You are on page 1of 141

JEDA - Volume 20, Number 2. - October, 2012.

TABLE OF CONTENT


1. Effect Of Cognitive Restructuring On Examination Anxiety Reduction
Among Secondary School Students - Dr. (Mrs) P. U. Ekeh & Mrs. F.N. Obi 534
2. Socio-Cultural Constraints And Challenges Of Exceptional Children
Living With Disabilities: Counselling And Sensitization For Sustainable
Development - Dr. (Mrs.) Chinelo Joy Ugwu 542
3. Linkage Between Petro- Chemical Emissions And Respiratory Health:
A Case Study Of A Petro-Chemical Company Host Community In
Niger Delta, Nigeria - Inyang, M. P. Ph.D & Okpako, J.E.F. Ph.D 551

4. Community Education As Response To The Crisis OfEnvironmental
Degradation In The Niger Delta - Abanum Beatrice K. & Eheazu
Lewechi C. Ph.D 561
5. Fostering Spousal Effective Communication: Towards Counselling
Intervention For Family Security - Oniye, Abdulrazaq Olayinka,
Ph.D, Mrs. Odebode, Aminat Adeola and Miss Lemboye,
Modupeola Rasheedat 567
6. Collective Bargaining For Constructive Unionism: Implications For
Workers Education - M.O.A Ezimah, Ph.D 571
7. Home Factors As Correlate of Students Academic Achievement in
Rivers State - Dr. Glory N. Amadi & Patrick I. Echebe 577
8. A Survey Of Primary School Teachers Perception Of Their Disciplinary
Roles In Rivers State of Nigeria - Okanezi Bright, Ph.D, and Josephine
Ebere Elekwa, Ph.D 583
9. Restiveness and The Culture of Peace Among The Nigerian Youth:
Implications For Higher Education and Islamic Studies - Ganiyu G.
Oke and Ismail A. Musa 590
10. Career Development Role of Guidance Counselor in an Era of High
Quest for University Certificate - Porbeni, Zibo Sam, PhD 605
11. Knowledge Management in Higher Education: Implications for The
Nigerian Universities - Ayotunde Adebayo, Ph.D 614
12. Synthetic Phonics: A Panacea for Stimulating Early Childhood Reading
Skills Among Pupils - Ekechukwu Rosemary Obiageri, Ph.D and Uzu,
Stella Nnenna (Mrs). 629
13. Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into
Teaching and Learning in Bayelsa State Secondary Schools
Prof. C.U. Madumere-Obike and Imgbi, Ada Jennifer 639
14. Computer Games and Simulations: Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) Tools For Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills Among
Primary School Pupils - Fomsi Esther F. (Mrs) and Agbarakwe Haret
Akudo (Mrs). 648
15. Intramural Sports Organization in Nigerian Schools: An Overview of
Issues and Problems - Michael A. Ogujiofor 655
16. Human Inputs in Adult and Community Education: The Emergent
Profile of The Adult and Community Educator - Dr. J. C. Ihejirika 665

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 534


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

EFFECT OF COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING ON EXAMINATION
ANXIETY REDUCTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
By
DR. (MRS) P. U. EKEH
E-MAIL: ndukwuekeh@yahoo.com
Phone: +234(0)8033401358

&
MRS. F. N. OBI
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance & Counselling
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt
Rivers State

Phone: +234(0)8033321759

Abstract

This study was a Quasi-Experimental research designed and conducted to determine the effect of cognitive
restructuring in examination anxiety reduction among students. It was carried out in a senior secondary
school in Onitsha Metropolis of Anambra State of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null
hypotheses guided the study. All the 203 senior secondary class one (SS1) students of the school under
study made up the population. However, eighty (80) examination anxious students identified using an
Examination Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ), constituted the sample of the study. The EAQ, which
was also used after treatment (Cognitive Restructuring) to determine the extent of examination anxiety
reduction, was given face and content validity by experts in Educational Psychology and Measurement
and Evaluation. The experts vetted the instrument in terms of the vocabulary, subject matter coverage,
and its suitability to generate the required data. Its reliability co-efficient of 0.60 was determined using
Kuder-Richardson estimates (k-20). Data collected were analyzed using mean (x), standard deviation
(SD) and t-test. Results got after data analysis indicated that cognitive restructuring was effective and
brought about reduction in examination anxiety among students. Significant difference in levels of
examination anxiety was also found among students in the experimental and control groups, in favour of
students in the experimental group. Recommendations were made based on these findings, including
that, students should seek counselling when they notice they are becoming anxious about examinations so
that necessary assistance can be given by counsellors.


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 535

Introduction
Education all over the world is perceived as a basis for human development, advancement and
civilization. It is a process through which people acquire knowledge, skill, values, ideals, etc so that
they can effectively and efficiently live in their society and contribute to its advancement and upliftment
(Maduewesi and Ezeoba, 2010).
The right type of values, attitude, skills, knowledge, etc which are expected from the recipient
of education are embedded in the various school subjects/courses they are taught. Therefore, one can
only apply the knowledge and skills so acquired through education to self and societal development
when he is able to study, master and perform well in the various academic tasks he is exposed to in the
course of receiving education.
However, experience and empirical evidence exist which indicate that some recipients of
education, specifically students in Nigerian schools do not perform well academically (Okebukola,
1998; Imhanlahimi and Agouele, 2006; Usman and Memeh, 2007). Poor academic performance of
students in our schools has become a thorn in the flesh of all stakeholders in the education industry in
Nigeria; including teachers, parents and government. A number of reasons have been advanced for
students poor academic performance in our secondary schools. They include students family
background problems, lack of interest in schooling, poor teachers preparation for teaching, inadequate
qualified teachers, inadequate instructional materials and application of poor and faulty instructional
strategies, negative self concept, etc (Olaogun, 2001; Usman and Memeh, 2007). In their own
contribution to reasons for poor academic performance among students, Durmmond (1996) and
Woolfork (2008) observed that students perform poorly in examinations because they are anxious.
Examination as it is well known is a major way of measuring learning outcomes. However,
almost everyone feels nervous or experiences some anxiety when faced with a test or examination.
Infact, it is unusual to find a student who does not approach a test without a degree of anxiety either
before, during or after the test. It is indeed natural to feel some anxiety when preparing for and taking
a test or an examination. However, when anxiety and apprehension concerning examination become
excessive, a problem emerges and that is examination anxiety.
Examination anxiety is excessive worry about upcoming examination, fear of being evaluated,
apprehension about the event of or consequences or failures that may be experienced by students
(Colman, 2003). It also manifests in feeling of no control over the examination situation, negative self-
concept and self criticism, irrational thinking about examinations and their outcomes, catastrophic
predictions of failure in an upcoming examination etc. In effect, an examination anxious student is the
one who experiences excessive fear, racing thoughts, going blank, difficulty in concentrating, feeling
of dread, having difficulty in organizing his thoughts resulting to negative thought process etc. He also
engages in negative self-talks, develops headaches, diarrhea, extreme body temperature changes in the
course of preparing and writing an examination. Although, an examination anxious student may be
quiet capable of coping with the examination situation, such capability tend to be ignored. Such a
student might behave in a manner which indicates that his self-esteem depends on some kind of
external recognition (examination score or mark). For this student, the perception is that poor
performance may result to loss of self-esteem and approval of significant others (Gaundry and
Speilberger, 1995). This position taken by an examination anxious student might be rigid and may be
influenced by irrational thoughts (for instance, I am nobody if I do not pass this examination). Such
thought patterns and ideas about examination may be generalized to other life situations. However in
the case of examination, anxiety naturally leads to poor academic performance.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 536
Efforts are being made to arrest the problem of students poor academic performance,
especially due to examination anxiety. For some individuals, the problem of examination anxiety is of
such a magnitude that professional help is required (Gaundry and Speilberger, 1995). Such a help
according to Sarason (1980) could be in the form of providing examinees with information about
appropriate problem solving strategies and helping them stay away from self-preoccupied worry and
negative self-talk. This may be particularly helpful to the examination anxious students cognitive
functioning. Improving the cognitive functioning of an examination anxious student involves
modification of his distorted thoughts concerning examinations. This modification of distorted
thoughts concerning examinations can be achieved through cognitive restructuring.

Cognitive restructuring refers to the process of replacing cognitive distortion with thoughts
which are more logical, accurate and useful. It involves assisting an individual gain more control over
his own thoughts, feelings and behaviours, and not an attempt to eliminate all bad feelings. For Wolpe
(1996), cognitive restructuring involves learning how to think differently, to change fundamental faulty
thinking, and replace it with more rational realistic and perhaps positive thinking. In line with the
above, the two basic steps in cognitive restructuring include identifying the thoughts and beliefs that are
influencing the disturbing emotions and evaluating them for their accuracy and usefulness using logic
and evidence, and if warranted modifying or replacing the distorted thoughts with the ones that are
more accurate and useful.

The basic observation in the application of cognitive restructuring is that peoples emotions and
behaviours can be greatly affected by what they think and say to themselves. If people can consciously
change their habits of what they say to themselves and what mental images they present to themselves,
they can make themselves happier, kinder, more productive and accomplish several other positive
changes (Beck, 1999)

In the light of the above, cognitive restructuring is viewed as useful in managing anxiety
situations. Consequently, anxiety situations require modification of distorted thoughts and overcoming
irrational fears towards certain situations or events. However, it is not certain how effective cognitive
restructuring can be in the reduction of examination related anxiety among students. Therefore the
problem of this study which is put in question form is what is the effect of cognitive restructuring in
examination anxiety reduction among secondary school students? This study was design to provide
answer to this question.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of cognitive restructuring in examination
anxiety reduction among secondary school students. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. determine the effect of cognitive restructuring in examination anxiety reduction among students
in the experimental group as measured by their pre-test and post-test scores in the Examination
Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ)
2. find out the difference in examination anxiety levels of students in the experimental and control
groups as measured by their
post-test scores in the EAQ

Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study.
1. What is the effect of cognitive restructuring in examination anxiety reduction among students in
the experimental group as measured by their pre-test and post-test scores in the Examination
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 537
Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ)
2. What is the difference in examination anxiety levels of students in the experimental and control
groups as measured by their post-test scores in the EAQ

Hypotheses
The following hypotheses, which were tested at 0.05 level of significance were formulated to guide the
study.
1. There is no significant effect of cognitive restructuring in examination anxiety reduction among
students in the experimental group as measured by their pre-test and post test scores in the
EAQ
2. The difference in examination anxiety levels of students in the experimental and control groups
is not significant as measured by their post-test scores in the Examination Anxiety
Questionnaire (EAQ)

Method
This is a quasi-experimental research aimed at determining the effect of cognitive restructuring in
examination anxiety reduction among senior secondary school students in Onitsha Metropolis of
Anambra State of Nigeria. The researchers adopted the randomized control pre-test/post-test
experimental design for the study. The population consisted all the 203 Senior Secondary Class one (1)
students in five intact classes of a secondary school in Onitsha Metropolis. A sample of eighty (80)
examination anxious students was drawn out of the population of 203 students. An Examination
Anxiety Questionnaire (EAQ) was used to determine the Examination Anxious subjects (80) who
constituted the sample. In doing this, only students who scored 60% in the EAQ were included in the
sample. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to assign the subjects to control and
experimental groups (40 in the control and 40 in the experimental groups). Those in the experimental
group received the treatment (Cognitive Restructuring) while those in the control group did not. The
researchers personally administered the treatment on subjects in the experimental group. The
treatment procedures which lasted for 8 weeks included activities aimed at identifying and modifying
the distorted and irrational thoughts towards examinations among the students and replacing them with
more rational, accurate and useful thoughts. Pretest data were obtained through the administration of
the Examination Anxiety Questionnaire on subjects in both the experimental and control groups
before the commencement of the experiment. The EAQ was given face and content validity by experts
in Educational Psychology and Measurement and Evaluation. Its reliability co-efficient of 0.60 was
obtained through the application of Kuder Richardson estimates (K
20
).

At the end of the treatment, the EAQ was re-administered on subjects in both the experimental
and control groups. Adequate precautions were taken to modify the EAQ at the posttest stage through
rearrangement of test items and reframing of some questions without changing the content; as this
same instrument was earlier used to identify examination anxious students and also at the pre-test stage.
Data generated were analyzed using Mean (x), Standard deviation (SD) and t-test.

Results
Results got after data analysis were presented in the tables below.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 538
Table 1: Means (x) and Standard Deviation (SD) of effect of Cognitive Restructuring in
Examination Anxiety reduction among students
Exam Anxious Students N X S.D
Pretest 40 40.35 2.26
Posttest 40 16.20 3.07
Table 1 indicated that pretest and posttest mean (x) scores of Examination Anxious students who
experienced cognitive restructuring were 40.35 and 16.20 respectively. It is obvious that the post-test
mean (x) score was lower than the pre-test score. This is an indication of a reduction in examination
anxiety and it shows that cognitive restructuring was effective in Examination Anxiety reduction among
students; as the students scored lower Examination Anxiety mean (x) score (16.20) at post test after
treatment.

Table 2: Mean (x) and standard deviation (SD) of difference in Examination Anxiety Levels of
students in the experimental and control groups
Group N X S.D
Control 40 42.65 2.02
Experimental 40 16.20 3.07

Table 2 above, indicated mean (x) scores of 42.65 and 16.20 for students in the control and
experimental groups respectively. This is an indication that the examination anxiety level of students in
the control group was higher than that of those in the experimental group. In effect, students in the
experimental group achieved a reduction in their examination anxiety level compared to their
counterparts in the control group.
Table 3: t-test analysis of effect of cognitive restructuring in examination anxiety reduction
among students
Exam Anxious
Students
N X S.D
df
t-value Crit-t Remark
Pretest 40 43.35 2.26 78 45.09

1.96 Sig.
Posttest 40 16.20 3.07

Table 3 showed that the calculated t-value 45.09 is greater than the t-critical value of 1.96 at 0.05 alpha
level and df of 78. The null hypothesis one (1) was therefore rejected. This implied that there was
significant effect of cognitive restructuring in Examination Anxiety reduction among students; with a
low post test score (16.20) indicating a reduction in Examination Anxiety among students, who had
earlier scored a high mean (x) examination anxiety score of 43.35, at the pre-test stage.

Table 4: t-test analysis of difference in Examination Anxiety levels of students in the control
and experimental groups
Exam Anxious
Students
N X S.D
df
t-cal t-crit Remark
Control 40 42.65 2.02 78 45.57

1.96 Sig.
Experimental 40 16.20 3.07


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 539
Data of Table 4 showed that the t-calculated value of 45.57 is greater the t-critical value of 1.96 at 0.05
alpha level and df of 78. The null hypothesis two (2) based on this result was rejected. This means that
significant difference existed in the examination anxiety levels of students in the control and
experimental groups in favour of those in the experimental group who exhibited lower (reduced)
examination anxiety level.

Discussion
The effect of cognitive restructuring in examination anxiety reduction among secondary school
students was investigated in this study. Results revealed that cognitive restructuring was effective in the
reduction of examination anxiety among students in the experimental group as indicated by their pre-
test (40.35) and post-test (16.20) mean (x) scores in the examination anxiety test. This difference that
existed in the pre-test and post-test scores of students in the examination anxiety test was found to be
statistically significant with t-calculated and critical values of 45.09 and 1.96, at 0.05 alpha level and df
of 78. This is an indication that cognitive restructuring brought about reduction in examination anxiety
among students who received the treatment. This result is in conformity with the findings of Keeves
(1988) who used Cognitive Restructuring to treat examination anxiety of Junior Secondary School Class
One (JSS1) students in Mathematics. He found an improvement in the students interest in the subject
that they were afraid of initially. This finding is also in conformity with the study of Gabel, Sherwood
and Shay (2009), who counseled 50 students identified to be having examination anxiety (with the aim
of modifying their irrational thoughts towards examination and replacing them with more rational
ones). The finding from the counselling sessions indicated that those students counseled adequately
adjusted properly as they wrote examinations and improved academically.
Difference in examination anxiety levels was found among students in the experimental and
control groups, in favour of those in the experimental group; (Experimental group 16.20; control
group 42.65). This difference in examination anxiety levels among students in experimental and
control groups was found to be statistically significant, in favour of students in the experimental group;
with t-calculated and critical values of 45.57 and 1.96, at 0.05 level and df of 78. The result indicated
lower (reduced) level of examination anxiety among students in the experimental group which was due
to the effect of treatment (cognitive restructuring) administered on them.
This finding is in line with Soffer (2008), who opined that adequate counselling (which will lead
to modification of distorted and irrational thoughts towards examination) play the best role in
reshaping students that are experiencing examination anxiety for adequate comportment during
examination. Zeider and Most (1998) also supported the above result by observing that the extent to
which examination stress is experienced is dependent on the degree to which the situation is viewed
and thought of as emotionally threatening. Therefore, Cognitive Restructuring in the management of
the threatened emotional situation is highly necessary.
Conclusion
Cognitive restructuring was effective and brought about reduction in examination anxiety
among students as indicated by their pre and post test score in the EAQ.
Significant difference existed in examination anxiety levels of students in the experimental and
control groups, in favour of those in the experimental group.


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 540
Recommendations
The following recommendations were made:
1. It is essential to develop a curriculum that is inclusive of strategies for coping with test or
examination anxiety and also develop guide books to help students deal with examination
anxiety.
2. Teachers should develop specific examination relaxation techniques that best suit their
particular students, considering their individual differences.
3. Students should seek for counseling when they notice that they are becoming anxious about
examination so that necessary assistance in anxiety reduction can be given by counsellors.
4. Undue pressure and threat should not be unleashed on students doing examination.
5. School administrators should encourage students to be serious with their academic work so that
they will have self-confidence during examinations and earn a boost their self-esteem.

References

Beck, A. T. (1999). Prisoners of Hate: the cognitive basis of anger, hostility, and violence. New York:
Harper Collins Publishers
Colman, M. A. (2003), Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. Oxford University Press. New York.
Drummond, R. (1996). Appraisal Procedures for Counsellors and Helping Professionals. New Jersery:
Prentice-Hall
Gabel, D. L., Sherwood, R. D. & Shay (2009). Facilitating Problem Solving in High School
Chemistry. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(2): 163-177.
Gaundry, E. and Speilberger, C. (1995). Anxiety and Educational Achievement. Sydney: Wiley and
Sons Ltd.
Imahanlahim, E. O. & Aguele, L. L. (2006). Comparing Three Institutions For Assessing Biology
Teachers Effectiveness in the Instructional Process in Edo State, Nigeria. An Unpublished Ph.D
Thesis. Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria.
Keeves, J. (1988). Sex Differences in ability and Achievement. The Encyclopedia of Educational Research
and Studies: Oxford Pergamon Press.
Maduewesi, B. U. and Ezeoba, K. O. (2010). Teacher Education in Nigeria in the 21
st
Century:
Challenges and Prospects in Iloputafe, E. C, Maduewesi, B. U. and Igbo, R. O. (Ed). Onitsha.
West and Solomon Publishing Company Limited.
Okebukola, P. A. (1998). Concept Maps as Instructional Tools for Promoting Meaningful Learning in
Biology. STAN Biology Parcel Workshop Proceedings: Akure.
Olaogun, O. (2001). Causes of Mass Failure in Mathematics as Perceived by Secondary School
Students in Ilorin Metropolis. An Unpublished Thesis . University of Ilorin. Kwara State.
Sarason, I. (1980, 1993). Test Anxiety: theory, Research and Application Hillsdale Erlbaum.
Soffer, M. E. (2008). Elementary Students Test Anxiety in relation to the Florida Comprehensive
Assessment Test (FCAT). Retrieved Feb. 23, 2009 from
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 541
htt://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-06092008-111004/unrestricted/soffer M. thesis.Pdlf.
Usman, K. O. & Memeh, I. M. (2007). Using Guided Scoring Teaching Strategy to Improve Students
Achievement in Chemistry at Secondary School level in Nigeria: Journal of Science Teachers
Association of Nigeria. 42(1&2), 60-65.
Wolpe, J. (1996). The Practice of Behaviour Therapy: Tarrytown, NY Pergamon Press.
Woolfork, A. (2008). Educational Psychology: Boston: Allyn and Alto.
Zeider, M. & Most, R. (1998). Psychological Testing: An Inside View. Palo Alto. Consulting
Psychological Press.





















October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 542

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS AND CHALLENGES OF
EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN LIVING WITH DISABILITIES:
COUNSELLING AND SENSITIZATION FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
By
DR. (MRS.) CHINELO JOY UGWU
Department of Educational Phsychology, Guidance and Counseling.
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
e-mail: nelomax2000@yahoo.com
GSM: 08033094050

Abstract
The paper explains the concept of exceptionality in relation to human disability. As a corollary to the
socio-cultural constraints and challenges of children living with disability, which is the main thrust of this
paper, were discussed. Deprivation of rights to education, marginalization from socio-cultural and
political economy, false beliefs about them and their parents as well as derogatory remarks passed on
them by the society, were discussed as serious challenges and constraints facing children living with
disability. The role of counselling and sensitization programmes was highlighted as very important
strategies to employ in mitigating the challenges of those living with disability. Among the
recommendations are that counsellors should be employed in every sector where exceptional children are
receiving educational, vocational and personal-social training in order to handle their emotional problems,
and that the Government, counselling association bodies and NGOs should endeavour to meet up with
the unique needs of exceptional children as stipulated in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)
and Nigerias child Right 2003 for a sustainable development.






October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 543

Introduction
In all the societies of the world, experience has shown the existence of various forms of disabilities
plaguing human beings including children and adults. In some cases, the disability may be too mild to
permit optimal development and functioning of the afflicted persons while in other cases, it is so severe
that the afflicted persons may require provision of special assistance in order to function minimally in
the environment they find themselves. The presence of disability in children makes it difficult for them
to function effectively in various environmental settings as normal children do. In accordance with
these prevailing situation of children living with disabilities, the National Policy on Education (2004
p.47) contains in Section 10 a policy on special educational services for children with special needs,
classified as the Disabled with the following aims: free education at all levels, concrete meaning to their
lives through equality and quality education, census of disabled for proper care, provision of all the
necessary facilities and inclusive education for them.
However given the disorganized and corrupt Nigerian socio-political and economic
environment, it cannot be ruled out that most of these policies when it comes to implementation
become an entirely different ball game. For instance the plan stating the federal and state ministries of
education to conduct a census of the people living with disabilities have not been done and the
provision of infrastructure and health care is a policy with little or no implementation. If one may ask,
how many of these children are in school receiving free education? These nonchalant attitudes have
made Adima in (Oyundoyin and Eni-Oluruda (2008) in his article to ask Handicapping the Handicap
in Nigeria: Will the paradox end?. It is also not suprising as Ogbonnaya (2009) reported that from the
statistics made available by the Association of Disabled that over 2 million persons in Nigeria live with
one form of disability or the other and many of them are in the streets and gutters. This situation
should be a source of worry to every Nigerian, religious organizations, the federal and state
government. Nigeria is a country with greater proportion of its population of healthy people wallowing
in abject poverty and hardship. Even, most of the government and self-employed people in Nigeria are
finding it very difficult to survive the hard times today; consequently most of them are not opportuned
to enhance their potentials for sustainable personal and social development. If the healthy people who
function effectively in the society and who have some occupational engagements to survive on, face
serious challenges and problems, what can we tell about those living with various forms of disability
who are helpless?
It is therefore the focus of this paper to present the socio-cultural constraints facing
exceptional children living with disabilities which may likely forestall the development of their optimal
potentials for sustainable development and actualization of the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs). As adjuncts to the focus of the paper, the writer will therefore provide some highlights on
the following issues.
The concept of exceptionality in relation to disability.
Historical perspectives of people living with disabilities.
Socio-cultural constraints and challenges of the children with disabilities.
Counselling and enlightenment implications for the society on the constraints and challenges of
children living with disabilities.
Counselling children with disabilities and their parents or guardians.
Conclusion and Recommendations.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 544

The Concept of Exceptionality In Relation To Disability.
Exceptionality in the context of this paper is used to denote deficits in certain human abilities. Hence
an exceptional child is that child that deviates from normal children based on certain attributes or
qualities such as physique, sight, hearing, feeling, intelligence, acting, and others. Abang (1981, p.1)
refers to exceptional children as those in one way or another, different from children who are
considered normal by the greater segment of the population. This deviation may be mental, physical,
behavioural or social. Abang (1981) further states that the deviation must be so significant that the
children are incapable of functioning adequately within the community or the school.
However, there are two categories of exceptional children. One group consists of children who
are above the normal who are often referred to as the gifted or talented. The other group consists of
those children below normal who are often referred to as children living with disabilities. The last
group of exceptional children living with disabilities is the authors concerned in this paper.
Historical and Current Perceptive of Children Living with disability
The socio-cultural challenges of children living with disabilities began with the earliest record of human
history. The history and philosophy of this group of children are filled with inconsistencies about their
treatment, acceptance and success in the society. In the past, children who came under the caption of
exceptional children, particularly, exceptional children living with disabilities were merely left to the
mercy of the nature and their families. Some of these children were directly killed while others were
left to die a slow and painful death. (Abang 1981, Denga 1987, Smith 2007).
For instance, the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle, supported a law that allowed no
deformed child to live (Safford & Safford 1996). The reason as rightly put forward by (Bragg 1997)
was that sometimes people with disability particularly individuals with significant visual and hearing
impairment were merely considered odd or eccentric and are capable of bringing ill luck to their
families.
During the ancient Roman times, Balbus Balaeus the stutterer, was caged and displayed along
the Appian way (the main road into and out of Rome) to amuse travellers who thought his speech was
funny. People even planned special family outings to see Balbus Balaseus the stutterer, who would
attempt to talk whenever a coin was thrown into his cage (Van Riper & Erikson, 1996).
In Nigeria, children living with disability are not faring well either. Before the recent
introduction of special education with its little or slow movement in development, some of these
children were locked up in their various homes with little or no attention. The best solution to their
problem is for them to be allowed to die off, in order to release the family from the stigmatization
accompanying such child. This attitude was as a result of the false belief that the birth of a deformed
child in the family was an indication of sin or sins committed by either the parents or any member of
the family. Thus this family is being punished by God or gods for its evil or wicked deeds (Denga
1987)
Abang (1981 p.2-3) posits that one unfortunate thing about exceptional children is that they are often
known by labels instead of their real names. She cited examples such as Ade may be known as the
blind man who makes robe, Bisrong as the deaf lady who fries akara, or Owan as the man in wheel
chair
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 545
In addition, in the historical and current perspectives of exceptional children living with
disabilities, there is one group who historically and currently, has suffered from these labels more than
any other groups. These are children living with mental retardation. In our world, children living with
mental retardation have been cruelly referred to with various names such as moron, imbecile and idiot.
The Ibo tribe calls such a child Onuku meaning a fool; none of these names is dignified.
In our schools today, children who are high degree stutterers are often marginalized in schools
and are usually laughed at by their mates. Teachers are impatient to listen to them, and some teachers
avoid asking them questions or receiving questions from them in the class often times they are always
isolated and withdrawn from other children. In Nigeria there are still cases of people living with
disabilities seen on the streets as beggars, some make a caricature of their deformity to create a laughing
scene for individuals to throw money at them as they perform.
Social-Cultural Constraints and Challenges of Exceptional Children Living With Disability
Socio-cultural constraints and challenges as will be discussed here include all forms of discrimination,
mistreatment, marginalization, stigmatization and derogatory beliefs, past and present, held against
those living with any form of disability in our society.
Lack of appropriate educational facilities:
Despite the establishment of special schools in Nigeria by the missionaries for the past 50 years and
government inclusion of special education since 1970s, progress in special education and welfare of
children living with disabilities have not been treated with regards and commitment. Ozegya (2008)
observed that the Federal Republic of Nigeria Universal Basic Education (UBE) Implementation
Guidelines of (1999) points out, that those persons in all manners and connections of physical, spatial
and psychological existence will benefit from the program. He however reported that a visit to the
Obasanjo UBE Model School in Jos, Plateau State shows that although few individuals with special
needs enrolled in the school, there were very limited provision for their unique needs such as no special
teachers, no resource room facility, no ramps across the school environment for easy accessibility for
the visually impaired or people using wheel chairs. Moreso, the writers visit to one of the government-
owned schools for special children in Port Harcourt, Rivers State known as Special School for
Handicapped, has the same ugly story.
In a nutshell, Nigeria has ignored the provision of well established institutions with modern
teaching and communication technologies, electronic billboard, hearing aids, Braille machines etc for
the children living with disabilities (Briggs & Nte 2008).
Parents Inadequate Financial Capability:
Poor socio-economic status of many parents of disabled children has been found to affect the
educational aspirations of their children. The financial demand and care of children living with disability
is quite enormous. Some parents at some point consider the financial demands a waste because they do
not see rapid prospects on these children. There are cases where parents do not even provide basic
toiletries for these children. Though the federal government stipulates free education at all levels,
demands are still made on these parents in one form or the other and quite many of them are not
accommodated in the very few government schools. Subsequently, most of these children end up
begging on the streets, leading to inadequate sustainable development. Some of these parents do not
give education to these children; rather they abandon them in orphanages or institutionalized homes
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 546
(Enoh,1992).
Discrimination at job and employment opportunity:
People with disability want to assume their places in the modern society, make decisions about their
lives choose their friends, hold jobs and experience life to its fullest (Longmore, 2003)
The unemployment syndrome and discrimination at job which has eaten into the fabrics of
Nigerian system has affected the disabled in our society. The 2% quota of the disabled into the
workforce as stipulated in the constitution is not applicable. The disabled still live with disdain of how
the public still look at them as strange beings, and this nature of perception makes them feel
uncomfortable and forestall their interactions with members of the public who most times view them
as incapable of performing any job given to them.
Smith (2007) reported that despite the passage of law by Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
in 1990, and re-enactment of the Special Education Law by Individual Living with Disabilities
Education Act 2004 (IDEA 2004), only 29-34% of people with disability are employed. There are still
many cases of discrimination of the disabled not given job opportunity even when their expertise are
needed, invariably condemning them to beggars.
Lack of Social Worth, Dignity and Recognition of the Exceptional Children:
Some people still believe children living with disability are source of evil and should be left to die or
thrown away in the evil forest. In some professions like priesthood people living with disability are
prohibited from becoming priest. Some times they are used as entertainers for the society in
dehumanizing manner. Oftentimes they are known by labels such as that deaf boy or girl instead of
their real names. Indirectly the society always wants children living with disability to feel inferior and
live with a negative self-concept.
Stigmatization of Parents of Children Living with Disability:
In some developing countries like Nigeria illiterate traditionalists still hold the strong beliefs that fate,
bad luck, sins of parents, the food the mother ate, or evil spirits, are the potential causes of disabilities
(Cheng, 1995; Lynch & Hanson 2004; Denga 1987). These alternative views or cultural beliefs will
definitely affect the way a child born with disability in developing countries is viewed, challenged and
treated in the society. Denga (1987) brought it to our knowledge that the awareness of the arrival of an
exceptional subnormal child in most African countries can give parents a chilling shock; it can
traumatize, frustrate, confound, confuse and devastate them. Some parents can be so disappointed,
depressed, feel victimized and angry almost to the point of denying the biological ownership of the
child. Some parents, their relatives, and sympathizers may start wondering who has sinned, both
parents or one of them or the child itself.
. There are still stories of parents who lock up their children with one disability or the other in a room.
Such families would not want the society to know they have such children. A man abandoned the wife
for giving birth to a deformed child
Counselling and Sensitization Implications for the Society
The paper will highlight counselling and sensitization of the society, on the constraints and challenges
of children living with disability, as approaches intended to reduce and eliminate some socio-cultural
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 547
barriers of the children, which hinge on peoples false beliefs and ignorance about disability.
Sensitization needs to be directed to members of the society including the parents of the children living
with disabilities, while counselling will be conducted directly for parents whose children living with
disabilities are in schools and training centers using appropriate forum like special invitation to them by
counselling psychologists and social workers, PTA meetings and any other forum.
Sensitization and counselling energies will focus on how maltreatment, stigmatization,
derogatory beliefs and discrimination against such children can be reduced and eliminated, more so, on
how these children can be taken good care of in form of provision of adequate and appropriate training
and educational needs so that they can achieve self-sustenance and overall sustainable person and
national development.
Consequently, sensitization of members of the society is implicated in the following ways.
Members of the society should be sensitized against the use of various forms of derogatory labels
for the categories of children living with disability. Some of those derogatory labels include
imbecile, moron, idiot, invalid, handicapped, that deaf man or woman, that blind man or woman,
animal, fool, animal-turned child, snake child, evil spirit child, witch, good-for-nothing child etc.
Members of the society should be enlightened that these labels are not acceptable any longer if not
for anything, for the fact that these words send messages to the children about lack of respect the
society has for them. With such intensive enlightenment, the society may begin to appreciate the
strong emotional feelings of children living with disability about such labels used for them. The
society should be sensitized on the preferred terms such as person living with intellectual disability
for individual with mental retardation, disabled for the handicapped, mobility impairment for the
crippled etc, and to call them by their names
Members of the society should be sensitized against the false cultural beliefs that the birth of a child
with any form of disability is as a result of sin or even the sin of the child.
Rather, biological and environmental factors related to any form of disability should be a
focus of enlightenment to the society as causes of disability in children. Sensitization in this direction
will provide opportunity to alleviate emotional problems suffered by parents of children with
disabilities, and also eliminate the irrational beliefs of the society about parents whose children are
disabled. These pieces of information will offer parents encouragement instead of despair, to help
develop the potentials imbedded in these exceptional children for a more sustainable development and
achievement of the millennium Development Goals.
Counselling Children with Disability
There are special and regular schools where children living with disabilities are found. Counselling
services can be offered to the children through services of guidance counselors. Therefore in
counselling the disabled children, serious counselling is needed to:
Achieve psychological equilibrium in children battered by derogatory and false beliefs about
them by some members of the society. This will help to prevent development of psychological
and emotional disorders that can adversely affect their well-being and proper integration in the
society.
Improve their self-concept and self-esteem amidst socio-cultural discrimination and
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 548
stigmatization. This will enhance their self-integration and boost their perception of worth for
effective living.
Encourage them to attain their optimal potentials in any endeavor they find themselves and to
sound it hard and clear to them that there is great ability in disability. This can be clearly
illustrated with the case of Cosmos Okoli, an Anambra State boy who lost his legs to
poliomyelitis as a child and his parents plan was for him to remain in his village to become a
shoemaker. But today, he is a proud managing director of a centre known as Mobility Aid
Appliances Research (MAAR) and has installed over 300 cars with Cosokoli Hand Control
Mobilize which enable people living without legs to drive. Also the case of Ben Azugo as
reported in Business Day Newspaper. A deaf and dumb child from birth and his parents
reluctantly left him to waste without any attention and formal education. But today he is a
renowned and unmatchable shoe brand owner at the popular Ariaria shoe market in Aba, Abia
State. Mr. Peter Bema, a blind boy of 20 is today, the organist of the Royal Male Choir a
leading musical organization in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Nick Vuijicic an Australian boy
born without hands and legs is an instant celebrity who travels wide the world as a motivational
speaker sharing his story and testimony.
Make them aware of career opportunities at their disposal with regard to further education,
placement into skills acquisition programmes or available jobs.
Help them solve any personal social problems being encountered which might constitute
obstacle to their progress.
Counselling Parents of Children Living with Disabilities
Parents should be counselled on how to help such children develop their potentials in order to achieve
emotional and economic independence from parents.
Parents should be helped through counselling to overcome any psychological or emotional
problems developed in the process of handling and training the child. A study carried out by the writer
reveals that some parents, as at today, maltreat their disabled children in various forms which include:
Abandoning the disabled child at various disabled homes/institutions.
Disinheriting the child from their property.
Not sending the child to available institution to receive appropriate education and training.
Not providing the child with the facilities needed to alleviate his or her challenging situation e.g.
Braille, hearing aid, wheel chairs etc.
Locking up the child in the innermost room when some visitors are present so that visitors will not
know that such a disabled child exists in such a family.
Serving the child meals with unconventional plates like those dogs are served with.
Distancing themselves physically and emotionally from the child.
Not providing the child with basic care needs such as dresses, sandals or shoes where needed,
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 549
watches and make-ups.
All these issues about parents and their disabled children deserve counseling.
Parents should be counselled to improve and maximize their relationship with their children with
disability because such will give such children sense of trust, worth and belongingness as well as
enabling environment that will foster their desire and motivation for achievement.
Recommendations
Based on the glaring socio-cultural challenges militating against exceptional children living with
disability in our society, the following recommendations are hereby made:
1. Parents of exceptional children living with disability should be counseled during Parents Teachers
Association meetings, or well organized group counselling session by the schools. This would help
them overcome their negative emotions and discuss their problems and also find solutions to help
and encourage their children.
2. Sensitization campaigns and conferences should be organized and intensified by reputable
organizations like Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), National Council for Exceptional
Children (NCEC) Government Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to
help educate and enlighten the society on the plight and preferred current terms to use in
addressing children living with various forms of disability.
3. The role of the mass media in the sensitization exercise against maltreatment, stigmatization and
discrimination of those living with disability cannot be over emphasized. Radio, television and
news-papers, advertorials should be mobilized to achieve this aim. Town criers accompanied with
knowledgeable persons, should reach the ward levels of all the Local Government Areas (LGAs) in
the federation for intensive sensitization against the socio-cultural barriers of children with
disability.
4. Sponsored television talks and shows on the causes of deformity in children both at peri-natal, pre-
natal and post-natal periods, which puts them at risk should be brought to the knowledge of the
masses. This is because prevention is better than cure.
5. Federal government should be pestered by philanthropic organizations,, well-meaning Nigerians,
human rights groups, special education administrators, association of parents of disabled children
to create ministry or directorate for children living with disability which should be well funded to
take proper care of the needs of the disabled in Nigeria.
6. Furthermore, government, private school owners and private organizations should employ
counsellors in every sector of their organization where these children are found to help their
counselling needs. Because of the strategic role of counselling in the development of both normal
children and those living with disability,
7. Counselling Association of Nigeria (CASSON) should be organizing conferences on this group of
children in our society in order to come up with implementable communiqu for the benefit of
these challenged children. Despite the fact that some children living with disability have overcome
their disability, most of them are still left on our streets or locked up in some homes.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 550
Conclusion
Attention has been drawn to socio-cultural constraints and challenges faced by children living with
disabilities. In order to protect and alleviate the constraints of these citizens of our country, the society,
parents; this group of children, schools and government must be counselled and sensitized with the
right approaches of handling these group of citizens. Counselling and sensitizing the general public
through organized and sponsored programmes on the need to develop positive attitude towards
children with disabilities should be an indispensable strategy. These programmes such as workshops,
seminars, debates, newspaper write-ups and counselling would enlighten and provide the enabling
environment for their sustainability.

References
Abang, T. B. (1981), Educating mentally retarded and disabled children in Nigeria: Jos, Organization
for children with Special Needs.

