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Nondestructive Examination
Radiographic Film Interpretation TGI-NDE02.00 Rev. 0 1
Issuing Department: Approval: Previous Rev. Date Current Revision Date
QA/QC - Houston Gene Nikstad 5-Mar-04 15-Mar-05
TABLE OF CONTENTS



1.0 PURPOSE OF TECHNICAL GUIDELINE........................................................................................3
2.0 TECHNICAL GUIDELINE OBJ ECTIVE ...........................................................................................3
3.0 SCOPE OF APPLICATION..............................................................................................................3
4.0 DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................3
5.0 METHOD (PROCESS) ..................................................................................................................3
5.1 PROCESS OVERVIEW......................................................................................................3
5.2 ROLES & RESPONSIBILITEIS ..........................................................................................3
5.3 PROCESS DETAIL.............................................................................................................5
5.3.1 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS..........................................................................5
5.3.2 EVALUATION CHECKLIST...................................................................................5
5.3.3 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE DOCUMENTATION REVIEW.............................5
5.3.4 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE VERIFICATION...................................................6
5.3.5 RADIOGRAPHIC FILM EVALUATION................................................................13
5.3.6 RADIOGRAPH EVALUATION FORM REVIEW..................................................16
5.3.7 RADIOGRAPHIC ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA......................................................16
6.0 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................19
7.0 REPORTS ................................................................................................................19




(Table of Contents - Continued on Next Page)

