. The remainder is
then added to the packet and the packet is transmitted. On the receiving end, the reverse
mathematical operation is performed to verify the packet contents. If the computation is successful, the
packet is passed to the next step. If it fails, the issuing node is notified and the entire packet is
retransmitted.

Common CRC patterns are 12-bit (CRC 12), 16-bit (CRC-16 and CRC-CCITT), and 32-bit (CRC-32)

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