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Introduction

In this unit we have focused on Grade 5 Unit Algebraic thinking which includes
patterns and relations and solving various problems with whole numbers. In Grade 5, this unit
generally focuses on patterns and simple equations that show how patterns extend. The two
outcomes that our lessons aim to teach are:
PR1: Determine the pattern rule to make predictions about subsequent terms;
PR2: Solve problems involving single-variable, one-step equations with whole number
coefficients and whole number solutions.

We decided as a group to include four lessons that would last approximately 50
minutes each, but we also understand that it is quite possible that students will not grasp the
concepts or that lessons may carry on to the next day depending on the pace at which
students are learning. It can be very difficult for students to grasp the concepts that we are
proposing here, however, we have decided to use real life examples as often as possible in
order to make the situations more relatable for students. This unit would most likely take
place around April or May to ensure that there is plenty of time for the students to grasp the
big ideas and become experts in the practice.
We also find it crucial to stress the importance of using manipulatives in the lesson as
well as making them readily available to students. It should be normal in the classroom for
students to use manipulatives during Math class, not something that is viewed negatively by
the students.





Curriculum Area: Math
Alicia Matthews, Hannah MacDonald, Courtney
Richardson,
Elizabeth Murray
Algebraic Thinking: #1:
Determining Pattern Rules
NCTM Standards:
- Understand patterns, relations, and functions.
- Represent and analyze mathematical situations and
structures using algebraic symbols.
- Analyze change in various contexts.
Time Required: 50 minutes Instructional Groupings
Whole Group - share time, introduction of lesson.
Small Group - answering problems as a group.

NB Curriculum Outcomes Targeted
PR1: Determine the pattern rule to make predictions about subsequent terms (elements).
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Materials:
- individual white boards
- white board markers
- manipulatives (money representations)
- whiteboard or smartboard
Overview
This lesson will focus on teaching students that patterns extend infinitely and that we can tell
which numbers will come next by using the information that we know about the pattern already.
The main focus of this class will be letting students use manipulatives to solve the problems that
they are faced with.

Previous Learning
At this point in time, students have already been introduced to patterns and it has been an ongoing
process since first grade, each year progressively more complex. Students have already been
exposed to these types of problem solving, real-life context algebra problems.



Steps in Lesson
Engaging Question: (5 minutes) Show students a pattern and ask them if they think the pattern
stops at some point and, if so, where? Then discuss with them the idea that patterns go on much
further than we can see, and that there is always a way for us to understand where the pattern will
go next.

Exploration: (20 minutes) At this time, I would ask each team (students are seated in teams of 4)
to retrieve their white board from their desks as well as a dry erase marker from their rubbermaid
tote. When all students have a white erase board and a dry erase marker, ask them to pay attention
to the problem that you are showing on the board.

To bake cookies for a school bake sale, the quantities of ingredients in the recipe must be
determined for multiple batches of cookies. If 2 spoonfuls of sugar and 3 spoonfuls of flour is
needed for one batch, how much is needed for 4 batches? 7 batches?

Ask students to draw out the problem on their whiteboards. This is important because we want to
make sure that the students are understanding, and teaching in a concrete way works best. I will be
circulating at this time to check for understanding and help those who are not quite there yet. Once
groups have finished the first question, move on to the second, which involves the manipulatives.

Show students a table that shows the relationship between the number of students going to a movie
and the total cost of the tickets. Have students describe the relationship between the students and
the cost using a mathematical expression. Use the pattern to determine the number of students at
the movie if the tickets cost $98.

Ask students to use the manipulatives (fake money) and add up the money as if they are actually
going to the movies.

Elaboration: (20 minutes)
To elaborate, have students come up to the front and share with the class the methods that they
used in order to answer the problems. Allow each team to have a turn as long as they want to share.
This allows the students to solidify their learning and helps those who do not quite understand yet
because they are seeing it taught by their peers (whose language might be more understandable).

Evaluation: (5 minutes)
Ask students to complete a 2 wishes and a star form and hand it in as they leave class.
2 wishes = 2 things that they wished they knew more about/understood better.
1 star = 1 thing that they liked or understood.

These can be used to check for understanding as well as to possibly modify/accommodate the
lesson for the next day.
Resources:
NB Mathematics Curriculum
https://www.gnb.ca/0000/publications/curric/Mathematics_NB_Curriculum_Grade_5.pdf (Page
57)





Curriculum Area: Math Alicia Matthews, Hannah MacDonald, Courtney Richardson,
Elizabeth Murray
Algebraic Thinking #2: NCTM Standards:
Determining Pattern Rules - Understand patterns, relations, and functions.
- Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures
using algebraic symbols.
- Analyze change in various contexts.
Time Required: 50 minutes Instructional Groupings
Whole Group - Jot-Pair-Share with partners something you
learned yesterday.
Tiered Lessons- small groups are set up in order to answer
certain complex questions suited for their development.