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8.0 ATTACHMENTS ................................................................................................................19
Attachment 1 - Radiographic Film Interpretation Review Checklist.................................20
Attachment 2 - Radiographic Film Review Log...............................................................21
Attachment 3 - Material Types, Group Definitions & Proper IQI Selection.....................22
Attachment 4 - Weld Reinforcement Tables...................................................................29
Attachment 5 - Location Markers Sketches....................................................................31
Attachment 6 - Radiographic Technique Sketches.........................................................32
Attachment 7 - Pipe Schedule Chart.................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
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revision of this document.
1.0 PURPOSE OF TECHNICAL GUIDELINE
1.1 This purpose of this Technical Guideline is to provide specific instructions when
evaluating or interpreting industrial radiographs and supporting documentation for
compliance to the requirements of the applicable Codes, Standards, and Project
Specifications.
2.0 TECHNICAL GUIDELINE OBJECTIVE
2.1 The objective of this Technical Guideline is to satisfy all applicable requirements
pertaining to ASME Section V, Article 2, for Radiographic Film Interpretation.
3.0 SCOPE OF APPLICATION
3.1 This Technical Guideline is applicable to the radiographic film evaluation and
interpretation of welds when performed by employees of J acobs, its subsidiaries or its
subcontractors.
3.2 This Technical Guideline may be utilized for the interpretation of radiographs produced in
accordance with the requirements of ASME Section I, V, VIII and IX; ASME B31.1, and
B31.3 Codes.
3.3 This Technical Guideline is intended to define the technical basis for the review of
radiographic film and its associated documentation. The ASME Code provides flexibility
in applying whichever radiographic technique, will provide the best examination results,
based on the particular examination conditions encountered at the time of the
examination. Once a particular technique is applied, compliance with the requirements of
that technique is mandatory and the film and documentation shall be verified accordingly.
4.0 DEFINITIONS
4.1 Radiographic Quality Evaluation is the review of radiographs and supporting
documentation (Radiographic Technique Sheets and Radiographic Evaluation Forms) for
essential elements relative to the radiographic technique used. The purpose of this
review is to evaluate the performance of the Radiographer with regards to compliance to
the applicable Project Specifications, Code, and Standards.
4.2 Radiographic Film Interpretation is the determination of the acceptance or rejection of
weld quality as established by the acceptance criteria of the applicable code.
Radiographic interpretation shall follow the evaluation of radiographic film quality and
required documentation as described above.
4.3 All other terms and definitions related to radiography shall be in accordance with the
ASME Section V, Article 2, Mandatory Appendix V and Article 30 or SE-1316.
5.0 METHOD (PROCESS)
5.1 PROCESS OVERVIEW
5.1.1 The review of Radiographs and supporting documentation seeks to provide a
reasonable assurance that technique sheet/evaluation form, radiographic film
quality; weld, material and component quality all meet the requirement of the
referencing code or standard.
5.2 ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES
5.2.1 The J acobs NDE level III Examiner/Corporate Level III has the overall
responsibility for administrating the J acobs NDE Program, including this
Technical Guideline. The NDE Level III reports directly to the QA/QC Manager.
Responsibilities shall include, but not be limited to:
5.2.1.1 Develop NDE techniques that are consistent with industry practices
and safety recommendations.
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5.2.1.2 Maintain the J acobs NDE program and all Technical Guidelines for
NDE methods and techniques, in compliance with all current
requirements of the latest codes or standards, including applicable
addenda.
5.2.1.3 Develop and administer written and practical examinations in
accordance with J acobs written practice (Technical Guidelines TGI-
NDE-01) for all NDE methods and techniques that the J acobs NDE
program consists of.
5.2.1.4 Provide training and guidance to all J acobs NDE personnel in the
execution of their assigned duties.
5.2.1.5 Develop and administer training programs and classroom instruction,
when application, for J acobs NDE personnel, or others that may
seek such training.
5.2.1.6 Administer the requirements for annual Visual Acuity Examinations
for all J acobs NDE personnel.
5.2.2 QA/QC Administrative Assistant - Responsibilities shall include, but not be limited
to:
5.2.2.1 Maintaining the training, education, qualification and certification
records of all J acobs NDE personnel, in a current and validated
manner.
5.2.2.2 Maintain the NDE Experience Logs and the Visual Acuity
Examination records for all J acobs NDE personnel in a current and
valid manner.
5.2.3 The inspector reports to the QA/QC Supervisor and the Manager QA/QC. The
Inspector is responsible for execution of the requirements of this Technical
Guideline. Responsibilities shall include, but not be limited to:
5.2.3.1 Reviewing radiographs and supporting documentation for
compliance with the criteria of the referencing code or standard, and
this Technical Guideline.
5.2.3.2 Verifying the qualifications and certifications of NDE personnel
engaged in performing and evaluating the NDE examination.
5.2.3.3 Verifying the acceptability of the NDE method and technique and
approval, when required by engineering and/or client specifications.
5.2.3.4 Auditing the performance of NDE examinations for compliance with
the requirements of the referencing code or standard.
5.2.3.5 Maintaining the records required by this Technical Guideline.
5.2.3.6 Maintaining current and validated Qualification and Certification
Records.
5.2.3.7 Maintaining current and validated annual Visual Acuity Examination
Records.
5.2.3.8 Reporting on the results of NDE Examinations.
5.2.4 The NDE Technician may be an employee, or under the direction of J acobs as a
subcontractor, or may be an employee, or under the direction of the
Vendor/Supplier. When an employee of J acobs, the NDE Technician will report
directly to the QA/QC Supervisor and the Manager of QA/QC. Responsibilities
shall include, but not be limited to:
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5.2.4.1 Performing and evaluation the NDE Examination in accordance with
the referencing code or standard, and the written practices governing
the NDE examination technique.
5.2.4.2 Performing the required calibration or technique verifications, to
assure the acceptability and validity of the examination results.
5.2.4.3 Maintaining current and validated Qualification and Certification
Records.
5.2.4.4 Maintaining current and validated annual Visual Acuity Examination
Records.
5.2.4.5 Reporting on the results of NDE Examinations.
5.3 PROCESS DETAIL
5.3.1 PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS
5.3.1.1 Radiographic Film Interpretation (RFI) Personnel utilizing this
Technical Guideline to perform the initial interpretation of
radiographs for Code acceptance shall be qualified and certified in
accordance with J acobs Written Practice, Technical Guideline TGI-
NDE01.00.
5.3.1.2 Certification of RFI personnel is not required if radiographs were
previously interpreted by personnel that were certified in accordance
with the applicable Code and/or contract requirements and the
review is strictly an evaluation to verify compliance to the contract
and code requirements.
5.3.1.3 Certification of RFI personnel is required when the interpretation by
the radiographer is not consistent with applicable principles of
radiographic interpretation and the original interpretation must be
altered to reflect the correct disposition.
5.3.2 EVALUATION CHECKLIST
5.3.2.1 The evaluation of radiographs and the review of the radiographic
examination documentation shall be performed using the
Radiographic Film Interpretation Review Checklist (Attachment 1).
The checklist contains a listing of the essential items to be checked
in order to verify code compliance. The checklist shall be used to
assure that all attributes have been properly addressed and that the
technique employed is in accordance with the applicable
requirements.
5.3.2.2 The attributes that are determined to be nonconforming shall be
listed as Unsatisfactory on the checklist and noted on the
Radiographic Film Review Log (Attachment 2).
5.3.3 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE DOCUMENTATION REVIEW
5.3.3.1 The radiographic technique details shall be presented along with the
film for review. The radiographic film interpreter shall review and
become familiar with the scope of the examination. As required by
paragraph T-286 of ASME Section V, Article 2, the radiographic
technique documentation shall have been completed correctly and
accurately, prior to evaluation of the radiographs to verify that the
proper technique has been utilized. As a minimum, the technique
sheet(s) shall include the following information:
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(a) Identification, e.g., job number and/or heat number, as
applicable;
(b) The dimensional map (if used) of marker placement in
accordance with the Location Marking with a Map;
(c) Number of radiographs (exposures);
(d) X-Ray machine focal spot size or isotope physical source size;
(e) Base material type and thickness, weld thickness, and weld
reinforcement thickness, as applicable;
(f) Minimum source-to-object distances;
(g) Distance from source side of object to the film at the minimum
source-to-object distance;
(h) Film manufacturer and type/designation;
(i) Number of films in each holder/cassette;
(j) Single-or double-wall exposure;
(k) Single- or double-wall viewing.
5.3.4 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE VERIFICATION
5.3.4.1 IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS (IQI) OR PENETRAMETER
DESIGN
(a) IQIs shall be either the hole-type or wire-type. Hole-type IQIs
shall be manufactured and identified in accordance with SE-
1025. Wire type IQIs shall be manufactured and identified in
accordance with SE-747. Hole-type IQIs shall consist of those in
Table 1 of Attachment 3, and for wire-type, IQIs shall consist of
those in Table 2 of Attachment 3.
5.3.4.2 GENERAL TECHNIQUE REQUIREMENTS
(a) Welds - The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities on both
the inside (where accessible) and outside shall be removed by
any suitable process to such a degree that the resulting
radiographic image due to any irregularities cannot mask or be
confused with the image of any discontinuity.
(b) Surface Finish - The finished surface of all butt-welded joints
may be flush with the base material or may have reasonable
uniform crowns with reinforcement not to exceed that specified in
the referencing Code Section (Attachment 4) or contract
requirements, with referencing code requirements as a minimum.
(c) Radiation Source Size The radiographer shall have listed the
X-Ray machine focal spot size or isotope physical source size or
effective focal spot size on the Radiographic Technique Sheet.
5.3.4.3 RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE CRITERIA
(a) Radiographic Techniques - A single-wall exposure technique
shall be used for radiography whenever practical. When it is not
practical to use a single-wall technique, a double-wall technique
shall be used.
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(b) Single-Wall Exposure Technique - In the single-wall technique,
radiation passes through only one wall of the weld (material),
which is viewed for acceptance on the radiograph.
(c) Double-Wall Exposure Technique - When it is not practical to
use a single-wall technique, one of the following double-wall
techniques shall be used:
(d) Single-Wall Film Viewing - For materials and for welds in
components, a technique may be used in which radiation passes
through two walls and only the weld (material) on the film side is
viewed for acceptance on the radiograph. When complete
coverage is required for circumferential welds (materials); a
minimum of three exposures taken at 120 to each other shall be
made.
(e) Double-Wall Viewing - For materials and for welds in
components 3 or less in nominal outside diameter, a
technique may be used in which the radiation passes through
two walls and the weld (material) in both walls is viewed for
acceptance on the same radiograph.
(1) For double-wall viewing, only a source side IQI shall be
used.
Note: Care shall be exercised to ensure that the required
geometric unsharpness is not exceeded. If the
geometric unsharpness cannot be met, then single-wall
viewing shall be used.
(f) For welds, the radiation beam may be offset from the plane of
the weld at an angle sufficient to separate the images of the
source side and film side portions of the weld so that there is no
overlap of the areas to be interpreted. When complete coverage
is required, a minimum of two exposures taken at 90 to each
other shall be made for each joint.
(g) As an alternative, the weld may be radiographed with the
radiation beam positioned so that the images of both walls are
superimposed. When complete coverage is required, a
minimum of three exposures taken at either 60 or 120 to each
other shall be made for each joint.
(h) Additional exposures shall be made if the required radiographic
coverage cannot be obtained using the minimum number of
exposures for the elliptical or superimposed techniques.
5.3.4.4 GEOMETRIC UNSHARPNESS
(a) Geometric unsharpness of radiographs shall not exceed the
following, except as permitted below.
Material Thickness (inches) UG Maximum (inches)
Under 2 0.020
2 through 3 0.030
Over 3 trough 4 0.040
Greater than 4 0.070
Note: Material thickness is the thickness on which the IQI is based.
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(b) Exceptions to the geometric unsharpness limitations as
permitted by the referencing Code Sections are listed below:
(1) ASME Section VIII and IX - The above geometric
unsharpness requirements shall be used as a guide. Final
acceptance of radiographs shall be based on the ability to
see the prescribed IQI image and the specified hole in the
hole-type or the designated wire of a wire-type IQI.
(2) ASME Section I and B31.1 - The above geometric
unsharpness requirements shall be used as a guide and not
for the rejection of radiographs unless the geometrical
unsharpness exceeds 0.070-inch.
(3) Radiographic examinations performed in accordance ASME
B31.3 shall meet the geometrical unsharpness requirements
stated in the table, above.
(c) Geometric unsharpness of radiographs shall be determined in
accordance with the following formula: Ug = Fd/D
Where: UG =Geometric unsharpness
F = source size: the maximum projected dimension of the
radiating source (or effective focal spot) in the plane
perpendicular to the distance D from the weld or object
being radiographed, inches
Note: When only the source dimensions (Diameter and
Length) are provided on the technique sheet, the
effective focal spot is determined as follows
F = D
2
+L
2

