i

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS
(JEDA) (JEDA) (JEDA) (JEDA)


VOLUME 19, NUMBER 2
NOVEMBER, 2011.



PUBLISHED BY THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT
CHOBA, PORT HARCOURT
NIGERIA





Copyright c Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt – 2011.


ISSN: 0189420X


Produced by the Editorial Board








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UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION IN DEVELOPING AREAS
(JEDA)



The Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) is a journal of the Faculty
of Education published twice in a year (March and October). The main focus
of the journal is on education, with implications for developing areas. Its main
objectives are:
i. To provide a medium for the systematic analysis of contemporary
educational theories and issues
ii. To serve as a forum for the dissemination of research findings in the fields
of education in developing areas
iii. To provide a platform for the discussion of innovative ideas for the
improvement of education in developing areas
In line with the above, the Editorial Board invites contributions (thoroughly
researched theoretical and empirical papers) from scholars across the globe.
Articles focusing on any aspect of education shall be considered for publication.
For Further Information, Contact: For Further Information, Contact: For Further Information, Contact: For Further Information, Contact: Email: Email: Email: Email: edujeda@rocketmail.com edujeda@rocketmail.com edujeda@rocketmail.com edujeda@rocketmail.com or or or or
Addresses below: Addresses below: Addresses below: Addresses below:

Editor Editor Editor Editor: :: : Technical/ Technical/ Technical/ Technical/Associate Associate Associate Associate Editor: Editor: Editor: Editor:

Prof. Ibitamuno Mitchell Aminigo Dr. Abdulrahman Yusuf M.
Department of Educational Foundations Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education, P.M.B. 5323 Faculty of Education, P.M.B. 5323
University of Port Harcourt. University of Port Harcourt.
Tel: +234 703 652 8254 Tel: +234 803 234 5719
Email: imaminigo@yahoo.com Email: yusuf.abdulrahman@uniport.edu.ng




iii

PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT

1. It is the policy of the editorial board not to consider or publish
manuscript submitted concurrently to other journals. Articles already
published by other journals are therefore not acceptable.
2. Two copies of the manuscript (hard copies) with an assessment fee of
₦4000.00 Four Thousand Naira) should be sent to the Editor, Journal of
Education in Developing Areas (JEDA); using the following addresses:
a) Snail mail: Editor, JEDA, Faculty of Education, University of
Port Harcourt, P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt.
b) E-mail: edujeda@rocketmail.com or
yusuf.abdulrahman@uniport.edu.ng
Note: i. This journal or its editorial members take no responsibility for
the consequence(s) of violating item 1 above.
ii. Any paper sent through e-mail option in (2b) above attracts
extra cost of ₦1000 for administrative undertakings.

3. Articles are to be sent with the author’s name, title/rank, post and
institutional affiliation, preferably on a separate page.
4. Articles should not exceed 4000 to 5000 words typed on A4 paper size
with double line spacing. The article should also contain an abstract of
not more than 200 italicized words.
5. The reference style adopted for this journal is the American
Psychological Association (APA) and all references should be
arranged alphabetically at the end of the article.
6. The current editorial board, with full support from the Dean of the
Faculty, Prof. Ebi Bio Awotua-Efebo decided to go online for JEDA, in
line with the global best practices. What this means is that articles shall
now be published both online and in hard copies which will later be
mailed to the contributors.
7. ACCEPTANCE/ASSESSMENT REPORT
Notice of acceptance/assessment report is sent to authors of the
article(s). Payment of USD 160.00 or NGN16,000 (Sixteen Thousand
Naira) is payable by the author of an accepted paper through: (i) Bank
Transfer (ii) Credit Card: (Mastercard or Visa) and other electronic
means.
8. For Further enquiries: - The Editor: Prof. Ibitamuno Mitchell Aminigo
(+2347036528254)
Technical/Associate Editor: Dr. Abdulrahman Yusuf Maigida (+2348032345719)

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Editorial Board

Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Ebi Bio Awotua-Efebo
Editor: Prof: Ibitamuno Mitchell Aminigo
Associate Editors:
Dr. (Mrs) C. M. Uche
Dr. I. C. Elendu
Dr. (Mrs) I. C. Kosemani
Dr. O. F. Mbalisi
Dr. (Mrs) C. J. Ugwu

Technical Officers:
Dr. C. Agwu
Mrs. E. Fomsi
Dr. A. Oriji
Technical & Associate Editor: Dr. Abdulrahman Yusuf Maigida

Consulting Editors:
Prof. B. A. Eheazu
(University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.)

Prof. PAI Obanya
(International Education Strategist)

Prof. Tim Spannus
(Wayne-State University, Michighan, U.S.A.)

Emeritus Prof. Otonti Nduka
(University of Port Harcourt)

Prof. S.P.T. Gbamanja
(University of Sierra-Leone, Sierra-Leone.)

Emeritus Prof. O. C. Nwanna
(Imo State University, Nigeria.)

Prof. A. A. Adeyinka
(Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Nigeria.)

Prof. N. E. Dienye
(University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.)

Prof. A. I. Imogie
(University of Benin, Nigeria.)


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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
1. M. O. A. Ezimah, Ph.D; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education Faculty of
Education University of Port Harcourt
2. C. Noah Musa, Ph.D; Department of Educational Studies and Management, Faculty of
Education, University of Benin, Benin City.
3. Etadon, F. I. Ph.D; Department of Adult Education, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
4. Oyebamiji, M. A. Ph.D; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Faculty of
Education, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt.
5. Ekenedo, G. O. Ph.D; Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University
of Port Harcourt
6. Dr. Abidoye Sarumi; Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education, University
of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
7. N. J. Okoli, Ph.D; Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt.
8. B. N. Nyewusira; Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt.
9. Dr. J. W. Dike; Department of Curriculum Studies & Educational Technology, Faculty of
Education, University of Port Harcourt
10. Dr. (Mrs) L. N. Abraham; Department of Curriculum Studies & Educational
Technology, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt
11. Obunadike, Joy Chinwe, Ph.D; Department of Primary Education Studies, Nwafor
Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State.
12. Dr. M. E. Hanachor; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Faculty of
Education, University of Port Harcourt.
13. Dr. (Mrs) Victoria C. Onyeike; Department of Educational Management, Faculty of
Education, University of Port Harcourt.
14. Dr. Ifeanyichukwu C. Elendu, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
15. Adedamola O. Onyeaso (Mrs), Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education,
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State
16. Dr. Jonathan N. Onukwufor, Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and
Counselling, University of Port Harcourt
17. Dr. (Mrs) Mary-Rose N. Izuchi, Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance
and Counselling, University of Port Harcourt.

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18. NJOKU Chimezie, Ph.D; Dept. of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology,
Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt.
19. Nwaeke, Nkechi Florence, Department of Educational Management, University of
Port Harcourt.
20. Dr. U. J. Nwogu; Department of Educational Management, University of Port Harcourt.
21. Offor Beatrice Ogoegbunam, Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education,
University of Port Harcourt.
22. Dr. Mbalisi Onyeka Festus; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education,
University of Port Harcourt.
23. Ogbondah Livinus, Ph.D; Department of Educational Foundations and Management,
Faculty of Education, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education; Port Harcourt.
24. Dr. J. C. Ihejirika; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, University of Port
Harcourt.
25. Felicia I. Ofoegbu, Ph.D; Department of Educational Studies and Management,
University of Benin, Benin City. Edo State, Nigeria.
26. B. M. Agboola, Ph.D; Department of Educational Studies and Management, University
of Benin, Benin City. Edo State, Nigeria.
27. Lucy A. Okukpon, Ph.D; Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, Faculty of
Education, University of Benin, Benin City. Edo State, Nigeria.
28. Albert Mufanechiya, Department of Curriculum studies, Great Zimbabwe University,
Zimbabwe.
29. Tafara Mufanechiya, Teacher Development Department, Great Zimbabwe University,
Zimbabwe.
30. Benjamin Mudzanire, Department of Curriculum Studies, Great Zimbabwe University,
Zimbabwe.
31. Dr. Kebbi, J. A., Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University;
32. Asim, A. F., Faculty of Education, University of Calabar
33. Offor, I. T., Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University.
34. Dr. Kpolovie, Peter James; Department of Psychology, Guidance and Counselling,
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt.
35. Dr. Paulley, F. G.; Department of Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education,
Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State.




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TABLE OF CONTENT

1. DEMOGRAPHIC ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT EDUCATION - M. O. A.
EZIMAH, (Ph.D). 178

2. DEREGULATION OF EDUCATION FOR INCREASED ACCESS TO APPROPRIATE
EDUCATION FOR THE GIRL-CHILD - C. Noah Musa, (Ph.D). 185

3. RELEVANCE OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION FOR INFORMATION
DISSEMINATION FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL
AREAS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE - ETADON, F. I. (Ph.D); and OYEBAMIJI, M.A. (Ph.D). 198

4. A TRANS-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO EXERCISE PARTICIPATION AMONG
EMPLOYEES OF OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN PORT HARCOURT - EKENEDO,
G. O. (Ph.D) 208

5. LEARNING TO PRIORITIZE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD OR SUSTAINABLE
DEMOCRACY? THE EXPERIENCE OF ADULTS IN IBADAN METROPOLIS -
Dr. Abidoye Sarumi 215

6. TRENDS IN THE PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND FAITH BASED
ORGANIZATIONS (FBOs) IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA: A
HISTORICAL APPRAISAL. - N. J. OKOLI, Ph.D and B. N. NYEWUSIRA 221

7. VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
CERTIFICATE GRADUATES IN AKPOR KINGDOM IN OBIO-AKPOR L.G.A. OF
RIVERS STATE - DR. J.W. DIKE and DR (MRS) L. N. ABRAHAM 228

8. STATUS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING FACILITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE
SECONDARY SCHOOLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT –
OBUNADIKE, Joy Chinwe (Ph.D). 236

9. FACILITATING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GRASSROOTS
ORGANIZATIONS IN RIVERS STATE - DR. M. E. HANACHOR 244

10. USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO
ENHANCE TEACHING IN NIGERIA HIGHER INSTITUTIONS - Dr. (Mrs) Victoria
C. Onyeike; 252

11. ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES ON THE REDUCTION OF PREGNANCY-RELATED
COMPLICATIONS, MORBIDITY AND DEATH IN NIGERIA - Dr. Ifeanyichukwu C.
Elendu and Adedamola O. Onyeaso (Mrs) 259

12. CONSTRAINTS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN RIVERS STATE’S SECONDARY
SCHOOLS - DR. JONATHAN N. ONUKWUFOR & DR. (MRS) MARY-ROSE N. IZUCHI 267

13. HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBAL
COMPETITIVENESS IN NIGERIA - NJOKU Chimezie, (Ph.D). 277


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14. CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF BRAIN DRAIN IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS
FOR HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT - NWAEKE, NKECHI FLORENCE and
DR. U. J. NWOGU 284

15. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG
ADULT LEARNERS IN RIVERS STATE - OFFOR BEATRICE OGOEGBUNAM and
DR. MBALISI ONYEKA FESTUS 294

16. TEACHING IN NIGERIAN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A CASE FOR
PROFESSIONALIZATION - OGBONDAH Livinus, (Ph.D). 304

17. PROBLEMS IN THE UTILIZATION OF CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMMES
FOR IMPROVED ACCESS TO EDUCATION IN THE NIGER DELTA REGION OF
NIGERIA - DR. J. C. IHEJIRIKA 313

18. GENDER AND ACADEMIC “HIDDEN” EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND
LECTURERS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES - Felicia I. Ofoegbu, Ph.D; B.M. Agboola,
(Ph.D); and Lucy A. Okukpon, (Ph.D). 322

19. FIFA 2010 SOCCER WORLD CUP IN SOUTH AFRICA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE
CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN ZIMBABWEAN SCHOOLS: A CASE OF
MASVINGO URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS - Albert Mufanechiya, Tafara
Mufanechiya and Benjamin Mudzanire 331

20. ICT IN DISTANCE AND OPEN LEARNING: THE CASE OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STUDY CENTRES IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA - Dr. Kebbi, J. A., Asim, A. F., and
Offor, I. T. 341

21. RANDOMIZED SIX-GROUP EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A RADICAL EVOLUTION
- Dr. Kpolovie, Peter James 349

22. SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION AS A PANACEA FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION
IN NIGERIA - Dr. Paulley, F. G. 361






Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011.

Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt
Copyright c Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt







(JEDA)

Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011.
Published by:

Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt

Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt
ISSN: 0189420X
online version
website: www.jeda-uniport.com
Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011. Volume 19, No. 2. November, 2011.
Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt University of Port Harcourt. .. .
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt – 2011.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

DEMOGRAPHIC ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL ADULT EDUCATION
BY
M. O. A. EZIMAH (Ph.D)
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt


ABSTRACT
The interplay of people, resources and environment has become recurrent variables
in development agenda. This has resulted in a growing consensus on the nature
and scope of the interrelationships between people, resources, environment and
development. The main focus of this paper, therefore, is on the impact of
demographic changes on natural resources - both in their depletion and in the
degradation of quality and the role environmental adult education can play in
increasing awareness and in the shaping of attitudes and behaviour of man
towards a more sustainable use of natural resources.














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Introduction
One of the major historical contributions to the debate on population was that of Thomas
Malthus in his 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population. His basic thesis was that human population
when unchecked, increased in a geometric or exponential manner whereas subsistence or ability to
produce food increased only in an arithmetic manner and that “misery is an absolute consequence of it”
(Enger and Smith, 2000 Rao, 2000). This idea was contrary to popular opinion, and it was because of
widespread food shortages and famines prevalent in different parts of the world.
Malthus suggested a doomsday in which population growth would outstrip the ability of the
land to produce food. He concluded that wars, famines, plagues, and natural disasters would be the
means of checking the size of the human population. Eldon Enger and Bradley Smith (2000) maintain
that Malthus’s predictions were hotly debated by the intellectual community of his day. His assumption
and conclusions were attacked as erroneous and against the best interest of society.
At the time the essay was published, the popular opinion was that human knowledge and
“moral constraint” would be able to create a world that would supply all human needs in abundance.
Malthus further postulated that “commerce between the sexes” (sexual intercourse) would continue
unchanged, while other philosophers of the day believed that sexual behaviour would take less
procreative forms and human population would be limited. It is only within the past fifty years or so,
that effective contraceptives have become widely accepted and used mainly in developed countries.
Undoubtedly, Malthus did not foresee the use of contraception, major changes in agricultural
production methods, or the slave trade that saw the export of people to other lands, all of which
delayed his predictions from happening. However, in today’s modern world, many of the predictions of
Malthus is becoming a reality - the difference being in the timing. As a solution to the population
puzzle, environmental education is increasingly playing an important role in behavioural (social,
economic, political and even cultural) reengineering in all matters relating to the environment.
The Confluence of Population and Environment
The interrelationships between people, resources, environment and development have been the
subject of study since the UN General Assembly Resolution 3345 in 1974 (UNEP, 1992).
Population is a fundamental variable in any natural resource degradation. The levels and
patterns of natural resource use and of waste production and management determine the collective
impact of people on natural resources and the overall environment. This is attested to by many
investigators and environmental experts. On the implications of population pressure on resources,
UNEP (1992) affirms people’s contribution to resource depletion and/or degradation in several ways.
First, there is the direct impact of a growing population on the rate of resource consumption. Second,
some of the environmental problems arising from rapid population growth are compounded by the
differences in lifestyles. Third, rapid population growth has served to increase the number of poor
households world-wide and poor households often rely on marginal environments for survival, thus
establishing a cycle of poverty and resource degradation. Finally, resource degradation occurs when the
population exceeds the capacity of social institutions to cope with environmental problems.
Also, worthy of note is that combined with rapid population growth, unequal distribution of
landholdings rather than overall land shortage creates the most severe pressure on the poor to exploit
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marginal environment (.Durning, 1989; Repetto, 1989). For instance, in Latin America, more than 70
percent of agricultural households are either landless or near- landless since 10 percent of the
population own 95 percent of the total arable land (Thiesenhausen, 1989). As a result, millions of small
farmers are forced to subdivide already small farms among their children until farm sizes become too
small to provide subsistence. Combined with the failure of the rural economy to support increased
productivity of agricultural lands in countries of the North and South, poor households have little
alternative but to move into available marginal lands. Though not always totally unsuitable for farming,
these lands are often highly susceptible to soil erosion, loss of soil fertility, and desertification. These
environmental problems, in turn, undermine the livelihood of impoverished migrants, growth, poverty
and resource degradation (Durning, 1980; Leonard, 1990).
As population increases, the task of providing for their needs and wellbeing through
environmental management becomes more challenging. The concept of carrying capacity is relevant, in
general terms, to consideration of the relationship of population growth to the natural resource base.
The carrying capacity varies from one locality to another, and depends on the life-styles and
consumption patterns of the population (UNEP, 1985). The carrying capacity does not relate only to
the human population, but also to the animal and plant population. The conflicts between the needs of
each complicate the issue, and the number of variables involved in the analysis can be quite large
particularly when such factors as trade and transfer of technology are taken into consideration.
Population growth give rise to urban growth. In developing countries, urbanization has been
growing at a much faster rate than in the developed countries. As cities increase in size, slums and
squatter settlements proliferate. The environment in and around sub-standard human dwellings offers
an important habitat for a wide range of insects and rodents (fleas, cockroaches, bugs, mosquitoes, flies,
rats and other insects and rodents). These animals transmit a number of diseases. Among the best
known are malaria, typhoid, yellow fever, filariasis and dengue. Chagas disease is transmitted by bugs
that flourish in cracks and crevices of poor-quality houses in Latin America. According to WHO
(1991), about 500,000 people become infected every year, and 15 percent of infected people die during
the fever that is typical of the acute phase of chagas disease. The rest become chronically infected, and
ultimately suffer heart and other chronic disorders.
The overcrowding of urban areas in many countries has led to the increasing disappearance of
green areas. Cities have become complexes of steel, concrete bricks and stone structures with no life
other than the masses of people moving around. This has largely contributed to the incidence of many
disorders, sometimes referred to as urban disease. High rise buildings, built in order to make the best
possible use of expensive land in densely populated urban areas, may present special hazards to physical
and mental health. The difficulty of access to play areas deprives children of one of their rights and
affects their learning and development. The elderly and physically handicapped suffer from restricted
movement in such high rise structures, and residents in upper storey may be at special risk in case of
fire and explosion (WHO, 1991). In some developing countries, frequent breakdown of lifts imposes
excessive stresses on residents, especially the aged and infirm. The construction of light-tech buildings
not suited to local climates has added pressures to the already strained water and energy supply systems.
In addition, it has aggravated indoor air pollution problems (UNEP, 1992).
Rapid industrial development and population growth on ecologically fragile land also create
serious physical problems. Similarly, inappropriate location of industrial installation in urban areas and/
or lack of control of population densities around industrial installations has led to a dramatic increase in
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the number of victims of industrial accidents. Also, untreated industrial wastes and domestic sewage
have serious effects on the ecosystems.
Thus, it is these effects which population pressure has on environment that has given rise to
what is known as ‘environmental refugees’, a condition according to UNEP, necessitated by “areas hit
by natural disasters or suffering long-term ecological decline” such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions,
landslides, floods, droughts, overgrazing of land, deforestation, overuse of soils, pollution of air and
armed conflicts.
Conversely, it is such human activities which create the human “tragedy of refugees’ that also
create the “tragedy of the commons”. This is regarded as “the degradation of natural common
resources because individual interests override collective sustainable management” (Lewis, 1998).
Therefore, the efficient use of a common resource requires collective agreement regarding levels of use
so that carrying capacity is not exceeded and the resource remains sustainable.
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) strongly affirms that “any solution to the
problem of (natural resource) deterioration must first cope with the basic cause: over population (Salau,
1992). It is within this context that population control has been advanced as a central strategy from
arresting the growing economic and ecological crisis in developed and developing nations. This is a
view acquiesced by
Timberlake and Thomas (1990) that globally, there is population crisis. The present world community
is increasing exponentially and it is feared that if not checked, may reach a rate at which governments
may lack capacity to cope with its social, economy and political repercussions.
Agreeing, James (1997:1) in his study submits that:
The literature on African present condition is replete with the problems caused
by over population in many African countries. It is true that when examined
from a purely Western perspective which takes into consideration aspects of
quality of life and standard of living as defined by criteria established outside
Africa) the assessment of the continent is that it is plagued by problems
brought as a result of over population.
Poverty and Population Growth
There is an interface between poverty and population growth and a strong indication that the
areas of the world where the human population is rising very rapidly are those that have the lowest
standard of living. In addition to economic underdevelopment in many of the developing countries, a
combination of levels of poverty and total fertility rates are among the most important contributors to
environmental and social underdevelopment. Poverty and high fertility rates have vicious feedback
linkages, each feeding into the other. And as long as people in less developed countries are poor, there
is a strong incentive to have large numbers of children. In these countries, children are a form of social
security because they take care of their elderly parents. It is only in developed countries can people save
money for their old age (Enger and Smith, 2000; Rao, 2009).
Contrary to what exist in the southern hemisphere where people are generally poor and there is
high population growth rates, the developed countries of Europe and North America have abundant
wealth and have population growing at slower and predictable rates. A number of reasons may be given
why the vicious cycle of poverty correlates with high population growth rates. First, poor people cannot
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afford birth control and, since they are often poorly educated, may not be able to read and understand
the directions on how to use various birth control mechanisms. Therefore, they have more children
than they may wish to have or cater for.
Second, poor people need to obtain or augment income in many ways. Often this includes
taking children out of school so that they are able to work on the farm or in other jobs to provide
income for the family. Poorly educated people cannot get gainful jobs and so remain in poverty.
Third, women in poor countries are usually poorly educated and do not have disposable
income. Therefore, they are dependent on their husbands of the family unit for their livelihood.
Women who do not have independent income are more likely to have children by accident not by
choice because they cannot afford birth control.
At the United Nations International Conference on Population and Development held in Cairo,
Egypt, in September 1994, the following issues were highlighted:
The need to improve the educational status of women. This would lead to improved financial
standing for women, which would allow them to have fewer children.
The need to provide access to birth control. Although this was attacked by Muslim
fundamentalists and Catholics, the final document was approved by both groups.
A recognition that economic well-being is tied to solving the population problem. However, the
huge, rapidly growing population of the poor countries of the world cannot expect to consume
at the rate the rich countries do. Furthermore, the rich countries of the world need to reduce
their rate of consumption.
The above variables are indicative of the important role education can play in reducing high
population growth rates and enhancing the standards of living of majority of the people of the world.
Environmental Education for Adults as a Remedy for Reducing Population Pressure on the
Environment
Breaking out of the cycle of population growth, poverty and resource degradation would
demand a number of strategic options. Any strategic options aimed at tackling these three related
problems should begin by focusing on people and adults in particular. Therefore, environmental
education must be directed at adults who are the main users of the environment through their
occupational and leisure activities (N’Gaba-Waye, 1997). They should also have access to information
that is relevant to population matters and the natural resources available.
Population education for adults will need to focus more explicitly on women since the number
of households headed by women has expanded rapidly especially in countries of Africa, Asia and Latin
America. A woman’s education has a strong impact on the health and size of her family.
Important as family planning may be in a policy, even more important is to provide the
motivation for couples to have fewer children. The status of women in both economic and educational
terms is a key factor in providing this motivation. Women do not have to be literate to know that they
want fewer children, but they may well need the agreement, even the permission in some cases, of their
partners to use family planning methods (UNEP, 1992). Education based on population issues and the
needs of the people in terms of how the new knowledge will be applied in their daily lives, will
contribute to reduce the rates of population growth.
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Sikes (1997) acknowledges that participants in population education are of heterogeneous
nature, and identifies venues for adult population education to include literacy classes, cooperatives,
agricultural extension, labour activities, club activities etc.
In the light of the above imperatives, environmental education for adults becomes a
requirement for imparting the right skill and knowledge necessary to bring about the development of
the right attitude and awareness on population issues, and participation in actions that benefit the
environment. Hence in the views of Jokthan (1991) citing Rugurnayo and Johnson (1987) such
concrete actions would translate into an integrated process which deals with man- environment
interrelationships, and aims at developing into a world population that is aware of and concerned about
the environment and its associated problems and which has the knowledge, skills, attitudes, motivation
and commitment to work individually and collectively towards a solution of current problems arising
from pollution pressure on the environment and the prevention of new ones. This is the point at which
man is in harmony with nature.
Conclusions
Current trends in human development show that world population growth is a contributing
factor in nearly all world problems. Population growth has led to famine in areas where food
production cannot keep pace with increasing numbers of people; political unrest in areas with great
disparities in availability of resources (jobs, goods, food); environmental degradation by poor
agricultural practices (erosion, desertification); water pollution by human and industrial waste; air
pollution caused by the human need to use energy for personal use and for industrial application;
extinctions caused by people converting natural ecosystems to manage agricultural ecosystems; and
destructive effects of exploitation of natural resources (oil spills, mining).
Therefore, population control affordable through environmental education significantly will
reduce the rate at which environmental degradation is occurring. This will invariably enhance the
quality of life for many people in the world.

References
Durning, A.B. (1989). Poverty and Environment: Reserving, the Downward Spiral. World Watch Paper
No.92, Washington, D.C.
Enger, E.D. and Smith, B.F, (2000). Environmental Science: A study of interrelationships. Boston: McGraw
Hill.
James, V,U. (1997). Conservation Policies in West Africa: A Study of South Eastern Nigeria. Bethesda:
International Scholars Publications.
Jokthan, E.T. (1991). The Role of Adult education in Environmental Education. J.1. Mereni (Ed.) Adult
Education and Rural Transformation. Enugu: Asomog Printing and Publishing Press.
Leonard, H.J. (1990). Environment and the Poor: Development Strategies for a Common Agenda. New
Brunswick:Transaction Books.
Lewis, G. (1998). Instructor’s Manual to Chris Park’s the Environment. London: Routledge.
N’Gaba-Waye, A. (1997). Environmental Adult Education: A Factor in Sustainable Development on
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the Eve of the 3
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Millennium. Adult Education and Development. 49, 124.
Rao, P.K. (2000). Sustainable Development: Economics and Policy. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Repetto, R. (1989). Population, Resources, Environment: An Uncertain Future. Population Bulletin.42,
(2).
Salau, A.T. (1992). Global Environmental Change: A Research Agenda for Africa. Dadar/Senegal:
CODESRIA
Sikes, O.J. (1997). Population Education for Adults. Adult Education and Development. 49, 135-136.
Thiesenhausen, W.C.(1989). Searching for Agrarian Reform in Latin America. Boston: Union Hyman.
Timberlake, L. and Thomas, L. (1990). When the Bough Breakes: Our Children, Our Environment. London:
Earthscan Publication Ltd
UNEP (1985). The State of the Environment, 1985. Nairobi: UNCEP.
UNEP (1992). The World Environment 1972-1992. London: Chapman and Hall.
WHO (1991). Control of Chagas Disease. WHO Technical Report Series No. 811. Geneva: WHO.
WHO (1991). Environmental Health in Ulban Development. Report of a WHO Expert Committee.
WHO Technical Report Series 807. Geneva: WHO.














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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

DEREGULATION OF EDUCATION FOR INCREASED ACCESS TO
APPROPRIATE EDUCATION FOR THE GIRL-CHILD
By
*C. Noah Musa, Ph.D.
Department of Educational Studies and Management, Faculty of Education,
University of Benin, Benin City.


Abstract
This paper examines the vexed issue of providing the appropriate education for the
girl-child. It posits that if all forms of controlling influences, regulations and barriers
to free access to education are deregulated, then the girl-child would be provided
the much orchestrated equal educational opportunity. It identifies some of the
encumbrances to free access and suggests strategies for relaxing them to enable
the girl-child acquire the right education.
Keywords: Deregulation, Foeticide, Stereotype, Infantile marriage, Encumbrances






* Musa, C.N. is an Associate Professor of Educational Sociology.



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Introduction
One fundamental challenge to human dignity which has received international
attention is the obnoxious denial of equal educational opportunity for the girl-child. The
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in its 1995
World Education Report had indicated that investing in the girl-child education has the
highest rate of returns than any other investment in the developmental programmes of
any developing country. Perhaps this is the basis for the popular saying that when you
educate a man, you educate an individual whereas when you educate a woman, you
educate a whole nation.
The education of the girl-child and its larger counterpart-women education have
in recent time been very contentious in all respects. Both the girl-child and women have
either been denied the same degree of access to education as their male counterparts
have, or that certain restrictions or obstacles have been placed on their way in order to
prevent them from acquiring the appropriate type and level of education. These
restrictions have been in all areas of the girl-child’s national life, be it political, economic,
social or even cultural. Some of these restrictions have been so taken for granted that
they have acquired the status of regulations in the statute books of most developing
nations. It has also been forcefully argued Osakwe, (2010) that some heavy dose of civic
education is extremely mandatory for the girl-child and women in general if poverty and
its associated malaise which constitute long standing impediments to integrated national
development are to be addressed realistically.
In order to give the girl-child the appropriate opportunity for the development of all her
potentials therefore, the present character of the education system which is internationally
recognized as the most potent instrument for that purpose would need to be drastically
deregulated. In this paper therefore the concept of deregulation is interpreted to mean the
removal of all the stringent bureaucratic encumbrances, strings, whether real or imaginary
which are generally cited as reasons or obstacles to the education of the girl-child.

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Right from the time the girl-child is born, she suffers all manner of gender
discrimination and, on growing up as a woman, she is confronted by the vicious circle of
poverty, subjugation, discrimination, exploitation, sexual harassment, Musa (1999)
domestic (spousal) violence, Musa (2008), prostitution and very regressive traditions.
Osakwe (2010) reported that as far back as in the 1970’s there were prenatal sex
determination tests which led to large scale gender-selective abortions. The girl-child was
seen as a burden both traditionally and even economically. This led to some kind of
foeticide or poisoning, strangulation or even starvation to death. In some Asian
countries, it became a misfortune to give birth to a girl-child. The story of the girl-child,
she observed, from infancy through girlhood, womanhood, motherhood, and sometimes
widowhood, in today’s world, is that of deprivation, oppression, prejudice,
powerlessness and helplessness in a male dominated society (Eichler, 1980). It is
precisely for these reasons that education which is the potent instrument for the
emancipation of the girl-child needs to be deregulated.
The Concept of Deregulation
Technically, deregulation is an economic terminology which is generally applied in
relation to economic, political and social issues in national development. Ordinarily in a
market economy, deregulation means the removal or reduction of all forms of
controlling influences, regulations, barriers or constraints to free entry into the market.
Such deregulation is generally intended to provide wider opportunities for more players
in the economic “chess board”. It tends to break the erstwhile monopoly of the major
players in that sector. For example, the deregulation of the downstream sector of the
petroleum industry opened the way for more marketers to import refined petroleum
products. Consumers were thus enabled easier access to the products.
In education, deregulation would mean a drastic reduction in the degree of
government control or any form of bureaucratic interference in the management of
education. Such controls which would need to be deregulated may include:
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Stringent admission requirements or regulations –(like quota admission, federal
character considerations) all of which have deprived some highly qualified
individuals from being admitted because of the accident of place of birth;
Unaffordable schools fees.
Absence of the right type of institutions.
Prevalence of obnoxious gender biases or rules or customs or prejudices;
Gender biased curricular ad curricular materials including textbooks and other
instructional materials;
Gender biased teachers and teaching strategies;
Gender biased careers and career prospects in which the girl-child is deliberately
counselled out or programmed towards gender – specific professions/careers).
Deregulation of education derives from the VISION 2020 DOCUMENT which
envisaged the expanded role of education. Education can no longer be confined to the
traditional role of mere certificate earning which most of our educational institutions
have unfortunately turned out to be (Dore, 1978). The performance of the products of
the Nigerian school system has shown that even the certificates which they parade do
not adequately represent the stock of knowledge and the skills which they are supposed
to have acquired. The 2011 Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) results
recently released confirmed this ugly trend. For example, of the 1,493,604 candidates
who wrote the examination, the score distribution was as follows:
2011 UTME Score Distribution
300 and above 2,892 0.19%
270 299 31,444 2.10%
250 269 102,069 6.38%
200 249 485,426 32.50%
Source: JAMB Registrar’s Press Briefing 2011
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This means that with 28,069 results withheld, as much as 843,704 or over 50%
candidates performed below the expected standard.
In the new millennium, education has come to be considered more as a form of
investment for economic, social and political development. It is also a potent tool for
the empowerment of the poor and the socio-economically marginalized segments of the
population like the girl-child. In economic terms, education has assumed the status of an
effective vehicle for the development of the full capacities and potentials of the human
resource to enable them make their contribution to all aspects of national development.
For the third world countries in particular including Nigeria which are characterized by
widespread illiteracy, education is a veritable means of developing sound and enlightened
societies (Vision 2020).
It has been argued that because of its economic orientation, deregulation may lead
to commercialization and perhaps over pricing of education out of the reach of the
common man including the girl-child. In spite of deregulation however, it is the view of
this writer, that education would remain a “public good” which every citizen, including
the disadvantaged groups should have unfettered access to. This position is reinforced
by article 26(1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations
General Assembly which stipulates that:
Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in
the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be
compulsory. Technical and fundamental education shall be made
generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to
all, on the basis of merit UNO/UDHR, (1948).

Nigeria is signatory to this UN Charter and she is therefore bound by its
provisions for all her levels of education. But a cursory look at the major streets in many
Nigerian cities would reveal an embarrassing degree of lip service which Nigeria has paid
to this UN provision. Many children of school age litter all the major streets making
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brisk business as they hawk all kinds of goods and services to motorists especially in
traffic hold-ups. Under all kinds of guise, child-labour is openly perpetrated by all
segments of the society. For instance in Benin City, young Ogoni and Adamawa boys
have taken over household help from the traditional erstwhile traditional Calabar
“Akpan and Ekaete” in many Nigerian homes
The 1979 and 1999 Constitutions of the Federal Republic of Nigeria had made
adequate provisions in section 18, subsection (1) that: government shall ensure equality
and adequate educational opportunities at all levels for all Nigerians including the girl
child. In order to put these constitutional provisions to effect, the National Policy on
Education has clearly spelt out the modalities. These include the establishment of
schools for all levels of education, the provision of all the necessary facilities and then
the enactment of all kinds of rules and regulations to guide their implementation.
Indeed, it is the unwholesome implementation and manipulations of these rules and
regulations that strangulate certain segments of the educational process, hence this
clarion call for deregulation.
The Rationale for Deregulation
One of the expected fall-outs of the deregulation of education is the recent increase in
the number of private schools at all levels from the nursery grade through primary,
secondary and on to the tertiary level. These private initiatives have opened up new
windows of opportunities for learning for many families which, before now had been
inadvertently denied the opportunity. It is however very easy for skeptics to argue that
not many parents can afford the high fees being charged by these private proprietors
whose primary motive is profit maximization as opposed to social service provision. The
answer to that is that by the simple economic principle of supply and demand, the
exhorbitant school fees charged by the private schools will crash as many more private
and good quality schools come on stream. There are very many parents who are ready to
sacrifice a number of things in self denial, to enable their children acquire some
education at the slightest opportunity which is what the private schools are providing.
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In the same way, the number of private universities has increased tremendously in
recent time. With the recent approval of nine new universities by the National
Universities Commission (NUC), the number of Universities in Nigeria has increased to
about 117 (NUC 2010). This number will definitely go a long way in ameliorating the
yearning for higher education by Nigerian youths as well as adult knowledge seekers.
Another reason why the deregulation policy has become imperative is the spate of
crises which characterized the education sector. Some of these crises have emanated
from the attempts made by the respective stakeholders to undercut the stringent
regulatory procedures which have characterized the implementation of the educational
policies. For example, cultism and all other forms of clandestine fraternities have created
intractable problems for many university administrators nationwide in the last two
decades. The enforcement of stringent administrative rules and regulations on the
students without regard for their rights and interests has been cited as one of the reasons
for widespread cultic activities in the campuses of Nigerian universities and related
tertiary institutions (Echekwube, 1999).
Examination malpractice is another cankerworm which has been threatening the
education industry since the 1980s. As a result of the over reliance on paper
qualifications and examination success by the education sector and the employment
agencies, all kinds of bizarre and unconventional strategies have been devised by
examination candidates to ensure success in examination. There is the urgent need
therefore to deregulate even the examination system in order to give room for many
more people to advance faster on the educational ladder. There are, for example, far too
many examination regulatory bodies to the extent that their regulatory functions
sometimes overlap. How, for example are the functions of the West African
Examinations Council (WAEC) different from those of the National Examinations
Council (NECO)? The difference is merely in the fact that while the former covers the
whole of the West African Sub-region, the latter takes care of Nigeria only. The same is
true for the General Certificate of Education (GCE) and the Senior Secondary School
Certificate (SSC) or the National Business and Technical Education Board (NEBTEB).
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One of the considerations which had been proposed for the girl-child by way of
examination deregulation which did not see the light of day was the lowering of the cut-
off mark for girls in the University Matriculation Examination (UME) by the Joint
Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB). In other words, the girl-child would not
have to obtain equal marks as boys in the University Matriculation Examination in order
to be admitted into the university. No matter what radical feminist apologists may think,
there is some merit in differential cut-off marks for the Unified Tertiary Matriculation
Examination (UTME) scores for the girl-child because of the traditional deprivation she
has had to contend with both in the home and in the larger society. The cut-mark
differential is applied to educationally disadvantaged areas of Nigeria and no one has
raised any issues. It will increase access for the girl-child.
Sexual harassment has also characterized social relations between male and female
students and other members of university communities (Musa 1999). The girl-child has
been most vulnerable to the phenomenon of sexual harassment in most situations –
whether in the education sector or in the job market. The girl-child has often been
subjected to all manner of degrading circumstances by her counterparts. In the
universities, the female students are intimidated either by their male counterparts or by
male lecturers especially during examinations. There have been reports of even
university professors intimidating female students into succumbing to some
unwholesome relationships which they would not have normally consented to but for
fear of intimidation and victimization and imminent failure at the examinations (Musa
1999). In many universities in Nigeria, the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)
has had to set up Ethics Committees for the enforcement of sanctions against a
taxonomy of unethical practices. Some progress has been reported in the enforcement of
the sanctions for some of these unethical practices in a number of Nigerian universities,
thereby freeing the girl-child (female students) from harassment.
Very stringent regulatory policies in the area of curriculum have also hampered
the progress of education for the girl-child. Until very recently some curricular
programmes were specifically designated and set aside for boys while some were
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exclusively for the girls. Even though there are no reliable data, enrolment of the girl-
child in Science and Technology based courses has been very low. FAWE (1999), Fresco
(1998), had reported that in many developing countries the enrolment figures for women
studying Agricultural related disciplines at the intermediate and higher levels of
education may vary from as low as five percent to as high as fifty percent. In some cases,
economic and cultural constraints also limit the degree to which people value the girl-
child education.
The quest for the deregulation of education in Nigeria for the girl-child is
primarily for her and other womenfolk to be able to participate and contribute on a
comparable basis with their male counterparts to the social, economic and political
processes of rural development. They will also be able to fully share in the improved
conditions of life in the rural areas. Deregulation of education for the girl-child will
improve her access and opportunity to education tremendously. In the area of
Agricultural education, this will contribute to improved food production at the
household and national levels, improved nutritional status of families and thus to the
achievement of the much desired food sufficiency and security and reproductive health
standard Fresco (1998).
Constraints to the Girl-Child Education
Indabawa (2004) had also identified some socio-cultural factors which inhibit the
pursuit of education by the girl-child. Among them are early marriage, engaging young
school-age girls in street hawking, family poverty, lack of parental support, the religious
factor (especially in muslim communities), societal attitude towards the education of the
girl-child, irrelevance of curriculum content, girls’ lack of interest in Science and
Technology, a general poor self-concept by the girls/women themselves and a mismatch
between the education/skills acquired and employment opportunities for the girl-child.
The Education for All (EFA) Global Monitoring Report for 2011 has indicated that
gender disparities continue to hamper progress in education such that if gender parity
had been attained in 2008, there would have been an additional 3.6 million girls enrolled
in the primary school. This is the compelling reason why education has to be deregulated
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for the girl-child. The rest of this paper will be devoted to a brief examination of
Indabawa’s socio-cultural factors which have been inimical to the girl-child education.
Early Marriage
In many parts of the developing world, the girl-child is denied the opportunity for basic
education due to early marriage. As a result they are robbed of the opportunities of
acquiring the basic education and skills which they need to make their individual
contributions to national development. Even when they have the opportunities, they are
generally on a limited scale. This is because of the condemnable practice of infantile
marriage. In Africa, Asia and some Latin American countries the practice of early
marriage of young girls of between 10 and 14 years of age is widespread. In Nigeria for
example, a serving senator and former governor of one of the northern states under the
sharia judicial system was widely reported in the media to have imported a 13 year old
Egyptian girl whom he later married under very questionable circumstances. He had to
contract the marriage here in Nigeria because the Egyptian law is against infant marriage.
At this tender age, when these infants are given out in marriage, they are supposed
to be enrolled in the secondary school. But unfortunately many families in Africa betroth
their daughters to their husbands-to-be without regard for their educational needs. This
is very common in Muslim societies where the confidence level for western education
for the girl-child had been traditionally low, in addition to its current classification.
In many cities in the West African sub-region including Nigeria, many young girls
are engaged in all kinds of petty commercial activities like hawking of petty articles of
trade or even some food items. This is done on a daily basis. It is only in very few homes
where the value of education is appreciated that the girls are allowed to go to school in
the morning and then dispatched to the streets after school hours. This has been a
serious set back for many poor families.
In a FAWE News, (A publication of Forum for African Women Educationists) a
comprehensive account of the constraints to gender equity which is synonymous to the
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girl-child education is summarized as follows:
Household and family factors:
Family poverty/child abuse, opportunity costs of schooling, large family size, level of
education of mother.
Socio-cultural factors:
School undermining cultural values, traditional attitude to investing on the girl child,
socializing patterns that disadvantage the girl-child, social status of women (the girl-
child), early marriage and initiation rites.
School-based factors:
Inadequate and gender biased instructional facilities, gender biased curriculum and
teaching strategies.
Strategies for Deregulating Education for the Girl-Child
Deregulating the girl-child education will involve empowering her through the
removal of all formal and informal institutional barriers which otherwise prevent her
from taking action to improve her wellbeing. Some elements of such empowerment will
include: Gender Equity in Education and access to information and participation in
decision making. Osakwe, (2010) also classifies the girl-child as an important human
capital which is very vulnerable to poverty. This poverty is so chronic that it is only
through appropriate deregulation of the financial aspects of education that the girl-child
from a poor family can be guaranteed unfettered access to education.
In some Asian countries like India, the girl child was once regarded as an
economic burden. Osakwe (2010) reported that as recent as in the 1970s, foeticide was
openly practiced as a solution to the economic burden of the girl-child. In this process,
any pregnancy that was suspected to result in a girl-child was promptly terminated right
from the foetus stage. In fact the story of the girl-child, from infancy through girlhood,
womanhood, motherhood and sometimes widowhood, in today’s world is a depressing
story of deprivation, oppression, prejudice, powerlessness and poverty in a male
dominated society, Eichler (1980).
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Another strategy for deregulating education for the girl-child is to deliberately
select curriculum content which includes subject matter of interest and importance to
girls. Efforts can also be made to present learning experiences in social contexts so as to
accommodate female preferences for problems and issues that are perceived to have
some social significance and relevance. There is the need to avoid gender – stereotyping
in curriculum materials either in content illustrations, images or in textual language. For
example, it is gender stereotyping when in a curriculum material, women are referred to
or pictured as cooks and kitchen minders while the men are presented as cruising in bike
or cars. The choice of the use of the pronoun “he” and “she” can also be deregulated by
not preferring the “he” for more valuable acts or behaviours while the “she” is used to
describe acts or behaviours that are unimportant and “feminine” Musa, (1999).
Conclusion
From the foregoing, it is clear that some deliberate deregulation actions would open up
windows of opportunities for the girl-child both for education and self actualization.
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Eichler, M. (1980). The Double Standard: A Feminist Critique of Feminist Social Science.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

RELEVANCE OF TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION FOR INFORMATION
DISSEMINATION FOR SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL
AREAS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE
By:
ETADON, F. I. Ph.D
Department of Adult Education
University of Ibadan, Ibadan
E-mail: fetadon@yahoo.com

&
OYEBAMIJI, M.A. Ph.D
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education,
Faculty of Education,
University of Port Harcourt,
Port Harcourt.
E-mail: morufu.oyebamiji@uniport.edu.ng

Abstract
In the history of human existence, people have been able to communicate effectively
among themselves by the use of traditional methods which take varied forms.
These traditional methods of communication have promoted sustainable community
development in rural areas in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. However, in spite of the
vital roles of traditional communication systems as a veritable strategy for
information dissemination for sustainable social change, a good number of people
do not believe that traditional communication can be used effectively to drive or
motivate people to undertake developmental work due to the invention of the
Radio, Television, Global System Mobile Communication, Internet, Films, Print
media etc., which are modern communication systems. This paper examines the
relevance and effectiveness of traditional communication strategies for information
dissemination for sustainable community development in rural areas in Ibadan,
Oyo State, Nigeria. To preserve the Nigerian culture therefore, recommendations
were made on the need to effectively improve the traditional communication
techniques of verbal and non-verbal means, to make them more deep-rooted in the
social, economic, and political life of the rural people for sustainable community
development.
Key words: Traditional Communication, Information Dissemination, Community
Development, Sustainable Development.