Briggs, N & Nte, A. Child development and developmental disorder in Nigeria: A key note address
presented at the congress of association of child development and communication disorder,
University of Port Harcourt. 23
rd
26
th
June, 2008

Bragg, L. (1997). From the mate god to the lesser god.. Disability in Medical Celtic & Old Nurse
Literature. Journal on Disability & Society, 12, 165 177

Denga, D. I. (1987). Special Education and Special Counselling: Calabar, Educational Publishers Ltd.

EniOlurunda, T & Oyubdoyin J. O. (2008). Special education in Nigeria. way out of millipede development for
millennium educational Goals. Education for Millennium Development: Essay in Honour of
Professor Michael Omolewa, in Boucouvalas, M. & Aderinoye, R. (eds), Ibadan, Spectrum
Books, 1, 34-43

Federal Ministry of Education (2004), National Policy on Education, Abuja, NERDC press.

Federal Republic Of Nigeria (1999). Universal basic education: Implementation guidelines. Abuja:
Federal Ministry of Education

Ogbonnaya, O. C. (2009, April 13). Senator seeks creation of ministry for the disabled. The Nation p. 9.

Ozefya, A. E.(2008). Accessibility to equal educational opportunities: implications or persons with
special needs in the UBE programme. Nigerian Journal of sociology of Education vol. II No. 2
p112 - 117

Safford, P. L. & Safford, E. J. (1996). A history of childhood and disability. New York: Teachers
College Press

Smith, D. D. (2007). Introduction to special education: Making a difference. New York: Pearson
Education Inc.

Van Riper .C & Erikson R. L (1996). Speech Correction: An Introduction to speech pathology and audiology (9
th

ed.) Boston. Allen and Bacon



October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 551

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

LINKAGE BETWEEN PETRO- CHEMICAL EMISSIONS AND
RESPIRATORY HEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF A PETRO-CHEMICAL
COMPANY HOST COMMUNITY IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA
By
INYANG, M. P. Ph.D
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education
University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt.
Telephone: +234 803 756 4011
Email: mfrekemfon@yahoo.com

&
OKPAKO, J.E.F. Ph.D
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education
University of Port-Harcourt, Port-Harcourt.
.
Abstract
Petro-chemical is any compound that is obtained from petroleum or natural gas. Industrial activities from Petrochemical
Companies trigger the emissions of chemicals into the air which are hazardous to human health. These in turn have
adverse effects on respiratory, reproductive and other systems of the body when inhaled through the air. The purpose of the
study was to establish the possible health effects of emissions from petrochemical activities on respiratory system of the
dwellers of Petrochemical industrial host community. Study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, copies of
questionnaire were administered on petro-chemical workers to elicit information on the presence of chemical hazards in the
industry. In the second phase, data on the prevalence of respiratory diseases were collected from case notes in feeder hospitals
and health centres within the host community. Copies of structured questionnaire were administered on respondents within
the community to elicit information on their respiratory health status. Total number of respondents who participated in the
study were700. Descriptive statistics of percentage was used in analyzing the data. Result revealed the release of hazardous
chemicals into the air from production processes in the petrochemical industry. Inhalation of polluted air due to emissions
from petro-chemical activities contributed to different types of respiratory tract infections among the host community
dwellers. A positive linkage between petro- chemical emissions and respiratory health problems were observed. Efforts by
managements of industries to carry out risk assessments of all industrial activities and designing of measures for controlling
and removing of hazardous waste were among the recommendations made.
Key words: Community, Respiratory health, Petro chemicals ,Linkage, Niger Delta Region, Nigeria.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 552

Introduction
Air is shared among all living things even when it is polluted by petro-chemical emissions. People have
no choice but to breathe in the air around them. Humans continue to inhale this polluted air
irrespective of the fact that the chemicals and particles are injurious to health. They breathe in ozone
particles and harmful gases that can hurt their lungs, heart and overall health. Exposure to particulate
matter has been linked to a vast range of respiratory and other diseases (Concha-Barrientos, et al,
2004). Air pollution negatively impacts human health by causing cough, burning eyes, respiratory
problems and even death(Windows to the Universe, 2006). Chemical emissions cause acid rain that
damages properties, pollutes water resources, harms forests, wildlife and agriculture (Windows to the
Universe, 2006). It is worth noting that people can only feel better as soon as the air quality improves
though not always.
Chemicals are acidic or alkaline substances which may occur naturally or artificially as solids,
liquids, gases, fumes, dusts and vapours (Nwachukwu, 2000). In whatever form they exist, chemicals
are recognized health hazards in occupations where they are involved in production processes. Where
they exist in particulate or gaseous form, they enter the body through the nose (Inhalation). Sources of
chemical poisoning include lead, mercury, carbon-monoxide, phenol, caustic soda, manganese and
aniline. Exposure to arsenic, asbestos, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, diesel exhaust, nickel and silica
were documented to cause deaths from lung cancer (World Health Organization, 2009). Exposure to
benzene, ethylene oxide and ionizing radiation were also known to cause leukaemia (Concha-
Barrientos, et al., 2004).
Human exposure can occur at different stages of the life-cycle of a chemical. Exposure can be
occupational during manufacturing, use and disposal. Consumers and host community dwellers can be
exposed to contaminated products or experience environmental exposure to toxic waste (WHO 2000;
WHO 2005; WHO 2008a; WHO 2008b). When chemicals are natural in origin or the outcome of
human activities, they still form part of the environment. Chemicals that occur naturally include arsenic
and particulate matters from forest fires. Chemicals that are manufactured are by products of industrial
activities. Such chemicals include petroleum products, processed metals, and products of combustions
which include toxic gases and particles from industrial emissions and burning of fuel (WHO 2000;
WHO 2005; WHO 2008a; WHO 2008b).
Exposure to dust, gas and fumes cause pneumoconiosis thereby resulting in several deaths
(Driscoll, et al., 2005; WHO 2009).Inhalation of mineral fumes, welding fumes, cadmium fumes and
sulfur dioxide predispose to cardio pulmonary disease (Rom & Markowitz 2007). Human exposure to
lead contributes mainly to cardiovascular diseases, childhood exposure leads to mild mental retardation
leading to reduced intellectual function, and additional outcomes which are more difficult to quantify
(Fewtrell, Kaufmann&Prss-Ustn, 2003).
Human exposure to arsenic can cause a variety of health effects and diseases, including cancer
of the skin, bladder, kidney and lungs. Other effects of long-term exposure are peripheral neuropathy,
gastrointestinal symptoms, diabetes, reproductive effects, enlarged liver, bone marrow depression,
destruction of erythrocytes, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease (WHO 2001; WHO 2004;
Smith & Steinmaus, 2009).Mercury compounds are toxic to the nervous, digestive, cardiovascular and
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 553
immune systems, lungs, kidneys, skin, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract. They also adversely impact on
development (Cohen, Bellinger &Shaywitz, 2005; Poulin & Gibb, 2008).
Continuous release of chemicals into the environment poses a threat to human health. Majority
of the public remain convinced that chemical effluents in the environment are a major cause of cancer,
cardiovascular disease and birth defects. Increased upper respiratory tract infections and asthma have
been blamed on exposure to petrochemical air pollution (WHO 2001; WHO 2001; WHO 2004; Smith
& Steinmaus,2009).The primary pollutants are basically from gas flaring, oil spills and deforestation.
Most of the time the spills are not cleaned up thus subsequently, it predisposes to corresponding forms
of health hazards and degradation of the surrounding environment.
The effects of poor quality of air on human health are enormous. Air pollution mostly affects
the respiratory tract and the cardiovascular system. Reaction to pollution varies between individuals
depending on the specific pollutant the individual is exposed to, the degree of exposure, health status
and the genetics (Windows to the Universe, 2000). The young, elderly, poor, the undernourished, and
those with cardiopulmonary disease, such as asthma or severe bronchitis are the most vulnerable to the
adverse effects of air pollution. Children are at a greater risk because their lungs are still growing.
Children play outside and are active; due to this they breathe more outdoor air than most adults. The
health effects of air pollutants ranges from difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and deterioration
of already existing cases of respiratory and cardiac conditions (Windows to the Universe, 2000). The
aftermath of air pollution starts from frequent taking of drugs to frequent visitations to hospitals and
hospitalizations unto premature deaths.
Eastburn (2006) posited that breathing small amounts of polluted air over the years is
dangerous. This may contribute to life-threatening diseases like cancer. Mishra (2003) submitted that air
pollution has been shown to cause acute respiratory tract infections in children and chronic bronchitis
in adults. He further stated that both short-term and long term exposures have been linked also with
premature mortality and reduced life expectancy.
The quality of air we breathe has the capability of influencing the health of the lungs and the
respiratory system as a whole. Pollutants found inside the air other than oxygen can be very harmful to
the lungs. Exposure to chemicals by inhalation can negatively affect the lungs and other organs of the
body (Windows to the Universe, 2000). A greater portion of the respiratory system is made up of
exposed membrane and this makes the system very sensitive to air pollutants. The lung tissues receive
abundant supply of blood which can carry the toxic substances inhaled and their metabolites to distant
organs. This implies that what ever happens to the lungs will not just be limited to it but has the
capability of extending to distant organs (Windows to the Universe, 2000).
The lungs cells have the capability of releasing a variety of potent chemical mediators inhaled
that may critically affect the function of other organs such as those of the cardiovascular system. This
response may lead to inflammation and impairment of lungs functions. The respiratory system is
sensitive to air pollution and the cardiovascular system might also be affected in the process (Windows
to the Universe, 2000).
The fact that air pollution causes ill health and death is well recognized (Mishra, 2003). Lucas
and Gilles (2003) opined that acute respiratory tract infection is one of the most important causes of ill
health and death in the developing world. They further stated that air pollution is a serious risk factor in
the development of acute respiratory tract infection. When air pollutants are inhaled, they are absorbed
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 554
into the blood stream for onward transportation to the heart. A wide spectrum of chemical and
biological substances may interact with the cardiovascular system thereby causing such structural
changes as degenerative necrosis and inflammatory reactions. Some of the pollutants may directly cause
functional alterations which may affect the rhythmicity and contractility of the heart (Lucas & Gilles,
2003).
If air pollution continues to threaten life even in developed countries though at a reduced level
then it will not be an understatement to say that it is worse in developing countries such as ours. The
central focus of this work therefore is on the linkage between Petro-chemical activities of the
Petrochemical Company and the respiratory health problems faced by the host community dwellers.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to establish the health effect of emissions from petrochemical activities
on the respiratory system of the industrial host community dwellers.
Research Questions
1) Are there chemical emissions from petrochemical activities which are hazardous to human
health?
2) Are the host community dwellers aware there are chemical emissions from petrochemical
activities which are capable of causing chemical air pollution and respiratory health problems?

Methodology
The study was a survey conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the population was made up of all
Petrochemical Company workers and community dwellers in the second phase. A total sample size of
700 respondents was used for the study. The total sample size was made up from two hundred
petrochemical workers purposively selected for the study in phases one of the study and five hundred
community dwellers in two. The first phase was to establish the existence of chemical emissions from
petro-chemical activities which could be hazardous to human health. A structured questionnaire on
chemical hazards (QOCH) with a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.80 was designed and used to
elicit the required information from the respondents.

In the second phase, data were also collected from host community dwellers within the study
area. The second phase was to establish the awareness of the industrial host community dwellers of
possible petrochemical emissions into the air causing chemical air pollution. Structured questionnaire
on the awareness of air pollution around them from chemical emissions and the associated health
implications (QAAPHI) was designed with a reliability coefficient of 0.74 to elicit information from the
respondents. Convenient sampling technique was used to select five hundred respondents on whom
copies of questionnaires were administered. The researchers were able to retrieve four hundred and
thirty copies of questionnaires out of the five hundred.

Secondary data were also collected from feeder hospitals and health centres in the community
to establish the morbidity pattern of respiratory diseases prevalent among the dwellers. Statistics of
different cases of respiratory tract infections were extracted from patients case notes in the hospitals
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 555
and health centres from 2006 to 2009. Age, sex, educational level and residential addresses of the
patients were extracted from their case notes. Their residential addresses were used to establish the
proximity between their residence and the petro-chemical plant.
Informed consent was obtained from appropriate authorities of petrochemical company, host
community dwellers, feeder hospitals and health centres to use patients case notes. Descriptive
statistics of percentage was used to analyze the data. The entire data were collected between February
and March 2010.
Results and Discussion
Table 1: Petrochemical workers responses on chemical hazards
Items Responses expressed in percentage
(%)
A* U** D*** Total
1).Certain chemicals are involved in production
processes and they constitute health hazards.

163
(81.5%)

12
(6%)

25
(12.5%)

200
(100)

2).I am aware that inhalation of these chemicals can
cause various degree of poisoning to internal organs
and dermatitis.

131
(65.5%)

31
(15.5%)

38
(19%)

200
(100%)

3).There has never been any incidence of occupational
health problems such as impotence, asthma and
development of thick rough skin in the Petrochemical
company due to chemical hazard.

29
(14.5%)

60
(30%)

111
(55.5%)

200
(100%)
*Agreed **Undecided ***Disagreed
Table 1 is a representation of the respondents responses on chemical hazards. Out of the total number
of respondents, 163(81.5%) agreed that certain chemicals are involved in production processes in the
Petrochemical Company within the study area. When they are emitted they pollute the air and
constitute health hazard to the workers and community dwellers. This finding tallied with the position
of Nwachukwu (2000) that chemicals are recognized as health hazards in occupations where they are
involved in production processes. Those undecided were 12(6%) while 25(12.5%) disagreed. The
number that disagreed and were undecided would have taken that position due to ignorance and those
on industrial attachment might not know so much about the job and the implications.
Those that agreed on the awareness of the adverse effects of inhaling the polluted air were
131(65.5%). This portrayed some elements of education on the inherent job hazards. Those that were
undecided were 31 (15.1%) while 38(19%) disagreed to being aware of the adverse effects of inhaling
chemicals.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 556
The number that agreed to never at any time incidence of occupational chemical hazard in their
company was 29(15.5%). This number of respondents might be of the opinion that it is not proper to
reveal the actual situation of things in the company and just decided to cover up. The undecided
respondents were 60(30%) while 111(55.5%) disagreed to this item. This shows the possibility of
previous cases of occupational health problems due to chemical hazards. Findings have also suggested
the emission of chemicals into the air and subsequent air pollution from industrial activities of the
Petrochemical Company.

Table 2: Morbidity Pattern of Respiratory Tract Diseases Among Community Dwellers.







Year No. of
cases
Children Adults Elders Total
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections
2006 2067 567 1001 499 2067
2007 2089 901 137 1051 2089
2008 3011 1089 891 1031 3011
2009 3040 922 1049 1069 3040
Asthma
2006 2099 721 870 508 2099
2007 4431 1051 2086 1294 4431
2008 4400 2001 1067 1332 4400
2009 4712 2017 978 1717 4712
Bronchitis
2006 3021 515 2015 491 3021
2007 3097 321 2056 720 3097
2008 3011 769 1211 1031 3011
2009 4111 922 2191 998 4111
Source: Community Feeder hospital and Health Centres
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 557
Table 2 represents cases of upper respiratory tract infections as collected from the feeder
hospital and health centres within the community from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2067 cases of upper
respiratory tract infections were recorded. Children, adults and the elderly ones were equally affected
and statistics are reflected accordingly. In the year, 2007, it increased to 2089, 3011 in the year 2008 and
3040 cases in the year 2009. The increasing trend in the number of cases was noticed. This can be
attributed to increasing industrial and production activities alongside with poor environmental
regulation. Findings tally with the position of Windows (2006) that chemical air pollution negatively
impacts human health by causing cough, burning eyes, respiratory problems and even death.
The statistics of asthma cases from the year 2006 to 2009 were recorded aside from those that
probably went on self medication and those that had no money to go to the health centre. The number
doubled in the year, 2007, and kept on increasing from 4,400 cases in the year 2008 to 4,712 cases in
the year 2009.Findings here corroborates the study of (WHO 2001; WHO 2004; Smith & Steinmaus
2009) that blamed increased upper respiratory tract infections and asthma on exposure to
petrochemical air pollution. This is not surprising because even in developed countries, air pollution,
though at a reduced level threatens life.
Cases of bronchitis recorded in the year, 2006 was 3021. It increased to 3,097 in 2007, dropped
a little to 3011 and increased alarmingly to 4111 in the year 2009. It can be observed from the table that
the adults were the most affected in this case. This is in line with the assertion of Mishra (2003) that air
pollution has been shown to cause acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in
adults. The increasing trend of respiratory tract diseases over the period (2006-2009) of data collection
affirms the submission of Lucas and Gilles (2003) that acute respiratory tract infection is one of the
most important causes of ill health and death in the developing world and air pollution a serious risk
factor in the development of acute respiratory tract infections.
Table 3: Community respondents responses on chemical air pollution.
Items Responses
A U D Total
1. Air pollution is the emission of potentially harmful
gases and particles into the atmosphere resulting to
damage in human health and environment.
318
73.9%

17
3.9%

95
22.1%

430
100%

2.
The air around the community is polluted by
chemical emissions from the Petrochemical
company.
291
67.7%

112
26.0%

27
6.3%

430
100%

3.
I do perceive the odour of chemicals in the air most
of the time.

323
75.1%

20
4.7%

87
20.2%

430
100%

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 558

Table 3 shows the respondents responses on the awareness of chemical air pollution within the study
community. The total number of respondents who knew the meaning of air pollution were 318(73.9%),
17(3.9%) were undecided while 95(22.1%) disagreed implying lack of knowledge.
The total respondents who agreed that the air around the community was polluted by chemical
emissions from the petrochemical company were 291(67.7%). The undecided number were 112(26.0%)
while 27(6.3%) disagreed. Findings corroborated that of Petrochemical workers who agreed there were
certain chemicals which were involved in production processes and were injurious to human health.
Respondents that agreed to perceiving the odour of chemicals most times were 323(75.1%).
Only 20(4.7%) were undecided while 87(20.2%) disagreed. Respondents that agreed that inhalation of
polluted air causes respiratory tract infections were 299(69.5%). This was in line with the assertion of
(WHO 2001; WHO 2004; Smith & Steinmaus,2009) that majority of the public remained convinced
that chemical effluents were major causes of cancer, cardiovascular disease and birth defects. The
undecided respondents were 65(15.1%) while 66(15.3%) disagreed. The disagreement could be
attributed to ignorance.
The total number of respondents that agreed they had suffered from various forms of
respiratory tract infections was 313(72.8%). This corroborates with the submission of (WHO 2001;
WHO 2004; Smith & Steinmaus, 2009) that increased respiratory tract infections and asthma has been
blamed on exposure to petrochemical air pollution. Respondents that were undecided were28 (6.5%)
while 89(20.7%) disagreed. Those that were undecided or disagreed could also be attributed to
unwillingness to own up.
Respondents that agreed to know other people that suffered from different forms of
respiratory tract infections were 217(50.5%). The undecided respondents were 89(20.7%) while
124(28.8%) disagreed.Those that agreed that they knew people within the community that died due to
4.
I am aware that inhalation of the polluted air causes
respiratory tract infections.
299
69.5%

65
15.1%

66
15.3%

430
100%

5. I have suffered from respiratory tract infection
before which could be attributed to the pollution of
the air around us.
313
72.8%
28
6.5%
89
20.7%
430
100%
6. I know of other people within the community that
suffered from one form of respiratory tract infection
or the other possibly due to the polluted air.

217
50.5%


89
20.7%



124
28.8%


430
100%
7. Some people have died due to different types of
respiratory tract infections which could be attributed
to the chemical air pollution.

191
44.4%

100
23.3%

139
32.3%

430
100%
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

ww

respiratory tract infection were 191(44.4%). Those that were undecided were 100(23.3%) while
139(32.3%) disagreed. This corroborates the assertion of Mishra (2003) that air pollution causes ill
health and death.
Conclusion
The study revealed that emissions from petro
area in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Due t
dwellers suffered from various forms of respiratory tract infections as confirmed by the statistics gotten
from the health centres. The dwellers of the community were aware of the air pollution and t
associated health implications. Most of them had at one time or the other visited the health centres for
treatment due to respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, there were those that did not survive it.
Recommendations
Based on the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made:
1) The management of industries should carry out risk assessment for all industrial activities.
2) Measures should be adopted by the management to control and remove hazardous wastes and
reduce environmental risks in petrochemical industries.
3) People should avoid living within high traffic and highly industrialized areas.
4) There is need for policy makers to assess relative importance of air pollution while setting
priorities for health programmes.
5) Management of enterprises should adopt measures to eliminate or minimize risks to workers
and the general population around and within the work place environment.

References
Concha-Barrientos, M., Imel,N. D., Driscoll, T., Steenland,N.K., Punnett, L.,
stn, A., Leigh.J., Tak, S.W.,& Corvaln, C. (2004).
Ezzati, A.D. Lopez, A. Rodgers & C.J.L. Murray (Eds).
World Health Organization.
Driscoll, T., Nelson, D.I., Steenland, K., Leigh, J., Concha
,A. (2005).The global burden of non
exposures, Am J Ind Med, 48
Eastburn,T.(2006). University Corporation for atmospheric research. Retrieved from
http://www.windows.Ucar. edu
Fewtrell, L, Kaufmann, R.B., & Prss
disease at national and local levels
quantifying_ehimpacts/ publications/ 9241546107/
Organization.
Lucas, A. O., & Gilles, H. M. (2003).
Arnold.
Mishra, V. (2003). Population-Environmental Research Network. Retrieved from
http://www.populationenvironmentresearch.org
National Population Commission (1997). The 1991 Census of Nigeria:
Nwachukwu, A. E. (2000). Industrial and Occupational health and safety
Poulin, J., & Gibb, H. (2008). Mercury:
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m
respiratory tract infection were 191(44.4%). Those that were undecided were 100(23.3%) while
This corroborates the assertion of Mishra (2003) that air pollution causes ill
The study revealed that emissions from petro-chemical activities caused air pollution within the study
area in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Due to inhalation of this polluted air, most of the community
dwellers suffered from various forms of respiratory tract infections as confirmed by the statistics gotten
from the health centres. The dwellers of the community were aware of the air pollution and t
associated health implications. Most of them had at one time or the other visited the health centres for
treatment due to respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, there were those that did not survive it.
onclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made:
The management of industries should carry out risk assessment for all industrial activities.
Measures should be adopted by the management to control and remove hazardous wastes and
nvironmental risks in petrochemical industries.
People should avoid living within high traffic and highly industrialized areas.
There is need for policy makers to assess relative importance of air pollution while setting
priorities for health programmes.
Management of enterprises should adopt measures to eliminate or minimize risks to workers
and the general population around and within the work place environment.
Barrientos, M., Imel,N. D., Driscoll, T., Steenland,N.K., Punnett, L., Fingerhut, M.A., Prss
stn, A., Leigh.J., Tak, S.W.,& Corvaln, C. (2004).Selected occupational
Ezzati, A.D. Lopez, A. Rodgers & C.J.L. Murray (Eds). Comparative quantification of health risks.
World Health Organization.
, T., Nelson, D.I., Steenland, K., Leigh, J., Concha-Barrientos, M., Fingerhut,M.,& Prss
The global burden of non-Malignant respiratory disease due to occupational airborne
48:432-45.
Eastburn,T.(2006). University Corporation for atmospheric research. Retrieved from
http://www.windows.Ucar. edu
Fewtrell, L, Kaufmann, R.B., & Prss-Ustn A. (2003). Lead: Assessing the environmental burden of
sease at national and local levels. Accessed from http:/ / www.who.int/
quantifying_ehimpacts/ publications/ 9241546107/ en/ index.html. Geneva: World
Lucas, A. O., & Gilles, H. M. (2003). Short textbook of public health medicine for the tropics(.4
Environmental Research Network. Retrieved from
http://www.populationenvironmentresearch.org.
National Population Commission (1997). The 1991 Census of Nigeria: Analytical Report.
Industrial and Occupational health and safety.Owerri: Totan Publishers Limi
Mercury: Assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and
A) VOL.20 (2).
u n i p o r t . c o m Page 559
respiratory tract infection were 191(44.4%). Those that were undecided were 100(23.3%) while
This corroborates the assertion of Mishra (2003) that air pollution causes ill
chemical activities caused air pollution within the study
o inhalation of this polluted air, most of the community
dwellers suffered from various forms of respiratory tract infections as confirmed by the statistics gotten
from the health centres. The dwellers of the community were aware of the air pollution and the
associated health implications. Most of them had at one time or the other visited the health centres for
treatment due to respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, there were those that did not survive it.
onclusion of the study, the following recommendations were made:
The management of industries should carry out risk assessment for all industrial activities.
Measures should be adopted by the management to control and remove hazardous wastes and
People should avoid living within high traffic and highly industrialized areas.
There is need for policy makers to assess relative importance of air pollution while setting
Management of enterprises should adopt measures to eliminate or minimize risks to workers
and the general population around and within the work place environment.
Fingerhut, M.A., Prss-
Selected occupational risk factors. M.
Comparative quantification of health risks.
Barrientos, M., Fingerhut,M.,& Prss-Ustn
respiratory disease due to occupational airborne
Eastburn,T.(2006). University Corporation for atmospheric research. Retrieved from
Lead: Assessing the environmental burden of
http:/ / www.who.int/
en/ index.html. Geneva: World Health
tropics(.4
th
ed. )London:
Environmental Research Network. Retrieved from
Analytical Report.
.Owerri: Totan Publishers Limited.
disease at national and
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

ww

local levels. In Environmental Burden of Disease
Rom, W.N., & Markowit, S.B. (2007).
Williams & Wilkins.
Windows to the Universe. (2000). University corporation for atmospheric research. Accessed from
http://www.windows.Ucar.edu
Windows to the Universe. (2006). University corporation fo
http://www.windows.Ucar. edu
World Health Organization. (2000).
Chemical Safety: Human exposure assessment
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc214.htm
World Health Organization.(2005).
nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf
World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organization. (2008a).
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/
World Health Organization. (2008b).
Chemical Safety: Principles for evaluating
chemicals. Retrieved from
Geneva:WHO.
World Health Organization. (2009).
major risks. Retrieved from
global health risks/en/index.html.














JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m
Environmental Burden of Disease Series, no. 16. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Rom, W.N., & Markowit, S.B. (2007). Environmental and occupational medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott
Windows to the Universe. (2000). University corporation for atmospheric research. Accessed from
http://www.windows.Ucar.edu
Windows to the Universe. (2006). University corporation for atmospheric research. Retrieved from
http://www.windows.Ucar. edu
World Health Organization. (2000). Environmental health criteria, No. 214, International Programme on
Human exposure assessment. Accessed from
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc214.htm Geneva: WHO.
World Health Organization.(2005). Air quality guidelines-Global update 2005. Particulate matter, ozone,
nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Retrieved from
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf
World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe.
World Health Organization. (2008a). Guidelines for drinking-water quality,(3
rd
ed.) Retrieved from
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/. Geneva: WHO
World Health Organization. (2008b). Environmental health criteria, No. 237, International Programme on
Principles for evaluating health risks in children associated with exposure to
from http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc237.pdf
World Health Organization. (2009). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of diseases attributable to selected
. Retrieved from http:/ / www.who.int/ health info/ global_burden_disease/
health risks/en/index.html. Geneva:WHO
A) VOL.20 (2).
u n i p o r t . c o m Page 560
. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Philadelphia: Lippincott
Windows to the Universe. (2000). University corporation for atmospheric research. Accessed from
r atmospheric research. Retrieved from
, International Programme on
Geneva: WHO.
Particulate matter, ozone,
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2006/WHO_SDE_PHE_OEH_06.02_eng.pdf. Copenhagen:
ed.) Retrieved from
. Geneva: WHO
International Programme on
ciated with exposure to
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc237.pdf.
diseases attributable to selected
http:/ / www.who.int/ health info/ global_burden_disease/
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 561

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

COMMUNITY EDUCATION AS RESPONSE TO THE CRISIS OF
ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION IN THE NIGER DELTA
By
ABANUM BEATRICE K.
Kosarabee@yahoo.com
and
EHEAZU LEWECHI C., Ph.D
Department of Adult & Non Formal Education,
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Lc4sure@yahoo.com
Abstract

This paper examines the principles of community education and its role in combating environmental
degradation in the Niger delta. The authors suggest that community education as a functional and non-
formal mode of education can assist the rural communities of the region to become critically aware of the
dangers posed by environmental degradation. Community education will also help the various Niger
Delta communities adopt environmentally proactive behaviours.













October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 562

Introduction
The key component to understanding and addressing the problem of environmental degradation is
environmental awareness. Schmitz, Stinson and James (2010) quoted Scerri as saying that
environmental sustainability has become a prominent global issue. The United Nations Conference on
the Human Environment Declaration (1972) states that the protection and improvement of the human
environment is a major issue which affects the wellbeing of peoples and economic development
throughout the world. The declaration also noted that most of the environmental problems of the
developing nations are caused by under development and human actions. For the developing nations
to attain sustainable development, the principle of protecting and improving the environment for
present and future generations must be taken seriously by these nations. According to Johnston (2003),
the 1992 earth summits message is that there must be a transformation of peoples attitude and
behaviour that would lead to sustainability. Community education as a functional and non-formal
education is suitable to educate the rural poor on how to protect and improve their environment for
their own use and the use of the future generation.
Oil spillage and gas flaring has caused a lot of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta
region. This has resulted in schisms between the oil industries and the host communities. Some of these
spills have been attributed to sabotage on the part of the communities. Whether the allegation of
sabotage is true or not, the fact remains that these communities do not understand the present and
future impact of these oil spills and gas flaring to their survival as a people. This is where community
education comes in; to educate the people on the problems and implications of environmental
degradation.
Environmental degradation
Environmental degradation is a situation in which human actions affect the natural environment and
cause damages leading to loss of biodiversity and natural resources of the environment. It is the
deterioration of the environment which leads to depletion of the earths resources. Environmental
degradation in the Niger Delta is a multifunctional phenomenon arising from several influencing
factors. A major cause of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta is oil exploration and
exploitation which has left the region as an ecological waste land (Uyigue and Agho, 2007). Other
causes of environmental degradation are poverty and illiteracy.
While the activities of the oil companies cause water and air pollution, poverty and illiteracy
lead the communities to indulge in reckless behavior such as dynamite fishing and vandalisation of oil
pipeline which causes more damage than the activities of the oil companies. Akasike (2012) observes
that the shady deals of illegal refinery and oil bunkering have damaged the environment beyond reason,
noting that the self-inflicted injury is evident in the loss of the biodiversity of the environment. The
resultant effect is that the traditional crops in the Niger Delta such as cassava and plantain no longer
yield much output. Gas flaring is also another cause of environmental degradation which according to
Uyigue and Agho has not only raised the regions temperature, leading to global warming but has also
rendered large areas of the region inhabitable. Environmental degradation in the Niger Delta is not only
an ecological problem but also a socio economic problem in the sense that peoples welfare, income
and livelihood are at risk.
According to Babalola, Babalola and Okhale (2010), the Nigerian government through the Federal
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 563
Ministry of Environment (FME), formally Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) has been
making efforts to educate the public on environmental issues. In the 1998 National Policy on
Environment, emphasis was placed on the promotion of comprehensive curricula that integrates
environment and development concepts in the educational curricula at all levels. Babalola, Babalola and
Okhale (2010) also note that the ministry had recommended the setting up of environmental
conservation clubs in the secondary schools. Ifoni and Adekola (2011) on their part note that education
planners in Nigeria have done well in infusing environmental education into the formal education
system. While these efforts are commendable, they are still a long term approach to addressing the
problem of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta region.
In his argument, Ward (2007) maintains that the current education system does not have the
element of holistic approach to environmental degradation. Morag (2008) argues that irrespective of the
Tbilisi Declaration of 1977, much of the environmental education resources are channelled into formal
schools. This is where community education comes in. Community education as an approach is a life-
long process aimed at educating the whole community on issues concerning their environment and
equipping them with skill to take proactive actions in ensuring its sustainability. Maser and Kirk as cited
in Morag (2008) noted that community education or what they called community environmental
education is underpinned by an environmental education framework aimed at educating communities,
empowering them with the skills, values, knowledge and awareness to critically assess and take action
over local environmental issues.
Effects of Environmental Degradation on the Niger Delta
Poverty and Unemployment: due to the heavy pollution of the environment, especially of the
water resources, the communities have lost their income generating activities thus leading to
chronic poverty. Okon and Egbon as cited in Eregha and Irughe (2009) noted that with the
destruction of the main source of income and the productive activities of the region, one of the
economic concerns of the region is the resultant increasing unemployment. Because of being
thrown out of traditional means of livelihood, people resort to environmental degradation
practices such as pipe line vandalisation and dynamite fishing.
Armed Conflicts: environment degradation has led to a deep seated sense of marginalization
and neglect by the people of the region. This in turn has led to armed conflict by the youths in
the region. In order to equip themselves for the armed conflict, the people resort to oil
bunkering and pipe line vandalisation which in turn leads to more environmental problems
greater than that caused by the oil companies.
Prevalence of diseases: according to Eregha and Irughe (2009), the prevalence of HIV/AIDS
scourge in the region is higher than any other part of the nation. Citing the UNDP 2006 report,
they observed that the HIV/AIDS scourge wreaks havoc where there is poverty, inequality and
marginalization. There had been cases of water borne diseases and breathing problems among
the populace. Egbe and Thompson (2010) observes that most of the polluted sites in the Niger
Delta contain high levels of heavy metals that could lead to various diseases such as kidney and
liver damage and even various forms of cancer.
Urban Migration: due to loss of traditional means of livelihood, the people migrate from the
rural areas to the urban areas. Efole (2004) submitted that this migration exerts pressure on the
inadequate facilities and dilapidated infrastructure in these urban areas which in turn increases
the level of poverty in the region.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 564

Community Education
Community education is a process of learning that utilizes community resources to bring about
community change. AONTAS ( 2012) sees community education as a process of personal and
community change and collective responsiveness. Community education provides learning
opportunities that addresses the environmental needs of the community and by so doing the well-being
of both the participant and the community is nurtured through the process. It is also a means of
disseminating knowledge and developing skills among the community in order to bring about changes
in behavior and lifestyle that will impact on the environment. Community education is an approach to
public education and enlightenment that can utilize culturally relevant social groups and community
based organizations to bring about environmental attitudinal change in the community. Through its
holistic approach to issues affecting the community, it builds the capacity of groups to engage in
learning process that is participative and needs based. Community education engenders equality, justice
and inclusiveness.
Principles of community education and their implication for environmental protection
Community education is based on certain principles which if properly utilized will help to address the
problem of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta. These principles include
Empowerment: environmental degradation has been linked to poverty. Community education
can utilise the principle of empowerment to address the issue of poverty in the region. This it does
through capacity building. Capacity building will not only aim at developing capabilities but also
will induce behavior change and adoption of new values.
Self-determination: local people are usually in the best position to determine their needs. Self-
determination engenders community engagement. The people have the right to be involved in
determining their needs and identifying community resources to help meet those needs. Such
resources could be retired professionals who will devote their time in making sure that
environmental protection projects are put in place in the region.
Self-help: closely linked to self-determination is the principle of self-help. This is the idea that
people are better off when their ability to help themselves is developed and acknowledged.
Leadership Development: community education could utilize the various community based
organization in the region in identifying and developing leaders and leadership capacity in order to
enhance self-help efforts.
Institutional responsiveness: the region is dotted with oil prospecting and producing companies
which can develop programmes and services using local resources to meet the environmental
protection needs of the communities.
Integrated Delivery of Services: community education enables collaboration between the oil
companies and Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) in the region which have community
development interest to help meet the goals of both the oil companies and the communities.
Lifelong Learning: community education being a lifelong learning process ensures a long term
and sustainable approach to any effort made towards curbing environmental degradation in the
region.
Inclusiveness: community education allows for the inclusion of the broadest possible cross
section of the people in seeking solutions to the menace of environmental degradation in the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 565
region.
Role of community education in preventing environmental degradation
Community education encourages and strengthens local participation in environmental
degradation prevention projects in the Niger Delta. This it can do through environmental
awareness and clean up campaigns.
Through the process of community education, citizen participation to ensure public input in the
definition of environmental policy objectives can be secured.
Community education process will not only help build community capacity but also will help in
poverty alleviation programmes which can help lead to a reduction in environmental
degradation behaviours and also enable communities build sustainable patterns of living.
Community education will promote the understanding of the linkages between the
environment, resources and development. It will also encourage individual and community
participation in environmental improvement efforts.
The educational challenges for sustainable environment can only be met through the process of
community education
Community education promotes continuity and stability which are the necessary steps towards
achieving environmental sustainability.
Conclusion
To address the problem of environmental degradation, Nigeria as a nation must change her system to
reflect and instil tools, norms and goals which are concurrent with recognizing intrinsic values in the
environment. Such values include the conservation and the use of the environment and natural
resources for the benefit of present and future generations. Protecting the environment demands
cultural changes and a rearrangement of development strategies which will have to include community
education to stop the degradation of the natural resources. As an effective approach, community
education will not only empower but also equip the local communities in the region to take action
against environmental degradation.
References
Akasike, C. (Feb, 5 2012). NDelta: caught between oil companies and environmental degradation. The
Punch Newspaper.
AONTAS (2012). Community education. The National Adult learning organization. Dublin, Ireland.
Babalola,Y.T, Babalola, A.D and Okhale, F.O (2010). Awareness and accessibility of environmental
information in Nigeria: evidence from delta state. Library Philosophy and Practice. ISSN 1522-0222
Efole, M A. (2004). Environmental degradation and economic impact of oil expolaration in Isokoland. A paper
presented at the 2
nd
national convention of the Isoko Association of North America. USA, New
York City.
Egbe, R.E and Thompson,D. (2010). Environmental challenges for families in oil producing
communities of the Niger delta region. JHER vol 13 :24-34.
Eregha, P.B and Irughe, I.R (2009). Oil induced environmental degradation in the Nigerias Niger delta:
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 566
the multiplier effects. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa. 11(4)
Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). (1998). Draft revised national policy on environment.
Abuja.
Ifoni, C and Adekola, G (2011). Infusing environmental education themes into the curriculum of adult
and basic post literacy education in Nigeria. Journal of Nigeria National Council for Adult Education.18
(1) 36-52.
Johnston, J.D (2003). Sustainable development learning as enticement to environmental action. Unpublished
Masters Thesis. Antigonish, NS: St. Francis Xavier University.
Morag, B. (2008). Community environmental education as a model for effective environmental
programmes. Australian Journal of Environmental Education.
Schmitz, C. L, Stinson, C. H and James,C. D (2010). Community and environmental sustainability:
collaboration and interdisciplinary education. Critical social work. 11 (3)
United Nations (1978). Declaration of the United Nations conference on the human environment.
Stockholm.
Uyigue, E and Agho, M (2007). Coping with climate change and environmental degradation in the Niger delta of
Southern Nigeria. Benin: Community Research and Development Center (CREDC).
Ward, J (2007). Capitalism, educationand environmental degradation: is it the system or the syllabus.Stockholm
Universitet.













