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Isaiah Berlin Henry Hardy Aileen Kelly Russian Thinkers 1978

Isaiah Berlin Henry Hardy Aileen Kelly Russian Thinkers 1978

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Isaiah Berlin Henry Hardy Aileen Kelly Russian Thinkers 1978
Isaiah Berlin Henry Hardy Aileen Kelly Russian Thinkers 1978

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Russian / Soviet Mines

Russian / Soviet Mines
Updated 15 June 2006
Information
.
Nomenclature
Before 1898 Russian mines were designated by the name of their designer and the model year. For example: Gertz
model 1876.
Between 1898 and 1939 standard shipboard mines were designated by their model year only. For example: Model 1912.
After 1939 mines were designated by a letter code designating their function. For example: KB (Korabel'naya Mina -
Shipboard mine).
Submarine mines were designated starting with PL (Podvodnaya Lodka - Submarine) or EhP, followed by extra codes
designating special features. For example: PLT-2.
Magnetic mines are designated AMD. For example: AMD-1-500.
Triggering or Fuzes
Early Russian mines used contact fuzes or shore control. From 1876 to 1908 five galvanic caps with either platinum or
electrical fuze were used to trigger the explosives. From 1908 Russian mines used mechanical percussion primed
fuzing. The first Soviet magnetic mines appeared in 1939 and came into service use in 1942.
Explosives
Early Russian mines used simple gunpowder, switching to gun cotton in 1876. From 1908 on TNT was used as the
explosive.
Effectiveness
The Russians were pioneers of mine warfare, with their first usage during the Crimean War. During that war, some 1,865
mines were laid down in the Baltic Sea. While no British ships were damaged by the mines, their presence is often
credited with preventing a British attack on Kronshtadt.
Mines were widely used once again during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, with 1,218 mines laid down. These were
used mainly for protection of ports and on the Danube river. At least one Turkish ship was sunk by them.
Mines were intensively used by the Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War of 1905. Mines were the most
effective weapons that Russian Navy had and had sunk far more Japanese ships than the rest of the Russian Navy
combined. During the war, 4,275 mines were laid down and they accounted for 2 Japanese battleships, 2 cruisers, 5
gunboats, 6 destroyers and a dispatch ship.
Russian mine warfare expertise reached its pinnacle during World War I. Due to the discrepancy of the forces in the
Baltic, the Russian Navy had to resort to mine warfare as its primary offensive weapon. In the Baltic Sea, the Russian
Navy laid down a total of 38,932 mines in both offensive and defensive mine fields, which cost the Germans 48 warships
sunk and 21 warships damaged. During the war, in all theaters, the Russian Navy laid down over 52,000 mine which
sank 64 enemy warships. There is no data on the number of enemy transports and auxiliaries sunk. Overall, the
Russians laid down 700-800 mines per warship sunk. This may be favorably compared to the total number of mines laid
by all other combatants during this war, which was 308,700. These mines resulted in 207 ships sunk, a ratio of 1,500
mines per ship. This makes Russian mine tactics about twice as effective as most other combatants.
In World War II Russian minefields were also very extensive, but brought only limited success. A total of 40,070 mines
were laid by the Soviet Navy and according to Soviet estimates over 200 enemy warships, transports and auxiliary ships
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Russian / Soviet Mines