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Introduction
Nigeria has a distinguished place in world for her rich cultural endowment through which the present
generation inherits the pride of past cultural legacies. The multi-farious nature of the culture is reflected
in the degree of diversity of her language which is the major means of communication in the society
.Through trial and error therefore; man has evolved, established and maintained equilibrium between
himself and the factors of his social environment in order to understand others or to communicate with
them. Hence, different ethnic groups have developed ways of communicating or expressing ideas either
verbally or non-verbally.
The development of the various ways by which a group or groups of people understand each
other is based on their prevailing culture which has overwhelming influence on the lives of the people
due to the developed institutions that enforce the prescribed set of conduct and norms in the society.
In his assessment of what culture involves, Hennessy (1980), noted that it is the whole pattern
of learned social values, myths, and traditions along with the physical products of human labour,
created and shared by members of a society. It is therefore easy for a group or groups of people to
know and grasp the meaning of any traditional methods employed for communication purposes. This
can either be the traditional methods of the use of drums, the gong, the animal horn, the town crier,
etc.
Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt that many people today, especially the younger generation in the urban centers have
forgotten or perhaps have never seen or known the significance of traditional means of communication
because the age in which we now live is witnessing the advent of modern sophisticated communication
systems like the Radio, Television, Global System Mobile Communication, Internet, Film, Print media
etc., which now have overriding influence on the traditional systems of communication.
However, because of the rich cultural traditions in the African society in the rural areas in
Ibadan, Oyo State, there are established ways by which communication is carried out in the society
before and after the invention of the modern mass media. This research focuses on the established
strategies employed by many rural communities in Ibadan, Oyo State, to communicate using the
traditional means of communication before and during communal or group work.
Communication
Communication is the process by which contact is established between a sender and a receiver with the
help of a message, where the sender and receiver have some common experience which gives meaning
to the message encoded by the sender and decoded by the receiver.
Generally, communication is the mechanism developed by using all symbols of the mind
together with the means of conveying them through space and preserving them in time. These include
the institutional expression of gesture, the spoken words, writing, drawing, painting, music, facial
expression or even silence.
The term communication has been viewed as a message sent either verbally or non-verbally. It
therefore becomes pertinent for people or groups of individuals to live successfully and survive in a
chosen environment by employing either the traditional or the modern mass communication system, to
facilitate social interaction.
Communication in the community is an essential tool for development, because it brings
harmony and good relationship in the community. Hence, community development agents need good
communication strategies to reach the grassroots and provide members of a community with
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information on their common needs and the need to come together and work as a team to solve
problems. (Abiona, 2009)
In order to bring about change in the attitudes of people, the receipt of relevant news and
information is very important. But the effectiveness of the information to be disseminated will depend
greatly on the nature of the communication styles and the media selection, the type of audience and the
situational effect. Hence, Abiona (2009) is of the view that a community should identify the most
effective media strategies to use in communicating with the members of that community because there
are local area variations in the choice of the communication strategies employable in different rural
areas. As a result, an analysis of the type of community will assist a community development agent to
give good advice on the most effective channels of communication to select for use.
Communication is thus regarded as the life blood of any organization, the vehicle by which
ideas, concepts and innovation spread within and across societies or organizations and which if
removed, a society or organization will cease to exist.
Traditional Communication
Traditional communication is basically the use of the drums, the gong, the animal horn and the town
crier to convey messages to a particular audience in a particular community.
Abimbola (1983) put it succinctly that Africa possesses, among all the races of the world, the
most sophisticated cultural traditions which are the basic determinants of her traditional social
activities, which are worth emulating by other races. These include artifacts of various kinds which
serve different purposes in the society.
Because of its distinguished characteristics which center mainly on the very little audience and
area of coverage, traditional communication has, to a great extent, achieved a lot in the area of creating
awareness for social change among the rural people in Ibadan, Oyo State.
Ekwalie (1983) concluded that every society evolves its own form of information exchange but
the patterns of communication development are universal and predictable. He emphasized on the root
of traditional communication as “progresses from the word-of-mouth to mediated signal transfer with a
number of characteristics of locating the audience at a given time, a non-heterogeneous type, and easy
interaction among members of a traditional mass audience.” He further stated that the audience
involved is well organized within a few villages which form the community or social system and, via the
verbal and non-verbal strategies, information is sent deep down and reaction to it is quickened.
Hence, the functions performed by traditional media are such which go a long way to
contribute to community development thereby bringing stability and cooperation into the rural
Nigerian society. Although, modern mass communication systems have come to stay because of
technological advancement, there is no doubt that traditional communication still operates. This is
because the electronic media usage is basically concentrated in a particular area. However, traditional
media has made an incursion into the modern age where modern electronic media cannot penetrate.
Okonkwo, in Etadon (1986), noted that the traditional system of communication has made an
adjusted transition into the electronic age because people in the rural areas cannot afford the modern
mass communication gadgets like the radio, the television, the film, the newspaper etc.
Community
A community can be defined as a group of people who communicate within a geographical
environment. Such group may include the family, village, town, or city, tribe, state or nation in which
people share common basic conditions of life. This means that they live wholly within such groups and
all their social relationships are found within them.
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Wordu (2006) summarized the term community to mean a group of people who share locality
or territory, beliefs, bonds of fellowship, interest and set a standard pattern of behavior and common
culture and administration.
The principle behind the characteristics of a community arises from the living together of
human beings, and the psychological mechanism which arises from such living together is that people
perform mutual actions and reactions upon one another in a general cooperative way.
Development
Development on the other hand implies change or growth. Various authors in social economics and
other disciplines have viewed such change and growth from seemingly different perspectives.
Development has also been viewed from the political, religious, educational, cultural, and social
perspectives. That is, development is not just economic growth, but the enhanced capacity of a
country’s citizens to cope with the changing circumstances of their lives.
According to Imhabekhai and Olomukoro (2007), the rate and level of development of any
country is largely determined by the level of participation in the development process by all her citizens;
meaning that the people must be ready and willing to contribute their quota to national development
efforts. Without the active participation of the people themselves, they noted further, no external
agency or government can mobilize its resources to the fullest to develop a country; and even if any
attempt is made, not much development can be achieved.
Oduaran (2000) in his book titled “Effective Adult Learning and Teaching” noted that
development implies growth and progress rather than mere change. However, Seer (1997) submitted
that the concept of development has been used extensively in four major ways in literature. These are:
i. Development as Economic growth, which is a rapid and sustained rise in real output per head and
attendant shift in technological, economic and demographic characteristics of a society.
ii. Development as Distributive justice, which is a way of reducing the poverty level among the masses
or simply put, satisfying their ‘basic needs’.
iii. Development as Modernization, which is seen as part of a much wider process of social change
described as modernization. The inculcation of wealth oriented behaviours and values in individuals
constitute the emphasis in development as modernization.
iv. Development as Socio-economic Transformation, which is seen essentially as a transformation of a
country’s “mode of production”, which refers to those elements, activities and social relationships
which are necessary to produce materials to cope with life.
As noted by Nyerere, in Etadon (1995), the development of a man, as of a nation can only be
done by the man himself and not done for him. He asserted that people cannot be developed; they can
only develop themselves, for while it is possible for an outsider to build a man’s house for him, an
outsider cannot give the man pride and self-confidence in himself as a human being.
Development must therefore be initiated by the people themselves and their active participation
is a basic requirement for meaningful development. This is development of the people, by the people
and for the people. Harmonious development and transformation of a nation therefore depends largely
on the ability of all the people themselves, without exception, to participate actively in the development
programmes of the nation (Imhabekhai, 2004)
Similarly, a former United Nations Development Programme representative in Nigeria,
Babasola (1995) stated that “the development of Nigeria rests on Nigerians because no amount of
external aid can develop any developing country in the world unless its people are prepared to
contribute positively to their own development” Hence, the focus of any development is to liberate
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man from the shackles of poverty, pestilence, and starvation and this can only be achieved through
developmental programmes carried out by the man himself so as to positively affect his own social,
political, and economic life.
Community Development
In considering the two concepts, community development can thus be regarded as a method by which
people or villages are involved in helping to improve their own socio-economic conditions thereby
becoming effective working group in programmes of their own development.
Community development orders a kind of collective action by people in a community, as a
desire to better their conditions socially, economically, and environmentally. It is to make the quality of
life better for every member of the community. The process involves all members of the community
irrespective of age and gender. It is also defined as citizen led efforts to define problems, develop
solutions and attract the resources necessary to implement programs or activities that address the
identified problems.
Community development is a constant concept in the rural areas, with emphasis on those
activities that can create better ways of life for the rural people. Oduaran (1994) sees community
development as a movement, a process, a method, and a programme channeled towards improving or
enhancing the life of community members. Oyebamiji and Adekola (2008) posit that community
development has gone beyond its traditional boundaries of developing the community and the physical,
economic and social conditions of the people to include emotional and psychological development of
the people. To them, community development is a process by which the efforts of members of a
community are united with those of governmental and non-governmental bodies for a gradual and
positive reconditioning process with much reliance on local initiatives, leadership and resource for
improvement in the physical and social structure of the community and general well-being of the
inhabitants. It then means that there cannot be community development in the rural areas without
people’s actions. Therefore, community development is based on self needs, self help, and citizen
participation in its own activities for its own development.
Sustainable Community Development and Traditional Communication
Sustainable development means to accept responsibility for the well being of the present and future
generations as well as a society which is an integral part of the moral foundation of societal activities
and lifestyles. It is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the
environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations to
come.
Akinboye (2003) said that sustainable development is a development that meets the needs of
the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. He stated
further that one of the underlying purposes in life is that individuals should be empowered to be able to
stand on their own, become productive, prosperous and useful to themselves, their families and their
community at large.
Omobola and Johnson (2010) are of the view that a clear element in sustainable development is
the participation of the individuals, while its sustaining principle is that of economic, social and
environmental conditions and processes which are well integrated. According to Abiona (2003),
sustainable development is the movement from one stage of development to another in an ascending
order of goodness in the life of a people while the initial structure developed is maintained and built
upon.
From the point of view of sustainability, Babashola (1998) posits that development involves
people investing in human capabilities to improve education, health, housing, security, good water,
sanitation, and employment. Such development, according to him, empowers the people by giving
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everyone the opportunity to participate in decisions affecting their lives. Hence, the principle
underlying the concept of sustainability is that conventional approaches to development would
gradually be changed to focus on people as the ultimate objective of development; which depicts a
vision of development of the people, largely by their own efforts as participants, stakeholders and
beneficiaries in the project.
The forms and roles of traditional communication as work tool in the rural areas in Ibadan thus
represents a significant variable for sustaining community development work because the rural people
employ the available traditional means of communication before and during communal or group work.
For instance, before group work, the horn blower blows his animal horn or tusk to summon members
of the community together for affirmative action while the town crier, with his gong, communicates
messages to community members on developmental issues. On the day of the communal work, the
work gang is also driven to more work by the drummer’s alluring insistent invitation through the drums
beaten.
Forms and Roles of Traditional Communication for Community Development Work in Rural
Areas in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Majority of the people in the rural areas in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria are peasant farmers, some of
who are financially too poor to afford the Radio, Television, Global System Mobile Communication,
Internet, Film, the Newspaper etc., from where they can receive information. For this reason, the rural
people employ the available traditional media at their disposal for information dissemination. It is
possible therefore to conclude that the maintenance of the traditions, cultural norms and social values
found among the rural people to date rests on the fact that they are able to communicate using their
age-long traditional media, whose vital roles are still gaining ground because of the authenticity of the
messages disseminated through them.
Hence, the roles of traditional communication in any rural community is very important
because it provides the much needed news and information, either orally or verbally, used for educating
and imparting knowledge to the people, for summoning community members to group work, and also
for transmitting social heritage from one generation to another . Traditional communication thus
carries all activities in any organization, community, and the society at large because it represents an
important work tool through which individuals understand their environment, organizational roles and
integrate organizational sub- units.
Before the invention of the traditional instruments for summoning people to the village square,
the traditional method of communication as an aspect of life among the rural people naturally began
with the word-of-mouth communication. News, information and stories passed from person to person
in the form of rumor mongering. News of development or other issues were spread with varying
degrees of speed and concern.
However, in the course of time, it became necessary following the gradual expansion of
communities, due to the formation of many villages and hamlets, to find ways by which the large
population can be addressed. This led to the invention of traditional instruments. The use of these
traditional communication means are considered when adequate since they are meaningful to the
people.
Drawing examples from within the continent, Rogers (2008) stated that among the traditional
ways of communication, both for everyday activities of living and for innovations and news, the
followings have been listed in African countries like Malawi: the use of chiefs and village committees,
street drama and puppet shows, songs and dance, poetry (oral and written), market and agricultural
shows, churches/mosques/funerals, political meetings, initiation ceremonies, person to person, scribes
and mediators etc. He concluded that the use of traditional forms of communication for development
purposes “is not a simple matter of dressing up messages in traditional dress”.
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The following traditional communication materials are used for promoting group or community
work in the rural areas in Ibadan:
Drum: This is a musical instrument also used for communication purposes. It is made from skin with
animal strands of rope attached to the end of the skin and nailed with wooden bolts for turning
purposes. This allows it to give different tones when struck. The drum is one of the most popular
traditional means of communication during communal work used to summon members of the
community to group work. The drums are of various kinds which are conceived as a family of four.
The differences in the drums therefore make the sound to differ, and used for different occasions. The
drums are called Iya IIu (mother drum), Emele Ako (male drum), Emele Abo (female drum), and Kudi
(baby drum). The family concept is also tied to the idea of inflammatory high, low, and medium tones
as applied to human speech. The big ceremonial drums are brought out only on special occasions for
use. There is also the gangan or talking drums which give different sounds.
Gong: Closely related to the drum is the gong used by the town crier. This is like a disk and is conical
in shape. It is very prominent as a musical and solo instrument for announcing the impending of a
message from the community Head about social change and delivered by the town crier who goes
about drawing the attention of the people to messages.
Animal Tusk or Horn: This is a wind instrument commonly derived from elephant tusk or other
animal horn. It is usually blown as a trumpet by people to summon members of a community to
meetings or communal work.
Town Crier: He is the one who goes with his gong to the villages, hamlets or market square to
announce messages from the Head of the community on issues concerning the community.
The roles of the various means of traditional communication are therefore very essential
because they encourage the people to wield their traditional implements in unison to perform
communal tasks of development. In other words, the work gangs in the rural communities are driven to
more work by the drummers alluring insistent invitation on the drums beaten during communal work.
Drumming is also associated with songs which go with communal tasks while the animal tusk or horn
is usually blown to summon members to meetings for change programmes for the benefit of the
community.
Although, there are also non-verbal means of communication, emphasis is made here only on
those which are directly related to communal work. Some of the non –verbal means include cutting of
the hair, wearing of black dresses to signify mourning and the cutting of tree tops and display of palm
branches to inform members of the community and people about the passing away of a ruler.
Traditional communication has therefore been considered to have less degree of
communication breakdown because it is based on interpersonal and non-verbal levels. As a result, there
can be no distortion or communication breakdown especially when the use of all the symbols or
materials in the traditional setting can be decoded within the mental orientation of the homogeneous
audience in a particular culture. Traditional media are veritable tools for stimulating awareness,
educating, and motivating people into action for community development work in the rural areas.
Rogers (2008) noted that there is much to be learned about truly local means of communication
within different cultures, and aid agents would be making a major contribution to developmental
activities if they are to commission ethnographic research into traditional means of communication and
their application to developmental activities, especially to Poverty Reduction Programmes. Through
such traditional media he said, large sections of the population so far excluded by literate forms of
communication may be reached and listened to and thus become more directly involved in the
country’s development.
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Some Projects Executed by Rural Communities in Ibadan Using Traditional Modes of
Communication
It is evident that many rural communities in Ibadan have successfully carried out and completed,
among others, the following developmental projects in their areas:
i. Constructions of blocks of classrooms for primary and secondary schools
ii. Constructions of Town halls for community meetings and other social activities
iii. Construction of market places for commercial activities
iv. Constructions of drainage systems, incinerators, culverts, public toilets, feeder roads etc

The labourers for the execution of the various projects are usually drawn from members of the
community who are professionals in different areas. It is noteworthy that the professional artisans
render their services to their communities “free of charge” as their token contributions to the
developmental projects.
The financial commitments on the projects are realized from different taxes and levies on members of
the communities according to the different age grades and professions, and also money realized from
the sales of agricultural products from the community farms. Donations received in cash and kind were
also very useful.

The roles of members of the communities in the execution of their own projects is no doubt in
line with the position of Babashola (1998) who posits that development involves people investing in
human capabilities to improve education, health, housing, security, good water, sanitation, and
employment. Such development, according to him, empowers the people by giving everyone the
opportunity to participate in decisions affecting their lives. Hence, the principle underlying the concept
of sustainability is that conventional approaches to development should gradually be based on people
as the ultimate objective of development; which depicts a vision of development of the people, largely
by their own efforts as participants, stakeholders and beneficiaries in the projects.
Recommendations
The use of traditional communication in the Nigerian society is no doubt very necessary. This is
because it possesses all the merits which can reduce a society’s total reliance on foreign inventions.
Total reliance on foreign materials may erode the dignity of the society relying almost totally on foreign
innovations and consequently lose confidence in ability to invent things through the use of its own
traditional products. With the use and preservation of the traditional materials for communication
purposes, the problem of what can be called “colonial mentality” with regard to over reliance on
foreign innovations will be ameliorated. This is however not to say that traditional media alone should
be in operation. Rather these should be encouraged while other forms of communication supplement
them. The earlier this is done, the better will the African cultural norms, traditions and philosophies be
preserved and maintained.
Consequently, it is necessary to effectively strengthen and improve the existing traditional mass
communication techniques of verbal and non-verbal means thereby making it more deep-rooted in the
social life of the people and equally preserving the Nigerian culture.
In campaigning for development in the rural areas therefore, the traditional resources available
should be employed by effectively designing the system of message, channel and event that promises to
be most efficient in bringing about the desired change; meaning that traditional media should always be
used in community development programmes since availability of electricity supply in the rural areas is
low. Their use will enhance the preservation of the traditional materials and also reduce the
domineering role of the modern mass media.
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The traditional popular theatre should be encouraged. The idea is a powerful interpersonal and
effective medium for stimulating people toward social change. It is a form of theatrical performance in
which common and known faces are used as actors with salient change messages built into such plays.
This medium is very powerful because of the credibility and authenticity of the personalities usually
involved.
Conclusion
This paper has examined the relevance and effectiveness of traditional media as a veritable means of
communication for community development work in rural areas in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and has
noted that traditional media play significant roles in stimulating the people in the rural areas in
achieving meaningful and dynamic improvement in their rural communities.
The modern mass media on the other hand are concentrated at the center of the center and the
peripheries of the center to the detriment of the rural areas. Hence, Oreh (2007) blamed the poor rural
conditions in Nigeria on top-bottom approach in planning and implementation of development
programmes.
It is believed that the present rural-urban migration problem is due to the slow pace of
development in the rural areas. If development is hastened to a reasonable extent, people will no longer
migrate to the already congested urban centers. Provision should always be made in the national budget
and development plans to accelerate the development of the rural areas, because rural development also
serves as a barometer through which the social, economic and political development of a nation can be
measured.

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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

A TRANS-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO EXERCISE PARTICIPATION AMONG
EMPLOYEES OF OIL AND GAS COMPANIES IN PORT HARCOURT
By
EKENEDO, G. O. Ph.D
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education
University of Port Harcourt
ekenedo@yahoo.com
phone: 08033923397
Abstract
The ability of worksite fitness programme to improve employees’ health, reduce
health care cost and absenteeism as well as improve productivity is now well
established. Many worksite health programme providers have relied on the trans-
theoretical model as a framework for the development of successful health
programmes. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine employees’
participation in exercise and their stages of exercise behaviour change. A
descriptive survey was conducted in which data were collected from 406
employees of oil and gas companies in Port Harcourt using a questionnaire as
instrument. The results of the study showed that over half (51.7%) of the
employees’ participated in exercise. It was also found that up to 35.4% of the
employees were at the maintenance stage of exercise participation, 16.5% were at
the action stage and 21.4% were at the preparation stage. While 22.5% were at the
contemplation stage, only 4.2% was at the pre-contemplation stage. The researcher
concluded that the findings on the employees’ stages of exercise behaviour provides
baseline data for a successful development and implementation of comprehensive
stage-based exercise programme in oil and gas companies in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Key words: exercise participation, employees, oil and gas companies, trans-
theoretical model, fitness programme.


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Introduction
It is now common knowledge that chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers
and obesity which were previously regarded as diseases of developed nations are gradually becoming
major health problems and major causes of death in developing nations such as Nigeria. Due largely to
economic growth and globalization, people in this part of the world are rapidly acquiring the unhealthy
lifestyles of the industrialized nations, which are major risk factors for chronic diseases. Such risk
factors include sedentary lifestyle, high fat and highly processed diet, high intake of alcohol and
smoking. Chronic diseases have no known cure but they can, however, be prevented through the
promotion of healthy lifestyles.
Exercise is a deliberate involvement in physical activity which is a broad term used to describe
all forms of large muscle movements made in the process of performing daily activities (Grosch,
Alterman, Peterson, & Murphy, 1998). It includes sports, dance, work and even exercise. Exercise and
physical activity are, however, often used interchangeably. Exercise is a structured form of physical
activity, which includes such activities as aerobic exercises; recreational activities such as tennis,
swimming, football and various forms of indoor and outdoor games; walk; leisure activities and
resistance and stretching activities that develop strength and flexibility.
Exercise is one of the health promoting activities aimed at preventing chronic diseases and
promoting well-being. The link between regular physical activity and good health is now well
documented. People who do regular physical activity can reduce their risk of death regardless of the
cause. While active people increase their life expectancy by two years compared to those who are
inactive, sedentary people experience a 20% to two-fold increase in early death compared to active
people (Corbin, Lindsey, Welk & Corbin, 2002).
Exercise reduces the risk associated with hypertension, cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes,
stroke, osteoporosis, high blood cholesterol level and cancer (Insel & Roth, 2002). Exercise equally
improves psychological and emotional wellness by reducing stress, anxiety and depression as well as
improving self-image and enjoyment. Involvement in regular exercise provides protection against
injuries and low back pain especially associated with work and can promote a strong immune system
(Corbin, et al., 2002).
There seem to be a growing awareness about participating in exercises in Nigeria as seen in the
rapid establishment of fitness centres in major cities of Nigeria particularly Port Harcourt.
Consequently, patronizing these fitness centres is becoming popular among the elites in these cities as it
is seen as a status symbol. Other reasons for such interest in exercises in most cases may well be
anything but health and well -being since Opiti (2005) discovered in a study of undergraduates that
aesthetics or cosmetics were the major reasons many of the participants engaged is exercise
programme. Worksite, however, seems to be a different environment.
The worksite has been identified as one of the most appropriate settings for health promoting
activities (World Health Organisation (WHO), 1988, Okafor, 2000). This is basically due to the fact that
the worksite provides easy access to people since that is where they spend a greater percentage of their
waking hours. Exercise is particularly important in the worksite since inactivity or sedentary lifestyle is
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recognized as a common problem among office workers. Researches have shown that employee
exercise (fitness) programmes may improve health (Garry, 1980, Shephard, Cox & Corey, 1981),
reduce absenteeism and staff turnover (Cox, Shephard & Corey, 1981), change attitudes and beliefs
(Rhodes & Dunwoody, 1980), improve energy levels and reduce fatigue (Banister, 1978). An employee
fitness programme was studied in Toronto during the 1970s (Fitness Canada, 1985). The findings of
the study showed that subjects who adhered to a fitness programme showed advantages relative to the
control population in fitness and work attendance, modification of risk behaviour, and in reduction of
health care use. McCombs (2008) opined that workplace exercise programmes reduce fatigue of
workers and improve working capacity. Furthermore, studies have been carried out that found
significant relationship between physical exercise and work creativity (Steinberg et al., 1997, Ramocki,
2005). Hence, the benefit of exercise to the health of corporate organizations is immense and
invaluable.
Shephard, Cox and Corey (1981) investigated the effects of an employee fitness programme
upon absenteeism and productivity in a controlled trial involving two large organizations. Findings of
the study showed gains of productivity, with reduction of absenteeism. Both management and staff had
very favourable subjective reactions to the employee fitness programme and objective gains were
demonstrated in physical condition such as working capacity, reduction in body fat and flexibility.
A 14-week study was undertaken by Pauly, Palmer, Wright and Pfeiffer (1982). aimed at
determining the effects of a structured employee exercise programme on blood lipid profiles and
selected physiological and psychological parameters. At the conclusion of the study, significant
improvement overall were found in self-concept, trait anxiety, resting heart rate and systolic blood
pressure, total triglycerides and cholesterol.
To enjoy the above identified health benefits, an individual has to be actively involved in regular
exercise. However, while some do not participate in exercise because they may not be aware of the
benefits of exercise and the health effects of lack of exercise, others may not be interested in exercise
participation even though they know about the benefits and effects of inactivity. Hence, awareness
creation and education may help such people to think about a change in attitude and behaviour towards
participation in exercise.
Scientists have come up with a lot of theories and models in an effort to explain why, how and
when individuals change behaviour. Some of these theories have been successfully applied to health
concepts. One of such models, the trans-theoretical model, specifically, the stages of change model
developed by James Prochaska provided the theoretical anchor for this study. According to Wallston
and Armstrong (2002), this theory had been applied to health promotion issues such as smoking
cessation, obesity, alcohol use and participation in physical activity. The trans-theoretical model
attempts to explain when and how individuals change their behaviour, as well as which factors
influence these changes.
The five most recognized stages of change are pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation,
action, and maintenance (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983). Persons in the pre-contemplation stage
(Prochaska & Velicer, 1997) are those who have no intention of changing their behaviour in the near
future, which is typically defined as the next six months. They are often unaware that their current
behaviour poses a problem, although it may be apparent to others, such as family members or
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employers (Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, 1992). Persons in the contemplation stage are aware of
their problem behaviour and are considering changing their behaviour in the near future (e.g., within
the next six months).
Persons in the preparation stage intend to change their behaviour in the very near future
(usually within the next month) and have been involved in sporadic behaviour changes such as
engaging in occasional bouts of physical activity (Prochaska & Marcus, 1994). Persons in the action
stage are actively changing their behaviour to a particular criterion level (such as exercising three times a
week for 20 minutes ). To be considered to be in the maintenance stage, a person has to have sustained
health behaviour change for a period of time, usually, operationally defined as six months or longer
(Prochaska DiClemente & Norcross, 1992). This model was applied in this study to determine the
employees’ level of readiness to change exercise behaviour.
Under trans-theoretical model, awareness interventions provide a theoretical construct for a
tailoring and personalization of information to affect health behaviour. Stage sensitive information
contained in awareness activities offers an effective tool for health promotion professionals who are
developing programmes for worksite settings (Chapman, 2002).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to determine the level of participation in exercise among employees of oil
and gas companies in Port Harcourt. The study also explored the employees’ stages of exercise
behaviour change.
Research Questions
Two research questions were posed for the study:
1. What proportion of employees of oil and gas companies in Port Harcourt participate in
exercise?
2. What are the employees’ stages of exercise behaviour change?
Methods
Subjects
A sample of 542 employees was drawn from a population of 10,848 employees of five major oil and gas
companies in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure involving
proportionate and simple random sampling was employed to ensure a balanced selection of
respondents with respect to company size.
Instrument
The Exercise Habit and Interest Questionnaire adapted from O’Donnell (2002) was the only
instrument used in collecting data on the respondents’ exercise habits and stages of exercise behaviour.
The instrument was validated by experts in the field of health education and exercise physiology and
was thereafter subjected to reliability testing. A coefficient r value of .79 obtained from the reliability
test was considered adequate.
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Data collection
Copies of the instrument were distributed by the researcher to the sampled respondents and were
collected on a date agreed upon. Out of the 542 copies distributed, 406 copies were duly completed and
returned, and were used for analysis.
Data analysis
Data generated from the questionnaire were analyzed using percentages for the purpose of determining
respondents’ participation in exercise and their stages of exercise behaviour.
Results
Research Question 1: What proportion of employees of oil and gas companies in Port Harcourt
participate in exercise?
Table 1: Participation in exercise by employees of oil and gas companies (N=406)
Yes No
f % f %
Participation in exercise 210 51.7 196 48.3
Data on table 1 show that 210 (51.7%) of employees of oil and gas companies participated in exercises
while 196 (48.3%) did not engage in exercise. The results indicate that more than half of the
respondents engaged in exercise.
Research Question 2: What are the employees’ stages of exercise participation?
Table 2: Respondents’ stages of exercise participation (N=406)
PC CO PP AC MT
f % f % f % f % f %
Participation in exercise 17 4.2 92 22.5 87 21.4 67 16.5 143 35.4
PC=Pre-contemplation, CO=Contemplation, PP=Preparation, AC=Action, MT=Maintenance
Table 2 shows that 35.4% of the respondents were in the maintenance stage of exercise behaviour,
22.5% in the contemplation stage; and 21.4% in preparation stage. The table also revealed that while
16.5% of the respondents were in the action stage of exercise behaviour, only 4.2% were in the pre-
contemplation stage. The results show that majority of respondents were in the maintenance stage of
exercise behaviour, and only a few were in the contemplation stage.

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Discussion
The results as shown in table 1 indicated that majority (51.7%) of employees of oil and gas companies
in Port Harcourt participated in exercise. This result is positive but does not really reflect the state of
increasing awareness and participation in exercise that is becoming a common feature in most big cities
of Nigeria. More so, since majority of oil and gas workers are expected to be of the elite class who are
expected to have easily imbibed the culture of fitness and exercise; and in spite of the fact that exercise
facilities such as tennis courts, squash halls, swimming pools and football pitches were provided for
employees’ use as observed by the researcher in the course of data collection. An explanation for the
not so impressive finding could be that none of the organizations had a formal exercise programme,
which is capable of influencing knowledge, attitude and behaviour of employees towards exercise and
fitness. The recreational facilities provided may well be serving other purposes such as fun and
relaxation spots for employees.
It is encouraging to discover that 35.4% of the respondents were in the maintenance stage of
exercise behaviour and that as little as 4.2% were in the pre-contemplation stage. It is equally
encouraging that up to 22.5% were contemplating a change in their exercise behaviour. While 21.4%
were in the preparation stage, 16.5% were already in the action stage. This finding is an indication that
employees in the oil industry in Port Harcourt already have a good disposition and are in the right
frame of mind to accept programmes aimed at improving their exercise habits.
Conclusion
Participation in exercise has been gaining grounds among employees of oil companies in Nigeria.
However, corporate organizations may not have been able to exploit the advantages this development
can provide towards the advancement of the health of their organizations. The findings of this study
provide a baseline data for the successful implementation of formal exercise programmes in oil
companies in Nigeria. Perhaps, the question most relevant to companies to address today is not
whether exercise programmes should be implemented in order to reduce employee health risks and
improve employee productivity, but rather how these programmes should be designed, implemented
and evaluated in order to achieve the best outcomes.
Implications for Worksite Health Promotion
This study has corroborated the position that at any point in time different people are found to be at
different stages of a particular health behaviour change. The implication is that they may not benefit
from the same type of intervention. This, therefore, underscores the need for health promoters to apply
the stage of change theory in designing health promotion programmes. Stage-based programme is
particularly advantageous because of its effectiveness in providing activities that take care of
participants’ needs at the different stages of behaviour change.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

LEARNING TO PRIORITIZE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD OR SUSTAINABLE
DEMOCRACY? THE EXPERIENCE OF ADULTS IN IBADAN METROPOLIS



DR. A. SARUMI
Department of Adult Education
Faculty of Education
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
+234(0)8039262785, 08057239075
bidoye2004@yahoo.com




Abstract

This paper examines how continuing education and informal learning
can stir a culture of change; where adult learners are transformed to
recognize that ‘an equitable society is possible’ where they all can
decide for themselves instead of surviving at the mercy of a selected
few they cannot control.









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Introduction
Democracy is widely perceived as an ideal, refined and civilized form of government across the
continents. Nevertheless, emerging democratic reforms especially in the African continent have
markedly influenced governance processes across the nations and institutions therein. Democracy is
today one of the most striking features of contemporary politics (Abiola & Olaopa, 2006). In Africa
and Nigeria in particular, democracy has been understood to be a means to an end. Largely, its
processes have been bedeviled and burdened with myriads of challenges and uncertainties that are of
unique interest to adult education as a discipline (Akinpelu, 2002). More prominently, as the ‘culture of
democracy’ becomes a pathway and experience that all ‘developing countries’ must go through if they
are to be ‘developed’ and be ‘globalized’, and to also access development dividends. Inversely, since the
inception of the Nigerian National Council for Adult Education (NNCAE) on March 27, 1971; the
ruling philosophy has always been to initiate and support processes through which the majority of the
population would have access to education (Tahir, 2006:5). This stance suggests that adult education as
a discipline is concerned not with only preparing people for life and livelihood, but it is also concerned
with helping people live more successful and meaningful lives. This implies that adult education plays a
pivotal role in increasing the competence of the adult population to negotiate social contracts - helping
them to be equipped in solving both personal and societal problems.

This paper attempts to probe how continuing education and informal learning have been
impacted by prevailing processes of ‘democratization’ and ‘modernization’ among the adult population
in Ibadan metropolis. That is, how these people now prioritize learning experiences and programmes in
terms of whether they would prefer learning experiences and programmes that increase their ‘political
consciousness and radicality’ in order to have a ‘voice’ in decisions that concern them, or to prefer
experiences and programmes that ‘put something in their stomachs and pockets’ in order to meet the
demands of everyday life.

Sustainable democracy and sustainable livelihood: The convergence
The concepts of capitalism and global markets have been associated with democracy and prosperity in
the Western world. However, there are growing concerns that these economic drivers are now
determining governance processes especially in developing countries including Nigeria, even though
glaring flaws are associated with the operation of these concepts in practical terms (Garten, 2003).
Added to the challenges that surround these concepts is the widespread loss of trust in their capacity to
truly stir and sustain livelihoods in atmospheres of peace, equity and justice. Democracies, ideally and
by nature, are ‘by the people and for the people’. It is the people, not the leaders, who have the ultimate
control and who should share in the benefits. Although this does not mean that everyone must have
the same level of influence or benefit; instead, democratic processes are designed to give everyone fair
access to influence and to the benefits. This therefore means that the balance of influence between the
leaders and the people is exercised through ‘choice’ – and this choice is laden with features that make
the participation of the people in democracy to be free, informed, and potentially beneficial to the
people.
In this century and always, it has been predicted that the growing interdependence among
people, organizations, and nations, as well as among disciplines and technologies will continue to
accelerate (Afuah, 2001). As this interdependence increases, this also means that national and
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communal boundaries will recede, and the nature of the interfaces between people, units, businesses,
organizations, environments and nations will keep changing. There would therefore be pressure for
hierarchical relationships to shift towards egalitarian relationships and for deliberate educational
programmes to meet the daunting, fluid and complex challenges confronting people and their
livelihood sources (Twomey, 2006:236). These higher rates of change and levels of complexity increase
uncertainty and call for faster and more comprehensive and purpose-driven teaching and learning
scenarios that along with the widespread dispersion of specialized expertise that formal educational
programmes offer, there is also need for a merger of science and practice (Nowotny, Scott & Gibbons,
2001). Practically, this merger can only be made possible through adult and non-formal education and
informal learning programmes - as their operations skulk on creating teaching and learning experiences
that are truly innovative that build abilities in adult learners to participate in both the social and
economic life of the community.
In truth, knowledge creation to meet the needs of sustainable democracy and livelihood goes
beyond the sharing of only explicit information. To create a deeper and more robust learning
experience to achieve this objective, all aspects of the knowledge creation cycle need to be used, and
this implies that the learning needs must be prioritized in the sequence that importance is given to the
‘felt need’ of the people. Largely, this requires particular cultures, skills, and processes. Graphically, new
ideas that hold potentials of sustainable development usually start as tacit insights, and these need to be
developed and integrated with other insights in order to be conceptualized as explicit innovation that
can be shared through adult and non-formal education and informal learning. This knowledge creation
and processes requires trusting relationships and team-based activity that must not be left to chance. As
communities and nations that would really survive the times are those with egalitarian relationships,
based on democratic values, and whose competitive advantages are enabled by educational programmes
that motivate citizens to learn and innovate.

This kind of communities and nations would adopt educational programmes that enable
citizens to have diversified livelihood options. Diversified livelihood comprise of the possession of
capabilities and assets which include both material and social resources, required for a means of living.
In this context, a livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks.
That is, when it can maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural
resource base. In this instance, a livelihood that is based exclusively on a single means no doubt can be
judged as unsustainable and this means that the diversification of the sources of livelihood is a move
towards sustainability of both livelihood and democratic processes.

Study Area
Ibadan is the area of study. The city is a cosmopolitan and populous one, the largest truly indigenous
urban centre in Africa south of the Sahara, and strategically located as a point of convergence for all
roads and rail traffic from Lagos State to the northern states through Abeokuta (Olutayo & Akanle
2009:207; Udoh 1994). Ibadan can be further sub-divided into Ibadan urban (Ibadan Metropolitan
District) and Ibadan rural, the urban serving as the nerve centre of the region's cultural, administrative
and commercial activities (Udoh 1994; Afolayan 1994).

The population of Ibadan was estimated to be 3,847,500 in 2007 (Research Machines 2008).
Although Ibadan is traditionally known for trading, agriculture, craftsmanship and public/private
enterprises (Afolayan 1994), since it became the headquarters of the Western Region in 1954 and,
currently, capital of Oyo State, people have moved rapidly from the rural (Ibadan Oko) into the urban
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(Ibadan Ile) zone, which is experiencing rapid expansion to accommodate new political, educational,
economic and social processes (Olutayo & Akanle 2009; Areola 1994; Afolayan 1994; Gbadegesin
1994).

Methods

The study adopted a participatory research approach where data collection methods consist of in-
depth interviews (IDIs), observations, informal interviews and secondary sources. In other words, the
participatory research strategy emphasizing verbal accounts (Bryman, 2004) was found particularly
useful. Observations, in-depth interviews and informal interviews enabled the researcher to get close to
the data and study phenomena in their natural settings (Clarke 2001).

Observation was covert so that it did not intervene with the naturalness of the setting, which
may have implications for the data gathered. Observations were made at different times so as to
identify variations that may exist across these periods. During observation, informal interviews were
incorporated, where appropriate and possible, to elicit first-hand information and participants' points of
view. Interviews were also conducted with four purposively selected key informants who had the
capacity to give authentic information on the issue being researched. Three of these were coordinators
of continuing education centres in the metropolis. In order to have a robust grasp of the issues at stake,
an executive officer of a vocational skills acquisition centre was interviewed. Twelve in-depth interviews
were conducted with adult learners in the various continuing education and skills acquisition centres.

Secondary data were gathered from journals, newspapers, documents, souvenirs from
continuing education and skills acquisition centres, and among others. Data from observation, informal
and in-depth interviews and secondary sources were transcribed, translated, sorted, analyzed and
reported using ethnographic summaries and content analysis.

Findings and Discussions

Findings established that educating adults in Ibadan metropolis about sustainability of democracy and
livelihood is important. According to participants, it may be good to refer to sustainability as being
about the people, their environment, and their means of sustenance and prosperity. Sustainability
meant different things to different people in Ibadan. To business people, it means not tampering with
the business’ capital. To farmers, it means not eating the seed. To older adults, it means seeing one’s
children and grandchildren succeed more than their parents. To civil servants, it is having assurances
that one’s job is secured.

One basic issue that was common to almost all participants was the agitation that their present
condition of life is not deserving and desirable – this implies that they would not want to sustain their
present conditions of life. To them, education alone does not bring about desired change in an
individual. The participants acknowledged that education, especially continuing and non-formal
education is a fundamental strategy for change without which it is impossible to transform the lives of
citizens. Participants affirmed that the change that they need to transform their present condition of life
can be made possible through social awareness and organization that continuing education and
informal learning provides. This affirmation lurks on the fact that participants recognized that the
historical and social events that have largely defined their present condition of life are the results of
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organized processes that have ideological bases that favour a selected few in society. Importantly, they
jostled that the development of both awareness and organizational skills for ‘real change’ is closely
associated with the provision of continuing education programmes that place both the educator and
learner in interchangeable templates where they both co-investigate and explore together in order to
change the world and take control of it.

Participants were conscious and aware that it is education that helps to build dreams and a
culture of change in people. This position is no doubt in harmony with one of Paulo Freire’s sayings
that: “Democracy is not received as a gift. Democracy is fought for.” This means that the people through
educational processes must be prepared to fight. One participant reacted in the following manner:
For me, I need money in the pocket first before fighting for our rights. Though I like politics very well,
but I cannot just get there without money. Look at the new Governor now, it is God that helped him, if
not he could have failed. In the real sense of it, I will advice my people not to give themselves to politics;
instead, they should learn skills. See me today, I am a tailor, at least something enters my pocket
almost every day, where I do not get anything, when I get work, that will cover all the other days that I
did not get anything. Learning how to keep or sustain democracy for me is not the most important thing,
it is learning what to do with yourself to put food on the table and money in the pocket that is
important…. Understand me, I am not saying that learning to fight for right is bad oh, this is very-very
important; the issue is that the people in government believed that no other person can teach them and
tell them what to do. So in Nigeria, people just want to enroll in a continuing education programme
that will give them money after graduation, not to question how government is being run. That is why
continuing education programmes should emphasized on a person learning many different skills so that
the individual becomes self-sufficient after graduation.

Responses here are largely in union with Freire’s belief that the raison d’etre of education lies in
the unfinished nature of human beings (Freire, 1970). This means that educational programmes should
be delivered in ways that do not ignore confrontation with the world, as the creation of knowledge
must result from the continual interaction of human beings and their surroundings. The point that is
being made here is that as a nation, we are at a verge where the macro economic, societal, and
environmental trends and fabrics are not sustainable. This questions the role and behavior of educators
to open opportunities for the citizens to be equipped with basic skills and education to sustain both
democracy and their source of livelihood.

Conclusion and Recommendations
At this point, it is concluded that sustaining democracy in Nigeria is all about enhancing the ‘three Es’
of economy, environment, and social equity within the country to improve the people’s lives. This
demands for deliberate and purposive planning of continuing education programmes that cater for
both the present and future well being of the populace. Notably, the success of our daily actions,
however mundane or heroic, can be judged by the sustainability of the communities, institutions and
societies we design and manage for the benefit of current citizens and future generations. As Martin
Luther King once told his audience that their daily struggles were not the end being sought; that ‘the
end is reconciliation; the end is redemption; the end is creation of the beloved community’. And for us
here, the end is not to only make adult learners to be aware of the privileges and benefits that
democracy offer; rather, the end is to redesign adult education in ways that adult educators can build
synergies to provide educational opportunities that empower adult learners not only to have a voice in
their respective communities, but to have diversified means of livelihood. This also means that as
cultural workers, we have the potential to become part of the system and its vast machinery either as
simple cogs or as intellectual transformers.
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References

Abiola A.G. and Olaopa O.R. (2006). Economic Development and Democratic Sustenance. In
Emmanuel Ojo (ed.), Challenges of Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria. Ibadan: John-Archers
(Publishers) Limited.
Afolayan, A. A. (1994) 'Population' in M. O. Filani, F. O. Akinola and C. O. Ikporukpo (eds), Ibadan
Region. Ibadan: Rex Charles Publications.
Akinpelu, J.A. (2002). Philosophy & Adult Education. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd.
Areola, O. (1994) 'The spatial growth of Ibadan City and its impact on the rural hinterland' in M. O.
Filani, F. O. Akinola and C. O. Ikporukpo (eds), Ibadan Region. Ibadan: Rex Charles
Publications.
Bryman, A. (2004) Social Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Central Bank of Nigeria
(CBN) (2006a) 'Annual report and statement of accounts for the year ended 31 December
2005'. Abuja: Central Bank of Nigeria.
Clarke, A. (2001) 'Research and the policy-making process' in N. Gilbert (ed.), Researching Social Life.
London, Thousand Oaks CA, and New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.
Gbadegesin, A. S. (1994) 'Agricultural practices' in M. O. Filani, F. O. Akintola and C. O. Ikporukpo
(eds), lbadan Region. Ibadan: Rex Charles Publications.
Olutayo, A.O. and Akanle O. (2009). Fast Food in Ibadan: An Emerging Consumption Pattern. Africa. Vol.
79(2). Pp 207+.
Research Machines (2008) Ibadan. (www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopedia/
hutchinson/m0004326.html), accessed 23 July 2011.
Tahir, G. (2006). Nigerian National Council for Adult Education in the Current Millennium: A rear-
view Mirror. Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria: Emerging Issues. Papers from the NNCAE
Annual Conference Ibadan, Nigeria, Nov.27 – Dec., 1, 2005. Pp. 1-15.
Twomey, D. F. (2006). Democracy and Sustainable Enterprise. Competition Forum. Vol.4(1). Pp. 236+.
Udoh, R. K. (1994) 'Ibadan in its regional setting' in M. O. Filani, F. O. Akinola and C. O. Ikporukpo
(eds), Ibadan Region. Ibadan: Rex Charles Publications.











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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

TRENDS IN THE PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENT AND FAITH
BASED ORGANIZATIONS (FBOs) IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION IN
NIGERIA: A HISTORICAL APPRAISAL.

BY
N.J. OKOLI, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt

&
B. N. NYEWUSIRA
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt

Abstract
Historical testimony establishes that Faith Based Organizations (FBOs),
particularly the Christian missionaries, are indeed the foremost harbingers of
modern education in Nigeria. This paper observes that despite the constitutional
secular status of the Nigerian State, government and religious institutions still
found some melting pots when it comes to giving education to the people of Nigeria.
As such, this paper not only re-affirms the initial exclusive roles that the missions
played in the provision of education but equally traces and examines the events
that informed colonial government’s dual participation with the missions in the
development of education and their corollaries on Nigerian education. It also
studies the reasons for government’s complete takeover of schools from the
missions and the return of schools to the missions. The survey as well captures
how modernization propelled some Islamic organizations into liaising with
government in developing contemporary education. It is our finding and advocacy
that the partnership between government and the FBOs in Education has been,
albeit, chequered and that more co-operations are required in this partnership to
advance the course of education in Nigeria.