October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 567

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

FOSTERING SPOUSAL EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION: TOWARDS
COUNSELLING INTERVENTION FOR FAMILY SECURITY

By
ONIYE, ABDULRAZAQ OLAYINKA, Ph.D

MRS. ODEBODE, AMINAT ADEOLA
Department of Counsellor Education, Faculty of Education
University of Ilorin, Ilorin

&

MISS LEMBOYE, MODUPEOLA RASHEEDAT
Moslem Comprehensive High School, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State

Abstract
This study identifies means of fostering effective communication between spouses. Ineffective
communication is one of the major setbacks to the marital relationship thus a threat to family security.
Marital institution is a very important sector of a nation therefore it has to be protected from all harm.
The paper recommended listening carefully and attentively, creating time for each other, being open as
guidelines to fostering effective spousal relationship.
Keywords: communication, family, couple,







October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 568

Introduction
The family is an integral part of the society and therefore if any harm or mishap occurs to the family,
the society will inevitably be affected. Family is a group of people tied together by physical factors such
as communion ancestry, residence in the same household, or by legal bonds such as marriage and
adoption (Oniye, 2004). Nwadinobi (2010) defines family as an outgrowth of marital relationship.
Family is the bedrock of any society (Olayinka& Omoegun, 2002). According to Nwobi (1997), family
is a bio-social group, a network of persons intimately held together by a bond of social kinship or blood
relationships.
Before a family can be said to exist, marriage has to occur be it legalised or not. Oniye (2008)
defined marriage as a complex and unique relationship between two strange human beings, joined
together by that complex phenomena called love. Marriage is a religious duty and is consequently a
moral safeguard as well as a social necessity (Munroe, 2003). Marriage is the union of a man and a
woman for reasons best known to them. These reasons could include fulfilling religious obligations,
legal sexual gratification, security, communication, companionship, procreation, social status etc. The
list is exhaustive.
Communication, according to Nwadinobi (2010) means either telling someone about something
or writing to someone. She also saw communication as the pillar which maintains the structure of
peaceful co-existence and mutual understanding among individuals. It involves encoding and sending
messages, receiving and decoding them and synthesising information and meaning (Idowu& Esere,
2007). Hybels & Weaver (2001) see communication as any process in which people share information,
ideas and feelings which involves not only the spoken and written word but also body language,
personal mannerisms and styles. Communication is the process of sending and receiving information
verbally and non-verbally.
Factors Responsible for Communication Breakdown among Couples
For a healthy, secured and peaceful family, there are numerous factors which can make it so of which
effective communication is one of the most important. If there is no effective communication between
husband and wife, parent(s) and children, the unity of the family could be destroyed as Olagunju&
Eweniyi(2002) have rightly said, communication is a life-wire of marriage relationship or any other
meaningful relationship. Esere (2008) noted that as long as spouses are talking with each other, there is
the chance that they will resolve whatever problems might come their way. She also said that the more
spouses share their mutual interests, the closer their talk, and this in turn will bring them together as
they discuss goals, mutual responsibility, and the joint rewards that will result. There is discernible
evidence of communication gaps, misconstrued intentions, misinterpreted and misunderstood
messages, inappropriately transmitted and poorly received messages (Ipaye, 1995).
It can therefore be said that the role of communication cannot be overemphasised but many
families crash because of a breakdown in communication. Scholars like Omotosho (1994), Esere
(1999), Ojiah (2004), Idowu & Esere (2007) have put forth the following as obstacles to effective
communication.
1. Selective Listening: this is choosing to hear only what we choose to hear, failing to listen and
being overly concerned about getting our responses across. Some people already have it mind not
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 569
to listen to what the other person wants to say
2. Lack of attending: attending is a manner of being present to another. It involves listening to
words, sentences, noticing the tone of voice, mood of the speaker, reflecting on what has been
heard and even understanding the non-verbal cues being sent forth. Attending is communication
itself as it passes a message to the speaker that the listener thinks its totally important to be with
him or her. Most people when accused of not listening tell the other that they can repeat word
for word what the other person has said. Attending is really more than just being able to repeat
what the other has said.
3. Authority as a barrier: a typical African husband has the notion that as head of the family, he can
never be wrong, he knows what is best for the family and that whatever he says should be final
and not to be challenged. This attitude can spell doom for the family as the wife can choose to
either always challenge the man or withdraw and let him have his way thereby suppressing the
feelings of the wife and making her frustrated with the marriage.
Guidelines for Fostering Effective Communication among Couples
Having identified some of the obstacles to effective communication, it is only fair to suggest workable
guidelines for fostering effective communication.
1. Listen carefully and attentively: couples will communicate better if they learn to listen carefully
and attentively to what the other is saying. This will enable them get full grasp of what is being
said to facilitate better understanding.
2. Being open: partners should try as much as possible to be open to the others complaints,
compliments, gestures and the likes. Partners should not behave or act in ways that presents
them as being inconsiderate and not being concerned about the other. They should try as much
as possible to avoid generalising and assuming. Partners should endeavour to to be ready to
listen to whatever the other has to say if and when he or she indicates readiness to
communicate.
3. Create time for each other: some partners live a monotonous life of housemates instead of
couples with no time to sit and chat with each other. For instance, a husband who leaves for
work by 7:00 am and returns home by 9:00pm only to eat and retire to bed thereafter repeating
the same cycle every day. This kind of situation discourages communication between couples.
Couples should therefore be encouraged to create time for each other when they can talk, play
and do so many other wonderful things together as a couple.
4. Be observant: partners should be observant of each others mood and tone of voice. This
would enable them to know how, when and when not to bring up issues that may or may not
cause problems all things being equal.
5. Develop your own language: couples should be encouraged to develop their own language
popularly called slang by the younger generation be it verbal and/ or non- verbal which can
be used to communicate with each other even in the presence of other people without letting
those other people have of an inkling into what they are saying to each other.
Conclusion
Family security is an essential aspect of the security and development of a nation and the world as a
whole. If something was to go wrong with the family, the nation is sure to be affected. The family
cannot succeed if spouses do not succeed in their relationship. The role of counselling in fostering
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 570
effective communication among couples cannot be overemphasised and should not be treated with
levity. Counsellors have the duty of enlightening their clients who come for marital counselling on the
role communication plays in the success of their marital relationship, the obstacles to effective
communication and suggestions on how to foster effective communication. Hopefully, if couples take
note of the above, they would learn to communicate better first with each other and the other members
of the family thereby creating a secured and harmonised family which invariably would lead to social
security for the society.
References
Esere, M. O. (1999) The importance of communication in marital relationship. Ikeja: Divine News
Publication. 1(2)
Esere, M. O. (2008) Communication in marital relationship in Lasiele et al (2008) Marriage, sex and
family counselling. Ilorin: Unilorin Press.
Hybels, S. & Weaver, R. I. (2001). Communicating effectively. Boston: Glencoe and Mcgraw Hill.
Idowu, A. I. & Esere M. O. (2007). Communication in counselling: A multidimensional perspective.
Ilorin: Tim Sal Publishers.
Ipaye, B. (1995). Guidance and counselling in Nigerian Schools. Lagos: Chayoobi Printers and
Publishers.
Munroe, M. (2003). Marriage preparation education. A Journal of Sound Islamic Thoughts.1(1),11-20.
Nwadinobi, V. N. (2010). Influence of communication on family adjustment among nuclear families in
Onitsha Urban- Implication for National Development in the Conference Proceedings 2010,
vol 1, 135-145.
Nwobi, P. C. (1997). Marriage and family counselling. Enugu: Pan African Publishers.
Ojiah, P. O. (2004). Fostering interpersonal relationship: The Counsellors viewpoint. The Nigerian
Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 9(1), 121-136
Olagunju, O. P. & Eweniyi, G. B. (2002). Communication: A strategy in conflict resolution among
organisational workers. The Counsellor, 19(1), 66-78.
Olayinka, M. S.& Omoegun, O. M. (2002).Principles and practice of guidance and counselling. Ikorodu:
Bb Sheriff & co. Limited.
Omotosho, J. A. (1994). Principles of interpersonal relationship. Unpublished manuscript, Department
of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ilorin.
Oniye, A. O.(2004). Marital and family counselling in Idowu A. I. (ed) Guidance and Counselling in
Education. Ilorin: Indemac Publishers Nig. Ltd.
Oniye, A. O. (2008). Concept and types of marriages in Yahaya L. I. Et al Marriage, Sex and family
Counselling. Unilorin Press.



October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 571

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FOR CONSTRUCTIVE UNIONISM:
IMPLICATIONS FOR WORKERS EDUCATION
BY
M.O.A EZIMAH, Ph.D
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
Port Harcourt

Abstract
The need for workers education for constructive trade unionism cannot come at a better time than now
when organizations are experiencing incessant industrial crisis thus escalating the present world economic
meltdown. The objective this paper, therefore, is to conscientize workers, trade union personnel as well as
the management of organizations on the importance of collective bargaining and working class education
as an integrated approach to sustainable workers efficiency and good labour-employer relations.













October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 572

Introduction
Throughout the world, workers represent a homogeneous group because they share a common fate of
subordination to the control of owners and managers of organizations who have the power to make
decisions that shape their daily lives. However, workers always have responded by educating and
enlightening themselves and by taking control of their own decision-making. Workers create
cooperatives, communes, unions, political parties, pressure groups, study groups, socialism, and
communism, anarchism, and syndicalism.
They have initiated mass strikes, spread solidarity, and entered into other adventures and
agreements to control their own activities and to effect social change (Hellyer and Schulman, 1989).
Labour union programmes go beyond collective bargaining to include educational tasks. Indeed
collective bargaining makes tremendous demands on the education of workers. This is necessary in
order to create a congenial labour-employer relation.
Collective bargaining has been conceived as a process whereby the management and unions
engage in a periodic ritual of negotiating agreement over wages, hours, and working conditions
(Baterman and Snell, 1999; Koko, 2001). It is a process by which the two units are brought together for
a joint determination and settlement of the terms of employment to ensure harmonious and stable
relationship between the employers and employees. Two types of disputes can arise during this process.
First, before an agreement is reached, the workers may go on strike to compel agreement on their
terms. or conditions put before the employers. Such an action is known as an economic strike and it
is permitted by law. Once the agreement is signed, however, j management and the union can still
disagree over -&& interpretation of the agreement. Such a disagreement is usually settled through
arbitration.
Arbitration is the last stage in a formal grievance process. It is sometimes used in collective
bargaining as part of contract negotiation. Arbitration is an important tool in maintaining stability
within an organization. The application of arbitration in organizations covers all aspects of settlement
except in criminal cases. The most important use of arbitration in labour relations is that it is that final
stage in grievance procedure
Peers (1972) has identified three main interrelated but largely educational tasks confronting the
trade unions to include the education of the rank and file to an understating of the responsibilities and
democratic significance of their trade union membership and the wider relationships involved within
the larger society; the education of local branch officials, involving not only a fuller understanding of
the social setting in which the trade union movement operates, but also the practical techniques which
they need as leaders and representatives of their constituencies and finally, the education of full-time
officers, which involves not merely a comprehensive understanding of the complicated economic and
political issues confronting the trade unions, the organizations and the nation of which they are part,
but also more specialized training, for instance in the legal aspects of trade unionism, in administration
and office management, and in the techniques of negotiation.
Furthermore, both the lay and the full-time officers of trade unions need, just as much as those charged
with the responsibilities of management, to study the problem of human relations in industry, and not
only as between the rank and file and the different grades of management, but also as they affect the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 573
life and vigour of the unions themselves.
More importantly, there is a real need for more ability in the use of language art both as a
means to the achievement of greater knowledge and as vehicle of the clearer expression of ideas. The
general lack of this skill not only keeps many from active participation in union and other activities, but
also prevents them from taking advantage of other opportunities of workers education. Instruction in
the practical uses of language with a view to the needs of adult life is a task, which belongs properly to
earlier education, and to part-time further education. To manage collective bargaining successfully will
require that only those adept in social engineering should be charged with the formulation and
interpretation of trade union policy in both trade unions and organizations.
Labour Unionism and Workers Education: Policy Direction in Nigeria
The key question that needs to be answered here is, should the study of working-class education be
used to denote the development of proficiencies for collective bargaining? Certainly not. The
educational activities of workers, when defined by their interests, go beyond the acquisition of job
skil1s or management of the union. Educational activities must be an integral part of social action.
However, attention is here devoted to educational activities that occur in the realm of the greatest
urgency for workers, that is activities that impact workers own efforts to influence their day-to-day
circumstances as well as their future options. To these ends, we will now discuss some provisions for
trade union education in Nigeria.
According to the Annual Report of the Ministry of Employment, Labour and Productivity,
1973-74, trade union education literally means education for trade unionism. Its stated aims are:
(a) Raising the educational standard of workers
(b) Promoting healthy trade unionism among the rank and file of workers, trade union bodies and
international trade union organizations (Chineme, 1986).
The history of labour activities in Nigeria indicates a plethora of activities heavily weighed on the latter
(b) above. Again this reveals according to the report of the Nigerian Labour Congress to the Second
Triennial Delegate Conference in March, 1984 that workers education is purely trade unionism
(Chineme, 1986). This narrow application need not be. The primary objective of workers education is
the education of workers as individuals, which is geared towards greater productivity
The Principle of Collective Bargaining and Contemporary Working Class Education
Effort is here made to identify and discuss some aspects of the modern educational activities of
workers as members of a class. Collective bargaining is a term so often used in trade unionism. It is a
conflict resolution mechanism. It could be applied proactively or retroactively in the management of
labour crises and agreements. The intention in this piece is not to examine the nitty-gritty of collective
bargaining as a process of conflict resolution but how the gamut of working- class education can be
used to achieve greater work efficiency and better conditions of service. As we examine some
contemporary examples of working-class education, we begin with the premise that such education
whether incidental or
Intentional, occurs as an aspect of working peoples struggle to achieve power over their own economic
survival and to achieve goals that may or may not coincide with those of their employers or potential
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 574
employers. Historically, two groups of people are involved in this compelling struggle for economic
survival: those whose experiences are shaped by unemployment and homelessness identified as the
underclass and the embattled industry workers driven by economic survival needs.
In the contemporary context, working-class education is designed by, with, and for workers to
satisfy their own goals for daily survival, long-term security, and if possible, empowerment. The
exigencies of modern capitalism have combined with the aspirations of workers, both individually and
collectively, to create some workers educational initiatives. Hence much of the energy in workers
educational experiences has gone into intensified attempts to support workers efforts to salvage old
jobs, to train new ones and to create alternative business structures in which to work. A focus on self-
determination has also shaped some innovative approaches to education and on-the-job training.
The contents of working-class educational programmes may differ radically, and thus the
objectives of these programmes must be critically examined. For example, the programmes created for
workers by people outside the labour movement, as well as by workers themselves, may be based on a
deep commitment to major social change but with little official support by organizations (journals,
newspapers, forums, and so on). Some programmes may be directed to improving the level of the
educationally disadvantaged (university extension programmes) while others are designed to build class-
consciousness, organizational loyalty, and participation. But all working-class educational programmes
contain, at least in some form, elements of each. The common thread running throughout all these
educational approaches is a need by workers to enjoy a better quality of life (Hellyer and Schulman,
1989; Welton, 1993).
Good industrial relations will require that those entrusted with union matters should have
adequate information and communication skills. There is therefore need for experiment with courses in
the art of expression, which are of special interest to trade unionists. It is important, both for the
unions themselves and also for the organizations, that those who at different levels are charged with the
formulation and interpretation of trade union policy should not only be men and workers of vision and
understanding, but should also have the technical knowledge and ability necessary for the carrying out
their duties efficiently.
This technical training falls into two parts: that which is specific to the trade union movement
itself and to particular unions, and that which is shared with other possible elements in the industry. In
the former category, for example, include courses in the structure and organization of trade unions,
with special reference to particular unions; trade union policy relating to wages and methods of
payment, hours of labour, overtime, etc.; techniques of negotiation; trade union statistics; committee
work and secretarial practice in their particular trade union application, etc. These are practical studies
which the union themselves or bodies which they create for the purpose must be responsible for
initiating. But there are other technical studies, which are of common interest to responsible trade
unionisms and also to others who aspire to leadership position in industry. These include various
aspects of scientific management, such as time and motion study, job evaluation, and incentive payment
schemes and other methods of improving productivity and reducing costs; techniques of joint
consultation; automation and its effects on production and labour, industrial law etc. there are
advantages in bringing together the management and trade union personnel for studies of this kind.
Both are equally entitled to have facilities for the technical education of those who serve them, whether
as voluntary or as professional workers.
It should be made clear, however, that underlying all of these apparently technical studies, there
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 575
are others, which involve broader theoretical reasoning; for examples, wage theories and general
economic theory underlying wages policy; social psychology in relation to techniques of negotiation and
consultation; public administration and organization; industrial organization to provide the framework
for the discussion of managerial practice, and so on. Unless these foundation studies can be combined
with the more technical applications of them, progress towards deeper understanding will be slow. And
it is understanding that is the essence of effective leadership.
The Level of Commitment by Organizations
It is a sad comment that workers education is not taken into account in educational planning and in
development as a whole in Nigeria. Apart from government lip service to this important aspect of
education, the organized private sector has fared no less. Admittedly, workers education and training as
provided in the National Policy on Education (2004:25) state education is not only the greatest force
that can be used to bring about redress but is also the greatest investment that the nation can make for
the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources. Unfortunately the
mechanism to enforce this provision has been lacking. Consequently, Nigeria has within the past
twenty years witnessed incessant industrial unrest in both public and private sectors.
To enhance the prospects of collective bargaining, trade union members fas well as
organizations in which they work, should develop programmes that could increase workers
opportunities for self-determination by giving priority to working-class education. Shor (1988) in his
manual for Freirian-style job-training argues that training courses themselves limit student interest in
critical thinking. To recreate workers and future workers as critical thinkers, we must, he maintains,
challenge workers to do critical analysis of their social and economic conditions while they learn the
skills for a particular job. Shor offers an agenda of nine values that must inform job-training education:
participation, critical inquiry, pedagogy situated in the learners context, dialogue, desocialization of
learner passivity, democracy interdisciplinary approaches, and activism. In this way, learners learn more
than technical skills required to perform a task; they unpack the culture of the particular vocation and
its position in the economy. The agenda of nine values is instructive for a design for vocational
education and on-the- job training.
Conclusion
It is clear from this analysis that trade unionism and working-class education can only be effectively
organized on the basis of cooperation between the unions themselves and a variety of educational
bodies, including the adult education department of universities and voluntary educational
organizations. In other words, it requires careful planning and coordination, both locally and nationally,
if the need is to be adequately met and if all its different aspects are to be properly related. It requires
central trade union organization capable of taking the initiative.
It is therefore hoped that this will reduce considerably the tension between the labour unions
and employers of labour. The promotion of workers education by both the unions and organizations
will reduce industrial unrest that characterize modern labour unionism in Nigeria. Collective bargaining
as an exercise in critical dialogue will then become mutual in the two-fold perspective of enhancing
workers welfare and peace for greater productivity in the work place.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 576

References

Bateman, T.S and Snell, S.A. (1999). Management: Building Competitive Advantage. Boston:
Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Chineme, P. 0. (1986). The Labour Force: A Critical Look at the
Need for In-Service On-The-Job and Professional Continuing Education in Nigeria.
Omolewa and B.A. Eheazu (eds), The Right to Learn: Role of Non-Formal Education in
Nigeria. Ibadan: Afrografika Publishers.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). The National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC Press.

Hellyer, M. R.and Schulman, A. (l989). Workers Education. B. Merriam and P. M. Cunningham
(eds), Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education. Washington, D. C.: AAACE.

Koko, M.N. (2001). Human Management: A Practical Approach. Port Harcourt: Pre-Joe Publishers.

Peers, R. (1972). Adult Education: A Comparative Study. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd.

Shor, I. (1986). Working Hands and Critical Minds: A Paulo Freire Model for Job-Training. Chicago:
Alternative Schools Network.

Welton, M. R. (1993). Dangerous Knowledge: Canadian Workers Education in the Decades of
Discord. R. Edwards, S. Sieminski, and D. Zeldin (eds). Adult Learners, Education and
Training. London: Routledge.














October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 577

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

HOME FACTORS AS CORRELATE OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT IN RIVERS STATE

BY

DR. GLORY N. AMADI
&
PATRICK I. ECHEBE
Department of Educational Psychology,
Guidance & Counseling,
University of Port Harcourt
Nigeria.


Abstract
The study investigated the relationship between home factors (socio-economic status and child rearing
styles) and students academic achievement in Rivers State, Nigeria. Nine hundred and eighty six
students of the senior secondary one (SS 1) in public secondary schools were used for the study. A
structured questionnaire tagged Environmental Factors Questionnaire (EFQ), developed by the
researchers was used to elicit information from the subjects. Two research questions and two hypotheses
guided the study. The Pearson product moment correlations statistic and z-test were used to answer the
analyze the data. At 0.05 level of significance, the study found that socio-economic status and child-
rearing styles had significant positive relationship with students academic achievement. Based on the
results, government is encouraged to embark on poverty reduction programmes and train parents on good-
rearing patters.




October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 578

Introduction
Human capital development has been described as a sine qua non for national development (Okoh,
1983). Education has also remained the main channel through which human resource can be adequately
harnessed. The Nigerian National Policy on Education (2004) spells out that education is the greatest
instrument that the nation can use for quick development of its economic, political, social and human
resources. This awareness has driven all and sundry into search for ways and means of ensuring
qualitative educational delivery. Researchers on their part have never left any stone unturned in
investigating and examining factors and variables that interplay in the educational process.
One of the major areas of focus currently is the impact of home-environment factor on the
academic achievement of students. Prior to this time, much of research attention were directed to
teachers instructional methods, curriculum and administration related factors vis--vis students
academic achievement (Umoh, 1999; Ezeudu, 1999, Ejide, 2000 Agulanna, 2002; Ukoha, 2002). These
widely investigated factors were actually found to be significantly related to academic achievement, and
based on their invaluable recommendations made, efforts seemed to have been made by all concerned
(Government, school administrators, and teachers) to buffer the situation. Unfortunately, available
records have not shown significant improvement in the level of academic achievement all over the
nation. The need to further probe or investigate other factors have thus, become imperative, it was on
the basis of this that the researchers decided to investigate the relationship between some home factors
(child rearing pattern and socio-economic status) and students academic achievement. Socio- economic
status is described by Okujagu (1993:63) as the economic fortunes in terms of income, wealth, social
status to which a family is disposed.
Essien (2002) highlights some basic indices of socio-economic status. They are general standard
of living, medical care available and level of income. For the purpose of this work, the researchers
considered various indices of socio-economic status such as: the type of living houses material
possession, level of parental education, occupation of parents, monthly income and parents level of
participation in school programmes. Others are the provision of medical care, purchase of childrens
items, payment of school fees and provision of leisure to children. The extent to which these needs of
children are met forms that socio-economic status that correlate with academic achievement.
Nwachukwu (2002) investigated the impact of home background on the academic performance of
students in Imo State. The study used 260 junior secondary school class 2 students who responded to
two questionnaires, which focused on socio-economic status, family size and parental educational
attainment were found to have significant influence on the educational performance of the students.
Similarly, Ifelunni (1997) in a study involving 1,200 female secondary school students, selected through
multiple stage sampling technique from 24 schools equally distributed in 3 zones of Nigeria, found a
significant relationship between socio-economic background and parents education (home factors) and
academic achievement in mathematics. Child rearing style or pattern is another home related factor that
could have influence on a childs life (Onyejiaku, 1991; Baumrind, 1996; Nwankwo, 2005). In the
context of this study, child rearing style is defined in terms of how parents involve their children in
family decision making, the amount of freedom children enjoy at homes, how parents react towards
children actions and parents level of commitment to their childrens welfare. Onyejiaku (1991) has
classified parenting style into autocratic, democratic, and permissive styles. According to him, in the
autocratic style, parents hold all powers and impose their views on their children; in the democratic
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 579
style, children are given opportunities to discuss freely on family issues while in the permissive style,
children are allowed maximum freedom to do their wishes. These child-rearing styles are believed to
exert significant influence on the behaviour and personality development of children. Children rearing
style had been associated with several issues such as achievement-motivation, adolescents personality,
academic achievement, adjustment and substance use. Fontaine (1994) explored the relationship
between achievement-motivation at school and child-rearing practices in Portugal. Data were elicited
from 288 mothers of grade school children between the age of 10 and 13 years old and were use to
differentiate higher and lower motivated pupils. Six variables: family life structuring, autonomy,
authoritarianism, child acceptance, expectation of success and locus of causality were correlated with
the children achievement-motivation. Results showed that the more the less motivated children live in
rigidly structured families, they express less autonomy. Similarly, Kalgo (2002) carried out a case study
on the relationship between child-rearing pattern and academic achievement. The study made use of
pupils of primaries 5 and 6 of Usmanu Danfodio University Demonstration Primary School. Data were
gathered from 150 parents of the pupils in the designated classes. Based on the analysis made, the
researcher classified their child-rearing styles into six types namely: autocratic, authoritative, democratic,
permissive, laissez-faire and ignoring styles. The researcher further compared the academic achievement
of the pupils based on their academic assessment records. The study found that children from
democratic homes had the highest mean score based on which the researcher recommended that
democratic style should be applied by parents to ensure higher academic achievement among learners.
The purpose of this study therefore is to find out the relationship between home factors and students
academic achievement in Rivers State.
This study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses as follows:
Research Questions
i. What is the relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement?
ii. What is the relationship between child rearing pattern and students academic achievement?
Hypotheses
i. There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status and students academic
achievement.
ii. There is no relationship between child rearing pattern and students academic achievement.

Methodology
The study adopted the correlational survey research design. Correlation describes the relation between
two variables in terms if its strength and weight (Nwankwo, 2006). The study was carried out in Rivers
State of Nigeria. At the time of this study, official records from the State Ministry of Education showed
that there were 245 governments owned secondary schools with students population of about 262,736
persons who attended school regularly. The study however focused on the Senior Secondary One (SS1)
students. A sample of 986 students was drawn for the study. The stratified random sampling technique
was used to draw the sample for the study. A validated structured questionnaire tagged Environmental
Factors Questionnaire (EFQ) was used to elicit data for the study. The students junior secondary
school certificate examination result in four compulsory subjects namely English language, Mathematic,
Social studies and Integrated science were used as academic achievement index.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 580
The researchers personally administered 990 copies of the instrument to the respondents and
986 copies were retrieved and used for the study. The remaining 4 copies were not returned by some of
the respondents. The instrument was given to test construction experts who read, corrected and
modified some items in it. Through this, the validity was determined. Test-retest method was also
applied to ensure reliability of the instrument. A reliability coefficient of 72 was achieved, hence the
reliability of the instrument. The instrument was structured on a four response options of Strongly
agree (SA); Agree (A); Disagree (D); Strongly agree (SA), weighted 4 points, 3 points, 2 points and 1
point, respectively. The study was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. Pearson
product moment correlation and z-test were used for data analysis.
Results
Research Question 1: What is the relationship between socio- economic status and students academic
achievement?
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between socio- economic status and students
academic achievement.

Table 1: Relationship between socio-economic status and students academic achievement
Variables N r-
value
__
X
Z cal. Z
crit
Alpha
level
Result Decision
Self economic
status


986
0.50 54.1 193.5

1.96


0.05


significant
Not
accepted
Academic
achievement
8.28

Table 1 shows a correlation co-efficient (r-value) of 0.50 indicating a positive moderate
relationship between socio-economic status and students academic achievement. Moreso, since the
calculated z (193.5) is greater than the critical z (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis is
rejected. Hence there is significant relationship between socio-economic status and students academic
achievement.
Research Question 2: What is the relationship between child rearing pattern and students academic
achievement?
Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between child-rearing pattern and students
academic achievement.
Table 2: Relationship between child-rearing pattern and students academic achievement
Variables N r-
value
__
X
Z cal. Z
crit
Alpha
level
Result Decision
Child rearing
pattern


986


0.81
54.1 53.3

1.96


0.05


significant
Not
accepted
Academic
achievement
0.81
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 581

Table 2 shows a correlation (r-value) of 0.81 which is a positive (very high) relationship between
child-rearing pattern and students academic achievement. The calculated z is 53.3 and the z critical is
1.96. since the calculated z (53.3) is greater than the critical z (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance, the null
hypothesis is rejected. Therefore, there is significant relationship between child-rearing pattern and
academic students achievement.
Discussion
It was found that there is a positive and significant relationship between socio-economic status and
students academic achievement. The implication of this result is that students of high socio-economic
status make higher academic achievement than those of low socio-economic status. The reason for this
disparity may not be far fetched. It shows that people of high socio-economic status tend to pay more
attention to their children, prepare them adequately for school and make follow up on their school
activities while parents of low economic status remain regretful over their children educational matters.
Obviously, children well attended by parents will gain more concentration at school work and make
better grades than the neglected ones whose frustrations and distractions would affect adversely
(Amadi, 2007).
The result indicated that there is a positive, and significant relationship between child-rearing
pattern and students academic achievement. Students who had good child-rearing styles from parents
had higher academic achievement than those whose parents did not accord good child-rearing. The
negative effect of bad child-rearing styles on children academic performance could be as a result of the
distress and trauma involved in them. Distressed children would be disorganized in everything they do
including school work. This is not the same with the children well provided for because they will have
better emotional adjustment, good social relations and good disposition to attend to their school tasks,
and would make higher academic achievement.
Implications of the Result
The study found a positive relationship between socio-economic status and students academic
achievement. There is the implication that most parents in Rivers State perhaps due to economic
hardship have failed to provide the basic social and material needs of the their children. This suggests
that the affected students find it difficult to cope with school challenges, thus suffer much set back.
Another result of the study is that child-rearing styles have positive relationship with students
academic achievement. This result suggests that parents of majority of students in Rivers State do not
practice good child-rearing patterns and as a result, their childrens academic performance have been
adversely affected.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In view of the results of the study, the researchers hereby conclude that socio economic status and
child-rearing styles could serve as predictor of students academic achievement and thus recommend as
follows:
1. Government should embark on poverty alleviation programmes with a special focus on parents.
With such programmes, parents would be supported, and would be able to cater for their
children educational needs.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 582
2. Banks should introduce education support facilities for parents so that they could obtain credits
to settle their children education bills.
3. Corporate bodies and individuals should provide scholarship to students. That would help to
relieve the parents of the beneficiaries the burden of paying school fees.
4. Local government authorities should render financial support to students, through regular
bursary payment.
5. Parents should not neglect their children education. They should place more priority to their
children education.
6. Government agencies such as the National Orientation Agency should train parents on proper
ways of rearing and nurturing children.
7. Psychologists and social workers should organize workshops on child rearing styles for parents
and young couples.

References
Agulanna, G. G. (2002). Challenge and interactive feedback as critical components of an enriched
learning environment. Journal of the Nigerian Society for Educational Psychologist. 1(1), 30-37.

Amadi, N.G. (2007). Human stess and management, a realistic approach. Port Harcourt: Emhai Publishers.

Baumrind, D. (1996). Prototype of adult control Child development. 37, 890-982.

Ejide, B. (2000). The relative effect of the dominant use of English language at home on students
academic performance. The Nigerian Educational Psychologist: Psychologist, 1(1), 130-137.
Essien, I.T. (2002). Influence of home environment on secondary school students achievement in
geography in Akwa Ibom state. Journal of the Nigerian society for educational psychologists 1(1), 109-
116.
Ezeudu, S.A. (1999). Evaluation in geography through project. The state of the art in Nsukka education
zone of Enugu state. Nigerian Journal of Empirical Studies in Psychology and Education, 1(1), 10-18.

Fontaine, A. N. (1994). Achievement motivation and child rearing in different social context. European
Journal of Psychology of Education. 9(3), 225-240.

Ifelunni, I.C.S. (1997). Scholl and home factors as correlates of academic achievement of Nigeria female teenagers in
mathematics. Kenya: Academy Science Publishers.
Kalgo, F.A. (2002). Parenting styles and learning achievement of Nigerian children. The Nigerian
Educational psychologist: Journal o the Nigerian Society for Educational Psychologist 1(1), 56-
65.
Nwachukwu, F. J. (220). The impact of the family background on the academic performance of
students. Journal of the Nigerian Society for Educational Psychologists, 1(1), 1-9.
Nwankwo, O.C. (2005). Psychology of learning: The human perspective (Rev. ed.) Port Harcourt: Pan Unique
Publishers.
Okoh, N. (1983). Educational and technology: implications for growth in developing countries. Benin city: Ethiope
Publications.
Okujagu, T.N. (1993). Sociological perceptive of education. Owerri: Totan Publishers.

Onyejiaku, F. O. (1991). Psychology of adolescence. Calabar: Rapid Publishers.

Ukoha, E. K. (2002). Reinforcement and performance in secondary school mathematic. Journal of the
Nigerian Society of Educational psychologist, 1(10), 147-157.

Umoh, U.C. (1999). Influence of functionalism on language teaching. Nigerian Journal of Empirical Studies
in Psychology and Education. 1(1), 97-101.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 583

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

A SURVEY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS PERCEPTION OF
THEIR DISCIPLINARY ROLES IN RIVERS STATE OF NIGERIA
BY
OKANEZI BRIGHT, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations (Arts)
University of Port Harcourt
blessbrite2006@yahoo.com
08068057672

and

JOSEPHINE EBERE ELEKWA, Ph.D
Dept. of Educational Foundations and Management
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rumuolumeni,
Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
08036750422

Abstract
The study surveyed primary school teachers perception of their disciplinary roles in Rivers State, Nigeria.
The descriptive survey design was employed for the study. 2,025 primary school teachers were selected
through purposive sampling technique to represent all the teachers teaching in public primary schools in
Rivers State. The data was collected through questionnaire designed by the researchers. Two research
questions were raised and answered in the study. Mean statistical tool was used to analyse the responses
to the research questions. Based on the anlysis, it was found that primary school teachers perceive their
disciplinary roles as worthwhile. The result also indicated that most teachers use coercive power to instill
discipline among pupils which does not yield positive result. Consequently, recommendations were made
which include that coercive power should be debunked by teachers, workshops should be organized for
teachers to learn, discipline should be developed by curriculum experts to be a full fledged subject, and
counseling should be employed.
Key words: Survey, Primary School, Teachers Perception, Disciplinary Roles, Rivers State.


