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The Onyx: Africa and

the Middle East


By: Sara Purvis, Max Ebert, Luke Martin
The Heroes
The Hero is also a classic figure in ancient literature, often portrayed as one
who must confront an increasingly difficult path of obstacles in order to birth
his manhood. Many of the gods of the world's ancient religions began their
lives as heroes capable of great feats of strength or skill.
Heiti-eibib: legendary hero of the Khoikhoi. He is the son of a cow and some
miraculous grass, eaten by the cow. Heitsi-eibib is a great magician, a patron
of hunters, and a superb fighter. One of his feats was defeating the
monstrous Ga-gorib. According to legend, he was killed on numerous
occasions, after which he always resurrected himself (his cairns are found all
over the Khoikhoi lands).
Anansi; trickster and culture hero.



The Creation

The Creation archetype is someone who creates something very important.
Such as the Earth, world, etc.
Efile-Mokulu: The supreme being of the Basonge, and others of the Baluba
family (Zaire), is also creator of the world and all in it. He is invoked in oaths.
Ala: considered to be the mother of all things.
The Rebel
The Rebel archetype is usually someone/something that is not for the
greater good.
Gaunub: Among the Khoi-Khoi, a god of evil, the destroyer, who was
associated with solar and lunar eclipses.
Aigamuxa: would eat human beings.

The Creator
The Creator archetype is very similar to the Creation archetype. The Creator
is someone who creates something, such as heaven, hell, Earth, animals,
etc.
Adora: The God of the Lugbara, who dwell in the area between Zaire and
Uganda. Adroa had two aspects: good and evil. He was looked on as the
creator of heaven and Earth, and was said to appear to a person who was
about to die. Adroa was represented as tall and white, with only half a body
--- one eye, one ear, one arm, one leg. His children are the Adroanzi.
Cagn: created animals to serve man.
Abassi: the creator of heaven and Earth.
The Storyteller
The Storyteller archetype is someone who tells stories about there time. It
can be about almost anything.
Anansasem: Literally, spider stories. It is a generic title of a class of folktales
told by the Akan-speaking people of the old Gold Coast, so called whether
the spider takes part in the story or not. These stories are told for group
entertainment and are definitevely distinguished from the myths. They are
also known as "words of a sky god", Nyankomsem.
The Samaritan
The Samaritan archetype is someone who is always trying to help the
greater good. Mostly a helper in whatever the situation may be.
Gawaza: The Kagoro (Katab) god of the universe. The beneficent supreme
god is helpful against evil spirits and is invoked for rain during drought, for
health and luck at the time of the new moon, and for children and wealth.
Ninlil: Sumerian goddess of heaven, Earth, air, etc.


The Rescuer
The Rescuer archetype is someone who saves something/someone. The
Rescuer could save someone in many ways.
Ajok: The god of the Lotuko, a Sudanese people. It was believed that he was
benevolent, but only if men chose to keep him so. Family strife was seen to
be the cue for death to enter the family, and indeed a story is told of a
Lotuko mother who implored Ajok to restore her dead child to life. The god
obliged, but the woman's husband was angry, and berated his wife, killing
the child. Ajok, annoyed, declared that never again would he raise a Lotuko,
and that from this on, death would be permanent for his people.
The Protector
The Protector archetype is someone who protects a special
someone/something. For example, a father protects his daughter from boys.
He would be her protector.
Achimi: The son of the Itherther and Thamuatz, the first living creatures on
the earth. He was a wild and adventurous animal and left his parents. He
came upon a village that was built by the first human beings, and they
almost caught him. The wise bee told him that it was better for an animal to
serve humans because they would provide them with steady meals and
protect them from lions. Achimi, however, was determined to remain
independent and control his own fate. He returned to the land where his
parents grazed with their new-born daughter. In a fit of rage Achimi expelled
his father and mated with his mother and his sister.

The Father
This archetype combines a talent for creating or initiating with the ability to
oversee others, whether a biological family or a group of creative people.
Although the Father has taken on negative connotations associated
historically with paternalism and male dominance, we shouldn't lose sight
of its primary characteristics of courage--think of Abraham leaving the home
of his ancestors to father a new race in a strange land--and protectiveness.
Arebati, who is addressed as afa, "Father", created the first human from
clay. He covered the clay with a skin, and poured blood into it, thus bringing
it to life
Illalei: Father of Men

The Orphan Child
The Orphan Child is the major character in most well known children's
stories, including Little Orphan Annie, the Matchstick Girl, Bambi, the Little
Mermaid, Hansel and Gretel, Snow White, Cinderella, and many more. The
pattern in these stories is reflected in the lives of people who feel from birth
as if they are not a part of their family, including the family psyche or tribal
spirit.
Chiruwi: The Chiruwi ("mysterious creature") is a Central African half-man,
with one leg, one arm and one side. Seen from the missing side he is
invisible. He will challenge all those he encounters to a fight. If he is
defeated he will beg not to be killed and in return he will offer the
knowledge of many medicine. The victor will then became a very successful
medicine-man. Should the Chiruwi win, however, he will kill his victim.
The Spy
Positive characteristics of the Detective include the ability to seek out
knowledge and information that supports solving crimes and protecting the
public. Detectives combine great powers of observation with highly evolved
intuition to deduce the solutions to crimes.

The Femme Fatale
The Femme Fatale represents highly refined skills at manipulating men
without investing personal emotion. The Femme Fatale is a sexual and a
financial archetype, and either comes from or is drawn to money and
power. Seducing men with money and power and for the sake of personal
control and survival is a classic part of this archetype, although the Femme
Fatale is not looking for a home in the suburbs and the pleasures of family
life.
Potiphars wife: in the Hebrew Bible, when her attempt to seduce Joseph
failed, she had him thrown into captivity. Her name is Zeleikha in Islamic
tradition.
Example: Cleopatra
The Beggar
The Beggar is associated with dependence on the kindness of others, living
on the streets, starvation, and disease, whether in New York City or
Calcutta. It is easy to believe that the archetype of the Beggar is solely a
negative one, but that is an illusion. A person need hardly be starving for
food to be considered a Beggar.
Odysseus: who is disguised himself as a ragged beggar when he returned
home from Troy
The Liberator
We tend to think of Liberators as great military and political leaders who
free an entire country or people from servitude. But in everyday life, any
number of people can play a similar role on a smaller scale, helping to
liberate us from the tyranny of self-inflicted negative thought patterns and
beliefs, spiritual sluggishness, poor nutrition, destructive relationships, or
addictive behavior.
Dionysus and Eros
Examples: Mahatma Gandhi, Abraham Lincoln, SimCn Bol_var of Venezuela,
Nelson Mandela, Lenin, Castro, and Che Guevara.
The Damsel
The Damsel in Distress may be the oldest female archetype in all of popular
literature and the movies. She is always beautiful, vulnerable, and in need of
rescue, specifically by a Knight and, once rescued, she is taken care of in
lavish style.
Princess Aigiarm: a strong, valiant daughter of Mongolian King Kaidu who
offered herself in marriage to any suitor who could wrestle her down but
who, if he lost, had to give her a horse. She never married, and won 10,000
horses.