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Introduction
Discussion on the impact of modern education in Nigeria would not be comprehensive without reflections on
the roles of religious institutions, essentially the Christians and Muslims, in the sponsorship of education in
Nigeria. Fafunwa (2001:1), remarks that these two religions have influenced Nigerian education in no small
measure. Based on 2009 World Religious Survey, 50.4% of the nation’s populations are Muslims. The Christians
make up 48.2% of the population. Other religions constitute 1.4 of about 150million persons in Nigeria.
(Wikipedia, 2009). This illustrates the dominance of Christianity and Islam in the country. The organizations
affiliated to these two main religions have over the years networked with the Nigerian governments in dispensing
education.
Amazingly, the Nigerian Constitution does not permit the input of any religion for any national
enterprise. (FRN, 1999). But in what appears to be an infraction of a constitution that presupposes the
secularism of the State, the National Policy on Education allows for Christian and Islamic studies in public
schools, contrary to the conventions of a secular State. The National Policy on Education states that the
financing of education is a joint responsibility of the Federal, State and Local government and the private sector.
Thus, government encourages the participation of communities, individuals and other organizations (FRN
2004:61). Again, Nigeria inherited the conservative traditions of the British colonial government liaison, back
home, with religious and voluntary organizations in the education industry. Therefore, by historical ties and
stipulations in the National Policy on Education, it becomes explicable why religious bodies are at present part of
the agencies that collaborate with government in the business of education in Nigeria. Thus, the historical
appraisal of how government and religious organizations have related in developing education in the country is
guided as follows:
Early Christian Involvement in Education
The Christian missionaries were Nigerian’s first educators in the modern sense, recalling that the Nigerian
primordial education, in addition to Islamic education in some parts of the country, was in practice before the
advent of western education. The early missionaries recognized the need for the conversion cum education of
Nigerians, as humanitarianism. Thus, the schools became an adjunct of the church. The genesis of modern
education in Nigeria is traceable to the Methodist missionaries who arrived Badagary in 1842 (Babalola, 1976).
The team led by Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman, including Mr & Mrs William de Graft , established the first
modern school ( Kosemani & Okorosanye-Orubite,1995:35). The Church of Scotland Mission and the Church
Missionary Society took western education to other parts of Nigeria through Calabar and Onitsha in 1846 and
1857, respectively. In the early years of British colonization, the missions dominated the landscape of exploration
in modern education around the territories that now make up Nigeria. The Methodist, the Church Missionary
Society, the Baptist, the Presbyterian and the Roman Catholic churches were leading in the early adventure for
education. It is understandable that the educational enterprise of the missions was inspired by the spiritual and
the sectarian concerns of the churches they represented than by the secular needs of a colonial policy. This was
because they were guided almost exclusively by their own conservative instincts. It was not until the closing years
of the 19
th
century that they began to feel the influence of some effective secular authority on their activity in the
field of education (Osoba and Fajana in Ikime, 1999)
The Start of Dual Educational Systems
The beginning of collaborations in education between government and Christian organizations dates back to
when the colonial government and the British Trading Company became worried and criticized the quality of the
products of mission schools. Although the first grant-in-aid was given in1872, the government in a more
coordinated attempt to assist the mission schools through grants enacted the 1882 Ordinance for the Promotion
and Assistance of Education. This Ordinance for the Gold Coast Colony was by extension the first of its kind in
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Nigeria. This was followed by the 1887 Ordinance in Education for Lagos Colony. By the provisions of the latter
Ordinance, the government in addition to giving grants to schools of voluntary agencies established a Board of
Education to superintend over the entire educational system. These arrangements obviously set the stage for the
principles of partnership between the government and the voluntary agencies. These were referred to in
Nigerian history of education as the beginnings of the dual system/joint participation. (Kosemani &
Okorosanye-Orubite, 1995).
With the amalgamation of Northern and Southern protectorates in 1914, the dual policy continued,
albeit, of a frail framework. In fact, in 1922, the findings of the Phelps-Stokes Commission, initiated by the
Baptist Mission, lampooned the British colonial authorities for lack of commitment to genuine educational
development in their colonies, identifying that co-operation between the government, the European traders and
the missions was actually lacking (Okoli, 2005:72). This clearly suggests that at this stage of educational transition
the intended policy of partnership was largely superficial because of the laissez-faire and minimal participation on
the part of colonial government. Little wonder Fafunwa (1982) observes that education, during this phase,
remained principally an affair of the missions. Therefore, irrespective of the fact that there was a policy direction
for mission and government to partner in education, the actual practice of education resided mostly in the hands
of the missionaries. Hence, the structure of partnership then was functional only to the extent that it was used
merely for colonial socialization of the people.
It was the Phelps-Stokes Commission that jolted the government to join hands with agencies to provide
the sort of education that could hardly drive the socio-political course of a budding nation. Sir Hugh Clifford in
response to the principles of the 1925 Memorandum on Education provided more grants for education, with the
missions taking over elementary education in Southern Provinces of Nigeria. Part of the provisions of the 1925
Memorandum had stated that “while government reserves to itself the right to direct educational institutions by
inspection or other means, voluntary efforts should be encouraged… to ensure the active co-operation of all
concerned” (Anuna 1996). The 1926 Education Ordinance provided more financial support to voluntary
agencies, in addition to an administrative machinery which, in the views of Osoba & Fajana ,1999), resulted in
some kind of statistical growth in educational facilities.
By 1927, the British government had adopted the language policy of the missions through the
Memorandum on The Place of the Vernacular in Native Education which formerly recommended that vernacular
should be the medium of instruction at the initial stages of primary school education. This had effects on the
trends of educational development in Nigeria, in that it led to the development of the orthographies of the local
languages of some ethnic nationalities. But even then, the emphasis of educational curriculum was still on
character training and the quest to produce men of administrative competence who were merely handy to replace
the colonial officers at independence. The products of this pattern of education according to Aminigo (2003:118)
were therefore a servile subordinate ‘natives’ who had limited capacity for questioning social contradictions and
engendering positive social change.
The dysfuntionality of this educational system inevitably created lacunae between education and its
relevance for representing firm national traditions. The consequence of which precedence was set whereby even
in contemporary times the nation battles with how to close the gap in the country’s education and its application
to the sustenance of national aspirations and traditions. As the nation gradually moved toward the years of
decolonization, the understanding between government and the missions in education was progressively
pursued. However, the inadequacy of this educational arrangement led to the swelling agitations by nationalists
for colonial reforms, for a functional education, needed to properly position Nigeria for national maturity. These
identified limitations do not however suggest that the system of education then was completely incongruous with
the quest for the use of education for national development. In effect, the educational system inherited from the
British government and Church missions, necessarily provided the fundamental launching pad upon which a
dynamic educational system could still have been developed for the attainment of Nigeria’s national aspirations.
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Partnership in the Era of Regionalization
During the period of regional educational systems from 1951 to 1959, the relationship between the Southern
regional governments and the missions in education turned out to be a delicate one and to some degree
confrontational, owing to the dogged political fortitude by the governments to launch the Universal Primary
Education (UPE) scheme. Before the UPE scheme started in 1955 in the South-West, government sought and
secured the co-operation of the missions and other voluntary agencies but this was not the case in the South-
East that started the scheme two years after. Abernethy (1969) notes that, ab initio; the missions in the South-East
were not enthusiastic about the UPE scheme. It was viewed as part of government’s deliberate attempt to limit
the expansion of mission schools. Hence, while the UPE became a success story in the South-West, it was
revoltingly torpedoed in the South-East. The foregoing therefore suffices that by this period, interdependence
between government and the FBOs has become a dependent variable for the determination of the success or
otherwise of educational schemes or programmes.
Post-Independence Events
At independence in 1960, Nigeria still depended on government and mission agencies for the development of
education. However, ten years into self-government it became obvious that these mission organizations were
beginning to re-engage themselves in the old rivalry for the proprietorship of education. Again, it was apparent
that some mission proprietors were discriminatory and reluctant to admit pupils of different religious
denominations other than theirs. Besides, the increasing poor conditions of service common with mission
schools were beginning to beg for urgent reversals in trends. It was partly to checkmate these unhealthy
tendencies that the military government in 1970 embarked on the take-over of schools. Moreover, following the
devastation of school infrastructures as a result of the war and the fact that the missions could not muster
immediate resources needed to rehabilitate them, the excuse for government take-over of schools became more
cogent.
In addition, after the 1969 National Curriculum Conference, it became perceptible that the government
had to break away from the dominance of mission schools in other to establish the education that could promote
truly national aspirations. The State take-over of schools from missions began in the East-Central State. Other
States followed, taking over voluntary primary and secondary schools affiliated to Christian and Muslim groups
but the same methods were not applied in all the States. Many States in the North continued with the method in
which the voluntary agencies retained the prerogative to determine who would teach and supervise religious
education (Ocho, 2003).
Government take-over policy was received with mixed reactions. It is widely believed that it led to the
worsening quality of education. Moreover, a school of thought believes that this exclusion of mission agencies in
the management of education was the beginning of the moral dilemma that is now rife in virtually every sphere
of national life in Nigeria. Besides, there are no indices that such ouster of the missions from the administration
of education in any way strengthened national cohesion, bearing in mind that various pockets of socio-economic
and political interests other than religion and ethnicity have remained the bane of genuine national integration.
Incidentally, the advocacy for religious and moral education, as richly contained in the curriculum of religious
school systems, has remained an option for the country’s search for moral re-armament and national ethical
rebirth. Aminigo (1991) asserts that the basic approach to moral education in the country has been the religious
approach. The take- over of mission schools by the military, irrespective of the many and varied reasons
advanced for the action, therefore, was just one of the sundry bungles that the junta made for educational policy-
decisions in Nigeria. Suffice to say that the FBOs in Nigeria did not leave the take-over their schools
unchallenged.
The call for government to return schools to their original proprietors did not cease but the adamant
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military regimes did not budge. Expectedly, it was a call that the liberal democratic dispensation that began in
1999 could not ignore. Indeed, since 1999, many States of the federation have initiated laws that facilitated the
return of mission schools to their initial owners. This policy demonstrated the simple fact that the Nigerian
government could no longer undermine the indispensable role of the FBOs in education. The incumbent
President, Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, alluded to this when he recently said that “government must work with
religious organizations to strengthen the educational system in the country” (Free Headlines, 2010:1).
Much as this paper bemoans how the military administrations infringed on and stifled the relationship
between government and the religious groups, it is pertinent to recollect that the regime of Gen Ibrahim
Babangida, having moderately adopted neo-liberal recommendations of the Bretton Woods institutions, was
favourably disposed to collaborating with private agencies in the development of tertiary education. It was
Babangida’s government that set up the 1991 Longe’s Commission that re-emphasized that
“sponsorship/proprietorship (of institutions of higher education in future) should be by the Federal or State
Government, a corporate body or any group of Nigerian citizens of high repute”. (Okorosaye- Orubite
2007:182). The acceptance of this recommendation by government led to the promulgation of Education
(National Minimum Standards and Establishment of Institution) (Amendment) Decree 1993, No 9. It was the
provisions of this decree that paved the way for the present private- sector participation in the establishment of
institutions of higher education in Nigeria, as opposed to Sections 19 of Decree 16 of 1985 which excluded
private organizations and individuals from establishing universities.
As a result of the opportunity provided by the aforesaid decree, it was the FBOs that led the private
sector in founding most of the private universities in the country today. Obasi in Abdulrahman (2010) notes that,
15 out of the 24 private universities licensed by 2006 were owned by religious organizations. Interestingly, the
findings of the National Universities Commission’s Committee on Monitoring of Private Universities indicate that these
private universities “have all it will take to produce quality graduates that are disciplined, have fear of God,
posses leadership qualities and are job creators and not job seekers” (NUC 2004:ii-iii). Regrettably, funding has
remained a major challenge for the proprietors of the private universities much as it has been for the
administrators of public universities. It is for this reason that the managers of these private universities are
presently approaching the government for subsidies through the intervention of the Education Trust Fund, a
fund statutorily meant for only the Federal and State universities (Alechenu, 2011).
Nigerian Islamic Organization’s Involvement in Education
Over the years, most part of Southern Nigeria made tremendous progress in education, obviously because of the
prevalent historical educational activities of Christian missions in the region. This is contrary to the educational
backwardness of the North which was deepening as a result of its traditional and tenacious strap to Islam.
According to Kosemani and Okorosaye-Orubite (1995:17), western education under the colonial rule would not
and was not domesticated by Islam. Consequently, modern education faced opposition and was eclipsed by the
prevailing Islamic orthodoxy. It was therefore the pragmatic will to break this lethargy to modern education, not
just in the North but also in some parts of the South-West where Islam was equally in ardent practice, that
informed why some Islamic movements/organizations began to earnestly engage the government on the need to
provide Muslims in the country with contemporary educational system that accommodates Islamic precepts. The
first in the series was the Lagos protest in 1895 which eventually led to the 1899 establishment of the first
primary school for Muslim children which incorporated Islamic and western education (Kosemani & Okorosaye-
Orubite,1995).
The Islamic organizations that moved for this paradigm-shift saw the importance of modern-derived
education in an emerging nation, as it was equally becoming obvious that the protracted refusal by Muslim
communities to embrace western education was outrightly beginning to manifest in the small number of Muslims
involved in colonial and post colonial public administrations. Again, they wanted Muslim professionals like
lawyers, doctors and educationists. They wanted to achieve these purposes without mutilating their Muslim
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religion and culture (Anuna,1996). This resolve propelled such Islamic organizations such as The Ahamddiya
Movement, Ansur-Deen Society etc to insist that colonial and post-colonial regimes make room for the
establishment of Muslim schools but of modern model of education. According to Anuna in Kosemani and
Anuna (Ed, 1996:140), “by 1960 the Ansar-ur-Deen Society alone had established some teacher’s training
colleges, secondary schools and over 200 primary schools in Nigeria”.
Equally, from 1998, Islamic organizations like Nasrul-Lahi Fathi (NASFAT), Kastina Muslim
Community, Jama’atul Nasril etc began to establish universities and colleges of education (Abdulrahman, 2010).
Consequently, the modernizing influences of education have gradually begun to take root in the vast Islamic
population in Nigeria. Currently, the Federal Government has integrated the Almajiri education into the ongoing
Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. Conversely however, the recent widespread insurgence of the
Boko Haram Sect, whose sectarian philosophy insists that most tenets of modern education are sinful and evil,
may not only be capable of undermining the progress made so far between government and Islamic interest-
groups in the furtherance of education, such extremist standpoint will be incompatible with the visions of
education for the 21
st
century Nigeria.
Conclusion
From the researchers’ review of this perspective of educational history in Nigeria, it is obvious that the
partnership between government and the FBOs has been such a chequered relationship .The historical appraisal
of this relationship likewise establishes that government and the FBOs have, nonetheless, unavoidably always
needed each other in the quest for an effectual sectarian cum-secular education, useful for the pursuit of
educational and national values. In this relationship therefore, inter -dependence has become extremely
imperative for the partners to ensure a rewarding educational development. In view of this, more synergy,
cordiality and symbiotic commitments are required for both parties to effectively engage each other in achieving
the overall objectives of education in Nigeria.
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Development in Nigeria (1922-2008) .Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, University of Port Harcourt
Abernethy, D.B. (1969) The Political Dilemma of Popular Education: An African Case. California: Stanford University
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Alechenu, J. (2011) Private Varsities Seek Public Funds. The Punch (Nig) Ltd.
Aminigo, M. I (1999) Issues in Moral Education. Buguma: Hangings Garden Publishers .
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Anuna, M. C (1996) Educational Underdevelopment in Northern Nigeria and the British Colonial Policy: A Social –Political.
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Experience. Enugu: Erneso Publications.
Babalola, E. O (1976) Christianity in West Africa. Ibadan. Scholar Publication Int. Ltd.
FRN (1999) Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos: Federal Government of Nigeria.
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Fafunwa, A.B (2004) History of Education. Ibadan: NPS Educational Publishers Ltd.
Fafunwa, A.B. (1982) African Education in Perspective. In Fafunwa, A. B and Aisiku, J.U (ed) Education in Africa: A
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Comparative Survey. London: George Allen and Unwin Publishers.
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Universities in Nigeria. National Universities Commission (NUC).
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Okoli, N. J. (2005) History of Education: An Overview. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

VOCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
CERTIFICATE GRADUATES IN AKPOR KINGDOM IN OBIO-AKPOR L.G.A. OF
RIVERS STATE

BY
DR. J.W. DIKE
&
DR (MRS) L. N. ABRAHAM
Department of Curriculum Studies & Educational Technology
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt

Abstract
The study was undertaken to examine the vocational aspirations among senior
school certificate graduates in Akpor Kingdom in Obio-Akpor Local Government
Area. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. One hundred and
forty eight (148) samples were selected using random sampling technique from 510
population of SSCE/NECO graduates in ten communities of Akpor kingdom. The
samples were issued with questionnaires validated with obtained reliability
coefficient (r-0.65). The data obtained were descriptively analyzed using
percentages. The results showed that graduates had average academic ability as a
determining factor to vocational aspiration. There were preferences to law and
medicine than teaching and computer business. The graduates were inspired and
motivated through their parents and professionals in the field. It was recommended
that counseling units in secondary schools be reinforced for better functioning,
while the stockholders support school leavers through skills acquisition.




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Introduction
The dominance of western education today has become a threat to the existence of traditional
education in Nigeria. Traditional education is a system of education that was prevalent in Africa prior
to the advent of the colonial masters, Islam and Christianity. It is therefore not an over statement to
enthuse that the two different religions have inadvertently infiltrated, if not erased completely the ever
cherished traditional education of forebears. The paradigm shift from traditional to western education
with its attendant influence has completely changed the scope of thinking culturally.
Today, there are both intra and inter revolutions in ideas about life. The influence of parental
occupations is great on career pursuits. The pathway of survival has witnessed an unprecedented
deviation from the parental compelling model. The resultant consequence ranges from haphazard
choice of profession leading to unemployment, to threaten the peace of the nation. At this point, the
crucial importance of education as the key to genuine survival and enhancement of family hopes is now
a mirage (Omolewa, 2001:3).
The hope of the nation to its citizens brought about serious concern to government’s efforts to
take over education. This was quickly enshrined in the national policy on education (NPE, 2004). As
claimed in the NPE, education ceases to be a private enterprise, but a huge government intervention
policy.
Fortunately enough and in line with traditional education, issues of vocational education are
prominently entrenched in western education. It provides vocational education that seeks manpower
training in technology, sciences, crafts and arts. It provides technical knowledge and vocational skills
that buffer development in agriculture, economics and business endeavour. It equally provides skills
necessary for individual survival economically (NPE, 2004:25).
Based on this awareness, there is the view that the individual has ample opportunity to become
useful citizen of the nation on graduation. When this is assured, there is access to security against
unemployment because he has the knowledge of relevant skills (Oklobia, 2001:18). The consequences
of this knowledge are freedom from poverty and unemployment. According to Aliyu and Balami
(2007), this (unemployment) syndrome could be erased by the removal of human dominion through
living and working under a just and fair rulership devoid of greed in the society. They further stated
that this could be achieved by creating work at home and outside. The work may include,but not
limited to the following:
• Selling home grown vegetables or flowers
• Sewing, altering and repairing clothes
• Piece work for manufacturers
• Baking and food preparation
• Upholstery works.
• Book-keeping, typing, home computer services.
• Hair dressing
• Washing and waxing cars
• Repairs of appliances of all kinds.
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• Hardy man jobs, building cabinet, doors, painting, fencing, roofing.
• Farm work and , cropping,
• Interior landscaping, and horticultralt care at offices, banks, shopping plazas and atriums.
• Property management
• Insurance, real estate
• Carpet installation and clearing
• Newspaper routes
• Land reaping, tree trimming, lawn care, wooding
• School bus driving.
• Photographic (portraits and public events)
• Swap work, repair of electrical work, sewing for plumbing etc.

The resultant effects of these factors limit the choice of other measures that could reduce
unemployment and accelerate economic growth. After all, the 6.3.3.4 education system now 9.3.4
system provides avenue for vocational aspirations that graduates can fix themselves into for survival.
In the event of unemployment the above opportunities could be aspired to by graduates.
Aspiration is what drives individuals to do more and be more than they presently are. Aliyu and Salami
(2008), defined aspiration as synonymous with goals, ambitions, objectives, purposes, dreams, plans,
designs, intentions, desires and yearning.
Globally, certain factors like limited acquaintance with occupation and lower occupational
aspirations influence vocational choice, (Polland and O’Hare, 1990). In the same vein, Ochiagha (1995),
observed that parents have the greatest influence over the choice of vocation of their children, even
though some youngsters resent being pushed into vocations preferred by their parents.
On another dimension, Nwoke (2007), observed that parental influences make major impact
during adolescence that peers only support. But in recent time, a study by Ugwu (2009) stated that
parental influences are being gradually displaced by those of peers as the youths move through
adolescence.
On societal influence, Nwoke (2004) observed that adolescents from Riverine areas aspire to
fishing as a vocation. This is also applicable to Hausa-Fulani who introduce their children to cattle
rearing. Salami (2008) working on the roles of personality, vocational interest, academic achievement
and socio-economic factors and demand from extended family observed that the variables were
significantly related to adolescent vocational/educational aspirations.
Problem of the Study
The worrisome nature of unemployment in our society resulting to abject poverty is highly regrettable
(national poverty eradication programme) (NAPEP), 2003: 5). There is observed migration of graduates
of secondary schools to rural areas and semi-urban communities to undertake unskilled jobs, such as
farm labour, cycling, revenue drive contracting etc. No doubt, others take to crimes of varying
dimensions. This unemployment saga motivated the researcher to undertake the study to survey the
vocational aspirations of secondary school graduates in Akpor Kingdom of Obio/Akpor local
government area with a view to providing career counseling to indigenes of Rivers State.
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Objectives of the Study
The study, specifically addresses the following objectives:
1) To determine the factors that influence vocational aspirations among secondary school
graduates in Akpor Kingdom.
2) To determine types of vocation preferred by school leavers
3) To identify the sources of their vocational aspirations.

Research Questions
The following questions guided the study:
1) What factors influence vocational aspiration in Akpor Kingdom?
2) What are the vocations they aspire for?
3) What are the sources of their vocational aspirations?

Methodology
A survey study was carried out among secondary school graduates in Akpor Kingdom in Obio Akpor
Area of Rivers State.
Population
The population covered all the secondary school graduates in Akpor Kingdom. These are graduates of
West African School certificate “WASC and products of the National Examination Council “NECO”
examinations. A total of 10 communities constitute the Akpor Kingdom with secondary school
graduates numbering between 510 from 2008 and2010 (Akpor youths bursary aids, 2009).
Sample and Sampling Procedure
Ten (10) communities that make up the Akpor Kingdom were involved in the study. The sample for
the study was made up of one hundred and fifty (150) graduates selected using cluster random sampling
from the population.
Instrument
The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into two
sections of A and B. “A” was used to elicit responses from the demographic information such as age
and sex of the sample. While section “B” contains information on the vocational aspirations of the
sample.
Validation of Instrument
The instrument was subjected to validation. This was determined by giving (2) copies of the instrument
to two valuators who are professional guidance counsellors in the department of psychology, guidance
and counseling, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt, an institution within the area of
study. Based on the necessary modifications, the instrument was further scrutinized.
Reliability of Instrument
The consistency of the instrument was tested using split-half reliability test. About twenty (20) samples
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of like status but not those involved in the study, was given the questionnaire, two (2) copies in each
population community. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r ) was determined as
0.65, an indication of suitable reliability of the instrument for the study since a reliability within 0.60 to
0.70) is moderate and statistically accepted for a personality study (Donald, Jacobs,Ashgar & Chris,
2006).
Pilot Study
To validate the research design, a pilot study was carried out. This was done to highlight possible
weaknesses associated with the proceedings of the research and the instrument. It also ascertained the
usage of the instrument. Twelve copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the subjects. The
subjects were picked from the study population but not the actual sample for the study. The reliability
was obtained using Spearman Brown Prophecy formula involving the correlation between the scores of
the subjects in the even and odd items. The value of the correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.75,
which made the instrument suitable for the study.
Method of Data Administration
The instrument was administered through the President of students union of each community. Out of
150 questionnaires, one hundred and forty eight (148) were returned and used for data analysis.
Method of Data Analysis
All the research questions were analyzed using percentages, since the study adopted a survey design of
opinions of problem on vocational aspiration. To take a policy decision, percentages from 0-45 were
classified as “low”, while 46-60 were classified as average and 70-100 as high in the study.
The results were presented in tables
Question One.
Table 1: Factors that influence vocational aspirations
Factors Parental
expectations
Academic
ability
Peer group Societal
preference
Other factors
by financial
gain (ego)
Total
Number of
response s
38 69 12 20 9 148
Percentages 25.7 46.7 8.1 13.5 6 100

The responses on the factors that influence vocational aspiration were computed as percentages in table
1. The results indicate that parental expectation with 38 and 25.7% followed by societal preference with
20 and 13.5% then peer groups with 12 and 8.1% and other factors (financial gain, ego etc) with 14 and
9.5% were classified as “low” aspirations while academic ability with 69 and 46.7% was classified as
average vocational aspiration. The combined factor of both parental influence and academic ability with
107 and 72.29% constitute a high factor influencing vocational aspirations.
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Question Two
Table 2: Vocations aspired to by the SSCE/NECO graduates
Table 2: shows a percentage computed for vocations aspired to by SSEC/NECO graduates. The
findings show that all the motivating factors had a low response aspiration with 15 and 10.1% for
revenue vendor, law with 30 and 20.3%, computer operator with 25 and 16.9%, teaching with 20 and
13.5%, medicine with 30 and 20.3% farming, (Para-military-police, road safety corps, etc) with 8 and
5.4%. While trading with 5 and 3.8% appeared very low in their aspirations. The combined responses
of Law and Medicine with 60 and 40.6% constitute lowly aspired vocation by SSCE/NECO graduates.
Question Three
Table 3: Sources of Vocational Aspirations
Vocational
aspiration
source
Parents Professionals
in the field
Peers Motivational
talks
Others Eg.
Counselors
friends
Total
Responses 66 35 25 4 18 148
Percentages 44.6 23.6 16.9 2.7 12.2 100

The percentage scores are as computed in table 3. The results show that parents had 66 and 44.6%,
professionals in the field with 35 and 23.6%, peers with 35 and 23.6%, others-counselor, friends with
18 and 12.2% while motivational talks with 4 and 2.7% constitute the sources of vocational aspirations.
Both parents and professionals in the field or peers with 101 and 68.20% constitute an average source
of vocational aspiration by SSCE/NECO graduates.
Major Findings
1) The SSCE/NECO graduates had average academic ability as determining factor in vocational
aspirations.
2) There were preferences for law and medicine compared to teaching and computer business.
3) Parental factor and professionals in the field and peers were sources of vocational aspirations
among others.
Discussion
The National Secondary Education Curriculum is targeted at improving relevance, quality and
efficiency in education. These will go a long way to reducing school dropout and promoting the
acquisition of functional literacy, life skills and values for lifelong education and useful living. Based on
this policy programme this study was initiated to investigate the vocational aspirations of secondary
graduates.
Vocations Teaching Revenue agent Computer
operator
Law Engineering Medicine Trading Other farming
para-military
Total
Responses 20 15 25 30 15 30 5 8 148
Percentages 13.5 10.1 16.9 20.3 10.1 20.3 3.4 5.4 100
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To carry-out the study, three variables were raised; (1) factors influencing vocational aspiration.
A survey of opinions used gathered responses that were descriptively analyzed with percentages. The
findings indicate the average percentage of 46.7% (69) on academic ability appeared high compared to
other factors. This is an indication that the preferences for other low responses were hinged on the
academic capabilities. This therefore underscores the vital role of academic ability on further vocational
aspirations of SSCE/NECO graduates. This agrees with the view of Salami (2008) who worked on the
roles of personality profiles not limited to academic ability and found the variables significant as
influencing adolescent vocational aspirations.
On the second variable (2) of vocations aspired to by the graduates, the study revealed that law
and medicine combined had 60 and 40.6% of the preferred vocations or professions. While teaching
and computer operations with 45 and 30.4% were below average of the preferred vocations. This
finding, even though with low responses signal that students prefer to aspire to the vocations that give
them prestige in the society. It also indicates that teaching and computer business have become more
common and popular among secondary school graduates when compared to other professions with the
exception of medicine and law that society applauds as being more rewarding. This result is in line with
Salami (2008) and Nwoke (2007) who found societal influence and vocation prevalent as affecting
adolescent aspirations. This means a profession that determines their economic status as they go about
the vocations that earn them social value.
The last variable (3) discussed the sources of vocational aspirations. A critical consideration of
combined variables of parents and professionals in the field with 75 and 50.7% indicate a high source
of vocational aspiration compared to other sources. This finding agrees with Nwoke (2007) and
Ochiagha (1995) who in their various findings observed that parental influences affect adolescent
vocational aspirations. The peer responses of 25 and 16.9% indicate a supportive influence to parents
which agrees with Nwoke (2007) that peers support the parental impact on vocational aspirations. The
situation is obvious that the nation faces stagnation of graduates and low professional aspiration. In
essence, we are producing less of the entrepreneurial class, teachers, policy makers and professionals.
Implications of the Study
The findings reveal certain factors as academic ability, societal preference, parental impact and other
extraneous variables as affecting adolescent vocational aspirations. It shows that despite the laudable
vocational skills in the school curriculum, the students appear not to have become aware of possible
entrepreneurial skills. Teachers of secondary schools are therefore reminded to make students realize
their innate vocational potentials that will cushion their survival rather than what parents expect or
want.
The policy makers of our educational system should reinforce the implementation of the acquisition of
technical skills in secondary schools by providing the necessary equipment and compulsory vocational
education unit in schools. Meanwhile, the counseling units in our secondary schools should be
publicized for the benefit of students. This could be possible by observing a particular period on the
school activity schedules for counseling.
Conclusion/Recommendations
The authors suggest that students should be internet friendly where career opportunity other than the
usual societal expectations is challenged. The quest for innovations in the 21
st
century is the hallmark of
economic survival. Secondary school students while at school should be prepared and equipped with
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entrepreneurial skills that can sustain them for a lifelong career. It is therefore concluded that academic
pursuit is a precursor to professional aspirations.
References
Aliyu, M and Balami, U-B (2007). Science and technology for human resources development through
research and training for poverty alleviation.Multidisciplinary dismal of research development vol 8(1).
2.
Donald,A,Jacobs,L.C.,Ashgar, R and Chris, S (2006). Introduction to research in education (7 Ed) Thomson
Higher Education, Belmont. USA. P 257
Federal republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004). National policy on education revised ed. Lagos Nigeria, Federal
Ministry of Education (FME).
NAPEP (2003). National poverty eradication programme hand book. Abuja. Nigeria. National poverty
eradication.
Nwoke, M.B. (2004). The effects of ethnic group, age and gender difference on the bio-cognitive adjustment of teenagers.
Unpublished thesis,University of Nigeria. Nsukka.
Nwoke, M.B. (2007). Impact of home type, age and gender on the anti-social
behaviour of secondary school students. Gender and behavour. The centre for psychological studies 5(2).
1249-1259.
Ochiagha (1995) in Nwoke, M.B. (2011). Impact of age, gender and social factors on the vocational
choice among Nigerian adolescents. European journal of social science 9(4) 2.
Oklobia, A. (2001). Modern government for senior secondary schools. Otukpo. Nigeria Amazon publishers.
Omolewa, M. (2001). The challenge of education in Nigeria. Ibadan, university of Ibadan press.
Pollan, K.M. & o’HARE, w.p. (1990). A study of underlying variablesaffecting aspiration of normal
adolescent in Nwoke M.B. (2007). Impact of hometype, age and gender or the anti-social
behaviour ofsecondary school students. Ife centre for psychological studies 5(2)1249-1259.
Ugwu, I. L. (2009). Dual-career, coping with multiple role stress. Ife centre for psychological studies,
Gender and behaviour (1) 2229-2244.
Salami, O. S. (2008). Roles of personality, vocational interest academic achievement and socio-cultural
factors in educational aspirations of secondary school. Adolescent career development international
13(7) 630-647.






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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

STATUS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING FACILITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE
SECONDARY SCHOOLS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
BY
OBUNADIKE, Joy Chinwe (Ph.D)
Department of Primary Education Studies,
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State

Abstract
The purpose of the study was to ascertain the status of teaching and learning
facilities in Anambra state secondary schools with its implications on sustainable
development highlighted. Four null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at
0.05 alpha level. A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. A
sample size of 660 participants comprising 60 principals and 600 teachers was
used for the study. A structured questionnaire served as the instrument for data
collection. A descriptive statistic of mean and inferential statistic of t-test were
used for data analysis. The study revealed that libraries, laboratories, classrooms,
and sports facilities for teachers and students in secondary schools in Anambra
state were available. It was also found that information and communication
technology centre for teachers and students were not available. The study
revealed that the available libraries laboratories, information communication
technology centres, classrooms, and sports facilities for teachers and students are
inadequate. It was recommended that information communication technology centre
for teachers and students in secondary schools in Anambra state should be
provided. Adequate classrooms, libraries, laboratories, information communication
technology centres, and sports facilities for teachers and students should be
provided in the secondary schools to ensure effective teaching and learning
experiences.

Key Words: Teaching facilities, learning facilities, sustainable development.






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Introduction
Education is the pivot of every developmental efforts of a nation including Nigeria. According to
Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) in its National Policy on Education reaffirmed that education is
a vehicle for national development and an instrument "per excellence" for effecting development. The
state of the educational system and its prospects for development has become a subject of increasing
debate in Nigeria. Deliberate measures have been embarked upon with the aim of improving the
system, leading to educational reforms. Igborgbor (2008) rightly observed that reforms are necessary
for any system to keep pace with and remain relevant to its environment, otherwise degenerative
changes will set. In the 1980s and 1990s, the government implemented a series of far-reaching
Education Reforms, which have significantly altered the structure of secondary education. Prior to the
reforms, the secondary school education operated on the British Educational System (BES) consisting
of GCE ‘O’ level followed by two years of GCE ‘A’ level courses, these have now been replaced by the
popular 6-3-3-4 system.

Furthermore, schools curricula were changed, and the junior secondary schools now offer both
academic and prevocational subjects. It was the intent of the reform, for junior secondary schools
graduates to proceed into either senior secondary school; technical/vocational college, or teacher
training college. This was conceived with the aim of releasing fresh, and competent graduates early
enough into the labour market to enhance socio-economic development, as rightly outlined by the
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS, 2004), that the goals of
wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction, and value reorientation can be effectively
pursued, attained, and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional educational system.
These cannot be achieved without adequate teaching and learning facilities in Nigerian schools.

To teach, according to Hornby (2001), means to give lessons to students in a school, college,
university. It is to help somebody learn something by giving information about it. In this study,
teaching facilities are those facilities that facilitate efficient and effective delivery of information to
students in educational setting. These teaching facilities in schools include classrooms, laboratories,
libraries, information and communication technology centre, and sports facilities such as football fields,
basketball courts, badminton court, volleyball court, swimming pool, handball court. Learning is
acquiring new knowledge, behaviours, skills, values or preferences (Wikipedia, 2009). In the context of
this study, learning facilities are those facilities that assist a student to acquire new knowledge,
behaviours, skills, values or preferences while in school. Learning facilities in schools include
classrooms, laboratories, libraries, information and communication technology centre, and sports
facilities such as football fields, basketball courts, badminton courts, volleyball courts, swimming pools,
handball courts. Ajayi (2001) pointed out that modern school environment lays emphasis on the
provision of facilities such as adequate and spacious classrooms, workshops/laboratories, computers,
good water source/supply, toilet facilities, functional libraries, transportation, and communication
systems, among others. According to him, all these facilities are required in appropriate quantity and
quality.

Ejieh (2004) reported that Nigerian secondary school students move from their school to another
school. He further noted that most of the students changed school in the first years of both the junior
and the senior secondary school due to lack of, or inadequate libraries, laboratories, and workshops and
dissatisfaction with the quality of teaching. The mobility of students from one school to another could
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correlate with status of teaching and learning facilities of the schools. Oyetunde (2008) reported that
the provision of certain facilities has relevant contributions to the students' academic performance
depending on the academic status of the students. The researcher's observation of the poor
performances of Anambra state secondary school students in external examinations such as Junior
Secondary School Certificate Examinations (JSSCE) and Senior Secondary School Certificate
Examinations (SSSCE) which undoubtedly is related to the teaching and learning facilities in the
schools contributed to the quest to establish the status of teaching and learning facilities in these
secondary schools. Hence, there is need for the present study as it will yield a baseline data for possible
intervention.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to find out the status of teaching and learning facilities in Anambra state
secondary schools and to highlight the implications for sustainable development. The study specifically
sought to determine the availability and condition of teaching facilities available for the teachers in the
schools. The study also sought to ascertain the availability and the condition of learning facilities
available for students in Anambra state secondary schools.

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance.
1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
teaching facilities available for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools.
2. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
learning facilities available for the students in Anambra state secondary schools.
3. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
the status of teaching facilities for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools.
4. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
the status of learning facilities for the students in Anambra state secondary schools.

Methodology

The descriptive survey design was adopted as it is considered appropriate because the study intends to
describe the status of teaching and learning facilities by collecting data from the participants in their
natural setting at a period of time. The population for this study was six thousand two hundred and
fifteen (6215) comprising 266 principals and 5,949 teachers in government-owned secondary schools in
Anambra State.

The sample for the study was 660 participants comprising 60 principals and 600 teachers. To
select this sample, multi-stage sampling procedure was employed. Firstly the secondary schools were
stratified based on education zones. Simple random sampling technique was used to select ten (10)
schools from each zone. All the principals in the selected schools were used for the study thereby
leading to the selection of 60 principals. Again simple random sampling technique was adopted to
select ten (10) teachers from each of those selected schools resulting to the selection of 600 teachers.

The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The instrument has two
sections, A and B. Section A elicited information on respondents’ personal data while section B
generated data aimed at testing the four null hypotheses. The instrument was structured on a 4-point
Likert scale of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree.
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The face and content validity of the questionnaire was determined by three experts comprising an
expert in measurement and evaluation and two experts in Educational administration from Nnamdi
Azikiwe University Awka. The observations, corrections and constructive criticisms of the experts were
incorporated in the final draft of the questionnaire.

Twenty copies of the questionnaire were administered to secondary school principals and
teachers in St. Augustine secondary school Ibuzo, Delta State. The Cronbach alpha statistic was used to
establish the reliability co-efficient of the instrument. The questionnaire had a reliability coefficient of
0.69 which was considered good, thereby indicating that the questionnaire was reliable for the study.

The researcher spent three weeks to distribute copies of the questionnaire to the principals and
teachers of government-owned secondary schools in Anambra State. The researcher with the help of
four trained research assistants administered 660 copies of the instrument to the participants. However,
560 copies were returned yielding a return rate of 84.85 per cent, and were used for analysis.

The data generated were organized and checked for proper completion. The mean and t-test
statistics were used in analyzing the data. A criterion mean of 2.50 was used in taking decision
concerning the research questions. A statement with item mean of 2.50 and above was adjudged
"available" with respect to the availability of the facilities and "adequate" with respect to the status of
the available facilities. At the same time any statement with item mean of less than 2.50 was considered
to be "not available" or "inadequate" with respect to the availability, and status of the available facilities,
respectively.

Results

Hypothesis 1

There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
teaching facilities available for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools.

Table 1: Available teaching facilities for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools
Principals (n = 55) Teachers (n = 505)
S/n Items
x
Decision
x
Decision
1. Provision of libraries for
teachers.

2.78

Available

2.98

Available
2 Provision of laboratories for
teachers.
2.96 Available 2.68 Available
3. Provision of information
communication centres for
teachers.

1.12


Not
available

1.16

Not available
4. Provision of classrooms for
teachers.
2.76 Available 2.89 Available
5 Provision of sports facilities for
teachers
2.86 Available 2.78 Available
(t-cal. = 23.29 > t-crit. = 1.960; p < 0.05; df = 548)
Table 1 shows that libraries (principal x = 2.78; teachers x = 2.98), laboratories (principal x =
2.96; teachers x = 2.68), classrooms (principal x = 2.76; teachers x = 2.89), and sports facilities
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(principal x = 2.86; teachers x = 2.78) for teachers in secondary schools in Anambra state are
available. The table also reveals that information communication technology centres (principal x =
1.12; teachers x = 1.16) are not available for the teachers in the schools. In addition, the t-calculated
value (23.29) is greater than the t-critical value (1.960) at degree of freedom (548) and alpha level (0.05),
hence, the null hypothesis was rejected.

Hypothesis 2

There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding
learning facilities available for the students in Anambra state secondary schools.

Table 2: Available learning facilities for the students in Anambra state secondary schools
Principals (n = 55) Teachers (n = 505)
S/n Items
x
Decision
x
Decision
1 Provision of classrooms for
students.
3.98 Available 3.94 Available
2 Provision of libraries for
students
2.96 Available 3.01 Available
3 Provision of laboratories for
students
2.95 Available 2.91 Available
4 Provision of information
communication centres for
students.
1.02 Not
available
1.04 Not available
5 Provision of sports facilities for
students
2.98 Available 2.94 Available
(t-cal. = 37.78 > t-crit. = 1.960; p < 0.05; df = 548)
Table 2 reveals that classrooms (principal x = 3.98; teachers x = 3.94), libraries workshops
(principal x = 2.96; teachers x = 3.01), laboratories (principal x = 2.95; teachers x = 2.91), and
sports facilities (principal x = 2.98; teachers x = 2.94) are available in secondary schools in Anambra
state. Again, the table shows that information communication technology centres (principal x = 1.02;
teachers x = 1.04) for the students are not available. In addition, the t-calculated value (37.78) is
greater than the t-critical value (1.960) at degree of freedom (548) and alpha level (0.05), resulting to the
rejection of the null hypothesis.

Hypothesis 3

There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding the
status of teaching facilities for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools.

Table 3: Status of available teaching facilities for the teachers in Anambra state secondary schools
Principals (n = 55) Teachers (n = 505)
S/
n
Items
x
Decision
x
Decision
1. Provision of libraries for teachers.
1.05

Inadequate

1.12

Inadequate
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2 Provision of laboratories for
teachers.
1.09 Inadequate 1.14 Inadequate
3. Information communication
technology centres for teachers

1.31

Inadequate

1.63

Inadequate
4. Provision of classrooms for teachers 2.14 Inadequate 2.25 Inadequate
5. Provision of sports facilities for
teachers
2.10 Inadequate 1.98 Inadequate
(t-cal. = 12.43 > t-crit. = 1.960; p < 0.05; df = 548)
Data on table 3 reveal that the available libraries (principal x = 1.05; teachers x = 1.12),
laboratories (principal x = 1.09; teachers x = 1.14), information communication technology centres
(principal x = 1.31; teachers x = 1.63), classrooms (principal x = 2.14; teachers x = 2.25), and sports
facilities (principal x = 2.10; teachers x = 1.98) for teachers are not adequate. Moreso, the null
hypothesis was rejected since the t-calculated value (12.43) is greater than the t-critical value (1.960) at
degree of freedom (548) and alpha level (0.05).

Hypothesis 4

There is no significant difference in the mean responses of the teachers and principals regarding the
status of learning facilities for the students in Anambra state secondary schools.
Table 4: Status of available learning facilities for the students in Anambra state secondary schools
Principals (n = 55) Teachers (n = 505)
S/n Items
x
Decision
x
Decision
1 Provision of classrooms for
students.
1.12 Inadequate 1.14 Inadequate
2 Provision of libraries for
students
1.05 Inadequate 1.07 Inadequate
3 Provision of laboratories
for students
1.04 Inadequate 1.02 Inadequate
4 Provision of information
communication centres for
students.
1.00 Inadequate 1.04 Inadequate
5. Provision of sports facilities
for students
1.98 Inadequate 1.96 Inadequate
(t-cal. = 19.17 > t-crit. = 1.960; p < 0.05; df = 548)
Data on table 4 showed that the available classrooms (principal x = 1.12; teachers x = 1.14),
libraries (principal x = 1.05; teachers x = 1.07), laboratories (principal x = 1.04; teachers x = 1.02),
information communication centres for students (principal x = 1.00; teachers x = 1.04), and sports
facilities (principal x = 1.98; teachers x = 1.96) for teachers are not adequate. In addition, the null
hypothesis was rejected since the t-calculated value (19.17) is greater than the t-critical value (1.960) at
degree of freedom (548) and alpha level (0.05).





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Discussion of Findings

The finding that most of the teaching facilities are available is not surprising because for any school to
be approved by the Anambra State Ministry of Education, it must have the necessary teaching facilities.
The availability of most learning facilities was expected as it is the requirement before the establishment
of any educational institution. In order to foster effective teaching and learning, the proprietor of a
school before admitting students and recruiting teachers ensures that the teaching and learning facilities
are available. These teaching and learning facilities among other things are what add quality and attract
recognition to a school. However, the finding was in total disagreement with Eddie (2000) who
reported that lack of facilities is the major problem in Nigerian educational system.
It is not surprising to find out that the available teaching and learning facilities are inadequate in
the schools. This is because of the lukewarm attitude of government in provision of these facilities.
Sometimes, the fund meant for these facilities are embezzled by individuals and sometimes the facilities
are looted by some students and teachers, leaving the school to be empty. No wonder, students change
their school in search of schools with better and adequate teaching and learning facilities. This has
earlier by reported by Ejieh (2004) that Nigerian secondary school students move from their school to
another school due to lack of, or inadequate libraries, laboratories, and workshops and dissatisfaction
with the quality of teaching.

Implications for Sustainable Development

The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the
capacity of its people and its institutions. Education is a tool for achieving sustainable development if
proper attention is given to its teaching and learning facilities. A product cannot be better than the
process. This implies that the students' performance in the society partly depends on what he or she
learnt while in school. The teaching and learning facilities are among the factors that make the
difference in the efficiency and effectiveness of the teachers and students, respectively. The economy of
every nation including Nigeria is driven by its human capacity including products or graduates of
secondary schools. If these people are developed in the education sector under adequate teaching and
learning facilities, their work output will improve than when nurtured in schools with inadequate or
lack of teaching and learning facilities. Mbakwem and Asiabaka (2007) noted that the cumulative effect
of poor facilities is poor motivation and low morale of teachers, which result in low quality work
output. With competent and effective labour, the economy will improve leading to development. This
development can only be sustained with efficient and effective manpower in the system. With the
inadequate teaching and learning facilities in schools, it could be predicted that sustainable development
from the secondary education sector in Nigeria is not feasible except something is done.

Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that most of the teaching facilities for teachers in
secondary schools in Anambra state are available. Majority of the learning facilities for the students are
equally available. However, the available teaching facilities for teachers in the state are inadequate. In
the same vein, the available learning facilities for the students in secondary schools in Anambra state
are not adequate.

Recommendations
The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study.
1. Information communication technology centres for teachers should be made available in the schools.
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2. Information communication technology centres for students in secondary schools in Anambra state
should be provided.
3. Adequate classrooms, libraries, laboratories, and sports facilities for students should be provided in
the secondary schools.
4. There should be adequate provision of libraries, laboratories, information communication centres,
classrooms, and sports facilities for the teachers in the schools to enable them carry out effectively
their teaching functions.

References
Ajayi, K. (2001). Effective planning strategies for UBE programmes. Journal of Basic Education in Nigeria,
1(1), 23 - 33.
Eddie, D. E. (2000). Determinants of successful curriculum implementation for school effectiveness in
the next millennium. In A. M. Wokocha (Ed.), Quality in Nigerian Education, 10(1), 6 - 18.
Ejieh, M. U. C. (2004). Factors associated with student mobility in Nigerian secondary schools. Research
in Education, (71), 17 - 24.
Federal Government of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC.
Hornby, A. S. (Ed.) (2001). Oxford advanced learner's dictionary of current english (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford
University Press
Igborgbor, G.C. (2008). Reforms and innovation in education: The way forward. A Paper presented at the
National Conference of the Association of Nigerian teachers at College of Physical Education,
Mosogar, 8
th
July.
Mbakwem, J. N. & Asiabaka, I. P. (2007). A fresh look at the indicators of quality assurance in the middle basic
education in Imo state. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of Curriculum Organization
of Nigeria (CON) held at Abia State University, Uturu, 19th to 22nd September, 2007.
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) (2004). Nigerian National
Planning Commission, Abuja 2004.
Oyetunde, A. A. (2008). School size and facilities as correlates of junior secondary school students'
performance in Oyo state, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 5(8), 836 - 840.
Wikipedia (2009). Learning. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning









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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

FACILITATING COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH GRASS ROOTS
ORGANIZATIONS IN RIVERS STATE
BY
DR. M. E. HANACHOR
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt.

Abstract
This study investigated the activities of grass root organizations in Rivers
State. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study.
The population for the study consists of all members of registered grass roots
organizations in Rivers State, estimated at 20,000. The researcher randomly
selected a sample of 1000 members. The instrument for the study was a 15
item questionnaire developed by the researcher. A reliable co-efficient of 0.81
was obtained using test-retest method. The research questions were
analyzed using mean and percentages. The hypotheses were tested with
Pearson product moment correlation statistics. Findings reveal that activity
areas of grass roots organizations includes maintenance of community
roads, public buildings, assistance to the less privileged and building of
market stalls. The study recommended that community members should join
and not despise grass root organizations. Grass roots organizations should
strive to register and government should also assist them.