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 584

Introduction
Discipline is an important aspect of human attribute. The understanding of its relevance manifests in
the establishment of social institution of education where the teaching of discipline is located. Though
there is no subject or course tagged discipline yet discipline is central in all human endeaviour including
education. The content and aims of education is mainly the society. In specific terms, education has
two major aims which include instruction and the training in good conduct (Kalusi 1999). It is on this
premise that academic certificates/degrees are awarded to graduands who are said to have been tested
and found worthy both in character and learning. The emphasis on discipline (character moulding) is so
serious that at every level of education it stands out as one of the cardinal goals thus: the Federal
Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) in her National Policy on Education provides that in the Primary
Education level, one of the goals is to mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in
the child. Secondly, give citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution
to the life of the society. At the secondary education level, one of the goals is to raise a generation of
people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of
labour, appreciate those value specified under our broad national goals and live as good citizens. At
the tertiary education level, one of the goals is to develop and inculcate proper values for the survival
of the individual and society.
That the main three levels of education consistently emphasize discipline, meaning that it is a
necessity for the survival of the Nigerian society. School education therefore, has become an
instrument for national development; as a channel for eradicating social conflict, social depreciation,
prejudice and strengthening of human living standard (Yusuf et al 2011:61). Corollary to the above,
school education is given the onus to ensure that the pupils are made to imbibe discipline. Accordingly,
the kinds of behaviours or activities that could lead to maximum learning through happy interaction
between teachers and children are generally characterized by good discipline. Thus, discipline allows
children to perform their best in the school and also leads to the effective achievement of the goals of
the school in the society (Kalusi 1999:1)
The achievement of the lofty goals of education which include discipline lies squarely in the
hands of the primary school teachers. Here, the teachers quality/competence and perception of their
roles come to play. The importance of what a teacher is and what he brings to his duties is brought
home to us in the words of Awotua-Efebo (1999:22-23) as he argues that:
Whether we like it or not, the people we teach have a view about us based on what they perceive
our actions or inactions to be. Students perceive an effective teacher as one who nurtures them by
treating as intelligent people with potentials, showing them love and kindness, taking time to
know and understand them; treating them fairly, explaining why he teaches and acts the way
he/she does, listening to them etc.
The issue therefore, is that the school as a normative (norm oriented) organization has been given very
important functions and roles that are intended towards upgrading ethical and moral values in addition
to skills and knowledge (Okanezi 2011:3)
Furthermore, Amirize (2000:103) emphasizes the importance when he contended that:
The goals of the school systems are primarily person-centred, catering for all-round
development of the individuals in such a way that society and the future of humanity
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 585
stand to benefit thereby. Acquisition of textbooks, knowledge and skills are not the
sole or primary goals of education, rather, the school system has cherished norms,
values and ideas in addition to academic learning.
In consideration of the above views, Nigeria has come to realize that education is one of the
most efficient means of correcting the ills of the society and promote and perpetuate the societal norms
and values (Kalusi 1999:4-5). This of course synchronizes the view of Okoh (2005) as he posits that
Nigeria is developing great faith in education. The great faith in education is demonstrated by the
huge investment in education in the form of giving education a lion share in most of the annual
national budgets. This high budget for education results in establishment of primary and post-primary
schools in almost every community or village. The Federal Government is also trying to establish at
least one tertiary institution in each state of the federation. It is rather worrisome that in spite of this
huge investment of the national resources in education, the pupils and students still portray attitudes
that are regarded as indiscipline.
Statement of the Problem
Nigeria as a nation-state invests heavily on education. The countrys annual budget over the years
attests to this fact. Also at the individual level, parents invest much of their resources in the education
of their children. Ordinarily, people expect to get value for their money invested in education.
Unfortunately reverse is the case as pupils and students are greatly involved in examination
malpractice. Besides, it is alleged that most pupils exhibit negative attitudes like stealing, rudeness,
arrogance, truancy, perpetually coming late to school, while others are involved in delinquencies of
various sorts; yet teachers are indifferent about it. Bebebiafiai (2008:29) corroborates the above as he
states thusmoreover, with the reduction of school discipline in many Nigerian schools, education
cannot thrive in an atmosphere of indiscipline. What then could be responsible for the unpleasant
situation in the school? Most often, peoples view or response have been that teachers remuneration or
condition of service is nothing to write home about. But no one has taken time to find out how
teachers perceive their disciplinary roles. It is based on this that the study surveyed the teachers
perception of their disciplinary roles in Rivers State.
Research Questions:
Research question one: What is the Primary school teachers perception of their disciplinary
roles?
Research question two: What is the teachers perceived approach to disciplinary problems?
Methodology
The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Rivers State of Nigeria.
The population for this study is all the teachers in public primary schools in Rivers State. Specifically, a
sample of 2,025 teachers was purposively selected for the study. The instrument used for the study was
a questionnaire named Role Perception of Primary School Teachers Questionnaire made up of two
sections. Section A was for biodata while section B elicited information on how teachers perceive
their disciplinary role as well as their perceived approach to disciplinary problems. The questionnaire
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 586
items were structured on a Four-Point Likert Scale of Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree and Strongly
Disagree mainly used in scoring the questionnaire. The content of the questionnaire (instrument) was
validated by two lecturers at University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt. Test re-test procedure was
used to determine the reliability of the instrument. The questionnaire was administered twice to the
primary school teachers who were part of the final sample for the study. The two scores were analysed
and computed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and this yielded a reliability
coefficient of 0.91. Finally, mean was used to analyse the data obtained. Lastly, a mean score of 2.5 is
the cut-off for analyzing the statements.
Results
Research question one: What is the Primary School Teachers Perception of their Disciplinary Roles?
Table 1: Mean Score Analysis of Teachers Perception of their Disciplinary Roles
S/N Statement SA A D SD TWS
x
1 Disciplining pupils is considered an
aspect of your role
1000 525 500 0 6575 3.25
2 You delight in disciplining pupils to
make for quality education
1028 527 423 47 6586 3.25
3 You rely heavily on disciplining by
means of punishment
925 825 200 75 6650 3.28
4 You discipline by means of actual
punishment
615 595 400 415 5460 2.70
5 You use verbal shaming and blaming
as discipline
70 200 825 930 3460 1.71
6 Restricting pupils freedom lead to
rebellion
80 300 950 695 3815 1.88
7 Punishment does not bring about a
lasting change in behaviour
170 155 1000 700 3845 1.90
8 You dont discipline pupils because of
consequences of teacher tort liability
90 171 843 921 3480 1.72
Standard reference mean ( x ) = 2.5
Table 1 reveals that teachers perceive discipline as an aspect of their roles. Teachers admit that they
delight in disciplining pupils to make for quality education, they rely heavily on disciplining by means of
punishment. The analysis show that the mean scores of the respondents in items 1-4 were all between
2.70 and 3.28. Meanwhile teachers admit that restricting pupils freedom does not lead to rebellion, they
agree that punishment bring about a lasting change in behaviour, fear of consequences of tort liability is
not the reason for their not disciplining pupils.
Research question two: What is the teachers perceived approach to disciplinary problems?
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 587
Table 2: Approach to Disciplinary Problems as Perceived by Teachers
S/N Statement SA A D SD TWS
x
1 You conduct rule-setting in which you
involve all the pupils in setting the class
rules and regulations

1023

965

20

17

7044

3.48
2 Pupils are motivated to obey the rules
because they see them as their rules, not
just the teachers

978

863

100

84

6785

3.35
3 Your skill in using non-power method has
reduced the use of such terms as punish
policing scolding enforcing
discipline

891

856

209

69

6619

3.27
4 Your skill has brought new vocabulary such
as cooperation, problem solving, joint
decision making working things through,
meeting, negotiating etc

789

725

310

201

6165

3.04
5 When learners misbehave, you remedy the
situation by the use of either of these types
of power: expert power, reward power,
legitimate power, and coercive power

759

692

301

273

5987

2.96

Table 2 reveals that teachers conduct rule-setting in which pupils are involved in setting the class rules.
Teachers also admit that pupils obey the rules because they see them as their rules, not just the
teachers. The teachers skill in using non-power method has reduced the use of such terms as punish,
policing, discipline, enforcing, and scolding. In lieu such vocabulary as cooperation, problem solving,
joint decision making, working things through, negotiating etc are now used. Most teachers admit that
they use expert power, legitimate power, reward power and coercive power when learners misbehave.
The analysis also showed that the mean scores of the respondents in all the items were all between 2.96
and 3.48. This means that the respondents have positive perception on the approach to disciplinary
problems.
Discussion
The findings of the study reveal that majority of the respondents (primary school teachers) perceive
discipline as an aspect of their roles. This finding is in line with Armstrong, Henson and Savage (2001)
who stated that when learners misbehave, you have to do something to remedy the situation. Teachers
delight in disciplining to make for quality education. This is a truism. This finding is in conformity with
Armstrong, Henson and Savage (2001) as they posit that regardless of the number of preventive
actions you will take, you sometimes, will have to deal with learner misbehaviour problem. This is
simply a part of being a teacher. One remarkable thing here is that punishment used as discipline does
not bring about a lasting change in behaviour.
The finding also reveals that teachers rely heavily on actual punishment such as flogging, manual
labour etc. This method is not effective as an attitude of indiscipline has continued to pervade the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 588
Nigerian society. This finding corroborates the view of Gordon (1974) as he opines that teachers, by
and large, rely too heavily on disciplining by means of threats of punishment and actual punishment
and these methods simply do not work well.
Finally, coercive power which the teachers use is not the best since it keeps the pupils in perpetual
fear which is not the best in terms of learning condition. Coercive power is power that people wield
because of their authority to administer punishment. Teachers who rely heavily on coercive power
often do not have classroom environments that learners perceive as warm, caring and positive. When
coercive power is applied, many learners fail to see compelling reasons to adopt behaviour patterns
favoured by their teachers. In an individual situation, when an application of coercive power suppresses
one undesirable behaviour, another undesirable behaviour often springs up to replace the first. Again,
coercive authority is of little use when the ability to punish is removed or the prospect of being caught
is perceived to be slight (Armstrong, Henson and Savage 2001). For this reason therefore, the
effectiveness of training pupils in good conduct might remain unachieved.
Conclusion
Teachers indeed perceive disciplinary roles as worthwhile. Most teachers use wrong method in instilling
discipline which does not give positive result. The excessive use of coercive power make learners fail to
see compelling reasons to adopt behaviour patterns favoured by their teachers. The continued
experience of exhibition of attitudes of indiscipline by youngsters and pupils may remain unabated until
teachers adopt a proper and more effective approach in handling ubiquitous discipline problems.
Recommendations
The following recommendations are made for teachers on how to handle discipline problems posed by
pupils:
- Teachers should debunk the use of coercive power to enforce discipline
- Workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers so that experts in problems
management such as sociologists, psychologists and scholars from other related fields of
study would teach as resource persons
- Discipline should be developed by curriculum experts to make it a subject or course of its
own.
- Teachers should be charged by their employers to ensure that appropriate approach is
employed to tackle discipline problems.
- Counsellors should be employed to counsel pupils
- Counselling should be included in the school time table so that every pupil would have
opportunity of receiving counselling.

References
Amirizie, B. (2000). Contemporary Issues in School Operation. Owerri, Nigeria: Springfield.
Armstrong, D.G., Henson, K.T., & Savage, T.V. (2001). Teaching Today: An Introduction to Education.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Awotua-Efebo, E.B. (1999). Effective Teaching: Principles and Practice. Port Harcourt: Paragraphics.
Bebebiafiai, V.E. (2008). Niger Delta: The Cause and Insurgency. Benue State. Nigeria: Supersonic Publishers.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 589
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education (4
th
ed). Yaba, Lagos: NERDC Press.
Gordon, T. (1974). T.E.T., Teacher Effectiveness Training. New York: Petter H. Wyden.
Kalusi, J.I. (1999). Discipline in the Educational System: A philosophical Perspective. Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis
Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt.
Okanezi B. (2011). Primary School Teachers Perception of their Roles: Implications for Quality and Functional
Education. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt.
Okoh, J. D. (2005). The Risk of an Educational System without a philosophical Base (Inaugural Lecture series
No. 38) University of Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.
Yusuf, A., Amali, I. O. O. & Ajidagba, U. A. (2011). Teachers Assessment of the Quality of the Basic
Education in the Border Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. African Journal of Historical sciences in
Education. 7(2), 60-67.



















October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 590

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

RESTIVENESS AND THE CULTURE OF PEACE AMONG THE
NIGERIAN YOUTHS: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
AND ISLAMIC STUDIES
By
GANIYU G. OKE
Professor, Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, Akoka
&
ISMAIL A. MUSA
Senior Lecturer

Department of Arts & Social Sciences Education,
University of Lagos, Akoka
(08023087778/ ismailmusaakin@yahoo.com)

Abstract
This paper discusses the interconnectivity of high prevalence of youth restiveness in Nigeria, the recurring
problem of restricted access to higher education and graduate unemployment as threat to peace, stability
and development.. The paper posits that higher education and religion particularly Islamic Studies in
Nigeria have a key role to play in creating an enduring culture of peace. Achievement of a culture of
peace presupposes that higher education in the country is faced with the challenges of removing barriers in
access to higher education through diverse flexible means and producing graduates who would be able to
imbibe the culture of peace. Religion ought to help develop socially useful values in the youths. The
perception of Muslims after the September 11,2001 attacks on the United States and subsequent violent
campaigns of Islamist groups including the Boko Haram in Nigeria, is a concern requiring the
experts in Islamic Studies to evolve mechanisms for neutralizing the activities of belligerent Islamist
groups. Finally, the paper provides a contextual overview of the strategies for addressing these challenges.
Keywords: youth restiveness, peace culture, sustainable development, higher education,
Islamic studies


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 591

Introduction
The numerous challenges posed by underdevelopment and the mechanism for ensuring sustainable
development constitute the most critical issues developing countries have to contend with. However,
the success of each stage of the developmental process is contingent upon the availability of a peaceful
atmosphere. The quality of the human capital resource of any nation which is also a vital catalyst of
development should be appropriately conceived to bring about durable development and not sheer
progress or growth. The simplistic interpretation of peace as the absence of war is narrow and should,
in fact, be considered as a subset of the culture of peace. The definition of peace that incorporates the
maintenance of the human values of justice and equality is comprehensive and particularly relevant for
the purpose of this paper. The undermining or destruction of these core values leads to an insidious
degeneration of peace into covert brutality.
Violence, in form of economic, social and political dislocations, results in extreme human
suffering indices. Cases of malnutrition, hunger, prevalence of preventable diseases, lack of access to
portable water, basic education and decent housing are manifestations of violence in its wider sense.
Since these characterizations of violence eventually lead to the decimation of human population, they
are considered as contexts of lack of peace in the society. It is noteworthy that Islam conceives of peace
as an ethical issue which is demonstrated by the Lawgiver through a self-imposed obligation of showing
compassion to all creatures (Qurn 6:12). Every individual is expected to replicate this culture of peace
by consciously adhering to the divine scheme in which every individual is accorded his right so that
peace forms the basis of relationship among all entities in existence. Thus, we find that any struggle to
redress injustice must be accompanied with the Islamic core value of showing compassion. Omar
(2010, p.3) has rightly submitted that:
The kind of wanton violence into which many Muslim struggles for justice have
degenerated can in large measure be attributed to this phenomenon - justice struggles
without compassion. Without compassion, struggles for justice invariably end up
mimicking the oppressive orders against which they revolt.
In Islam, both `Ilmul-Adyn wa `Ilmul-Abdn (religious and secular knowledge) play
complementary roles to produce the productive individual who is capable of contributing to
meaningful development. The dissection between religious and secular components of knowledge
results in different crises. It is incontrovertible that the quality, relevance and forms of higher education
offered to the public in any locale is an important barometer with which the human resource potentials
of any nation is measured. The extent to which a country utilises available skilled and unskilled labour
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 592
justifies returns on the huge investments in education.
The youth, undoubtedly, constitute an important segment of the society. The youth in the most
productive stage of their life possess very high capacity for learning and for a wide range of physical
activities. In a context where there is extensive harnessing and utilisation of these capacities, positive
societal development is likely to occur. Conversely, when the youths intellectual resources are
dissipated on unproductive endeavours such as violence and belligerency, society retrogresses and
developmental prospects are relegated to the background.
The word youth is a generic name for all age cohorts regarded by society to which they belong
as young people. Youth or young people all over the world possess a great energy and potentials which
should be developed, nurtured and directed by the adult world towards pursuance of socially useful and
productive activities for the common good of the society. The role of the youth in the society is by
definition, a dependent one. As they mature into adulthood, young people have a natural tendency to
move from dependency towards increasing self-directedness. The role of the adult world, therefore, is
to facilitate the transition by taking full responsibilities for encouraging, directing and nurturing the
transformation into adulthood.
Young people, like their adult counterpart, certainly have their needs and largely depend on
society (the adult world) for ensuring that their needs are met. However, when young people find
themselves in a situation of perceived insecurity, hopelessness, deprivation, isolation, neglect, hunger,
starvation, joblessness, discrimination, unequal access to state resources and the like, they are quick at
showing resentment and displeasure. More often than not, we find that young peoples reactions in
such situations are violent. When they act in this violent way, the adult world ironically labels them as
restive youth. As conceptualised by Elegbeleye (2005, p.93), youth restiveness is an aberrative excess
behaviour of attitude that is always marked by violent and disruption of lawful activities. It is a
manifestation of anxiety expressed by young people who organise themselves as a pressure group to
enforce a desired outcome from a constituted authority (Elegbeleye, 2005, p.93).
This way of conceptualising youth restiveness is at variance with the causal argument and thesis
presented later by Tenuche (2009), which in our own view, is relevant to understanding the root causes
of youth restiveness in all societies. The causal argument by Tenuche (2009, p.549) is that
aggression and violence among the youth is the result of some (perceived) gap in their felt needs that
are not filled over time . The second argument, which is political, is couched on the elite manipulation
and mobilisation thesis. The elite manipulation and mobilization thesis is aptly captured in the
following scenario regarding typical African youth, given by Keye (2004, p.1):
Since he is already frustrated and hungry, any of these leaders could place a gun in his
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 593
hands and with some food in his stomach to provide either temporary relief from
hunger or an outlet for his anger and a way out of his frustrated life. An African
youth is therefore conditioned to pray for and participate in conflicts based on this
experience.
In a nutshell, the elite find frustrated youths as willing instruments for
perpetuating violence in the pursuit of their (selfish) group or individual interests (Tenuche, 2009,
p.549). As can be noted, the elite manipulation thesis throws some light on our understanding of the
negative mobilisation of young people for violence and explains the important question as to why
young people easily fall prey to manipulation by the elite.
The Evolution of Human Conflict and Violence
The Bible and the Qurn reveal the first recorded violent conflict on earth between two brothers
Qabil (Cain) and Habil (Abel) that led to the death of Abel. The Bible captures this incidence in the
following words:
And in process of time it came to pass, that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground
an offering unto the Lord. Abel, he also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of the
fat thereof. And the Lord had respect unto Abel and unto his offering: But unto Cain
and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance
fell And Cain talked with Abel his brother; and it came to pass, when they were
in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel, and slew him. (Genesis 4:3-8)
The Qurnic version of the same event is narrated as follows:
And (O Muhammad PBUH) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of
Adam (Hbil and Qbil Abel and Cain) in truth; when each offered a sacrifice
(to Allah), it was accepted from one but not from the other. The latter said to the
former. I will surely kill you So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one)
encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his brother; he
murdered him and became one of the losers. (Qurn 5:27 & 30)
While commenting on the Qurnic narration above, Muhammad (PBUH) declares in a
tradition: None (no human being) is killed or murdered (unjustly), but a part of responsibility for the
crime is laid on the first son of Adam who invented the tradition of killing (murdering) on the earth.
(Sahih Al-Bukhri 9:6.) Since that time, the human race has continued to witness conflicts and violence
in their different forms and varying degrees of severity and consequences.
The First World War (1914-1918) and the Second World War (1939-1945) brought severe
pains, sufferings and massive destruction that nearly wiped out the entire cosmological entity, the
human creation referred to by Mische (2006, p.1) as the planetary community
It would appear that human beings are by their nature antagonistic, repulsive and intolerant of
each other. After the two world wars, especially in the second millennium, the world has witnessed
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 594
unprecedented conflicts and wars, widespread misunderstanding, hatred and apparent lack of trust in
and between peoples, growing intolerance and racism and destruction of the notion of work, seen in
concrete terms in the rising number of people who are unemployed (Marc-Laurent, 1997, p.29).
In 1968, Martin Luther King delivered a powerful message to the whole world, including the
American people, calling on the world to come to terms with the ways and means of creating a peace
culture. A quotation from Martin Luther Kings speech: I See the promised Land reads:
We have been forced to a point where we re going to have to grapple with the problems
that men have been trying to grapple with through history, but the demands didnt
force them to do it. Survival demands that we grapple with them. Men, for years now
have been talking about war and peace. But now no longer a choice between violence
and inviolence in this world, its non-violence and non-existence (Martin Luther
Kings speech: I See the promised Land, April 3,1968; cited in Jing Lin, 2004, p.1)
The image of Martin Luther Kings Promised Land symbolises a new society with a strong
culture of peace, reflected in the state of fairness, justice, equity, respect for human life and human
dignity, secured livelihood and the absence of fear, violence, war, oppression and marginalisation.
There is no need for us to look very far to realise that nearly half a decade after Martin Luther
Kings proclamation, the world is still too far away from reaching the Promised Land. Indeed, the
images of escalating occurrences of global catastrophes of this century, viewed from the growing
tendencies of nations to rise against nations is so aptly captured in this quotation from Jin (2004, p.1)
when he said:
We are (now) living in a critical juncture in human history. We have built up
massive misunderstandings and engaged in bloody wars and conflicts. We now
(sadly) possess the means to fully destroy the humanity. The terrorist attack of
September 11, 2001 (on the United States of America) shocks the world and
forces us to undergo a great (re) awakening and transform our consciousness and
education.
All these global catastrophes remind us, ironically, of how far the world is in the 21
st
century from
anywhere reaching a truly peaceful, just and fair society envisioned by Martin Luther King nearly half a
century ago.
A number of African countries have experienced chaos resulting from internal wars, ethno-
geographic conflicts, genocide, oppression and dominance of politically powerful minority groups over
the powerless majority group. The Nigerian civil wars of the 1960s, the Rwandan genocide, the
incessant wars and civil unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Liberian wars, the intractable
problem in Somalia, the long years of apartheid regime in South Africa, and the lingering wars in Sudan
are a few examples.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 595
Nigeria has a long history of youth restiveness. The historic occurrences of youth restiveness in the
chronological order of occurrence include:
The politically induced (youth) restiveness recorded during the struggle for Nigerias political
independence (Elegbeleye, 2005, p.94);
The spontaneous restiveness of Nigerian youths in 1963 when the Ahmadu Bello led
government signed a secret pact with the French government to have a nuclear weapon tested
in the Sahara Desert;
The student/police clashes in the University of Ibadan during the Kunle Adepeju saga of 1970;
The Ali must go episode of 1978 which claimed hundreds of lives, majority of whom were
students, out-of-school unemployed youth and adults;
The 1981 Arogundade ritual murder-induced riot at the then University of Ife in which about
twelve students lost their lives.
The 1986 University of Lagos student violence in which six students were killed during a
bloody student/police encounter;
The 1988 student protest against the unlawful termination of appointment of lecturers at the
Ahmadu Bello University, University of Lagos, University of Benin and the University of
Ibadan, in which students were brutally killed by the police;
The Zangon-Kataf crisis of 1992 involving youths (Tenuche, 2009, p.551);
The uncontrollable violent action of unemployed Ayap and Hausa youths after the February
1992 conflicts between the two ethnic groups (which resulted in the (subsequent) violent crisis
of May 1992 (Tenuche, 2009, p.551);
The crisis between the Ugep and Idomi of Cross River State in 1992 which involved 14 year old
frustrated and restless army of unemployed youths in the brutal Mkapan war (Tenuche, 2009,
p.551);
The June 12, 1993 nation-wide restiveness led principally by youths following the annulment
of June 12 elections;
The Tiv-Jukun conflict in Taraba State in which the Jukun youths masterminded a
campaign designed to dislodge the Tiv from Jukun territory (Tenuche, 2009, p.551);
The incessant Ife-Modakeke crisis (Tenuche, 2009, p.551);
The reccurring ethno-religious violence in Kano involving the Almajirai and the Yandaba
groups who were largely unemployed youth (Tenuche, p.94);
The economic induced (and politically motivated) youth restiveness in the Niger Delta region
(Tenuche, 2009, p.94) which has assumed escalating dimensions: oil bunkering, pipeline
vandalisation, hostage taking, etc.
The Jos ethnic violence of March 2010 that claimed the lives of over 500 people- including
children and pregnant women.

The Boko Haram terrorist attacks largely sustained by the youth since 2009 (Adesoji, 2010)
The Boko Haram Uprising and Islamic Revivalism in Africa Spectrum 2 (95-108) German
Institute of Global and Area Studies www. Africa_spectrum.org. to date has so far claimed
about a thousand lives. (Wikipedia) http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Boko_Haram

From the foregoing land mark cases of youth restiveness in Nigeria, it will be noted that the
majority of the cases could be linked to mass unemployment and under utilization of youth in Nigeria;
others were either masterminded by the elite political class or fuelled by ethno-religious intolerance.
This suggests a strong association between youth restiveness and youth unemployment. Such
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 596
interconnectivity of youth restiveness and youth unemployment is not surprising because as the saying
goes, an idle hand is the devils workshop. The greatest concern is that at the threshold of the 21
st

century, Nigeria still faces the daunting task of overcoming the nagging challenges of youth restiveness.
This situation is particularly worrisome when one considers the fact that as at 2006, youth population in
Nigeria was as high as 45,400,000 and was expected to increase to 62,800, 000 by the year 2025
(http://www.prb.org/Datafinder/Geography/Summary.aspx?region=29&region_type=2). Given the
fact that no nation can hope to achieve any meaningful development without peace, the greatest
challenge facing the country, therefore, is unquestionably development of an agenda for peace culture.
This paper will examine some contemporary innovative and pragmatic paradigms for the
building of peace culture that have eluded Nigeria over the years. In the succeeding parts of the paper
an attempt is made to show that higher education and religion have a central role to play in the process
of building peace culture in the country.
Higher Education in Building the Culture of Peace in Nigeria
The power and potentials of higher education in arresting the circle of youth restiveness in many parts
of Nigeria is yet to be accorded due attention. The submission here is that higher education has a
significant role to play in building peace culture anywhere in the world. Peace culture, according to
UNESCO, is
a set of convictions, a morality and an individual and collective state of mind, a
way of being, acting, and reacting It has close links with democracy and
development, which are preconditions for moving from a culture of war to a culture of
peace. Similarly, the culture of peace rests on values, attitudes, behaviours, and ways of
life, that reinforce non-violence and respect for the basic liberties and rights of every
person. It is seen in the proclamation and acceptance of everyones right to be different
and to live in peace and security within his or her community (Marc-Laurent, 1997,
pp.29-30).
In the definition above, it must be observed that one of the important indicators of peace
culture is a situation where every individual lives in peace and security. For peace culture to be properly
nurtured in Nigeria, higher education should develop the capacity for addressing the problems facing
potentially restive youths. In the main, we must identify here, eight categories of Nigerian youth at risk
are identified; namely:
1. Applicants who are qualified but lack the opportunity to access higher education.
2. Products of primary and secondary schools and other young people who are time and location-
bound and are thus constrained to participate or excluded from participating in higher
education on a full-time basis.
3. Graduates who have received tertiary education and are gainfully employed but would need to
undertake appropriate forms of continuing education to make them remain relevant in a rapidly
changing world of work.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 597
4. The physically challenged who cannot access higher education owing to inadequate provision of
infrastructural facilities and learning environment for this category of students.
5. Graduates who have received tertiary education but are not gainfully employed.
6. Graduates of higher education who are unemployed.
7. Graduates of higher education who are unemployable
8. Graduates with misplaced values

Youths who are likely to live in peace and security include those whose energies and talents are
fully developed and utilised, who are employable and gainfully employed, who are productive and who
have high career prospects and job mobility and who can access the type and form of education they
demand and deserve. Conversely, youths are most unlikely to live in peace and security when their
energies and talents are not adequately developed and utilised; when they are denied access to
education; when they are unproductive, unemployable and unemployed; when they have limited
opportunities to be trained and retrained for high career prospects and job mobility; when they have
insufficient spiritual content in their education. Such youths are at the risk of being restive.
In order to curb youth restiveness and ultimately build peace culture, higher education in
Nigeria has a great deal of lessons to learn from the UNESCOs four Pillars of Learning. The four
pillars of learning in the 21
st
century as prescribed by UNESCO are:
a. Learning to know
b. Learning to do
c. Learning to be
d. Learning to live together

Each of these pillars has significant implications for the continuing relevance of education at all
levels. Learning to know, for instance, presupposes that all citizens-young and old, men and women,
must have access to the types, forms and levels of education they demand and deserve. This boldly
underscores the principle of educability (which contends that everyone, irrespective of age or
circumstance, has the capability to learn) and the need for the evolution of a learning society; indeed, a
society of curious minds with a culture of intellectualism, critical thinking, analytic disposition and a
proclivity for enquiry.
As for the concept of Learning to do, UNESCO envisions that individuals must have practical
minds. In other words, the acquisition of life skills which entails experiential learning further
emphasizes the popular saying: What I see I forget, what I hear I forget but what I do I remember.
This is part of the hallmark of education of the 21
st
century which aims at developing both the hand
and the intellect for productive purposes and high calibre craftsmanship.
A wide range of virtues is expected to be inculcated, using the motivation of the concept Learning to
be. This includes learning to: be accommodating; respect other peoples views; accept responsibility; be
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 598
civil and courteous; have respect for human dignity and dignity of labour; be just; objective; affable and
self-reliant, just to mention but a few.
The concept of Learning to live together underscores the entire essence of culture of peace.
People of diverse cultures, religious affiliation and social and philosophical orientations are bound to
differ in their dispositions towards others. However, such diversities should not degenerate into
attrition, violence and loss of lives and the situation whereby people become uncaring of one another.
In a nutshell, the concept of peace culture must permeate the entire society, beginning from the family
to the school. Parents therefore have a crucial role to play in the building of peace culture. It is, for
instance, bad education for the children if parents quarrel in the presence of the children. Parents
should be good role models for the children. Students will automatically carry this culture of peace
within the family to the school system thereby helping to propagate the essence of living together.
There is need to realise that whatever we do is done within the context of a society made up of men
and women who have rights that we must respect. We should imbibe the principle of live and let
others live. This principle has to be entrenched into the fabric of our culture.
In order to benefit from the resources provided by the UNESCOs Pillars of Learning, there is
need for the reconstruction of higher education curriculum content and delivery in Nigeria. There is
also the need for the reconceptualisation of the philosophy and purpose of higher education to reflect
new peace paradigms such as higher education as education for inclusiveness; higher education as
education for employability and wealth creation; and higher education as education for the building of
morality and values. This latter idea needs to be discussed in some detail immediately.
Higher Education as Education for Equity and Inclusiveness
Available statistics regarding enrolment into higher education in Nigeria is frightening. According to the
Task Force Report 2000, higher education higher education enrolls 4% of the relevant age cohort
.The problem is more acute as far as the admission of female students into higher education is
concerned. At the primary school level, gender gap is estimated to be 5.3%, 5% at the secondary school
level and 50% at the university level. Aggregate enrolment figures show that only 35% of the total
number of students enrolled in universities are females (Jibril, 2010). This is against what is obtainable
in South Africa with 17%, India 7%, Indonesia 11% and Brazil 12%. (Saint, Hartnett and Strassner,
2003, p.4).
Current statistics reveal that the situation regarding access to higher education has not
improved significantly beyond the situation in 2000. A cursory analysis of the information provided by
the National Bureau of Statistics (2009) reveals that out of the 1,034,083 university-bound candidates
that applied for admission in 2008 alone only 47,476 representing 4.59% were given admission. The
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 599
same source reveals that out of the total number of 1,034,083 applications made to the Joint
Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) in 2008, 578,715 were from male applicants while only
455,368 were from the female counterpart. These figures show that female applicants were trailing
behind their male counterpart.
In order to tackle the problems associated with youths in categories 1 to 4 earlier listed, the
notion of education for equity and inclusiveness is valuable. Although, government has taken some
practical steps such as increasing the number of federal universities, introduction of admission quota to
address regional and class imbalances, construction of new student residence halls, launching a
programme for needy indigent students and approving the establishment of more private universities
and establishment of National Open University, (Saint, Hartnett and Strassner, 2003, p.4), additional
measures still need to be taken.
Higher education should be re-structured in a way that it functions as an instrument for
egalitarianism and inclusiveness, providing for a wide range of potential beneficiaries of its resources.
This means that physical facilities and infrastructure will be available for both normal and physically
challenged students. Additionally, there is need to address the problem of access frontally through open
distance learning, using appropriate distance learning platforms, learning vectors or courseware; part-
time and remedial programmes; develop and utilise Individualised Learning Packages (ILPs); and
explore the possibility of becoming centres of open schooling. Higher education should also be in the
position to address the issue of affordability of cost of education by indigent students in Nigeria who
constitute the bulk of the population of applicants and recipients of higher education.
Emphasis should therefore be placed on making available several funding options and
opportunities for indigent students and applicants. Students Loan Scheme and work-study
programmes are few of the resources that could be provided and utilised by economically
disadvantaged students in higher education. If properly conceptualised and implemented, governments
should be able to engender private sector involvement in these two schemes. Collaboration between
higher education institutions and industry in the area of work-study programme should be effectively
planned so that none of the parties in the partnership would suffer. In the tripartite arrangement being
suggested, the industry, the institution and the student will all be gainers in the collaboration plan. Both
industry and institutions should find a way of designing flexible work-study plans to create opportunity
for combining work with study without jeopardising any of the two.
Higher Education as Education for Employability and Wealth Creation
One of the critical problems facing Nigeria is the high level of joblessness among graduates.
Information obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (2009) reveals that the aggregate
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 600
unemployment rate in all the states of the federation was 12.60% in 2002. This figure rose to 14.80% in
2003 from where it declined slightly to 13.35% in 2004 and further to 11.90% in 2005. However, in
2006, the increasing trend in unemployment rate was witnessed, having risen from 11.90% to 13.70% in
2006, 14.60% in 2007 and 19.705 in 2008 (National Bureau of Statistics, 2009, p.234).The is further
accentuated by the discovery that many of the graduates who are in their youth are not employable due
to skill mismatch. This situation appears to have compounded the issue further because it will be
difficult to find jobs for graduates whose skills are not relevant to the needs of the industry. Producing
graduates whose knowledge and skills are not useful to anybody is tantamount to pilling up potentially
restive youths and this portends very grave danger for higher education and the society at large.
Therefore, addressing the problems of youths in categories 5 to 7 earlier listed will involve re-
conceptualising and organising higher education to function as education for employability and wealth
creation.
It is necessary that higher education institutions in Nigeria begin to undertake a periodic review
of their curriculum to ensure that its content is relevant to the needs and aspirations of the society. The
higher education curriculum must, in the first instance, be developed on the basis of clearly identified
needs of the economy. The process of review should involve, among others, undertaking a thorough
needs assessment of the natural economy which would reveal specific areas of weaknesses of the
existing curriculum or training programme so that the curriculum to be developed would be realistically
tailored to the needs of the economy. It is equally mandatory that tertiary institutions establish the
tradition of maintaining constant interaction with industry to ensure that the needs of the industry are
not at variance with the calibre of manpower produced. In other words, the skills must correspond to
the needs of the industry and should be beneficial to the graduates.
People should be deliberately trained for the economy and on the basis of clearly articulated
manpower development policy. To ensure that this becomes a reality, a well thought-out development
plan should be able to articulate in clear terms the number and type of graduates required in particular
sectors of the economy over a period of time. The development plan is the barometer for determining
the kind of graduates that should be produced within a plan period. The projections will help higher
institutions fashion out admission policies relevant to the needs of the society. Another critical area of
focus is to train the graduates of higher education for entrepreneurship. This should be embedded in
the various academic programmes of tertiary institutions so that after graduation, the graduates are
capable of creating wealth and employing others instead of running after jobs that may be non-existent.
Before graduation, however, government should ensure that conducive environment is provided and
that the graduates will be able to access resources needed to operate effectively as entrepreneurs. These
strategies would ultimately ensure that higher education institutions will not just make people acquire
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 601
degrees but to train them for the economy. We do not have to continue to train people for yesterday
but for today and tomorrow.
Implications for Islamic Studies
In Nigeria, Islamic Studies is taught at various levels of formal education. It is also offered to various
categories of students in non-formal and informal settings. Two of the major crises witnessed so far, in
Nigeria, have been traced to the activities of Islamist groups; namely: the Maitasitne and Boko Haram.
Within the framework of the study of Islam, what facilities there are for bringing about peace in chaotic
situations in which some categories of Muslims are active or passive participants? First, one of the
major areas in which higher education contributes to development is in the area of proffering solutions
to the problems facing human societies. As the highest level in which creative thought takes place,
society expects tertiary education to intervene through the instrumentality of research to provide insight
into the dimensions of nagging problems and also locate different approaches of combating them.
Academic interest in the investigation of the Maitatsine phenomenon was recognized to have the
greatest potential of assisting to resolve the crisis (Umar, 1985).
The Boko Haram insurgency and similar Islamic fundamentalist groups require scholarly
attention of experts in Islamic Studies. Turaki (2012, p.2) has rightly observed that the message of
Boko Haram is religiously coded and only those who can decode it can know the essence of their
existence and interpret their actions. The seeming intractable nature of the Boko Haram imbroglio is
a clear demand on Islamists in the academia to use the epistemological and research resources at their
disposal to unveil the ideological evolution of this group, the sources of its inspiration, the modus
operandi of its operation and the underlying factors which make their agenda succeed or fail.
Secondly, the increasing incidence of anti-social behaviours involving graduates has shown that our
youths more often than not have misplaced values. The frequency of cases of armed robbery,
kidnapping and cultism demonstrate the intensity of the unbridled quest for wealth and lack of respect
for other peoples lives by higher education graduates. So far, higher education has been unable to
address this problem and has not shown the capacity to be able to tackle it headlong. The implication is
that if graduates in the eighth category of Nigerian youth listed earlier who are at the risk of being
restive continue to multiply, the essence of higher education and the positive role it is expected to play
will be left in abeyance.
The present curricula in use are compartmentalized into secular and religious subjects as against
the Islamic model in which all content are expected to be taught in the context of revealed knowledge
so that there is a complete fusion of secular and spiritual components of all concepts in the various
subjects. In a pluralistic setting like Nigeria, the appropriate model should involve the strengthening of
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 602
religious subjects at all levels of education in such a way that the subjects will not only be made
compulsory but tailored towards building a peace culture in its recipients. Presently, science students in
senior secondary schools are excluded from offering religious subjects while higher education students
not specializing in religion or offering elective courses in religious studies do not have the opportunity
of access to religious instruction at this level of education.
One of the curriculum-based strategies being proposed here entails the infusion or integration
of religious and moral values, etiquette and social norms into the curriculum of university-wide courses
usually called general studies. Conscious efforts should be made to avoid reducing this aspect of the
training of higher education students to mere academic activity, the purpose of which is to excel in
examinations but a programme that is value-laden and capable of leading to behaviour modification
and the building of peace culture.
Thirdly, peace education should no longer be made available indirectly through general courses
offered in undergraduate religious studies programmes without relating them to the pre-eminent
objective of making them serve as tools for achieving peace with the Creator and among all creatures.
Since Islam strongly stresses the achievement of peace through all possible means, the content of
Islamic Studies courses at the under graduate level should reflect this emphasis. The same should not
only be replicated at the postgraduate level but peace education courses should form an integral part of
the content of postgraduate programmes in Islamic Studies which could be made available as elective
courses for graduate students in the arts and humanities.
Graduates of Islamic Studies who have passed through such university programmes in which
peace features prominently as its cornerstone should be able to contribute meaningfully in the design of
peace education curricula which will be rooted in core Islamic peace doctrines and the Nigerian
cultural values. Such educational package will be suitable for use in orientation programmes for the
ulam (Islamic scholars) who operate at the grass root level where the greatest threats to peace reside.
Through this training, the ulam should be able to develop the capacities for proactively responding to
conflicts before they escalate into intractable violence.
Conclusion
The un-easing disequilibrium in the linear equation of social demand for, and supply of higher
education, the precariousness of youth unemployment, under-utilisation and the attendant high
prevalence of youth restiveness in Nigeria present new multidimensional and interconnected issues of
enormous challenges which higher education should address as one of the necessary prerequisites for
engendering sustainable peace culture, development and stability in the country. Our conception of the
building of peace culture is two-dimensional: higher education as education for inclusiveness,
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 603
employability and wealth creation; and religion as an instrument for redirecting the mindset of the
youth towards acquisition and nurturing of enduring sound ethical values. It is instructive to note that,
the pursuit of peace is fundamental to the ethos of Islam. Similarly, the quest for peace, in Christianity,
is absolutely theological. The adherents of the two religions should operate within common frontiers of
peace in an increasingly pluralistic world. If violence must cease to be the mode of resolving conflicts,
then concrete steps must be taken to ensure that peace initiatives are encouraged in several diverse
ways.
If the educational needs of the seven groups of potentially restive youths are addressed, the
nation would have prepared the ground for a sound culture of peace and prevent to a large extent
youth restiveness as it relates to the critical issues of unemployment and un-employability of the
Nigerian youth. The paper was not interested in politically master-minded youth restiveness because
only a political solution can conclusively solve this type of problem. Higher education may indirectly
help reduce significantly the incident of youth restiveness if our youths are given the right type of
education they demand and deserve such that the politicians are unable to recruit unwilling youths for
use as political thugs and other violent crimes against the Nigeria state. Finally, course offerings in
religious studies should not only reflect the traditional content but also the state of the practice of
religion in the contemporary world. Islamic Studies specialists in higher education have a key role to
play here in educating for peace and researching to stop violence considering the current militancy of
the Islamist Boko Haram which has caused both pain and destruction.

References
Al-Hilali, M.T. and Khan, M.M. (1994). The noble Qurn: English translation of the meanings and
commentary. Madinah: King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qurn.

Elegbeleye, O.S. (2005). Recreational facilities in schools: A panacea for youths restiveness. Journal of
Human Ecology, 18 (2) 93-8.

Fountain, S. (1999). Peace education in UNICEF. New York: UNICEF.

Jibrl, M. (2010). Nigeria higher education profile. Retrieved from htpp://www.Bc.edu/bc_org/
avp/soe/cihp.inhea/profiles/Ngeria.HTM on 12/03/ 2010.

Keye, J. (2004). Nigeria: Towards regional growth, peace and unity.
http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlyArea ID+108 & subsec ID +900003 & content/,p
1-2 10/04/2010.

King James Version of the Holy Bible. New York: American Bible Society

Jing, J. (2004). Education for global peace. Being course material on EDPL 788A.

Marc-Laurent, H.A. (1997). Adult learning and the challenges of the 21
st
century. Adult
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 604
Education and Development, 49 29-42.

Mische, Patricia M. (2006). Educating for peace and planetary community at the level of our
deep humanity. Paper presented at the Riverside Church, New York on the Occasion of Lecture
Series on the Theme: Education for global peace; spiritual and ethical perspectives on peace &
justice, Organized by the Peace Education Center at Teachers College, Columbia University.

National Bureau of Statistics (2009). Social Statistics in Nigeria. Retrieved from http://www.
nigerianstat.gov.ng/ext/latest_release/ssd09.pdf on 25/12/2010.

Omar, R. (2010). Islam and peace building. Retrieved from http://ocw.nd.edu/peace-studies/
islamic-ethics-of-war-and-peace/readings-1/islam-and-peacebuilding-1 on 31/10 2012.

Saint, W., Hartnett T.A. and Strassner, E. (2003). Higher education in Nigeria: A status
report. Higher Education Policy. 16, 259- 281.

Tenuche, M. (2009). Youth restiveness and violence in Nigeria: A Case study of youth
unrest in Ebiraland. The social sciences 4 (6), 549-556.

Turaki, Y. (2012). Historical roots of crises and conflicts in Nigeria with reference to
northern Nigeria and Kaduna State. Retrieved from https://groups.google.com/forum/
?fromgroups#!topic/yorubaaffairs/jc1lf1f1touyusufu turaki on 3/11/12.

Umar, M.S.(1985) Maitatsine revisited: Some substantive issues and tentative conclusions.
The Guardian, January 4, 1985 7.

UNESCO, The four pillars of learning. Retrieved from www.unesco.org/en/delors/ fourpil.
htm. on 30/11/2010.












October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 605

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT ROLE OF GUIDANCE COUNSELLOR IN
AN ERA OF HIGH QUEST FOR UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE
By
PORBENI, ZIBO SAM, PhD
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education
Niger Delta University
P.M.B 071, Wilberforce Island
Bayelsa State.
Email: samzibo@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT
There seems to be no patronage for the guidance and counselling profession any longer, in
spite of the huge input in the form of human and material resources. There seems to be no
regard again for career and vocational development personnel amongst the youths, a
cursory look at the influx and trend in the universities will reveal these. Consequently, it
has become pertinent that the concept of guidance counselling, its roles and qualities of
the personnel be re-examined and recommendation made in restoring the pride of the
guidance and counselling professionals to its foot and restoring the essence and honour
for career developments in order institutions of higher learning.
Key word: Guidance and Counselling, Schools, career, Certificate, Era.








October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 606

Introduction
Among the innovations introduced into the Nigerian educational system are the guidance and
counselling services. The aim was to offer meaningful and realistic assistance for individuals to discover
themselves, their potentialities and limitations in terms of academic and career prospects. In other
words, guidance and counselling in the new educational structure is concerned with giving assistance to
school children to understand themselves as unique individuals and become aware of their values,
abilities, talents, aptitude, strength and weakness.
However, it does seem that the role of the guidance counsellors in contemporary time, where
both the family and the individual child is concerned is changing. The entire societies seem to place
more emphasis on University education. Worst still is the universities, preference now for the so called
professional courses that considered (Lucrative). We now witness dwindling need for guidance and
counselling profession which on a daily basis is being reduced to an ill-defined and ambiguous series of
adjustment practices to changing career prospects.
This no doubt is why such courses then referred to as single honour courses in our
Universities are almost running into extinction. Such includes Bachelors degree in History, Music,
Chemistry, Religious Knowledge, Philosophy etc. It is for this season also that today such courses like
Medicine, Engineering, Law, and Pharmacy etc now tend to be considered more important and
dominate every other course in the Nigeria University. Even in the so called professional courses, we
have lived to still witness some forms of segregation within them. For instance fresh medical student
now tend to give preference to specialties like gynaecology, paediatrics against such specialties as
orthopaedics etc. In Engineering, Petroleum, Chemical and or petrochemical engineers now tend to
displace civil, agricultural, mechanical engineering among others.
The society is now university certificate hungry and cost benefit driven. Ideally in every society
like Nigeria should have a diversity of a skilled work force for its development?
All members of the society are not meant to be material for a university education. Even among
those who are clear materials for University Education may still not attain such status for a number of
socio-economic reasons.
Today what we see is an upsurge of admission into our universities quite un-proportional to
that of our colleges of education, polytechnics and nontechnical crafts centres. This also resulted into a
drastic collapse or an eventual extinction of our crafts and trade centres bringing to a close such
certificates as Trade Test, City and Guild, Pitman etc, which are all essential in every system The over-
flooding of the system with the university degrees which tends to facilitate the quest for white collar
jobs is bad for the development of the country as a whole.
It should be recalled that the main essence of the 6-3-3-4- system of education was to
checkmate this wanton access to tertiary education, of which guidance counsellors are supposed to play
a leading role. Again, why will the quest for university education be so tense that the society emphasis
on certificate over rides merit and experience? Appointments and promotions are now tied to
certificate, as merit and experience no longer count.
Given the above scenario the begin to think if guidance counsellors have not lost both their
dignity and sense of professional pride as we Watch our teaming youths being channelled into a few
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 607
fast paying profession on one hand and allowing some youth who are naturally not cut out for higher
education to gain access to our higher schools, thereby denying the nation of the skills and innovations
which nature have bestowed on the crafts men and technicians. It is for this reason that the theory of
social stratification was postulated in the first place.
As a profession charged with giving structural assistance to individuals in order to help them
realize themselves and to make maximum benefit of things around them, counsellor ought to be seen
and also see themselves as essential tools in the task of human development for nation building.
The Concept of Guidance and Counselling
Counselling is concerned with creating opportunities suitable for the personal, educational and
vocational growth of the individual. Shertzer and Stone (1986) posit that counselling is the process
wherein the counselee is helped by the counsellor to behave in a more rewarding and or satisfying
manner. Giwa (1985) see counselling as a learning process that helps individuals to understand
themselves and their world. Counselling is defined also as a definitely structured relationship which
allows the client to gain an understanding of him/her to a degree which enables him or her take
positive steps based on his new orientation. Rogers (1942) and Ipaye (1983) posited that counselling is a
learning process whereby the counselor and the client learn by means to encounter issues and form
relationships. A Relationship that is meant to help the client learn not only to maximize the benefits of
his living situation but also to expose him to use his potentials to maximize the gains for future life
issues.
Understanding the Concept of Guidance and Counselling
Ipaye (1983) and Oladele (1987) consider that guidance and counselling identify and respond to the
individual needs of pupils or students, thereby helping them to develop their maximum potential.
Miller (1968) also defines guidance as a process of helping individuals to achieve self-understanding and
self-direction, necessary to make maximum adjustment in school, homes and community. What Miller
is saying in this definitions is that guidance is an assistance given to an individual to enable him/her
appraise him/herself and to come to term with him/herself. This self understanding will enable him or
her to benefit from the opportunities at school, home and community.
On the other hand, Austin and George (1973) define counselling as a learning process designed
to increase adaptive behavior and to-decrease maladaptive behaviour. From this definition, it means
counselling is the help given to an individual to bring out those qualities in him/her that conforms to
the norms of the society, while discouraging the anti-social tenderness in him or her. In their own view,
Shertzer and Stone (1976) said that counselling is a learning process in which individuals learn about
themselves, their interpersonal relations, behaviours that advance their personal development.
Contributing to the understanding of counselling, Ipaye (1983) says that, it is a form of personal
assistance or help given, by the counsellor to the counselee to assist the individual achieve adaptive
attitude and behaviour.
It is my view that although differences appear to exist between the terms guidance and
counselling, they are usually exchangeable. According to Makinde (1988), there is as much of guidance
in counselling as counselling in guidance. Eyanro (1991) in supporting the above argument, says that its
difficult to adequately separate the two concepts because guidance and counselling take place
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 608
simultaneously and they carry similar connotations of a help given to an individual or groups
experiencing difficulties in areas such as personal, social, educational and vocational fields that occur.
Okoye (1990) however said that the most professional way of looking at the meaning of guidance and
counselling is to see them as a married couple and like married couple it takes the two of them to
produce an offspring. Accounting to him you needs guidance and counselling professionals working
together to produce the required services of a helping exercise. Stated by the National Policy on
Education, Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004)
Guidance and Counselling in the National Policy on Education.
In the National Policy on Education, guidance and counselling is not separated from the general aims
and objective of the educational system in Nigeria. In this respect, the general objective of educational
policy stated in the New National Policy, are as follows:
1. To inculcate national consciousness and national unity.
2. To inculcate the right type of values and high place for the survival of the individual and the
Nigerian Society.
3. To train the mind in the understanding of the world around us
4. To acquire the appropriate skills and development of mental, physical and social abilities.
The objective of guidance and counselling cannot dissociate itself from the general objectives of
education in the system. In collaboration with the general educational services in the system,
Oladele (1987) says that the objectives of guidance and counselling are in many folds. Thus,
1. To create a self-reliant person who is able to understand his strengths and weaknesses and make
wise choices, take decisions without the help of the guidance counselor.
2. To help the individual attain satisfactory life in their society
3. To ease the work of the teachers in the schools systems.
Oladele (1987) also came up with what can be regarded as specific objectives to be rendered to all stake
holders in the 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria/ it is the expectation of the policy that guidance
and counseling will render assistance to students, teachers, parents and the government in the
following specific areas mentioned below.
Principles of Guidance and Counselling
The principles as drawn from Iwuama (1991) are;
1. Guidance is oriented towards cooperation and not compulsion.
2. Guidance and counselling is based upon recognizing the dignity and worth of the individuals as
well as their right to choose.
3. Guidance and counselling is a continuous, sequential, educational process.
4. Guidance and counselling is for everybody, irrespective of age.
5. Guidance and counselling should concern itself with the welfare of the individual and that of
the society.
6. Guidance is concerned primarily and systematically with the present development of the
individuals.
7. The primary mode by which guidance and counselling is conducted lies in the individual
behavioral process.
In addition, it should be noted by practitioners that the issue of confidentiality is very vital in guidance
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 609
and counselling. The counselor must ensure that all information about his client is kept confidential. It
is also important to know that counselors do not have ideas or solutions to all problems. Problems
beyond the scope and competence of the guidance counselor should be referred to competent hands, if
they are to perform their duties effectively in the new system of education.
Guidance and Counselling In Schools
The need to provide guidance and counselling services in primary and secondary schools is clearly
stated in section 9 paragraph 89(1) of the 2004 revised edition of the National Policy on Education, for
purpose of clarity. I quote the relevant section as follows: in view of the apparent ignorance of many
young people about prospect in life and in view of the personal adjustment problems among school
children, career officers and counselors should be appointed in every primary/secondary institutions.
And since qualified personnel in this category are scarce, government shall continue to make provision
for the training of interested teachers in guidance programme. Proprietors of school should provide
guidance programme with adequate number of teachers in each primary and post primary schools.
In practice under the new system of education much of the efforts to actualize the objectives of
guidance and counselling in schools have been directed at the post primary schools, neglecting
carelessly the primary and the tertiary institutions, this is a negation of the principles that guidance and
counselling is a continuous and sequential educational process to the individual and vital to the nation.
Guidance and Counselling in the Higher Institution
Following the New National Policy on Education, the fourth segment of the educational system is
the higher institutions. These institutions are the universities, polytechnic as the case may be. In the
National Policy, provision for guidance and counselling services is not mentioned. What was
mentioned was centered on primary and post primary school. One wonders whether it was deliberate
or an oversight on the part the government of the day in Nigeria.
What operates at the Nations higher institution today can justify the lack of guidance and
counselling services in them? First, most of these groups of universities offering courses those
secondary school students are unguided to take; they therefore find themselves offering courses that
are not in conformity with their students interest, ability or capabilities. What follows after their first
or second year in the school is poor performance or an application for change of courses.
The Universities and other high schools are institution where students also have adjustment
problems; problems associated with cultism and many other vices. Student hardly find somebody
they can confide in, like a trained guidance counsellors to handle their problems therefore the
school has to have a rethink about providing adequate guidance and counselling personnel in their
schools before they go into the next levels to realized the laudable objectives of a higher education in
Nigeria
The Counsellors Role
The clearest, most concise and most authoritative statement of the counsellor's role has come from
school counsellors themselves. Its major features are summarized under the following headings: who
he is; what he does; his working environment.
The counselor is a person who works as a member of the pupil personnel team to help pupils
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 610
achieve growth, development, and self-fulfillment. He values each individual as unique and'
worthy person. He perceives the school as a democratic institution dedicated to helping each
individual achieve their maximum potentials. He views society as providing almost limitless
opportunities in a complex, dynamic, and challenging environments. The school counselor is a
professional with unique skills in the art and science of helping others in their quest for identity and
fulfillment and self actualization.
These values and competencies partially define the counsellor's role, they indicate who the
counsellor is. What he does is a second dimension.
Major functions that make up the school counsellor's work Includes Counselling working
face-to-face with individuals and small groupsis his major function. More than any other activity, it
draws on his unique personal and professional helping capacities. Leadership in developing the guid-
ance and counselling program is a second essential function. Career guidance, counselling, services-
appraisal, information, and placementalso contribute to pupil's personal, social, educational, and
career development. Each function interacts with others to provide help to the whole individual.
The counselor's other remaining functions are: coordination of resources to provide needed
help, parental assistance, consultation with staff and administration, research on pupil needs and
effectiveness of services, and community pupil relations. These activities, as well as those already
mentioned, help pupils by making available a growth-facilitating relationship, Appraisal, referral,
environmental information, and appropriate learning, experiences are to be facilitated by a supportive
work setting.
The setting has a substantial influence on the degree to which the counselor can implement
his skills and carry out his function. A reasonable pupil load is a major factor. Around 250 pupils per
counselor are recommended by the statement referred to above. Freedom from administrative,
clerical, teaching, and disciplinary responsibilities is essential. Provisions should be made for research,
study, and professional development. The freedom to hold school-hour conferences with pupils and
to budget time as one sees fit is a necessary professional consideration. At times, the counselor might
best fulfill his function by being absent from the school to confer with the staff of a community
agency or meet the personnel director of a local industry. Freedom to innovate and to try out new
approaches is also characteristic of a facilitating and stimulating setting. Finally, adequate facilities,
equipment, and budget are necessary. The counselor who lacks privacy, or adequate files and records,
and is burdened with clerical tasks will find it next to impossible to use his expertise in helping
others.
The counselor's role is flexible and open-ended. He may emphasize certain aspects of
particular local concern or may develop innovative, less time-consuming ways to provide traditional
services. Current social and economic trends suggest that new approaches are needed, particularly for
special groups. One of these approaches is discussed next.
Active Outreach
Many of the functions already mentioned imply that the counselor must leave his office, go to where
the problems are, and seek out those who need help. Many of those who could profit from the
counselor's assistance are reluctant to visit his office or ask for his help (Celia, 1966; Grande, 1968).
Furthermore, in order to effect changes that are beneficial to the school and the community, the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 611
counselor should have an impact on the institution, i.e., should help the "system client" as well as the
"student client"(U.S. Department of HEW 1970). He should also serve as a helper - a consultant - to
other staff members (Lister, 1969). He needs to invite teachers onto the guidance team. Increased
effort to understand and reach all groupsthe disadvantaged, the discriminated against, the culturally
differentis a top-priority need (Proctor, 1970; Aragon and Ulibarri, 1971; At kin, 1972; Tiedt,
1972).
These emphases do not suggest a basic change in the role of the counselor; it is, as Loughery
(1971) says, still relevant and valid. But he, too, emphasizes the emerging importance of the
counselors role as a social change agentanother way of saying that is that the counselor serves the
system client and should be encouraged to set up, practice out of the school setting too, because the
services they provide are also needed by the society at large.
Outreach is part of the "new activist role" described by Rosen (1970), advising the counselor
to go out in the community, gather job information, become acquainted with employers and union
leaders, and help pupils plan effective job strategies. The activist is not satisfied with helping pupils
cope with the status quo. He uses his knowledge of the community and his counselling skills to
motivate employers to develop more relevant and realistic requirements for employment. To use the
outreach approach, the counselor has to first understand the situation. Once he does, conditions that
need to be changed become highly visible. Being a change agent is inseparably related to outreach
this however, does not negate the importance of referrals and their roes
Two related developments in counsellingaccountability and differentiated staffinghave a
direct bearing on the counselor's outreach role and potential. Support personnel free the counselor
from some tasks and enable him to concentrate his energies in needed areas. But support personnel
can themselves offer guidance assistance to those who might otherwise be missed, e.g., minority
groups, dropouts, and the unemployed in the attempt of guidance and counselor to stay relevant and
create the awareness of his/her services, so as to increase the number of step at his/her office they
must also enhance themselves with their relationship building skills.
Recommendations
1. There is every need for the training and recruitment of more guidance counselors to cater for
the teaming number of school children especially for the primary and secondary school.
2. Those already on the job, counselors ought to be motivated by means of salaries and other
facilities e.g. special earned allowances
3. There should be public awareness programme by the various mass media house aimed at
promoting the need for guidance counselling, counselors students regular interaction. This will
in turn enhance student discovery of their potentials and hence sound decision for career
choices.
4. Government should pay adequate attention to pupils guidance since teachers alone cannot
guarantee the future of the Nigeria children. Counselors should be appointed to serve as
mentors in every school to handle problems such as adjustment problem, bad study habit, poor
reading culture, truancy etc.
5. Where practicable specialization should be developed within the guidance counselling
profession to handle specific problem bothering on gender.
6. Guidance counselor should be restricted to counselling alone as combining their duty with
teaching may amount to interference and/or conflict of interest.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 612
7. There should be more guidance counselor in the tertiary institutions-polytechnic, colleges of
education and the universities than their primary and secondary school counterpart. The reason
is that these are young adults and are more prone to mischief and peer pressure.
8. Efforts should be made to ensure that the counselors reside with the student in secondary
schools.
9. Practicing counselors must be made to adhere to the ethics of the profession. They must not
disclose issues relayed to them by their students. Such disclosure can only be disclosed with the
express permission of the student. Without the break of confidentialities rules they should also
respect the dignity of their students and never take undue advantage of their weakness,
dependence or age.
10. There should be periodic review of the guidance counselling curriculum with a view of
improving it with new and practicable ideas.

Conclusion
Guidance counselling is a recipe in national development and where the polices are not properly developed
and implemented may constitute a bane to our national development since every students counts Nigeria
cannot afford to be paying for the services of hired expatriate. Though guidance counselling ideology is still
relatively new in Nigeria, mass mobilization campaign should be aggressively carried out with a view to
selling the idea and the development of private practices of guidance and counselling services would in the
creation of awareness and its roles and needs. Import and relevance of counselling to parents and students
alike, Politics ought not to be allowed to creep into this all essential aspect of our educational system.
References
Abin, J. O. (1993). A sample of Nigeria Adolescents Academics and Occupational Aspiration. West
African Journal of Educational xvii no 3.
Aniyama, E.E. (2000). Counselling for inculcating good citizenship and democratic society; 18(2)322-
327.
Awokoya S.O. (19980). Ed Perspectives of qualities and quantities in Nigerian Education. A synthetics
Report of the Bagdad Seminar NERC.
Austin, R. and George R. (1973). Action counselling for behavior change. New York In text
Educational Publishers.
Eyanro P.A. (1999). Current trends in Guidance and Counselling. Aba; Muse Book Publishers.
Hunting ten (1991). Democracys third wave. Journal of democracy 2(2)12-34.
Ipaye T. (1993). Guidance and counselling Practice, Ile-ife University Press.
Iwuama, B.C. (1991). Foundation of Guidance and Counselling. Benin; Ideal Publishers.
Makinde, O. (19980). A survey of Counselling Approaches in Reading in Guidance and Counselling
Unit, Lagos Federal Ministry of Education.
Makinde, (1998). Indigenous African Counselling Therapy Theories of Counselling and Psychotherapy,
Ibadan; Practice Continental Press.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 613
Makinde, (1983). Fundamentals of guidance and counselling. London: Macmillan publishers ltd.
Miller, F. W. (1968), Guidance Principles and Practice, Columbia Charles, F. Mari.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), National Policy on Education Nigeria, Abuja.
Obadiah, Y. I. (1988). Towards an Effective Career Guidance in Nigeria Secondary Schools Nigeria
Journal of Education Psychology. 3 No. 1.
Okon, M.D. (2000). The need for attitudes change for a sustainable Democracy-Implication for
counselling and education. 18(1)1-9.
Okoye, N.N. (1990). Fundamental of Guidance and Counselling Ibadan; Heinemann Educational
Books.
Oladele, J.O. (1987). Guidance and Counselling A functional Approach Lagos; Johns Lad
Enterprises.
Omebe, S.E. (2000). Counselling for human rights towards sustainable democracy. Vol 18(2)360-366.
Osezua, F. E. (2000). Problems of Implementation of Guidance and Counseling Policy in Nigerian.
Journal of Teachers Educational and Teaching 4 No. 2.
Roger, C. (1942). Counselling and psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin company.
Rogers, C. (1942). Way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Shertzer, B. and stone S.C. (1986). Fundamentals of guidance and counselling. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin co.
Trawler, D. W. (1957). Techniques for Guidance, New York; Harper and Brothers.
Vaughan, T. D. (1970). Educational and Vocational Guidance Today London; Rutledge Keg an Paul.
Yusuf, S.A.O. (2000). Counselling for sustainable democracy in Nigeria. 18(2)314-321.











October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 614

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION:
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

By

AYOTUNDE ADEBAYO, Ph.D
Department of Arts and Social Sciences Education
University of Lagos
aadebayo@unilag.edu.ng, ayotunde.adebayo1@gmail.com

Abstract

The effective management of knowledge is now believed to be the main core competence in order for an
organisation to survive within the competitive business environment. The current implementation of
Knowledge Management (KM) within the Nigerian tertiary institutions is still in its developmental
phase. The tertiary institutions are resource oriented and as such the most important assets to the
institutions are their knowledge assets. This paper examines the relevance of knowledge management to
various aspects of higher education especially in a way that universities would be able to effectively manage
knowledge as a valuable asset. The paper concludes by recommending policies that would ensure the
realisation of this objective.













October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 615

Introduction

Several efforts have been made to define, categorize and classify knowledge; and some of these
definitions have been changed, widened and have been subjected to query. As such, there is not a
particular definition of knowledge and as such many authors have their views and perception of the
phenomenon. The definitions of knowledge by Webster dictionary describes knowledge as the
application to facts or ideas acquired by study, investigation, observation or experience (Merriam-
Webster, 2010). This definition stresses the fact that knowledge goes beyond information. It also
involves facts and ideas that have been got through experience. Knowledge can also be defined as
actionable information

(Tiwana, 2001). This means information used for a specific purpose. The term
actionable is a concept that signifies importance, and to be available at the right place at the right time
so as to enable decision making (Tiwana, 2001).

For the purpose of this paper, knowledge is defined as a blend of values, experiences,
contextual information, and grounded intuition that gives an environment for evaluation and a
framework for incorporating new experiences and information (Davenport and Prusak, 1998).
Knowledge is initiated and is functional in the minds of the people who possess the knowledge.
According to Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995), there is a clear definition between information and
knowledge. The Table 2.1 below shows the comparison between information and knowledge.

Table 1.1 Comparisons between Information and Knowledge.
Information Knowledge
It is easily expressed in written form Hard to communicate, and difficult to express in
words
Processed data Actionable information
It simply gives us the facts It allows the making of predictions and predictive
decision.
It evolves from data, and formalized in databases,
books, manuals and documents.
It is formed, established in and shared among
collective minds. It also grows and changes with
experience, success and failures.
It is simple, clear and structured. It is partly unstructured and can be unclear or muddy.
Source (Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995); Tiwana 2001).

For better understanding, knowledge is described from the perspective of its hierarchical view
which involves the data, information and knowledge (Gupter and Sharma, 2004). From this standpoint,
data involves numbers or characters, information can imply clear and simple processed data while
knowledge refers to actionable information which can be influenced by experiences.

Bahra (2001) suggests that knowledge is the most important factor of production for many
companies. Nevertheless, knowledge is not usually understood. But it is worth mentioning that
knowledge is not to be overlooked. It is easy to confuse knowledge with information or data, and so
figure 1.1 below depicts the relationship amongst the three parameters which is called the knowledge
hierarchy. Each phase of the hierarchy builds on the one below. For instance, data are needed to
produce information, but as suggested by Gupter and Sharma (2004), information involves more than
just data. This is the same in the case for information being required to produce knowledge but
knowledge involves more than just information.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 616

Figure 1.1 Knowledge Hierarchy. Source (Gupter and Sharma, 2004).

Classification of Knowledge
Tiwana (2001), and other authors such as Gamble and Blackwell (2001), Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995)
suggest that knowledge can be split into two broad categories which are the tacit and the explicit forms
of knowledge. These two types of knowledge are explained in the sub-sections below.

Tacit Knowledge
Ruggles and Holtshouse (1999) describe tacit knowledge as one that is stored in the heads of people.
Gamble and Blackwell (2001) also stresses the fact that this type of knowledge is a context-specific
knowledge which is hard to record, articulate and formalize. They further go to suggest that tacit
knowledge includes individual beliefs, images and technical skills.
Tiwana (2001) suggests the characteristics of tacit knowledge which are outlined below:
It is personal and context-specific
It is stored in heads of people
It is difficult to manage and support with IT
Through a process of trial and error in practice, tacit knowledge can be established and
developed.

As suggested by Kucza (2001), organisations have little or no control over tacit knowledge, due
to the fact that tacit knowledge is the personal knowledge of a person. Kucza (2001) further goes to
say that the organisation can however manage the environment that is needed for the area of practice to
blossom and also engage in the sharing of information that is the result of that knowledge. One of the
objectives of knowledge management is to make use of tacit knowledge and make it explicit so that
businesses can achieve their corporate objectives and goals (McKellar, 2005).

Explicit Knowledge
The other form of knowledge (explicit) is described by Ruggles and Holtshouse (1999) as knowledge
that is put into a formal language, including grammatical statements and mathematical expressions.
Explicit knowledge can be stored in a database and can also be processed by a computer. It can also be
electronically transmitted. Explicit knowledge can also be easily shared and documented; and can be
expressed easily in document form.
Tiwana (2001) explains the characteristics of explicit knowledge with regards to its nature, development
process, formalization, location, conversion process, IT support and the medium needed. This is shown
in Table 1.2 below.

Table 1.2 Characteristics of Explicit Knowledge.
Characteristic Explicit
Nature It can be codified
Formalization It can be codified and conveyed in a systematic and formal
language
Development process It is developed through the clarification of tacit understanding
Location It is stored in databases, documents etc.
IT support It is supported by existing IT
Medium It can be transferred through usual electronic channels.
Source: (Tiwana 2001).
Knowledge
Information
Data
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 617

In the world today, Knowledge Management is significant as it is used to achieve business goals,
and also to gain competitive advantage (Tiwana, 2001). This is done by controlling the core business
competencies, improving and speeding up innovation, enhancing decision making, enhancing cycle-
times, hence leading to the achievement of business goals. Davenport and Pursak (1998) suggests that
KM helps to create, distribute and explore knowledge so as to establish and retain value from core
business competencies. There are various ways in which the knowledge management concept appeals
to individuals and as result, there are various definitions of KM.

Knowledge Management is here defined as the systematic, explicit, and deliberate building, renewal,
and application of knowledge to maximize an enterprise knowledge-related effectiveness and returns from its assets
(Wiig, 1997). This definition incorporates the essence of knowledge management and also shows the
necessity of having control of the knowledge possessed by the individual within an organisation so as to
improve its competitiveness in a business context. This definition also hints that there is the creation of
an atmosphere that encourages knowledge sharing; because in the world of business today, competitive
advantage is fully dependent on the ability of an organisation to successfully arrange and position its
organisational knowledge and intellectual capital.

According to Bahra (2001), organisations strive to attain their corporate goals by building,
leveraging and maintaining competences. Sanchez (2001) describes competence as a way in which an
organisation has the ability to maintain and use its assets and capabilities in a coordinated fashion, in
ways that would help the organisation achieve its goals. According to a 2007 research done by Meridith
Levinson on Knowledge Management and Solution, it was found that Knowledge must be shared to
get the most value from an organisations intellectual assets (Levinson, 2007). As proposed by Gupta et
al (2004), organisations should have means of creating knowledge and to also have the ability to
manage knowledge as an asset. This is a very important point as organisations within the Nigerian
tertiary institution need to leverage on their knowledge assets so as to create organisational value that
can lead to the development of the organisations capability.

It is worth mentioning that knowledge management is becoming important, and this is due to
the following reasons (Gupter and Sharma, 2004):
To improve customer service and to serve customers well.
To be innovative, flexible and deliver high quality products.
Organisation must reduce their cycle times and also the product development time
The three points listed above are critical issues facing organisations today, hence the need to
implement KM initiatives within the organisation. Government policy somersault has made the tertiary
institution milieu in Nigeria very uncertain in nature, and there are constant changes in customers
needs and requirements. It is now very important for these organisations in the institutions to try as
much as possible to satisfy these customers needs. KM can help Nigerian tertiary institutions to
improve their customer service by responding rapidly to the constant changes of the customers
requirements. This can be done by focusing on the organisations KM processes such as creation,
sharing, transfer and application of knowledge among employees within the organisation.

Current State of Knowledge Management
Generally, in order to manage the knowledge creation, storage and sharing process, the identification of
the current state of KM and the improvement of the affected processes must be acted upon in order to
meet the needs above. As a result, KM projects are improvement projects (Kucza, 2001). Davenport &
Prusak (1998) suggested four kinds of KM projects and activities. These are listed below:
Knowledge Repository This involves verifying the technology used in storing the knowledge. It
also involves convincing the employees to contribute to the repository. Kucza (2001) posits that
knowledge repository is an important KM tool, and this can be implemented within tertiary
institutions in Nigeria so as to enable the easy storage and access of valuable knowledge to the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 618
employees of the organisation.
Knowledge Transfer This involves identifying, developing and monitoring electronic and human
channels for knowledge sharing.
Knowledge Asset Management This type of KM project involves analysing knowledge valuations
and managing a knowledge asset collection. As stated earlier, organisations generally need to
leverage on knowledge assets so as to create organisational value within the organisation.
Nigerian tertiary institutions are beginning to realise the strategic importance of knowledge, and
as a result, it is important for organisations in the Nigerian tertiary institutions to manage their
knowledge assets in a strategic manner. This can be done through hiring a Chief Knowledge
Officer (CKO) whose role is to manage the knowledge assets of the organisation (Nonaka and
Takeuchi, 1995).
Infrastructure Development This involves analysing the financial needs, working with outer traders
of technologies and services. It also involves establishing and developing human resource
management approaches.

Knowledge Management Issues
According to Kucza (2001), there are some important issues that affect the management of knowledge.
These factors are as follows:
The nature of knowledge
The nature of people
The organisational environments.

The Nature of Knowledge. As stated earlier, there are two types of knowledge which are tacit and
explicit knowledge. Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995) suggested that knowledge is only established and
produced in peoples minds and as such it is very complex. As a result of the complexity, the
knowledge generated in the mind is able to adapt to different situations. This is similar to that of the
process of programming language development in software context in which knowledge provides
various reactions depending on the situation at hand

(Kucza, 2001).
The mind of people is known to have knowledge of many things, but the basic problem most of the
time is how to locate the knowledge (i.e. investigating who has knowledge about what) (Baumard,
1999). Although when dealing with small number people this does not usually occur. Davenport &
Prusak (1998) suggests that when it involves between 200 and 300 people, it becomes very difficult for
people involved to know who knows what. The use of intranets helps connect employees within the
organisation who are spread over different geographical locations. Tiwana (2001) also suggests that
these two KM tools help support the creation of knowledge and sharing of knowledge and knowledge
transfer.
It is worth mentioning that quite a number of storage places should be taken into consideration
not just one when it comes to group of people who possess organisational knowledge (Nonaka and
Takeuchi, 1995). Organisational knowledge is defined as the collective sum of human-centred assets, intellectual
property assets, infrastructure assets and market assets

(Baumard, 1999). It becomes difficult in terms of the
storage places because organisations are acting in a global manner, hence having a distributed
environment. Therefore a big problem arises which is how to locate the knowledge. But, assuming the
knowledge is stored and located, there is still a big problem; and this problem is who needs what
knowledge and when. This problem can be solved with the use of knowledge maps which show
graphically where knowledge is located and would help decide what knowledge is to be managed and
when to make such knowledge available to the employees (Tiwana, 2001).
Therefore at a stage whereby the problem of how to locate knowledge arises, it is paramount that KM
processes is in line with other organisational processes (Kucza, 2001). To achieve success, it is
important that this is done in a way that the identification and verification of needs for the knowledge
based on the knowledge stored can then be accessed. The need for knowledge has to be identified
before knowledge can be created or shared. Kucza (2001) further suggested that there can be various
possibilities that may lead to the need for knowledge. These possibilities are listed as follows:
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 619
When faults are identified as a result of examination of the working process in an organisation,
this can lead to the need for additional knowledge.
When taking on a new project in an organisation, the issue of whether the existing knowledge
would help in executing the task should be solved.
The thorough examination of projects can aid in the identification of the need for new
knowledge to tackle problems that have arose.
Kucza (2001) suggests that the need for knowledge identification can be divided into two types:
Identification in advance during planning. This can be the planning the change of the new
development methods in an organisation.
Identification during performance. This can be done when starting development on a specific
task.

The Nature of People. KM can be difficult due to the nature of people and as such the decisions
people take depends mostly on their individual attitude and behaviour (Kreie and Cronan, 2000;
Danvenport & Prusak, 1998). Transferring ones knowledge to another simply makes the other to
perform certain tasks, hence making the instigator of the knowledge transfer easily disposable
(Davenport and Prusak, 1998). Regardless of this, organisations support the transfer of knowledge. But
people have the tendency of keeping their knowledge to themselves because they are scared that they
would not be needed anymore and making them less important after they have transferred their
knowledge to other people (Kucza, 2001). This situation is particular in developing countries such as
Nigeria (Odigie and Li-Hua, 2009). So for people to feel the need to share their knowledge, the
following needs to be carried out (Stecking, 2000):
There needs to be a motivating and a supporting environment established.
There also needs to be a certain amount of trust established between colleagues.

When people do not know each other, especially in large organisations, people do not like to
share their knowledge. So the question of why should I tell others what I know arises (Stecking
2000). Ruggles and Holthouse (1999) suggests that; one of the ways of encouraging knowledge sharing
in an organisation is to introduce monetary incentives and allowing people to publish stories about their
experiences on projects irrespective of the success or failure of the projects.

The way people use knowledge is dependent on the way it was conveyed. Davenport & Prusak
(1998) suggest that the language and the communication skills of people affect their ability to transfer
knowledge to others. A second problem is that people look at things from a totally different
perspective. Since knowledge depends on values and beliefs this leads to a problem in knowledge
transfer (Bahra, 2001). Values include belief in hard work, punctuality, and concern for others (Bahra,
2001; Gordon, 1993). While beliefs involves the assumptions made about ones self, about things in the
world, and how one anticipates things to be (Bahra, 2001; Gordon, 1993). In the Nigerian tertiary
institutions where there are people who come from various ethnic groups who speak different
languages, Davenport and Prusaks (1998) view on knowledge transfer might come into action as the
ability to transfer knowledge might be affected due to the different backgrounds and communication
skills of the employees in various organisations. This issue would be examined through the use of a case
study institution so as to get an in-depth understanding of this subject matter.

The Organisational Environment
The organisational culture is a factor that determines the readiness of people to share their knowledge
in an organisation. Jyothi & Venkatesh (2006) describes organisational culture as the commonly shared
beliefs, values and characteristic patterns of behaviour that exists in an organisation. In order for there to be
motivation towards knowledge sharing, an organisation must carry out the following (Kreie and
Cronan, 2000):
Organisations have to provide incentives for knowledge sharing. Such incentives can be done
by organising lunch presentations, recognition and awards, and enabling the personal ability of
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 620
individual to include knowledge sharing.
Organisations have to invest in the recruitment of smart and intelligent people with innovative
minds
Organisations should provide time for people to talk face to face as this is very important.

These activities mentioned above must be rewarded (e.g. monetary incentives) from the top
management of the organisation so as to make it known that knowledge sharing is regarded as
something really vital to the institutions success. In doing this the employees would be motivated
towards knowledge sharing.
Nowadays, organisations are becoming larger and are spread over various geographical locations. With
this happening, there are problems that re-surface; and these problems are listed below (Davenport and
Prusak, 1998):
Reduced number of face-to-face meetings
Different time zones
Different culture and language

As the organisations grow large, there are tendencies that more hierarchies are established.
Having a hierarchical structure in an organisation can be of disadvantage; and this is outlined below
(Jyothi and Venkatsh, 2006):
The communication across various sections of the organisation becomes poor, therefore
creating inflexibility in the organisation.
The organisation can become bureaucratic
In a situation where-by there is competition between departments, employees can make
decisions that favour themselves instead of the organisation

In the Nigerian tertiary institutions where they have organisational structure that is hierarchical
in nature, the flow of valuable information horizontally across departments can be impaired. Since
some of the institutions are small in size, it is logical to say that they should adopt a flat line structure so
that communication can up the chain of command and across departments can be easy. Individuals
who analyse and process knowledge need time due to the fact that knowledge is complex and can be
quite difficult to handle (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995). There is an indication that it can take a lot more
time before knowledge can influence actions of the individuals and hence may perhaps lead to
positive improvements. As a result, it shows that KM has somewhat of a long term nature and so a
clear return on investment should not be expected immediately.

Knowledge Management Process
Wiig (1997) proposed a step knowledge management process which is outlined below:
Creation and Sourcing
Storage and Retrieval
Transfer
Application and Value realisation.

Knowledge Creation. According to Tiwana (2001), knowledge creation is initiated when knowledge is
created and expanded through the interactions of tacit and explicit knowledge socially. In order to
understand the nature of knowledge creation, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) proposed a model of the
knowledge creating process which is the SECI model. This model consists of three elements which are
listed as follows:
SECI
Ba
Knowledge Assets

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 621
Figure 1.2 Three elements of knowledge creating process.

Source (Nonaka and Teece 2001).

Knowledge Storage and Retrieval. According to Tiwana (2001), knowledge storage and its retrieval is
a significant part in organisational knowledge management. Tiwana further argues that knowledge
storage and its retrieval is linked with explicit knowledge which can be stored in documents, databases
etc.
Gamble and Blackwell (2001) suggests the importance of the difference between individual and
organisational memory for successful knowledge compilation.
Individual memory This is a subjective experience in which memories belong to individuals, helping to
build identity by differentiating this individual from others (Lavenne et al., 2005)
Organisational memory This can be defined as the way an organisation applies past knowledge to present
activities (Morrison and Olfman, 1998)
Knowledge is acquired through learning by individuals or groups. This knowledge acquired is
now fixed in the individual, group and organisational memory (Bencisk et al., 2009). Organisational
knowledge is then created by the organisation by continuous learning which subsequently becomes
fixed in the organisational memory. Organisational memory can be divided into two parts which are
episodic and semantic memory (Stein and Zwass, 1995).
Episodic memory This is a type of explicit memory. This type of memory makes available a
significant record of an individuals past experiences. It is episodic because the past events in
which an individual took part in is remembered as a scene of events.
Semantic memory This is also a type of explicit memory. This is a type of memory that
reports on an individuals general knowledge of the world.