D = distance from source of radiation to weld or object being
radiographed, inches
d = distance from source side of weld or object being
radiographed to the film, inches.
Note 1 D and d shall be determined at the
approximate center of the area of interest.
Note2 On double wall technique, the source side of
the object is dependent on the viewing
technique as shown in Figure 1 of
Attachment 6.
5.3.4.5 IQI SELECTION
(a) Materials - IQIs shall be selected from either the same alloy
material group or grade as identified in Attachment 3 or from an
alloy material group or grade with less radiation absorption than
the material being radiographed.
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(b) Welds Joining Dissimilar Materials or Welds with Dissimilar
Filler Metal When the weld metal is of an alloy group or grade
that has a radiation attenuation that differs from the base
material, the IQI material selection shall be based on the weld
metal and be in accordance with Table 3 of Attachment 3.
When the density variation limits cannot be met with one IQI,
and the exceptional density area(s) is at the interface of the weld
metal and the base metal, the material selection for the
additional IQIs shall be based on the base material and be in
accordance with Table 3 of Attachment 3.
(c) Sizes - The designated hole or essential wire shall be as
specified in Table 3 of Attachment 3. A thinner or thicker hole-
type IQI may be substituted for any section thickness listed in
Table 3 of Attachment 3, provided an equivalent IQI sensitivity
is maintained.
5.3.4.6 THICKNESS OF IQI
(a) For Welds with Reinforcements, the thickness on which the
IQI is based is the nominal single wall thickness (Attachment 7)
plus the estimated weld reinforcement not to exceed the
maximum permitted by the referencing code and listed in
Attachment 4. Backing rings or strips are not to be considered
as part of the thickness in IQI selection. The actual measurement
of the weld reinforcement is not required.
(b) For Welds without Reinforcements the thickness on which the
IQI is based is the nominal single wall thickness. Backing rings
or strips are not considered as part of the weld thickness in IQI
selection.
5.3.4.7 REQUIRED SENSITIVITY
(a) Radiography shall be performed with a technique of sufficient
sensitivity to display the designated hole-type IQI and the 2T
hole, or the essential wire of a wire-type IQI. The radiographs
shall also display the IQI identifying numbers and letters. If the
designated hole-type IQI image and 2T hole, or essential wire,
do not show on any film in a multiple film technique, but do show
on composite film viewing, interpretation shall be permitted only
by composite film viewing.
5.3.4.8 EQUIVALENT HOLE-TYPE SENSITIVITY
(a) A thinner or thicker hole-type IQI than listed in Table 3 of
Attachment 3 may be substituted, for any section thickness
listed in Table 3 of Attachment 3, provided the equivalent or
better IQI sensitivity, as specified in Table 4 of Attachment 3, is
achieved and all other requirements for radiography are met.
(b) Equivalent IQI sensitivity is shown in any row of Table 4 of
Attachment 3, which contains the required IQI ah hold. Better
IQI sensitivity is shown in any row of Table 4 of Attachment 3,
which is above the equivalent sensitivity row. If the required IQI
and hole are not represented in Table 4 of Attachment 3 , the
next thinner IQI row from Table 4 of Attachment 3, may be
used to establish equivalent IQI sensitivity.

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5.3.4.9 PLACEMENT OF IQI (S)
(a) Source Side IQIs - The IQIs shall be placed on the source side
of the part being examined, except for the condition described in
the Film Side IQI paragraph below.
(b) When, due to part or weld configuration or size, it is not practical
to place the IQIs on the part or weld, the IQIs may be placed on
a separate block. Separate blocks shall be made of the same or
radiographically similar materials (as defined in Attachment 3)
and may be used to facilitate IQI positioning. There is no
restriction on the separate block thickness, provided the
IQI/area-of-interest density tolerance requirements of
radiographic density are met.
(1) The IQI on the source side of the separate block shall be
placed no closer to the film than the source side of the part
being radiographed, as shown in Figure 2 of Attachment 6.
(2) The separate block shall be placed as close as possible to
the part being radiographed.
(3) The block dimensions shall exceed the IQI dimensions such
that the outline of at least three sides of the IQI image shall
be visible on the radiograph.
(c) Film Side IQI(s) - Where inaccessibility prevents hand placing
the IQI(s) on the source side, the IQI(s) shall be placed on the
film side in contact with the part being examined. A lead letter "F"
shall be placed adjacent to or on the IQI(s), but shall not mask
the essential hole where hole-type IQIs are used or the essential
wire of a wire-type.
(d) IQI Placement for Welds - Hole-Type IQIs. The IQI(s) may be
placed adjacent to or on the weld. The identification number(s)
and, when used, the lead letter "F," shall not be in the area of
interest, except when geometric configuration makes it
impractical.
(e) IQI Placement for Welds - Wire IQIs. The IQI(s) shall be placed
on the weld so that the length of the wires is perpendicular to the
length of the weld. The identification numbers and, when used,
the lead letter "F" shall not be in the area of interest, except
when geometric configuration makes it impractical.
5.3.4.10 NUMBER OF IQI
(a) When one or more film holders are used for an exposure, at
least one IQI image shall appear on each radiograph except as
outlined in the Special Cases criteria, below.
(b) Multiple IQIs - If the density limitation and density variation
requirements or radiographic density are met by using more than
one IQI, one shall be representative of the lightest area of
interest. The other the darkest area of interest; the intervening
densities on the radiograph shall be considered as having
acceptable density.