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Introduction
Voluntary efforts and active participation of individuals and groups in communities constitute
important force in community development. This process involves organizing community
members, for identification of their needs, plan and for action to meet these needs with
maximum reliance on their own initiative and resources at the grass roots. Grass roots
organizations are organizations within the community that foster the improvement of the lives
of the community members for example; women associations’ age grades co-operatives etc.
According to Dike (1979) in Hanachor (2009) the growth and development of a town or
community is mainly a reflection of the population growth, location of industries, specialization
and organization of the inhabitants of the community. The involvement of social institutions
and organizations in mobilizing local resources for the provision of amenities was precipitated
by the failure of the government in their traditional role of developing rural communities, and
the desire of the rural communities to enjoy the basic social amenities.
Okodudu (1989) identified women organizations, youth organizations, social clubs and
age grades as actors in grass roots community development activities. According to Aremo
(1983) in Kuyooro (2000) the history of the establishment, development and growth of grass
roots organizations in Nigeria and Rivers State is something difficult to understand. Apart
from the traditional grass roots organizations (the council of chiefs, elders and age grades)
which existed at the early history of men and also operated within limited capacity, the modern
grass roots organizations (social clubs, professional associations and trade unions) emerged as a
result of economic crises of 1970s and 1980s. However, in recent times, grass roots associations
have become mediators of social change, development brokers for their communities and
intermediaries in the relationships between communities and interested non-governmental
organizations.
Hanachor (2009) maintained that the roles of community grass roots organizations in
community development include educational roles, policy making, economic and social roles.
Many organizations, as a means of promoting literacy in communities, organize extra-mural
classes for members of the community wishing to remedy their educational deficiencies, hold
seminars on community health education in areas such as HIV, family planning and
immunization for the eradication of child killer diseases. Some organizations award
scholarships to brilliant, less privileged children in the communities in primary and secondary
schools. In most community settings, the council of chiefs and elders make policies and take
decisions on matters concerning the communities. Their policies and rules complement those
of the government in the governance of the communities.
According to Hanachor (2005) most of the social vices and youth restiveness in the
Niger Delta can be effectively handled through local policies of grass roots community
organizations.
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In the area of socio-economic development the grass roots community organizations
build town halls and market stalls.
Though grass roots organizations in Rivers State are playing meaningful roles in the
development of the communities within the area of their operation, nothing is done to bring
their activities to the lime light.
This study was an attempt to find out the influence which grass roots organizations have
on community development in Rivers State. Therefore, the following research questions were
used to conduct the study:
• What are the activities of grass roots organization in community development in Rivers
State?
• To what extent have the activities of grass roots organizations influenced the political
development of communities in Rivers State?
• Do the activities of grass roots organizations encourage socio-economic development of
communities in Rivers State?
The two null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance which guided the decision of the
study are as follows:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the activities of grass roots organizations
and development of members’ political ambition in the communities.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the activities of grass roots organizations
and the socio-economic development of the communities.
Method
The design of the study was a descriptive survey. The instrument used was a 15 item
questionnaire developed by the researcher.
The instrument was face validated by two experts in measurement and evaluation. A
reliability co-efficient of 0.81 was obtained using a test-retest method of establishing reliability.
Data analysis was done through the application of mean and percentages. The Pearson product
moment correlation statistics was used for the test of the null hypotheses.
The instrument was responded to by one thousand (1000) members of grass roots
organizations. The members of grass roots organizations were randomly sampled from a
population of registered grass roots organizations in Rivers State estimated at 20,000.
Results
The results of the research questions and the null hypotheses are as presented in the tables
below.

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Research Question One:
What are the activities of grass root organizations in community development in Rivers State?
Table 1: Mean Response of the Activities of Grass Roots Organizations in Community
Development.
S/N Item N
x
Decision
1. Maintenance of community
roads
1000

3.5 Accepted
2. Provision of furniture and
equipment to schools
1000 3.2 Accepted
3. Building and maintenance of
public buildings like town
halls.
1000 3.3 Accepted
4. Assisting the less privileged
through scholarships.
1000 2.6 Accepted
5. Building of market stalls. 1000 2.7
Grand
Mean 3.1
Accepted

Table 1 shows that grass roots organizations are involved in the maintenance of community
roads, provision of furniture and equipment to schools, building and maintenance of public
buildings, assisting the less privileged educationally and also building of market stalls. This
assertion is based on the fact that all these items have their mean above 2.5 and a grand mean
value of 3.1.
From the table above, item 1 shows a mean of 3.5 and is therefore accepted. Item 2
(Provision of furniture and equipment to schools shows a mean of 3.2. Item 3 (building and
maintenance of public buildings), shows a mean of 3.3. Item 4 (assistance to the children of less
privileged through award of scholarship) shows a mean of 2.6. Item 5 (building of market stalls)
show a mean of 2.7. The table shows a grand mean of 3.1
Research Question Two
To what extent have the activities of grass roots organizations influenced the political
development of communities in Rivers State?
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Table 2: Mean Responses of Grass Roots Influence on Political Development.
S/N Item N
x
Decision
1. Membership of local clubs
prepared me for higher political
ambition
1000

3.1 Accepted
2. The experience gained in my
local club helped me in outside
politics.
1000

3.6 Accepted
3. Local clubs are training grounds
for would be politicians
1000

3.4 Accepted
4. My interest in politic came from
our local club.
1000

3.5 Accepted
5. The problems and challenges in
my local club/organization
prepared me for this present
position.
1000

3.2
Grand Mean
3.2
Accepted

Table 2 shows that local organizations influence political ambition of members. The
results show a grand mean of 3.2. Item 1 shows a mean of 3.1. Item 2 shows a mean of 3.6.
Item 3 shows a mean of 3.4. Item 4 shows a mean of 3.5. Item 5 shows a mean of 3.2. All the
items have their mean greater than the criterion mean of 2.5 and are therefore accepted.
Research Question 3: Do the activities of grass root organization encourage socio-economic
development in communities.
Table 3: Mean Response of Socio-economic Development Activities of Grass Roots
Organizations.
S/N Item N
x
Decision
1. Your clubs/association or organization
has built market stalls in your
community.
1000

3.0 Accepted
2. Your organization has embarked on
transport business, i.e
motorcycle/motor/ canoe
1000

2.4 Rejected
3. Your organization has maintained
public buildings/recreation centres.
1000

2.5 Accepted
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4. You organization has built town halls in
your communities.
1000 2.6 Accepted
5. What your organization is doing in the
area of development, came through the
encouragement they got from similar
organizations in the community.
1000 2.9
Grand Mean
2.7
Accepted

Table 3 presents the respondents’ views on the activities of grass roots organizations which
influence or encourage social economic development. Item 1 shows a mean of 3.0, which
confirms that local or grass roots organizations build market stalls. Item 2, which is on local or
grass roots transport business shows a mean of 2.4 and was therefore rejected. Item 3 shows a
mean of 2.5 which is at boarder line of criterion mean, and is therefore accepted. Item 4 shows
a mean of 2.6, which indicates that grass root organizations build town halls. Item 5 shows a
mean of 2.9 and is therefore accepted. However, the table has a grand mean of 2.7, which
means that grass root organizations encourage socio-economic development of their
communities.
Test of Hypotheses: The study was guided by two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of
significance.
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the activities of grass roots organizations and
the development of members’ political ambition.
Table 4: PPMC Analysis of the Relationship between the Activities of Grass Root
Organizations and Development of Members’ Political Ambition.
Variable N Df s/L rt rc Decision
X Y Accept Null
3811 4180 5 3 0.05 0.8054 0.2980 Hypothesis
At 3 degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significance r-calculated is 0.2980, and r-table value is
0.8054.
Since the value of r- calculated is less than the critical table value, the null hypothesis, which
states that there is no significant relationship between the activities of grass roots organizations
and development of members’ political ambition is therefore accepted.
Ho2: There is no relationship between the activities of grass root organization and socio-
economic development of their communities.
Table 5: PPMC Analysis of the Relationship between the Activities of Grass Roots
Organizations and Socio- Economic Development.
Variable N Df s/L rt rc Decision
X Y Accept Null
3811 3334 5 3 0.05 0.8054 0.3550 Hypothesis
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At 3 degree of freedom and 0.05 significant level, r-calculated is 0.3550 and r-table value is
0.8054. Since r-calculated is less than r-table value, the null hypothesis, which states that there is
no significant relationship between the activities of grass root organizations and socio-
economic development is therefore accepted.
Discussion
Table 1 shows that the various activities of grass roots organizations in communities include
building of market stalls, maintenance of community roads and public buildings. All the items
in the table were accepted. This finding agrees with the submission of Okodudu (1998) in
Hanachor (2009), that social clubs, cultural organizations, co-operative societies etc are the
major actors in the development scene in Nigeria. The table also shows a grand mean of 3.1
Results of the analysis in table 2 show that the activities of grass root organizations encourage
political development of their members. All the items in the table were accepted which implies
that membership and active participation in grass roots organizations has positive effect on
members political career. This result is in agreement with the affirmation of Ekpenyong (1993)
in Hanachor (2009), that group affiliation creates passion, shapes behaviour and induces action.
Table 3 shows the socio-economic activities of grass roots organizations. Four out of five items
were accepted. Item 2 has a mean of2.4 and was rejected because the mean response is less
than 2.5. The table also shows a grand mean of 2.7 which is greater than the criterion mean.
This implies that grass roots organizations encourage socio-economic development in
communities.
However, the two hypotheses tested show that there is no significant relationship
between the activities of grass roots organizations and the political and socio-economic
development members in communities.
Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusion were drawn:
The activities of grass root organizations include maintenance of community roads,
public buildings, assisting the less privileged, provision of school furniture and building
of market stalls.
Grass roots organizations encourage and develop community leaders and politicians.
Grass roots organizations also encourage socio-economic development of communities.

Recommendations
Based on the conclusion, the study recommended the following:
Community members should not despise grass roots organizations but should join to
make the communities better.
Grass roots organizations should seek government assistance to make their activities
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more significant.
Grass roots organizations should seek for recognition by way of registration and
publication of their programmes to attract other community development stakeholders.

References
Ekpeyong, S. (1993). Elements of Sociology. Lagos: African Heritage Publication.
Hanachor, M. E. (2005). Impact of Voluntary Group in Community Development Unpublished
Seminar, University of Port Harcourt.
Hanachor, M. E. (2009). Influence of Community Based Organization on Community Development in
Rivers State. Unpublished Ph.D, Dissertation. University Port Harcourt.
Kuyooro, P. K. (2000). The Impact of Community Development Associations on Rural Transportation.
Unpublished Post graduate Seminar, University of Ibadan.
Okodudu S. (1998). Issues in Community Development. Port Harcourt: Emhai Printing and
Publishing Company















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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO
ENHANCE TEACHING IN NIGERIA HIGHER INSTITUTIONS
By
Dr. (Mrs) Victoria C. Onyeike
Department of Educational Management,
Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt
E-mail: vonyeike@yahoo.com

Abstract
The changing environment in higher institutions brought about by information and
communication technologies, call for transformation in skills, shift in content
delivery and the pedagogy used in higher education system. The purpose of this
paper is to promote integration of information and communication technologies
(ICTs) in higher education level to enhance accessible and quality education that
will lead to economic turnaround of Nigeria. The focus of the paper is on the
benefits that ICT enhancement can provide by facilitating collaboration and
knowledge sharing among scholars in different parts of the globe. The study also
reveals that ICTS also offers opportunity of sharing the best practices and
knowledge across the world. It increases ICT flexibility in education delivery which
gives the learners opportunity of accessing information anytime and anywhere. It
also influences the way students learn and are taught. It is learner driven.


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Introduction
Mass expansion and literature access to higher education and daily breakthrough recorded in science
and technology, and globalization which has enveloped the whole world in the 21
st
century are now
creating a changing environment at the higher education level across the globe. These evolving changes
and their impact on the environment are in turn mounting pressures for concerted effort by universities
and other tertiary institutions within and outside the nation to improve their approach by enhancing
teaching through the use of information and communication technology (ICTs).
Due to this emerging demands, higher education institutions especially in developing nation,
have drawn a lot of attention to digital divide between countries with access to ICT and those without.
Those without and those with but who cannot apply it to teaching and learning in higher institutions
were an issue of concern at the 2000 summit. Due to this the following agencies: United States Agency
for International Development Programme (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), and United Nations Volunteers (UNV)- joined hands to establish the least developed
countries initiative (LDC) all aimed at helping developing nations of which Nigeria is one, to accelerate
progress and move towards sustainability and also providing opportunities for individuals to develop
ICT skills.
Realizing these changes in economic and social life, there is need for a shift in content delivery
and the pedagogy used at the higher education level. In order to fit into the global arena, it is necessary
for the Nigerian higher Education institutions to place a high value on ICT based technology like e-
learning since it has great potential to supplement traditional learning. This gives the individuals’
opportunities for individualized instruction which offers them the opportunity to take more
responsibilities for their own learning (Kwache, 2007).
The increased accessibility to higher education through the use of ICT cannot be forgotten. The
last decade has witnessed unprecedented web search caused by the rapid development of Information
and Communication Technology. ICTs have changed the operations of several industries and also the
way people interact and work in the society (UNESCO, 2002, Bhattachaya & Sharma, 2007). ICT
enhances the flexibility of content delivery in education. It has enabled learner’s access to knowledge
anytime and anywhere they find themselves. This invariably can influence the way students in higher
education institutions are taught, and how they learn, for the procedure is learner-driven. Since it is a
new way of processing information, it encourages and provides learners the autonomy of not only
viewing themselves as being in control of their own learning, but also to see teachers as facilitators in
their learning process. The ICT with its hyper-linking capacities as a source of information from all
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over the world gives teachers and learners instant access to enormous amount of current information
which can enhance their desire and curiosity to learn more. It offers academics that are research
conscious with a steady avenue for the dissemination of reports and findings in their areas of interest
(Yusuf, 2005).
Thus with the emergence of ICT, tertiary institutions are able to provide access to higher
education to a good number of urban and rural population in Nigeria who, ordinarily due to work
conditions might not have the opportunity to attend conventional higher education. However, this has
a life-long value effect to those who seek knowledge irrespective of their age, time, and where they find
themselves. With ICT blended with e-learning, tertiary institutions in Nigeria will be able to provide a
flexible and autonomous learning environments for students and teachers alike (Kwache, 2007). The
availability of best practices and best course materials for higher education can be circulated through
ICTs to enhance better teaching and learning. Thus teaching in higher education using ICT will
definitely lead to democratization of education. In developing nations like Nigeria effective use of ICT
for the purpose of learning at the higher education level, has the potential to bridge the digital divide,
and to challenges the concept that the traditional face-to-face method of content delivery is superior to
it (Bhattachaya, & Sharma, 2007). The web is the core of ITCs to educate through e-learning which
comprises e-portfolios, cyber infrastructures, digital libraries and online learning object repositories. All
the above components make the students to have digital identity and involve all the stakeholders in
education and also enhance research in related disciplines (Chandra, & Patkar, 2007).
Research findings have shown that technology can go a long way to enhance pedagogical,
curricular and assessment reform, which on its own supports the process of knowledge creation.
Through the application of ICT at teaching in higher institutions students and academics alike plan
their learning activities and build on each other’s ideas to create avenues for new knowledge (Ashish, &
Atanu, 2007).
Also ICT creates opportunity of digital resources like digital libraries where the students,
teachers and professionals can access research and course materials from any place at any time
(Bhattachaya, & Sharma, 2007). ICT facilities give room for the networking of academics and
researchers and thus sharing of scholarly materials. This prevents duplication of work Chotin, (2005) &
Casal, (2007) also add that by saying that ICT provides a platform for information sharing and
knowledge which can also be used for good programme delivery in terms of replication of best
practices in higher education. The rationale to enhance ICTs in higher-education can be summarized as
shown in table below.

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Table I: the four main rationales for introducing ICTS in education
Rationale Enhancement
Teaching/Learning Utilizing ICT in promoting content delivery adaptability
and curriculum enrichment
Social Awareness of the role of ICT in the world of today and
the need for students to equip themselves with this new
technology
Skill development Promoting skill development in students through exposure
to technology web searching oriented skills.
Change agent The usefulness of electronic learning to enhance
performance and effectiveness in teaching and learning,
economic and social activites
Source: Onyeike, (2010) Adapted from Cross and Adams (2007).
The only way Nigeria can participate actively in information and communication technology is
by integrating it into the education system particularly higher education. Bearing in mind that the
traditional learning methods in which the teacher is the sole authority rather than the facilitator, is only
limited to one-way-channels of communication whereby the teacher is the transferer of knowledge is
no longer a welcome idea. This is based on the fact that the world is a global village which has given
impetus to the creation of large market of offshore students. The only convenient way of getting in
contact with them is through information and communication technology which offers education as a
service (Bhattacharya, & Sharma, 2007).
Inhibitions on adopting ICT in higher education
The Nigerian higher institutions, especially the universities, might encounter some problems if a web-
teaching is to be made available in order to enhance learner autonomy and greater control over the
learning process. One of such problems could be limited access to the internet in many federal and
State universities in Nigeria due to limited number of computers and other consumable software and
hardwares. Amutabi, & Oketch, (2003) explained that the cost is an important issue that decides and
guides the adoption and growth of information and communication technology especially in developing
nations. (Ozdemir, & Abrevaya, 2007) also supported by maintaining that those institutions that are
recognized and funded by government and those with fairly large population are the ones that should
be encouraged to adopt ICT to support their teaching and learning.
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Enhancing higher education teaching through the use of ICTs may create a digital divide within
universities and students, and students who are more familiar with ICTs will be at advantage and learn
faster than those who do not have practical knowledge and understanding of ICTs. Realizing that in a
developing country like Nigeria not all teachers in higher institutions are genus in ICT, They may not
be knowledgeable in updating the course content online as required which may slow down the learning
process among students. Also the issue of plagiarism may be very prominent as students can copy
information rather than assimilating and developing their own skills.
Conclusion
Economic and social transformation in the world give way to curriculum changes; and such innovation
call for new skills, attitudes, capabilities and interest which go a long way in enhancing higher education
teaching through ICT integration. This makes ICT an indispensable tool in teaching and learning. This
will go a long way to promote adequate teaching method, since it increases flexibility. In addition, the
learners can access information relevant to studies regardless of their geographical location and time.
To encourage learners to be more responsive, the current curriculum and teaching strategies that lay
emphasis on learners, depending on the teacher rather than the learners being in control of learning at
all levels of higher education in Nigeria should be revisited.
In the use of ICTs, the teacher accepts willingly that the learner’s autonomy is vital in learning.
Time and effort is also required to bring the required attitudinal changes in teachers in higher education
institutions in Nigeria. Since these teachers are also the products of the education system, the teachers
play the role of the symbol of authority in the learning process. It may not be easy to change their
styles, methods and strategies in a short-while. For faster transition, teacher education, in service
training programmes in terms of seminars, workshops, conferences, short-course on ICT could go a
long way to democratize teachers as to be more willing to let go control to learners. In summary, wide
accessibility and availability of best-practices, very good course materials can go along way to promote
better teaching process. Adequate control mechanism and licensing should be put in place to avoid
material trend and to ensure that quality assurance is not compromised and consumer protection is
taken into cognizance.
Recommendations
The paper makes the following recommendations to enhance the usage of ICTs in higher educational
institutions.
1. Information and communication technologies infrastructure should be improved in all higher
institutions and integrate. The facilities and the methods of usage should be integrated into
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teaching, learning and research.
2. The concept of e-learning should be emphasized in learning in higher institutions, while the
ratio of computers per student should be improved upon. Virtual libraries should be established
to promote information sharing among students in different higher institutions.
Government should facilitate the provision of funds for scholarly research in (ICTS) usage. Nigeria
institutions of higher learning should be encouraged to use internet connectivity to compete effectively
on the global higher education market place by forming partnerships networks collaboration etc.
3. Government should also create awareness through the establishment of a workable ICTs frame
work or policy document for higher education. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in
partnership with the government should open up more ICT centre’s at strategic places where
students/staff can go and access information when they have the need.
4. Institutional administrators have a vital role to play in encouraging ICTs usage in teaching and
learning. They need to be aware of its numerous benefits, and should act as role models by
using ICTs facilities in their day to day activities.
5. Regular development of staff in form of periodic training and re-training on software usage
should be made a priority in institutions of higher learning. Staff should also be given the
opportunity to attend workshops, short courses, and conferences and public lectures that
bothers on internet usage.

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Virtual University (AVU) and the Paradox of the World Bank in Kenya,
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resources in Indian University Libraries, The International Information and Library Review
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in Nigeria Higher Education. Assessed from
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Education: A Longitudinal Analysis, Information and Management 44(5), 467-479.
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UNESCO (2002). Open and Distance Learning Trend; Policy and Strategy Considerations.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

ROLE OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES ON THE REDUCTION OF PREGNANCY-RELATED
COMPLICATIONS, MORBIDITY AND DEATH IN NIGERIA

Dr. Ifeanyichukwu C. Elendu
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State
E-mail: elelifey2k@yahoo.com

&
Adedamola. O. Onyeaso (Mrs)
Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education
University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State

Abstract
One of the Millennium Development Goals by United Nations is the reduction of
maternal mortality ratio by three quarters by 2015. Maternal mortality has been
reported very high in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria ranks second globally in the
number of maternal deaths. Most maternal mortality is as a result of pregnancy-
related complications and morbidity. Sport scientists and obstetricians or
gynecologists can reduce pregnancy-related complications and morbidity in Nigeria
through pregnant women's participation in physical exercises. Except in the cases
of medical or obstetrical complications, otherwise every pregnant woman is
expected to exercise because of the associated health benefits to mother and baby
The paper discusses exercise during pregnancy as a way of reducing pregnancy-
related complications, morbidity, and death in Nigeria. It highlights the benefits of
exercising while pregnant and the recommended physical exercises for pregnant
women. The safety precautions of exercising during pregnancy, conditions to avoid
or terminate exercise during pregnancy, and barriers to exercise during pregnancy
were pointed out. Recommendations were made.
Key words: Pregnancy, morbidity, complication, death, physical exercise

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Introduction
Each year around 210 million women become pregnant (World Health Organization - WHO, 2000).
Pregnancy is the period between a woman's conception and child birth. It is a period or stage of a
woman carrying fetus in her womb. Pregnancy is an important time in the reproductive life of a
woman. Generally, most expectant mothers are more careful over pregnancy especially the first
pregnancy or because of their past pregnancy experiences of pregnancy-related complications and
morbidity. Pregnancy is often seen as a period of almost inactivity by some pregnant women.
Pregnancy spans through three stages namely the first trimester, second trimester, and third
trimester. The first trimester, according to Cram and Drenth (2011), is the first stage of pregnancy that
commences from conception to 12 weeks which is usually characterized with the pregnant woman's
feeling of dizziness, increased fatigue, hormonal changes and imbalance, tender and swollen breasts,
frequent nausea, vomiting, and heightened emotional sensitivity. At this stage, a woman experiences
food aversion and cravings, change in body complexion, frequent urination, and constipation (Cram &
Drenth, 2011).
The second trimester is the 13th week to the 28th week of pregnancy. At this stage, there is rapid
growth of the baby with the baby making some movements. Oxygen and nutrients required by the
fetus are conveyed through a thickened umbilical cord (Cram & Drenth, 2011). The third trimester is
the last stage of pregnancy that starts from the 28th week till the birth of the baby. There are changes in
the physical appearance and tremendous increase in size of the fetus (Cram & Drenth, 2011). If
adequate precautions and attention are not given during or immediately after pregnancy, a woman may
experience pregnancy-related complications, morbidity, and sometimes death.
Pregnancy-related complications, morbidity and death are interconnected reproductive concepts.
In this paper, pregnancy-related complications are difficulties and challenges experienced by a pregnant
woman or within 1 year of termination of pregnancy irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy,
from any cause related to or aggravated by her pregnancy or its management, but from accidental or
incidental causes. Every day, 1500 women die from pregnancy-or childbirth-related complications
(WHO, 2000). Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries, and most were avoidable (WHO,
2007). This shows the relationship between pregnancy-related complications and death. Most of the
pregnancy-related complications are in the form of pregnancy-related morbidity. Morbidity is
connected with disease.
Pregnancy-related morbidity is equivalent with obstetric morbidity which is one of the WHO's
categories of reproductive morbidity. According to World Health Organization (1992), obstetric
morbidity is morbidity in a woman who has been pregnant (regardless of the site or duration of the
pregnancy) from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from
accidental or incidental causes. Obstetric morbidity, according to Gupta and Prasad (2004), refers to ill
health in relation to pregnancy, delivery and post delivery periods. They further emphasized that life-
threatening morbidity during pregnancy include swelling of hands and feet, paleness, vaginal bleeding,
hypertension and convulsions. Morbidity conditions during delivery are prolonged and obstructed
labour, excessive bleeding, loss of consciousness and rupture of uterus and vagina or cervix. Potential
life-threatening morbidity conditions during the post-partum period are hemorrhage, foul discharge,
high fever, lower abdominal pain and severe headache. Pregnancy-related morbidity can lead to
pregnancy-related death.
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Pregnancy-related death is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 1 year of termination
of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and cite of pregnancy, from any cause related to or
aggravated by her pregnancy or its management, but from accidental or incidental causes (Berg, Danel,
Atrash, Zane & Bartlett, 2001). A woman living in eastern, middle, and western Africa is 75 to 100
times more likely to die when she becomes pregnant than a woman who lives in western Europe
(Sadeghi-Hassanabadi, Keshavaraz, Setoudeh-Maram & Sarraf, 1998). There is need to curb this ugly
high incidence of maternal death in Africa and Nigeria in particular.
Improving maternal health is the fifth Millennium Development Goal adopted by United
Nations Millennium summit of September 2000 in which countries including Nigeria are said to be
committed to reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters by the year between 1990 and
2015. Pregnancy and childbirth and their consequences are still the leading causes of death, disease and
disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries than any other single health
problem (World Health Organization, 2005). Maternal mortality, according to them, is by far highest in
sub-Sahara Africa, where the lifetime risk of maternal death is 1 in 16, compared with 1 in 2800 in rich
countries.
Maine (1991) noted that women in developing countries have up to 200 times the risk of
maternal death as do women in the United States, and the burden of pregnancy morbidity is thought to
be extremely high. An estimated 500, 000 women die each year throughout the world from
complications of pregnancy and childbirth. About 55,000 of these deaths occur in Nigeria (Sadeghi-
Hassanabadi, et al., 1998; The Nigerian Academy of Science, 2009). In 2003, the World Health
organization and Federal Ministry of Health of Nigeria reported that about 145 women die everyday in
Nigeria as a result of causes related to childbirth (The Nigerian Academy of Science, 2009). They
further stressed that Nigeria ranks second globally to India in number of maternal deaths. The risk of a
woman dying from childbirth is 1 in 18 in Nigeria, compared to 1 in 61 for all developing countries,
and 1 in 29,800 for Sweden.
Exercise Recommendations during Pregnancy
In an attempt to reduce pregnancy-related complications, morbidity, and death, American College of
Gynecologists (1995) recommended the following:
1. During pregnancy, women can continue to exercise and derive health benefits even from mild to
moderate exercise routines. Regular exercise (at least 3 times per week) is preferable to intermittent
activity;
2. Women should avoid exercise in the supine (lying with back) position after the first trimester. Such a
position is associated with decreased cardiac output in most pregnant women. Because the
remaining cardiac output will be preferentially distributed away from splanchic beds (including the
uterus) during vigorous exercise, such regimes are best avoided during pregnancy. Prolonged periods
of motionless standing should also be avoided;
3. Women should be made aware of the decreased oxygen available for aerobic exercise during
pregnancy. They should be encouraged to modify the intensity of their exercise according to
maternal symptoms. Pregnant women should stop exercising when fatigued and not exercise to
exhaustion. Weight-bearing exercises may under some circumstances be continued at intensities
similar to those prior to pregnancy throughout pregnancy. Non-weight bearing exercises, such as
cycling or swimming, will minimize the risk of injury and facilitate the continuation of exercise
during pregnancy;
4. Morphologic changes in pregnancy should serve as a relative contraindication to types of exercise in
which loss of balance could be detrimental to maternal or fetal well-being, especially in the third
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trimester. Further, any type of exercise involving the potential for even mild abdominal trauma
should be avoided;
5. Pregnancy requires an additional 300 kcal/day in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Thus,
women who exercise during pregnancy should be particularly careful to ensure an adequate diet;
6. Pregnant women who exercise in the first trimester should augment heat dissipation by ensuring
adequate hydration, appropriate clothing, and optimal environmental surroundings during exercise,
and
7. Many of the physiological and morphological changes of pregnancy persist four to six weeks
postpartum. Thus, pre-pregnancy exercise routines should be resumed gradually based upon a
woman's physical capability.
The table below was Scott (2006) exercise recommendations during pregnancy which was adapted from
Paisley, Joy and Price (2003).
1. Avoid
a Scuba diving
b High altitude activities
c Activities with risk of fall
d Activities with risk of abdominal trauma
2 FITT Principle (Frequency, intensity, time, and type)
a For Sedentary women
i Frequency = minimum of 3x per week
ii Intensity = moderately hard perceived exertion
iii Time = 30 minutes
iv Type = low impact
b. For Regular Exercisers
i Frequency = 3 to 5 x per week
ii Intensity = Moderately hard to hard PE
iii Time = 30 to 60 minutes
iv Type = Low impact and any prior safe activities
c For Elite Athletes
i Frequency = 4 to 6 x per week
ii Intensity = 70% to 80% maximum heart rate or hard PE
iii Time = 60 to 90 minutes
iv Type = Competitive activities as tolerated during pregnancy.
Table 1: Exercise Recommendations during Pregnancy.
Apart from adhering to the FITT principles in exercise prescription for a pregnant woman, the
health status of the pregnant woman; pre-pregnancy exercise behaviours; pre-pregnancy fitness status;
past pregnancy experiences (complications and morbidity if any) should be considered.
Recognizing the importance of exercise to pregnant women and nursing mothers, Royal College
of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2006) suggested that all women should be encouraged to
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participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle during their
pregnancy; reasonable goals of aerobic conditioning in pregnancy should be to maintain a good fitness
level throughout pregnancy without trying to reach peak fitness level or train for athletic competition,
and women should choose activities that will minimize the risk of loss of balance and fetal trauma.
They further suggested that women should be advised that adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcomes are
not increased for exercising women; initiation of pelvic floor exercises in the immediate postpartum
period may reduce the risk of future urinary incontinence, and women should be advised that moderate
exercise during lactation does not affect the quantity or composition of breast milk or impact on fetal
growth. In the same vein, American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2002) recognized that in
the absence of contraindications, pregnant women should be encouraged to engage in regular,
moderate intensity physical activity to continue to derive health benefits during their pregnancy as they
did prior to their pregnancy.
Conditions to Avoid or Terminate Exercise during Pregnancy
Scott (2006) advised that women at risk for preterm labour, women with bleeding after the first four
months of pregnancy, or women with unstable heart or lung disease must not exercise during
pregnancy. Scott (2006) pointed out that exercise should be terminated immediately if a woman
develops vaginal bleeding, difficulty breathing before or during exercise, dizziness, headache, chest
pain, muscle weakness, calf pain or swelling, uterine contractions, decreased fetal movement, or leakage
of clear fluid from the vagina Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2006) outlined the
warning signs with which to terminate exercise to include excessive shortness of breath, chest pain or
palpitations, presyncope or dizziness, painful uterine contractions or preterm labour, leakage of
amniotic fluid, vaginal bleeding, excessive fatigue, abdominal pain particularly in back or pubic area,
pelvic girdle pain, reduced fetal movement, dyspnoea before exertion, heeadache, muscle weakness, and
calf pain or swelling.
Safety Precautions of Exercising during Pregnancy
As a woman who plans to exercise during pregnancy without any medical or obstetrical complications,
always;
1. seek medical advise and recommendations before engaging in exercise.
2. avoid exercises that need lying flat on the back especially at the second and third trimester as it leads
to decrease in blood flow to the fetus..
3. wear good and non-slippery sports shoes to reduce the risk of falling.
4. avoid exercises that require lifting heavy weights.
5. ensure that the body is well hydrated by drinking enough water while exercising.
6. avoid over-exertion or exhaustion while exercising
7. avoid over-stretching when engaging in stretching exercises.
8. avoid tight sports wears or clothing for exercises.
9. breathe deeply when exercising and stop the exercise when there is difficulty in breathing.
10. keep the heart rate under 140 beats per minute while exercising.
11. avoid a lot of jumping and leaping while exercising.
12. modify the exercises in terms of frequency, type, intensity and duration to suit the various stages of
pregnancy.
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13. terminate exercise if you experience fluid leaking from the vagina, vaginal bleeding, dizziness,
decreased fetal movement, muscle weakness, calf pain or swelling, uterine contractions, chest pain,
etc.
14. avoid exercising in a hot or overheated and humid environment.
15. avoid exercises when there are contraindications.
16. listen to body signals while exercising to know when to quit.
17. avoid high impact exercise or sports like gymnastics, scuba diving, water skiing, horseback riding,
downhill skiing, contact sports, etc.
18. avoid jerky and twisting exercise movements.
19. avoid exercise that will cause trauma to the abdominal region.
20. think of your safety and that of the baby when exercising.
21. engage in exercises or sport like swimming without diving, yoga, cycling using stationary bike,
dancing, running, stretching exercises without over-stretching, aerobics, brisk walking, etc.
22. control the intensity of the exercise by starting slowly if physically inactive before the pregnancy.
23. warm up before exercising and cool down after exercising.
24. ensure the dynamism of exercises at different stages of pregnancy.

Benefits of Exercising during Pregnancy to the Pregnant Woman and Fetus
Participation in exercises during pregnancy promotes the health of the woman and baby. Exercise
positively affects pregnancy, labour, and possibly pregnancy outcomes (Scott, 2006). Sterfield (1997)
noted that during pregnancy, women who exercise experience fewer musculoskeletal problems and less
back and pelvic pain than their non-exercising counterparts. Sterfield maintained that exercise increases
maternal cardiovascular fitness, body image, and wellbeing, and prevents gestational, or pregnancy-
related diabetes. Moderate exercise during pregnancy can reduce delivery time and complications
(Sterfield, 1997).Wallace, Boyer, Dan, and Holm (1986) noted that fatigue, varicosities and swelling of
extremities are reduced in women who exercise. Clapp, Rokey, Treadway, Carpenter, Artal, and
Warmes (1992) stated that active women experience less insomnia, stress, anxiety and depression.
Experts (Wolfe, Hall, Webb, Goodman, Monga, & McGrath, 1989; Sterfield, 1997; Paisley, Joy, &
Price, 2003) have reported that weight bearing exercise throughout pregnancy can reduce the length of
labour and decrease delivery complications. Fetuses of exercising mothers tolerate the stresses of labour
well and are more alert and less irritable in the immediate postpartum (Sterfield, 1997).
Barriers to Pregnant Women Participation in Physical Exercises
Hegaard, Kjaergaard, Damm, Petersson

and Dykes

(2010) reported that discomforts of pregnancy such
as fatigue and nausea, and the growing body and thus the cumbersomeness of training, are seen as
reasons to stop or cut back training. Marquez, Bustamante, Bock, Markenson, Tovar, and Chasan-
Taber (2009) reported that physical limitations/restriction, lack of resources, lack of information, lack
of time, lack of energy and motivation are barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Most pregnant women
do not engage in physical exercises due to ignorance of the benefits, societal negative attitude and belief
towards pregnant women's involvement in exercise, lack of access to sports and exercise facilities, and
fear of miscarriage.

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Conclusion
Health benefits abound for pregnant women who participate in exercises. Except in medical or
obstetrical complications, pregnant women are expected participate in physical exercises throughout the
pregnancy period with modifications on the type, frequency, intensity and duration of the exercises.
Participation in physical exercises contributes to the reduction of pregnancy-related complications,
morbidity and death. Pregnant women who exercise experience reduction in musculoskeletal problems,
back and pelvic pain. Exercising during pregnancy increases maternal cardiovascular fitness, body
image, and wellbeing. Fatigue, varicosities and swelling of extremities are reduced in pregnant women
who exercise. Exercise reduces the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among physically active
pregnant women.
Recommendations
• Mass media should help in educating the public on the importance of women exercising
especially while pregnant.
• Medical personnel should advise and prescribe appropriate exercises for pregnant women
during their antenatal visits to the hospitals or clinics. Medical personnel should be able to deal
with pregnant women's fear of miscarriage as a result of exercising.
• The Ministry of Education should ensure that exercise-at-pregnancy is incorporated and taught
in school curriculum and subjects like Health and Physical Education, Health Science, Biology,
and Home Science.
• Fitness centres and sports facilities should be made free and accessible to pregnant women with
proper guidance on recommended exercises.
• Ministry of health in collaboration with ministries of women affairs and sports should organize
workshops, seminars and other educative programmes on exercise and pregnancy.


References
American College of Gynecologists (1995). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (5th ed.).
Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. Retrieved from
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American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2002). Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum
period. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 99, 171 - 173.
Berg, C., Danel, I., Atrash, H., Zane, S., & Bartlett, L. (Eds.)(2001). Strategies to reduce pregnancy-related
deaths: From identification and review to action. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Clapp, J. F., Rokey, R., Treadway, J. L., Carpenter, M. W., Artal, R. M., & Warmes, C. (1992). Exercise
in pregnancy. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 24, 294 - 300
Cram, C. & Drenth, T. S. (2011). Modifying your exercise routine for a healthy pregnancy. Accessed from
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preg.html
Gupta, S. K. & Prasad, R. (2004). Reproductive morbidity among currently married women in EAG states:
Evidence from the reproductive and child health survey 2002-2004. Retrieved from
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pregnancy in women physically active pre-pregnancy: Discussion. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 10(33).
Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/726894_6
Maine, D. (1991). Safe motherhood programs: Options and issues. New York: Columbia University Center for
population and Family Health.
Marquez, D. X., Bustamante, E. E., Bock, B. C., Markenson, G., Tovar, A. & Chasan-Taber, L. (2009).
Perspectives of Latina and Non-Latina White Women on Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise in
Pregnancy. Women Health, 49(6), 505 - 521
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

CONSTRAINTS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN RIVERS STATE’S
SECONDARY SCHOOLS
BY
DR. JONATHAN N. ONUKWUFOR
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counselling,
University of Port Harcourt
Tel: 08066571169
E-mail: onukwuforjonathan@yahoo.com
&
DR. (MRS) MARY-ROSE N. IZUCHI
Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counselling,
University of Port Harcourt
Tel: 08038975105
E-mail: izuprints@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the constraints militating against the teaching of
mathematics in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The
population of the study was 1054 secondary school teachers. The sample size was 400
teachers which was made up of 160 males and 240 females. Stratified random sampling
technique was used in drawing 20 male and 30 female teachers from the 8 schools
studied. The researchers developed the instrument used and captioned it Constraints of
Teaching Mathematics Questionnaire (CTMQ). The questionnaire had 25 items and was
made up of 4 sections. The instrument was validated by experts. Test re-test method was
used to establish its reliability. The reliability coefficient for stability of the instrument for
sections B,C and D were 0.67, 0.73 and 0.75 respectively. While that of the entire
instrument was 0.72. Three research questions were answered while 3 hypotheses were
tested at 0.05 level of significance. The statistical techniques used for data analysis were:
mean, standard deviation and t-test. Findings of the study revealed that poor teaching
methods, inadequate qualified teachers and inadequate instructional materials were the
constraints of teaching mathematics in Rivers State secondary schools. Therefore, it was
recommended amongst others that efforts should be intensified by federal and state
governments to increase the production and supply of mathematics teachers in secondary
schools.


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Introduction
Mathematics can be said to be the most important subject in the world because of its general
applicability in almost all aspects of human endeavour. Consequently, Johnson and Rising (1972)
highlighted that no other subject has greater application than mathematics. They further observed that
it is the prime instrument for understanding and for exploring our scientific, economic and social
world. It is also observed today more than ever before that all fields of knowledge are dependent on
mathematics for solving problems, stating theories and predicting outcomes. Thus mathematics is an
indispensable tool in creating new knowledge.
Olorundare in National Open University (2006) noted that the pursuit of science and
the knowledge acquisition are seriously hampered if the person concerned is not mathematically
inclined. Apparently, any laudable development in the field of science and technology will be hampered
if the potential scientist, technologists and engineers are not adequately equipped with sound
knowledge of mathematics.
Incontrovertibly, substantial knowledge of mathematics is indispensable in study of
science oriented disciplines including physics. For instance, the trigonometric function has direct
application to all wave motions like light, sound and water waves thereby making anybody who is
conversant with trigonometric functions and their properties to be comfortable in the study of wave
motions. Also, a student who intends to study chemistry should be familiar with mathematical concepts
like: percentages, decimals, graphs, indices, logarithms, direct and inverse proportions as well as
calculus.
Unfortunately, this indispensable subject in the lives of mankind called mathematics is
highly dreaded by many students. In recent times, there has been a general lamentation over the
appalling achievement of secondary school students in mathematics in external examinations organized
by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC). According to Adosemowo, (2005), poor academic
performance has been observed in school subjects especially mathematics and English language among
secondary school students. For instance, the performance of candidates in mathematics in WAEC at
the national level between 2004 and 2007 had been below 50% credit level as shown in table 1 below.
Table 1: Students Performance in Mathematics in WAEC Examination in Nigeria 2004-2007
Year Percentage Pass (A1 to 16) Percentage Fail (F9)
2004 33.97 34.47
2005 38.20 34.41
2006 41.12 24.95
2007 46.75 24.24
Source: Statistics office, WAEC, Lagos (2009).
The above information indicates that between 2004 and 2007, a period of four years students
did not obtain beyond 46.75% in WAEC mathematics examination. The above result is terribly poor.
The causes of students’ poor performance in mathematics have been a matter of controversy
and of general concern to all the stakeholders in Education. Some scholars have attributed the students’
poor performance in mathematics to different factors such as students’ poor attitude and lack of
interest in the subject. According to Asaolu & Aboderin (2011), mathematics, for some years, has been
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regarded as a bone of contention and some pupils have made up their minds that they cannot know it.
While some other groups of intellectuals are of the notion that students’ poor attitude and lack of
interest in mathematics are caused by mathematics teachers poor attitude to their teaching profession
and other teacher related factors such as shortage of mathematics teachers, some mathematics teachers
poor methods of teaching and inadequate instructional materials. It was the view of Morakinyo (2003)
that the falling level of academic achievement is attributable to teachers’ non-use of verbal
reinforcement strategy. Poor attitude of some mathematics teachers to their teaching job, warranted
Asaolu & Aboderin (2011) to state that teaching mathematics is not a joke, and not just any teacher can
teach the subject and that schools should employ teachers that understand the subject they are
employed to teach.
In agreement with the above view, Stillman & Vale (2007) observed that excellent mathematics
teachers make major difference to the learning outcome of the students they teach. In his own
contribution, Ozuzu (1991) cited in National Open University (2006), stated that for a teacher to be
effective, he should possess knowledge of the learner, knowledge of the various methodology and
knowledge of the subject matter. This study therefore intends to investigate the constraints militating
against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of
Rivers State and to ascertain if there is any gender difference in such perceptions.
Statement of the Problem
The development of any nation is dependent upon three major factors. These are the quantity and
quality of resources available to that country, efficient utilization and allocation of such resources, and
the level of technological advancement of such a country. The extent of technological development
determines the harnessment of the natural resources which leads to increased national income and
development. Without technological development, the development of any country appears elusive;
hence the present educational developmental state of Nigeria.
Technological acceleration is contingent upon science knowledge, while mathematics is the key
to scientific explosion. In Nigeria, many students who have the yearning and zeal to embrace scientific
and technological professions cannot actualize such aspirations due to their poor mathematical
achievement. A situation of this nature retards the development of science and technology in Nigeria.
Hence the need to investigate the factors militating against the teaching of mathematics in Port
Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this research is to investigate the constraints of teaching mathematics in
secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria.
The Specific Objectives are to:
1. Ascertain whether poor teaching methods and teachers’ attitude militate against the teaching
of mathematics in the secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers
State.
2. Find out whether inadequate qualified teachers affect the teaching of mathematics in
secondary schools.
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3. Verify whether inadequate instructional materials militate against the teaching of mathematics
in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Research Questions
The following research questions have been posed to guide the study.
1. To what extent do poor methods of teaching and teachers attitude militate against the teaching
of mathematics in the secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers
State?
2. To what extent does inadequate qualified teachers militate against the teaching of mathematics
in the secondary schools?
3. To what extent does inadequate instructional materials militate against the teaching of
mathematics in the secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers
State?
Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses have been propounded at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho
1
: There is no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perceptions of poor
teaching methods and teachers’ attitude as constraints to the teaching of mathematics in
secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Ho
2
: There is no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perception of inadequate
qualified teachers militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools.
Ho
3
: There is no significant, difference between male and female teachers’ perception of inadequate
teaching materials militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in Port
Harcourt Local Government of Rivers State.
Methodology
The study adopted descriptive survey research design to collect data on constraints of teaching
mathematics in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Sample of 400 teachers were drawn from the population of 1054 teachers comprising 501
Senior Secondary and 553 Universal Basic Education teachers. By gender, the population was made up
of 314 male and 740 female teachers (State School Board and UBE Statistics Office Port Harcourt
2011). The sample size was made up of 160 male and 240 female teachers. Stratified random sampling
was used to draw the respondents from 8 schools comprising 4 senior secondary schools and 4 junior
secondary schools. Thirty female and twenty male teachers were drawn from each school.
The researchers made use of a questionnaire titled Constraints of Teaching Mathematics
Questionnaire (CTMQ). It was a 4 point structured Likert Scale instrument with 4 Sections. Namely
sections: A,B,C and D. Section A was for personal data, section B with 9 items measured poor method
of teaching, section C had 8 items measuring inadequate qualified mathematics teachers; while section
D had 8 items measuring inadequate instructional materials: The instrument was made up of 25 items.
Three experts in the field of Educational Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation validated the
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instrument. And their suggestions were reflected. The reliability of the instrument was determined by
using test-retest method. Forty copies of the questionnaire were first administered to teachers in a
school located in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area. After two weeks, the same instrument was re-
administered to them. The two sets of scores were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
The reliability co-efficient for stability of the instrument was given thus: 0.67 for section B, 0.73 for
section C, and 0.75 for section D. That of the entire instrument was 0.72. The copies of the
questionnaire were administered by the researchers with the help of two research assistants. The data
collected were analyzed by the use of mean and standard deviation in order to answer the research
questions, while t-test was used for testing the null hypotheses. The criterion mean for the items was
2.50.
Results
Research Question 1
To what extent do poor methods of teaching and teachers attitude militate against the teaching of
mathematics in the secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State?
Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation Analysis of Poor Teaching Method and Teachers
attitude as Constraints of Teaching Mathematics.
S/No Items

x
S.D Decision
1 Mathematics teachers do not explain how to solve
mathematics clearly to the students
2.65 .79 Accepted
2 Mathematics teachers use abusive language on the students
for being slow learners
2.40 .66 Rejected
3 Mathematics teachers do not ask students questions during
and after teaching
2.47 .77 Rejected
4 Mathematics teachers do not often give students home
work because of marking difficulties
2.32 .87 Rejected
5 Mathematics teachers are not usually happy when they are
teaching the subject
2.45 .83 Rejected
6 Mathematics teachers lack proper method
of teaching
2.85 .47 Accepted
7 Mathematics teachers are too fast when teaching students 2.95 .44 Accepted
8 Mathematics teachers are not dedicated to their job 2.70 .78 Accepted
9 Mathematics teachers do not often cover WAEC or
NECO syllabus
2.95 .49 Accepted
GRAND MEAN 2.63
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
Table 2 above shows that teachers in Port Harcourt L.G.A rejected items 2, 3, 4, 5 as factors militating
against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools. This is because the mean scores for the items
of 2.40, 2.47, 2.32 and 2.45 with standard deviations of .66, .77, .87 & .83 respectively were below the
criterion means of 2.50 while items 1,5,7,8 and 9 with mean of 2.65, 2.85, 2.70 and 2.95 and SD of .79,
.47, .44, .78 & .49 respectively were accepted because they are above the criterion mean of 2.50. The
calculated grand mean of 2.63 is higher than the criterion mean of 2.50. This result shows that poor
teaching method and teachers attitude are among the factors militating against the teaching of
mathematics in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
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Research Question 2
To what extent does inadequate qualified teacher militate against the teaching of mathematics in the
secondary schools?
Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation of Inadequate Qualified Teachers as a Constraint of
Teaching Mathematics.
S/No Items

x
S.D Decision
10 Experienced mathematics teachers are inadequate in schools 2.97 .79 Accepted
11 Mathematics teachers are not qualified 2.40 .70 Rejected
12 Not many first degree holders in mathematics are available to
teach students in some schools