Knowledge Transfer. Knowledge transfer is the passing across of knowledge from one person or
place to another. According to Carlile and Rebentisch (2003), knowledge transfer is an important area
in knowledge management that is associated with the movement of knowledge across the boundaries
created by specialized knowledge domains. Knowledge transfer has been talked about together with the
word knowledge sharing due to the fact that researchers and authors have not succeeded in providing a
plain and clear definition for knowledge transfer. It is worth mentioning that these two concepts are
Platform for
knowledge
conversion
Space for self-
transcendence
Multi-context place
Conversion
between
tacit/explicit
knowledge
Grow and shift through the
continuous knowledge
conversion process
Moderate how Ba performs
as a platform for SECI
Quality and
Energy
Input
Output
Moderate
Ba: Context-Knowledge Place SECI: Knowledge Conversion
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 622
different in some areas.

According to Ryu et al., (2003), knowledge sharing is a people-to-people process. This process
can be described as a two-way process because individuals engage in the mutual or joint exchange of
knowledge (Kucza, 2001). Knowledge sharing also involves the demand and supply of new knowledge.
Knowledge transfer involves enthusiastically discussing with others so as to learn what they know or
actively communicating to other individuals what one knows (Kucza, 2001). Knowledge transfer
mechanisms can be use to acquire knowledge especially in a situation whereby employees within an
organization have identified the knowledge that is significant to them. As a result, organizations can
then continually improve it and make it accessible for those who need it.

Liyanage et al., (2009) suggest that knowledge sharing is a very important stage in the
knowledge transfer process. KM and knowledge transfer are viewed by some as a process solely for the
intention of creating a culture associated with knowledge sharing, and communication so as to improve
organizational innovation (Liebowitz, 2002). In organizations, knowledge sharing involves the exchange
of knowledge between individuals. But knowledge transfer in organizations involves the transfer of
knowledge between groups, departments etc (Drestke, 1981).

Knowledge Application and Value Realisation
One of the most important parts of knowledge management is the knowledge application process. This
is due to the fact that the perception of an organisation with regards to knowledge is centred on the
successful combination and implementation of knowledge exclusively for the efficient use of resources
(Tsai, 2001). It is worth mentioning that the effective combination and successful application of
knowledge can lead to an organisations competitive edge over rivals. (Alvi and Leidner, 2001; Truch et
al., 2002).
According to Leonard-Barton (1995); the application of knowledge can be used to solve
problems within an organisation, and hence generating new knowledge. Harryson (2002) explains that
the precondition of transformation between conceptualization and crystallization is the wide use of
prototype (a type of knowledge application). This statement by Harryson means that members of an
organisation will become knowledgeable simply through learning by doing. This learning by doing
process is one in which the productivity of the employees of an organisation are improved as a result of
constantly doing the same tasks.
In a developing nation such as Nigeria, the application of knowledge can pose as a challenge to
organisations within the tertiary institution (Okunoye et al., 2002). An organisation that has capability
of integrating its knowledge and building up its expertise is as a result of its effective knowledge
application (Alvi and Leidner, 2001). Therefore knowledge application can be executed through ways
such as organisational routines, directives and self contained task teams.
Organisational routines This is the improvement of organisational specification that allows
the application of personal knowledge (Alvi and Leidner, 2001).
Self contained task teams This is similar to that of the cross functional project teams. An
example of this is a new product development team set up solely to integrate knowledge and
implement existing knowledge of the members of the team so as to generate knowledge
creation and enhance innovation (Alvi and Leidner, 2001).
Direct routines This refers to instructions or procedures that are built through externalisation
(Van den Hooff and De Ridder, 2004).
These three ways in which knowledge can be applied to solve tasks can be implemented by
tertiary institutions looking implement KM initiatives within their organisations in Nigeria.

Importance of Knowledge Management to Universities
The interests in knowledge management have grown due to the fact that there is an element of trust
and certainty that knowledge creation and knowledge transfer is of significance to an organisations
effectiveness on a long term basis (Hurley and Green, 2005). Knowledge management tries to make
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 623
maximum use of the knowledge made available to an organisation and at the same time creating new
knowledge in the process. Knowledge management is about understanding, appreciating and making
use of the knowledge of employees and also developing an organisational culture where knowledge
sharing can flourish. As a result of this process, the organisation creates value from their intellectual
and knowledge based assets; hence the organisation would continually develop as a result from the
knowledge of the employees throughout the organisation.

The significance of knowledge management is not to be undervalued because we are in a new
era whereby quick response to the needs of customers and constant innovation are essential order
winners (Tiwana, 2001). Drestke (1981) also suggests that implementing knowledge management
effectively can have an encouraging financial result as there is significant increase in return on
investment in the long run. Organisations such as Boeing have recognised the importance of KM and
have seen the significance that KM tools have in supporting collaboration, KM processes and
innovation. Boeing uses CoP as a KM tool to manage knowledge within their organisation and as a
result save $4m per annum (Coogan, 2008). In order to gain a competitive edge, organisations have
interests in controlling the individual knowledge of their employees and also the organisational business
knowledge (Kucza, 2001). Tsai (2001) and Young (2008) also explain that; a holistic approach has to be
taken by the organisation with regards to managing organisational knowledge so as to maintain
competitive advantage in the business environment. These authors all agree that the organizations focus
should be in the management of explicit knowledge and also encourage ideas aimed at facilitating the
flow of tacit knowledge amongst knowledge workers. This encouragement can be in form of reward or
monetary incentives for knowledge sharing.

As stated earlier, there is the need for organisational knowledge management, and as a result
organisations adopting the use of knowledge management have been influenced by the following
business related factors listed below (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001):
Presence of a competitive environment whereby innovation is a key order winner
The essential need for organisational learning
The need to effectively control and supervise teams and operations based in various
geographical regions due to globalisation
Gamble and Blackwell (2001), Alavi and Leidner (2001), and Sanchez (2001) all suggest that; in
order to have sufficient control over knowledge based assets, organisations have to implement a
knowledge management strategy, supported with a corporate strategy solely for the purpose of the
identification, sharing, transferring and the application of valuable knowledge. Ruggles and Holtshouse
(1999) also stress the fact that; for an organisational KM strategy to be effective, people and ideas assets
should be taken as priority instead of the process based approach. As a result of this, Nigerian tertiary
institutions that are looking to implement or already implementing the use of KM initiatives need to
have a KM strategy in order to leverage on their organisational knowledge assets. Beijerse (2000)
acknowledges the fact that; despite an obvious importance of the effective use of KM, organisations
still find it difficult to recognize and use organisational knowledge to their advantage. Beijerse further
goes to suggest that organisations who are in search of effective KM deal with sensitive issues such as
The nature of the organisational culture
The managements leadership.
Tools and processes which are used to have sufficient control over the knowledge assets.

Knowledge Management Strategies
As stated earlier, adopting a KM strategy is important to Nigerian tertiary institutions in order for them
to manage their knowledge based assets. There are various knowledge management strategies that have
been proposed by different authors. Some of the strategies proposed by authors like Nonaka and
Takeuchi (1995), Wiig (1997), ODell and Grayson (1998) and Treacy and Wiersema (1993) focus on
areas such as knowledge and business process. For the purpose of this project, the strategies would be
discussed based on the business process as these strategies are wider and incorporate the use of
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 624
knowledge by focusing on both knowledge and business process. The KM strategies below show
different strategies that focus on both knowledge and its impacts on business processes.

Classification of KM strategies by Business Process
From a business process perspective, Wiig (1997) proposed six major strategies which are used by
organisations to acquire value from the implementation of knowledge management. It is worth
mentioning that these strategies mirror the organisational environment and also the strengths of the
organisations involved. These strategies are as follows:
Knowledge strategy as a business strategy This involves a broad approach to knowledge
management in which knowledge is seen continually as a product (Manasco, 1996).
Personal responsibility for knowledge strategy This involves the encouragement of employees
in an organisation to establish and develop their skills; and also to create an atmosphere
whereby knowledge sharing can flourish (Wiig, 1997).
Knowledge transfer strategy This involves the transfer of knowledge in order to enhance
efficiency in an organisation (Wiig, 1997).
Customer focused knowledge strategy This is a strategy adopted by organisations mainly for
understanding customers and their needs so as to supply them with what they want at the right
time; hence leading to customer satisfaction (Wiig, 1997; ODell and Grayson, 1998).
Knowledge creation and innovation strategy This strategy focuses on research and
development which can lead to innovation and the creation of brand new knowledge (Manasco,
1996). Wiig (1997) further goes to suggest that organisations who are leaders in their respective
sector adopt strategies like this to mould the future of the industry.
Intellectual asset management strategy This strategy is very important as it emphasises on the
organisations assets that can be taken advantage of and further developed (Wiig, 1997).
These various KM strategies listed above can be selected by Nigerian tertiary institutions based
on both the KM initiative to be implemented and what business processes within the institution should
be improved.

Knowledge Management Tools and Techniques
Authors such as Gamble and Blackwell (2001) and Tiwana (2001) both agree that the tools and
techniques of KM are used by organisations in their everyday work so as to improve the way they use
knowledge, create knowledge, share knowledge and manage knowledge. These KM tools and
techniques are
After-action review (AAR) This is a tool that is used to assess lessons learned. It is done in
form of a relaxed and casual discussion at the end of a project (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001).
Gone well, not gone well This is a quick and very useful tool that is used to get feedback after
the execution of a task within an organisation (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001).
Peer assist Organisations use this KM technique in a situation whereby the employees make
use of peer assist by assembling the knowledge of colleagues from other teams prior to the
execution of a project (Tiwana, 2001).
Knowledge cafe This is a technique that involves the bringing together people for the
purpose of having a creative and resourceful conversation on mutual issues (Gamble and
Blackwell, 2001). This can be done during meetings in which people can come and share their
ideas learn from each other.
Communities of Practice (CoP) The increasingly popular use of CoP by organisations are as a
result of the positive impact it has on the KM processes of an organisation. This KM tool is
described as the gathering of people who share a common interest and engage in a process of
shared learning as a result of constant interactions with each other (Gamble and Blackwell,
2001). This KM tool helps drive social interactions, knowledge creation and sharing among
employees within an organisation.
Job rotation/mentoring This is a technique used in organisations to improve the skills and
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 625
capability of the employees. This is done by moving employees from one job to another
thereby obtain a lot of experiences on the job (Tiwana, 2001). This technique also makes
employees to derive job satisfaction and also increase employee retention rate within the
organisation.
Project teams This is a KM tool that is used within organisations to drive KM processes such
as knowledge creation, transfer and application.
Electronic database & repositories These are KM tools that support the storage of knowledge
within an organisation. They also help by granting employees of an organisation easy access and
retrieval of information and knowledge stored within this database.
Expert systems An expert system is mostly used in organisations to support the application of
knowledge on tasks (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001). This KM tool can be described as a
computer software that tries to give a solution to a problem encountered in a task or provide
help with decision making skill on tasks where more often than not, more than one specialist
needs to be consulted to solve the problem (Gamble and Blackwell, 2001; Tiwana, 2001).
Meetings This is the most popular KM tool used within organisations in which it involves the
gathering of employees to discuss issues of general interest (Tiwana, 2001). Gamble and
Blackwell (2001) suggest that the use of meetings within organisations support the creation and
the sharing of knowledge among employees.
Intranets The use of intranets have popular amongst large organisations such as Boeing and
Microsoft because of the positive effects it has of the KM processes of an organisation
(Gamble and Blackwell, 2001). This KM tool is a private network that is enclosed in an
organisation with the sole aim of sharing organisational information and knowledge among
employees.

Some of these KM tools and techniques listed above (such as meetings and job rotation) are
presently used by organisations within the Nigerian tertiary institutions. It is also important for these
organisations to realize that there several tools and techniques that are available for selection based on
what KM initiative is being implemented. These KM tools can help the tertiary institutions drive and
support the KM processes (such as creation, sharing, storage, transfer and application of knowledge)
within the organisation. For example, project teams are used within organisations to tackle projects
successfully. The tacit-to-tacit interactions within the team members of the project team help in the
sharing of knowledge between the employees and hence knowledge is being transferred. Nonaka and
Takeuchi (1995) suggests that project teams that consists of knowledgeable people from different
backgrounds are responsible for the existing and new knowledge created within the team and this
knowledge is then applied to solve tasks within the organisation.

Significant Success Factors for Knowledge Management
The significant success factors for KM can be divided in to three categories which are People,
Process, and Technology (Marling, 2004). These three are important as they build a learning
organisation and attain positive results from KM. However, organisations who implement KM have
found it simpler to position processes and technology in the right place compared to that of people as
they present bigger challenges (Hariharan, 2002).

People: One of the biggest challenges that face KM implementation in any organisation is to make
sure that all the staffs engage in the sharing of knowledge and its re-use so as to achieve their business
goals and the competitive advantage needed (Hariharan, 2002). Many organisations such as the ones in
the tertiary institutions in Nigeria have rigid organisational culture, and this needs to be changed so as
to encourage knowledge sharing. Bozbura (2007) suggested that organisations need to change their
traditional way of thinking and move from an organisational culture that fosters knowledge hoarding to
one that encourages knowledge sharing. Bozbura further suggest that this could be achieved by
implementing incentives, motivation and reward system within the organisation.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 626
Processes: This is an important success factor for KM as it includes the process for the contribution
of knowledge within an organisation, knowledge retrieval, carrying out tasks based on knowledge
application, content management (which includes receiving the content and keeping up the quality of
the content, ensuring the content is kept up to date and removing contents that are out of date)
(Hariharan, 2002). Baumard (1999) suggests that the processes within an organisation should be simple,
clear and straight forward so as to aid the understanding of the processes. The tertiary institution in
Nigeria is knowledge oriented and depend on knowledge workers to drive the organisation. Therefore,
understanding these processes listed above is paramount as the employees are able to align their skills
and capability accompanied with the suitable technological environment to create organisational value.

Technology: Providing a suitable technological environment is key a factor to the success of KM
implementation. The use of suitable technology would provide support for the sharing of knowledge
and document management across the organisation. The use of corporate intranets within organisations
is getting increasingly popular as organisations are beginning to realise how
these could help facilitate the workflow and sharing of knowledge within the organisation (Marling,
2004). However, it is important for an organisation to select a particular technology solution that meets
and satisfy the organisational KM objectives. Since one of the significant KM enablers is technology,
the technological option selected by the organisation should not result into a situation whereby only
technology receives all the attention and much KM effort and focus is not made on people and
process as this can lead to little achievement of business goals (Hariharan, 2002).

Conclusion

Although universities have always managed knowledge but it is incontrovertible that the nature of
knowledge they have to deal with has changed tremendously. The need for a strong focus on strategies
of evolving new knowledge culture for the Nigerian universities is indispensable. The universities
should set-up task teams to examine various KM principles in the context of the mission, vision and
current realities in the institutions so that a particular university would decide on specific KM strategies
and techniques that can be applied to produce policies and practices that would assist in meeting the
expectations of critical stakeholders (students, staff and the wider society). The application of KM
techniques ought to cover all the core functions of a university (research, teaching and community
development). For instance, since research is the bedrock of a university, mechanisms for ensuring that
researched knowledge is delivered to students is crucial. Both the after-Action review technique and the
gone well and not gone well techniques could be deployed as tools for assessing teaching-learning
processes. Managing the intellectual capital of universities in todays knowledge society should embrace
managing learning as a finite activity that should not be restricted by space, time and the finite activities
of the teacher. Both the peer-assist and knowledge cafe techniques could be explored in ensuring that
students learn how to learn without the teacher. The research policy of Nigerian universities ought to
be liberalised in a way that the cumbersome procedures for securing institutional funding for research
that would be of immediate benefit to society is removed. The research committees should play more
mentoring roles in assessing the research initiatives of university academics. Universities could also use
the Knowledge Management principle of information sharing to develop the capacities of students to
engage in cooperative learning with their peers and to learn from various sources and through different
platforms in order to access the most current information in a rapidly changing world.

The utilisation of various Information Technology (IT) facilities should assist the universities to
evolve relevant Knowledge Management practices that will engender more effective and efficient
means of producing, storing and disseminating knowledge. The process should involve an increased
emphasis on the acquisition of relevant information literacy skills by both staff and students, the
guaranteed access to core IT facilities and the gradual virtualisation of administrative, teaching, learning
and research processes in the universities.. Universities should also provide opportunities for post-
graduation engagement with their products to upgrade and update their knowledge after graduation as
well as provide the necessary feedback that would help the university to assess how well it is
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 627
performing and the identification of the type of knowledge management strategy that should be
implemented. Since societies look up to the university for solutions to the problems confronting them,
Nigerian universities should ensure that the creation of new knowledge through research is directly
applicable to existing conditions in society. Reports of research output and important developments in
the universities should also be regularly made available in the news media

Knowledge Management tools are extremely relevant to any higher educational institution as
they help support the creation of knowledge, sharing of knowledge, storage/retrieval of knowledge,
transfer of knowledge and application of knowledge if implemented correctly. The KM tools and
techniques proposed here are project teams, Communities of Practice (CoP), intranets, after-action
review (AAR), gone well, not gone well, and peer assist. It is important to note that institutions looking
to implement or already implementing KM can select any of these proposed tools based on what their
organisational objectives are, and what KM processes they seek to drive. Succinctly put, therefore,
Nigerian universities that seek to implement any of the KM tools and technique listed above would
appreciate how significant these tools are and also see the positive relationship that these KM tools
have on the KM processes in higher education.


References

Alavi, M. and Leidner, D.E. (2001), Knowledge management and knowledge management systems MIS
Quarterly, Vol. 25 No. 1, pp. 107-37.
Bahra, N. (2001). Competitive Knowledge Management. First Edition. PALGRAVE Houndmills.
Basingstoke. UK.
Baumard, P (1999). Tacit Knowledge in Organisations. London: Sage Publications Ltd. .
Beijerse, R. P. (2000). Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-sized companies:
Knowledge management for entrepreneurs. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4 (2),
pp.162-182
Bencisk, A. Lore, V. and Marosi, I. (2009). From Individual Memory to Organisational Memory:
Intelligence of Organisations. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 56,
pp. 1-6.
Bozbura, F.T. (2007). Knowledge Management Practices in Turkish SMEs. Journal of Enterprise
Information. Vol. 20 Iss.2, pp 209-221. Department of Industrial
Engineering, Bahcesehir Univeristy. Turkey .Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Coogan, J. (2008). Boeing Knowledge Management. KM/Knowledge Based Environments. Boeing
Management Company, pp 1-57.
Davenport, T. & Prusak, L. (1998). Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They
Know. Boston, MA Harvard Business School Press.
Drestke, K. (1981). Knowledge and the Flow of Information MIT Press. Cambridge. MA. USA.
Gordon, J.R. (1993). A Diagnostic Approach to Organisational Behaviour. Fourth Edition. Simon &
Schuster, Inc. USA.
Gupter J.N.D. & Sharma S.K. (2004). Creating Knowledge Based Organizations. Idea Group Inc.
Hershey PA. USA.
Hariharan, A. (2002). Knowledge Management: A Strategic Tool. [online] (URL
www.tlainc.com/articl46.htm) Journal of Knowledge Practice. Bharti Infotel Group. (Accessed
12
th
June 2010).
Harryson, S.J. (2002). Managing Know-Who Based Companies: A Multi-networked
Approach to Knowledge and Innovation Management. Northampton. MA: Edward Elgar
Publishing.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 628
Hurley, T.A. and Green, C.W. (2005). Knowledge Management and the Non Profit Industry: A
Within and Between Approach. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice.
Jyothi, P & Venkatesh, D.N. (2006). Human Resource Management. Oxford University
Press. Oxford, UK.
Marling, L. (2004). Knowledge Management: People, Process and Technology. [online]
(URL http://www.cutter.com/content/itjournal/fulltext/2004/12/itj0412b.html) Cutter
IT Journal. (Accessed 15
th
June 2010).
Kreie, J. & Cronan, T.P. (2000). Making Ethical Decisions: How Companies might influence the Choices one
Makes. Communications of the Association for Computing (ACM). Vol 43, Issue 12. Pg
66-71.
Kucza, T. (2001). Knowledge Management Process Model. Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT
Electronics. Finland.
Lavenne, F. Renard, V. and Tollet, F. (2005). Fiction Between Inner Life and Collective
Memory: A Methodological Reflection. New Acardia Review 3, pp 1-11.
Leonard-Barton D. (1995). Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation.
Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Liebowitz, J. (2002), Knowledge management and its link to artificial intelligence, Expert
Systems with Applications, Vol. 20, pp. 1-6.
Lin, H. (2007). Knowledge Sharing and Firm Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study.
International Journal of Manpower. Vol. 28 Iss. 3/4 , pp 315-332. Emerald Group Publishing
Limited.
Liyanage, C. Elhag, T. Ballal, T. and Li, Q. (2009). Knowledge communication and translation - a knowledge
transfer model. Journal of Knowledge Management 13, no. 3, (May 1): 118-131.
http://www.proquest.com/ (accessed June 25, 2010).
Manasco, B. (1996). Leading Firms Develop Knowledge Strategies, Knowledge Inc., Journal of Knowledge
Management Practice. Vol. 1, Iss. 6, pp 1-29
McKellar, H. (2005). KMWorlds 100 Companies that Matter in Knowledge
Management. [Online] (URL http://www.kmworld.com/Articles/Editorial/Feature/
KMWorld%27s-100-Companies-That-Matter-in-Knowledge-Management--9611.aspx)
(Accessed 15
th
May 2010).
Meridith, L. (2007). Knowledge Management and Solutions. [Online]. (URL
http://www.cio.com/article/40343/Knowledge_Management_Definition_and_Solutions
?page=2&taxonomyId=3000). Pg 2. (Accessed 17
th
January 2010).
Merriam-Webster 2010). Knowledge. [Online] (URL
http://www.merriam-webster.com/netdict/knowledge). (Accessed June 13
th
2010).
Morrison, J. And Olfman, L. (1998) Organisational Memory. Presented at 31
st
HICSS. Maui.
Hawaii.
Nonaka, I. & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies create the
Dynamics of Innovation. Oxford University Press. Oxford. New York.
Nonaka, I. and Teece, D. (2001). Managing Industrial knowledge creation, transfer and
utilization. SAGE Publications Ltd. London. UK.
O'Dell C. and C. J. Grayson, Jr, (1998), If Only We Knew What We Know. The Free Press, New
York.
Odigie, H.A. and Li-Hua, R. (2009). Unlocking the Channel of Tacit Knowledge
Transfer. [online] (URL http://motsc.org/unlocking_the_chennel_of_
tacit_knowledge_transfer.pdf) (Accessed 12
th
July 2010).
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 629
Okunoye, A., Innola, E., and Karsten, H. (2002). Benchmarking Knowledge Management in Developing
Countries: Case of Research Organisations in Nigeria, The Gambia
and India. Turku Centre for Computer Science. University of Turku. Finland.
Ruggles, R. & Holtshouse, D (1999). The Knowledge Advantage. Business Books Network. TJ
International Ltd. Padstow, Conrwall. UK.
Ryu, S., Ho, S.H. and Han, I. (2003), Knowledge sharing behavior of physicians in hospitals, Expert
Systems with Applications, Vol. 25, pp. 113-22
Sanchez, R. (2001). Knowledge Management and Organizational Competence. First Edition. Oxford
University Press Inc. New York. USA.
Stecking, L. (2000). Geteiltes Wissen ist doppeltes Wissen. Management Berater. Vol 2, Issue August.
Stein, E. W and Zwass, V. (1995). Actualising Organisational Memory with Information Systems.
Information Systems Research. 6(2), pp 85-117.
Tiwana, A. (2001). The knowledge management toolkit. Practical techniques for building knowledge management system.
Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall, Inc.
Treacy M. and F. Wiersema, (1993). Customer Intimacy and Other Value Disciplines, Harvard Business
Review, January-February.
Truch, A., Higgs, M., Bartram, D. and Brown, A. (2002), Knowledge sharing and personality, Paper
Presented at Henley Knowledge Management Forum.
Van den Hooff, B. and De Ridder, J.A. (2004), Knowledge Sharing in Context the Influence of
Organisational Commitment, Communication Climate and CMC use on Knowledge Sharing, Journal of
Knowledge Management, Vol. 8 No. 6, pp. 117-30.
Young, T. (2008). Knowledge Management: For Services, Operations and Manufacturing.
Chandos Publishing, Oxford, England.














October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 630

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

SYNTHETIC PHONICS: A PANACEA FOR STIMULATING EARLY
CHILDHOOD READING SKILLS AMONG PUPILS
BY
Ekechukwu Rosemary Obiageri (Ph.D),
Department of Educational psychology, Guidance and Counselling.
University of Port Harcourt.
07038904233.
e-mail:mamatriplets01@yahoo.com

&

UZU, STELLA NNENNA ( MRS)
Tomorrow Leaders Foundation,
Port Harcourt.
08035399002.
e-mail: stella@tomorrowleaders.net

Abstract

Reading, in its entire ramification is crucial to literacy and a developed society. Reading takes a child
beyond his environment and broadens his scope. This study; Synthetic phonics: a panacea to early reading
among pupils in primary schools, compared experimentally using the correlational research method , the
functionality of synthetic phonics on the early reading ability of school age children. Using the stratified
random sampling, 200 samples were selected from the total number of primary one pupils in the area of
study to carry out an experimental study on the relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading.
Using one research question and two hypotheses, the study analysed the relationship between phonics and
early reading among male and female pupils in public and private primary schools within the area of
study. Using the Pearson moment r correlation method to answer and analyse the data results from the
samples ,the results showed a high but positive relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading
among male and female pupils in both the public and private schools situate in Obio Akpor local
government area. Recommendations were made based on the findings of this research study.






October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 631

Introduction
In recent years, the reading or literacy level of pupils has recorded a downward trend especially in their
ability to read using the English Language. Reading according to Ituen in Ekechukwu (2009) is
rendered as the process of getting information from prints, that is, information stored in written
materials (books, newspapers, magazines etc). Reading is very useful in different facets of our life-
private, social and professional.
Ekechukwu(2009) states that Reading is a rich source of pleasure, it helps us to handle
boredom or sad moments of our lives... helps to sharpen our intellect so that we might respond to lifes
problems with confidences... provide us with vicarious experiences... we obtain a great deal of
information through reading. Having mentioned the above positive qualities of reading, it is sad to note
that a whole lot of pupils are deprived of the rich quality knowledge that comes from reading.
The lack of interest in reading in teenage, adolescence, adulthood does not begin at these
mentioned levels of life. It is however a problem that has been inherent from the early years of life. If
the saying be true that as a man lay`s his bed, so he lies on it, then the solution to the problem of
reading needs to be solved at the foundation stages. This period of life also known as early childhood
spanning between ages 3yrs to 8yrs. Thus; if reading would not be a problem at any point in life,
attention at the early years school level is the solution.
Reading is not an innate ability in any born child or human; it is a skill that needs to be taught.
The pertinent question then would be, why is reading not interesting anymore? What possible factors
could have led to this problem?. The evident challenge in the education sector- poor funding, lack of
manpower development and professionalism , de-motivation of teachers , poor remuneration- have all
contributed to the obvious decline in the proper education. The result of the neglect can be seen in the
overcrowded and chaotic classroom situation, lack of interest in literacy and reading by the citizens;
consequently leading to the dwindling literacy (reading) level of the children in schools.
Basically, literacy is the ability of an individual to read and write. On a broad level literacy
involves ability to read, write, speak and listen. UNESCO(2004) defines literacy as the ability to
identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute and use printed materials associated with
varying contexts.
In essence, if an individual must be considered literate based on the above definition of literacy,
it is evident that reading is an integral part of being literate. According to the Wikipedia free
encyclopaedia (2010), reading is a complex cognitive process of decoding symbols in order to construct
or derive meaning (reading comprehension).
Similarly, the same source also gives the definition of reading as to have the ability to examine
and grasp the meaning of (written or printed material in a given language or notation).
The challenge with reading has affected negatively the quality of education in Nigeria. Nigeria
has the English language as her official language of communication or lingua franca. This implies that
every form of discussion between and amongst people from the different ethnic background; passing-
on of information by the government to the citizenry; teaching and learning in schools and beyond is
done in the English language.
Consequently, the importance of reading in the English language for Nigerians as second users
cannot be over emphasised. Every language has two sides to it, the written and the spoken or oral.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 632
The spoken language involves the ability to know and understand the grammar, the syntax, proper
spelling of words, vocabulary content and to possess the ability to articulate thoughts, ideas and
intention and to put them down in the written form.
Over the years, there has been a drastic fall in the literacy level of Nigerians especially young
children who can read and write well using the English language. Dike (2005) in National
Empowerment Development Strategy puts Nigerias literacy rate at 57% which declined from 64.1%
literacy rate of 1999 and 71.9% of 1991. Similarly, a survey by the National Bureau of statistics in 2006
informed that 46.7% of Nigerians are purely illiterate while 53.3% are literate in the use of English
language.
The immediate post independence witnessed a set of educated people who having attended
school, irrespective of their level of exposure to formal education could read well; write legibly and
communicate well in the English language using proper grammatical terms and tenses.
Unfortunately, this is not the case with most children of school age in recent times. It has been
observed that people speak English language, study it in schools as a subject from inception i.e from
Nursery, primary through secondary school even as a degree course of study in the tertiary institutions,
yet they have a problem with reading and writing. By the contents of Nigerian school curriculum, any
child of school age studies English language for a minimum 9 years of basic education.
Yet, they have no idea what makes up the sound/phonics of the alphabet code of the language
or why words are pronounced the way they are. This has inadvertently affected the level of and the
quality of zeal shown towards reading and writing.
Phonics according to Merriam-Webster dictionary is the science of sounds. The Wikipedia
free-on-line dictionary states that phonics is the method of teaching reading based on the sounds of
letters, groups of letters and syllables. Answers. Com, a dictionary web site defines phonics as a
method of teaching beginners to read and pronounce words by learning to associate letters or letter
groups with the sound.
Judging from the various definitions provided, it can be deduced that if reading and writing in
English must begin early in the school life, children must be taught the sounds that make up the
alphabet code, how to identify and segment the different sounds in a word, blend them together to read
the word. The art of teaching children to read in this way has been described as synthetic-systematic
phonics.
Considering that people communicate orally within and without their homes in English
language, the speaking skill is easily learnt, giving the false impression that everyone is a good user of
the language. The reality of the situation is revealed when it becomes necessary to employ the higher
skills of reading and writing. It becomes even more alarming when a child has gone through school and
is unable to read audibly and fluently and write legibly.
The drop in the reading ability of young children in Nigeria cannot be overlooked. It is a
known fact that most Nigerian children irrespective of background are exposed to schooling, yet
reading is a problem. The question that readily comes to mind is why is the child not able to read and
write in English language yet he communicates with the language?
Noteworthy also, is the use of the colloquial form of the English language commonly called pidgin
English. This style of language is believed to have originated way back in time. It can be said to be
English but, in a bastardised form. Prior to now, it is believed that this pattern of language was used by
persons illiterate in the English language. The flagrant use of this form of English language is
presently more common and acceptable than ever. It is common to hear a question such as this
between two very literate persons were you dey go?. To mean where are you going to?,
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 633
who you be or who be dat? to mean who are you?.
Though the bottom line of every language is to pass on information and so long as the receiver
understands the information, communication is said to have taken place. Considering the prevalent
circumstances with regards to spoken and written English, the situation is critical and calls for urgent
attention. This style of spoken English has had a negative trend in Nigeria today especially amongst
young children who have no good foundation in the proper English Language. Extreme case to recall is
when people or a person who attempts to speak correctly is mocked or seen to be speaking fone or
is described as aje butter, consequently ridiculing those doing the right thing, further worsening an
already terrible situation.
The introduction of mobile phone network (GSM) saw the advent of the SMS or the short
message service. The pattern of writing messages in the name of abbreviation has adversely affected the
spelling ability of children who are exposed to and are in possession of mobile phones. Not only is this
spelling challenge noticeable in children, adults are guilty as well. A typical short message service (SMS)
message would read hi, ow u de? Make we c 2day, gist plenty. Av a 1derful day, tanks: which
when properly written would be Hello, how are you doing? I would like to see you today; we
have a lot to talk about. Have a wonderful day. Thanks.
This type and style of writing is endless among the young persons especially those of school
age; however, it is the negative effect on the spelling and reading ability of pupils, which a check
through their notes and writings would reveal that is most threatening. It is common trend to find that
the language of communication is the pidgin English. This trend has resulted in pupils inability to
answer questions or offer response to questions with the correct tenses without adding the pidgin
English. The improper use of English amongst pupils is common practice, a situation where speaking
in the pidgin English language has gradually become the accepted means of daily communication in
and out of schools, market places, peer group activity etc, moreover, it is alarming to find that pupils
cannot read a piece of writing comprehensibly, write a well structured composition showing proper
articulation of thoughts using the proper adjectives. This is evident in the poor performance of pupils
in the English Language. The problem associated with poor performance of pupils of school age and
beyond could be attributed to the pidgin English, which is the major means of communication.
This research study seeks to proffer answers to the problems associated with poor reading habit
which has become the trend amongst pupils.

Purpose of study
The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between knowledge of phonics and early
reading and significance of the relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading amongst pupils
(males and females). Two research questions answered in this study are:.
1. Is there any relationship between Synthetic phonics and early childhood reading?
2. Is there any relationship between synthetic phonics and early childhood reading skills
among pupils

Hypotheses
Two null hypotheses were tested.
There is no significant relationship between synthetic phonics and early childhood reading.
There is no significant relationship between synthetic phonics and early childhood reading
among pupils.


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 634

Method
The study is an experimental, using correlational research method. A sample size of 200 pupils from
schools within the Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Primary one pupils were chosen for this
study for certain reasons. This is the first point of contact with formal education; more so, this is the
foundation class within the primary school system. It is note- worthy to state that learners
understanding of phonics early in the school year would facilitate early reading. The ages of these
children is not less than 5 years and not above 6 years as this is the minimum age of enrolment into
primary one class. Besides this is the expected age to begin learning phonics.
The sample size for this study is drawn from the total number of schools situate in
Obio/Akpor LGA. This represents the total number of approved schools by the Rivers State Ministry
of Education public and private sector.The instruments developed for the study are the jolly sound
identification sheets, the Jolly Sound Identification Assessment Sheet (JSIAS,) the Burt Reading Test,
Jolly phonics workbook I. These instruments are cognitive assessment tools.
The JSIAS is composed of the 42 sounds of the English alphabet code. The JSIS is logical in
its structure as the letter sounds had been designed introducing learners to the commonly used sounds;
which upon learning would stimulate the learners to begin to attempt to read basic three letter words.
The Burt Reading test is a standardised reading test developed in the United Kingdom. The Burt
Reading test consists of a list of 110 words arranged in groups of ten, and presented in increasing order
of difficulty; which is meant to ascertain the number of words a child can read after going through the
synthetic phonics program. The Burt Reading test is a cognitive, standard and univariate instrument. It
measures the reading age of children in the early school year who are taught reading through the
synthetic phonics method. It measures the progressiveness of the learning pattern (synthetic phonics)
and the number of new words a child is able to read spell and write correctly.
The instrument (jolly workbook 1) is cognitive and univariate; it contains pages of worksheets
with exercises on each letter sound. The five steps multi-sensory activity is contained on each sound
sheet i.e. the flashcard, storytelling with action, letter formation, blending and sound
identification/segmenting in a word i.e. is the sound under study at the beginning, middle or at the end.
The reliability of the instruments used was determined through a test-retest method to ascertain its
stability. Random sampling was used to select young children who have never assessed formal
education and the result revealed copies of the instrument were used to administer tests to these
respondents. The content of same instruments had been used in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State South South
Nigeria, where public school pupils were the samples.
The stability co-efficient obtained from the use of instrument is 0.85-0.9. This is because each time the
instrument is used; the results obtained have been consistent, irrespective of the environment.
The research instruments were administered to the teachers of selected experimental classes in
primary schools, alongside the pupils in their classes; the control class teachers and pupils alike were
not a part of the research class. This is to allow for a balanced result on the experiment and the class it
is used for.Copies of the SPBS questionnaire (synthetic phonics, Burt Reading sheets) were given to
Persons who assisted in noting the responses to ascertain that the respondents can read the sounds
correctly and identify them in words. Using the Pearsons product moment correlation to analyse both
the research question and the hypotheses.
The data for synthetic phonics and early reading were generated through direct observation of
the subjects or sample for the study. The presentation and analysis was done based on the research
question and hypotheses earlier stated in the study.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 635
Results and Discussion
Results of the analysis show that children who are taught reading using synthetic phonics method have
a reading age that is higher than their chronological age. The results shown below is from a recent
research carried out on primary one school pupils in Obio akpor local government area of Rivers state.
The pupils in this study are not above 6years and not below five years old, as this is the expected age of
entry into primary one in schools.

Research Question
Is there any relationship between synthetic phonics and early childhood reading?
This analysis is as shown in Table 4.1 below:

Table 1 Pearson Correlation statistics of Relationship between Synthetic Phonics and Early
childhood Reading.
Variable N EX EY EX
2
EY
2
EXY R Remark
Synthetic Phonic (x)
Early Reading (y)

200
11940


10839
139,428,521


135,871,646

129,417,660


0.82

Significant

Table 1 show that synthetic phonics and early reading have an r-value of 0.82. This index or
coefficient indicated that there is a high but positive relationship between synthetic phonics and early
childhood reading among pupils in primary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers
State. This means that pupils who scored highly in synthetic phonics will likely score highly in early
reading and vice versa.

Hypothesis One
There is no significant relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading among male
pupils in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area. The analysis of this hypothesis is as shown in Table 2
below:

Table 2 Pearsons Correlation Statistics of Relationship between Synthetic Phonics and Early
Reading among Male Pupils
Variable N EX EY EX
2
EY
2
EXY R Remark
Synthetic Phonics (x)
Early Reading (y)

98
6043


5421
32,516,024


27387,242
24139,433


0.78

Significant

Table 2 shows that the correlation coefficient (r-value) or index of association between
Synthetic Phonics and early reading among male pupils in Primary Schools in Obio/Akpor Local
Government Area is 0.78. This r-value indicates that there is a high but positive relationship between
synthetic phonics and early reading among the male pupils in primary schools in the area. When the
correlation coefficient or r-value was subjected to t-test analysis for the significance of r, it yielded a
value of 12.21. Since the t-value of the correlation coefficient (0.78) is greater than the table value or
critical value (1.98) at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis that there is no significant
relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading among male pupils in Obio/Akpor Local
Government Area is therefore rejected. This reveals that the alternate hypothesis is accepted.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 636

Hypothesis Two
There is no significant relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading among female
pupils in Obio/Akpor local Government Area. This hypothesis is analyzed as shown in Table 3 below:

Table 3 Pearsons Correlation Statistics of Relationship between Synthetic Phonics and Early
Reading among Female Pupils.
Variable N EX EY EX
2
EY
2
EXY R Remark
Synthetic Phonics (x)
Early Reading (y)

102
6163


5544
33,852,118


28,735,938

25,439,219


0.73

Significant

Table 3 show that the index of association between synthetic phonics and early reading among
female pupils in primary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area is 0.73. This r-value
indicates that there is a high but positive relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading
among female pupils in primary schools in the area. When the r-value was subjected to t-test analysis
of significance it yielded a value of 10.78. Since the t-value of the correlation coefficient (0.73) is
greater than the critical value or table value (1.98) at 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis that
there is no significant relationship between synthetic phonics and early reading among female pupils in
Obio/Akpor Local Government Area is therefore rejected. This shows that the alternate hypothesis is
accepted.