were sunk by these mines. However, many Soviet warships and transports were also lost on their own minefields.
.
Pre-Russo-Japanese War
.
Yakobi Model 1854
One of the first mines in the world. Total weight not available, charge was between 22 and 31 lbs. (10 - 14 kg) of
gunpowder and used contact fuzing. Maximum depth - 100 feet (30m). Used in Crimean War.
Nobel Model 1854
One of the first mines in the world. Total weight not available, charge was between 7 and 9 lbs. (3 - 4 kg) of gunpowder,
used pyrotechnical fuze. Maximum depth - 100 feet (30m). Used in Crimean War.
Yakobi Model 1855
Total weight not available, charge was between 57 and 62 lbs. (26 - 28 kg) of gunpowder, used contact fuze. Maximum
depth - 100 feet (30 m). Used in Crimean War.
Boreskov Ground Mine Model 1854
Total weight not available, charge was 53 lbs. (24 kg) of gunpowder, was fired from shore. Maximum depth - 100 feet
(30m). Used in Crimean War.
Yakhtman Model 1856
Total weight not available, charge was 35 lbs. (16 kg) of gunpowder, used a pyrotechnic contact fuze. Maximum depth -
100 feet (30m). Used in Crimean War.
Hertz Model 1876
Total weight not available, charge was 71 lbs. (32 kg) of gun-cotton, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 130 feet
(40m). Used in Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78.
.
Russo-Japanese War and World War I
.
Model 1898
Moored contact mine. Total weight not available, charge was 123 lbs. (56 kg) of gun-cotton, used 5 Hertz horns.
Maximum depth - 130 feet (40m). Used in Russo-Japanese War.
Model 1906
Moored contact mine. Modified Model 1898 mine with a new anchor and several other improvements that made the mine
easier to use. Total weight not available, charge was 123 lbs. (56 kg) of gun-cotton, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth
- 130 feet (40m). Used in Russo-Japanese War.
Model 1908
Moored contact mine. Extremely successful mine. With slight modifications used by the Russian/Soviet Navy until
1960s. Total weight 1268 lbs. (575 kg), charge was 254 lbs. (115 kg) of TNT, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 360
feet (110 m). Main Russian mine at the start of World War I.
Model 1909
Moored contact mine. Total weight not available, used 5 Hertz horns.
Model 1912
Moored contact mine. Modification of a model 1909 mine with hydrostatic system for automatic depth setting. Total
weight 1323 lbs. (600 kg), charge was 221 lbs. (100 kg) of TNT, used percussion mechanical fuze. Maximum depth -
425 feet (130 m).
P-13, 1913
A floating mine with electrical flotation system, recommended for production, but not produced due to the start of the war.
R - "Rybka", 1915
Small moored contact mine for river use. There was also a anti-submarine version usually set at the depth of 60 feet (18
m). Total weight 418.9 lbs. (190 kg), charge was between 20 and 27 lbs. (9 - 12 kg) of TNT, used percussion mechanical
fuze. Maximum depth - 425 feet (130 m).
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Russian / Soviet Mines
PL-100, 1915
Submarine, tube-launched, moored, contact mine. Modification of a model 1912 mine for submarine use. Total weight
not available, charge was 221 lbs. (100 kg) of TNT, used percussion mechanical fuze. Maximum depth - 425 feet (130 m).
Model 1916
Moored contact mine. Total weight 1654 lbs. (750 kg), charge was 254 lbs. (115 kg) of TNT, used percussion mechanical
fuze . Maximum depth - 1,400 feet (425 m).
Availability for use during World War II
In June 1941 there were a total of 12,205 mines of Models 1908, 1912 and 1916 in storage. There were also 2,791 of the
R - "Rybka", 1915 mines in storage.
.
1917 to 1945
.