3.17

.54

Accepted
13 Mathematics teachers were not well trained before employment
as teachers
3.07 .52 Accepted
14 Mathematics teachers are not sent for in-service training 3.32 .56 Accepted
15 Some mathematics teachers do not have
adequate knowledge of the subject
2.87 .71 Accepted
16 Non-mathematics teachers like physics and chemistry teachers
are used to teach mathematics in some schools

3.42

.49

Accepted
17 Less mathematics teachers are being produced 3.05 .86 Accepted
Grand Mean 3.03
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
Table 3 above shows that item 2 with

x of 2.40 and SD of .70 was rejected by the teachers as one of
the factors militating against the teaching of mathematics. While items 10,12,13,15,16 and 17 were all
accepted as components of inadequate qualified teachers militating against the teaching of mathematics.
The calculated grand mean of 3.03 is higher than the criterion mean of 2.50. Thus inadequate qualified
teachers is among the factors militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in
Port Harcourt Local Government of Rivers State.
Research Question 3
To what extent does inadequate instructional materials militate against the teaching of mathematics in
the secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State?
Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation of Inadequate Instructional Material as a Constraint of
Teaching Mathematics.
S/No Items

x
S.D Decision
18 Mathematics books available are sub-standard 2.77 .96 Accepted
19 Mathematics teachers do not have adequate mathematics
text books due to financial constraint
3.10 .76 Accepted
20 Students do not have mathematics text books 2.97 .96 Accepted
21 Frequent change of textbooks affect the students 2.95 1.00 Accepted
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22 Mathematics textbooks are not written in such a way that
students can read them and understand by themselves
3.32 .93 Accepted
23 Mathematics lessons are not usually enriched
with teaching aids like concrete materials,
pictures and demonstration etc.
3.55 .70 Accepted
24 Desks are not enough in some schools for students to sit
when learning mathematics
2.97 .96 Accepted
25 Teachers do not have chalk and good chalk board with
which to write when teaching mathematics
2.95 1.00 Accepted
Grand Mean 3.07
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
Table 4 above shows that items 18,19,20,21,22, 23, 24 & 25 with means of 2.77, 3,10, 2.27, 2.95, 3.32,
3.55, 2.97 and 2.95 respectively, are all above the criterion mean of 2.50. Also, the calculated grand
mean of 3.07 is as well higher than the criterion mean of 2.50. Therefore teachers in Port Harcourt
Local Government perceive inadequate instructional materials as one of the factors militating against
the teaching of mathematics in Port Harcourt L.G.A. of Rivers State.
Hypothesis 1 (Ho
1
): There is no significant difference between male and female teachers’
perceptions of poor teaching methods and teachers’ attitude as constraints of teaching
mathematics in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Table 5: A t-test Analysis of Male and Female Teachers’ Perception of Poor Teaching Method
and Teachers attitude as Constraints of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools.
Gender N

x
SD Df t-cal t-crit Result
Male 160 24.12 4.52 Not
significant 398 1.78 1.96
Female 240 23.50 2.45
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
Table 5 above shows that the calculated t-value (1.78) is less than the t-critical (1.96) at 398 degree of
freedom and .05 level of significance. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted. This means that there
is no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perceptions of poor teaching method as
a factor militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools.
Hypothesis 2 (Ho
2
): There is no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perception
of inadequate qualified teachers militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools.
Table 6: A t-test Analysis of Male and Female Teachers Perception of Inadequate Qualified
Teachers Militating Against the Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools.
Gender N

x
SD Df t-cal t-crit Result
Male 160 24.75 1.56
Significant 398 3.61 1.96
Female 240 24.00 2.29
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
Table 6 above shows that the calculated t-value (3.61) is higher than the t-critical (1.96) at 398 degree of
freedom and .05 level of significance. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. Thus there is significant
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difference between male and female teachers perception of inadequate qualified teachers militating
against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government of
Rivers State.
Hypothesis 3 (Ho
3
): There is no significant, difference between male and female teachers’ perception
of inadequate teaching materials militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools in
Port Harcourt Local Government of Rivers State.
Table 7: A t-test Analysis of Male and Female Teachers Perception of Inadequate Instructional
Materials Militating Against the Teaching of Mathematics.
Gender N

x
SD Df t-cal t-crit Result
Male 160 26.00 3.75
Significant 398 1.96 1.96
Female 240 25.25 3.74
Source: Researchers’ Field Work 2011.
A glance at table 7 above shows that the calculated t-value of (1.96) is equal to the t-critical
value (1.96) at 398 degree of freedom and .05 alpha level. Consequently, the null hypothesis is rejected.
This means that there is significant difference between male and female teachers perception of
inadequate instructional materials militating against the teaching of mathematics in the secondary
schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State.
Discussion
In research question one, teachers in Port Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State were of the
view that poor teaching method was militating against the teaching of mathematics. This finding is in
consonance with Oladayo and Oladayo (2010) that the difficulty in teaching and learning of
mathematics has been attributed to a number of factors including teaching methods. The finding is also
in agreement with Amadi (2010) that a teacher may have a good knowledge of the subject matter, but
may lack knowledge of the choice and application of teaching methods for a specific topic and for a
group of learners. Based on the high mean scores, the teachers perceived mathematics teachers inability
to cover WAEC or NECO syllabus as major aspect of poor method of teaching. Based on the t-test
hypothesis analysis, there was no significant difference between male and female teachers perception of
teaching method militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools.
Another finding of this study is that inadequate qualified teachers militate against the teaching
of mathematics in secondary schools. This result of the study is consistent with Nwankwo and Njoku
(2005) who attributed students’ poor academic achievement on inexperience in subjects by teachers due
to poor training. The finding is also in consonance with national Open University of Nigeria (2006) that
a major problem facing the teaching and learning of mathematics today is lack of enough teachers to
handle the subject particularly at the secondary school level. Based on the items mean score of the
teachers, the major contributors to the problem included usage of non-mathematics teachers like
physics and chemistry teachers to teach mathematics (x =3.42) and mathematics teachers not sent for
in service training (x = 3.32). However, the t-test hypothesis analysis revealed that there was significant
difference in the perception of male and female teachers on inadequate qualified teachers militating
against the teaching of mathematics. Male teachers were more of the view than female teachers.
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This study also found that inadequate instructional materials militate against the teaching of
mathematics in Port-Harcourt Local Government Area of Rivers State. This finding is in agreement
with Oladayo & Oladayo (2010) who found that absence of mathematics laboratory and other teaching
learning materials in schools contributed to the difficulty in teaching and learning of mathematics in
schools. The finding is also in consonance with National Open University of Nigeria (2006) that apart
from text books, mathematics lesson needs to be enriched with teaching aids like concrete materials,
pictures, demonstrations etc to help students’ comprehension. The issue of “mathematics lessons are
not usually enriched with teaching aids” was seen by the teachers as one of the greatest problems in the
teaching of mathematics based on their mean score (x=3.55) on the item. The next major contributory
aspect of the problem, based on teachers mean score (x 3.32) was that most mathematics text books are
not written in such a way that students can read them and understand by themselves. Significant
difference was found between male and female teachers on inadequate teaching materials militating
against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools. The male teachers were more of the view
than female teachers.
Conclusion
Studies on how to improve the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools will not subside until
students academic achievement in the subject has improved substantially. This study has implicated
poor method of teaching, inadequate qualified teachers and lack of adequate instructional materials as
factors militating against the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools.
Recommendations
(1) The Mathematics teachers should teach at a rate that will enable the learners comprehend their
teaching.
(2) The mathematics teachers should endeavour to cover the WAEC / NECO syllabus in
mathematics even if it involves the teachers organizing continuation classes or extra lessons for
the students.
(3) Efforts should be intensified by Federal and State governments to increase the production and
supply of mathematics teachers in secondary schools to prevent physics and chemistry teachers
being used as mathematics teachers.
(4) It is hereby recommended that mathematics teachers be sent for in service training periodically,
especially during holidays.
(5) Efforts should be made by the government to provide more class-rooms and desks in schools
to ensure that mathematics classes are not crowded and students sit comfortably while learning
mathematics.
(6) Teachers should ensure that they use instructional aids like pictures, concrete material and
demonstration while teaching.
(7) Authors of mathematics text books should write the books in such a way that the students
could easily read and understand them on their own.
(8) Mathematics text books and mathematics teaching allowance should be paid to mathematics
teachers by State government as a source of motivation to teachers.
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References
Adesemowo, P.O. (2006). Premium on objective education: Panacea for scholastic malfunctioning and
aberration. 34
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Inaugural Lecture. Olabisi Onabanjo University. Agolwoye Olabisi Onabanjo
University Press.
Amadi, G.N. (2010). Teachers role for effective learning and high academic achievement in Nigerian
schools. Nigerian Journal of Empirical Studies in Psychology and Education 1 (11,50-54.
Asaolu, O & Aboderin, M. (2011). Mass failure: Scrutinise WAEC, teachers-stakeholders.
http://odilinet/news/source/2011/aug/809.html
Asikia, O.A. (2010). Students and teachers perception of the causes of poor academic performance in
Ogun state secondary Schools Nigeria: Implication for counselling for national development.
European Journal of Social Sciences 2,13, 229-242.
Johnson, P.A. & Rising, G.E. (1972). Guidelines for Teaching mathematics, Belmect, California: Wadsworth
publishing company.
Morakinyo, A. (2003). Rative efficacy of systematic desensitization, self statement monitoring and
flooding on students test anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis. University of Ibadan.
National Open University of Nigerian (2006) 1lnstructional techniques and methods in mathematics
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Nwankwo) O.C & Njoku, J.U. (2005), Factors related to academic achievement of Junior Secondary
school students in Rivers State. Journal of Education in Developing Areas 14, 249-256.
Oladayo, E.C. & Oladayo, O.T. (2010). Effect of constructivist in mathematics and lecture method on
students attitude in mathematics. Nigerian Journal of Empirical studies in psychology and Education 1
(11) 176-184.
Stillman, G & Vale, C. (2007). Teaching secondary school mathematics. Australia: Allen & Unwin.








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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.


Human Capital Development in the Context of Global Competitiveness in
Nigeria.

By
NJOKU Chimezie, Ph.D
Dept. of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology,
Faculty of Education, University of Port-Harcourt.


Abstract
Human capital is the key resource for a nation’s economic as well as military strength. This human
capital can be acquired only through schooling. It is portable and it can be created anywhere.
Knowledge as a key resource is fundamentally different from the traditional key resource of the
economist- land labour and even capital. When we say that knowledge has become the key
resource, it means that there is a world economy and that the world economy rather than the
national economy is in control. Every country, every industry and every business will be in an
increasingly competitive environment, they will in its decisions, consider its competitive standing in
the world economy and the competiveness of its knowledge competencies. The fact that human
capital has become the key resource means that the standing of a country in the world economy will
increasingly determine its domestic prosperity. This paper will look at human capital as a key
resource in Nigeria. The challenges and opportunities in the development of human capital in the
context of global competitiveness will also be highlighted.









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Introduction
Within the framework of global competitiveness, the Nigerian educational system is being exposed to a
lot of challenges as well as opportunities. The challenges are based on the fact that the system has not
kept pace with the rapid changes in educational ideas and system. It is a necessity that we improve our
capacity for both learning and changing.
Despite the pervasiveness of change and the necessity of continuous learning, we still tend to be
resistant to change and are either unwilling or unable to learn from many of our experiences. This
seems to be particularly the case in Nigeria where for many years we have as a nation behaved as
though we are able to isolate ourselves from events in the rest of the world and neglect keeping pace
with the expansion of knowledge which has occurred around us.
A distinguished Australian economist Helen Hughes (1988) has argued that the countries that
grew most rapidly since world war two are those that have made strong efforts to develop their human
resources. Through education (in a broad sense) and training they have turned surplus labour into
valuable human capital.
Naisbitt and Aburdene (1986) pointed out that in the industrial era, the strategic resource was
capital and in the information era, the strategic resources include information, knowledge and creativity.
There is only one way a corporation can gain access to these valuable commodities ---- through the
people with whom these resources reside ---human capital is the corporation’s most important resource
for it to compete globally.
The Concept of Development
Most times, the terms training, education and development are used interchangeably. While there is a
debate on the exact definition of these terms, (which in part gives reasons for their perceived
interchangeability) if the terminology is to be used correctly, the distinction must be made. According
to the English on line dictionary, (2000) development is the act of improving by expanding or enlarging
or refining, and also, development is a gradual advancement or growth through a series of progressive
change. Development goes beyond educating employees for a specific position whether present or
future. Any development program prepares employee with learning which will allow them to grow
individually alongside the organisation itself.
The concept of human development embraces every development issue, including economic
growth, social investment, and people’s empowerment, provision of basic needs and social safety net,
political and cultural freedom. According to human development foundation (1999), there is fairly
broad agreement on major aspects of the human development paradigm, they are;
1. Development must put people at the centre of its concerns
2. The purpose of development is to enlarge all human choices not just income.
3. The human development paradigm is concerned both with building up human capabilities
through investment in people and with using those human capabilities fully through an enabling
framework for growth and empowerment.
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4. Human development has four essential pillars; equity, sustainability, production and
empowerment.
5. The human development paradigm defines the ends of development and analyses sensible
options for achieving them.
For the purpose of this article, the researcher will concentrate on human capital development

The concept of Human Capital
Lewis, A.W is said to have begun the field of economic development and consequently the ideas of
human capital when he wrote in 1954, “the economic development with unlimited supplies of labour.
The term “human capital” was not used due to its negative undertones until it was first discussed by
Author Cecil Pigou “there is such a thing as investment in human capital as well as investment in
material capital. But according to Hughes (1998), the best known application of the idea of “human
capital” in economics is that of Mincer and Gary Becker of the Chicago school of economics. Bekers
book entitled “Human capital” published in 1964 became a standard reference for many years. In this
view, human capital is similar to physical means of production for example, factories and machines.
One can invest in human capital (via education, training and medical treatment) and ones output
depends partly on the rate of return on the human capital one owns. Thus human capital is a means of
production into which additional investment yields additional output. Human capital is substitutable
but not transferable like land, labour or fixed capital.
Rastogi, (2000) defines human capital as, the knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes
embodied in individuals that facilitates the creation of personal, social and economic well being.
According to Schults, (1993) the term “human capital” has been defined as a key element in improving
a firm’s assets and employees in other to increase productive as well as sustain competitive advantage.
To sustain competitiveness in the organisation, human capital becomes an instrument used to increase
productivity.
Human capital refers to processes that relate to training, education and other professional
initiatives in other to increase the level of knowledge, skills, abilities, values and social assets of an
employee which will lead to the employee’s satisfaction and performance and eventually on a firm
performance. Human capital is recognition that people in organisations/institutions are important and
essential asset who contributes to the growth and development in a similar way as physical assets such
as machine and money.
Human Capital Theory
The theory of human capital is rooted from the field of macroeconomic development theory. Schultz,
1993 Becker’s (1993) classic book, with special reference to education illustrates that the general
purpose human capital is knowledge gained through education and training in areas of value to a variety
of firms such as generic skills in human resource development. Regardless of this application, Becker
considers education and training to be the most important investment in human capital.
Based on the work of Schultz, Psacharopoulos and Woodhall (1997), human capital theory rests
on the assumption that, formal education is highly instrumental to the improvement of production
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capacity of a population. It emphasizes how education increases the productivity and efficiency of
workers by increasing the level of cognitive stock of economically productive human capacity which is
a product of innate abilities and investment in human beings.
Human capital is getting wider attention with increasing globalization and also the saturation of
the job market due to the recent downturn in the various economies of the world. Countries now
emphasize human capital development towards accelerating the economic growth by devoting
necessary effort and time. Thus human capital development is one of the fundamental solutions to
enter the international arena.
The concept and Meaning of global competiveness
The official definition of organisation for economic cooperation and development (OECD) of a
nation’s competiveness is “the degree to which a country can, under free and fair market conditions
produce goods and services which meets the test of international market, while simultaneously
maintaining and expanding in the real income of its people over the long term”
The international institute for management development defines competiveness as “a field of
economic knowledge which analyzes the facts and policies that shape the ability of a nation to create
and maintain an environment that sustain more value creation for its enterprise and more prosperity for
its people”.
The world economic forum defines competitiveness as, “the ability of a country to achieve
sustained high rates of growth in gross domestic products (GDP) per capita”. Therefore only nations
with high level of productivity will become domestically and globally competitive and have the capacity
to exploit market opportunities to sustain and expand employment and real income growth in the long
term.
The imperative for global competitiveness according to the international institute for
management development involves addressing the following issues; macroeconomic policies,
government practices and regulations, the cost of doing business, education and skills upgrading,
research and development, innovations, sustainable environment, management conformity with
instructional standards and total factor productivity (TFP).
Garelli, (2002) listed the ten golden rules of competiveness. According to him, for a country to
stay or become competitive they must;
1. Create a stable and predictable legislative environment
2. Work on a flexible and resilient economic structure
3. Invest in traditional and technological infrastructure
4. Promote private savings and domestic investment
5. Develop aggressiveness on the international markets (exports) as well as attractiveness for
foreign direct investment.
6. Focus on quality, speed and transparency in government and administration
7. Maintain a relationship wage levels, productivity and taxation
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8. Preserve the social fabrics by reducing wage disparity and strengthening the middle class.
9. Invest heavily in education especially at the secondary level and in the life-long training of the
labour force.
10. Balance the economies of proximity and globalism to ensure substantial wealth creation while
preserving the value system that citizen’s desire.
Globalisation and trade liberalisation coupled with rapid advances in information and
communications technology have resulted to unprecedented intensification of market competition
worldwide. The government of many countries have made competitiveness a high priority in their
strategic planning and policy formulation for development plans.
Organisations and Institutions seem to optimize the workforce through comprehensive human
capital development program not only to achieve business goals, but most important is for a long term
survival and sustainability. In response to the changes, most firms have embraced the notion that
human capital has a good competitive advantage that will enhance higher performance.
Challenges and Opportunities
There is a growing realisation that many of our social systems and organisations are being faced with
the new realities of the emerged information/knowledge age. These new realities are touching the lives
of every individual, every family and community, the host of organisations of our public and private
sectors and our overall society. They affect the future of humanity as a whole. The questions that we
need to ask ourselves are; what are these new realities? What is our role in facing the massive changes
that confront us today? What kind of capacities and capabilities should we develop that will allow us to
design our own lives, shape our system and give direction to the evolution of our communities, our
organisations and our society in order to compete globally.
Faced with these new realities, our systems have to transform as other societies have
transformed. They have to keep in pace with their constantly changing environment. Thus, it is
important that we understand what these transformations and new realities are, grasp their implications
and apply our understanding of these implications to the transformation of our systems. We will need
to also learn how to recreate our system and redesign them so that they will accommodate the emerged
new realities.
It is obvious that the kind of schooling we offer today in Nigeria cannot possibly prepare students
for this new world as a result we must;
1. Change our outdated educational systems.
2. Explore the educational implication of new realities
3. Envision new images of systems of learning and human development that are built around the
learner experiences level.
4. Transform our systems by designs that is, bringing the new image to life and guiding education
into it.
Schools should be made compatible with the changing global society. In this century, an educated
person should be able to think and learn in a computational environment. Most of our schools do not
teach their students these abilities now. So a major change ought to be made in the way our schools
functions at present.
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Education as an engine of growth of any country depends on the quality and quantity of education. If
this is true, formal education is highly instrumental in improving the capacity of a nation. As a capital
good, education can be used to develop the human resources necessary for economics and social
transformation. The focus of education as a capital good relates to the concept of human capital which
emphasizes that the development of skills is an important factor in production activities. Education is
an economic good because it is not easily obtainable and thus needs to be apportioned. Economists
regard education as both consumer and capital good because it offers utility to a consumer and also
serves as an input into the production of other goods and services.
It is widely accepted that education creates improved citizens and helps to upgrade the general standard
of living in a society. Therefore, positive social change is likely to be associated with the production of
qualitative citizenry.
Nigeria is confronted by most of the problems that could limit the capacity of expansion in education
to stimulate growth and development. Such as under employment, low absorptive capacity, shortage of
professionals, regional imbalances and brain-drain. The persistence of this problem points to the need
for a more focused responsive, functional and qualitative educational system. To contribute
significantly to economic growth and development, education must be of high quality and also meet the
skill-demand needs of the economy.
According to Fitzsimons (2002), throughout western countries, education has recently been re-
theorised under human capital theory as primarily an economic device. Human capital theory according
to him is the most influential economic theory of western education, setting the framework of
government policies since the early 1960s. It is seen increasingly as the key determinant of economic
performance.
A key strategy in determining economic performance has been to employ a conception of
individual as human capital and various economic metaphors such as ‘technological change’ ‘research’
‘innovation’ ‘productivity’ ‘education’ and ‘competitiveness’.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Human resources are no longer considered to be an expense but an asset in the form of human capital.
Matsushita Electric of Malaysia uses the slogan “We make people before we make products”. Human
capital development is an investment that must be planned carefully from the school stage. In the pre
employment stage, focus should be on improving the quality of the educational system to enhance
thinking, creativity and communication skills and inculcate good morals and positive work values.
In Nigeria, the percentage of people with technical and university education is very low
compared to those in more advanced nations. A critical mass of educated workers should be created to
support a knowledge base economy leading to high value products and services. There should be
opportunities for continuous learning and access to knowledge and advanced learning.
The educational system must be relevant to the needs and demands of industries to respond to
a rapidly changing economic situation. In the future the stress will be on employability and not on
employment, meaning that flexibility and adaptability will be required.

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References
Beckers, G.S (1993). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis with special reference to education.
Chicago: University of Chicago press.
English online dictionary www.ardictionary.com/development/4015
Fitzimons, P. (1997). Human capital theory and participation in tertiary education. Foray: The Dunmole press
Garelli, S. (2002) Competiveness of nations: The fundamentals. www.02.ind.ch/wcy/fundamantals
Hughes, H. (1998). The economic framework. In Marsh, I.C (Ed) Australia can compete: towards a more
flexible and adaptable society. Melbourne: Longman Chesshire. Human development foundation
www.hdf.com
Lansbury, R.(1992). Managing change in a changing environment. Asia pacific journal of human resources,
30 (1) 16-28
Naisbitt, J & Aburdene, P (1986.) Reinventing the cooperation. London: McDonald
OECD (1997). Internationalisation of higher education. Paris: centre for educational research and innovation
Oleniyan, D.A & Okemakinda, T. (2008). Human capital theory: Implications for educational
development. European journal of scientific research. 28(8) 157-162.
Psacharopoulos, Schults & Woodhall (1997). Education for development: An analysis of investment choice. New
York: Oxford University press.
Rostogi, G. (2000). Journal of international social research. 2 (8) 2009. www.sosyalarastirmalar.com
Schults, T.W (1971). Investment in human capital. New York. The free press.
Schults, T.W (1993). The economic value of education. New York: Columbia University.










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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS OF BRAIN DRAIN IN NIGERIA:
IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT
BY
NWAEKE, NKECHI FLORENCE
&
DR. U. J. NWOGU
Department of Educational Management,
University of Port Harcourt.

Abstract
This paper examines the brain drain syndrome in Nigerian educational system. A
situation whereby highly skilled personnel or highly qualified specialist decide to
leave the Nigerian educational system for overseas and other more financially
rewarding organisations in search of greener pasture. The identified causes of
brain drain in our educational system include poor pay package, poor funding of
educational system, social unrest and conflict, poor working environment,
inadequate research facilities and high unemployment rate. The consequential
effect of this phenomenon were seen in the fallen standard of education, reduction
in the quality of skilled manpower in educational system and the tremendous fall in
the Gross Domestic Product of the Nigeria and vice versa. In tackling this syndrome,
it was suggested that, there should be adequate funding of our educational system,
conducive teaching/learning environment, an upward review of the pay package of
lecturers, putting in place staff retention programmes and sensitization on the
effects of brain drain in our educational system.





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Introduction
The roles of universities in the provision and development of manpower required for the socio-
economic and technological advancement of any nation cannot be over emphasised. As a nation’s
knowledge industry, universities increase the productive capacity of the labour force. In the developed
countries, university scientists monitor global technological trends, assess their relevance to national
needs and assist in developing the national technological capacity for economic growth.
The mass departure of Africa’s intellectual and skilled population to Western nations, called the
“Brain Drain” has been one of the greatest obstacles to the development of the continent. Nigeria, in
particular, is suffering from shortage of professionals and skilled individuals necessary for the
advancement of the nations’ capital.
Up till the early eighties of the 20
th
century, the Nigerian universities were epitome of
everything that could be considered academically excellent; having good, qualified, and to a certain
extent, adequate academic staff. The working conditions were good and motivating enough. During
this period, the academic community in Nigeria lived to its billings, researches were conducted and
results achieved. The totality of the Nigerian university system was recognised and well respected.
Unfortunately the educational system in Nigeria fall from a “point of honour to a laughing stock”. This
drastic change in the system constituted the syndrome of “brain drain in our educational system which
can be likened to Chinua Achebe’s “Things fall apart and the centre cannot hold”. This stress put on
the universities has taken a great toll on the quality of learning. Employers of labour and the general
public have expressed concern on the quality of graduates of Nigerian universities. This situation is
clearly evident when graduates of Nigerian institutions are asked to write qualifying examinations
before they can be employed by corporate organizations.
This scenario seems not to augur well for a developing country like Nigeria that believes in
human capital for promoting economic growth and development. It is against this backdrop that this
paper examined the causes of brain-drain in Nigeria universities and the possible ways to redress the
phenomenon.
The Concept of Brain Drain
Brain drain means the mass exodus of highly trained and well experienced academics from countries
with poor conditions of service to those with better working conditions in search of greener pasture.
Timilehin, Esohe, Osalusi and Babatope (2010) state that “Brain drain is a process that leads to
educational institutions losing some or a significant number of its academic staff to other sectors of the
economy or to other countries”. Brain drain is a phenomenon that had afflicted the Nigerian university
system most severely in the 1980s through to the 21
st
century. Nigeria has lost most of its experienced
professionals to even smaller African countries like Ghana, Rwanda, Kenya and
South Africa, and to big countries like Britain, America, Canada, France, Germany among others.
Between 1988 and 1990, over 1,000 lecturers left the federal universities in Nigeria (Timilehin, et
al, 2010). They also believe that for now, over 10,000 Nigerian academics are employed in the United
States alone. Brain drain in whatever perspectives, as it is being described is the widespread migration
of academic staff from the universities in the country to overseas universities or its equivalent where
their services are better rewarded. It must however, be noted that while the best brains are leaving the
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university system, the broad aim of producing high level manpower from the system for national
development may be a mirage. The impact of brain drain led to the inauguration of a committee on
brain drain by the Federal Government in 1988 during the leadership of former President Babangida.
According to the estimates of the presidential committee on Brain Drain set up in 1988 by the
Babangida’s administration, Nigeria, between 1986 and 1990, lost 10,694 professionals from tertiary
institutions alone. The total estimate of both people that left the public and private organisations within
that period is over 30,000. This Brain drain committee was chaired by Prof. Oye Ibidapo-Obe who was
the vice chancellor of the University of Lagos. Ibidapo-Obe stated thus: “In our work on brain drain,
we realized that the major problem is the economy, particularly the devaluation of the naira and
inflation”.
According to Dr Ihechukwu Madubuike, 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United
States of America in 1995. The honourable minister alarmed that a staggering 21,000 Nigerian doctors
were practising in the USA alone, the figure when added to those in Saudi Arabia and Gulf States,
Europe, Australia in other African countries the figure should be above 30,000. As at this period the
number of doctors in our public services is not more than 21,000, “what a shame”.
Anekwe (2003) posits that “immediately after the attainment of national sovereignty by Nigeria
from the British overloads, the problem of brain drain was not as acute as it has become today”. He
went on to say that those who were privileged to acquire Western education very easily secured
employment. Thus, there was no motivation to leave the country. And then, the Nigerian economy was
much more robust and the Nigerian currency could rub shoulders with the major currencies of the
world.
It needs to be pointed out here that a vital segment of the population that is required by the
country for national development now constitutes the bulk of Nigerians leaving the country in search
of better opportunities abroad. Young doctors, pharmacists, nurses, teachers, engineers, etc constitute
the bulk of this list. The situation in Nigeria today is pathetic because a large chunk of highly trained
university graduates and those of other tertiary institutions have left the country without anyone
benefiting from the investment in their education. This goes a long way to show that the Nigerian
economy needs an urgent “surgical operation”.
However, there is a more dangerous internal brain drain prevalent in Nigeria now. It is an
established fact that no nation can rise above the quality of its teachers. It is also a fact that countries
who acknowledge education as an instrument par excellence will reserve their first class (best brains) for
the ivory towers. In time past, the products of our institutions who made 1
st
class and 2
nd
class uppers
were easily attracted to teaching while those with lower grades went to the industries. Today, reverse is
the case. The best brains are now attracted to the oil prospecting companies, banks, corporate
organisations and other more viable and motivating organisations. The weak academics are now found
in the classrooms. As Nigerians sit on defence watching at this ugly scenario, the consequences await
our quest for development. There are professors in the civil service, paramilitary services, politics and
even traditional stools while our ivory towers cry loud for qualified professors in different fields.
Causes of Brain Drain
Several factors have been attributed to the wide spread migration of academic from this country to
other parts of the world. Some are examined below.
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(1) Poor pay package to the lecturers: It is no understatement to say that lecturers in our
country’s universities are not well remunerated compared to their counterparts in other parts of
the world. Utile (2008) lamented that in Nigeria a professor earns a salary of about N3.6m per
annum which is (an equivalent of about $22,930 USD) while his counterpart in South Africa
earns R455,774 per annum (an equivalent of N10,485,000 and equivalent in US dollar $66,557).
Akindutire (2004) laments at a situation where a young graduate who is fortunate to take up job
outside the unified public service immediately starts to earn twice his professor’s annual
income. The author posited that this did not augur well for staff motivation and stability of
tenure in the Nigerian universities system.
(2) Poor funding of the university education system: Government’s refusal to properly fund
education and to put education in its rightful position, in terms of funding and allocation of
educational resources had over the years been generating a very unpalatable disagreement
between the Academic staff union of universities (ASUU) and the federal government.
Odekunle (2001) posits that Nigerian universities have been grossly underfunded and the
consequence of this financial crisis is the loss of a great deal of valuable manpower to foreign
countries. The underfunding of the university system has largely been as a result of the
economic crisis of the mid-eighties to early nineties in the country made worse by the
devaluation of the Naira as a result of the structural
Adjustment Programme (SAP). However, this under funding of the system has manifested itself
in areas of deficiency in the infrastructural development in the universities.
(3) Social unrest and conflicts: The inability of government to respect agreements reached with
ASUU on various issues relating to the university system in the recent past has largely been
responsible for the series of strike actions in the system. ASSU has been the only vibrant union
at the forefront of the ‘war’ with the federal government in issues of funding, autonomy and
conditions of service. According to Onyeonoru and Bankole (2001) observe that much of the
conflicts involving the government and non-academic staff unions emanate from the collective
agreements reached between government and the ASUU, which government failed to keep to
their agreement. The incessant strikes embarked upon by the ASUU had led to frequent
harassment, arrest and dismissal from work of leaders of the ASUU.
According to Arikewuyo (2004), many academics have been dismissed for taking part in nation-
wide strike called by ASUU in 2001. All these conflicts have resulted to why some academics
decide to find solace in a very conducive environment where there are better working
conditions and career opportunities.
(4) Poor working environment: Apart from the social environment that had been said was not
conducive in our universities; the physical working environment seems to be very unconducive.
Physical facilities are in a state of despair, laboratories ill-equipped, libraries are of empty
shelves, while the few books are outdated, several capital projects abandoned and worse still,
only a few of the universities can take advantage of modern information technology like the
internet connectivity. This poor working condition has made so many lecturers to move abroad,
for better working conditions. This scenario has increased the brain drain syndrome in our
educational system.
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(5) Inadequate research facilities: So many lecturers that have the flair for conducting research
cannot come out with adequate research because of poor research facilities in Nigerian
educational system. Poor funding of research, poor electricity, unrewarding nature of
government towards research works and so many others have made so many lovers of research
who have opportunity abroad to travel so that their dreams can come true. Devaluation of
Nigerian currency has resulted in poor research and it is also responsible for the high mobility
of top-flight academics.
Other causes of brain drain in our educational institutions include internal and external factors
such as economic reasons, domestic, social and political conditions. Nevertheless, Nigerian
professionals are being influenced to permanently relocate to affluent nations, where many have done
their undergraduate and graduate studies, for personal and financial security, far away from their place
of origin.
The internal factors include lack of jobs, low wages, lack of power supply, unsatisfactory living
and working conditions, limited career opportunities coupled with lack of an environment conducive
for professional growth. In addition to these elements, we also have poor social conditions, corruption
and political instability. The Nigerian civil war in 1967-1970 caused a major exodus of educated
Nigerians to western nations for security reasons and thus began the brain-drain in Nigeria.
The external factors are juxtaposed to the internal factors, and consisted of better job
opportunities, flexible career paths, higher pay, satisfactory living and working conditions, and higher
standards of living. Increased prospects for professional development combined with political stability
are the brain drain’s largest pull to developed countries. Globalization has also increased the brain-drain
with the mobility of highly skilled individuals from Nigeria at a lower price than westerns would
request. Many companies in affluent nations have recruiting programmes and incentives to entice
skilled professionals from Nigeria in order to decrease their employment budget, while increasing
productivity for their business.
Subsequently, skilled and educational Nigerians are attracted to the western’s economic
opportunities and what they believe to be an easy way of life. However, the destructive effects of brain-
drain problem arise when Nigerians choose not to return to their native country. After being
established in the American society through education, employment and American partners, Africans
especially Nigerians become “Americanized and do not want to go back to the sufferable ways of life in
Nigeria.
Why Nigerians Abroad Do Not Return
After being established in developed countries the choice not to return to Nigeria is based upon various
reasons such as safety issues, loss of comfort zone, business and family relations abroad, and fear of
persecution from the government and society. The most important deterrent in returning to Nigeria
permanently is due to the feeling of frustration with the corruption and greed that has infiltrated the
government as well as the communities.
Majority of the people living in Nigeria have accepted corruption as the norm, greed and the
quest for power and wealth are traits not only to be tolerated, but also encouraged, especially in the
government officials. Emeagwali, (2003) posits that one of the reasons why Nigerians abroad find it
difficult to come back is because of the socio economic conditions which makes it difficult for people
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to achieve their potentials in Nigeria. When he was asked on why he did not return home he said “First,
I have an American wife that has her academic career and an eight-year old son that is in a good school.
It will be inconsiderate of me to disrupt my wife’s career and my son’s education”. Emeagwali
proceeded by saying that he has not received any formal invitation from the government.
Meanwhile the man Emeagwali is a Nigerian who went to the United States of America after
the Nigerian civil war because he was awarded scholarship in 1974. Emeagwali won the 1989 Gordon
Bell prize, computation’s Nobel prize, for inventing a formula that lets computers perform their fastest
computations work that led to the reinvention of super computers. He has been extolled by Bill Clinton
as “one of the great minds of the Information Age” described by CNN as the “A father of the
internet” and is the world’s most searched –for scientist on the internet. This is an indigenous son of
Nigeria who should have been inventing things for us here if the working conditions were alright but
he is outside the country, developing other countries and Nigerians are lacking in his wide knowledge
because he is looking for a greener pasture, and the unconduciveness of Nigeria.
Socio-Economic impact of Brain-Brain in Nigeria
Ainalem (2007), writes that “there are more Africans scientists and Engineers in the USA than in the
entire continent”. This means that the continuous outflow of skilled personnel continues to contribute
to a widening gap in science and technology between Africa and other continents. From outdated
technology to increased unemployment, the average Nigerian labourer makes $100 dollars a month in
wages which is equivalent to N15,700 naira only. The economic impact of the brain-drain is highly
publicized due to loss of intelligent and skilled individuals with various technical expertises, the social
impact is also very important.
Nigeria has the largest oil and gas reserves in Africa, but about 60% of the citizens are living
below the poverty line as estimated by the CIA- the world Fact Book. The social effects of brain-drain
is depicted through the establishment of a two class society with no middle class consisting of doctors,
lawyers, engineers, professors, and other professionals. Instead, Nigeria has massive under class society
that is largely unemployed and very poor. Meanwhile the few very rich people are mostly corrupt
politicians and government officials. The brain drain will continue to give rise to poor leadership and
corruption in Nigeria, unless Nigerians in the African Diaspora and beyond especially in our generation
decide to lend a helping hand to our beloved nation.
Effects of Brain Drain in Nigerian Universities
The consequences of brain drain has manifested in a number of ways. Brain drain is a phenomenon
that has seriously depleted the universities in Nigeria. Some of the effects are discussed below.
1) It lowers the standard of education: The large movement of academic from the nation’s
universities to other parts of the world has invariably taken its toll on the quality of outputs
produced from the system. Oni, (2008), lamented that in this very depressing situation, the
process of teaching, research, publication and knowledge development has no relevance to the
challenges of the next millennium or even the present global market. A growing body of
research reports indicate that the universities fall short of the demands of the global market.
2) It reduces the quality of skilled manpower in Nigerian universities: Since academics leave
the classroom for better jobs in other sectors within the country or leaving the country for
greener pasture outside the country, the quality and quantity of academic staff will be reduced.
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3) It raises the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the receiving countries: There will be no
doubt that with the flight of seasoned academics, to overseas countries, the Gross Domestic
Product of the receiving countries will be boosted while the receiving countries are winners, the
releasing countries are automatically the losers.
4) It increases the level of dependence on foreign assistance by Nigeria universities: This
means that it retards the technological advancement of the releasing country as the enlightened
population that can contribute immensely to the technological upliftment of the nation decides
to abandon the country at the moment of greatest need.
Prospects
If there was no brain drain in the first instance, then professionals are supposed to train within their
country and work there in. This would have meant that all the skills they have, are acquired from within
their local country. In order to improve on their skills and possibly acquire some more advanced skills,
they are expected to spend money to attend professional courses in outside countries or foreign
countries. This would have entailed a drain on the pause of their home country economics in favour of
those foreign countries where they are going to acquire the further skills. With the level of poverty, in
many undeveloped countries the inability to pay the required fees would have been a barrier. Thus
professionals from such countries may not have the opportunity of further training.
However all these are taken care of by what we describe as brain drain. As these professionals
move in search of greener pastures from less favourable environments to the more advanced
environments, they are exposed to opportunities where they acquire more skills, attend advanced
professional courses while on the job. By so doing they acquire skills that would have been impossible
if they were in their home countries. At the end of the day, when they return home they are better
qualified and positioned to render improved services to their father land. Further more because these
professionals scatter to different countries, their countries receive technological advancement from
different countries simultaneously when they came back. This leads to a more rapid growth in the
economy. The prospects lead to the following advantage.
(1) It reduces the cost of training manpower
(2) It affords you the variety of technology or educational advancement
(3) It boost the local economy by creating new opportunities
(4) Brain drain is a positive indication that Nigerian education is still sound and respected world-
wide.
(5) It increase the flow of foreign currency into the country, through the funds they send to their
families
(6) It creates offshore opportunities for their nationals e.g Shell BP which is owned by the British.
Agip which is owned by the French, Chevron which is owned by the America. All these are
offshore opportunities for their nationals. Can we call these opportunities for these nationals
brain drain?
Ways to Redress the Issue of Brain Drain in Nigeria
Although we have seen the prospects of brain drain, Nigeria government can develop a system that will
make her citizens to travel abroad and get the necessary technology and still come back home to
improve our nation. To redress this issue, the government should do the following:
(1) Adequate Funding of the system: There is the dire need for efficient funding of university
system across the nation. Saint, Hartney and Strassner (2003) are of the view that the university
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system throughout the country has not had the financial where withal necessary to maintain
educational quality even in the midst of the significant population explosion. To develop and
sustain the universities require enormous amount of financial resources.
Government should therefore provide more funds to the universities. This will provide
adequate resources for the maintenance of decaying infrastructure, procurement of new
equipment, books, journals, chemicals and other learning inputs.
(2) Need for conducive teaching and learning environment: Another way to redress the
menace of brain drain in the university system is to improve the teaching and learning
environments. Dilapidated structures, obsolete laboratory and workshop equipment and low
usage of ICT have converged to make teaching, of poor quality. A massive overhaul of the
infrastructure in the university system is therefore imperative. Apart from the physical teaching
and learning environment, there is also the need to make the psycho-social environment
conducive. The frequent harassment, arrest and dismissal from work of leaders of the academic
staff union of universities which was in vogue under the military rule should not repeat itself.
(3) Upward review of the pay package for Academic : Based on the premise that the decline in
the purchasing power of lecturer’s salaries was responsible for brain drain, it is hereby suggested
that the personal emoluments of lecturers need to be reviewed upwards to suit to what their
counter parts are receiving overseas. This will make them to know that they are not losing
anything in terms of salary payment. The wage differential between the university and other
sectors of the economy is a major cause of frustration and disillusionment among present and
future generation of academic staff.
(4) Staff Retention Programme: Staff retention programmes can be put in the country, this may
take the form of putting in place measures that would dissuade those still in the system from
contemplating taking their flight. To do this, the struggle must encompass convincing
government to allocate more funds to the system to adequately cater for the needs of the
universities.
Secondly, government can achieve this by providing individuals who have expertise with career
opportunities and giving them the opportunity to prove their capabilities. Another staff
retention programme is the promotion of existing staff who have demonstrated sufficient
academic excellence to senior lecturers readers and professors. With all these retention
programmes, staff morale would be rejuvenated and staff retention guaranteed and sustained.
(5) Building of data bank of Nigerians abroad: This means that the government should be able
to know how many of Nigerians out there. When we must have done that, we can create job
opportunities with fantastic pay package that will entice them. To say the truth, the most reason
why our people stay abroad and work there is the pay package is attractive. The weather there is
very bad, they have extreme conditions, but because the pay is very good, most Nigerians will
prefer working under the snow and making good money than coming back to work under good
weather and receiving “peanut” as salaries. But if the government can offer them meaningful
employment and compensation that will entice them they will return home.
(6) Government should increase our investment in science, technology and education: This
is the 21
st
century, it is appropriate that we reflect on our legacy for our children. We need to be
technologically knowledgeable and create more wealth by providing more technology that will
entice those abroad. When they are sure of seeing all those technology, they are used to abroad,
they will know that, they will not miss much if they come back. More technology will bring
more employment opportunities. This will help stop our graduates roaming about on the
streets. Once every graduate is sure of his employment after graduation, nobody will think of
leaving the country.
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(7) The proactive step of the collaboration in human capacity development is the sponsoring of
some indigenes of the state to study in Germany on scholarship under the FEEDER project
after which they would be provided jobs in the state here as a way of alleviating brain drain in
all sectors of the state.
Asala, (2011) stated that:
Rivers State governor is partnering with us through his passion
and strong will for advancing the Rivers state educational system
and leaving a long lasting legacy for the youths. and in achieving
this dream he will stop at nothing to give the students the best
service in becoming role models for the youth and a pride for the
state and Nigeria as a whole. (p 2)

(8) There should be a signed and sealed agreement with their parents and guardians that bind them
to return to their host communities. Governor Amachi’s administration has done that. This is
another measure put in place to stop the abuse of such opportunity by the beneficiaries who
may want to stay back in the country of study for fear of joblessness in Nigeria. Because these
people here signed a document before leaving, and the money used in training them is our
money, they are under obligation to return home and give back to the society that trained them.
If every state can emulate governor Amachi the issue of brain drain may be a thing of the past.
Conclusion
Universities, all over the world, are recognized as centres of excellence, where knowledge is not only
acquired but also disseminated to those who require it. The state of things in Nigerian universities seem
unsatisfactory. However the concern of this paper has been the problem of brain drain, an affliction
that has embroiled the Nigerian university most severely in the mid-eighties through to the 21
st
century.
It has been established in the course of this paper that brain drain is a virus that can destroy the
entire university system and make the system become shadow of itself if adequate and proper attention
is not given. Based on these, the entire stakeholders in the university education sector are advised to
combine efforts and rise to the challenge of combating the menace in the university system. The
various redressing issues discussed in this paper can be of immense steps to take.

References
Ainalem, T. (2007). Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Htt www. Idr.ca/en/ev-71249-201-
1-Do_ Topic. html. Retrieved 1
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March 2011.
Akindutire, I. O. (2004). Brain Drain: The Nigerian Experience. http//www.gamji.com/NEWS
2327.htm
Arikewuyo, M. O. (2004). Democracy and University Education in Nigeria: Some constitutional
considerations. Higher Education Management and Policy. A Journal of the organisation for
Economic Cooperation and Development, (16) 121-123 (pp)
Asala, E. (2011). Amaechi’s quest for votes and talents
Vanguardngr.com/.../amaechi’s-quest-f...

Emeagwali, (2003). Interview of Emeagwali. http:// emeagwali. Info/interviews/brain-drain/education –
in-africa-brain drain-problem- worldnet-a Retrieved 14
th
Oct.2003.
Odekunle, K. S. (2001). Funding of University Education under democractic rule in Nigeria.
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Problems and prospects. Conference proceedings of the 12th General Assembly of Social Science
Academy of Nigeria (SSAN)
Oni, B. (2008). Capacity building effort and brain drain in Nigerian universities.
www.uneca.org/docs/conference-report-and other documents / brain drain/word-documents/oni-
doc. Retrieved 28th Jan.2009
Onyeonoru, I. & Bankole, A. (2001). Conflict Management and Univesity sustainability: The role
of administrators and Campus Unions. Proceedings of the 12
th
General Assembly of Social
Science Academy of Nigeria.
Saint, W, Harlnet, T.A. & Strassner, E. (2003). Higher education in Nigeria: A status report.
Higher Education Policy (16) 259-281 (pp)
Timilehin, E. H., Eshoe, K. P., Osalusi, F. M. & Babatope, B. A. (2010). Towards Redressing the
Brain Drain Syndrome in Nigeria Universities. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research.
5(3). 156-160. IDOSI Publications.
Utile, T. (2008). University autonomy and Brain Drain syndrome in Nigeria. Being a paper presented at the
3
rd
conference of the ACU’s Human Resource Management Network 23
rd
- 25
th
May, Trinidad and Tobago.

