NB Curriculum Outcomes Targeted
PR1: Determine the pattern rule to make predictions about subsequent terms (elements).
[C, CN, PS, R, V]

Materials:
- Post-It Notes
- math notebooks
- pencils
- whiteboard or smartboard
- Laminated One Hundred Charts
- whiteboard markers

Overview
This lesson will focus on teaching students that patterns extend infinitely and that we can tell
which numbers will extend the pattern and why other numbers will not. The main focus of this
class will be to review the language and extension of patterns.

Previous Learning
This is an elaboration on yesterdays lesson. However, students need to be able to recollect their
experiences with patterns and have a deep understanding that patterns can be as simple as 2!, 3!,
4!. Students are expected to complete the questions and show, in math terms, how they can create a
pattern using what they know.


Steps in Lesson
Engaging Question: (5 minutes)
As an extension from yesterday, patterns can be found in our everyday life.
Ask students to jot-pair-share a pattern that was discussed in yesterdays class. Today students will
extend patterns by finding the missing elements.
Students are given laminated one hundred charts and a whiteboard marker to use when visualizing
the patterns given. For example, if students need to extend a pattern that is 33, 35,

Exploration: (10 minutes)
As a whole group have students fill in the following blanks on the Smartboard and have students fill
in missing terms (elements) from number sequences and identify the pattern rules.
a. 1, 4, ____, 16, ___, 36 (n ! n)
b. 18, 16, 14, ____, ____
c. 2.4, 2.7, ____ , ____ , 3.6
Discuss the requirements of creating and extending a pattern.

Elaborate: (15 minutes)
Tier 1:
Extend the missing element in the following patterns:
20, 22, 24,_____, 26
100, 103, 106, 109, ____, ____, 118
118, 122, 126, 130, ____, ____,____...

Tier 2:
Circle in red crayon which two patterns complete an extending pattern
2,4,6,8,10.
3,6,9,12.
24,26,28
Circle in blue the two sets of numbers that extend a pattern
(n + 1), ((n + 2), (n + 3), (n + 4)...
(n + 5), ((n + 6), (n + 7), (n + 8)...
(n + 33), (n + 35), (n + 37), (n + 39)...

Tier 3:
Ask students to explain whether 84 would be included in each of the following patterns and
why it should be included:
a. 1, 3, 5, 7
b. 4, 8, 12, 16
c. 200, 192, 184, 176

Does the number 73 fit in the following patterns, explain why or why not?
77, 80, 83
61, 64, 67, 70,
22, 23, 24, 25
*If students finish early have them compare with their partner groups and explain how they got their
answers. This would have been modeled early in the year.

Evaluation: (5 minutes)
Exit slip for the day is to have students create an extended pattern write on a Post-It Note and place
on the what I have learned today board with their name on the back.

These can be used to check for understanding as well as to possibly modify the lesson for the next
day.
Resources:

https://portal.nbed.nb.ca/tr/cd/Pages/,DanaInfo=portal.nbed.nb.ca,SSL+Grade5.aspx



Curriculum Area:
Math
Alicia Matthews, Hannah MacDonald, Courtney Richardson,
Elizabeth Murray
Algebraic Thinking
#3: Variables
NCTM Standards:
Represent and analyze mathematical situations and
structures using algebraic symbols
identify such properties as commutativity, associativity, and
distributivity and use them to compute with whole numbers;
represent the idea of a variable as an unknown quantity using
a letter or a symbol;
express mathematical relationships using equations.
Time Required: 50
minutes
Instructional Groupings
Whole Group - Introduction of concept and recap of lesson.
Small Group - Worksheet activity in partners, individual journal
entry.

NB Curriculum Outcomes Targeted
PR2: Solve problems involving single-variable, one-step equations with whole number coefficients
and whole number solutions. [C, CN, PS, R]

Materials:
Whiteboard, Counters/Pattern blocks, Attached worksheet, Students math journals.
Overview:
The purpose of this lesson is to introduce the concept of variables.


Steps in Lesson
Engaging Question: (20 minutes)
Try to use white board space efficiently so that following examples dont need to be erased and
can be used as a reference point when students are doing individual work.

Tell the class that a student was given the following problem to solve: There were some students
on a bus and 12 got off. Now there are 14 left on the bus. Now many students were originally on
the bus?
To solve the problem, the student wrote this equation: b 12 = 14. Why did they use a letter in the
equation?

Discuss:
- The letter represents an unknown number/value.
- When we have unknowns in an equation we call them variables.
- Variables are usually represented by letter of the alphabet.
- How do we solve this equation? We need to make both sides equal.

*Do not rush the discussion.