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5.3.4.11 SPECIAL CASES
(a) For cylindrical components where the source is placed on the
axis of the component for a single exposure, at least three IQIs,
spaced approximately 120
0
apart, are required under the
following conditions:
(1) When the complete circumference is radiographed using one
or more film holders.
(2) When a section or sections of the circumference, where the
length between the ends of the outermost sections span
240
0
or more, is radiographed using one or more film
holders. Additional film locations may be required to obtain
necessary IQI spacing.
(b) For cylindrical components where the source is placed on the
axis of the component for a single exposure, at least three IQIs,
with one placed at each end of the span of the circumference
radiographed and one in the approximate center of the span, are
required under the following conditions:
(1) When a section of the circumference, the length of which is
greater than 120
0
and less than 240
0
, is radiographed using
just one film holder.
(2) When a section or sections of the circumference, where the
length between the ends of the outermost sections span less
than 240
0
, is radiographed using more than one film holder.
(3) Where sections of longitudinal welds adjoining the
circumferential weld are radiographed simultaneously with
the circumferential weld, an additional IQI shall be placed on
each longitudinal weld at the end of the section most remote
from the junction with the circumferential weld being
radiographed for the cylindrical component identified above.
(c) For spherical components where the source is placed at the
center of the component for a single exposure, at least three
IQIs, spaced approximately 120
0
apart, are required under the
following conditions:
(1) When a complete circumference is radiographed using one
or more film holders.
(2) When a section or sections of a circumference, where the
length between the ends of the outermost sections span
240
0
or more, is radiographed using one or more film
holders. Additional film locations may be required to obtain
necessary IQI spacing.
(d) For spherical components where the source is placed at the
center of the component for a single exposure, at least three
IQIs, with one placed at each end of the radiographed span of
the circumference radiographed and one in the approximate
center of the span, are required under the following conditions:
(1) When a section of a circumference, the length of which is
greater than 120
0
and less than 240
0
, is radiographed using
just one film holder.
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(2) When a section or sections of a circumference, where the
length between the ends of the outermost sections span less
than 240
0
is radiographed using more than one film holder.
(e) Where other welds are radiographed simultaneously with the
circumferential weld, one additional IQI shall be placed on each
other weld for the spherical components identified above.
(f) When an array of components in a circle is radiographed, at
least one IQI shall show on each component image.
(g) In order to maintain the continuity of records involving
subsequent exposures, all radiographs exhibiting IQIs that
qualify the techniques permitted for cylindrical or spherical
components shall be retained.
5.3.4.12 SHIMS UNDER HOLE-TYPE IQI (s)
(a) For welds, a shim of material radiographically similar to the weld
metal shall be placed between the part and the IQI, if needed, so
that the radiographic density throughout the area of interest is no
more than minus 15% from (lighter than) the radiographic
density through the IQI.
(b) The shim dimensions shall exceed the IQI dimensions such that
the outline of at least three sides of the IQI image shall be visible
on the radiograph.
5.3.4.13 LOCATION MARKERS
(a) Location markers, which are to appear as radiographic images
on the film, shall be placed on the part, not on the exposure
holder/cassette. Their locations shall be marked on the surface
of the part being radiographed when permitted, or on a map in a
manner permitting the area of interest on the radiograph to be
accurately traceable to its location on the part for the required
retention period of the radiograph. Evidence shall be provided
on the radiograph that the required coverage of the region being
examined has been obtained.
(b) Single Wall Viewing - Location Markers shall be placed as
follows:
(1) Source Side Markers - Source side location markers shall
be used when radiographing the following:
J oints in flat components or longitudinal joints in
cylindrical or conical components as shown in sketch (a)
of Attachment 5.
J oints in curved components whose concave side is
toward the source and when the source to material
distance is less than the inside radius of the component
as shown in sketch (b) of Attachment 5.
J oints in curved or spherical components whose convex
side is toward the source, as shown in sketch (c) of
Attachment 5.
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revision of this document.
(c ) Film Side Markers: - Film side location markers shall be used
when radiographing joints in curved or spherical components
whose concave side is toward the source and when the source
to material distance is greater than the inside radius, as shown
in sketch (d) of Attachment 5.
(1) As an alternate, for source side markers, film side markers
may be used when the radiograph shows coverage beyond
the location markers, as shown in sketch (e) of Attachment
5. When this alternate method is used, it shall be
documented on the Radiographic Technique Sheet.
(d) Either Side Markers. Location markers may be placed on either
the source side or film side when radiographing either curved or
spherical components whose concave side is toward the source
and the "source-to-material" distance equals the inside radius of
the component, as shown in sketch (f) of Attachment 5.
(e) Double Wall Viewing - For double-wall viewing, at least one
location marker shall be placed adjacent to the weld (or on the
material in the area of interest) for each radiograph.
(f) Location marking with a Map - When inaccessibility or other
limitations prevent the location of markers as stipulated for
Single Wall or Double Wall Viewing, a dimensional map of the
geometric arrangement including marker locations shall
accompany the radiographs and shall show that full coverage
has been obtained.
5.3.5 RADIOGRAPHIC FILM EVALUATION
5.3.5.1 FACILITIES FOR VIEWING OF RADIOGRAPHS
(a) The Vendors/Suppliers viewing facilities shall provide subdued
background lighting of an intensity that will not cause
troublesome reflections, shadows, or glare on the radiograph
that interfere with the interpretation process. Equipment used to
view radiographs for interpretation shall provide a variable light
source sufficient for the essential IQI hole or designated wire to
be visible for the specified density range. The viewing conditions
shall be such that light from around the outer edge of the
radiograph or coming through low-density portions of the
radiograph does not interfere with interpretation.
5.3.5.2 DENSITOMETERS AND STEP WEDGE COMPARISON FILM
(a) Either a densitometer or a step wedge comparison film shall be
provided by Vendor/Supplier and used for judging film density
requirements. Densitometers shall be calibrated at least every
90 days during use as follows:
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revision of this document.
(1) A step wedge calibration film, traceable to a national
standard step tablet and having at least 5 steps with neutral
densities from at least 1.0 through 4.0 shall be used. The
step wedge calibration film shall have been verified within
the last year by comparison with a national standard step
tablet, unless, prior to first use, it was maintained in a light
tight and waterproof sealed package as supplied by the
Manufacturer. Step wedge calibration films may be used
without verification for one year upon opening, provided it is
within the manufacturers stated shelf life.
(2) The densitometer manufacturers step-by-step instructions
for the operation of the densitometer shall be followed.
(3) The density steps closest to 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 on the
step wedge calibration film shall be read.
(4) The densitometer is acceptable if the density readings do not
vary by more than 0.05 density units from the actual density
stated on the step wedge calibration film.
(b) Step Wedge Comparison Films - The Vendors/Suppliers step
wedge comparison films shall have been verified prior to first
use, unless performed by the manufacturer, as follows:
(1) The density of the steps on a step wedge comparison film
shall be verified by a calibrated densitometer.
(2) The step wedge comparison film is acceptable if the density
readings do not vary by more than 0.1 density units from
the density stated on the step wedge comparison film.
(c) PERIODIC VERIFICATION
(1) Densitometers - Periodic calibration verification checks
shall be performed as described above, at the beginning of
each shift, after 8 hours of continuous use, or after change of
apertures, whichever comes first. The densitometer is
acceptable if the density readings are within 0.05 of the
calibration readings determined by checking the steps
closest to 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 on the step wedge calibration
film
(2) Step Wedge Comparison Films - Verification checks shall
be performed annually per ASME Section V, Article 2
paragraph T-262.2.
(c) Documentation
(1) Densitometer Calibration - Densitometer calibration
readings required by checking the steps closest to 1.0, 2.0,
3.0, and 4.0 on the step wedge calibration film shall be
documented, but the actual readings for each step do not
have to be recorded. Periodic densitometer verification
checks required by T-262.3 (a) do not have to be
documented.
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(2) Step Wedge Comparison Films Step wedge calibration
film verifications required by checking the steps closest to
1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 shall be documented, but the actual
readings for each step do not have to be recorded.
5.3.5.3 ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
(a) Additional equipment may be used to aid in the interpretation
process such as a magnifying glass, steel or clear rulers or
magnifying comparator.
5.3.5.4 QUALITY OF RADIOGRAPHS
(a) All radiographs shall be free from mechanical, chemical, or other
blemishes to the extent that they cannot mask or be confused
with the image of any discontinuity in the area of interest of the
object being radiographed. Such blemishes include, but are not
limited to:
(1) fogging;
(2) processing defects such as streaks, water marks, or
chemical stains;
(3) scratches, finger marks, crimps, dirtiness, static marks,
smudges, or tears;
(4) loss of detail due to poor screen-to-film contact;
(5) false indications due to defective screens or internal faults.
5.3.5.5 RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITY
(a) Density Limitations - The transmitted film density through the
radiographic image of the body of the appropriate hole-type IQI
or adjacent to the designated wire of a wire-type IQI and the area
of interest shall be 1.8 minimum for single film viewing for
radiographs made with an X-ray source and 2.0 minimum for
radiographs made with a Gamma-ray source. For composite
viewing of multiple film exposures, each radiograph shall have a
minimum density of 1.3. The maximum density shall be 4.0 for
either single or composite viewing. A tolerance of 0.05 in density
is allowed for variations between densitometer readings.
(b) Density Variations - If the density of the radiograph anywhere
through the area of interest varies by more than minus 15% or
plus 30% from the density through the body of the hole-type IQI
or adjacent to the designated wire of a wire-type IQI, within, the
minimum/maximum allowable density limitation range specified
above, then an additional IQI shall be used for each exceptional
area or areas and the radiograph retaken. When calculating the
allowable variation in density, the calculation may be rounded to
the nearest 0.1 within the density limitation range specified in the
preceding paragraph.
(c) With Shims - When shims are used with hole-type IQIs the plus
30% density restriction of (a) above may be exceeded, and the
minimum density requirements of T-282.1 do not apply for the
IQI, provided the required IQI sensitivity of T-283.1 is met.