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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT AMONG
ADULT LEARNERS IN RIVERS STATE
BY
OFFOR BEATRICE OGOEGBUNAM
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education,
University of Port Harcourt
beatyog@yahoo.com
+234 803 702 6222
&
DR. MBALISI ONYEKA FESTUS
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education,
University of Port Harcourt
onyipath@yahoo.com
+234 806 418 4036

Abstract
Improper management of solid wastes have created subtle and serious
environmental problems in Rivers State. For proper management of solid wastes,
adult learners should be educated on the best methods of disposal and implications
of improper management of solid wastes through the inserted environmental
education topics in the curriculum for the adult literacy programme. The paper
highlights the importance of environmental education in developing knowledge,
attitude, skills, value and responsible behaviour towards solid waste management.
The problem of ineffective delivery of environmental education for the adult learners
is equally brought to the fore. The paper therefore recommends that the curriculum
for the adult literacy programme needs to be reviewed for effective education of
adults on the practice of waste management.





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Introduction
The management of solid wastes have gradually become important practices to humans and their
environment, especially in developing countries of the world as they progressively move towards
industrialisation. The rapid rural-urban migration, the increase in population and modernisation,
especially in African, Asian and South American countries, have contributed immensely to the problem
of pollution in the global environment. There has been a rise in the quantity of solid wastes generated by
each household daily consequent upon increases in population, the rising demand for food and
increased human socio-economic activities. Solid wastes have become a problem globally as they
constitute a potential threat to public health, scar the environment, and could be a block to the
economic development of an area because of the negative image they present (Gardget, 2011:1).
The massive solid wastes generated include domestic garbage, organic litter, plant leaves, pieces of
paper, polythene bags, rags, metal scraps, abandoned vehicles, used tyres, plastics, used diapers, tin- cans
and faecal materials. There have been some concerted efforts globally, nationally and locally to address
the issue of environmental degradation and unsustainable pattern of development that impacts
negatively on the environment. The efforts have resulted in the organization of conferences, workshops
and seminars so as to bring world leaders and people to dialogue on the way forward to design
sustainable development patterns that will benefit the environment and humanity now and in the future.
Despite these efforts by the Federal and Rivers State Governments, there still exists among the
adult citizens a carefree attitude towards the environment. Most adults, still throw away solid wastes
indiscriminately both at home, in the market place, while in the bus, along the streets, when they attend
occasions like weddings, social events, at their places of work and so on. They do not segregate their
solid wastes into degradable and non- degradable wastes before disposal. A situation where-by old
shoes, old clothes, plastics, bottles, tin-cans, vegetable cuttings, food remnants from the kitchen and so
on are packed together in a polythene bag and thrown into any available space near their homes, beside
the roads or designated collection points still persists in Rivers State. This ugly situation is more
prevalent in the urban areas in Rivers State where the population is very high, coupled with the high
consumption pattern associated with modern lifestyle.
Ayotamuno and Gabo (2004:389) noted that “indiscriminate dumping of wastes from industrial,
commercial and households such as food wastes, paper, polythene, textiles, scrap metals, glass, wood,
plastic and so on at street corners and gutters is still very common in Port Harcourt”. They also noted
that this care free attitude could lead to the obstruction of traffic flow and the likelihood of
contamination of drinking water by the leachates from the refuse dumps. In the same vain, Opara
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(2009:32) said that:
one of the main social problems in Port Harcourt City and which has become an
intractable nuisance is open and indiscriminate dumping of refuse, human and lower
animal faeces and solid wastes. Piles of decaying garbage which are domestic and
industrial in nature litter strategic locations in the heart of the city.
This lack of value and care for the environment has resulted in improper management and disposal of
solid wastes in the state. It could be attributed to laziness and ignorance. The onus of the management
of solid wastes lies with the adults, most of whom are engaged in adult literacy education programmes in
Rivers State. Environmental education designed for these adults is expected to develop the right
attitude in the adults towards maintaining a healthy and clean environment and consequently equip them
with skills in solid waste management. There is therefore the need to educate the adult learners about
solid wastes, its management, disposal methods, health implications of improper solid waste
management. Educating the adult learners on the proper methods of solid waste management will
forestall the continuity of the indiscriminate manner with which adults in Rivers State dispose their
wastes and consequently enhance better practices of solid waste management.
Concept of Environmental Education
Environmental education as defined by Stapp in Environmental Education, Training and Partnership
(EETAP, 1997:1) is “education aimed at producing a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the
biophysical environment and its associated problems, aware of how to help solve these problems, and
motivated to work towards their solution”. Environmental education therefore strives to increase in
individuals, the knowledge of the environment and the problems associated with it. It educates
individuals on the possible solutions to environmental problems, instils in adult individuals the desire to
take responsible actions towards solving environmental problems.
The UNESCO, Tbilisi Declaration of (1977) views environmental education as “a learning process
that increases peoples’ knowledge and awareness about the environment and associated challenges,
develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, fosters attitudes, motivations and
commitment to make informed decisions and take responsible action”. This definition is quite embracing
and it highlights all the five categories of objectives of environmental education which are:
1. Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges;
2. Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges;
3. Attitudes of concern for the environment and a motivation to improve or maintain environmental
quality;
4. Skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges;
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5. Participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges (UNESCO in
National Environmental Education Advisory Council (1996:2).
Environmental education increases public awareness and knowledge about environmental issues. It
provides the public with the necessary skills to make informed decisions and to take responsible action.
The Concept of Solid Waste
The concept of solid waste has received local and global attention as they affect the quality of the
environment if not properly managed. Some wastes are inevitable. They arise from human activities in
the farm, schools, market places, offices, industries, at home, hospitals and so on. Things that have been
outgrown, broken, produced in the course of production, all add to the solid waste stream.
The United States Congress in Bernstein, Winkler and Zierdt-Warshaw (1996:305) defines solid
wastes as “all garbage, refuse, and sludge products from agriculture, forestry, mining and municipalities”.
Miller in George (2004:1) views solid waste as “any useless, unwanted or discarded material that is not
liquid or gas”. A great mixture of substances including fine dust, metals, glass, paper, cardboard, textiles,
putriscible vegetable materials and plastics characterise solid wastes. However, with the increase in
technological advancement in solid waste management, some of the solid wastes are not regarded as
useless and unwanted. This is due to the fact that some of the materials can be recovered and
reprocessed into valuable products. This is supported by Agunwamba (2001:291) who asserts that “some
of what are known previously to be useless and unwanted are now reprocessed into valuable products”.
Solid wastes therefore are inevitable products from human activities in our environment. They are a
source of concern to different nations, countries and states. They impact negatively on the environment
if not properly managed.
Solid Waste Management Techniques
The term solid waste management in all its ramifications encompasses steps taken in collection,
transportation, processing and disposal or utilization of wastes in a sanitary manner (Taiwo, 2010:1).
Solid waste management is also defined as “the collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal
of wastes in such a way as to render them innocuous to human and animal life, ecology and the
environment generally” (Oreyomi, 1998:1). Solid waste management is the responsibility of the State and
Local Government Environmental Agencies. The management of solid wastes by adults on the other
hand, entails the reduction, segregation, composting, burying, reuse and recycling of wastes before
disposal in such a manner that they do not pose any danger to humans and the environment.

Solid Waste Disposal Methods
Solid wastes are disposed of by different methods. The disposal methods vary from country to
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country and they include landfill, incineration, composting and open dumping. In Nigeria and in Rivers
State, open dumping is still being practiced. Onwughara, Nnorom and Kanno (2010, 410) noted that
there are cases where wastes are dumped in streams and river channels. Open dumping poses danger to
the environment and it is not a favourable method of solid waste disposal. Opara (2001:32) noted that
“solid wastes and wastes in open dumpsites are a source of atmospheric and water pollution, land
contamination, health hazards, and environmental degradation.

Concept of Adult Learner
The adult learner is one with a difference because of the experience he brings to bear in the learning
environment. The concept of adult learner can be viewed from different perspectives. The adult learner
can be viewed from the point of view of his life activities, his function and his educational needs which
drives him to engage in adult education activities. From the point of view that education is a life-long
learning process, an adult learner is defined as “any one who consciously, formally, informally or non-
formally engages him or herself in any adult educational programme(s) with an intent to solve life
problems (Nzeneri, 2008:31).
The adult learner as it is called in North America, or mature learner as it is referred to in the
United Kingdom is sometimes called adult student, returning adult, adult returner and student. It is a
term described by (Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, 2012) as “any person socially accepted as an adult
who is in a learning process, whether it is formal education, informal learning, or corporate sponsored
learning” From the fore going adult learners have different needs and aspiration which they hope to
achieve in life. They perform different functions and responsibilities in life. In order to achieve their
goals and aspirations in life, they engage themselves in different educational programmes which could
be in the formal, non-formal or informal levels. For these adults learning never ends.
There are however different characteristics of the adult learners which have implication for
teaching and learning. Some of these characteristics of the adult learners are indicated by Knowles
(1970) in Nzeneri (2008:38) when he showed the differences between the characteristics of the young
and the adult learner and stated that as a person matures:
1. his self-concept moves from one of being a dependent personality (as in children) towards one of
being a self directing being(as in children;
2. he accumulates a growing reservoir of experiences that become an increasing resource for
learning(unlike the young);
3. his (adult’s) readiness to learn becomes oriented increasingly to the developmental tasks of his
social roles;
4. his time perspective changes from one of postponed application of knowledge (as in the young) to
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one of immediacy of application and accordingly his orientation towards learning shifts from
subject-centeredness to one of problem centeredness(as in adults).
These characteristics of the adult learner and more should be put into consideration by adult
facilitators when teaching the adult learners to ensure that they are motivated to learn, thus making
learning a pleasurable experience. The adult education programme in Nigeria is geared towards national
development. The objective of the programme is to get adults, either as individuals or as a group to
positively change their attitude and behaviour. The learners in the literacy centres are expected to learn
how to manage their solid wastes, change their attitude of indiscriminate disposal of wastes as a result of
environmental education topics inserted in the post literacy curriculum.

The Need for Environmental Education for Solid Waste Management
Environmental Education as previously discussed is a learning process which enables people to be aware
of environmental problems, to be knowledgeable about environmental issues, provides people with the
right attitude and motivation to resolve those problems and prevent new ones from occurring. Most
research studies have noted the importance of environmental education in predisposing people to
participate in waste management, developing in them the knowledge, understanding, right attitude,
values and skills necessary for solid waste management.
Post (2007:24) says that “knowledge of waste reduction methods can either motivate individuals
to participate, or inadequate knowledge can be a barrier to waste reduction behaviour”. In a study that
investigated the motivating factors and barriers to recycling behaviour in New Jersy, Simmons and
Windmar in Post (2007:24) concluded that “a lack of knowledge and a lack of personal salience and
efficacy were barriers that interfered with motivating effect of a person’s sense of responsible actions and
conservation ethics”. Therefore without information and perception of individual ability to reduce
wastes, the individual will not act on their internal sense of responsibility by participating in waste
reduction program (Post, 2007:24). Homik, Cherian, Mandansky and Narayana in Post (2007:25)
observed that there are four groups of variables that predict recycling behaviour, and noted that the
strongest predictors are internal facilitators, such as “having knowledge of how and what to recycle and
awareness of the importance of recycling”. Furthermore, Post (2007:25) emphasizes that “increasing the
knowledge of waste reduction for the targeted population has been seen as a necessary method of
increasing public participation in waste reduction”.
The need for having stronger environmental education programmes increases with rising
preference for more friendly methods such as prevention, minimisation, re-use and recycling.
Environmental education clearly plays a critical role in enhancing movement upward along the waste
management ladder from open burning through recycling and re-uses to prevention (Kamara, 2006:19).
There is therefore an increased need for environmental education for adult learners in Rivers State and
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beyond to achieve the most preferred waste management options of segregation, recycling, re-use,
reduce and waste prevention.
Environmental education has been viewed as the key to educating the young and the old people. It
also enhances learning and supports traditional educational objectives over a wide range of subject areas
of experience. Kamara (2006:21) also found out that “there is a growing consensus that people’s attitude
towards the environment has a direct relationship to their level of education, how much they know
about the environment, its values and the need to protect those values”. Through the media and the
radio advertisements on keeping the environment clean in Rivers State, individuals gain awareness on the
need to keep the environment clean. This is further enhanced by the monthly environmental sanitation
exercise that is carried out in the state every first Saturday of the month. In addition, Dr Mnegbu the
Director of Rivers State Environmental Sanitation Agency (RESA) in an interview with the authors
noted that RESA organises seminars, workshops, conferences, symposia and so on to educate the public
on environmental themes. Through the media, the problem of solid wastes is equally brought to the fore.
However the adult citizens are not educated and empowered to practice reduction, reuse and recycling of
solid wastes. The main emphasis is mainly on keeping the environment clean, and disposing of solid
wastes properly, tree planting to beautify the environment and creating awareness about climate change.
Educating adult individuals, community members in River State on how to value the environment,
the need to keep the environment clean, how to segregate, reduce, re-use, recycle and practice
composting will go a long way in maintaining environmental quality and the health of the people. This
can further be achieved by the infusion of environmental themes into the basic adult literacy programme
in Nigeria. Environmental education themes that can be infused into the adult education curriculum may
include among others general topics based around the followings:
1. health oriented topics on healthy lifestyles, sanitation, pollution, health implications of improper
solid waste management;
2. environmental policies on waste management (sustainable development, local Agenda 21);
3. consumer aspects like reduction, re-use, recycling, proper solid waste disposal methods;
4. outdoor educational activities on Waste to wealth: how to turn some solid wastes into useful
materials by composting, recycling of paper, plastics, bottles and so on.
These topics when infused into subjects like reading and writing in the basic literacy programme
and English, social studies, health education and science in the post literacy programme, is expected to
develop the appropriate knowledge, skills, values and commitment the adult learners need to maintain
quality environment.



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Constraints to Effective Delivery of Environmental Education Among Adult Learners in Rivers
State
In the curriculum developed for adult learners in Nigeria, Environmental Education topics are inserted
into the year 1 and 2 of post literacy programmes. Environmental education topics are not inserted in
the basic literacy programmes. This does not make for effective delivery of environmental education in
the literacy programme as the adults are not exposed early enough to environmental education themes
that they need to solve environmental problems that they face on daily basis. In the literacy programme
also, there is no provision for outdoor environmental education programmes. Environmental education
is action oriented. If adults are made to participate in environmental education programmes they will be
properly equipped with the knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, commitment and motivation to solve
environmental problems. The literacy programme makes for only classroom instruction on
environmental themes and as such does not favour proper delivery of environmental education
objectives.
The radio jingles on keeping the markets, shops, homes, offices and so on clean is a good informal
approach to solving the problem of improper solid wastes management. However emphasis is not laid
on the aspect of segregation, reduction, reuse and recycling before the solid wastes gets to the collection
centres. RESA does not make provision for the citizens to place biodegradable and non-biodegradable
solid wastes separately at the collection centres. Separate bins are not provided thus adult individuals co-
mix their solid wastes and deposit them indiscriminately in the environment. This ugly situation
contaminates the groundwater, land and air quality. It equally leads to spread of diseases, destruction of
environmental aesthetics and makes solid waste management by the contractors cumbersome.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Solid waste management has been of great concern to many nations globally and locally. In Rivers State,
Improper management of solid wastes by adult learners impacts negatively on the health and the
environment of the people. It pollutes the environment, contaminates groundwater, land and air quality.
Studies have shown the importance of educating adult individuals in proper methods of managing the
wastes they generate on daily basis. Environmental education have been found to play a critical role in
enhancing the movement upward along the waste management ladder from open burning through
recycling, reuse and waste prevention. There is therefore the need for adult learners in Rivers State to
achieve the most preferred waste management options of segregation, recycling, re-use, reduce and waste
prevention.
In other to achieve the need for environmental education for solid waste management in Rivers
State, it is recommended that the curriculum for the adult literacy programme in Nigeria be reviewed.
Environmental education themes need to be infused or inserted into some of the subjects offered in the
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literacy centres both at the Basic and Post literacy levels. The Ministry of Education in conjunction with
the Adult and Non-Formal Education Agency should establish demonstrations schools for the purpose
of carrying out activities on composting, recycling and so on.
The Ministry of Environment in collaboration with the Rivers State Environmental Sanitation
Agency should provide separate bins for the collection of biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid
wastes, they should equally educate the citizens on how to reduce, segregate, re-use and recycle solid
wastes and consequently dispose their wastes properly.
The adult learners should also be made to participate in Environmental Education programmes that are
organised by the Ministry of the Environment and The Rivers State Environmental Sanitation Agency
.These may include tree planting, clean up campaigns and so on. Above all the literacy programme in
Rivers State should be properly funded so as to achieve the purpose of the programme. Environmental
education provision in Rivers State should be holistic in approach to take care of people formally, non-
formally and informally.

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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

TEACHING IN NIGERIAN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS:
A CASE FOR PROFESSIONALIZATION
BY
OGBONDAH Livinus, Ph.D
Department of Educational Foundations and Management
Faculty of Education
Ignatius Ajuru University of Education
P.M.B 5047 Port Harcourt.
E-mail: nkelivy2oo2@yahoo.com
Tel: 08089291831, 08037085388

Abstract
Teaching is of a very fundamental importance to any nation both developed and developing
nations and Nigeria is not an exemption. Teachers play a central role in the society to bring
about change and development. As stipulated by the National Policy on Education (2004)
that teaching is a profession but this assertion has been refuted by many scholars that
teaching in the Nigerian context is not a profession. In view of the above, this paper
examines the meaning and concept of teaching and profession, explores the characteristics
of a profession, determines the nature of the teaching profession in Nigeria, identities the
constraints to professionalization of teaching in Nigeria and suggests possible ways
forward which include the need to stop and expunge the non-qualified personnel from
practice.








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Introduction
Teaching addresses a broader concept of education and development. It is about conveying facts,
figures, concepts, theories and constructs with a healthy dose of analysis and reflections through in. For
the last 50 years educators have devoted a great deal of energy to the debate over whether teaching can
be considered a profession or not. It is the thesis of this paper to provide adequate discussions on the
issue.
According to the National Policy on Education (2004:39) the goals of teacher education shall be
to:
(a) Produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our
educational system;
(b) Encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;
(c) Help teachers to fit into social life of the community and the society at large and enhance their
commitment to national goals;
(d) Provide teachers with the intellectual and professional background; adequate for their
assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations;
(e) Enhance teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession.
It went further to state that all teachers in educational institutions shall be professionally trained.
The goals of teacher education are so explicit, geared towards the professionalization of
teaching, but how far these laudable goals have been realized is the main thrust of this paper.
Concept and Meaning of Teaching
According to Clark and Starr (1981) teaching is an attempt to help someone acquire. or change some
skills, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or
influence desirable changes in behaviour of his pupils. Bookcock (1980) sees teaching as a series of
interactions between someone in the role of a teacher and someone in the role of a learner with the
explicit goal of changing the learner’s cognitive or affective state. Clark and Starr cited in NTI (2005)
see teaching as an attempt to help people acquire some skills, attitudes, knowledge, ideas and
appreciation.
Nwaenyi and Okoro (2003) opine that teaching is an intentional activity where the teachers who
knows and understands transmits or enables the student to know Onwuka (1990) describe teaching as
the creation or provision of experiences and guidance of activities designed to promote learning on the
part of those engaging in the activities. According to Ikpaye (2001) teaching is a conscious and
deliberate effort by an experienced person (teacher) to impart information, knowledge and skills to a
less experienced person (student) with the intention of inducing learning. Hough and Duncan (1970)
identify the four-phases activity of teaching viz:
(i) Curriculum planning phase: At this stage the teacher formulates the goals of education, states
general and specific behavioural objectives, selects methods and materials to be used;
(ii) Instruction phase: Here actual instruction takes place involving creating, using and modifying
instructional strategies and tactics to be used instructing, interpreting and acting on situational
feedback about instruction;
(iii) Measurement phase: This involves selecting or creating measurement devices, measuring learning,
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organizing and analyzing the measured.
(iv) Evaluation phase: This phase involves the appropriateness of objectives, the effectiveness of
instruction and validity and reliability of the devices used to measure learning.
In the same vein, Koko (2003) asserts that formal teaching refers to a purposeful act directed
towards the achievement of a set goal.
From the various definitions of teaching, it can be adduced that teaching is a systematic,
rational and organized process of transmitting knowledge, skills, values attitudes and information in
accordance with stipulated professional principles. Thus, it becomes very clear that not every person
can teach.
Concept and Meaning of a Profession
The term “profession” has attracted a lot of definitions from eminent scholars, this is because it has
been used to mean different thing to different people the concept of profession carries with it status
connotation and this has led to a general acceptance on the part of various people to label the diverse
work pursuits as profession. Amaele and Amaele (2003) define profession as guided by peculiar skills,
etiquette, norms and values, conventions, technical jargons and some forms of politeness.
Amanchukwu (2002) asserts that a profession is a distinct occupation marked out from others
by identifiable characteristics. Okoh (2004) gives two definitions of a profession viz.
(i) A profession is a specially desirable and dignified occupation with an implication of intellectual
training and largely mental expertise.
(ii) A profession is an occupation demanding specialized skills and knowledge, requiring an extended
time for their acquisition where the practitioners carefully select and limit the members admitted
to its ranks and maintain high standards of performance through methods of self- discipline.
Profession is occupationally related social institution and maintained as a means of providing
essential services to the individual and the society. Each profession is concerned with an identified area
of need or function. The profession is organized into one or more professional associations, which,
within broad limits of social accountability, are granted autonomy in control of actual work of the
profession and the condition that surround it (admissions, educational standards, examination and
licensing, career line, ethical and performance standards, professional discipline). Therefore, a
profession is a field of economic activity requiring academic preparation above the high school level. It
usually wields certain powers, not only over those who render the services it gives but also over those
who receives them.
Characteristics of a Profession
Scholars have provided a number of laid down rules that can be used to evaluate occupations as to
determine the extent to which each occupation approximates the characteristics and therefore can be
labeled as a profession. A sum-up of the criteria of professioanlization as rightly put up by Mbakwem
(2003:37) are enumerated as follows:
(1) Long period of specialized preparation.
2) Activities that are predominantly intellectual, and its members possess specialized knowledge
and skills.
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(3) Relatively high standard for admission.
(4) Represented by an effective professional organization or organizations.
(5) A broad range of autonomy and to a large extent, sets own standard.
(6) Dedication to extension of the frontiers of knowledge in its area of specialization.
(7) Regarded as a life career.
(8) High priority to service as opposed to personal gains.
(9) Emphasizes self-improvement and growth in service.
(10) Safeguards the welfare of its members.
(11) Requires license or certificate to practice.
(12) Bases its practice on clearly defined ethnical principles.

The Nature of Teaching Profession in Nigeria
A cursory look at the above characteristics will determine whether teaching in Nigeria is a profession or
not.
1. Specialization: A profession requires both a high skill and an intellectual effort In terms of teaching,
the high skill is acquired through professional training in education, and the intellectual effort
concerns the academic subjects which are studied in training. To satisfy these requirements, all
teachers should have been professionally and academically trained. While all teaching personnel in
some countries meet these criteria, it is, not yet so in Nigeria.
(2) In-service Training: This is the process by which professional growth is fostered amongst
members of a profession. The society is dynamic and demands that the body of knowledge and
skills on which a profession is founded, should also constantly change. The teaching profession
should encourage in-service training through workshops, conferences and sandwich programmes
but in Nigeria, the government is not involved in these gestures especially in primary and
secondary schools.
(3) Freedom of Practice: Unlike other professions such as medicine, law and engineering, teachers
do not practice their profession as freely as one would expect in Nigeria. Teachers in Nigeria are
employed by governments and voluntary agencies who also regulate their practice from time to
time. In Nigeria, any person can open a school without being a trained teacher with approval
from government.
(4) Code of Conduct: Every known profession has a code of conduct that prescribes appropriate
relationship between client and practitioner and among practitioners themselves. Although, there
are some regulations which could be regarded in a way as codes of conduct but they are
prescribed and enforced by the various governments rather than by the teachers themselves. This
means that teachers unlike doctors cannot discipline their members.
(5) Conditions of Service: Like their counterparts in other professions, they have well spelt out
conditions of service but when compared with the administrative class of the civil service,
primary and secondary school teachers could be said to be poorly paid, for the permanent
secretary earns a salary grade level 17 non-teachers with grade level 15 and above are given better
conditions of service with cars and housing while teachers with similar qualifications and ranks
are not treated the same way or given the same incentives.
(6) Professional Organization: Membership of a professional body by practitioners of a profession
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is an indication of full profession. In Nigeria, the association of teachers at the primary and
secondary school levels is known as Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) aimed at protecting,
promoting and improving the conditions affecting the teaching profession. The legal registration
of the NUT in 1938 under the labour ordinances accounted for the successes of the union
because teachers were able to bargain for better salaries, good conditions of service and fair hours
of work relative to the prevailing economic and social conditions of the country. Therefore, NUT
became a professional organization as well as a trade union.
(7) Service-rendering: Teachers like their counterparts in other professions render services to the
individual and the society at large. As a matter of fact, teachers are preoccupied with effect
desirable changes in the learners by harnessing their potentials and enabling them to attain full
development and self-actualization. It is worthy to mention that every service rendered by other
professions attracts reasonable remuneration but that of the teachers is kept in heaven.
(8) High Degree of Autonomy: According to Mbakwem (20003) a profession is said to be
autonomous if it is fully self-governed and has total control over its function other professions
like Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Nigerian Bar Association (NBA), Nigerian Society of
Engineers (NSE), etc provide this incentive of self-government but not the Nigerian Union of
Teachers (NUT).
Constraints to the Professionalization of Teaching in Nigeria
In Nigeria, a lot of factors have constituted as impediments in realizing the professionalization of
teaching at the primary and secondary school levels. They are:
(1) Lack of Incentive for Teachers: Incentive is a propelling force in any!’ organization expressed
in kind, cash and encouragement in order to make the recipients happy and ready to work. Most
teachers were not given incentives that would have motivated them for optimal performance on
the job as such they demonstrate laissez -faire attitude in the discharge of their duties.
(2) Lack of interest of Candidates to Study Education: Most candidates who apply for
admissions rarely show interest in Education courses but eventually when they are rejected by
other faculties will now resort to colleges of Education, institutes and faculties of Education as
their last option. This invariably will produce teachers with low intelligent quotient. This is a
serious setback to the teaching profession. Abraham (2010) corroborates this when she says that
it is a common knowledge that in Nigerian universities, most University applicants choose to
study education as a last resort, when they can not meet up with the requirement for their courses
of first and second choices. This practice has made “education” a “dumping ground” where
candidates who lack both the aptitude and attitude to become teachers (moulders of lives) are
dumped. This practice spells doom for the future of the country- socially, economically and
politically.
(3) Lack of Enforcement of Code of Ethics: The teaching profession lacks a viable organization
capable of laying down and enforcing its code of ethics as a way of weeding out unqualified
candidates, strictly controlling its eligible members and disciplining of erring members. The
government employs and prescribes the code of ethics for the teachers. Therefore, the teaching
profession becomes subservient to the government and to political manipulations. The establishment
of the Teachers’ Registration Council (TRC) of Nigeria by Act 31 of 1993 is in this direction. The
TRC is charged with the responsibility of professionalizing teaching in Nigeria. Enforcement
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becomes difficult because of mushroom organizations existing within the teaching profession, for
example, (i) Academic Union of Universities (ASUU), (ii) Colleges of Education Academic Staff
Union (COEASU), (iii) Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP), (iv) Nigerian Union of
Teachers (NUT), (v) All Nigerian Conference of Principals of Secondary Schools (ANCOPSS), (vi)
Association of Heads of Primary Schools in Nigeria (AHPSN), (vii) National Association of
Classroom Teachers (NACT), (viii) Association of TC 11 Teachers (ATT), (ix) Association of
Methodist Mission Teachers (AMMT), (x) Catholic Teachers Association (CTA), (xi) Anglican Union
of Teachers (AUT), (xii) Baptist Union of Teachers (BUT), (xiii) Islamic Teachers Association (ITA),
and (xiv) National Association of Female Teachers (NAFET).
All these associations are formed to protect their members, thereby making enforcement a
Herculean task
(4) Low Socio-economic Status of Teachers: Status refers to the level of prestige accorded to an
individual by other members of the society in which he belongs (Ogbondah, 2005). Socio-
economic status includes wealth, income, property possession, honour, respect, prestige and
other economic fortunes. Teachers at the primary and secondary schools levels are accorded low
personal prestige, honour, esteem and financial affluence. Thus, teachers’ reward is always in
heaven.
(5) Poor Self-image of Teachers: Closely related to the fourth factor, teachers at the primary and
secondary school levels have developed a negative personality component and believed that they
cannot compete favourably with members of other professions. Therefore, they lack the boldness
to introduce themselves as teachers and as such hardly want their children to be teachers, unlike
the lawyers, engineers and doctors who want their children to take over from them in the same
professions. This disposition of teachers is detrimental to the profession.
(6) Low Professional Qualification: Other professions like medicine, law and engineering use first
degree as the yardstick/standard for admission into their professions but the teaching profession
accepts holders of NCE as minimum requirement. Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Teachers Registration
Council (TRC) captioned principle of professionalization of teaching in Nigeria states the
categorization of teachers into four viz: A- class – Holders of Ph.D in Education or Ph.D in other
fields plus Education (e.g. PGDE, NCE); B – class – Holders of Masters degree in Education or
Masters in other fields plus Education (e.g. PGDE, NCE); C – class – Holders of Bachelors degree in
Education or Bachelors in other fields plus Education (e.g. PGDE, NCE); D – class – Holders of
Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) or equivalent. Why should the teaching profession be lower
than other profession? This is appalling and a misnomer.
(7) Rapid drift to other professions: Among all the professions, teaching has suffered serious
setback by constantly losing its trained members to other fields of endeavour. Teachers already
trained for manpower development opt for post-graduate diploma in social sciences leading to
MBA and engineering while some go into law.
(8) Lack of freedom to practice: The doctors, lawyers and engineers can on completion of their
courses register with their associations, register a place of practice, fulfilling certain conditions laid
down by their associations and government and could thereafter given license to practice freely.
In teaching the reverse is the case. Governments at the Federal and State levels who are
employers to teachers regulate their practice and not the association. As such, Government can
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hire and fire any teacher without any recourse. This supports the old saying that “he who pays the
piper dictates the tune”. Thus, the teachers are at the mercy of the governments.
(9) Continued Practice of Non-qualified Personnel: Teaching harbours non- qualified personnel
in the system a great deal. Personnel with H.N.D, B A., B.Sc, B. Tech, B. Eng, M.A, M. Sc and
Ph.D without teaching qualifications abound in the system. A non-lawyer can neither go to court
to defend a client, nor a non-medical practitioner treats a patient or carry out an operation in the
theatre in hospitals or clinics. Any person without teaching qualification can establish a school as
entrepreneur, proprietor or proprietress provided he/she has the money and he/she is politically
connected.
(10) Lack of in-service Training: Teachers in primary and secondary schools seldomly go for
refresher courses, seminars, conferences, workshops, etc to enhance their effectiveness and
efficiency. They use the same lesson notes; the same methods and the same knowledge for years
without any innovate. Evidences abound in our various States in Nigeria. It is very rare that
retraining programmes are organized for teachers at these levels. The implication is that, the
improvement of their skills, abilities, knowledge, adopting and using modern methodologies,
techniques, technologies in their lesson delivery will be seriously jeopardized unlike their
counterparts at the tertiary level that are mandated to attend conferences and workshops for their
professional growth.
(11) Lack of strong sense of professionalism and comradeship among teachers: It is only
among teachers that a strong sense of professionalism and comradeship is seriously lacking. Most
teachers do not even know what code of ethics entails and when one teacher suffers the rest do
not identify with him.
(12) Complacency of the Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT): The unifying body of teachers
called NUT is complacent, weak, insensitive and powerless to impart positively on the teachers. It
is very difficult and rare for NUT to call for a national strike to drive home its demands.
(13) Infringement on Teachers’ Right: In course of the teachers discharging their responsibilities
and duties, their rights may be infringed upon especially in the area of disciplinary measures
including wrongful dismissal. The most contravened areas of teachers’ rights are in contract of
employment, negligence, defamation and fair hearing (Asuru, 2010). The twin principles of
natural justice – qudit alteram parterm (hear the other side) and nemojudex in causa sua (a man must
not be a judge in his own case) have been flagrantly abused in cases of infringement on teachers’
rights (Asuru, 2008). These in most cases happen to teachers. For instance, Igwe, (1998) in Asuru
(2010) reported the case of P.G. Inyang vs. Teachers Disciplinary Council, where the appellant,
P.G. Inyang had his name restored in the register of teachers because he was not given fair
hearing by the respondent. The professional associations must rise to their responsibilities to
protect teachers from being infringed upon and challenge such cases in a Court of competent
jurisdiction.
The Way Forward
The task of professionalizing teaching in Nigeria is an ardous one. The researcher therefore suggests
the followings in improving the status of the teaching profession and hence make the profession an
enviable one. They are:
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(1) There is need for re-invigoration of teachers by motivating them through enhanced salary,
pension, accommodation, medical and general emolument. These should be provided for
teachers to promote maximum commitment and productivity. The quest for Teachers Salary
Structure (T.S.S) scale should be realized.
(2) There is need to raise the entry qualification into teaching profession to first degree status.
(3) Teachers’ code of ethics should be enforced to the letter.
(4) Study leave and scholarships should be instituted for teachers.
(5) Sensitization and re-orientation campaigns should be organized for teachers and the general
public on the value of teachers.
(6) Cut- off points for admission into Education courses should be the same with Medicine,
Engineering and Law in order to admit candidates with the right aptitude and attitude.
(7) Refreshers’ courses for teachers should be organized regularly especially during long vacations to
prepare them for the tasks ahead in the new session.
(8) Teachers should be given freedom and autonomy to practice the profession without any hitch.
(9) Non-qualified personnel engaged in teaching at the primary and secondary schools should be
given time to acquire degree, certificate or diploma in Education or be expunged.
(10) Teachers should develop a high sense of professionalism and comradeship to make the
profession a noble one.
(11) Nigeria Union of teachers should rise to the challenges facing the profession and also protect
them from their rights being infringed upon like their counterpart ASUU in the sacked lecturers
at the University of Ilorin.

Conclusion
The future of Nigeria depends to a large extent on the quality of the educational system which
invariably depends on the quality of its teachers. The issue of professionalization of teaching in Nigeria
is still a controversial one. Some conditions have been met while some are yet to be realized. For the
fact that it is only in teaching that non-professionals are allowed to practice, then, it becomes very clear
that teaching is yet to be regarded as a profession. If Nigeria is to develop, then teaching must be given
a pride of place and be fully recognized as a profession with distinct codes of ethics.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

THE ROLE OF OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATION IN EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL
ADULTS IN ETCHE ETHNIC NATIONALITY FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

DR. J. C. IHEJIRIKA
UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT
CHOBA, PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA
E-mail: ihejirikajohn@yahoo.com
Phone No.: 08033414416
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles out-of-school education can play to
enhance empowerment of different segments of rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality for
community development. The educational history of Etche ethnic nationality reveals a
disproportionate emphasis on formal/liberal education at the expense of out-of-school
education, the resultant effect of which has been over production of school leavers without
practical skills. Consequently, unemployment and poverty manifestations are high and
relate to low levels of literacy and lack of vocational skills among the adults and youths. As
a matter of fact, this situation demands intervention of out-of-school education which is
capable of providing unlimited education opportunities for mobilizing the capacities of
various sub-groups of people in Etche ethnic nationality towards rapid transformation of
the communities. Based on literature account, this paper submits that out-of-school
education has crucial roles to play, whether in providing literacy skills to those who were
deprived of formal schooling; or in continuing the education of already literate persons; or
still, in providing life and vocational skills to enable rural adults live improved life which
can translate to community development. In conclusion, the paper calls for establishment of
out-of-school/non-formal education development schemes by Etche and Omuma Local
Government Councils to perform for out-of-school education what zonal Schools Board and
Ministry of Education do for formal school in Etche ethnic nationality.




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Introduction
Nigeria has for long regarded the formal education system as an instrument “par excellence” for
effecting national development (NPC, 2004), with less emphasis on out-of-school education which is
capable of providing unlimited education opportunities for mobilizing the capacities of various sub-
groups towards rapid transformation of societies. This disproportionate emphasis on formal education
system that is very restrictive and void of opportunities for acquisition of practical skills, to a large
extent, occasioned the disparity in level of development existing between urban and rural communities
in Etche in particular and Nigeria in general (Ihejirika, 2007).
Etche ethnic nationality which comprises Omuma and Etche Local Government Areas, has
witnessed no government approved out-of-school education programme apart from the defunct
school-to-land agricultural project at Egbeke Nwuba. Of course, we learnt from Samlowski (2011) that
in most countries, formal technical and vocational training is neglected and most times deficient. It
could be argued that in the absence of technical and vocational training centres meant for capacity
building of rural adults and youths in Etche ethnic nationality, the people are given partial or one sided
education. This situation attracted the comment of Tugbiyele (1971) that just as a person will find it
difficult to walk on one leg, so will education without either of its two legs: formal and out-of-school
education, experience difficulties in performing the functions normally expected of it (p. 55).
This quotation points to the fact that education in Etche ethnic nationality has been limping on
one leg (formal education) hence it has not performed all the functions expected of it. The result is that
the rural adults and youths lack practical skills in economic, technical and entrepreneurial activities
which out-of-school education has the monopoly.
Etche ethnic nationality lies at the north-east of Rivers State towards the southern portions of
Imo and Abia States, all in Nigeria, and occupies a land mass of 3,600 square kilometers with an
indigenous population of about 1.5 million. It has three main rivers namely: Imo, Oguechie and
Otamiriochie all flowing southwards and emptying into the Atlantic ocean. These rivers and their
tributaries traverse the large plains of Etche ethnic nationality and render the soil fertile for agriculture;
hence the main occupation of the people is farming. The people’s produce include food crops such as
yam, cassava, cocoyam, plantain, maize, melon, vegetables and fruits. However, lack of modern
knowledge of farming has perpetually kept production low and the people poor. In fact, according to
Amirize (2002) most families live from hand-to-mouth because they practice an economy that uses
local technology, little specialization, limited exchange and subsistence production. Worst still, the
women practice the same type of occupation (production of garri from cassava tubers) year in and year
out thereby pass the cruel legacy of poverty from parents to children. Other subsidiary occupations of
the people are hunting, fishing, petty trading, goat and sheep rearing; all for local markets.
Great hope is attached to the development of the mining sector. Etche is very rich in oil and
gas deposits, though this sector is capital-intensive and can only generate a limited number of non-
technical jobs and is unlikely to bring relief to the poor and vulnerable population. The fact remains
that rural areas in Etche ethnic nationality have for long been suffering from shortage of portable
water, electricity, medical care, and jobs, criminality, insecurity and Nigerian government’s inability to
extend rule of law to all nooks and crannies of the country.
This low level of socio-economic activities among rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality
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deserve some positive actions hence, this paper is aimed at analyzing the roles out-of-school education,
with its plethora of programmes, can play to empower them for sustainable community development.
Conceptual Clarifications
The definitions presented here are required right from the start to make our discussion intelligible by
clearly identifying the basic issues to be examined. The title of this paper suggests that the major
concepts to be clarified are out-of-school education, empowerment, and community development.
Out-of-school education
As the name implies, out-of-school education is any form of organized educational activity carried on
outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to particular sub-
groups in the population of adults as well as children. According to Ihejirika (2003), out-of-school
education, popularly referred to as non-formal education, is concerned with identifying specific groups
of people in the society such as illiterates, farmers, community leaders, rural dwellers, unemployed
youths etc; diagnosing their specific problems or needs and seeking the most appropriate means to
cater for them to enable them play their various roles in the society. With reference to its content and
scope, Tugbiyele (1971) postulated that out-of-school education includes out-of-classroom youth
education for school children and university students, literacy education, remedial education for
dropouts, technical and vocational training, extension services, health education, community
development and continuing education at all levels and for various categories of people including top
executives in government, industry and labour, etc. However, he regretted that out-of-school education
is a neglected aspect of education which is often looked down upon, hence when given, it is done on an
ad hoc basis.
Different attempts have been made by various authors to define out-of-school education. Their
definitions have different dimensions but a comprehensive view of the concept came from Bown and
Okedara (1981) who stated thus:
The rubric of-out-school education covers training and instruction outside the formal school
system and ranges from individualized apprenticeship to nationwide literacy. It may be
vocational such as staff training centres in Nigeria designed to provide employment
opportunities to young school leavers and for other employed persons or girls’ vocational
establishments in many African countries which train girls in vocational skills and prepare
young women for marriage and business (p. 17).
This definition gives a catalogue of what out-of-school education can do: it covers training in literacy
skills, apprenticeship, vocational skills and business, all of which prepare participants for employment.
Empowerment
The term empowerment derives from the “root word” power. Thus to empower means to give
authority to, to enable a person or group of persons gain power. According to Okpoko (2002),
empowerment implies that the person or group of persons being empowered must have hitherto lacked
authority by circumstances either by denial or default.
There are many avenues of empowering people or giving them the strength, knowledge or
information to act. For example, through education and training, an erstwhile illiterate can be
empowered to develop to the extent of getting employment. Again, awareness creation or
consciousness arousal, which Paulo Freire termed “conscientization” can be used as instrument for
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empowerment. According to Freire (1978) conscientization is a process by which the poor become
aware of themselves and their innate potentialities to restructure an oppressive society. Thus
conscientization, to Freire was to provide the stimulus which would energize marginalized adults to
effect a transformation in the conditions which were oppressing them. This is the theoretical thinking
of this paper.
In this discuss, empowerment is taken to mean a process whereby the rural adults in Etche
ethnic nationality are enabled (empowered so to say) through awareness creation using out-of-school
education programmes to improve upon what they know before or undertake new activities in order to
influence changes in their socio-economic, cultural and political environments.
Community Development
To put community development into proper perspective, the term “community” must be defined. A
community is defined by Hillery (1955) and Jonassen, (1959) as a grouping of people within a
geographical area, with a division of labour into specialized and interdependent functions, with a
common culture and a social system which organizes their activities, whose members are conscious of
their unity and of belonging to the community and who can act collectively in an organized manner.
The term development can be taken as a process of satisfying the basic needs of an individual
and community and/or society. According to Obi (1987), development is an elusive and ambiguous
term and no definition seems entirely satisfactory. It is a multi-dimensional problem which requires
multi-disciplinary attack. Moreover, it has to do with all aspects of people’s life – economic, social,
political, legal, administrative, etc. To Fadahunsi (1986), development is the mobilization, adaptation
and use of human and other resources within a state to meet the needs and possibly, the wants of the
citizens of the state.
Community development therefore, means an educational process through which people
determine their needs, set targets or objectives and make adequate plans on how to attain them
(Nkememewa 1987). It seeks to help people not only to become effective and efficient in their
involvement in solving community and personal problems but, also in seeing to their action priorities.
In this wise, the rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality who have been wallowing in illiteracy,
poverty, hunger, complacency, unemployment etc. require to be woken up or stimulated to seek ways
of improving their standards of living thereby contributing to the development of their communities.
This paper explains how out-of-school education can be utilized to achieve this feat.
Problems of Out-of-School Education in Nigeria
In Nigeria, out-of-school education; call it non-formal education, is not entirely a new concept for as
early as 1943, the colonial administration had published its white paper titled “Mass Education in
African Societies”. The policy defined goals to be pursued as:
(i) the improvement of the health and living conditions of the people;
(ii) the improvement of their well-being in the economic spheres;
(iii) the development of political institutions and political power until the day arrives when the
people can become effectively self-governing.
Since 1943 many African countries have become self-governing and introduced some out-of-
school outfits which operated mainly in urban areas with no impacts in rural areas. The Directorate for
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Social Mobilization (MANSER) 1987, is a typical example in the case of Nigeria. With the historical
antecedent of out-of-school education in Nigeria, the expectation is that it ought to be firmly developed
and integrated into the educational system by now. But it is still at the periphery – why?
One major problem of out-of-school education in both Nigeria and other countries as
identified by Jegede (2005) is ‘the competitive approach to formal education the protagonists of the
concept portray it”. An example of such assertion is stated by Coombs (1989) that many developing
countries have become convinced that traditional primary schools are not the only or even the best way
to provide their children and youth with the basic skills and knowledge they will need in life. In this
regard, according to Jegede (2005) when out-of-school education is seen as a “better” alternative, or as
a “solution” to the problems of formal education, the tendency is for the protagonists of formal
education to try and defend it by becoming antagonistic to the progress of out-of-school education.
This competition and bias against out-of-school education was reflected in the UBE Act of 2004 where
no provision was made for the Nigerian National Council for Adult Education, nor for any of the Non-
Governmental Organizations in out-of-school education in the membership of the Board of the UBE
Commission. In fact, this exclusion has the tendency of neglecting the non-formal education sector to
the detriment of the emancipation and transformation of the country.
Another problem of out-of-school education is lack of adequate organizational structure. For
example, in Nigeria and elsewhere, formal education has its ministry (by whatever name) to watch over
it and fight its battles so to say, but non-formal education (that motley assortment of out-of-school
training and educational activities), has been everybody’s business and therefore nobody’s. This
situation therefore calls for the establishment, the strengthening and the invigoration of a
supplementary and/or complementary alternative option under its own ministry. Supporting this view,
Coombs (1970) perceived a clear need to develop a better division of labour and better integration
between formal and non-formal education and stop short changing out of school education. This
measure will give out-of-school education a strong voice to speak on its own behalf on national, state
and local levels.
The unwieldy number of personalities and programmes operating within the province of out-
of-school education creates problems of their own. Experts in other fields such as health, agriculture,
environmental education, the police, air force, army, judiciary, church, ministry of women affairs and
local governments, etc. bring their backgrounds to bear on the practice of out-of-school education.
Likewise, the programmes that conceptualize out-of-school education are becoming systematically
ambiguous that its full meaning can only be better understood when the characterizations of the
subsystem are expressed. The implication is that at federal, state and local government levels, apart
from the seeming neglect or non-recognition of out-of-school education system, there is no dedicated
commitment to fund out-of-school education in Nigeria (Akintayo and Oghenekohwo, 2004). Unless
development partners are brought into the show, Nigerian governments alone cannot equitably
shoulder the responsibility of funding out-of-school education programmes in the country.
Roles of Out-of-School Education in Empowerment of Rural Adults in Etche Ethnic
Nationality
The Ghana Commonwealth Conference on Education in Rural Areas (1970), Thompson (1983), and
Ihejirika (2007) identified the following categories of rural adults that can constitute beneficiaries of
out-of-school education. They are:
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- traditional farmers;
- primary/secondary school dropouts;
- large number of unemployed youths;
- the self-engaged in off-farm activities.