Recommendations
Based on the results obtained, the researcher recommends that attention be given to any method or
methods that might help to encourage children to read especially in the public schools by introducing
story books and novellas to children. Also recommended is that, deliberate attempt should be made to
encourage reading and storytelling to one another by the pupils by creating time for it as part of the
daily time table in the school, this effort is believed will enhance the desire to read. Most importantly,
capacity building by way of continuous and consistent teacher training in contemporary methods of
teaching children will no doubt result in classroom teachers transforming into researchers. The results
from their findings will by far surpass any remuneration increase the government may offer to such
teachers.
The successful education of a child cannot be complete without the involvement of the parents,
hence the need to use the parents as reinforcement agents for the school as they are constantly carried
along in the education of their children. If they must assist their children with their home work, read to
them to help develop their language skills and not be at the mercy of incompetent pedagogs, who are
ignorant and take advantage of the ignorance of the parents; then they need to be trained as constantly
as the teachers themselves. If this opinion holds, then there is no better teacher for a young child than
his loving and knowledgeable parents and his trained teacher at school.






October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 637

References
Articles about synthetic phonics - http://www.syntheticphonics.com/articles. Wikipedia free
encyclopaedia
Barr Rebecca: (2010) Interventions for children experiencing Early Reading difficulties. Wikipedia
free encyclopaedia [last updated 2010]
Dike. V. E. (2005) Tackling Nigeria`s Dwindling Literacy Rate. Wikipedia free encyclopedia ( Retrieved
January 2012)
Ekechukwu R.O,(2009) Counselling Practicum Made Easy. Choba Uniport press

Ekpo et al:(2010) Jolly Phonics and Early Reading: A study of Public schools in Uyo. Report of Pilot
Study. Unpublished.
Eshiet.O.(2009) Synthetic Phonics and early reading- A study of schools on Bonny Island.
Unpublished.
http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/pedagogy/phonics/90075
951/year/1-phonics response. Insight 17- A seven year study of the effects of synthetics
phonics teaching on and spelling attainment. Retrieved august 2011.
http://www.syntheticphonics.com/articles
Jordan, et al: Early Reading and the Early Reading Diagnostic Assessment. (ERDA Second
Edition)
Johnston, R., Watson J.E(2004) Accelerating the development of reading, spelling. Phonemic awareness
skills in Initial readers reading and writing.
http://www.phonicsandearlyreading.uk/edu/resource/doc
Johnston,R., Watson J(2005) The effects of synthetic phonics on teaching of reading and spelling
attainment years longitudinal study. Retrieved August 25,2011.
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/resource/doc/3694/002582.
Johnston R.S, Watson,J (2003) Accelerating reading and spelling with synthetic
phonics: A five year follow up.
http://www.insight4scottishexecutive.gov
Jordan,et al: (2008) Early Reading and the early reading diagnostic assessment. Retrieved April, 2011.
ERDA 2
nd
edition. http://www.historyofphonics.scottishexecutive.gov
Kirchner-Nebot.T, Amado-Campos S.A `Reading ability and differential cognitive profile of girls and
boys`. Retrieved February 10,2012 http://www.reading/spanishedu.gov
Nwankwo, O.C(2010) Practical Guide To Research Writing (revised 3
rd
edition). Golden Publishers
limited, Nigeria.
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (6
th
edition).

Osfed (2010) Reading by Six. How best schools do it. Retrieved August 25
th
,2011.
Publications and research. http://www.osfed:gov.uk/osfed-home
Reading Reform Foundation. 2010 youtube. http://www.rrf.org.uk

Rose.J (2006) Independent review of the teaching of early reading. Final report. Retrieved August 25
th
,
2011 http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publications
Solity Jonathan: Leverhulme Reading Research Project. Retrieved Nov.2011
http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/publications

Togerson,C.J, Hall J and Brooks, G. (2006) A systematic review of the research. Literature on the use
of phonics in the teaching of reading and spelling
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 638
Watson.J. E. Johnston.R.S. (1998) Accelerating Reading Attainment: the effectiveness of synthetic
phonics: Interchange 57,SOE ID, Edinburgh
Johnston R. S. and Watson, J. (2003) - Accelerating Reading and spelling with Synthetic phonics: A
five year follow-up. Insight 4 Scottish Executive Education department; Edinburgh.
Watson J. E. and Johnston R. S. (1998) Accelerating reading attainment: the effectiveness of
synthetic phonics. Interchange 57,SOE ID, Edinburgh.
























October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 639

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

INTEGRATING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY (ICT) INTO TEACHING AND LEARNING IN
BAYELSA STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS
By
PROF. C.U. MADUMERE-OBIKE
and
IMGBI, ADA JENNIFER
Department of Educational Management
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt.

Abstract
The study sets out to analyze and establish the strategies and resources required to integrate information
and Communication Technology (ICT) into teaching and learning in Bayelsa State secondary schools. A
fourteen item questionnaire and interview methods were adopted for the study. Data collected was
analyzed using the mean to answer research questions and Z test to test the hypotheses at 0.05
significant level. A reliability coefficient of 88 was established using cronbachs coefficient Alpha (a)
technique with the statistical package for the social Sciences (SPSS). Data collected was analyzed using
mean and rank order to answer the research questions and Z-test for independent samples to test the
Hypothesis at .05 level of significance. The result of the study revealed that ICT can be integrated into
teaching and learning in Bayelsa State Secondary schools using some strategies such as, education
workshop, training, seminar, lectures, welfare etc. Also to make the technologies available in schools and
to equip educators with ICT skills to be used in curriculum delivery, there is need for access to resources
such as finance, materials, teachers, students and facilities etc.





October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 640

Introduction
The concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) evolved as a reaction to early
computer in school programmed with emphasis on developing computer literacy. Integration is the
process of combining two or more things so that they work together. For instance, the use of new
technology to promote / improve teaching and learning in the school system. Recently, ICT integration
has been recognized as, using computers to learn, rather than learning to use computers
(UNSECO/Col, 2004:45). Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004:24) recognized the prominent role of ICT
in the modern world and has attempted to integrate ICT into education in Nigeria. To actualize this
goals, the document states that government shall provide necessary infrastructure and training for the
integration of ICT in the secondary school system in advancing knowledge and skill in the modern
world. Other steps taken to meet the demand for ICT literacy in Nigeria include the school net
(www.snng.org) project and a Mobile Internet Unit (MIU). Unfortunately, this projects did not really
take off beyond the distribution and installation of personal computers. (FRN 2006, Okebukola 2007;
cited by Aduwa Ogiegbaen and lyamu 2008). ICTs are being used in the developed world for
instructional functions. If a country such as Uganda which has less than a fifth of Nigeria resources is
now using ICT to help secondary schools students to become better information users, why is Nigeria
in which Bayelsa is a part still lagging behind? It is against this background that this study examined the
strategies and resources required for the integration of ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state
secondary schools.

Types of Integration
Integration can be categorized into two ways;
1. The first way relates to the stage of integration which is closely related to adoption.
2. The second way relate to the kind of integration that is closely related with use. It is imperative
to note that particular stage of integration is more likely to be associated with specific
integrative uses. UNESCO (2002) suggests a four stage continuum of ICT integration. These
are emerging, applying, infusing and transforming.
Emerging: Schools at the beginning stages of ICT development begins to purchase or have
some computing equipment and software donated to them. Schools at this emerging phase are
still firmly grounded in traditional teacher centered practice. In this phase, administrators and
teachers are just starting to explore the possibilities and consequence of using ICT for school
management and adding ICT to the curriculum.
Applying: In this secondary phase, administrators and teachers would use ICT for tasks already
carried out in school management and in the curriculum. Teacher largely dominates the learning
environment. In the emerging and applying stages, computer integration is partial and the
predominant use of ICT would be representational. This means representing information in
another medium. Jenassen, peck and Wilson (2009.19) suggested that learners are more likely to
be learning about computers than learning with or through computers.
Infusing: The infusing phase involves integrating ICT across the curriculum.
2
Here, teachers would explore new ways in which ICT changes their personal productivity and
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 641
professional practice. This can be found in schools that employ a range of computer based
technologies in laboratories, classrooms and administrative offices.
Transforming: This involves schools that use ICT to rethink and renew school organization in
creative ways. UNSECO (2000:16) stated that ICT becomes an integral though invisible part
of daily personal productivity and professional practice ICT is also taught as a separate subject
all levels and is incorporated into all vocational areas. This would make schools in Bayelsa state
to become centers of learning for their communities rather than being converted to football
filed or play grounds. Hakanson and Hooper (200:12) speculated that,

at the infusing stage teachers use of ICT becomes more generative as they
start using ICTS to generate thought And that, this generative use of ICTs
is extended to learners in the transforming stage. At this stage, ICTs
would be hopefully integrative both individually and socially.

Going by piagetian Cognitive constructivist view of teaching and learning which assumes that
knowledge is not a product that can be transmitted from one person to another, but is a process of
individually constructing knowledge, Janassen and Reeves (2006:19) use the term cognitive tools to
refer to the role of ICTh in enhancing the learners cognitive power during thinking problem-solving
and learning. Similarly, generative use may also be extended to a vygotskian socio-constructivist view
of knowledge and learning which assumes that knowledge cannot be limited to an individuals view of
it, but is instead a process of negotiation of meaning in a specific context.
By continuously reconstructing and refining knowledge on the basis of their experience and
opportunities for inter-subjective exchange, learners and teachers will bring prior understanding to bear
in individual ways on new information and situations. In this sense, computer can operate as
mediational tools (levy et al 2003:2004 Wertch Lim 2003:24). For the above reason and to achieve
other policy goals reflected in (RFN). The integration of ICTs into teaching and learning practices
should be encouraged Roos (2005:21) advised that, Teachers should be encouraged to adopt new
teaching strategies that are outcome based and learner centred.

Resources required to integrate ICT
Resources can be described as human, material and finance needed for the effective integration of lCT
into schools. Hoy and Miskel (1991) identified four main forms of resources as fiscal, personal (e.g.
students, teachers, administrators and others) while Idu (2004) identified human resources in the school
system as all non-monetary including all sorts of assets within the system. In this regard, resources can
be said to include tools, machines, equipment, facilities, infrastructure, skilled and unskilled human
being, experts, and professionals in the exercise of their filed of specialization. By implication, effective
teaching and learning cannot take place in a school environment that is devoid of the necessary
resources required to integrate ICT into the schools system.

Strategies required for integrating ICT into secondary schools
In this technology driven age, improved secondary education is essential to the creation of effective
human capital in any country, (Evoh, 2007) therefore, the use of ICT and subsequent integration of
technology into teaching and learning is dependent on a number of factors such as, education, teachers,
curriculum planning, technical support, the student, the actual use of ICT, training, workshop, lectures,
PTA, the budget and welfare to mention a few. The above strategies would create the capability for the
educator to incorporate ICT in his/her teaching whenever necessary thus contributing to both the
educators and learner happiness, self fulfillment or well-being and possibly result in the effective
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 642
functioning of the school system. Though the chalkboard, textbook radio/television and film have
been used for education purpose over the years, none has quite impacted on the educational process
like the computer. ICT has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential for students/users to
develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability. ICT gives ample and exceptional opportunities
to the students to develop capacities for higher quantity learning and to increase their ability to
innovate. Realizing the transformative potential of ICT in secondary schools is dependent on effective
integration and effective integration is dependent on effective teacher training. This requires well
motivated teachers who have been trained in a manner that equips them to be effective teachers for the
21st century. They also need to be remunerated for that training by providing financial inceptive as an
important aspect of sustaining motivation for them to participate in the training programme in addition
to their normal workload. This is because the lack of properly trained teachers is an urgent crisis in
several states including Bayelsa State.
One of the goals for integrating ICTs in the schools is to enhance teaching and learning
practices thereby improving the quality of education. As Castro (2000) and Cawthera (2003) posits, ICT
has the means to aid in the preparation of learners by developing cognitive skill, critical thinking skills,
information access, evaluation and synthesizing skills. Hardman (2005:16) also argues that placing this
new technology in schools could help alleviate the deepening crisis, enabling shifts in pedagogical
practices and thus potentially benefiting students learning. Muller and Tredox (2008:72) added that
ICT holds much promise for use in curriculum delivery. Thus technology can effectively improve
teaching and learning abilities, hence increase learners performances. This is in line with the
constructivism theory of learning which accepts that a learner constructs his/her own knowledge.
Also, ICT supported learning environments could be beneficial to a constructivist teacher in the
classroom. (Newhouse 2002) A study of this nature will assist in curriculum planning and enhance self-
esteem. It would creatively help to develop the skills and knowledge needed to achieve school goals and
objectives. It would encourage both personal and general participation in the global community. This is
because, Full participation in the information society is enabled by successful e-education which
incorporates learners, collaborative work and the development of higher level thinking skills. The
purpose of this study is to establish the strategies and resources required to integrate ICT into teaching
and learning in Bayelsa State Secondary Schools by adding value in to the curriculum in numerous
ways. Specifically, to relate ICTs to classroom activities in the school system so as to facilitate
participation in the information society and increase knowledge in the global world and establish the
impact of ICT in the development of human mental resources which allow educators to both
successfully apply the existing knowledge and produce new knowledge.

Problem of the study
The problem of this study rests on the fact that the collective and rigid nature of learning and the
passive nature of the learning associated with the use of chalkboard, textbook, radio, and film etc do
not contribute any innovative changes to traditional methods in educational system. Although, efforts
have been made to ensure that ICT are available and used in Nigeria secondary schools, it has been
observed that most schools both private and government do not offer ICT programmes, for instance
Okebukola (2007) concluded that the computer is not part of classroom technology in more than
ninety percent (90%) of Nigeria public schools, especially in Baysela State. It is therefore the purpose of
this study to examine the strategies and resources needed for integrating ICT into teaching and learning
in Bayelsa state secondary schools.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 643


Research Questions
1. What are the strategies required for the integration of ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state
secondary school?
2. What are the resources required for the integration of ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state
secondary schools?

Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference between the mean rating of principals and teachers opinion
on the strategies required to integrate ICTS into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state
secondary schools.
2. There is no significant difference between the mean rating of principles and teachers opinion
on the resources required to integrate ICTs into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state
secondary schools.

Methodology
A descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population for the study
comprised of all the secondary schools in Bayelsa State. Out of 192 schools, a sample size of 96
principals were selected, while 600 teachers were also selected from 1,200 teachers; given a total of 696
which represents 50% of the entire population. A stratified random sampling technique was used in
choosing the schools while the simple random sampling technique was used in picking the respondents.
The instrument used were questionnaire, observation checklist and interview. The self constructed
questionnaire titled Integrating Information and Communication Technology into Teaching and
learning in Bayelsa state Secondary Schools (ICTLQ) had 9 items on a modified likert type of rating
scale with varying degree of alternatives such as: Strongly Agreed (SA)- 4, Agree (A)- 3, Disagree
(D) 2, and Strongly Disagree (SD)- 1. The questionnaire developed was validated by experts in the
department of educational management. The reliability coefficient of 88 was established for the
instrument using Cronbachs coefficient Alpha (a) techniques with the statistical package for the Social
Sciences (SPSS}. Data was analyzed using the mean for research question and Z=test statistic to test
the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level.

Findings
It was found that ICT can be integrated into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools
with variety of factors such as curriculum planning, training, technical support etc and provision of
adequate physical and material resources especially finance.



Question one
What are the strategies required to integrate ICT in Bayelsa state Secondary School?

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 644

Table I: Mean rating and rank order of principals and Teachers on the strategies required to
integrate ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary Schools
Statement N = 600 Teachers N = 96 Principles



S/N
What are the strategies required
to integrate ICT into teaching
and learning in Bayelsa state
Sec. Schs?


(X1)

Rank
Order

Remark


(X2)

Rank
Order

Remark
1. Education 3.80 1
st
Agree 3.88 1
st

2. Workshop 3.80 1
st
Agree 3.38 3
rd

3. Training 3.63 4
th
Agree 3.38 3
rd

4. ICT 3.73 2
nd
Agree 3.14 5
th

5. PTA 2.78 8
th
Agree 2.37 7
th

6. Welfare 3.28 6
th
Agree 3.38 3
rd

7. Seminars 3.42 5
th
Agree 3.23 4
th

8. Teachers 3.71 3
rd
Agree 3.62 2
nd

9. Lecturers 3.23 7
th
Agree 2.61 6
th

Grand means 28.70 26.71

Table 1 shows the collaboratory agreement between principals and teachers that integration of ICT
depends on education ranked 1
st
for both teachers and principals with mean rating of 3.80 for teachers
and 3.88 for principals. Ranking 2
nd
for teachers is ICT with 3.73 and 5
th
for principals with 3.14
meaning that ICT with 3.73 plays a vital assistive role in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers
ranking 3
rd
with 3.17 and 2
nd
with 3.62 for principals remain a vital guide writing the integration of ICT
into the learning process. Workshop and training ranked 1
st
and 4
th
for teachers with mean score of 3.80
and 3.63 while workshop and training ranked 3 for principals with 3.38 man scores respectively. This
implies that ICT integration depends on effective teacher training and exposure to the use of modern
teaching aids. Seminars and lectures ranked 5
th
and 7
th
for teachers, aids, with 3.42 and 3.12 means
scores of 3.23 and 2.61. This would enhance sharing of ideas and experiences to boost productivity in
the school system. Welfare ranked 3
rd
with 3.3r means score for principles and 6th with 3.28 means
score for teachers while PTA has a mean score of 2.37 ranking 7th for principal and 8
th
for teachers
with 2.78.The grand mean of 26.17 for principal and 28.70 for teachers showed that integration of ICT
into teaching and learning depends on the tabulated strategies.
Table 2: Difference between principals and teachers opinions on the strategies required to
integrate ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools.
Variable N (x) SD DF Z-cal Z-tab Decision
Principals 96 28.54 1.96 694 13.17 1.96 Rejected
Teachers 600 31.62 2.99

Table 2: Shows mean rating of 28.54 and standard deviation of 1.96 for principals while
teachers had a mean rating of 31.62 and a standard deviation of 2.99.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 645
The table also shows a z -calculated score of 13.17 and z-tabulated value of 1 .96 at 694 degree of
freedom at 05. level of significance. The null hypothesis was rejected because the Z- calculated value of
13.17 is greater than the Z-tabulated score of 1.96.

This implies that a significant difference exists between the mean scores of principals and teachers
opinions on the strategies required to integrate ICT into teaching and strategies required to integrate
ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools.
Question Two
What are the resources required to integrate ICT in Bayelsa state secondary schools?
Table 3: Mean rating and rank order of principals and teaches on the strategies required to
integrate ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa State Secondary Schools.











Table 3: shows the ranking order of 1
st
to 5
th
for teachers responses to items 10-14 with a grand mean
of 15.27. While principals responses to the same items ranked 1
st
- 4
th
with a grand mean of 14.22 this
shoes that integrating ICT into schools to enhance teaching and learning requires access to resources
such as finance and material. Also teaching and learning cannot be accomplished without teachers and
students to utilize the facilities.

Hypothesis Two
There is no significant difference between the mean rating of principles and teachers opinion on the
resources required to integrate ICTs into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools.
11


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 646
Table 4: z-test analysis on the difference between principals and teachers responses on the
resources required to integrate ICT into Bayelsa State Secondary School.
Variable N (x) SD DF Z-cal Z-tab Decision
Principals 96 17.14 0.78 694 13.17 1.96 Rejected
Teachers 600 18.42 1.13

Table 4 shows the mean rating of principles as (17.14,0.78) while teachers had the mean rating of
(18.42, 1.13) Both respondents had z-calculated value of 13.87 and 1.96. Z-tabulated value with 694
degree of freedom at .05 level of significance. The hypothesis was rejected. A significant difference
exists between the principals and teachers. This is in agreement to the fact that enough funding,
materials, and facilities must be adequately provided in the school to improve teaching and learning.
Discussion
The study discovered that integrating ICT into teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools
depends on a variety of strategies such as education, training, teachers, seminars, lectures, workshop
and the use of ICT proper. It should also be noted that motivation of teachers on the training will
enhance effective integration and success of the programme in addition to their normal workload, at he
same time help to develop the learning potentials of students. In the same vein, a number of resources
such as finances, materials, facilities, including teachers and students to utilize the technologies are
required. The variables in the study had a criterion mean of 2.5 for both principals and teachers which
imply that the items in question were relevant.
This confirms the agreement of Muller and Tredoux (2008:50) that ICT hold much promise
for use in curriculum de1ivery. Thus technology can effectively improve teaching and learning abilities,
hence increasing learners performances. It is therefore, advocated that a blend of instruction and
construction should be employed while ICT is being integrated into the secondary school system to
support the learner in the constructive classroom.
Conclusion
There is recognition of the prominent role of ICT in advancing knowledge and skill as shown in the
findings in the tables. There is therefore an urgent need to integrate TCT into the secondary school
system to improve teaching and learning in Bayelsa state secondary schools.
Recommendations
All teachers in institutions should be trained in the methods and techniques of teaching with ICTs. The
students need to be taught new educational programme and variety of educational content with ICT
playing key role. The federal government should make provision for ICT equipments and facilities in
her annual budgeting. The state government and ministry of education has the responsibility for co-
ordinating educational activities in Bayelsa in collaboration with relevant ministries such as UNESCO,
UNICEF etc. to provide appropriate ICT facilities to ensure that the objectives is achieved.



October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 647

References
Aduwa-Ogiegbean, S.E & lyamu, E.O.S (2005). Using Information and Communication Technology in
Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Educational Technology & Society 8 (1), 104 -112.
Evoh, C.S (2007) Policy networks and the transformation of Secondary Education through ICTs in
Africa: The prospects of Challenges of The NEPAD E>-schools initiative. International Journal of
Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT) 3 (1) 64-84).
FRN (2004). National Policy on Education 4
th
ed. Lagos Nigerian Educational Research and
Development Council
FRN (2006) Government in action Available htt:/www/ Nigeria First, Org/article 2090 shtml.
Goshit, T (2006) Nigeria need for ICT: Sp. Technology and policy in Africa htt://wwwmit.
edu/NR/rdonlyres/special- programmes/Sp- 259. Spring 2006/891209ee-e63B-4617- BA9D-
7635A63c754B/O/9oshit. Plt
Mullar and Tredoux (2008) Teaching and Learning with ICT New Technology, New Pedagpgy?
Education, Communication and Information 4(1), 101 107.
Newhouse (2010) Technology in Schools Education, ICT and the Knowledge Society Washington: The
World Bank (Report Number 31194).
Nwagwe, W.E (2006) Integrating ICTS into the globalization of the poor developing Countries
Information Development 23 (3): 167 -179.
Okebukola, P. (2007) Old, new and current technology UNESCO Africa 14 (15) 18.
UNESCO (2004) Information and Communication Technology Education. A curriculum for Schools
and Programme of Teacher Development Pavis UNESCO.












October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 648


Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

COMPUTER GAMES AND SIMULATIONS: INFORMATION AND
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TOOLS FOR ENHANCING CRITICAL
THINKING SKILLS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS.
By

FOMSI ESTHER F. (MRS)
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
E-mail: esteembee@yahoo.co.uk
(08092082451; 08035733170)

&

AGBARAKWE HARET AKUDO (MRS)
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
E-mail: harrikwes2007@yahoo.com
(08136586893, 08023530228)

Abstract
Information and Communication Technology is having a great impact on every sphere of human life. In todays world,
computers control almost every aspect of modern life. It therefore becomes imperative that technology be fully integrated into
our educational system. With the flexibility of modern technologies, learning environments where students can manage and
construct their own representations of knowledge can be designed. Skillful use of technology can enhance the potentials of
children in science and technology. It can also support the development of process skills such as higher order skills,
adaptability, and collaboration, which are essential to success in our rapidly changing information age. All children have
the potential of developing critical thinking skills. These are skills that pupils can apply throughout their lives to cope
effectively with the inevitable changes and challenges they meet. Computer games and simulations help in the development of
these skills. They help pupils develop creativity, adaptability and collaborative problem-solving skills. Additionally
learning through simulations help learners develop a deeper understanding of the concepts being simulated. In tandem with
this, this paper advocates the use of computer games and simulations as ICT tools in enhancing critical thinking skills in
primary school pupils in Nigeria. The meaning and importance of critical thinking in the educational system was
discussed. Case studies that showed the effectiveness of using computer games and simulations for developing critical
thinking skills were presented. The paper therefore recommends that teachers learn how to use and integrate modern
computer technologies for a successful instructional delivery in the 21
st
century classroom.
Key Words: Critical Thinking, Critical Thinking Skills, Computer Games, Simulation, Information
Communication Technology.


October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 649

Introduction
The importance of Primary education in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Education at the primary
level provides the foundation for formal education for every child. It is at this level that learners acquire
literacy and enlightenment, which serves as a panacea for many problems including poverty, ignorance,
religious bigotry and political servitude (Oni, 2008). It provides the basic knowledge about all the
relevant and necessary subjects of life. Building on this basic knowledge at the other levels of education
upper basic, secondary and tertiary helps pupils develop skills needed for lifelong learning: skills
that would help them cope with the challenges of the world they live in. One of such important skills is
critical thinking skills.

Meaning and Importance of Critical Thinking
Critical thinking is disciplined thinking that is clear, rationale, open minded and informed by
evidence (Dictionary.com 2011). The critical thinking community defines critical thinking as
that mode of thinking - about any subject, content, or problem - in which the thinker improves the
quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and
imposing intellectual standards upon them (Critical Thinking Community, 2011). This result in the
development of a well cultivated critical thinker who:
raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and
precisely;
gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to
interpret it effectively, comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against
relevant criteria and standards;
thinks open mindedly within alternative systems of thought,
recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical
consequences; and
Communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems.
Paul and Elder, (2008) define critical thinking as self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored,
and self-corrective thinking which entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a
commitment to overcome native egocentrism and sociocentrism.
Critical thinking helps pupils take ownership of their thoughts. It is question driven; and
instructors know that the use of questions aids the cognitive development of learners. To be able to
think critically, learners need to develop critical thinking skills. Critical thinking skills are skills that
students can apply throughout their lives to cope effectively with the inevitable changes and
challenges they will meet (Knaus, 2006). The development of Higher Order Thinking Skills
(HOTS) is important for all learners. If primary school pupils become knowledgeable thinkers, they
would be able to take charge of their lives and achieve personal advancement and fulfillment. Thus
independent thinking becomes very important for them if they are to judge information and situations
critically for everyday problem solving and decision making. Decision making is a part of everyday life
which requires variety of types of thinking. Some decisions are made without one being taught how to
make them. This may suggest why, Connerly (2006) identifies certain decisions taken by learners that
do not require teaching: comparing and contrasting friends, questioning why a certain assignment was
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 650
given e.t.c., but there are bigger decisions such as what courses to study in a higher institution, which
car to buy or whom to marry that when a quick and uniformed decision is made, it may lead to future
disappointments and expenses. This underscores the importance of individuals learning to think for
themselves in both small and large decisions of life.
Glasier (1941) posits that critical thinking involves three things:
1. an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that
come within the range of one's experiences,
2. knowledge of the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, and
3. Some skill in applying those methods.
He goes further to explain that this calls for a persistent effort on the part of the thinker to
examine any supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports the use of
computer games and simulation as ICT tools. It implies among other things, that learners should
develop the ability to recognize problems, to find workable means for meeting those problems, to
gather pertinent information, to recognize unstated assumptions and values, to comprehend and use
language with accuracy, clarity, and discrimination, to interpret data, to appraise evidence and evaluate
arguments, to draw conclusions and generalizations, to put to test the conclusions and generalizations
at which they arrive, to reconstruct their patterns of beliefs on the basis of wider experience, and to
render accurate judgments about specific things and qualities in everyday life.
In the view of the classroom teacher who still uses the traditional method of teaching, this may
seem to be a daunting challenge for primary school learners. Hence, reflecting on Jean Piagets
cognitive development stages, pupils at the primary school level have reached the concrete operational
stage (ages 7 11) where they begin to conserve and think logically with practical aids. The child
develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgments about concrete or observable
phenomena. Depending on the instructional method of delivery used, learners at this stage can now
mentally manipulate information. Thus, it is possible for pupils at this stage to develop critical thinking
skills if taught with the right methodology.
Using Computer Games and Simulations
Integration of technology into education has supported learning at various levels. Computer games and
simulations when used appropriately can help learners develop critical thinking skills which in turn
helps them to function productively in the society. Wikipedia (2011) defines simulation as the imitation
of some real thing, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails
representing certain key characteristics or behaviours of a selected physical or abstract system.
Computer simulations support learning at all levels. It is also important for lifelong learning. By
exploring simulations, learners are exposed to ideas that may be different from their own. They can
thus have, opportunities to experiment with those ideas. Learning through simulations, help learners
develop a deeper understanding of the concepts being simulated. Simulations represent how and why
things work. This enables learners to actively learn and build their own understanding of a topic or
concept. Thus learners are helped to organize, develop, test and refine their ideas about the given
concept. This in turn encourages critical thinking in learners (Cherry, Ioannidou, Rader, Brand,
Repenning, 1999).
Educational video games require strategizing, hypothesis testing, or problem-solving, usually
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 651
with higher order thinking. Characteristics of such games include a system of rewards and goals which
motivate players, a narrative context which situates activity and establishes rules of engagement,
learning content that is relevant to the narrative plot, and interactive cues that prompt learning and
provide feedback (Dondlinger, 2007).

Case Studies showing the effectiveness Computer games and Simulations for enhancing
Critical Thinking Skills
Chuang & Chen (2009) carried out an experimental study to determine the effect of computer-based
video games on Children. The experimental study investigated whether computer-based video games
facilitate childrens cognitive learning. In comparison to traditional Computer-Assisted Instruction
(CAI), the study explored the impact of the varied types of instructional delivery strategies on childrens
learning achievement. The statistical results showed a significant difference between computer-assisted
instruction and computer based video game playing in students learning achievement. Based on this
finding, playing computer based video game was determined to be very effective in facilitating third-
graders (primary three pupils) average learning outcome. According to the results of their post-test
scores, computer-based video games can facilitate students learning performance. This finding
indicated that computer-based video game playing does not only improve students fact
differentiation/recall processes, but also promotes problem-solving skills by recognizing multiple
solutions for problems. It is effective for improving critical thinking and higher-level cognition. The
results of the study also indicated that students achievement of learning comprehension knowledge
was enhanced. With this finding, it may be concluded that computer-based video games can be
considered an instructional approach to improve students higher-order thinking. In conclusion,-
computer-based video games might improve students achievement in learning factual knowledge,
problem-solving strategies, and higher-level cognitive thinking processes.

As part of a Science Theater project, Cherry et al (1999) developed a number of activities with
simulations for elementary school students which they termed EcoWorld. They came up with The
EcoWorld curriculum for 4th and 5th graders (Primaries four and five pupils) after three years of
research on how children can build simulations of scientific phenomena. The EcoWorld study focused
on a number of content areas, including characteristics of organisms, structure and function in living
systems, populations and ecosystems, and diversity and adaptations of organisms. Students worked in
small groups to create computer simulations of ecosystems in different environments such as the arctic
or a desert. Activities with simulations were integrated into a curriculum which incorporates hands-on
activities, research activities, and class discussions. Students initially met in small groups to discuss what
types of animals might be found in their chosen environment. Each student then designed an imaginary
animal which could be native to that region. The animal design included adaptations for the animal to
survive the temperatures common to its environment as well as to mate and to acquire food. Within
each group, students collaboratively work out the predator-prey relationships for their ecosystems.
Students generated their own ideas for features rather than choosing from a predefined list.
Thus students were able to think about science issues which otherwise might not have occurred to
them. The collaborative nature of creating an EcoWorld simulation also pushed students to think more
deeply about science concepts. Students were told that each animal must either eat or be eaten by at
least one animal created by another student. In the process of negotiating the predator-prey
relationships, students had to justify their ideas about their animals to one another thus developing
critical thinking.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 652

The researchers found out that the abstract concept that a change in a single plant or animal
population may affect an entire ecosystem was a difficult idea for 4th and 5th graders (primaries four
and five pupils). EcoWorld made this concept more accessible to students by offering them an
opportunity to experiment with a dynamic visual model. Students were encouraged to think of different
ways to set up their experiments. By integrating the simulation activities with other activities (hands-on,
research, discussions) and by modifying the software to be more content-specific, the researchers
created a curriculum in which students are much more successful at creating their own simulations and
in understanding the underlying science concepts.

In another research carried out by Lee, Luchini, Michael, Norris, and Soloway as cited in
Dondlinger (2007), it was discovered that a mathematics facts game for primary two pupils deployed on
handheld computers encouraged learners to complete a greater number of problems at an increased
degree of difficulty. Learners playing the handheld game completed nearly three times the number of
problems in 19 days as those using paper worksheets. Learners using the handheld game also
voluntarily increased the level of difficulty in the game as they continued to play. Similarly, Amory,
Naicker, Vincent, & Adams also cited in Dondlinger (2007), examined four different game types and
analyzed elements that players liked most. In this study, students rated a number of game qualities.
Adventure and strategy games were found to be the most
stimulating and rated the highest, a finding which suggests that players preferred or were more
motivated to play games with objectives requiring higher order thinking skills, including visualization
strategies that nurture creative problem solving and decision-making.

In a study by Dr. M. K. Akinsola and Animasahun I.A.; the duo looked at the effect of
simulation games environment on students achievement and attitudes to mathematics in secondary
schools and found that simulation and games environment leads to improved achievement and positive
attitudes towards developing problem solving skills in mathematics. She identified that the fundamental
problem in learning mathematical skills relies solely on students ability to indulge in critical thinking
which she referred to as thinking mathematically beyond the learning context and its application to
everyday life activities.

Conclusion
With the appropriate support, primary school pupils can use simulations as a vehicle for new
understanding and insight. Dewey, cited in Koc (2005) said if we teach today as we taught yesterday, we
rob our children of tomorrow. Computer games and simulation allow teachers to better serve the
diverse learning styles of students and educate them for a wider range of intelligence. Since every
student has different learning styles for meaningful learning, it might be challenging for teachers to
represent all the styles in a traditional classroom environment. However, with the flexibility and help of
technologies, such as computer games and simulations, we can design learning environments in which
students can manage and construct their own representations of knowledge in their minds. Computer
games and simulations can incorporate a variety of applications that focus on problem-solving and help
development of creativity, adaptability and collaborative problem-solving skills. Healy cited in Koc
(2005) states that computers can ground education in projects that have intrinsic meaning, while still
teaching critical skills of symbolic analysis and a core base of integrated knowledge.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 653

Recommendations
The following recommendations are thus put forward:
1. Teachers should learn how to use modern computer technologies and incorporate these into
their instructional processes.
2. Staff of various primary schools should work with computer programmers to design their
courses using computer games and simulations so as to enhance critical thinking skills in pupils
at the primary level.
3. The Government (Federal, State and Local) should invest in the use of computer related
technologies in primary schools.
4. Workshops should be organized regularly by school authorities to hone the technology skills of
teachers.

References
Cherry, G.; Ioannidou, A.; Rader, C.; Brand, C.; Repenning, A.; (1999) Simulations for lifelong
learning. Retrieved 14
th
October, 2011 from
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.46.7346

Chuang, T.-Y., & Chen, W.-F. (2009). Effect of computer-based video games on children: an
experimental study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (2), 110. Available at
http://www.ifets.info/journals/12_2/1.pdf
Connerly, D. (2006) Teaching critical thinking skills to fourth grade students identified as gifted and
talented. Retrieved 14
th
October, 2011 from http://www.teach-
nology.com/worksheets/critical-thinking/
Critical Thinking Community (2011) Defining critical thinking. Retrieved October 14
th
, 2011 from
http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Dictionary.com (2011) Critical thinking. Retrieved October18th, 2011 from
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/critical+thinking
Dondlinger, M. J. (2007) Educational Video Game Design: A Review of the Literature Journal of
Applied Educational Technology 4(1), Number 1 Spring/Summer 2007
Glaser, E.M. (1941) An Experiment in the development of critical thinking Teachers College, Columbia
University.
Knaus, W. (2006) Rational emotive education past, present, and future. Retrieved October 18
th
, 2011
from http://www.rebtnetwork.org/essays/essay.html
Koc, M. (2005) Implications of learning theories for effective technology Integration and pre-service
teacher training: A Critical Literature Review. Journal of Turkish Science Education 2(1),
May 2005 available at http://www.tused.org
Oni J.O. (2008) Universality of primary education in Nigeria: Trends and issues. International Journal
of African & African American Studies 7(1) available at
https://ojcs.siue.edu/ojs/index.php/ijaaas/article/viewFile/104/164
Paul, R. & Elder, L (2008) The miniature guide to critical thinking concepts and tools, Foundation for
Critical Thinking Press, 2008 available at http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-
critical-thinking/766
Wikipedia (2011) Simulation retrieved October 18
th
, 2011 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/simulation
Akinsola, M. K. & Animasahun, I. A (2007) The effect of simulation- Games environment on
students achievement in attitudes to mathematics in secondary schools in secondary in Osun-
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 654
State, Nigeria. The Turkish online journal of Educational Technology 6(3) available at
http://www.tojet.net/articles/v6i3/6311.pdf.


























October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 655

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

INTRAMURAL SPORTS ORGANIZATION IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS:
AN OVERVIEW OF ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
By
MR MICHAEL A. OGUJIOFOR
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education
University of Port Harcourt,
Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria
Contact: 08064505245
E-mail: mikejeecee@yahoo.com


Abstract
This paper seeks to point out the manner and fashion in which intramural sports programmes is
being organized in Nigerian schools. The paper pointed out the importance and benefits of
participating in intramural sports programmes. The paper also revealed the loopholes in
organization of intramural sports programmes across primary, secondary and tertiary institutions
in Nigeria. Such loopholes includes poor curriculum development, contents and implementation,
poor funding of the programme by government agencies, use of non experts in sports teaching and
administration, parents, teachers and students nonchalant attitude and ignorance, lack of facilities,
inadequate equipment, lack of motivations , incentives, insurance, medical care and many more.
Besides the problems identified, it was recommended among others that Physical Education
curriculum in Nigeria should be revisited and restructured in a manner that it should be a core and
compulsory subject up to senior secondary school level.