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Note: It is the user's responsibility to verify with their supervisor that they are using the correct and/or most current
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5.3.5.6 BACKSCATTER RADIATION
(a) Backscatter Check - As a check on back-scattered radiation,
the radiographer is responsible for attaching a lead symbol B,
to the back of each film holder. The minimum dimensions of the
B shall be 1/2-inch in height and 1/16-inch in thickness.
(b) Excessive Scatter - If a light image of the B appears on the
darker background of the radiograph, protection from backscatter
is insufficient and the radiograph shall be considered
unacceptable. A dark image of the B, on a lighter background is
not a cause for rejection.
5.3.5.7 FILM IDENTIFICATION
(a) Each radiograph shall be permanently identified with the
contract, component, weld or weld seam, or part numbers, as
appropriate. In addition, the Manufacturer's symbol or name
and the date of the radiograph shall be plainly and permanently
included on the radiograph. This identification system does not
necessarily require that the information appear as radiographic
images. In any case, this information shall not obscure the area
of interest.
5.3.6 RADIOGRAPH EVALUATION FORM REVIEW
5.3.6.1 The Vendor/Supplier shall have completed the radiographic
evaluation form during the film evaluation. As a minimum, the
following information shall be provided:
(a) A listing of each radiograph location.
(b) Evaluation and disposition of the material(s) or weld(s) examined
in accordance with radiographic acceptance criteria, as
applicable.
(c) Name of the radiographer performing the interpretation and the
date of the evaluation.
5.3.7 RADIOGRAPHIC ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA
5.3.7.1 Unless otherwise specified by the client, specification, or contract,
the acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with the latest edition
and addendum of the following code sections, as applicable:
5.3.7.2 Rounded Indications - The following code sections shall be
consulted for the applicable Rounded Indication Criteria and Porosity
charts:
(a) ASME Section I Appendix A-250 of ASME Section I, of the
Boiler Pressure Vessel (BPV) Code.
(b) ASME Section VIII (100% Radiography). Part UW, Paragraph
UW-51 (b) (4) and Appendix 4 of ASME Section VIII, of the BPV
Code.
Note: Rounded indications are not a factor in the
acceptability of welds not requiring to be fully
radiographed.
(c) ASME Section IX Part QW, Article 1, Paragraph QW-191.2.2
(b) and Appendix I.
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revision of this document.
Note 1: Particular close attention must be paid to the rounded
indication criteria, as this code is more stringent than
other referencing codes.
Note 2: See Limitations on Radiographic Examinations for
ASME Section IX criteria for radiographic examination
limitations for specific P-numbers and welding
processes and for applicability of acceptance criteria
for welding operators and welders who qualify on
production welds.
(d) ASME B31.1 - Chapter VI, Paragraph 136.4.5 (A.4) and
Appendix A-250 of ASME Section I, of the BPV Code.
(e) ASME B31.3 - Chapter VI, Table 341.3.2 and Section VIII, Div.
1, Appendix 4, of the BPV Code.
5.3.7.3 Elongated or Linear Indications - The following code sections
shall be consulted for applicable elongated indications criteria:
(a) ASME Section I, Section VIII (100% Radiography), and B31.1.
(1) Indications shown on the radiographs of welds and
characterized, as imperfections are unacceptable under the
following conditions.
(2) Any indication characterized as a crack, or zone of
incomplete fusion or penetration.
(3) Any other elongated indication on the radiograph, which has
a length greater than:
1/4 inch for t up to 3/4 inch;
1/3 t for t from 3/4 inch to 2-1/4 inches;
3/4 inch for t over 2-1/4 inches.
(4) Any group of aligned indications that have an aggregate
length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the
distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L
where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the
group.
(b) t shall be defined as follows:
(1) ASME Section I t is the thickness of the weld.
(2) ASME Section VIII, -t is the thickness of the weld
excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld
joining two members having different thicknesses at the
weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full
penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the
throat of the fillet shall be included in t.
(3) ASME B31.1 - t is the thickness of the weld. If a weld joins
two members having different thicknesses at the weld, t is
the thinner of these two thicknesses.



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revision of this document.
7.3.7.4 ASME Section VIII (Spot Radiography)
(a) Welds in which indications are characterized as cracks or zones
of incomplete fusion or incomplete penetration shall be
unacceptable.
(b) Welds in which indications are characterized as slag inclusions
or cavities shall be unacceptable if the length of any such
indication is greater than 2/3t where t is the thickness of the
weld excluding any allowable reinforcement.
(c) For a butt weld joining two members having different thicknesses
at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses. If a full
penetration weld includes a fillet weld, the thickness of the throat
of the fillet shall be included in t.
(d) If several indications within the above limitations exist in line, the
welds shall be judged acceptable if the sum of the longest
dimensions of all such indications is not more than t in a length
of 6t (or proportionately for radiographs shorter than 6t) and if the
longest indications considered are separated by at least 3L of
acceptable weld metal where L is the length of the longest
indication.
(e) The maximum length of acceptable indications shall be 3/4 inch.
Any such indications shorter than 1/4 inch shall be acceptable for
any plate thickness.
7.3.7.5 ASME Section IX
(a) Welds shall be judged unacceptable when the radiograph
exhibits any linear imperfections in excess of the limits specified
below:
(b) Any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration;
(c) Any elongated slag inclusion, which has a length greater than:
1/8 inch for t up to 3/8 inch, inclusive;
1/3t for t over 3/8 inch to 2-1/4 inches, inclusive;
3/4 inch for t over 2-1/4 inches;
Where t is the thickness of the weld.
(d) Any group of slag inclusions in line that have an aggregate
length greater than t in a length of 12t, except when the
distance between the successive imperfections exceeds 6L
where L is the length of the longest imperfection in the group.
7.3.7.6 Limitations on Radiographic Examinations - Welders and welding
operators making a groove weld using SMAW, SAW, GTAW, PAW,
and GMAW (except short-circuiting mode) or a combination of these
processes, may be qualified by radiographic examination, except for
P-No. 21 through P-No. 25, P-No. 51 through P-No. 53, and P-No.
61 through P-No. 62 metals.
(a) Welders or welding operators making groove welds in P-No. 21
through P-No. 25 and P-No. 51 through P-No. 53 metals with
the GTAW process may also be qualified by radiographic
examination.
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revision of this document.
(b) Test Coupon Welds
(1) The acceptance criteria for welders and welding
operators, who qualify on test coupons, shall be per the
ASME Section IX Rounded Indication and Elongated or
Linear Indication criteria.
(c) Production Welds
(1) The acceptance criteria for welding operators who qualify
on production welds shall be that specified in the
referencing Code Section.
(2) The acceptance criteria for welders, who qualify on
production welds, shall be per the ASME Section IX
Rounded Indication and Elongated or Linear Indication
criteria
7.3.7.7 ASME B31.3 - Weld imperfections shall be evaluated in accordance
with the acceptance criteria in Chapter VI, Table 341.3.2.
6.0 REFERENCES
6.1 J acobs NDE Written Practice, Technical Guideline TGI-NDE01.00
6.2 ASME Section I, Latest Edition and Addenda
6.3 ASME Section V, Latest Edition and Addenda
6.4 ASME Section VIII, Division 1, Latest Edition and Addenda
6.5 ASME Section IX, Latest Edition and Addenda
6.6 ASME B31.1 and B31.3 Piping Codes, Latest Edition and Addenda
7.0 REPORTS
7.1 The Radiographic Film Interpretation Review Checklist is not required to be retained,
once the Radiographs and documentation have been dispositioned on the Radiographic
Film Interpretation Review Log.
7.2 The Radiographic Film Interpretation Review Log shall be retained as a quality control
record, if required by project or site policy.
7.3 The Site QA/QC Supervision or the Project QA/QC Coordinator shall be responsible for
maintaining the NDE records, as required, in accordance with the specific site or project
requirements.
8.0 ATTACHMENTS
8.1 Attachment 1 - Radiographic Film Interpretation Review Checklist
8.2 Attachment 2 - Radiographic Film Review Log
8.3 Attachment 3 - Material Types, Group Definitions & Proper IQI Selection
8.4 Attachment 4 - Weld Reinforcement Tables
8.5 Attachment 5 - Location Markers Sketches
8.6 Attachment 6 - Radiographic Technique Sketches
8.7 Attachment 7 - Pipe Schedule Chart

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revision of this document.
ATTACHMENT 1 - RADIOGRAPHIC FILM INTERPRETATION REVIEW CHECKLIST
Report No.: Client: J ob Location:
Project No.: Procedure No.: Rev. No.:
Part 1 Verify that the technique sheet includes the following, a minimum
Status
Procedure Ref.
Item / Requirement
Acc Rej
Applicable QA
Manual or P.O.
The radiographic procedure employed to make the exposures shall have been reviewed and approved by J acobs
prior to start of RT activities.

5.3.5.7 (a)
Each filmpermanently identified with job number and or heat number, weld or weld seamID, manufacturers
name or symbol and date of examination.

5.3.4.13 (f) The dimensional map of marker placement, when applicable
5.3.3.1 (c) Number of radiographs (exposures).
5.3.3.1 (d) X-Ray machine focal spot size or isotope physical source size.
5.3.3.1 (e) Base material type and thickness, weld thickness, and weld reinforcement thickness, as applicable.
5.3.3.1 (f) Minimumsource-to-object distances.
5.3.3.1 (g) Maximumdistance fromsource side of object to the film.
5.3.3.1 (h) & (i) Filmmanufacturer, type/designation and number of films in each holder/cassette
5.3.3.1 (j) & (k) Single-or double-wall exposure and Single- or double-wall viewing.
Part 2 Verify that the technique set-up used is in accordance with ASME Code Status
5.3.4.3 (a) Ensure that the single-wall exposure is used, whenever practical
5.3.4.3 d, f, g, h Verify full coverage of the weld. Check for the proper number of exposures for each technique used
5.3.4.3 e.1 & 5.3.4.9
(a)
Check for Source-Side IQI except, when inaccessibility prevents hand placement
5.3.4.9 (c) If film side IQI is used, verify the use of the letter F
5.3.4.4 Verify Geometric Unsharpness calculations & ensure applicable code compliance.
Attachment 3 Verify the IQI is the proper material for the weld and base metal being examined
5.3.4.6 (a) & (b) Verify the IQI is the proper size for the weld, with or without reinforcement (Table 3)
5.3.4.7 (a) & 5.3.4.8
(a)
Verify the IQI sensitivity level of the 2T hole or designated wire for all exposures and when
applicable, verify equivalent sensitivity.

5.3.4.9, 5.3.4.10 &
5.3.4.11
Check for proper number of IQIs and IQI location. If separate bock is used, verify compliance with
paragraphs 5.3.4.9 (b) (1), 5.3.4.9 (b) (2), and 5.3.4.9 (b) (3).

5.3.4.13 (a) Ensure that location markers are placed on the part and per paragraph 5.3.4.13 (a)
5.3.4.13 (f) Ensure the existence of map if inaccessibility prevents location marker placement.
5.3.5.5 (a) Verify density of area of interest to be within paragraph 5.3.5.5 (a), (b), and (c) limits
5.3.5.5 (b) Density of the weld area to be within -15% to +30% of IQI density. (Without Shim)
5.3.5.5 (c) Density of the weld area to be within -15% of IQI density to a max of 4.0 With Shim
Part 3 Verify that the radiographic film meets the ASME Code requirements Status
5.3.5.1 Verify acceptability of Viewing facilities and film viewer with variable light control
5.3.5.2 Check for calibrated densitometer, step wedge comparison film, & Verification log
5.3.5.4 Check film for artifacts, fogging, or other blemishes in the area of interest.
5.3.5.6 Check for excessive backscatter radiation (light B image is unacceptable)
5.3.7 Verify that each weld is dispositioned correctly per the applicable code acceptance criteria
Part 4 Verify that the radiographic evaluation meets the applicable ASME Code
Status
5.3.6.1 (a) Check for a listing of each radiograph location
5.3.6.1 (b) Ensure that all welds examined have been properly Evaluated and dispositioned
5.3.6.1 (c) Check for name of the radiographer performing the interpretation
5.3.6.1 (c) Check for date of the evaluation.
I II III
Examiner/Technician (Print Name) & (Signature) (Level) (Date)
Page 1 of 1
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revision of this document.
ATTACHMENT 2 - RADIOGRAPHIC FILM REVIEW LOG
RT Review Log No.: Client: Project No.:
RT Review Checklist No.: RT Contractor: Project Location:
RT Procedure No.: Rev. No.:
Type RT: Full Spot Random Other
Radiographic Acceptance Criteria
ASME B31.1 Normal Fluid Service
AWS Statically Loaded Non-Tubular
C i
ASME Section I, Appendix A-260.4
ASME B31.1 Severe Cyclic Conditions
AWS Cyclically Loaded Non-Tubular
C i
ASME Section VIII, Art. 8 & App. 9-2
ASME B31.1 Category D Fluid Service AWS Tubular Connections ASME Section IX, QW-195.2
ASME B31.1 High Pressure ASME B31.3 Par. 136.4,4,B Other:
RADIOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION AND FILM REVIEW RESULTS
No. Welds Accepted: No. Welds Rejected: Re-shoots:
Pkg. # Line No. Weld # Welder Line Size Acc Rej Comments

















Deficiencies Identified during Review Process:
I II III
Examiner/Technician (Print Name) & (Signature) (Level) (Date)
Page 1 of __
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revision of this document.
ATTACHMENT 3 - MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION

1.0 Penetrameter) shall be selected from either the same alloy material group or grade as identified
below or from an alloy materials group with a lower radiation absorption (lower material group
number) than the material being radiographed.
1.1 Material Group 03 IQI (Lowest Material Group Number):
IQI shall be made of magnesium or magnesium shall be the predominant alloying
constituent. Use of all alloys of which magnesium is the predominant alloying
constituent. Acceptable alternate uses; IQIs of this material group are acceptable
for use on welds or materials of all other group numbers if proper IQI sensitivity is
obtained.
1.2 Material Group 02 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03):
IQI shall be made of aluminum or aluminum shall be the predominant alloying
constituent. Use of all alloys of which aluminum is the predominant alloying constituent.
Acceptable alternate uses; IQIs of this material group are acceptable for use on
welds or materials of group numbers 01, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 if proper IQI sensitivity is
obtained.
1.3 Material Group 01 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03 & 02):
IQI shall be made of titanium or titanium shall be the predominant alloying constituent.
Use of all alloys of which titanium is the predominant alloying constituent. Acceptable
alternate uses; IQIs of this material group are acceptable for use on welds or
materials of group numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 if proper IQI sensitivity is obtained.
1.4 Material Group 1 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03, 02, & 01):
IQI shall be made of carbon steel or type 300 series stainless steel. Use of all carbon
steel, all low-alloy steels, and all stainless steels. Acceptable alternate uses; IQIs of
this material group are acceptable for use on welds or materials of group numbers
2, 3, 4, and 5 if proper IQI sensitivity is obtained.
1.5 Material Group 2 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03, 02, 01, and 1):
IQI shall be made of aluminum bronze or (Alloy No. 623) or nickel-aluminum bronze
(Alloy No. 630) or equivalent. Use on all aluminum bronze and all nickel-aluminum
bronze. Acceptable alternate uses; IQIs of this material group are acceptable for
use on welds or materials of group numbers 3, 4, and 5 if proper IQI sensitivity is
obtained.
1.6 Material Group 3 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03, 02, 01, 1 and 2):
IQI shall be made of nickel-chromium-iron alloy (UNS No. N06600) (Inconel). Use on all
nickel-chromium-iron alloy. Acceptable alternate uses; IQIs of this material group
are acceptable for use on welds or materials of group numbers 4 and 5 if proper
IQI sensitivity is obtained.
1.7 Material Group 4 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03, 02, 01, 1, 2, and 3):
IQI shall be made of 70 to 30 nickel-copper Alloy (Monel) or equivalent. Use on nickel,
copper, all nickel-cooper series, or copper nickel series of alloys, and all brasses
(copper-zinc alloys). Group 4 IQIs may be used ion leaded brasses also. Acceptable
alternate uses; IQIs of this material group are acceptable for use on welds or
materials of group number 5 if proper IQI sensitivity is obtained.

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1.8 Material Group 5 IQI (Higher Group Number than 03, 02, 01, 1, 2, 3, and 4):
IQI shall be made of bronze alloy. Use on tin bronzes including gunmetal and valve
bronze, leaded tin bronzes.
Note: Material Group No. 1 IQIs are acceptable to use on welds or materials in Material Group
Numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5.

TABLE 1
HOLE-TYPE IQI DESIGNATION, THICKNESS, & HOLE DIAMETERS, in.
IQI
Designation
IQI
Thickness
1T Hole
Diameter
2T Hole
Diameter
4T Hole
Diameter
5 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.040
7 0.0075 0.010 0.020 0.040
10 0.010 0.010 0.020 0.040
12 0.0125 0.0125 0.025 0.050
15 0.015 0.015 0.030 0.060
17 0.0175 0.0175 0,035 0.070
20 0.020 0.020 0.040 0.080
25 0.025 0.025 0.050 0.100
30 0.030 0.030 0.060 0.120
35 0.035 0.035 0.070 0.140
40 0.040 0.040 0.080 0.160
45 0.045 0.045 0.090 0.180
50 0.050 0.050 0.100 0.200
60 0.060 0.060 0.120 0.240
70 0.070 0.070 0.140 0.280
80 0.080 0.080 0.160 0.320
100 0.100 0.100 0.200 0.400
120 0.120 0.120 0.240 0.480
140 0.140 0.140 0.280 0.560
160 0.160 0.160 0.320 0.640
200 0.200 0.200 0.400
240 0.240 0.240 0.480
280 0.280 0.280 0.560

(Continued on next page)
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MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION
TABLE 2
Set A Set B
Wire Diameter, in. Wire Identify Wire Diameter, in. Wire Identify
0.0032 1 0.010 6
0.004 2 0.013 7
0.005 3 0.016 8
0.0063 4 0.020 9
0.008 5 0.025 10
0.010 6 0.032 11
Set C Set D
Wire Diameter, in. Wire Identify Wire Diameter, in. Wire Identify
0.032 11 0.100 16
0.040 12 0.126 17
0.050 13 0.160 18
0.063 14 0.200 19
0.080 15 0.250 20
0.100 16 0.320 21

(Continued on next page)
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MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION
TABLE 3
IQI SELECTION
IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS (IQI)
Source Side
Film Side
Nominal Single-Wall Material
Thickness Range, In.
Hole-type
Designation
Wire-Type
Essential
Wire
Hole-type
Designation
Wire-Type Essential
Wire
Up to 0.25, inclusive 12 5 10 4
Over 0.25 through 0.375 15 6 12 5
Over 0.375 though 0.50 17 7 15 6
Over 0.50 through 0.75 20 8 17 7
Over 0.75 through 1.00 25 9 20 8
Over 1.00 through 1.50 30 10 25 9
Over 1.50 through 2.00 35 11 30 10
Over 2.00 through 2.50 40 12 35 11
Over 2.50 through 4.00 50 13 40 12
Over 4.00 through 6.00 60 14 50 13
Over 6.00 through 8.00 80 16 60 14
Over 8.00 through 10.00 100 17 80 16
Over 10.00 through 12.00 120 18 100 17
Over 12.00 through 16.00 160 20 120 18
Over 16.00 through 20.00 200 21 160 20

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MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION
TABLE 4
EQUIVALENT HOLE-TYPE IQI SENSITIVITY
Equi valent Hole-Type Designations
Hole-Type Designation 2T Hole
1T Hole 4T Hole
10 15 5
12 17 7
15 20 10
17 25 12
20 30 15
25 35 17
30 40 20
35 50 25
40 60 30
50 70 35
60 80 40
80 120 60
100 140 70
120 160 80
160 240 120
200 280 140


(Continued on next page)

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MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION


(Continued on Next Page)
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revision of this document.
MATERIAL TYPES, GROUP DEFINITIONS & PROPER IQI SELECTION




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ATTACHMENT 4 - WELD REINFORCEMENT TABLES
The following tables list the maximum weld reinforcement permitted by referencing code section:
1.0 Maximum Allowable Reinforcement for ASME Section I (PW-35). The thickness of the weld
reinforcement on each face shall not exceed the following:
Material Nominal
Thickness (inches)
Circumferential Joints
In Pipe and Tube
Other
Welds
0.125 and less 0.094 0.094
0.126 to 0.188 0.125 0.094
0.189 to 0.500 0.156 0.094
0.501 to 1.000 0.188 0.094
1.001 to 2.000 0.250 0.125
2.001 to 3.000 0.156
3.001 to 4.000 0.218
4.001 to 5.000 0.250
Over 5.00 0.312
=Greater of 0.250 or 1/8 times the width of the weld in inches
2.0 Maximum Allowable Reinforcement for ASME Section VIII [UW-35 (d)]. The thickness of the
weld reinforcement on each face shall not exceed the following:
Material Nominal
Thickness (inches)
Category B & C
Butt Welds
Other
Welds
Less than 0.094 0.094 0.031
0.094 to 0.188 0.125 0.062
0.189 to 0.500 0.156 0.094
0.501 to 1.000 0.188 0.094
1.001 to 2.000 0.250 0.125
2.001 to 3.000 0.250 0.156
3.001 to 4.000 0.250 0.218
4.001 to 5.00o 0.250 0.250
Over 5.00 0.312 0.312



3.0 ASME Section IX. The thickness on which the IQI is based is the nominal single wall thickness
plus the estimated weld reinforcement.
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4.0 Maximum Allowable Reinforcement for ASME B31.1 (Table 127.4.2)
Thickness of Base Metal,
(Inches)
Temperature
Over 750F
Temperatures
350 to 750F
Temperatures
Less than 350F
0.125 and less 0.063 0.094 0.188
0.126 to 0.188 0.063 0.125 0.188
0.189 to 0.500 0.063 0.156 0.188
0.501 to 1.00 0.94 0.188 0.188
1.001 to 2.00 0.125 0.250 0.250
Over 2.00 0.156
=Greater of 0.250 or 1/8 times the width of the weld in inches
General Notes:
For double welded butt joint, this limitation on reinforcement given above shall apply
separately to both inside and outside surfaces of the joint.
For single welded but joints, the reinforcement limits given above shall apply to the
outside surface of the joint only.
The thickness of weld reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner of the
materials being joined.
The weld reinforcement thickness shall be determined from the higher of the abutting
surfaces involved.
5.0 Maximum Allowable Reinforcement for ASME B31.3 (Table 341.3.2)
Material Thickness Max. Reinforcement
0.250 or Less 0.063
0.251 to 0.500 0.125
0.501 to 1.00 0.156
Over 1.00 0.188
General Notes:
For groove welds, height is the lesser of the measurement made from the surfaces of the
adjacent components; both reinforcement and internal protrusion are permitted in a weld.
For welds in aluminum alloy only, internal protrusion shall not exceed the following values:
(a) For thickness 5/64 Max. Reinforcement shall be 1/16.
(b) For thickness 5/64 and 1/4 Max. Reinforcement shall be 3/32.
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ATTACHMENT 5 - LOCATION MARKERS SKETCHES

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ATTACHMENT 6 - RADIOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE SKETCHES




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ATTACHMENT 7

Nominal Wall Thickness
Schedule
Schedule
Nominal
Pipe Size
Outside
Diameter
5S
5 10S 10 20 30 STD 40 60
Extra
Strong
80 100 120 140 160
XX
Strong
.125 0.405 -- 0.035 0.049 0.049 -- 0.057 0.068 0.068 -- 0.095 0.095 -- -- -- -- --
.250 0.540 -- 0.049 0.065 0.065 -- 0.073 0.088 0.088 -- 0.119 0.119 -- -- -- -- --
.375 0.675 -- 0.049 0.065 0.065 -- 0.073 0.091 0.091 -- 0.126 0.126 -- -- -- -- --
.500 0.840 0.065 0.065 0.083 0.083 -- 0.095 0.109 0.109 -- 0.147 0.147 -- -- -- 0.188 0.294
.750 1.050 0.065 0.065 0.083 0.083 -- 0.095 0.113 0.113 -- 0.154 0.154 -- -- -- 0.219 0.308
1.000 1.315 0.065 0.065 0.109 0.109 -- 0.114 0.133 0.133 -- 0.179 0.179 -- -- -- 0.250 0.358
1.250 1.660 0.065 0.065 0.109 0.109 -- 0.117 0.140 0.140 -- 0.191 0.191 -- -- -- 0.250 0.382
1.500 1.900 0.065 0.065 0.109 0.109 -- 0.125 0.145 0.145 -- 0.200 0.200 -- -- -- 0.281 0.400
2.000 2.375 0.065 0.065 0.109 0.109 -- 0.125 0.154 0.154 -- 0.218 0.218 -- -- -- 0.344 0.436
2.500 2.875 0.083 0.083 0.120 0.120 -- 0.188 0.203 0.203 -- 0.276 0.276 -- -- -- 0.375 0.552
3.000 3.500 0.083 0.083 0.120 0.120 -- 0.188 0.216 0.216 -- 0.300 0.300 -- -- -- 0.438 0.600
3.500 4.000 0.083 0.083 0.120 0.120 -- 0.188 0.226 0.226 -- 0.318 0.318 -- -- -- -- --
4.000 4.500 0.083 0.083 0.120 0.120 -- 0.188 0.237 0.237 0.281 0.337 0.337 -- 0.438 -- 0.531 0.674
4.500 5.000 -- -- -- -- -- 0.247 -- -- 0.355 -- -- -- -- -- 0.710
5.000 5.563 0.109 0.109 0.134 0.134 -- 0.258 0.258 -- 0.375 0.375 -- 0.500 -- 0.625 0.750
6.000 6.625 0.109 0.109 0.134 0.134 -- 0.280 0.280 -- 0.432 0.432 -- 0.562 -- 0.719 0.864
7.000 7.625 -- -- -- -- -- 0.301 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- 0.875
8.000 8.625 0.109 0.109 0.148 0.148 0.250 0.277 0.322 0.322 0.406 0.500 0.500 0.594 0.719 0.812 0.906 0.875
9.000 9.625 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.342 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
10.000 10.750 0.134 0.134 0.165 0.165 0.250 0.307 0.365 0.365 0.500 0.500 0.594 0.719 0.844 1.000 1.125 1.000
11.000 11.750 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
12.000 12.750 0.156 0.156 0.180 0.180 0.250 0.330 0.375 0.406 0.562 0.500 0.688 0.844 1.000 1.125 1.312 1.000
14.000 14.000 0.156 0.156 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.375 0.438 0.594 0.500 0.750 0.938 1.094 1.250 1.406 --
16.000 16.000 0.165 0.165 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.375 0.375 0.500 0.656 0.500 0.844 1.031 1.219 1.438 1.594 --
18.000 18.000 0.165 0.165 0.188 0.250 0.312 0.438 0.375 0.562 0.750 0.500 0.938 1.156 1.375 1.562 1.781 --
20.000 20.000 0.188 0.188 0.218 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.375 0.594 0.812 0.500 1.031 1.281 1.500 1.750 1.969 --
22.000 22.000 0.188 0.188 0.218 0.250 0.375 0.500 0.375 -- 0.875 0.500 1.125 1.375 1.625 1.875 2.125 --
24.000 24.000 0.218 0.218 0.250 0.250 0.375 0.562 0.375 0.688 0.969 0.500 1.219 1.531 1.812 2.062 2.344 --
26.000 26.000 -- -- 0.312 0.312 0.500 -- 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
28.000 28.000 -- -- 0.312 0.312 0.500 0.625 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
30.000 30.000 0.250 0.250 0.312 0.312 0.500 0.625 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
32.000 32.000 -- -- 0.312 0.312 0.500 0.625 0.375 0.688 -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
34.000 34.000 -- -- 0.312 0.312 0.500 0.625 0.375 0.688 -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
36.000 36.000 -- -- 0.312 0.312 0.500 0.625 0.375 0.750 -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
38.000 38.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --
40.000 40.000 -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.375 -- -- 0.500 -- -- -- -- -- --