Coincidentally, in Etche ethnic nationality, a similar category of rural dwellers are prominent. In
the nationality, every family head is a farmer and happens to be illiterate. This common phenomenon
left two problems which out-of-school education can handle because those crop of adults are above
formal school age. But for out-of-school education to succeed in helping them change their attitudes
toward traditional and unprogressive subsistence framing they are used to, their illiteracy disease must
be cured first as Thompson (1983) highlighted:
Illiteracy makes it difficult to teach new techniques, poverty prevents investment in new
facilities, and a land tenure system which does not establish legal land boundaries and security
of tenure deprives the farmer of an asset against which to raise loans and gives him no incentive
to invest in long term improvements (p. 108).
To clear this first hurdle therefore, adult literacy education which emphasizes the teaching of
the 3R’s – Reading, Writing and Arithmetic or numeracy should serve as first course since literacy is
both a necessary skill in itself and the foundation of other life skills. This can be effectively achieved
among illiterate farmers in Etche ethnic nationality on the provision of Community Learning Centres
(CLCs) at designated points by the two council chairmen in the nationality. Beyond this baseline
education, the farmers are introduced to functional literacy which combines the skills of literacy with
socio-economic activities. In this case, since the people have a common occupation, it becomes
possible to integrate the terminologies or registers of their occupation into the literacy component of
the programme. Then the desire and ability to read, write and compute materials in the vocation will
motivate the farmers for better participation. Hence, Imhabekhai (2009) emphasized that the utility of
the skills will definitely bring about functionality and progress in the farming occupation and fosters
permanent literacy among the participants. Thus, literacy education for the unschooled, according to
Thompson (1983), will facilitate a flow of vital ideas and information, increase their awareness of the
situation in which they live, and of the possibilities and choices before them. Moreover, in our case, it
will motivate illiterate farmers in Etche to increase their efforts to break out of poverty cycle as a result
of the new vista of life which literacy will open for them. This will serve as empowerment for them.
The other challenge is the practice of an economy with local technology which translates to low
productivity and poverty among farmers in Etche ethnic nationality. This age-long problem can
successfully be met through agricultural extension education, which is a process through which
innovations in both methods and techniques of production as well as new improvements in agriculture
are brought to the knowledge of farmers through individual contacts with agricultural agents from
Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) or from Agricultural Research
Institutes in Nigeria. According to Williams (1981), agricultural extension education is a voluntary out-
of-school education programme. It employs teachings/learning principles that effect changes in the
farmers, generally carried out in an atmosphere of mutual trust and respect between agricultural agents
and their clientele. (p. 144)
Upon registration by farmers in Etche at the two Local Government Councils, relevant agents
are sent from the headquarters to visit them according to schedule during which time, apart from
teaching new techniques of cultivation, they are taught other processes involving development and
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supply of new improved seeds and seedlings, fertilizers and insecticides’ applications, storage and
marketing of products, often through specially created marketing boards. It is envisaged that through
the services of experts and demonstrators to the farmers, there will be self-sufficiency in food
production through introduction of varieties of non-formal vocational courses such as mushroom
breed, chicken raising (poultry), fish pond, snail breeding, rabbitry etc. as against the practice of
planting yam and cassava. Frankly speaking, the services of agricultural experts will help create a
conducive frame of mind and attitude in Etche farmers for acceptance of change from the old ways of
doing their things to the new including formation of cooperatives and credit societies as well as bank
loan facilities and so on, all of which will revolutionize the erstwhile unprogressive socio-economic
activities to a more functional economy and development.
The second category of rural dwellers that populate Etche ethnic nationality is formal school
dropouts mostly from primary and secondary schools. They have no skills as to search for jobs even
menial ones, neither can they enter institutions of higher learning because of lack of certification. They
roam about, some doing motor-cycle transport business that cannot lead them to self sufficiency
because they rent the motorbikes. In fact their learning needs can be conveniently handled by using
remedial and later continuing education components of out-of-school education. Remedial education,
as the name implies, is a form of adult and non-formal education which gives extended opportunities
for learners to make up the inadequacies in their previous school experiences. It presupposes that the
learners had earlier taken part in one type of educational programme but could not complete it due to
certain unfavourable conditions. Since it is not feasible nor desirable to send them back to full-time
schooling, the change must be effected through remedial part-time education to enable them re-inter
formal education if need be, or opt for various vocational skills training for self-sufficiency or
employment. Additionally, as the case may be in a rural environment like Etche, programmes that can
generate community development spirit e.g youth clubs, scouting, women organizations, young farmers
clubs, etc. are relevant to give those early dropouts some sense of responsibility and patriotism.
Another identified subgroup of beneficiaries of out-of-school education in Etche ethnic
nationality are the unemployed youths. Lack of relevant skills to labour demands is a major reason for
not securing job at all. Those among them who are illiterate need to go back to basis for basic literacy
training to enable them pick up from there on a stronger footing as to be empowered in economic
activities which will improve their productivity and thus contribute to community development.
The literate and jobless among them require those basic skills that are not transmitted through
formal schooling. They require - life skills which include technical and manual skills that are required to
secure gainful employment, skills of the kind that enable people to feed their families, to keep them
healthy, and to protect them from illness. In the case of jobless youths in rural Etche communities,
vocational skills training in weaving of cloth, shopping and school bags, crafts production such as
pottery, knitting, sewing, tie, and dye, bricklaying, block molding, house-roofing, pest-control, cassava
processing, baking, candles, soap and pomade, etc. are indicated. The skills if well acquired, can enable
a youth improve his lifestyle by earning income from his small-scale business. It is not in doubt that
where proficiency is demonstrated, the acquired skill could lead to securing job or becoming self-
employed.
Lastly there are a good number of identified youths in Etche ethnic nationality who are engaged
in off-farm activities such as carpenters, drivers, local gin distillers, retail (petty) traders, hair dressers,
etc. in order to eke out their living. All of them require retraining to up-date their technical know-how
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and operate at an acceptable standard within the ambit of government regulations. Their retraining
could be under short-term workshops or apprenticeship courses since adults would need less time-
consuming experience instead of pro-longed programmes. The anticipated training and retraining short
courses are aimed at enabling the participants become more capable of doing the jobs they are doing at
present or to do new kinds of jobs.
In this analysis, it is clear that out-of-school education and training programmes have all it takes
to empower the various categories of rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality after which they become
instrumental factors for community development of the nationality.
Conclusion
This paper has ex-rayed the concepts of empowerment and community development as they relate to
out-of school education. Similarly the relevance of utilizing out-of-school education to empower
different segments of rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality was examined as well. Rural adults in the
nationality were all along subjected to formal education system that paid insignificant attention to out-
of-school education with the result that acquisition of relevant life and vocational skills which are
prerequisites for occupation eluded most segments of people in Etche ethnic nationality. For the rural
adults in the nationality to have both theoretical and practical knowledge, the monopoly of formal
education in the area needs to be broken up by recognizing the practical utility which out-of-school
education provides to the participants. It is capable of bridging the gap created by the limitations of
formal education; be it in the areas of improved agricultural productivity, skills acquisition, vocational
education, employment, health, on-the-job training, literacy and functional education, etc. and where
necessary, out-of-school education provides additional route to career progression or for re-entry of
dropouts into formal education sector. Therefore, the role of out-of-school education in empowering
various segments of rural adults in Etche ethnic nationality with relevant life-giving/vocational skills is
established.
Recommendations
Gleaning from the discussion of this presentation, the following recommendations are proffered for
consideration.
1. There is need for institutionalization of Non-Formal Education out-of-school education
under a separate Ministry of Non-formal Education to oversee the activities and programmes
of out-of-school education.
2. The tendency of governments to place more emphasis on formal education system and leave
out-of-school education at the periphery, and the urge to concentrate development plans in
urban areas at the neglect of rural areas should be drastically reversed to make for even
development of Nigeria.
3. Local Government Councils, Etche and Omuma inclusive, should consider development of
rural areas their priority and establish out-of-school education development schemes such as
local technology workshops, cottage and small-scale industries, skills acquisition/vocational
centres, crafts development centres, international communication technology centres, etc. to
provide employment and training for rural dwellers.
4. The curriculum of the Universal basic Education (UBE) programme in Nigeria should be
diversified and implemented including pre-vocational technical and skills acquisition courses
to empower school-leavers with various occupational skills.
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5. Out-of-school education should therefore become a national programme whereby people in
their communities are empowered and supported to put into teachable units of all kinds of
daily-life activities, special interests and problem-solving situations of all the social classes in
their different work locations, family environments and social conditions.

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Oghenekohwo, J.E. (2005), Economic Returns of Non-Formal Education Investment and the Budgetary Dilemma
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

GENDER AND ACADEMIC “HIDDEN” EXPERIENCE OF STUDENTS AND
LECTURERS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES
By
Felicia I. Ofoegbu, Ph. D
Associate Professor
Department of Educational Studies And Management
E-mail: ofoegbufelicia@yahoo.com
B.M Agboola, Ph.D
Department of Educational Studies and Management
E-mail: cettas@yahoo.com

Lucy A. Okukpon, Ph. D
Associate Professor
E-mail: okukpon2002@yahoo.com
Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education.
Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Benin City. Edo State, Nigeria.

Abstract
Gender issues and associated discontent are real but difficult to fathom their extent
and spread. The study ascertains the proportion of female to male students’
enrollment, the ratio of female to male academic staff in the university, as an
important corollary highlight the hidden experiences of female students and
academics. 500 students and 183 members of staff were selected using the simple
stratified random sampling technique. Three research instruments were used to
gather information; one was a questionnaire designed to obtain information on the
academic experiences of each group within a cohort university. The second and
third instruments respectively sought information on students’ enrollments in
faculties and on staffing. The study analyzed the pattern of access based on
gender in enrollment and employment in academic disciplines. A recurring feature
in the data obtained was that males had more opportunities of access to science
and technology related disciplines and professions than their female counterparts.
The study also established that female students during their course of study were,
not uncommonly, subjected to sexual harassment by male lecturers. It is
recommended that Government enunciates affirmative policies to revert the trend in
favour of women and establish the office of Ombudsman headed by a female in the
university to ensure that complaints of injustices and uncomely acts against women
are given the desired attention
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Introduction
Female gender concerns are often downplayed in the misdirected guise of ensuring male driven societal
protection for the woman or ignored outrightly since it would appear more honourable to do so in the
illusion of caring for the social and psychological interest of the woman. Though, everywhere and in
every place, female discontent abound; it is difficult to ascertain its extent, spread, magnitude and
associated deleterious effects on the woman.
Globally, gender issue is not a new phenomenon as men and women have been perceived as
belonging to separate social, cultural and economic strata. This has influenced and manifested in their
different roles and pattern of response to situations, including access to education and other
expectations in the society. In the past, parents availed only their male children the opportunity of
going to school, believing albeit erroneously, that the education of the girl child was a waste since the
probabilities were that she would get married and leave the family for her husband (Oduaran and
Okukpon, 1997). Then the gender disparity favoured the male child as many boys had the opportunity
of accessing western education. Recently, however, there seems to have been a remarkable change in
the perception of the education of girls since many females who had access to education have proven
their worth and thus woken the society to the consciousness of the benefit and need to educate all
citizens irrespective of their sex.
However, the negative attitudes of parents, guardians, uncles and brothers towards the girl-child
have had the adverse effect of conditioning them to against believing in themselves or their abilities.
The result is an apparent lack of exhibition of leadership qualities, assumed lack of initiatives, a taken-
for-granted feeling of subservience and acceptance of an inferior status with respect to boys. The effect
of this badge of inferiority complex on the girl in the school system is better imagined than
experienced. The struggle against these inequalities has taken the centre stage in demands by women
for their recognition and addressing their special and peculiar needs in the society. To this end, and
some years ago, there were, special interventions of Government to encourage the education of the girl
child by facilitating special opportunities for them at the primary and secondary school levels. These
were however rejected by women groups and societies as blocks of evidence to uphold and confirm the
inferiority of the female gender. The solution according to the women organizations is in providing
equal educational opportunities for all irrespective of gender.
This awareness of the positive role of women in overall societal development informed reforms
in Government’s educational policy, one of which was the introduction of Mass Literacy, and adult and
Non-formal education programmes the aims of which include:
i) Providing functional literacy and continuing education for those adults and youths who did
not have the advantage of formal education or who may not have completed their primary
education. These include the nomads, fishermen and other migrant families, the physically
impaired and the gender disadvantaged (women).
ii) Providing in-service, on the job, vocational and professional training for different
categories of workers and professionals to enable them continually improve their skills
iii) Providing opportunities for the adult citizens of the country to acquire necessary aesthetic,
cultural and civic education for public enlightenment.
In order to attain the goals effectively, the Federal Government of Nigeria in 2006 established a
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National Commission for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non-formal Education. Indeed Adult and Non-
formal education has in recent years played important roles not only in contributing to the
improvement of productivity of the labour market but also in assisting individuals, especially women, to
improve their employment prospects in a rapidly changing socio-economic conditions. Also, parents
and families now encourage their girl children to embrace schooling at all levels including the
university.
However in spite of meritorious access to higher education and subsequent appointments as
lecturers in higher institutions, the females still suffer undue and unnecessary discrimination based on
their gender. Males are more numerous both as students and as co-workers in the university where they
almost exclusively occupy the major administrative and executive positions. In these circumstances the
“hidden” impediments and frustration experienced by women in their legitimate quest for higher
education and career achievements are better imagined. However, recent trends appear to have
favoured the girl-student in numerical strength in the South Eastern part of Nigeria (Ofoegbu, 2006).
This paper examines the prevailing situations in the Nigerian context.
Academic experiences of female students and lecturers in the study include experiences of
displeasing, oppressive, intolerable, discriminatory and other forms of unacceptable encounters with
their male colleagues, the authority (comprising mostly male personnel) and even fellow females.
Hidden academic experiences in the study are those kinds of experiences which one might not readily
come out publicly to claim they took place and indeed the individuals that perpetuate them will also not
acknowledge them openly because of their sordidness, gross unacceptability and indecency. They
include sexual harassment in its various forms and unjust practices melted out to subjugate and
sometimes intimidate the females in order to assert presumed male superiority.
Women in the Nigerian society irrespective of status often encounter multiple challenges as a
result of gender, culture, religion and economic situations (Salako, 2009). Bernett (1995) refers to the
academic experience of women as “multiple jeopardy”. According to her women in academia do not
only carry out their normal duty of teaching and research but they also combine heavy teaching loads
with university committee service and events. Where by chance and on merit they are appointed into
leadership positions, such as Head of Department, they are confronted with barriers from their male
counterparts who see them as taking up positions which men normally assume is rightfully theirs.
Umezulike (2009) asserted that women were frequently relegated to the background, treated as
door mats and as second hand materials. Many Nigerian female academics seem to remain marginalized
to the periphery of academic achievements and so maintain relatively low profiles when compared with
their male colleagues as they confront barriers to promotions and advancements. Notwithstanding the
realities of these experiences the married academic woman is expected to run her home efficiently and
conjure up the image of a faithful and submissive wife, a caring mother and an untiring nurse and cook.
The female university student like her female teacher is not short of similar challenges and may face
more severe situations. She is ab initio regarded as weak, of average intelligence if not unintelligent,
emotional and inferior to her male counterparts. Her male teachers and lecturers see her as a sex object
and often admire her achievements in the context of her beauty. She goes through various unpleasant
experiences sometimes despicable, while in the university; such encounters may give expression to
negative influence in her academic performance.

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Statement of Problem
The existence of gender bias in favour of men is brazenly unequivocal. Women do not have the same
educational experience as men right from the Greek and Medieval education history till date. However
it has been observed that the Nigerian educational scene has witnessed a significant increase in the
participation of women in major occupations hitherto reserved exclusively for men. It is also
recognized that girls have benefited from the educational expansion of the 1970s and 80s to a great
extent as a consequence of conscious government efforts to provide girls with equal educational
opportunities, thereby, narrowing the difference in opportunities between male and females. However
that unpleasant gender related experiences do occur in a woman’s life is rather taken for granted but the
situation becomes more worrisome when the events concerned tend to stifle the woman’s academic
career either as a student or as a lecturer in the university. In order to establish the facts, extent and
penetration of such condemnable hidden and unofficial practices against women, it has become
necessary to assess the rate of female admission into Nigerian universities and appraise their
experiences as females in higher institutions.
Purpose of Study
The aim of this study is to ascertain the proportion of female to male students admitted in the
university and the ratio of female to male academic staff in the same university and through these focus
on establishing the academic experiences of female students and lecturers in Nigeria. The therefore
following research questions were raised:
1 What is the rate of female enrolment by gender and academic discipline in Nigerian universities?
2 What is the rate of female staff employed by gender and discipline in Nigerian universities?
3 Is there any difference in the “hidden” academic experiences of students and teachers in Nigerian
universities?

Method of Study
The study is a survey.
Population
The population of the study comprises 9583 female students and 183 female members of academic
staff of the cohort university in the 2007/2008 academic session.
Sample and Sampling Technique
One public university was purposively selected for the study. Out of the 9583 female students enrolled
in 2007/2008, five hundred were randomly selected based on faculties and disciplines and 183 female
academic staff employed during the cohort year participated in the study.
Instrument
Three instruments were used for the study. The first instrument was a questionnaire titled “Gender and
Academic Experiences Questionnaire (GAEQ) which was used to find out the academic experiences
(invisible acts) among the female staff and students.
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The second was the check list from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board provisional
admission list and the University Admissions Board clearance list from the university for 2000/2001,
2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008 which was used to
establish the rate of female student admissions into academic disciplines. The third was the staff list
which was obtained from the Academic Planning Division of the same university to establish the rate
of female employment during the cohort respective sessions.
Result
The results of the study are presented in the tables below.
Table 1: Hidden Academic Experiences by Students and lecturers

HIDDEN EXPERIENCE FACTORS


LECTURERS
EXPERIENCES(N-183)
STUDENTS EXPERIENCE (N-
500)
SA A D SD SA A D SD
1 There is affirmative positive action toward female
access in educational system in Nigeria
45% 49% 1% 5% 33% 56% 10% 1%


2 Women are given their subject area of choice
during admission
36% 55% 1% 8% - 79% 12% 9%
3 Female teachers/students are constrained in their
teaching and study
4% 46% 3% 47% 9% 6% 76% 9%
4 Female enrolment/employment
is low in science and technology
89% 11% - - 77% 18% 5% -
5 Family background has influence on female
academic experience
65% 25% 8% 2% 66% 28% 6% -
6 Cultural and societal expectation have impact on
female academic experiences
68% 28% 4% - 63% 37% - -
7 Role modeling and outreach can improve
academic experience
79% 19% 2% 66% 32% 2%
8 Female lecturers are members of
University/faculty committee
53% 8% 29% 10% 15% 37% 48%
9 Female lecturers are sexually harassed by male
colleagues in their course of work
12% 66% 22% - 18% 71% 11%
10 Female students are sexually harassed by male
colleagues in their course of study
77% 19% 4% 78% 12% 10%
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Table I indicates the academic “hidden” experiences of female students and teachers in the cohort
university. The table reveals that79% of female lecturers and 89% of female students strongly agree that
female students are sexually harassed by male lecturers. This was closely followed by 77% female lecturers
and 72% female students who agree that female students’ are sexually harassed by male students during
their course of study.
Table II: Student Enrolment by Gender and Academic Discipline From 2000/2001 to 2007/2008
11 Female students are sexually harassed by male
lecturers in their course of study
79% 16% 5% - 89% 11% - -
12 Female students/lecturers are sexually harassed
by female counterparts in their course of study
06% 66% 28% - - 76% 24%
13 Female teachers are sexually harassed by male
students in their course of work
05% 73% 22% - - 32% 68%
14 Female lecturers are discriminated against when
it involves chairing a University/Faculty
committee
16% 46% 33% 05% - 57% 38% 5%
15 Female students are discriminated against when it
involves heading students Union/Group
51% 43% 06% 21% 61% 18% 10%
16 Female lecturers are not appointed Head of
Departments
52% 28% 15% - 64% 36%
17 Female Teacher/Students experience
assault/violence in the course of work/study
21% 65% 08% 13% 76% 19% 05%
STUDENT ENROLMENT BY GENDER AND ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE FROM 2000/2001 TO 2007/2008
2000/2001 2001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2006/2007 2007/2008 Mean
% of
Femal
e
Stude
nts
FACULTY Male Fe
mal
e
% F Mal
e
Female %
F
Mal
e
Fem
ale
%
F
Mal
e
Fem
ale
%
F
Mal
e
Fem
ale
%
F
Mal
e
Fem
ale
%
F
Mal
e
Fem
ale
%
F

Agriculture 282 255 47 462 375 45 403 229 36 511 217 38 558 345 38 599 379 39 892 496 36 39
Arts 617 817 57 857 977 53 689 103
6
60 899 118
2
57 103
0
133
0
56 981 148
0
60 113
8
168
0
60 57
Education 2482 264
2
52 263
2
2742 51 761 118
4
61 116
2
171
3
60 137
8
169
2
55 116
6
169
0
59 124
8
135
1
52 56
Engineering 2950 636 18 313
0
762 20 324
3
305 9 401
9
491 11 380
5
396 9 359
7
448 11 393
4
581 13 12
Law 730 742 50 760 765 50 746 771 51 901 956 51 608 537 47 677 664 50 556 595 52 50
Medicine 997 611 38 102
7
631 38 131
5
487 27 122
8
608 33 133
1
549 29 102
9
526 34 950 401 30 32
Pharmacy 838 779 48 868 799 48 445 285 39 835 881 51 408 384 48 409 429 51 370 349 49 48
Dentistry 173 119 41 209 136 39 326 130 29 409 236 37 409 225 35 263 168 39 179 105 37 36
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Table II shows that on the average females constituted 43%, 36%, 40%, 38% and 41% of students
admitted into the university respectively during the 2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004,
2004/2005, 2005/2006, 2006/2007, 2007/2008 academic years under study. However, the least
admission rate was recorded in Engineering with an abysmal 9% rate during 2002/2003 and 2004/2005
academic sessions. It confirms that admission of women into science and technology is remarkably
low.
TABLE III
ACADEMIC STAFF EMPLOYMENT BY GENDER AND ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE

Year 2000/2001
2001/200
2 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2006/2007 2007/2008
Mea
n %
of
Fem
ale
to
male
staff
FACULTY
Ma
le
Fem
ale % F
M
al
e
Fem
ale
%
F
Ma
le
Fem
ale
%
F
Ma
le
Fem
ale
%
F
Ma
le
Fem
ale
%
F
Ma
le
Fem
ale
%
F
Ma
le
Fem
ale
%
F
Agricultur
e 46 4 8
4
8 5 9 47 5
1
0 51 5 9 53 5 9 47 5
1
0 49 6
1
1 10
Arts 96 15 14
8
5 22
2
1 86 22
2
0 86 19
1
8 87 21
1
9 96 25
2
1 95 25
2
1 30
Education 54 16 23
5
8 18
2
4 53 18
2
5 56 18
2
4 57 22
2
8 53 24
3
1 53 26
3
3 28
Engineeri
ng 71 5 7
7
3 6 8 78 3 4 82 6 7 87 6 6 88 7 7 97 7 7 23
Law 23 2 8
2
5 1 4 24 1 4 27 4
1
3 28 3
1
0 31 6
1
6 27 6
1
8 21
Medicine 85 24 22
8
5 24
2
2 85 26
2
3 68 29
3
0 70 29
2
9 76 35
3
2 75 29
2
8 32
Pharmacy 35 8 19
3
5 11
2
4 33 12
2
7 36 13
2
7 35 10
2
2 36 10
2
2 36 10
2
2 31
Dentistry 13 2 13
1
4 1 7 14 3
1
8 16 4
2
0 16 4
2
0 21 2 9 20 5
2
0 16
Physical/Lif
e Sciences
2456 197
4
45 270
6
2227 45 242
5
152
7
39 332
9
225
1
40 312
7
211
0
40 331
0
243
9
42 381
8
203
6
35 42
Manageme
nt/Social
Sciences
1533 127
5
45 165
3
1458 47 254
2
156
9
38 388
4
299
6
44 418
3
276
0
40 372
4
278
1
43 287
9
198
9
41 44
TOTAL 1305
8
98
50
142
68
10872 128
95
725
3
171
77
115
31
168
37
102
92
157
55
110
04
159
64
958
3

Overall
Total
22908 43 25140 43 20418 36
28708
40
27129
38
26759
41
25547
38 39.86
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Physical/L
ife
Sciences
14
8 39 21
1
6
2 44
2
1
15
4 42
2
1
16
4 40
2
0
16
6 40
1
9
16
9 47
2
2
16
3 48
2
3 21
Managem
ent/
Social
Sciences 97 13 12
9
7 16
1
4
10
1 17
1
4
10
7 20
1
6
11
0 19
1
5
10
9 19
1
5
11
0 21
1
6 14.52
TOTAL
66
8 128
6
8
2 148
67
5 149
69
3 158
70
9 159
72
6 180
72
5 183
Overall
Total 796 16

830
1
8

824
1
8

851
1
9

868
1
8

906
2
0

908
2
0 18.43

Table III reveals that on the average female academic staff employed in the university constituted 16% in
2000/2001 academic session, 18% in 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2004/2005 and respectively 19% and 20% in
2005/2006, 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. It can be inferred that employment of women in academics is low when
compared to their male counterparts.

Table IV: Mean Difference in Lectures and Students Hidden Academic Experiences
Variable No. of Respondents Mean.
Lecturers 183 4.12
Students 500 6.51

The mean scores in Table IV indicate that there were differences in the level of lecturers’ and students’
hidden academic experiences in Nigerian universities.
Discussion
The central theme of the study is to find out the academic hidden experiences of students and teachers
in Nigerian universities in relation to gender. The findings showed that the academic experiences of
female students and lecturers were significant. However, it is recognized that female students were
more subjected to such “invisible acts” experiences than their female lecturers.
The “invisible act” experience among women in academics as revealed in the study is not
surprising and is in consonance with several gender studies including Eboh (1995), Oduaran and
Okukpon (1997) and Akpan (2004). It is also recognized that the hidden experiences projected in the
study are not peculiar to Nigeria but obtain also in several parts of Africa and the world in general.
The findings also showed that fewer females than males were admitted or employed into the
disciplines of Science and technology. The finding is indeed a confirmation of the observation and
positive assertion that on the whole, fewer Nigerian female students and lecturers choose science and
technical disciplines even where the options are available. The females take up on the average 38% of
their expected enrolment in the sciences and 20% of their expected job placement. The finding affirms
the disparity existing in academic staff employment in favour of men (Umezulike, 2009) which
translates into the low representation of women in the Boards of Colleges and Universities, and the
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persisting disparities between men and women in leadership positions in Nigerian universities. This
explains the actual situation in which the majority of females in academics are found in Education, Arts,
Law and Social Sciences (Brock-Ume 1982).
Conclusion/Recommendation
The study concludes that gender- related and unpleasant academic “hidden” experiences of female
students and lecturers in Nigerian Universities are significantly high. However, Nigerian women
themselves need to live up to the challenges that their gender has necessarily imposed on them.
Government needs to encourage increased university enrolment for women through increasing
educational opportunities for girls and, also the office of the ombudsman headed by a female should be
established in every university in order to ensure that complaints of embarrassment, injustices and
uncomely acts against women are given the desired and right attention.
Reference
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Akpan, O. R. (2004) Propelling our issues forward in Mangza (Ed.) Images of Nigerian women. Abuja
National Center for Women Development
Bernett, B (1995) Gender, Race, Academic Experience, Black Women. Paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Chall, J. S & Popp, H.M (1990) Chall-Popp Phonics: Level B (Teacher’s Edition) Continental Press.
Eboh, S (1996) the changing role of women and their career choice in Nigeria Gender Issues in
Education and Development: A Book of readings. Okpara, E. N. a publication of the Association
for promotion of quality education in Nigeria. Vol 8 p 52 – 58.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN (2004) National Policy on Education NERDC. Press Yaba Lagos
Johan. R, (1995). The elusive Agenda: Mainstreaming women in Development. New Jersey: zed Books.
Oduaran, A.B. and Okukpon, L.A. (1997) Building women’s capacity for National Development in
Nigeria, in Convergence, Vol. xxx, No.1. p 60.
Ofoegbu, F. I. (2006) Analysis of students rate of attendance at Nigerian public secondary schools.
African Journal of Studies in Education. Faculty of Education, University of Benin, 2, (1) 40 – 53.
Salako, C. T (2009) factors militating against girl-child access to education in Nigeria: implications for
National growth and development. Journal of the Department of Arts and Social Science
Education 4 (1) p55 – 61 University of Jos.
Sadiq, M (1996) Socialization and Gender Stereotyping. Gender Issues in Education and Development:
A Book of readings. Okpara, E. N. a publication of the Association for promotion of quality
education in Nigeria. Vol 8 p103-110.
Umezulike, N.A (2009) the perception of men towards women educational empowerment in Enugu
State. University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu. Jos Educational Forum. 4 (1) 1-6. A
journal of the Department of Arts and Social Science Education, University of Jos, Jos
UNESCO (2000) EFA Global Monitoring Report. Paris.


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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

FIFA 2010 SOCCER WORLD CUP IN SOUTH AFRICA AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE
CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN ZIMBABWEAN SCHOOLS: A CASE OF
MASVINGO URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
BY
Albert Mufanechiya
Great Zimbabwe University
Department of Curriculum studies
Email : mufanechiya@yahoo.com

Tafara Mufanechiya
Great Zimbabwe University
Teacher Development Department
Email : tafaramufanechiya76@gmail.com

&
Benjamin Mudzanire
Great Zimbabwe University
Department of Curriculum Studies
Email : bmudzanire@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract
There is need to take stock of the effects of world events especially on how they impact on
education. There are some world events that cannot be ignored by their very nature and
attraction to all, such as the FIFA Soccer World Cup. The 2010 edition of the soccer world
cup in South Africa was special in more than one way in that it was on the African
continent and closer home to ignore. The research was a case study of three Masvingo
urban secondary schools with three(3) school heads and twelve (12) secondary school
teachers responding to interview questions and questionnaires in respect of thirty (30)
students to ascertain the impact the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup had on curriculum
implementation in Zimbabwe. The study found that the education sector in Zimbabwe did
not fully plan for the event as a result, valuable teaching time was lost and quality
teaching compromised hence little educational value derived from the event. The study
recommends that educational fathers and mothers should seriously take note of events
that attract all, so that adequate planning is done to avert potential losses and
compromises. The other recommendation is that world leaders should walk the talk and
transcend grandstanding at public fora, dining and wining in the name of the millions of
poor children, who because of their unfortunate economic situations which in most cases
the leaders have helped create, find themselves with no access to quality education.
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Introduction
The much talked about and publicised 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup from 11 June to 11 July in South
Africa has come and gone. This was a memorable event and significant time for the African continent,
with Africa, for the first time in the history of the soccer showcase, hosting it. The greatest soccer event
on earth, as it is dubbed, generated a lot of interest from all sections of the population, the young and
the old, men and women. Most people, whether they were football fans or not, had an interest in the
soccer World Cup, whether it be from a football point of view, an economic point of view or simply
for the sheer spectacle of the event (Roberts, 2009). The event almost made the whole continent come
to a standstill as people found time to support the African dream of the event on ‘home soil’. Such was
the enthusiasm and euphoria in Zimbabwe, when Brazil came to play the Zimbabwe Warriors on the
4
th
of June 2010, that the government gave all the workers half day off to accord them a life time
chance to watch their soccer idols play live at the giant National Sports Stadium.
A lot of resources, human, material and financial were committed to the development of
infrastructure in South Africa in particular and Southern Africa Development Community [SADC]
countries in general that is, roads , stadia, railway lines ,airports refurbishments and significant others. It
was like a SADC event. The idea was that South Africa, on behalf of the beautiful African continent
was to be supported so that it could successfully stage and manage the soccer showcase without any
hitches and shame those that doubted Africa `s ability to host an event of such a global stature.
Attention was given to detail on almost everything especially on security of the high profile world class
players, the Tshabalalas of South Africa, Gyans of Ghana, Etos of Cameroon ,Rooneys of England,
Ronaldos of Portugal, Kakas of Brazil ,Villas of Spain, the list is endless.
The soccer event generated a lot of entertainment and excitement with the touch of South
African celebration through the vuvuzelas. The young and the old, men and women spoke the same
language with interest and enthusiasm as they followed on televisions at home, offices and fan parks
the world cup soccer proceedings. People temporarily forgot their problems and miseries during the
period. A fan, a Mr Mhete from Murambinda was quoted saying, “Things are really difficult for us.
Many families here are facing food shortages, but this World Cup Soccer has brought joy for us and we
are watching these matches for free (Bwitit, 2010: D5). Most sectors felt the effects of the world cup. A
Sunday Mail reporter quoted the then Minister of Energy and Power Development, Elias Mudzuri
warning that some wheat farmers would experience power outages as ZESA, the national power utility,
juggled the available power to allow viewers to watch the soccer World Cup games (Sunday Mail, 13-
19 June 2010: 6).The corporate world in Zimbabwe also came out in full force to support government
efforts to make the World Cup accessible to all fans. Even the remotest parts of the country enjoyed
the soccer showcase free, courtesy of Netone in partnership with Castle Lager, Coca Cola, Edgars,
Zellco, Firstel and Rainbow Tourism Group (Sunday Mail, June 13 – 19 2010).
In the same vein, Dangaiso (2010) noted that the tournament attracted strong corporate
sponsorship from global brands such as Nestle, Volkswagen, Gillette and many significant others.
Masvingo province was not left out with fan parks in all the districts. In Masvingo urban a giant screen
was erected at Masvingo Polytechnic. This kind of investment into soccer could also have been
considered for education given that there were schools without basic resources. Musarurwa (2010)
during the World Cup period (Sunday Mail, June 27 – July 3 2010) reported about ‘ outdoor schools’ in
Epworth, a few kilometres outside Harare. She noted the plight of more than 1800 pupils who had to
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endure the cold out in the open and being tutored by temporary teachers. The head of the school was
quoted saying that the ministry had not done anything about their situation despite the several
applications and pleas for assistance that they had submitted.
A lot of business and important assignments were reportedly suspended as people took time to
go in front of the screens to watch their favourite teams play. To afford and accord everyone, especially
the young, the opportunity to witness the whole event uninterrupted, the South African education
authorities adjusted their calendar as educational institutions were on holiday during this period.
Roberts (2009) rightly observed that South African educational authorities wisely adjusted the school
year calendar so that all the children could enjoy holidays for the duration of the tournament. There
was no holiday in Zimbabwe during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup; it was business as usual in the
education sector.
During the preliminary stages, there were three live matches per day, two in the afternoon and
one in the evening. As teams got eliminated, matches were during evenings, ending around eleven
o’clock. Both teachers and pupils were those who slept late watching these matches hoping to wake
early and go to school and effectively execute their daily duties. Teachers are at the chalk face and are
the life force for curriculum implementation ( Burgess, Robertson and Patterson, 2010). Their routine
duties include among other things: pre-planning their work for the following day in terms of collecting
media for lessons, planning lessons, evaluating daily work, preparing chalkboard work and marking. For
pupils, it is also time to reflect on what has been learnt on that day, write homework and mentally
prepare themselves for the following day’s lessons. It was also during this period that in Zimbabwe
there were Zimbabwe Schools Examination Council (ZimSEC) June examinations which demanded
maximum attention and commitment of both teachers and pupils in terms of reading, consultation and
general preparation of these examinations. For teachers it was also time to assist these students with
examination techniques and helping them in areas they had difficulties. Thus according to Roberts
(2009) teachers irrespective of grade, should have been aware of the impact of the World Cup and plan
accordingly.
For many in the SADC countries and in economic terms, the focus was on the generation of
the much needed revenue for industrial growth and development. The expectation of good returns
were very high, given the more than one million soccer enthusiasts who thronged South Africa.
According to Sharuko (2010) Zimbabweans played their part in the success story as the events were
unfolding at Africa’s first World Cup show by being part of the more than one million visitors who
thronged South Africa.
For FIFA, they did not lose sight of the contribution soccer would make to education with one
of their themes as,’ One goal one education’. In this spirit, FIFA organised an educational summit on
the eve of the World Cup aimed at closing the funding gap in education between the rich and the poor.
According to Welter (2010) before kick- off for the World Cup matches in South Africa on July 11
2010, 1 Goal ambassadors asked political leaders for more funding for education. Hosted by South
African President, Jacob Zuma and FIFA president Blatter and attended by African Heads of State,
Senior United Nations officials, African Union, celebrities and soccer stars, the education summit
brought attention to those present, the sad fact that about 72 million children around the world do not
learn to read or write and 759 million adults lack basic literacy skills (Welter, 2010). During the summit
President Zuma raised two important points according to Welter (2010), firstly, that he would like to
see the same concentration of effort his country used to prepare for hosting the World Cup be poured
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in education in the state where millions of students attend schools that do not have regular electricity or
running water. Secondly, the aim of the summit was to use the World Cup event to promote the
importance of education for development. Thus the summit was meant to sensitise world leaders about
their responsibilities in raising funding and becoming proactive in providing education to millions of
children without access to basic education. An advertisement floated on all television channels during
this period depicted how soccer and education could partner for the benefit of youths in dealing with
poverty alleviation and illiteracy. Whether there would be any action from these world leaders or yet
another talk show time will tell.
The fundamental question is, ‘How much of an effect did the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup
had on the general teaching and learning in Zimbabwe?’ It is against this background that the research
sought to find out how much of an impact the soccer showcase had on curriculum implementation in
Masvingo urban secondary schools.
Statement of the Problem
The effects of the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup on curriculum implementation in Zimbabwean
secondary schools
Research questions
The research was guided by the following research questions:
• What impact did the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup had on curriculum implementation in
Zimbabwe?
• How did secondary school heads, teachers and students react to the event?

Conceptual Framework
The research was informed by the curriculum implementation discourse that the activities and
processes that the teacher organises and carries out before, during and after the lesson are what we call
teaching (Ndawi and Maravanyika, 2011). In the same vein, Alonsabe (2009) observed that curriculum
implementation is the actual use of the curriculum or what it consist of in practice. Alonsabe noted two
views about curriculum implementation namely the laissez – faire or the ‘let – alone’ approach in which
the teacher is given absolute power to determine what, when and how to implement the curriculum
without firm control and monitoring. The second approach is the authoritarian control in which the
educational fathers (inspectors and heads) direct teachers on content and teaching methods to use
during lessons. It is the laissez – faire approach which seemed to take the centre stage during the 2010
FIFA Soccer World Cup in South Africa as both heads and teachers did what they believed to be
appropriate with no supervision and monitoring of educational activities. Curriculum implementation
entails closely monitored interaction among students and between students and teachers, working
together, sharing ideas and jointly solving problems (Ritz, 2006).It was during this time that most
secondary schools’ curriculum implementation was found wanting generally unresponsive to student
needs.
To participate in this community called school, students must take part in a variety of activities
that are organised, monitored and effectively evaluated. Curriculum implementation suggests a high
investment in time, effort and focus (Burgess, Robertson and Patterson, 2010) in terms of contact
hours, interactive engagement leadership and results - based evaluation. This should take care of what
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Sternberg ( 2000) calls the total experiences to which students are exposed.
Methodology
The research was a descriptive survey that used questionnaires and interviews to collect qualitative data.
The choice of the design allowed the researchers to get at the inner experience of participants as well as
the opportunity to connect with participants at a human level (Corbin and Strauss, 2008), regarding the
effects of the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup on curriculum implementation in Zimbabwe. The
population was made up of Masvingo urban secondary schools, school heads, teachers and 2010 form
four students. It was from this population that three (3) secondary schools, two (2) from the high
density and one (1) from the low density, were randomly selected. Twelve (12) teachers, four (4) from
each of the selected schools who were teaching form four core subjects, that is English, Shona,
Mathematics and Science were purposively selected to respond to interview questions. This allowed for
flexibility and made it possible for researchers to follow the interests and thoughts of respondents
(Chilisa and Preece, 2005).
Three (3) secondary school heads from the selected schools also responded to interview
questions. Thirty (30) form four students, ten from each school were randomly selected to fill in
questionnaires concerning their views on how the curriculum was implemented in their respective
schools during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup. The two data collection instruments (interviews and
questionnaires) and the three data sources (school heads, teachers and students) ensured that
researchers had a wide range of possible empirical materials (Punch, 2004) about what really happened
in secondary schools during the event.
Findings and Discussion
The research found that Zimbabwean football and education felt the effects of living next door to the
2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup host, South Africa. The tournament was the most popular sporting
event attracting the attention of all age groups consequently disrupting a lot of educational activities.
The secondary school going age especially the boys showed the greatest interest and even the girls were
not spared. The general discussion during school times were around the proceedings of the soccer
world cup in South Africa. Students congregated every morning sharing notes and arguing over the
world cup soccer issues. In the midst of this hype, curriculum implementation suffered as the Ministry
of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture failed to give the necessary direction to schools.
Below are the teachers who were manning the co – subjects during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup
at the sampled secondary schools.
Table 1: Twelve (12) teachers teaching the co- subjects.
Teachers male female Subjects taught
A 10 2 Mathematics
B 4 8 Shona
C 6 6 English
D 9 3 Science
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From the questionnaire given to thirty (30) Masvingo urban secondary school students, the research
found that curriculum implementation was the biggest casualty during the period under review. Below
is the summary of students’ observation of how teachers conducted curriculum activities during the
2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup.
Table 2: Lesson preparation and delivery by teachers during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup.
Subject Tr attended
well
prepared
Tr attended
prepared
Tr attended
ill prepared
Tr did not
attend
Mathematics 1 3 6 20
Shona 10 11 5 4
English 6 5 4 15
Science 5 4 4 17
Table 3: Amount of work given and marking during the period
Subject Adequate
& well
marked
Adequate
& marked
Adequate
& not
marked
Inadequate
& marked
Inadequate
& not
marked
Student
marking
own work
Mathematics 0 0 6 4 8 12
Shona 7 3 4 4 6 6
English 5 3 7 8 0 7
Science 2 5 4 6 8 5
Table 4: Strategies used by teachers during the period
Subject Lecture Group work Class
discussions
Individual
work
Mathematics 0 10 5 15
Shona 2 8 8 12
English 1 6 6 17
Science 0 10 4 16




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Table 5: Extra curricular activities during the period.
Sport Sessions on &
tr present
Altered
sessions & tr
present
Sessions on &
tr absent
Sessions not
conducted
soccer 0 0 15 15
netball 5 10 15 0
Volley ball 2 0 20 8
Other activities 0 0 0 0

The questionnaire had the provision for students to write any other comments and a summary of the
comments were :
• Most students were left on their own with a lot of work to do with teachers giving students
their notebooks for class monitors to dictate notes to the whole class.
• Heads rarely came for lesson observations.
• Male teachers were the ones who did not do a lot during the period.
• Female teachers, even those who were not football fans also took advantage and did not come
for lessons.
• Most afternoon lessons and activities were delayed or suspended.

From the above tables, students observed that the period was characterised by very little
commitment and compromised work ethics as either teachers left classes to watch matches or came for
lessons ill – prepared. From the students’ responses, teachers used strategies that excluded them from
active involvement and commitment such as group work and individual work. The most affected
subjects were mathematics and science. The reason could be, these subjects were mainly manned by
male teachers who are usually soccer enthusiasts. However English and Shona had their fair share of
problems. Given Ndawi and Maravanyika’s (2011) understanding of curriculum implementation which
places the teacher at the centre of curriculum activities before, during and after lessons, then it is
evident that curriculum implementation took a great knock as teachers neglected important duties to
watch world cup matches. This showed that teachers had no time to adequately plan and execute their
lessons. On the other, students’ exchanging of written work and marking it, pointed out on lack of
supervision from the school heads. Verspoor (2006) says that without regular monitoring of teachers
and students, effective teaching is left to chance. In short, teachers operated on the fringes of
effectiveness.
From the interviews, teachers acknowledged that when it was about time when the matches
were to kick off they abandoned everything to be in front of television sets to watch live matches. No
educational activities were spared, even extra curricular areas suffered including soccer. The major
reason forwarded by teachers was that no one wanted to miss action of this life time event. The
teachers acknowledged that this was not the first world cup, but the fact that it was closer home had
generated a lot of interest than other editions played in distant continents. Teachers said that they were
impressed by administrators who made local preparations by buying generators, television sets and fuel
to ensure that both teachers and school heads enjoyed matches at school. Teachers said that heads
allowed them to leave their classes on condition that they left the classes ‘gainfully employed’ and
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maintaining a normal situation. However, during interviews these teachers admitted that most
students, without the watchful eye of the teachers, also left school to go home or to fan parks to watch
these matches. In the same vein Robertson (2009) predicted that the effects of the world cup would be
felt in terms of lacking planning, discipline and lack of concentration on the part of school heads,
teachers and students. Asked about make – up lessons to cater for the lost time, one teacher
surprisingly asked, “What for? As long as evaluations in our scheme – cum plans indicate that the
lessons were successfully taught, is enough.” Given this scenario student learning as the central concern
of teachers and heads was really compromised.
From the interviews with school heads, they were generally agreed that there was minimal
disruption of educational activities. They said that teachers went about their business normally and only
those without lessons had the chance to watch matches in the staffroom. They said this was why they
bought television sets and generators so that the schools would not experience a systems failure.
However, this was in sharp contrast with teachers and students’ sentiments. On the other hand,
school heads admitted committing a large chunk of school resources to buying televisions, generators
and fuel to enable their teachers and even themselves the opportunity to watch these matches. Asked
about how these financial resources could have been wisely employed to buy books that were scarce,
heads defended this by saying that besides using these gadgets during the soccer tournament, they were
also important educational assets that could be used to vary and enhance teaching and learning.
However, during interviews, teachers expressed that these purported educational assets were
last used during world cup matches and now are neatly and safely stored in heads’ offices. One teacher
said, “Maybe the results of your research may help us take those gadgets from offices into the
classrooms for students to benefit from this investment.” Teachers thought that their schools could
profitably make use of generators for practical subjects given the serious power outages the country
was facing. On the other hand, school heads during interviews, blamed teachers for their lack of
creativity and innovation in their teaching, preferring the traditional archaic methods of chalk and talk.
One of heads retorted, “Our teachers are of the old school of thought, these new gadgets deskill them
and they cannot see them as important teaching tools. They gather dust in our offices yet they should
be out there in classrooms helping during teaching and learning”.
Only one school head, who was a football enthusiast, admitted that the school bought the
television set and generator for the sole purpose to ensure that teachers watch matches at school at the
same time attending to their classes. He said, “Having the soccer world cup for the first time closer
home was enthralling and fascinating , a one off event of a life time that any sane person could not
afford to miss so as administration we saw it fit for teachers to enjoy this spectacle at their work place.”
Asked whether this did not compromise teaching and learning, the head acknowledged that at times it
did as students were left unattended as teachers went to the staffroom to watch matches. However, he
was quick to say that make – up lessons were organised. About what has become of the equipment
after the event, the head said that the equipment had been put to good use in the staff room where
teachers could now watch news at lunch time and also other important programmes that keep them
updated on current world and national events. Results from teachers and school heads’ interviews
showed that schools made some efforts to mitigate the negative effects of the world cup by ensuring
that teachers stay at school and at the same time did not miss out on the matches. However, from the
findings, it was evident that teachers maintained a physical presence, pretended that teaching and
learning was going on yet students were left unattended with a lot of work in their hands that teachers
never evaluated and school heads did not supervise teachers. Without the watchful eye of the teachers
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some students also left school to watch these matches at home and those given to mischief, this was
the time.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Decisive educational and political leadership in Zimbabwe lacked during the 2010 FIFA World Cup
Soccer tournament. Political leaders’ fresh from the summit in South Africa on how education and
sport could partner for development did not do much to help educational fathers plan for the event.
They went to sleep at the crucial moment. While schools made some local arrangements to mitigate the
effects of the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup on curriculum implementation in Zimbabwe, the Ministry
of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture did not have a consolidated and communicated national
response, compared to the South African experience where the education sector was on holiday during
the period. The arrangement by the South African educational fathers and mothers ensured that all
students were neither short changed in terms of learning opportunities nor deprived the lifetime chance
of witnessing the event. Without the national plan and response, Zimbabwean secondary schools in
their own circumstances, using their own initiatives, resources and discretion did what they thought was
feasible. What really suffered, however, was curriculum implementation as teachers and students left
post to watch live soccer matches on television. The lost teaching - learning time was never recovered.
Furthermore, secondary schools committed a lot of financial resources to the soccer event at
the expense of procuring the much needed teaching – learning resources like textbooks, laboratory
consumables, equipment and materials for practical subjects which were not there in most secondary
schools. While teaching and learning suffered, there were some areas that got a major boost, especially
soccer; as teachers and students got some soccer tips and skills that they could use. Girls’ soccer is also
now a new development in the selected secondary schools. If the social responsibility shown by the
corporate world by erecting fan parks around the country could be extended to education, it could put
a smile on the face of education in Zimbabwe.
It is against this backdrop that the research recommends:
• The need for educational fathers and mothers to devise a national strategy that ensures
minimum disruption of teaching and learning when such big events occur cannot be
overemphasised. In mind there are such events like Africa Cup of Nations (AFCON),
European Championships, World Cup and such other events that have huge enthusiasts.
• That the Zimbabwean corporate and business sectors have shown a lot of potential and
willingness to avail financial and material resources and should be engaged to augment
government efforts in injecting funds in education. Their resolve to pull together resources to
build fan parks, that experience can be used to fund educational activities to ensure that schools
do not struggle in the provision of education.
• Gadgets and materials bought by schools for this event should be profitably used to enhance
teaching and learning in secondary schools rather than gathering dust in offices.
• World leaders should walk the talk and transcend grandstanding at public fora, dining and
wining in the name of the millions of poor children, who because of their unfortunate
economic situation which in most cases the leaders have helped create, find themselves with no
access to quality education.