Key Words: Intramural, sports, organization, School, Motivation, Nigeria









October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 656

Introduction
Physical education is a crucial subject in educational institution and an integral aspect of general
education which helps an individual to develop mentally, socially, emotionally and physically through
involvement in physical activities. It dates back to the origin of human race, during the stone and
medieval ages; people had to be fit to survive. At that point and time, most physical activities such as
dance were practiced at religious ceremonies and used for entertainment and teaching of cultural
heritage. However in modern era, physical education otherwise known as human kinetics in most
tertiary institutions has continued to be an important part of school life, as knowledge in science and
medicine grew, educators realized that students needed to increase their understanding of the theory of
physical education. Games and sports which intramural is an integral part, provides the basic
knowledge and skills required in a wide range of physical activities (Eshuys, Guest and Lawrence, 1999).
Physical education as viewed by Ajala, Amusa and Soli (2002) is a vital part of education; it contributes
to the general programme of education including the development of health, physical welfare and
recreation.
The word intramural is derived from two Latin words Intra (within) and mural (wall).
Intramural sports refer to group of sports activities or structured competitive activities in a game form
between teams or individuals within an educational institution. Daughter and wood (1976) defined
intramural sports as a sports competition programme of activities played within an institution with the
objective of providing opportunity for every individual in that organization to participate in any sports
activity of their choice. Orunaboka (2004) viewed intramural sports as competitive human kinetics
programmes and activities carried out within the confines of one institution or school. He further noted
that intramural sports programmes is not only carried out within the confines of a school or an
institution, but also offers a tremendous opportunity for practice of the skills learned during the
required or instructional programme as well as for recreational purposes.
From the various authors view, intramural sports can be deduced to be any sporting activity
conducted or carried out within the four walls of an institution, school or organization, voluntarily and
its participants must be bona fide students or members of the organization organizing it and it must be
done during their free hours. The characteristics of intramural sports include;
1. It is a programme carried out within the school, institution or organization.
2. Participants must be members of such school, institution or organization.
3. it must be voluntary
4. it must be done during free hours
5. It must be a sporting activity.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 657

Benefits of Intramural Sports
Intramural sports provide the opportunity for individuals to stay fit while doing something they enjoy.
It provides more of an opportunity to socialize and meet new people and friends. While intramural
sports are competitive, things are not over done and people do not go too far for the most part people
are not overly serious about the competition and practice good sportsmanship more so than if it was a
varsity team on the school or a professional team. Intramural sport also provide an opportunity to try a
certain sports you have always wanted to play, it also provide people with the opportunity to learn the
rule of a game, also experience as a coach can be obtained by participating in intramural sports. Lochel
(2011) concluded that there are many benefit of participating in intramural sports which includes
staying in shape having fun, gaining experience, trying something new, having a chance to be
competitive and having the opportunity to make new friends.
Meyers (2009) stated that digging deeper into the benefit of intramural sports one will discover
something more meaningful than the obvious pay off of the better health and strong camaraderie.
Beneath the skin of intramural athletes, flows eternal optimism fueled by innate child-like qualities, the
essential fuel for a long and healthy life. She further stated that intramural sports provide free
entertainment and excellent opportunities for quality family time. Gray (2010) stated that participating
in intramural sports is directly linked to skills, whether it is physical skills or some other ability, young
people who join in intramural sports gives them more opportunity to develop and improve. He further
stated that the obvious benefit so the intramural sports is keeping young people active thereby avoiding
coronary diseases such as obesity
Intramural sports is obviously some decent exercise from your body but it is also a good break
for the brain, schools more especially in Nigeria are associated with going to class and studying all day,
which sometimes makes students not waiting to go to school, but if a student has an intramural game
that day to be played, he/she will more likely go to school and even go for classes either before or after
the intramural sports. The benefits of intramural sports cannot be over emphasized; it aids growth,
helps in body maintenance, controls the aging process, helps prevent and fight coronary diseases, helps
in socializing with the immediate society and more importantly promotes good healthy life.

Intramural Sports Activities
Virtual all sports activities can be organized during intramural programme, but among the popular ones
include.
1. Soccer
2. Volley ball
3. Tennis
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 658
4. Basket ball
5. Soft ball
6. Inter - house athletics meets
7. Badminton
8. Squash.

Factors Responsible For Poor Organization of Intramural Sports Programmes In Nigeria
Schools Primary:
The increasingly falling standard of education across the country could to some extent be held
responsible for diminishing and poor organization of intramural sports programmed across our primary
schools, beside this other factors include;

Poor Curriculum Development, Content and Implementation. Physical education is not enforced
in all the elementary schools in Nigeria, where it is enforced; it is not usually formally organized.
Though many schools may insert it on the time table, teachers do not usually consider it very serious,
the problem might be due partly to the fact that the system has not finally stressed it or school
administration have not agreed or permitted it into the school system (Mgbor, 2006). It is very evident
that most primary schools more especially the so called private schools do not offer physical education
which houses intramural. The first known syllabus on physical and health education in Nigeria was
designed in 1933 by the British government. Although it has been revised on different occasions, there
is yet the needs to subject the curriculum to constant revision to enable physical education
accommodate the contemporary life demands of Nigerians. Despite the growth of physical activities
and sports in the country, physical education is still an elective subject in Nigeria secondary schools.
The revised edition of the national policy on education in 1981 introduced the 6-3-3-4 system
of education and directed that physical education should be a teaching subject in the junior secondary
schools and as well as an examinable subject in the west African school certificate examinations, also in
the same year physical education curriculum was developed and had been reprinted in 2001 and in
2007. According to Obinna (2007) and Adeniji (2007) the new curriculum gave attention to
contemporary issues at local, national and global levels, it contains concept such as violence in sports,
carrier opportunities, drug abuse, misuse and abuse, environmental health, family life, HIV/AIDS
education, gender issues, first aid and safety education, human rights education and entrepreneurial
skills. Despite all these innovations in curriculum development, little effort has been made by
government in all level to enforce its full implementation.



October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 659

Use of Non-Experts in Teaching and Administration of Sports
Most primary schools in Nigeria lack the services of a qualified and trained physical educator, teachers
from other discipline teaches and administers sports activities, take charge as games- masters and
mistresses and organizing of sports activities despite their lack of knowledge in physical education and
sports science. Abdulkadir (2002) stated that sports administration, management and business have
suffered a great deal in the hands of non-professionals at all level of organization. Ikulayo (1986) had
earlier stated that unless sports administrators are well equipped and knowledgably enough about the
mechanical and technical demands of their callings, they can never perform the job as effectively and
efficiently as the real professionals at the job. This implies that for better organization of intramural
sport programme and other sporting activities in our primary schools, physical education professionals
should be engaged in teaching, training, coaching and organizing of all sporting activities in our schools.
Orunaboka (2004) in agreement to the above statement stated that for an intramural
programme to be effective and well implemented a team of efficient and dedicated officials will be
required. He further stated that the personnel should have a strong and sound academic training in the
subject matter.

Post Primary (Secondary School)
Physical education is a compulsory subject in the junior secondary school; it is an examinable subject in
the junior secondary school certificate examination. In the senior secondary it is not considered as a
core subject. Among the problems facing physical education in secondary schools include.

Staff and Students Nonchalant Attitude and Ignorance Towards Physical Education
A good programme of physical education in secondary schools would help the students first and
foremost, to recognize and appreciate their true status and gender. At this stage of the student
development, the sports programme provide for the increased security, sense of belonging, creative
thinking, co-operate work as team members and many more. But in recent times most students from
their respective homes are being discouraged from involvement in sports or studying of human
kinetics. The students are encouraged by their parents to put more effort in subject such as
mathematics, English language, physic, chemistry and biology which they believe will enable them study
engineering, medicine etc in the higher institutions. Most parents are of the opinion that physical
education which harbours intramural is for non serious and lazy students, this is simply because they
lack the knowledge of benefits of intramural and that of physical education.

Poor Status of Sports Facilities
According to Orunaboka (2004), lack of facilities and play areas are some of the major factors
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 660
responsible for poor programmes in human kinetics and sports at all levels of educational institution in
Nigeria. Hgatt (1977) stated that ability of intramural sports organizers of the physical education to
provide and administer a sound total programme depend to a large extent on the facilities and
equipment available for the programme, he further emphasized that adequate facilities provide the
frame work needed for successful conduct of the activities of the programme.
In most secondary schools today, sports facilities are no better than those in primary schools, all
that these schools have for sports and physical education is just an unkempt open field. It is in this line
that Umeasiegbu (2002) stated that sports equipment and facilities occupy a strategic position in the
making and performance of athletes, he further stated that it would be impossible to achieve
satisfactory results from athletes whose training facilities are inadequate or substandard. This shows
that lack of facilities and equipment will not only hinder the organization of intramural sports
programme but will also affect the performance of athletes and other sports persons in competitions.
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in school sports, amateur,
recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as laboratories are important to
the scientists, without facilities sports cannot take place (Olajide, 2004). He further stated that where
the facilities are in place, most of them are not of standard, reasons such as greed, negligence of facility
providers, sports facilities are provided without adhering to the standard in so many respects like
dimensions, surfacing, sitting arrangement, lighting, conveniences, water and so on. These have greatly
hindered students participation in school sports.
Another problem arising from poor facilities is lack of maintenance culture, most facilities put
in place by the government agencies are left to decay. Olajide (1998) Citing Bucher (1988) stated that
with proper maintenance, facilities will last longer, provide healthier environment and be cost-effective
in terms of utilization.

Tertiary Institution
Since the inception of the Nigerian Universities Games Association (NUGA) games in 1966 university
of Ibadan to the most recent in university of Nigeria Nsukka in 2010, the universities authorities have
strived hard in providing a better facilities and equipment, this was made possible by the sponsorship of
the programme by multinational and the ETF fund. But the great success in facilities and equipment
provision cannot be said in other areas such as.

Poor Allocation and Management of Fund
Funds for intramural sports programme are used for procurement, construction and maintenance of
sports facilities, equipment and supplies. Igbinigie (1983) noted that funds meant for intramural sports
programme in some schools and some colleges are directed to other unrelated areas, Udoh (2002)
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 661
stated that government subventions have become increasingly inadequate to prosecute all the
programmes of any sports establishment. Awosika (1990) stated that lack of fund is the apparent
obstacle to the provision of desirable and suitable intramural programme.
Adequate provision of fund for effective organization and administration of sports in Nigeria
will enhance the effective organizing, making and performance of athletes and sports persons.
Umeabiegbu (2002) stated that athletes are expensive to maintain and the standard facilities and
equipment will motivate and encourage the athletes to train with for optimal performance. A good
example is what the current Rivers State government under the leadership of Rt. Hon. Chibuike
Amechi is doing by building brand new standard sports facilities equipped with modern equipment and
handled by trained and qualified human kinetics expects both for primary, secondary and tertiary
institution across the state.
Most universities neglect intramural sports programme by directing funds meant for the
programme in other non related areas. It is evident that university of Port Harcourt has being a
dominance force in Nigerian Universities Games (NUGA) because the institution allocates and
manages funds meant for intramural and sports in general proper. But this cannot be said of most of
other institutions across the country.

Lack of Adequate Welfare Package and Motivation
Proper motivation and welfare packages are needed for an effective organization of intramural sport
programme, it can come in various forms, as advise, moral support, monetary reward and
encouragement. The word motivation is a word derived from a Latin word mover which means
move. Amasiatu (2011) stated that motivation is a word that relate to the state of an organism held
responsible for carrying out of a particular activity at a particular point in time. Motivation comes
before and after competition, before the competition, it could be as a word of encouragement, advise
and moral boaster while after the competition it comes as an incentive, award etc. According to Ikulayo
(1990) Motivation plays an important role during the entire process of skills acquisition practice periods
and competition stages. He further stated that without motivation optimum performance cannot occur.
Infact, there would be no interest whatever in the athletes to neither train effectively during practice
nor for him to perform exceptionally well in competition.
It is disheartened that most schools no longer appreciate, reward and honour those that
participate in intramural sporting programmes. In the past, trophies, medals, crest, ribbons,
scholarships and financial packages were given to both participants and organizers of intramural sports.
These awards and rewards turn to motivate the students and others to further engage in intramural
sports.

October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 662

The major reason why sports and intramural sports flourishes in the united states is because of
their good reward system, most participants that distinguish themselves in various sports are being
offered scholarship to further their education to high schools, colleges and universities, they are being
taken care of with good and adequate insurance scheme, medical health care system etc. the scenario is
different in Nigeria, participants of intramural sports are not often rewarded with any form of
incentive, those that sustain injuries are left to bear the Borden alone
Besides poor curriculum development, content and implementation, use of non experts in
sports teaching and administration, staff and students nonchalant attitudes and ignorance towards
physical education, poor status of sports facilities and poor allocation and management of funds that
hinders the effective organization and administration of intramural sports programmes in Nigerian
schools, poor cooperation and relationship between school and community, school management
interference on intramural sports administration, corruption etc are among the factors inhibiting
intramural sports programmes across Nigerian educational institutions.

Conclusion and Recommendations
The organization of intramural sports programmes among Nigerian schools has over the years suffered
a great set back thereby leading to the non-discovering of new and young athletes, poor performance of
athletes in competitions etc. in other to improve the standard of intramural sports programme across
our schools, the aforementioned issues must be addressed.
The following recommendations are hereby made:
i. Physical education curriculum in Nigeria should be revisited and restructured in a manner it will
be a core and compulsory subject up to senior secondary school, and it should be taken serious
just the way Mathematics, English Language and Sciences are taken serious. This will enable
student discover their true talents early.
ii. Adequate, modern, standard facilities, equipment and supplies should be provided, maintained
and made accessible to school student for use.
iii. Primary and secondary education board should periodically organize refresher courses for
physical education teachers and only trained and qualified physical education experts should be
employed to coach, train and teach the subject in our schools.
iv. Adequate and special trust fund should be set aside for sports organization in our schools.
These funds should be entrusted in sports committees headed by an expert in sports
administration.
v. Primary, Secondary and Tertiary schools should compulsorily be organizing intramural sports
regularly and be monitored by government agency responsible for sports. This will help in
discovering of new talents and development of individuals mentally, socially and physically and
keep the children away from deviant behaviours and social vices.
vi. Students who participates in intramural sports programmes with distinctions should be
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 663
motivated with incentives, insurance, scholarship and awards like their counterparts in the
United State and Europe. This will encourage them to participate in further programmes with
full patriotism.
vii. Parents, teachers and school administrations should change their negative attitude towards
intramural and sports in general and encourage their children and wards to engage in sports.
This will not only enhance their physical growth but help in their cognitive development as well
as their social interaction.
viii. School headmasters, principals, rectors and vice chancellors should not directly or indirectly
interfere in the administration of sports in their respective institutions, professionals should be
left to man the affairs of sport business in schools with some degree of autonomy.
ix. Public office holder should include sports programmes and competitions in their developmental
programmes, this will help in grass root development of sports and also help in solve the
problem of youth restiveness and exuberance.
x. Retired Sports professionals and athletes should show appreciation to their respective
communities by organizing training programmes to help the needy and the less privileged to
engage in sports and academics, these could be done through forming of NGOS, sports
academy where youths will be helped to develop their sporting and educational career.
xi. Schools, corporate bodies and government agencies should be organizing regular seminars,
workshop, refresher courses, conferences for both games-masters/mistress, physical education
teachers, sports committee members, principles, head of schools and the general public on the
importance of sports to human development and the role of sports in nation building, social
integration and co-existence etc.

References
Abdulkadir, K (2002) Some observations on sports management practices in nigeria. In E.O. Ojeme,
F.A. Amuchie, & O.S.A. Ikhioya (eds) Professionalsation of sports administration and management in
Nigeria- issues and changes: 107-111. Lagos: Aduke Ventures.
Adeniji, E. O. (2007) 9year basic education curriculum (physical and health education) for primaries 1
3, 4 6 and SS 1. Nigerian education research and development council (NERDC).
Ajala, J. A, Amusa, L. O & Sohi, A.S (2002) Physical education. Macmillan Publishers
Amasiatu, A.N (2011) Psychology of coaching. Port Harcourt: Vinaco Universal Resource.
Awosika, B.Y (1990) Intramural Programmes in Some Selected Nigerian Universities. Unpublished
PhD dissertation. Ibadan: University of Ibadan.
Daugh, G & Wood, J.B (1984. Physical Education and Intramural Programme, Organization and Administration
. Philadelphia: W.B saunders company.
Eshuys, J., Guest, V. & Lawrence, J. (1999) Fundamental of health and physical education.(Revised ed).
Queensland. Heinemann.
Gray, R. (2012) Participation in intramural sports and it benefits: Brickstone U.S.A Helium Inc.
Hyatt, W. (1977) Intramural sports organization and administration. St. Louis: C V Mosby Company.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 664

Igbinigie, G. (1983) A comprehensive manual of of physical education activities for men. New Yoke: Mevediele
Cooperation.
Ikulayo, P. B. (1986). Towards achieving the nations sport performance expectations by guinness. NUGA 86 sport
clinic. Ibadan: Claverianum Press.
Lochel, M. (2011) Recreational and youth: Benefits of intramural sports. Helium Inc. Brickstone U.S.A
Meyers, J. (2009) Benefits of intramural sport. Brickstone: U.S.A Helium Inc.
Mgbor, M. O. (2006). Issues and future direction of physical education in Nigeria. Retrieved Feb, 15 from:
http://www.thesageonlinejournal.org
Obioma, G. (2004) 9 year Basic education curriculum (physical and health education) for primaries 1
3, 4 6 and SSI. Nigerian education research and development council (NERDC).
Olajide O, A (1998) Towards effective planning construction and maintenance of physical education
facilities in tertiary institutions. In A. Mustafa, F. Anyanwu, A Garuba and S. Mahdi (Eds)
Topical Issues in Nigerian Education. Yola 90-95.
Olajide, O. A. (2004) Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Emotional
Psychology 6: 19 - 23
Orunaboka, T. T. (2004) Administrative theory and practices in human kinetics and sport. Lagos Bosem
Reproduction ltd.
Umeasiegbu, G. O. (2002) Towards achieving nigerians sports performance expectations in the 21
st

century; issues and challenges. In E.O. Ojeme, F. A. Amuchie, & O. S. A ikhioya (Eds),
Professionalization of Sport Administration and Management in Nigeria Issues and Challenges. 229 235
Lagos: Aduke ventures.











October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 665

Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 20, No. 2.

HUMAN INPUTS IN ADULT AND COMMUNITY EDUCATION: THE
EMERGENT PROFILE OF THE ADULT AND COMMUNITY
EDUCATOR
By
DR. J.C. IHEJIRIKA
Senior Lecturer
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
Choba, Port Harcourt
08103748042
Abstract

This paper is a searching probe of the profile, personality and roles of the adult and community educator
whose area of operation is mainly outside the formal education system. Among the legion from various
backgrounds who eventually enter the province of adult and community education; it is only the trained
practitioner who facilitates the development of man and society with a missionary zeal that deserves to be
properly described as an adult and community educator. Training and continuous learning are essential
ingredients to enable him update his knowledge and expertise, as well as sharpen his foresight to see
community needs based on an intelligent analysis of present realities and trends. The trained, professional
adult and community educator has some unique profile especially in the modern day society. He must, of
necessity, possess a credible integrity, a humane disposition, ability to initiate ideas to solve problems,
more importantly, a personal conviction in the worthwhileness and nobility of the task of promoting and
accelerating the pace of development. The adult and community educator must acquire a wide range of
knowledge effective enough to play his multi-functional roles as a key player in non-formal education sub-
system. Such roles include: a facilitator of learning, a community mobilizer, an agent of change and
development, an andragogist, an animator, a pragmatist and a strategist to mention a few. In many
circumstances, the adult and community educator functions administratively as a leader, controller,
planner, organizer and a decision-maker.




October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 666

Introduction
Of all the factors that contribute to the success of any educational programme including Adult and
Community Education; the most important and crucial factor is the human inputs. Even, in a
production industry, the factors of capital and natural resources are passive factors whereas human
inputs or resources serve as active agents who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social,
economic and political organizations and carry forward national development (Harbison, 1973; Todaro,
1977; and Nzeneri, 1990). On the receiving side in an adult and community education, the learners who
are incidentally referred to as participants, counselees, patrons, clients etc. represent the human inputs
or those whose learning or activity is shaped and led. On the planning, organizing and delivery side, the
human inputs are, at the micro level, the instructors at various levels state, zonal and local
government areas.
At the level of providing focus and direction, adult and community educators, some of whose
nomenclatures include coordinators, curators, supervisors and animators feature as the human inputs
(Houle, 1976:38). The crucial position occupied by the adult and community educator in the non-
formal education subsector as an agent of change provokes the following pertinent questions. Who is
the adult and community educator? What manner of person is he? What is the content of training
package relevant for his functionality in handling adults? What are his roles in the modern day society?
These motivating questions require a searching proble of the profile and personality of the adult and
community educator, hence the essence of this paper.
Definition of Concepts
Community Education
Defining community education is not an easy exercise because it has many configurations (Ezimah
2009) and (Delargy 1989). However, some definitions built on the premise of relevancy to peoples
needs will convey the idea of what community education is all about. Delargy (1989) identifies some
goals in his definition of the concept of community education as a process that identifies the
communitys educational needs, accesses available community resources, and uses these resources to
develop appropriate programmes and activities to meet the identified needs
Community education can be compared to the process of lateral social mobility whereby
progress, development and enlightenment are not confined within very narrow range or number of
people, but made to spread out to wider circle of the population as a means of accelerating the well-
being of people and society. In tandem with above view, Amirize (2002:46) describes community
education as a movement or crusade meant to improve and enhance personal awareness on the part of
individuals and also the collective awareness of every adult member of the society. According to him, a
similar slogan to each one, teach one which is of adult education is, let knowledge and the good
things of life spread out rather than be the monopoly of one class or community alone relates to
community education. Community education therefore should be understood to mean a process of
large-scale or collective conscientization, increased socio-political awareness, mobilization and
inculcation of cultural values in all classes of people in a society in both rural and urban areas. In other
words, it is a campaign or programme which uses knowledge and public enlightenment as tools for the
purpose of making the world a better place where no one should remain oppressed and where man
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 667
should not become a wolf unto his fellow man (Amirize, 2002).
Who is the Adult and Community Educator?
The adult and community educator is anyone who consciously and systematically tries to bring about
some positive changes in the life, perception, awareness, attitude, behaviour, habit or range of
knowledge in a large number of people outside the formal learning settings. As an andragogist which is
what the adult and community educator is, he does not need an institutional setting to be able to
influence the lives and consciousness of the masses. The Department of Extra-Mural Studies,
University of Zambia, once defined an adult and community educator as anyone who teaches or
administers a programme of education or training for adults. Come to that, anyone who tries to get
anything done by persuading, communicating with, informing, helping to change adults (Omolewa,
1981).
In another vein, Houle (1976) defined an adult and community educator as one who seeks to
improve other individuals or society by increasing their skill, their knowledge, or their sensitiveness
through exerting purposeful effort needed to achieve such objectives. It is not in doubt that since many
people consciously or unconsciously operate in the realm of adult and community education, those
who may qualify as educators are likely to be legion. They include, among countless others, personnel
managers, social welfare officers, youth leaders, trade unionists, traditional rulers, university lecturers,
medical doctors, museum curators, sanitary inspectors, pastors and priests, midwives and nurses,
policemen and judges. Regrettably, many of these professionals look down on adult and community
educators without knowing that they themselves are adult and community educators (Ihejirika,
2007:208). It is for this reason that Bown (1979) and Nzeneri (1996) warned that of the legion that
qualify as adult and community educators, only the practitioner who actually practices adult and
community education with a missionary zeal in the task of facilitating the development of man and his
society deserves to be so properly described.
Categories of Adult and Community Educators
Experts like Knowles (1970), Blakely (1981) and Igbo (2008) have delineated three distinct categories of
adult and community educators as summarized hereunder:
First, there are those persons who directly work with specific adult target groups in the
population such as illiterates, school dropouts, prison inmates, nomads, youths, village heads,
community development committee (CDC) members, etc. They are generally part-time or volunteers
such as primary school teachers, instructors, catechists, sanitary inspectors and leaders of groups of
adults in clubs and associations, who have very little or no training in working with adults. Ihejirika
(2007) submitted that this calibre of adult and community educators, regardless of their scanty
knowledge of adult and community education principles and practices, perform the bulk of work at the
grassroots level. Nzeneri (2008) described them as the firing-line level group who play the primary and
critical roles in the field. They constitute the largest work-force in adult and community development.
Second, there is the programme directors level or specialists in adult and community
development education. Most of them have been specifically trained in handling adults but they are also
experts in other areas of life other than adult and community education, such as social welfare, police,
agriculture, health, government or non-governmental agencies or other areas. They are described as the
second largest personnel involved in adult and community development, though as postulated by Igbo
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 668
(2008), they are not engaged full scale hence they offer their services as opportunity offers. To this
group, Amirize (2002) gave the credit of possessing enormous influence because of the direct
correlation between community needs and their expertise. It is this group that Tugbiyele (1975) referred
to particularly as not knowing that they themselves are adult and community educators.
Third, the professional leadership level or the consultants group which contains a corps of
growing adult and community educators with extensive academic training and professional experience.
They are usually found in tertiary institutions as heads of adult and non-formal education departments,
lecturers, researchers and as directors of national commission for mass literacy adult and non-formal
education (NCMANE), nomadic education commission and state agencies for adult and non-formal
education. For their functions, Nzeneri (2008) explained that they strive relentlessly to develop new
knowledge, prepare curricular materials, introduce modern techniques of doing the job, train lower
level educators, and coordinate the activities of agencies with adult education and community
development interest. In addition, they contribute ideas that guide policy formulations, lead research
investigations among other functions. However, they are yet few, but there is hope for expansion as
many educators look up to the professional level.
Training of the Adult and Community Educator
It is no gainsaying the fact that the effectiveness and success of any organization, including education
depends, to a large extent, on the training and experience of key players of the enterprise. The fact
remains that the diversity of role expectations of the adult and community educator makes it imperative
that he be properly trained to enable him discharge his multi-functional duties effectively. To this end,
Ihejirika (2007) postulated that since many enter the province of adult and community development
from a variety of backgrounds, it is expedient to induct the new comers through training in the
principles and practice of adult and community education for effective performance. To Omolewa
(1981), adult educators deserve to be exposed to courses of instruction in adult teaching methods, the
teaching of literacy and numeracy, community education, adult psychology, and the use of audio-visual
aids. They should learn management techniques, classroom control, supervision assessment systems,
curriculum design and training in community development. These areas of knowledge and skill must be
buttressed with appropriate attitudes towards the learning process. This point was emphasized at
UNESCOs Nairobi Conference (1976) which recommended that training for adult and community
education should, as far as practicable, include all those aspects of skills, knowledge, understanding and
personal attitudes which are relevant to the various functions undertaken, taking into account the
general background against which adult and community education take place.
However, Blakely (1981) submitted that appropriate education or training can only partially
assist in developing a competent adult and community educator. To him, field experience is essential.
He further opined that in order for a person to develop as an adult and community educator, he or she
needs the experience of developing, implementing and evaluating a programme with an adult
population in a real situation. This implies that the training of the adult and community educator
demands practical field experience to acquaint the prospective community educator with what is out
there in the community. As a matter of fact, all categories of adult and community educators need all
these because it is very important that they should communicate effectively with adult populations they
are assisting to develop themselves and their communities, realizing the fact that most of them have
already acquired a lot of experience and knowledge which they could use as building blocks for the
benefit of all concerned.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 669
The Emergent Profile of the Adult and Community Educator
It is rightly observed from studies such as Gage (1972) and Knowles (1978) that adult and community
educators differ reliably from one another, and these individual differences among them are
consistently related to various desirable attributes about them. The trained, professional adult and
community educator, as an andragogist and agent of change, has some unique profile especially in the
modern day society. Invariably, an effective adult and community educator should demonstrate the
following qualities or characteristics:
Personal Conviction over Responsibility
The adult and community educator must have a personal conviction in the nobility of his task of
facilitating the development of man and society through helping and guiding others to be able to help
themselves. Development is for man, and by man. Therefore, those who embark on the task of
promoting and accelerating the pace of development through the education of the masses, must do so
with a strong personal conviction in the worthwhileness and nobility of the task.
Expertise
Expertise in this context does not mean theoretical erudition and orientation alone, but practical
application of knowledge and skill to solve problems. Therefore, adult education and community
development being multi-dimensional activities definitely requires that the educator be adequately
equipped by way of training and exposures to the nitty-gritty of the field of activity and what it takes to
perform effectively.
Humility
The adult and community educator cannot afford to be unassuming, presumptions, conceited and
underrating the ability of other people. Humanism in education, according to Lewis (1969) means
seeing and treating students / learners (participants) as individuals, each with a different personality,
needs, interest and abilities. The adult and community educator must possess a humane disposition to
enable him empathize with the adults he is helping to learn, recognize their individual differences and
utilize the various experiences of other people from various backgrounds and communities to succeed
in his task.
Personal Integrity
An adult and community educator as a public figure, must be honest to himself, true and fair to others
else, the credibility of his personality becomes questionable (Ihejirika, 2007). Honesty is always the best
policy. The adult and community educator must possess a pleasant personality, be knowledgeable,
persuasive, versatile and able to communicate effectively with learners and the public. He must have
both insight and foresight which enable him to initiate ideas that can motivate people and communities
to strive diligently to bring about positive changes in their social, economic, cultural and political
conditions as well as their surroundings.
Pragmatism
This characteristic of the adult and community educator refers to his ability to be initiative in searching
for new ways and means of improving the knowledge (information), skills, values, attitudes, techniques
and behaviour of those he is dealing with. Pragmatism in this sense is the ability to refuse to follow the
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 670
beaten track by doing something extra-ordinary, irrespective of the expectations and sneers of the
masses, provided that the end result will prove cynics wrong (Amirize 2002). In this wise, the adult and
community educator must be ready to try out something new and novel which in the end, will benefit
those who come to learn from him as well as the society at large. He should inspire people into action.
Patience, Tolerance and Flexibility
These are necessary qualities for the adult and community educator to cultivate because genuine
change, both in an individual and in the society, usually comes about slowly and gradually. Such
patience and perseverance must be coupled with a firm belief in the task at hand namely: to motivate
and guide the masses to change some of their obnoxious and unprogressive practices and to
reconstruct the society for the better. Furthermore, the adult and community educator needs to be
flexible and tolerant not to look down on his fellow adult members of the society else, he will meet
resistance and challenges from the heterogeneous group he is assisting to improve their situations.
Continuous Learner
Another discernible quality of the adult and community educator highlighted in the literature is that he
must be a continuous learner. This is evident because, one soon becomes obsolete and irrelevant if one
fails to learn new things and gain new experiences to keep ones self up-to-date. This point was stressed
by Kawawa (1971) when he advised that adult and community educators must learn even from those
they are teaching through constant discussions and by the educators constant willingness to think
about the experiences and ideas of those who are seeking to learn from him. To this end, Amirize
(2002) postulated that adult and community educators should eschew conceit or arrogance and be
willing to stoop low when it comes to learning from others and about the peculiar politics of Nigerian
communities.
Roles of the Adult and Community Educator
In fact, the adult and community educator must acquire a wide range of knowledge effective enough to
play the numerous roles expected of him as a key player in non-formal education subsystem. As the
prime resource person at any level he operates: be him a volunteer, director or specialist, or a
professional, it is essential that he be versatile in training and approach so that on occasion, he can
assume the following roles as highlighted by Apps (1979) in Nzeneri (2008) and summarized hereunder:
A Facilitator of Learning
To facilitate means to make things easier. So as a facilitator of learning, the adult and community
educator devotes his learning, time and energy to making learning and training easier for adults than it
would otherwise have been. Houle (1976) equates the facilitative nature of the work of a farmer and a
physician who only facilitate plant growth and healing respectively to that of the educator who does not
put ideas, skill or knowledge into the head of people but uses his art to guide and direct a natural entity
or process of learning to take place. The adult and community educator also facilities the learning
process by providing the technical know-how to enable learners accomplish their objectives.
A Guidance Counsellor
As a career adviser and guidance counsellor, the adult and community educator guides individuals,
groups and communities to accomplish desired goals and development objectives through his
professional advice and counselling techniques. He can as well enable the people he is serving by
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 671
recommending and linking them to various agencies including non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) which activities relate to their on-going programmes for the purpose of procurement of some
enabling facilities for various development projects. To this end, Ihejirika (2003) submits that it is this
role that endears the adult and community educator to his clients, especially the unemployed school
learners among them whom he guides and counsels in their choice of programmes that could lead to
satisfaction of their various needs.
A Community Mobilizer
A key factor in the implementation of a designed programme or project is the mobilization of the
affected community and its people, not only to embrace the programme, but also to embrace a change
of attitude towards its successful implementation. As a mobilizer, the adult and community educator
makes the people ready for action, organizes them for service or to embrace a programme meant for
their good. In doing this, his first necessity is to create the awareness or a genuine feeling of shared
interest among the people. In this wise, Amirize (2002) avers that it is the collectiveness of the interest
to be attained which forms the rallying point in community mobilization, and based upon such interest
or problem, motivation, mobilization and participation of a people can become possible and
meaningful.
An Andragogist/Expert Resource
As an andragogist and an expert resource person, the adult and community educator functions as an
adept in the art of organization of out-of-school learning experience and community development. To
succeed, he should be conversant with prevailing theories and principles of andragogy namely: the
organization of facts, ideas, experiences, skills, information and knowledge in such a way that they can
be absorbed and integrated practically by his clients. In a learning situation, he is constrained to apply
the best methods and techniques to stimulate learners in their understanding.
An Agent of Change and Development
In this role, the adult and community educator helps to bring about positive changes, progress,
improvement, even happiness and development in the community. His business in this regard includes
persuading and convincing people to change some of their cultural practices that are inimical and
harmful such as female circumcision and idol worshiping. The need for people to embrace
governments immunization/inoculation programmes, use of family planning methods and other safety
measures against HIV/Aid viruses should be brought to the door steps of community members. In the
same manner, rural farmers need to be convinced to change from traditional method to scientific
system and use of fertilizer to boost production.
Amirize (2002) postulates that the adult and community educator can assist a community
through diagnosis of the peoples needs and problems, provision and encouragement of research skills,
giving of information and professional advice on ways and means of improving and changing the
community for better and evaluating the degree of learning, improvement and development efforts of
the people.

A Strategist
In another sense, the adult and community educator plays the role of a strategist i.e. someone who is
able to induce a change on a people or community, inspite of resistance and initial shock which such
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 672
changes would bring in their wake. In this discuss, the word strategy is used to mean skill in managing
changes as well as reactions and effects arising from cultural and social changes which the adult and
community educator is an agent of. As a strategist, the adult and community educator has a function
and responsibility of anticipating and analyzing the possible reactions and consequences of planned
changes in the behaviour or attitudes of individuals and the prevailing conditions or culture of
community.
Other functional roles which are ascribed to the adult and community educator such as an
animator, a catalyst, and a theoretician are sandwiched into his administrative functions highlighted by
Nzeneri (2008) as a leader, controller, planner, organizer and a decision-maker.

Summary
This paper has ex-rayed the personality and emergent profile of the adult and community educator who
operates principally in an out-of-school (non-formal education) situation. He is anyone who tries to get
something done by persuading, communicating with, helping to change adults and their communities
and one who tries to accomplish these objectives with missionary zeal. Adult and community educators
can be categorized into three: the firing-line level who have little or no training in working with adult
yet they perform the bulk of work at the grassroots. The programme directors level, though trained in
handling adults, is specialists in other areas of life other than adult and community education. They are
not engaged full scale hence; they offer their services as opportunity offers. The third level with
extensive academic training and professional experience form the consultant group of adult educators
who strive to develop new knowledge, contribute ideas that guide policy formulations and lead research
investigation in tertiary institutions. No matter the level the members of above groups operate in the
field of adult and community education, they must be properly trained to enable them discharge their
multifunctional roles effectively. Personality-wise the adult and community educator must have a
personal conviction in the mobility of his task of facilitating the development of man and society,
ability to apply knowledge and skill to solve problems, must continue learning, have humane
disposition and a credible personal integrity.
His roles are multi-functional and include the role of a facilitator of learning and community
development, a mobilizer, an andragogist, agent of change, a strategist, an animator, a pragmatist and a
guidance counselor. While playing the above roles, the adult and community educator invariably
functions administratively as a leader, controller, planner, organizer and a decision-maker in whatever
capacity he operates.
References
Amirize, B. (2002). Adult and Community Education: Policy and Design. Owerri: Springfield Publishers.
Anyanwu, C. N. (1985). Mass Literacy for National Development in Nigeria: Can it wait? The Adult Educator,
Journal of the Association of Adult Education Students, University of Ibadan, 3, 33 38.
Anyanwu, C.N. (1980) Adult Education in Nigeria. Ibadan: Moba Printers.
APPS, J. W (1979), Problems in Continuing Education, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Blakely, E.J. (1981). Adult Education Principles and Practice, In L. Bown and J.T. Okedara. (Eds)., An
Introduction to the Study of Adult Education. Ibadan: University Press.
October, 2012.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS (JEDA) VOL.20 (2).

ww
w w w . j e d a - u n i p o r t . c o m

Page 673
Bown, L. (1979). Scope and Purpose of Adult Education in West Africa, in L. Bown and S.H.O. Timori
(Eds). A Handbook of Adult Education for West Africa. London: Hutchinson University
Library for Africa.
Delargy, P. F. (1989). Public Schools and Community Education. S. B. Merriam and P. M. Cunnimgham
(Eds), Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education San- Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Ezimah, M. O. A. (2009). Knowing Adult Education: Its Nature Scope and Processes. Owerri: Springfield
Publishers.
Harbison, F. E. (1973). Human Resources as the Wealth of Nations. London: Oxford University Press.
Houle, C. (1976). The Design of Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Igbo, R. O. (2008) (Ed) Contemporary Adult Education: An inclusive Approach, NCAEP Book of Readings.
Ihejirika , J. C. (2007). Fundamentals of Adult Education and Community Development, Uyo: Abigab
Associates.
Ihejirika, J. C. (2003). A Handbook on Distance Education (New education). Port Harcourt: Sons
Communications.
Kawawa, R. (1971). Opening Address Presented at Third Conference of the African Adult Education Association.
Tanzama: University of Dar-es- Salaam.
Knowles, M. S. (1978). The Adult Leaner: A Neglected Species: (2
nd
Ed) Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
Knowles, M. S. (1970). The Modern Pratice of Adult Education Pedagogy Versus Andragogy. (2
nd
. Ed.) New
York: Association Press.
Lewis, J. (JR) (1969). A Contemporary Approach to Nongraded Education. West Nyack, New York: Parker
Publishing Coy.
Nzeneri, I. S. (1990). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Adult Post Literacy Education in Imo and Lagos
State of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Unilag.
Nzeneri, I. S. (2008). Handbook on Adult Education Principles and Practices. (New Education). Uyo: Abigab
Associates.
Nzeneri, I.S. (1996). Handbook on Adult Education. Onitsha: Goodway Printing Press.
Omolewa, M.A. (181). Adult Education Practice in Nigeria. Ibadan: Evans Brothers.
Todaro, M.P. (1977). Economics for a Developing World, London: Longman.
Tugbiyele, E. A. (1975). What is Adult Education? Journal of the NNCAE (1) 4.
UNESCO, (1976). Recommendations on the Development of Adult Education. Paper adopted by the General
Conference at its 19th Session, Nairobi.