AMD-2 500 Mine now at Central Naval Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia
Photograph copyrighted by Vladimir Yakubov
Model 1926, (M-26)
Moored contact mine. Total weight 2,116 lbs. (960 kg), charge was 551 lbs. (250 kg) of TNT, used percussion mechanical fuze.
Maximum depth - 425 feet (130 m). Main Soviet mine of between the wars period and most numerous mine of the Soviet Union
at the start of World War II. As of June 1941 there were a total of 26,823 mines in storage. It was the most widely used Soviet
mine of World War II with 16,794 mines laid down during the first year of the war.
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Russian / Soviet Mines
MAB-1, 1932
High-altitude, aircraft laid mine. A modification of the Model 1912 mine. Total weight not available, charge was 253 lbs. (100
kg) of TNT and used a percussion mechanical fuze. Maximum depth - 425 feet (130 m). Mine was too bulky for normal service
use and production stopped in 1936. Deployed from 1,600 feet (500 m) height.
Model 1908/39
Moored contact mine. Modification of the 1908 mine. Used by the Russian/Soviet Navy until 1960s. Total weight 1,305 lbs.
(592 kg), charge was 254 lbs. (115 kg) of TNT, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 390 feet (120 m).
Mirab, 1939
Magnetic, aircraft laid, low-altitude, ground mine. Total weight 617 lbs. (280 kg), charge was 141 lbs. (64 kg) of TNT. Maximum
depth - 50 feet (15 m). As of June 1941 there were 95 of these mines in storage.
R-1, 1939
Moored contact river mine. Total weight 606 lbs. (275 kg), charge was 88 lbs. (40 kg) of TNT. Maximum depth - 130 feet (40 m).
AMG-1, 1939
Aircraft laid mine. A modification of model 1912 mine. Total weight not available, charge was 552 lbs. (250 kg) of TNT.
Deployed from a height of 660 feet (200 m). Main Soviet aircraft mine of World War II. As of June 1941 there were a total of
502 of AMG-1 and other aircraft mines in storage.
KB, 1940
Moored contact mine. Total weight 2347.9 lbs. (1065 kg), charge was 507 lbs. (230 kg) of TNT. Maximum depth - 850 feet (260
m). Best Soviet mine of World War II. Could be used as an ASW mine. As of June 1941 there were a total of 7,945 mines in
storage.
AG, 1940
Moored contact mine. Shared the same hull with the KB mine. For anti-submarine use. Total weight 2469 lbs. (1,120 kg),
charge was 508 lbs. (230 kg), used bronze antenna fuze and 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 1,575 feet (480 m). Could be
used with 0, 1 or 2 antenna fuzes.
PLT, 1940
Submarine, tube-launched, moored contact mine. Total weight 1,808 lbs. (820 kg), charge was 529 lbs. (240 kg) of TNT, used
percussion mechanical fuze. Maximum depth - 425 feet (130 m). As of June 1941 there were a total of 2849 mines in storage.
EhP, 1941
Designed for K-class large submarines. Moored contact mine. Total weight 2,315 lbs. (1,050 kg), charge was 661 lbs. (300 kg)
of TNT, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 525 feet (160 m). As of June 1941 there were a total of 16 mines in storage.
A Mark IV, 1941
A magentic mine bought from the British in July 1941. Total weight 1,479 lbs. (671 kg), charge was 728 lbs. (330 kg), used a
magnetic fuze.
A Mark V, 1941
A magentic mine bought from the British in July 1941. Total weight 1,003 lbs. (455 kg), charge was 617 lbs. (280 kg), used a
magnetic fuze.
PLT-2, 1942
Submarine launched mine with pneumatic flotation mechanism, which allowed the mine to be set at any depth and held it there
for up to 10 days. Total weight 1,686 lbs. (765 kg), charge was 661 lbs. (300 kg) of TNT, used 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth -
any.
PLT-3, 1942
Submarine mine for launching from 533 mm (21") torpedo tubes of standard submarines. Unreliable and so was not widely used.
AMD-1-500, 1942
Magnetic, aircraft/ship laid, ground mine. Total weight 1,102 lbs. (500 kg), charge was 661 lbs. (300 kg) of TNT. Could be used
at depths between 20 and 100 feet (6 - 30 m).
AMD-1-1000, 1942
Magnetic, aircraft/ship laid, ground mine. Total weight 2,205 lbs. (1,000 kg), charge was 1,543 lbs. (700 kg) of TNT. Maximum
depth - 20-100 feet (6-30 m).
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Russian / Soviet Mines
YaM, 1943
Small moored contact coastal mine. Total weight 379 lbs. (172 kg), charge was 44 lbs. (20 kg) of TNT, used Hertz fuze.
Maximum depth - 164 feet (50 m). Can be used as a ground mine in shallow water.
PLT-G, 1943
Modification of PLT mine for deep water use. Total weight 1,808 lbs. (820 kg), charge was 529 lbs. (240 kg) of TNT. Maximum
depth - 855 feet (260 m).
EhP-G, 1943
Modification of EhP mine for deep water use. Total weight 2,315 lbs. (1,050 kg), charge was 573 lbs. (260 kg) of TNT, used 5
Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 1,150 feet (350 m).
AGSB, 1944
Moored contact mine. Modification of the AG mine. For anti-submarine use. Total weight 2469 lbs. (1120 kg), charge was 507
lbs. (230 kg), used steel antenna fuze and 5 Hertz horns. Maximum depth - 1,640 feet (500 m). Main Soviet mine of between
the wars period. Can be used with 0, 1 or 2 antenna fuzes.
AMD-2-500, 1945
Magnetic acoustic, aircraft/ship laid, ground mine. Total weight 1,102 lbs. (500 kg), charge was 661 lbs. (300 kg) of TNT.
Could be used at depths between 20 and 165 feet (6 - 50 m). Known as the KMD-2-500 when laid by ships.
AMD-2-1000, 1945
Magnetic-acoustic, aircraft/ship laid, ground mine. Total weight 2,205 lbs. (1,000 kg), charge was 1,543 lbs. (700 kg) of TNT.
Could be used at depths between 20 and 165 feet (6 - 50 m).
.
Post 1945
.
I lack reliable data for mines produced after 1945

Data from
"Miny VMF SSSR" (Mines of the Soviet Navy) by Yu. L. Korshunov and B. K. Lyamin
"Miny Rossiyskogo Flota" (Mines of the Russian Fleet) by Yu. L. Korshunov and Yu. P. D'yakonov
"Sovetskie Boevye Korabli 1941-45: IV Vooruzhnie" (Soviet Warships 1941-45: Volume IV Armament) by A.V. Platonov
---
Special help from Marc Lemaire and Vladimir Yakubov
http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WAMRussian_Mines.htm (5 of 5)7/20/2006 16:48:00

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