As a class write an equation for the following problem, solve it, then ask students if there is
another possible equation that could be written for the same problem: There are now 15 apples in a
basket. There were 24 at the start. Some have been eaten. How many apples have been eaten?

Exploration: (10 minutes)
In pairs, have students complete the attached worksheet. They may use the coloured counters or
pattern blocks to help them solve the equations. Each student is responsible to fill out a
worksheet.

Elaboration: (10 minutes)
Allow a few minutes for students to find a different partner to compare their answers/strategies
with. Then go over the worksheet as a class, asking students to share how they found their
answers. If time is running short, focus on questions students found difficult.
Evaluation: (10 minutes)
Write the following question on the white board and have the students answer it in their math
journals (they do not need to copy it down, just answer): What is a variable? Use words and an
equation to explain.
Resources:
NB Mathematics Curriculum
https://www.gnb.ca/0000/publications/curric/Mathematics_NB_Curriculum_Grade_5.pdf
Worksheet
http://www.mathworksheets4kids.com/equations/one-step/integers-add-sub-1.pdf















Curriculum Area:
Math
Alicia Matthews, Hannah MacDonald, Courtney Richardson,
Elizabeth Murray
Algebraic Thinking
#4:
Understanding Co-
Efficients
NCTM Standards:
Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures
using algebraic symbols
identify such properties as commutativity, associativity, and
distributivity and use them to compute with whole numbers;
represent the idea of a variable as an unknown quantity using a
letter or a symbol;
express mathematical relationships using equations.
Time Required: 50
minutes
Instructional Groupings
Whole Group -
Small Group -

NB Curriculum Outcomes Targeted
PR2: Solve problems involving single-variable, one-step equations with whole number coefficients
and whole number solutions. [C, CN, PS, R]

Materials:
Smartboard
counters
units
cue cards

Overview
Students will become familiar with the role of a coefficient in an unknown equation

Previous Learning
Students have already become familiar with solving for an unknown variable in addition and
subtraction equations. Now they will develop a new strategy for solving an equation when the
unknown is present more than once.


Steps in Lesson
Engaging Question: (5 minutes)
What if our unknown exists more than once in an equation?
Weve had experience in solving for our unknown variable, but can we solve an equation where
there is more than one of the unknown variable?

Write the following equation on the white board: n + n = 20
-What do we know about the variables? Are they represented by a different letter, or the same
one? If they are they same letter, what do you think that means about the value of each?
-So, we know that the variables on the left side of our equations are the same number, what
number can we add two of to get 20? What number goes into 20 twice?
-Use manipulatives such as units or counters to see if you can split 20 into two equal groups,
our two equal variables.

Exploration: (20 minutes)
So, we know that we can solve an equation with more than one variable if the variable is the same.
Did you know that there is also a simpler way to look at this equation?

If I have these (hold up two markers), do I say to you that I have a marker plus a marker? or a
marker and a marker? How do I express to you how many markers I have, how many variables I
have? (wait until students tell you that you should say I have two markers)

Variables in equations can be expressed the same way. With your elbow partner, discuss a
different way that you could say n plus n. (expect answers like two ns)
When we want to show that we have two of one variable in an equation, we simply put a 2 in front
of it (re-write the equation as 2n = 20 on the board)
The 2 is called a coefficient. A coefficient shows us how many of our variable we have.

Write the equation y + y + y = 12 on the board. Ask students to turn to their elbow partner and
discuss a different way they could write this equation.
Discuss possible answers - have a volunteer come up to write 3y = 12 on the board.
Can someone tell me what my variable is? Can someone tell me what my co-efficient is?

So, if I have the equation 5d = 25, what would this look like as an addition sentence? See if you
and your elbow partner can use the coefficient to figure out what this would look like if we were
showing them being added altogether.

Elaboration: (20 minutes)
Now that we have begun to understand what a coefficient is and what it does, work with your
elbow partner to use your manipulatives (units, counters, whatever you choose) to represent how
you can solve the last two equations we looked at: 3y = 12 and 5d = 25

If students are having trouble, remind them to think that all of the variables are the same, so all of
the numbers they add together will be the same. Encourage them to come up with strategies as to
how they can ensure that all of the numbers they develop will be the same.
If they are starting with 12 counters, how can the make sure that the 3 numbers that they break
those counters up into will be equal (make 3 piles, putting one counter in each pile at a time)
If students come up with new strategies, encourage them to share them with the rest of the class.

Ask pairs to join another pair (making groups of 4) and discuss what number they found the
variable to represent.

Come back together as a class, and solve the problems together using counters on the SmartBoard.
Ask the students to make sure that they have the right answer written down in their notebooks

Evaluation: (5 minutes)
Give each student a cue card and ask them to solve the following exit slip question

W + W + W + W + W = 20
-Express this equation in a simpler form with a coefficient
-Solve for the value of the variable using a manipulative of your choice (counters, units, etc)
Resources: