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MUCOUS MEMBRANES EXAMINATION

By
Hussein Awad Hussein Mohammed
Examination of Mucous Membranes

Examination of visible mucous membranes is of


great clinical importance in determination
of general condition of examined animal.

Types of mucous membranes

• Visible mucous membranes (conjunctival, nasal,


bucal, and vaginal mucous membranes).
• Invisible mucous membranes (GIT, respiratory
tract, etc.)
Aspects of mucous membranes examination

1-Color.
2-Presence or absence of lesions.
3-Presence or absence of discharges
(exudates).
(A)-Changes in the color of mucous membranes

1-Normally:
Either bright red or rosy red color.

2-Abnormally:
a-Anemic mucous membranes:

*Causes:
•Blood loss.
•Haemolysis (blood parasites such as Babesia)
•Leucosis
•Nutritional deficiency (iron deficiency)
•Exposure to X-rays for long run.
b)-Congestive mucous membranes:
*Causes:
•Limited congestion (inflammation at the site of mm.)
•Diffused congestion: as in diseases of heart, and
lung.

c)-Yellowish or icteric mucous membranes:


*Causes: due to jaundice as a result of :
•Blood parasites
•Letospirosis
•Hepatitis and cholecystitis in ruminants.
•Infectious anemia in horse.
d)-Cyanosed mucous membranes:
It means bluish discoloration of visible
mucous membranes.
*Causes:
•Myocarditis
•Pericarditis
•Intoxication with plant and mineral toxins.
•Decrease ventilation.
(B)-Presence or absence of lesions

1-Normally:
Mucous membranes are normally of intact
surfaces.
2-Abnormally:
presence of lesions in the form of vesicle,
papule, pustule, erosions, or even ulcers.
*Causes:
Contagious pleuropneumonia of horse, cattle
plague, and canine plague.
(C)-Presence or absence of discharges (exudates).

1-Normally:
No exudates but covered with thin layer of
serous fluid keep the mucous membranes
moisted.
2-Abnormally:
Presence of inflammatory discharges either
mucoid, febrinous, purulent or Mucopurulent
discharges. And either unilateral or bilateral in
case of nasal discharges.