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REFERENCES
Burgess, J., Robertson, G. and Patterson, C. (2010) ‘Curriculum implementation: Decisions of early
childhood teachers.’ Australasian Journal of Early childhood. Volume 35: Number 3 September
2010. Pp 51 – 59.
Bwititi, K.(2010) ‘Fan parks overshadow hunger.’ Sunday Mail In–Depth. Harare. Zimpapers. June 27 –
July 3 2010. Pp D5
Corbin, J. and Strauss, A. (2008) Basics of Qualitative Research. Los Angeles : SAGE Publications.
Dangaiso, F.(2010) ‘ World cup boost for Zimbabwe.’ Skyhost. August – September 2010. Pp 32.
Musarurwa, C. (2010) ‘Education without walls takes new meaning …. As Epworth residents resort to
outdoor schools.’ Sunday Mail: People and Living. Harare. Zimpapers. June 27 – July 3 2010. Pp 6
Ndawi, O. and Maravanyika, O. (2011) Curriculum and its Building Blocks: Concepts and Processes. Gweru.
Mambo Press.
Chilisa, B. and Preece, J. (2005) Research Methods for Adult Educators in Africa. Cape Town: UNESCO
Institute for Education CTP Book Printers.
Punch, K. F. (2004) Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. London: SAGE
Publications.
Roberts, M. (2009) ‘How will the soccer world cup next year affect education in South Africa. Are we
prepared?’ Education Around 2010 Soccer World Cup in Mikbelmeg in Education. December
2, 2009.
Sharuko, R. (2010) ‘Mzansi visitors hit million mark.’ Herald. Harare. Zimpapers. June 2010. Pp 18
The Sunday Mail, (2010) ‘World cup blow for farmers.’ Harare. Zimpapers. June 13 – 19 2010. Pp 5.
Welter, C. ( 2010) ‘President Zuma Host Education Summit for Heads of States.’ South African
Government Information, The Presidency. July 7 2010. Available on
www.suite101.com/news/education–summit–at-soccer–world–cup







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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

ICT IN DISTANCE AND OPEN LEARNING: THE CASE OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
STUDY CENTRES IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA.
Kebbi, J. A.
Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University
Asim, A. F.
Faculty of Education, University of Calabar,
Offor, I. T.
Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University.

Abstract
The need for Information and Technology has become one of the most important
and potentially effective instructional methods to improve teaching and learning
especially in the Open and Distance education as it transcend the boundaries of the
traditional classroom instruction. To find out how this functional, flexible and cost-
effective mode of education with a success story from National University
Commission has been put to use by the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN),
thirty-two (32) undergraduate education programmes were evaluated. The focus of
the aspect of the study reported here was on the use of ICT in NOUN study centres
in South-South Nigeria. Data generated through the use of nine (9) baseline
indicators and ten (10) facilities/equipment profile for the use of ICT and support
materials revealed gross under utilization. The implications of this finding on the
achievement of programme goals of the Open and Distance learning in Nigeria are
discussed. In conclusion, it calls for the provision of technological infrastructure and
facilities to compliment the traditional face to face mode of learning as a way
forward to actualize the goals of the Open and Distance learning in Nigeria.




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Introduction
The roles of the university and the quality of its graduates in sub-Saharan-Africa have come under
sharp criticisms in the face of shortage of funds and the attendant brain drain. However, concerns
about raising the quality of education is a global issue resulting in about 20 world conferences related to
education between 1990 and 2000 (Obanya, 2002). The low rating of sub-Saharan Africa on several
indicators of basic and higher education in areas such as access, gender equity, inclusion, quality and
achievement has been of particular concern (Shabani & Okebukola, 2004). The conference of African
Ministers of Education (MINEDAF), the African Union (AU) and the New Partnerships for Africa’s
Development (NEPAD) are addressing this concern in terms of capacity building-targeting teachers
and managers (Asim, 2007).
Nigeria’s National Policy on Education adopts education as an instrument par excellence for
effective national development (FRN; 2004). It further places emphasis on the provision and utilization
of information and communication technology (ICT) due to its prominent role in advancing knowledge
and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern world. The policy defined ICT as
computer, auxiliary equipment, software, and form ware (hardware) and procedures, services and
related resources. The document described ICT as an equipment or interconnected system of
equipment that is used in the automatic acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, control,
display, switching and transmission of information.
As its contribution to expanding access to education through the use of ICT, the Nigerian
Universities Commission (NUC) initiated the Virtual Institute for Higher Education Pedagogy
(VIHEP) in 2003. VIHEP maximized the advances in ICT by providing tertiary
Education teachers the opportunity to take online courses, participates in discussions, write tests and
examinations and receive immediate feedback which culminated in certification. This flexible and cost-
effective mode of education with a success story from NUC could be of immense benefit to any
distance learning programme like the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN).
One aspect that characterizes the open and distance learning programme of NOUN as put forward by
Fabunmi (2004), is that there is a physical separation between the facilitator and the learner, with
instruction being delivered through a variety of communication media such as the print, electronic,
audio tapes, CD-ROMs and website computers and correspondence. According to lmahabakhai (2004)
instructional delivery in this system is highly flexible because it takes the convenience, time and interest
of the learner into consideration.
Kermber ( 1995) recognized that students’ progress in distance education such as NOUN can
be enhanced if the design of a course concentrates on developing intrinsic motivation, and a deep
integration can be improved by developing collective affiliation and ensuring agreement between
students’ expectation and course procedures. The corollary of this is that a highly structured course
with less dialogue, especially without the use of industrial method such as ICT creates greater
transactional distance between the teacher and the learner, while a careful, simple and appropriately
structured course with frequent dialogue reduces the transactional distance which makes for retention
of student, completion of the course and reduction of cost and inconveniences. This is debatable
considering the immense benefits of ICT.
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The function of teaching in the classroom process is considered paramount, especially when we
consider the teaching and learning process as the acquisition of knowledge and skills by individual to
enable them become useful members of the society. It is argued that teaching cannot take place without
the students, teachers, curriculum, content and instructional materials. The above judgment may not
stand the test in this ICT age. This is because teaching imposes content, learner’s freedom is restricted
while ICT employs independent judgment in decision making and thus it is seriously eroding the
teaching situation.
Maduname (2004) is of the view that classroom teachers are expected to utilize ICT facilities to
inculcate relevant knowledge to students. The use of ICT in the classroom situation enhances learning
effectiveness. It is used as strength towards leveraging the conventional process of teaching and
learning in higher instructions in Nigeria.
Njoku (2006), writing on computerization for effective teaching and learning in Nigerian
universities, upheld that the use of ICT has helped facilitate decision-making for classroom
management and individual students management; additional information concerning problems,
opportunities, challenges and contributions to the development of online screening and registration of
students were not in use.
Kruma (2006) in a study to assess the availability of ICT in the Ghanaian University system
randomly selected and used for the study six (6) government owned universities. Questionnaires were
distributed to 1,200 randomly selected students in the selected universities under study; 1,141 copies of
the questionnaires were successfully completed and returned giving a response rate of 95%. Descriptive
statistics were used for data analysis; findings showed that I00% of the respondents accepted the fact
that enough computers were not made available for them during computer lesson. About four students
paired up on a single computer during their use of computer lesson, which generally incapacitated their
process of understanding the lesson properly. It also revealed that internet facilities on Campus were
too skeletal for students to browse on the net. Against the background of increasing access to higher
education in Africa in general and Nigeria through open and distance learning, the aspect of the study
reported here, sought to find out how ICT is employed in NOUN programmes in South-South
Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the use of 1CT in the National Open University of Nigeria
(NOUN). Specifically, this study sought to achieve the following:
1. Determine the use of ICT in NOUN study centres in South-South Nigeria.
2. Determine the adequacy of physical facilities/equipment for programme implementation in
these centres.
Research Questions
To guide this study, the following research questions were investigated:
1. To what extent is ICT used in the implementation of NOUN educational programmes in South-
South Nigeria?
2. Do available physical facilities/equipment conform to programme implementation requirements?
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Method
Research Design
The survey research design was employed in this study. The investigators adopted this approach
because of its preoccupation with describing what is and establishing the relationship existing among
variables. It is concerned also with gathering data with the intention of knowing the nature of already
existing conditions or identifying standards against which these conditions can be compared or
determining the relationship that exists between specific events (Cohen,Manion & Morrison 2008).
Instrument
The major instrument used in gathering data for this study is the primary source of data collection
(observation) baseline indicators and profile namely:
1. NOUN Baseline Indicators for ICT Usage (NBIIU) and

2. NOUN Profile of Facilities/Equipment (NPFE)

The instrument consists of nine (9) and six (6) items with response options of Yes and No, and
adequate, inadequate and absent respectively. The instrument was subjected to both face and content
validity by experts in the University (NOUN) and of measurement and evaluation in the University of
Calabar. The data collected for this study were analyzed and findings were reported in words rather
than statistics (Worthen, Sanders & Fitzpatrick, 1997).
Population
The target population of this study consists of seventy-nine (79) programmes of the five schools of
NOUN in the four study centres which were Port Harcourt, Calabar, Yenogoa and Benin in the South-
South Nigeria. The schools include Arts and Social Science Business and Human Resources
Management, Education, Law and Science and Technology.
Sample and the Technique
Purposive sampling was then adopted to select the sample of the study which consists of thirty- two
(32) undergraduate degree programmes of NOUN made up seven (7) from school of Arts and Social
Science, four (4) from Business and Human Management, twelve (12) from Education, one (1) from
Law and eight (8) from Science and Technology. The choice of the sample was mainly for
comparability of standards and generalization of findings. The justification of using this sample size is
based on the fact that there are other programmes such as three (3) certificate, twenty-six (26) diploma
and eighteen (18) graduate programmes and since the undergraduate degree programmes meet the
required characteristics for generalization for the study. The breakdown of the sample is presented in
table 1.
Table 1: Sample of Schools and Programmes of NOUN, South-South Nigeria
Arts and Social Science 1 Peace studies/conflict resolution
2 Criminology and Security Studies
3 French/International Studies
4 English Language
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5 Christian Theology
6 Islamic Studies
7 Mass Communication
Business and Human 8 Hotel And Catering Resource Management
9 Tourism
10 Cooperative Management
11 Entrepreneurial/Small Business Management
Education 12 Integrated Science
13 Biology
14 Physics
15 Chemistry
16 Mathematics
17 Agricultural Science
18 Information Technology for teachers
19 Business Studies
20 Early Childhood Education
21 Primary Education
22 French
23 English
Science and Technology 24 Environmental Studies/Resource Management
25 Nursing
26 Communication Technology
27 Computer Science
28 Agricultural Extension and Management
29 Data management
30 Mathematics
31 Mathematics/Computer Science
Law 32 Law

RESULTS
Research Question 1
To what extent information communication technology used in the implementation of NOUN
educational programmes in South-South Nigeria?
Table 2 Baseline indictors for the use of information communication technology in NOUN
S/N Baseline Indicators Yes No
1 Course materials delivered on-line - √
2 Course materials delivered through audio tape - √
3 Course materials delivered through CD-ROM - √
4 Course materials delivered through radio - √
5 Course materials delivered through e-mail - √
6 Course materials delivered through satellite broadcast - √
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7 Course materials delivered through television set - √
8 Course materials delivered through print √
9 Course materials delivered through video cassette √
(Source: NOUN Handbook 2006/Field Survey (2010).
Table 2 depicts indicators of ICT use and the corresponding response resulting from data collection.
Result shows that course materials are delivered only through print. This implies that ICT is yet to be
used in the open and distance learning programme implementation in NOUN, in South-South Nigeria.
Research Question 2
Do available physical facilities and equipment confirm to programme implementation requirement?
The data for this question in presented in table 3.
Table 3 NOUN profile for assessment of adequacy of facilities/equipment in the four (4) study
centres.
S/N Facilities Adequate
No.
Port
Harcourt
Calabar Yenogoa Benin Adequate Inadequate
1 Auditorium 1 1 1 1 1 √
2 Tutorial Hall 4 4 4 4 4 √
3 Local area network
centre
1 0 0 0 0 √
4 Computer sets 20 0 0 0 0 √
5 Television sets 25 0 0 0 0 √
6 Public transmitting
system
5 0 0 0 0 √
7 Central/traditional 1 0 0 0 0 √
8 Virtual library 5 0 0 0 0 √
9 Resource centre 5 0 0 0 0 √
10 Conference Room 5 0 0 0 0 √
Source: NOUN Student Handbook 2006/Fieldwork, 2010
The result from table 3 in the study centres revealed that only adequate numbers of auditorium
and tutorial halls were found in the found four different study centres. All other facilities/equipment,
such as local area network centres, computers, television sets, transmitting system, virtual library, and
resource centres were completely absent in all study centres visited.
Discussion of Findings
It is obvious that NOUN uses only the print media as a source of learning materials for students in the
centres surveyed. There were indications in 2006/2007 NOUN handbook for students that course
materials either came through the baseline indicators of the use of ICT such as online transmission,
audio-tapes, CD-ROM, television set, radio, on-line multimedia interactive and non-interactive
presentations (p.20), email and satellite broadcast. The reality is that such facilities were not provided
for in the implementation of NOUN programmes. Undoubtedly, this finding agrees with the study by
Njoku (2006) on computerization of effective teaching and learning in Nigerian universities. The report
showed that the use of ICT was completely absent. This may not be unconnected with low level ICT
skills among students (Asim. 2004) and Higher Education teachers (Asim, 2007).
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The present study also revealed that facilities/equipment such as local area network, computer,
television sets, transmitting system, virtual library and resources centres were also absent in all four
study centres visited. This showed that students under such learning conditions cannot adapt positively
to the learning environment, as the absence of the use of ICT in open and distance learning such as in
NOUN programmes will create greater transactional distance between the teacher and the learner. The
present finding lends credence to the contribution of Kermber (1995) who concluded that students’
progress in distance education can only be enhanced through the use of industrial method such as ICT
in order to structure courses and reduce the transactional distance which makes for retention of
students, completion of the course and reduction of cost.
On the importance of ICT in learning, Maduname (2004) pointed out that teachers are
expected to utilize ICT facilities to inculcate relevant knowledge to students as it enhances effective
teaching and serves towards leveraging the conventional process of teaching and learning in higher
instructions in Nigeria However, Oyelaran-Oyeyinka and Adeya (2004) warned that the resources and
infrastructural constraints prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria make it unnecessarily
challenging for stakeholders to deploy ICT for teaching and learning.
The present study supports an earlier study by Krurna (2006) which focused on availability of
1CT in six (6) randomly selected government owned universities in Ghana Questionnaires were
distributed to I,200 randomly selected students in the universities. Results from that study showed that
enough computers were not made available for use of ICT during computer classes, and this
inadequacy made it difficult for students to understand the lesson properly.
Conclusion
Both advanced and developing countries have attested to the fact that ICT is a central focus for the use
of educational policies and integration in the school curriculum. Yet, the Nigerian educational system
has not adequately exposed students, teachers and institutions of learning to face the challenges of the
global world of ICT for the purpose of using it effectively within the shortest possible time.
ICT usage serves as the eye in a global world of our time, a complementary tool to the
traditional method of face to face teaching and learning process which enhances functional, flexible and
cost-effective life-long and quality mode of learning that increases access to higher education by many
disadvantaged groups like the rural dwellers, migrant fishermen in the south creeks or pastoralist
nomads in northern Nigeria. The complete absence of ICT usage in NOUN study centres in South-
South Nigeria will greatly hinder the actualization of the purpose of open and distance learning in
Nigeria.
Recommendations
1. There seems to be much emphasis on the use of course books and the face to face mode of
programme delivery in NOUN. Audio cassettes and video-cassette, non-print materials such as
CD-ROMS tapes need to be integrated effectively into the programme as distribution and use of
ICT facilities in a programme such as open and distance learning is not only appropriate but highly
desirable.
2. There is need for a permanent structure called NOUN campuses where necessary basic
facilities/equipment such as local area network centres, computer sets, television sets, public
transmitting system and virtual library are provided to ensure quality assurance in open and
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distance learning in the country.
3. Government should implement its education initiatives such as Nigeria Universities Network, the
School Net Project, National Virtual Digital Library (Ministry of Education/NUC), The Nigeria
Education Academic and Research Network (NEARNET) and Polytechnics Network (Polynet)
projects.
References
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Technology (ICT) Skills Development: a case study of Computer Literacy Centres in Cross
River State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of COMPUTER Literacy (NJCI), 5 (1). 11-20
Asim A.E. (2007). Equitable sharing of the world’s information resources via the internet: how ready
are higher education teachers some Nigerian Universities? In I. Hufford & T. Peddrajas (Eds).
Educating for a World View: Focus on Globalizing Curriculum and Instruction. New York: University
Press of America.
Cohen, L., Manion, L & Morrison K. (2008). Research method in Education London: Routledge.
Fabunmi, F.A. (2004). The role of libraries and information centres in distance learning open learning
education. (NPTEA).
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education (4
th
edition), Lagos. NERDC Press.
Imahabahmi. C (2004). The development of teachers education in Nigeria: Achievement, problems and
prospects for 21
st
century. In R.O. Mojowa, & S. J Bisong (2003). West African Journal of
Educational Research, (1) 60-64.
Kermber, D. (1995). Open learning for Adult Journal of Education Technology 10 (1), 196-211.
Kruma, C. (2006). Gender in education: The importance of cultural Diversity. CRILE working paper,
Lancaster University.
Madaname. M.E. (2004). In-service education: a neglected dimension of the professional development
of the Nigeria science teachers. West African Journal of Educational Researcher 1 (2), 183-186.
Njoku, A. (2006). The changing fortunes of higher education. In A. Ejiogu and K. Ajaye (eds) Emergent
issues in education Lagos: Nigerian Universities consult.
NOUN (2006). Students’ handbook. Getting to know your University. Victoria Island-Lagos: Brochure
Publication.
Obanya, P.A.I (2002). Revitalizing education in Africa Ibadan: Hodder Sturton.
Olorundare, S.A. (2006). Teaching literacy through micro computer use in the classroom. African Journal
of Information Technology 2 (1) 74-84.
Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, B. & Adeya, M (2004). Note internet access in Africa: Empirical evidence from
Kenya and Nigeria. Telematics and informatics, 21, 67-81.
Shabani, A. & Okebukola, P.A.O (2004). Welcome to Viheaf. (2/26/04).
Worthen B.R. Sanders, J. R & Fitzpatrick, J.L (1997). Programme evaluation: Alternative approach and
practical guidelines. New York: Longman.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

RANDOMIZED SIX-GROUP EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A RADICAL EVOLUTION
By
Dr. KPOLOVIE Peter James
Department of Psychology, Guidance and Counselling,
Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt
E-mail: peter.kpolovie@uniport.edu.ng & drkpolovie@yahoo.com
Phone Numbers: 08088061666 & 08037758445
Abstract
Experimental research design is a most careful and thorough written plan of action
to be meticulously adhered for execution of a truly genuine experiment with
maximum validity in establishment of cause-and-effect relationships between
independent and dependent variables. It vividly shows the entire what, how and
when everything that constitutes the whole process of the experiment will be
satisfactorily done to arrive at meaningful conclusions about causal relations in the
variables of interest. Experimental research designs that are classically adopted by
investigators have evolutionally ranged hierarchically from randomized between
subjects after-only and randomized between subjects before-after, through
randomized Solomon four-group design to randomized between subjects factorial
design. Each higher design evolved from lower one(s) to overcome shortcomings of
the latter. This article has posited and expounded randomized six-group
experimental design that radically propels experimental research to its zenith.
Randomized six-group experimental design robustly encompasses and surpasses
the classical ones and completely overcomes their weaknesses to better meet the
complexity of research in modern society.
Key words: randomized six-group design, experimental research, classical experimental designs, experimental validity,
randomized experimental designs, Solomon four-group design, , statistical techniques.







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Introduction
Experimental research is the best research methodology for investigation of cause-and-effect
relationships between variables. The experimenter focuses on establishment of the effect of some
interventional process, termed ‘treatment’ on some experimental objects or units, which could be parts
of people, groups of people, animals, plants, and so on. A good understanding of what research
methodology truly means is necessary before further examination of experimental research.
Research methodology refers to the lucid explanation or delineation of the entire processes of
arriving at the dependable or reliable solution to identify problems in a way that expands the frontier of
knowledge. It is the exhaustive outline of the processes and procedures for conducting each research. It
clearly shows or describes everything that will be done, how they will be done, the type of data to be
collected, the devices to be used and the step by step procedure for collecting and analyzing the data in
the course of the investigation. This is so because the research method chosen, more often than not, is
a major determinant of the statistical technique to be applied in analyzing the data.
Research methodology is the body or science of methods, action plans or paradigms that can
most appropriately be employed in research under different circumstances. It is the self explanatory
description of the approaches, methods and designs adopted in a research for gathering and analyzing
the data that serve as basis for drawing unquestionable inference, interpretation and conclusive
prediction of future occurrence. It is a comprehensive plan of the process and procedures for arriving
at the products, results or solutions to the problem of an empirical or scientific enquiry; and certainly
not the products themselves. Methodology portrays, describes, analyzes and buttresses the procedure
adopted in a research; showing explicitly the resources, presuppositions, consequences, potentialities,
limitations and assumptions of the designs or methods employed in the investigation under specific
circumstances.
Generally, research method refers to the explicit design of any information-gathering exercises
where variation exists, ether under total control of the researcher or not. When the variation is under
the complete control of the researcher, it is termed experimental research; and when the investigator
does not have full control over the variation, it is suitably described as a quasi-experimental method or
one of the non-experimental methods. Research methods that can be suitably employed for execution
of investigations in education and the social or behavioural sciences as well as the natural sciences
mainly include the following: Experimental, Quasi-experimental, Ex post facto, Correlational,
Evaluation, Action, Ethnographic, Historical, Survey, Triangulation, Instrumentation, and Single-
subject.
Experimental research is the most powerful and most suitable methodology in investigations for
overt establishment of unambiguous causal relationships (cause-and-effect relationships) among
variables. It is a design that best allows for manipulation of at least one independent variable for the
sole purpose of identifying or observing effect of the manipulation on a dependent variable. Far from
mere description, prediction and identification of the nature of relationships between dependent and
independent variables, experimental research ensures dependable specification of the cause of such
relationships through control and manipulation of the variables under investigation. Thus, experimental
research method is a planned intervention in the natural order of events by the experimenter. This
accounts for why Sid Sytsma, reproduced in Mottola (2009) averred that:
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Much of the substantial gain in knowledge in all sciences has come from actively
manipulating or interfering with the stream of events. There is more than just observation
or measurement of a natural event. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is
introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any
change in conditions. The importance of experimental design also stems from the quest for
inference about causes or relationships as opposed to simply description. Researchers are
rarely satisfied to simply describe the events they observe. They want to make inferences
about what produced, contributed to, or caused events. To gain such information without
ambiguity, some form of experimental design is ordinarily required. As a consequence, the
need for using rather elaborate designs ensues from the possibility of alternative
relationships, consequences or causes. The purpose of the design is to rule out these
alternative causes, leaving only the actual factor that is the real cause. For example,
Treatment A may have caused observed Consequences O, but possibly the consequence
may have derived from Event E instead of the treatment or from Event E combined with
the treatment. It is this pursuit of clear and unambiguous relationships that leads to the
need for carefully planned designs. The kinds of planned manipulation and observation
called experimental design often seem to become a bit complicated. This is unfortunate but
necessary, if we wish to pursue the potentially available information so the relationships
investigated are clear and unambiguous. The plan that we choose to call a design is an
essential part of research strategies.
The design itself entails:
• selecting or assigning subjects to experimental units
• selecting or assigning units for specific treatments or conditions of the experiment
(experimental manipulation)
• specifying the order or arrangement of the treatment or treatments
• specifying the sequence of observations or measurements to be taken

Experimental research is the surest methodological approach for the discovery, development and
organization of knowledge. Execution of experiment is highly sophisticated due to its requirement of
carefully controlled conditions to exclude all possibilities of the influence of extraneous and intervening
variables from the carefully manipulated independent variable. It is only when this is done, that changes
in the dependent variable can be correctly attributed to the independent variable.
Experimental research design is a most careful and thorough written plan of action to be
meticulously followed, step by step, for execution of a truly genuine experiment with maximum validity.
It clearly shows the entire what, how and when everything that constitutes the whole process of the
experiment will be satisfactorily done to arrive at conclusive conclusions about the purpose of the
investigation.
A true experimental research design must adequately represent a sure means for isolating the
effect of the independent variable (treatment conditions) on the dependent variable while
simultaneously excluding all possible or imaginable extraneous variables. The plan necessarily indicates
procedure for collecting all relevant data and accurately analyzing the same for testing null hypotheses
and answering research questions of the experiment unambiguously. The design puts all possible
extraneous, intruding, confounding, nuisance or contaminating variables under control through
randomization and use of control group. While randomization is the only means by which both known
and unknown variables are controlled or held constant, use of control group serves as a justifiable
source of comparison and as a suitable control for rival hypotheses (Kpolovie, 2010; Kpolovie, 2007;
Kpolovie, 2011; Cohen, Manion and Morrison, 2008; Best, 2007; Fraenkel and Wallen, 2003; Cooper
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and Schindler, 2001; Best and Kahn, 2007; Shaughnessy, Zechmeister and Zechmeister, 2000 and Pearl,
2000).
All that have been said above about a genuine experimental research design covers or ensures
internal validity of the experiment. It is therefore cogent to quickly aver that a true experimental design
must adequately cover the other critical part of experiment, namely external validity. A true
experimental design vividly shows the type and extent of population that findings of the investigation
can accurately be generalized to.
Finally, a true experimental research design depicts or indicates the manner and strategy of
collecting pretreatment measure (pretest) without practice effect. With this, the initial position or
condition of the subjects is elicited for more comparability and greater sensitivity of the experiment in
capturing and magnifying even small change in the dependent variable caused by the independent
variable where such effect indeed exists.
Worthy of mention too is the fact that in an experiment which control group will not be used, a true
experimental design shows the sequence of presentation of treatments to the group of subjects such that
‘carry-over’ and ‘order’ effects will be eliminated. This is particularly so in experiments concerned with
finding out only within subjects effect instead of between subjects effect on the dependent variable.
Evolution of randomized six-group experimental design
Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. has given an excellent history of the development of experimental research.
Controlled experimentation on scurvy for instance, started far back in 1747 when James Lind carried out a
controlled experiment to develop a cure for scurvy when he was serving as surgeon on HM Bark Salisbury.
“Lind selected 12 men from the ship, all suffering from scurvy. Lind limited his subjects to men who
"were as similar as I could have them". That is, he provided very strict entry requirements to reduce
extraneous variation. He divided them into six pairs, giving each pair different supplements to their
basic diet for two weeks. The treatments were all remedies that had been proposed…The men who had
been given citrus fruits recovered dramatically within a week. One of them returned to duty after 6 days
and the other cared for the rest. The others experienced some improvement, but nothing was
comparable to the citrus fruits, which were proved to be substantially superior to the other treatments.”
Statistical experiments emerged from Chares Peirce when he developed a theory of statistical
inference in "Illustrations of the Logic of Science" (1877–1878) and "A Theory of Probable Inference"
in (1883). These two publications emphasized the importance of randomization-based inference in
research and statistics. Charles S. Peirce randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures
design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights. His experiment inspired other researchers in
psychology and education that resulted in the development of a research tradition of randomized
experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the 1800s. He also contributed the first
English-language publication on an optimal design for regression-models in 1876. A pioneering optimal
design for polynomial regression was suggested by Gergonne in 1815. In 1918, Kirstine Smith
published optimal designs for polynomials of degree six (and less). Abraham Wald pioneered sequential
analysis experimentation and Herman Chernoff wrote an overview of optimal sequential designs. In
1952, a specific type of sequential design, "two-armed bandit" was published by Herbert Robbins.
Sir Roland Fisher is the father of the entire principles of experimental design. He proposed a
methodology for designing experiments in his landmark book The Design of Experiments (1935). As an
example, he described how to test the hypothesis that a certain lady could distinguish by flavour alone
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whether the milk or the tea was first placed in the cup. While this sounds like a frivolous application, it
allowed him to illustrate the most important ideas of experimental design such as comparison,
randomization, scientific control, analysis of variance, factorial experiments, replication, blocking,
orthogonality, and so on.
Raj Chandra Bose and K. Kishen of the Indian Statistical Institute posited some efficient designs
for estimating several main effects simultaneously in 1940. Orthogonal arrays as experimental designs
were introduced by C. R. Rao and this played a central role in Taguchi experimental designs, posited by
Genich Taguchi in the 1950s. These methods were successfully applied and adopted by Japanese and
Indian industries and subsequently were also embraced by US industry albeit with some reservations.
Gertrude Mary Cox and William Gemmell Cochran published their book on Experimental Designs in
1950 and it became the major reference work on the design of experiments for statisticians for years
afterwards.
Linear models theory on which true experimental research designs are based was developed and
they have encompassed and surpassed the cases that concerned early writers. Currently, true
experimental research designs and the data so collected are analyzed on the basis of linear algebra,
algebra and combinatorics.
It is in line with linear models theory and true experimental designs that Peter James Kpolovie of
the unique University of Port Harcourt developed his randomized six-group experimental design in
2007 to study the effect of 20-hours training on application of SPSS in data analysis on university
lecturers in Nigeria. The randomized six-group design of experiment encompasses and surpasses the
four true classical experimental designs. Data generated with the design are analyzed in accordance with
linear models that use both ‘frequentist’ and ‘Bayesian’ approaches. While the frequentist statistical
technique studies the sampling distribution, the Bayesian statistical procedure is used for updating the
probability distribution on the given parameter space.

1. Randomized between Subjects After-only Experimental Research Design
Between subjects after-only research design is a true experimental design which randomly
assigns subjects into experimental and control groups, administers the treatment and takes
measurement of the variable without a provision for pretest. A t-test analysis is then used to compare
performance of the experimental and control groups where only one treatment group was involved. In
a situation that more than one treatment groups were involved, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is
adopted for analyzing the data. What makes this design a true experimental one are the randomization,
administration of treatment and comparison of the control and experimental groups with respect to the
treatment variable. This design can also be described as randomized posttest only groups design. It can
be illustrated thus:
Treatment Observation
Experimental Group R X O
1

Control Group R O
2

Figure 1: Randomized after-only design
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Since membership of both groups was by randomization (R), any significant difference between
observations O
1
and O
2
can be rightly attributed to the treatment (X) that is the only difference
between the two groups. However, condition of the subjects before the treatment with respect to the
dependent variable is not known as the design does not include pretest. This gave room for emergence
of the next true experimental design.
2. Randomized between Subjects Before-After Experimental Research Design
In between subjects before-after research design, subjects are randomly assigned into control and
experimental treatments to equate the influence of unknown (extraneous) variables. Then, a
pretreatment measurement of the dependent variable is taken to further confirm equivalence of the
control and experimental groups with respect to the dependent variable. Next, the experimental groups
are administered the treatment conditions of the independent variable. After the treatment, a posttest
measurement of the dependent variable is obtained from all the groups. If subjects in the treatment
groups significantly differ from those in the control group, then such difference is the effect of the
independent variable on the dependent variable. If only subjects in one of the treatment groups (say B)
improved significantly in the dependent variable, then the difference can be said to have been caused by
the effect of treatment condition B (i.e., X
2
) on the dependent variable.
Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimental Group A R O
1
X
1
O
2

Experimental Group B R O
3
X
2
O
4

Experimental Group C R O
5
X
3
O
6

Control Group R O
7
O
8
Figure 2: Randomized between subjects before-after design.
If ANOVA of the pretest had shown lack of difference in observations O
1
, O
3
, O
5
, and O
7
, due
mainly to the randomization; but after the treatment, posttest ANOVA revealed significant difference
between each of observations O
2
, O
4
, and O
6
on the one hand and that of the control group (O
8
) on
the other hand, then the manipulated independent variable must have been the cause of the difference.
For this conclusion to be made, O
2
, O
4
, and O
6
, must have each been significantly higher than O
1
, O
3
,
O
5
, O
7
and O
8
. For greater experimental sensitively, analysis of covariance (ACOVA) could also be
performed on O
1
, O
2
, O
3
, O
4
, O
5
, O
6
, O
7
and O
8
to totally remove the influence of pretesting and all
other known and unknown extraneous variables by treating O
1
, O
3
, O
5
and O
7
as covariates. There was
yet a need for an experimental design that could successfully combine randomized after-only design
with randomized before-after design. Consequent upon this, the next experimental design evolved.
3. Randomized Solomon Four-Group Design
Randomized Solomon four-group research design is another between subjects experimental
design. It is optimally powerful and very good in ascertaining causal relationship between independent
and dependent variables. This design appropriately combines the between subjects after-only and
between subjects before-after designs in investigating cause-and-effect relationship between two
variables. The design provides for
(a) One experimental group that takes pretest and posttest.
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(b) An experimental group that takes only the posttest.
(c) A control group that takes both pretest and posttest.
(d) Another control group that takes only posttest.

It also requires that membership of each of the groups as well as the treatment conditions for the
various groups be arrived at by random sampling. It is the most suitable design for total eradication of
extraneous variables and the factors that threaten internal validity. Both ANCOVA and ANOVA are
suitable for analyzing randomized Solomon four-group experimental design data.
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
1 R O
1
X O
2

2 R O
3
O
4

3 R X O
5

4 R O
6
Figure 3: Randomized Solomon four-group design.
In spite of how thorough randomized Solomon four-group experimental design is, it can only be used
to investigate the effect of just one independent variable on a dependent variable at a time. There was
therefore a need for an experimental design that can accurately be used to study the effects of more
than one dependent variable on the dependent variable contemporaneously. This gave rise to yet
another experimental design.
4. Randomized Between Subjects Factorial Design
When an experiment is aimed at determining the independent (main) and interaction effects of
two or more independent variables on a dependent variable, the most suitable design to apply is
randomized between subjects factorial research design. Factorial design is very important because of its
unique merits over other experimental research designs. It is only factorial design that can be used to
study the main effects and interaction effect of two or more independent variables on the dependent
variable. Secondly, factorial design allows for manipulation of two or more independent variables in an
experimental study. That is, with factorial design more than one hypothesis can be tested with a single
analysis on the causal relationships between independent and dependent variables. Thirdly, factorial
design allows for control of a potential extraneous variable by building or incorporating it into the
design. Fourthly, with factorial design, greater precision can be gained for an experiment. Put
differently, factorial design better permits precision control than the earlier examined designs.
Currently, an experiment using factorial design has just been concluded in University of Port
Harcourt. The study aimed at determining effects of counselling and salary grade levels on 50-year old
male non-academic staff’s readiness for retirement by this author. While the dependent variable is 50-
year old male non-academic staff’s readiness for retirement (i.e., readiness for retirement in short), the
independent variables are counselling and salary grade levels. While three counselling strategies for
coping with retirement were used on the one hand; salary levels were in four categories. Taking the
counselling strategies as X
1
, X
2
and X
3
; and the salary grade levels as Y
1
, Y
2
, Y
3
and Y
4
, the factorial
design can be summarized as in the figure below.

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Counselling Strategies
S
a
l
a
r
y

g
r
a
d
e

l
e
v
e
l
s

X
1
X
2
X
3

S
a
l
a
r
y

m
a
i
n

e
f
f
e
c
t
s

Y
1
X
1
,Y
1
X
2
,Y
1
X
3
,Y
1


Y
2
X
1
,Y
2
X
2
,Y
2
X
3
,Y
2


Y
3
X
1
,Y
3
X
2
,Y
3
X
3
,Y
3


Y
4
X
1
,Y
4
X
2
,Y
4
X
3
,Y
4



↓ ↓ ↓

Counselling main effects
Figure 4: Factorial experimental design
The twelve cells of X
1
and Y
1
, X
1
and Y
2
, X
1
and Y
3
, X
1
and Y
4
, X
2
and Y
1
, X
2
and Y
2
, X
2
and Y
3
, X
2

and Y
4
, X
3
and Y
1
, X
3
and Y
2
, X
3
and Y
3
, and finally X
3
and Y
4
, constitute interaction effects of the two
independent variables (counselling and salary grade levels). When data generated on the dependent
variable (readiness for retirement) are analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (Two-way ANOVA),
the main effect of counselling and the main effect of salary grade level as well as the interaction effect
of the counselling and salary grade levels on readiness for retirement will be clearly shown.
Recall that one of the independent variables (salary grade levels) was a potential extraneous
variable that was incorporated or built in to the design. It should also be noted that age was held
constant or controlled by using only 50-year old staff. Another suspected extraneous variable that was
controlled (held constant) in the investigation was sex or gender by using only male staff of the
University of Port Harcourt. Finally, all other known and unknown imaginable extraneous variables
were excluded from influencing the experiment by basing assignment of subjects into the treatment
groups on randomization. Though factorial design could be used to study the effects of two or more
independent variables on the dependent variable at once, the design does not usually allow room for
pretesting to ascertain the status of the subjects before introduction of the treatment conditions with
respect to the dependent variable as adequately taken care of in randomized Solomon four-group
design. This allowed a great knowledge gap that could only be filled with an experimental design that is
capable of encompassing all the four classical designs and better enhancing experimental validity by
providing greater control mechanisms and much more comparison groups to produce results that
preclude plausibility of alternative explanation of causality. The knowledge gap of having an
experimental design that can be used to investigate the main and interaction effects of two or more
independent variables contemporaneously when randomized after-only, before-after, Solomon four-
group and factorial designs are completely embedded culminated in the revolutionary emergence of the
randomized between subjects six-group experimental design.
5. Randomized Six-Group Experimental Design
Randomized six-group experimental design is a very powerful and most suitable between subjects
design for establishment of causal relationships between each of two independent variables or of the
two treatment factors and one dependent variable. The design has all the merits of randomized
Solomon four-group design and factorial design. Randomized six-group experimental design was
formulated by Kpolovie (2007) to overcome criticisms of posttest-only, pretest-posttest, Solomon four-
group and factorial between subjects experimental designs. The randomized six-group design does this
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by allowing for the effects of two treatment conditions or two independent variables on a dependent
variable to be studied at once with the influence of pretest or practice effect totally removed from the
dependent variable. With randomized six-group experimental design, investigation of two independent
variables and one dependent variable that would have called for application of randomized Solomon
four-group experimental design twice can easily be done once with greater control of extraneous
variables and an additional advantage of detecting interaction effect. In reality, each psychological
construct as a dependent variable is not only associated with other traits but is actually caused by the
influence of more than one independent variable due to the complexity of human attributes and their
interconnectivity. Consequently, the very best experimental design to apply is the randomized six-group
experimental design that best allows for investigation of the effects of more than one independent
variable on a dependent variable when pretest and posttest conditions of the subjects are known. The
design has six randomized groups, four of which are experimental groups and two are control groups
as illustrated below.
Group Pretest
observation
Treatment Post-test
observation
1 R O
1
Y O
2

2 R O
3
X O
4

3 R O
5
O
6

4 R Y O
7

5 R X O
8

6 R O
9

Figure 5: Randomized six-group experimental design.
Requirements of the design are as follows:
• Randomly draw a truly representative sample from the population.
• Randomly assign the subjects into six groups.
• Randomly assign treatment and control conditions to the groups.
• Two of the groups should receive Treatment Y.
• One of Treatment Y groups should receive both pretest and posttest observations (O
1
and O
2
).
• The other Treatment Y group should receive only posttest observation (O
7
).
• Two of the groups should get Treatment X.
• One of Treatment X groups should take both pretest and posttest observations (O
3
and O
4
).
• The other of Treatment X groups should take only posttest observation (O
8
).
• Two of the groups should be control groups.
• One of the control groups should be exposed to both pretest and posttest observations (O
5
and
O
6
).
• The second control group should be exposed to only posttest observation (O
9
).

The obtained data so collected can be subjected to a much more robust analyses, ANCOVA, ANOVA
and pairwise multiple comparisons. Results will show the main effect of each of the treatment factors
on the dependent variable. Which of treatments Y and X has greater effect on the dependent variable
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will equally be revealed by the analyses. Two-way ANOVA can also be applied in the analyses to reveal
interaction effect in addition to the main effects of the column and row factors (the two independent
variables) on the dependent variable. A single randomized between subjects six-group experimental
design is more thorough than double randomized Solomon four-group designs in an investigation. In
sum, this design supersedes two randomized Solomon four-group design experiments to incorporate
factorial design to aptly produce cause-and-effect relationships between independent variables and a
dependent variable. All the four classical experimental designs are embedded and surpassed in a
randomized six-group experimental design. The design can also be correctly used by combining
matching with randomization in a situation that this is most desirable or appropriate. Randomized six-
group experimental design was used to study the effect of 20-hour training in use of SPSS in data
analyses as well as manual data analyses on university lecturers in Nigeria. Results showed significant
effect that by providing lecturers with 20-hour comprehensive training in application of SPSS in data
analyses, they are able to personally use SPSS to accurately, speedily and effortlessly analyze their
research data.
With randomized six-group experimental design, the three indispensable conditions for
establishment of cause-and-effect relationships between variables are best met. The necessary
conditions for establishment of causal inference are:
i) Evidence of covariation of events: in which manipulation of one variable is a necessary and
sufficient condition for significantly observed effect on or changes in the dependent
variable
ii) Time-order relationship: which demands that to correctly infer a causal relationship between
independent and dependent variables, the independent variable must always occur first
before the dependent variable
iii) Elimination of extraneous variables: which demands that all confounding variables are
totally held constant or eliminated in the course of the manipulation of the independent
variable for its effect, and nothing else, on the dependent variable to be observed.
Threats to experimental validity are optimally controlled from affecting the experiment with the
use of randomized six-group design. Such threats include history, maturation, statistical regression,
selection bias, experimental mortality, testing, prior treatment interference, artificiality of experimental
setting, placebo-Hawthorne effect, instrumentation effect and implementation effect (Kpolovie, 2010;
Jackson, 2006; Babbie, 2007; Kpolovie, 2011; Cohen, 2008; Breakwell, Hammond and Fife-Schaw,
2001; Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 2002).
Choice of most appropriate experimental Design
The foregoing five experimental designs that have been carefully explained are true experimental
designs because when meticulously executed, they produce cause-and-effect relationships that are not
confounded by extraneous variables. It is the responsibility of a researcher who is engaging in
experimental research to carefully choose and use one of them. The choice of a most appropriate
experimental design to use in an investigation depends on a number of factors. Firstly, the designs that
can best or most suitably provide answer to the research questions and test the postulated null
hypotheses of the study. Secondly, the design that can provide maximum control over extraneous
variables and free the work from the influence of factors that threaten experimental validity. Thirdly,
the design that has the highest merits or advantages and the lowest or least disadvantages in meeting
the purpose of the study or solving the problem under investigation. It should be reiterated that these
are decisions that can be made correctly if and only if the researcher has a thorough knowledge or
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mastery of i) experimental research designs, ii) threats to experimental validity, iii) techniques for
controlling extraneous variables, and iv) the problem which he has chosen to investigate.
Contributions to knowledge
This paper has propounded a new experimental design, called randomized six-group experimental
design, in which all the classical experimental designs (randomized after-only, randomized before-after,
randomized Solomon four-group and randomized factorial experimental research designs) are
completely embedded. The new design evolved from the classical ones, encompassed and surpassed
them in investigation of cause-and-effect relationships between variables. Randomized six-group
experimental design is used for investigation of the main effects and interaction effect of two or more
independent variables on a dependent variable in a most thorough form as one randomized six-group
between subjects design is more powerful than two Solomon four-group design experiments. The
complexity of modern society and the interconnectivity of psycho-social variables demand that for best
results with greatest experimental validity, the use of randomized six-group experimental research
design is supersedingly the best to apply. Randomized six-group experimental design allows for more
critical comparison groups for greater precision and establishment of overwhelmingly exceeding
difference, where a statistically significant difference exists indeed. The design best allows for
application of several inferential statistical techniques in the analyses of collected data. Since very
experimentally researchable variable is complexly interconnected with other socio-psychological
constructs, application of randomized six-group experimental design is absolutely recommended for
investigators wishing to execute experimental research.
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Journal of Education in Developing Areas (JEDA) Vol. 19, No. 2.

SOCIAL SCIENCE EDUCATION AS A PANACEA FOR
NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

By

Paulley, F. G. (Ph.D) mnim.
Department of Educational Foundations
Faculty of Education, Niger Delta University
Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State.
Email: paulleyfg@gmail.com
08037768953
Abstract
Social Science Education, which is concerned with the study of man, his culture
and his relationship with his environment, in diverse ways, is a potent force for
ensuring national integration. However, the achievement of the above goal is
premised on the fact that, best practices are followed particularly, as they relate to
the teacher, who in the formal educational sector is the fulcrum on which the entire
school system revolves. This, in the Nigerian case is lacking. Accordingly, the
paper proffered few suggestions as the ways forward, so that Nigeria as a multi-
ethnic state, yearning for integration, can exploit the gains of social science
education, as a tool for national integration.









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Introduction
The Meaning of Social Science and Its Scope
This is a vast area of human knowledge that defies one single definition. This is so because, what the
field of study encompasses, cannot be easily categorized. However, the term social sciences, according
to the Encyclopedia Americana (1997:130) refers typically to “the highly specialized teaching and
research, conducted at university and adult levels, in those disciplines that are characterized by their
concern with man, his culture, and his relationship with his environment in diverse ways.” In other
words, it involves those fields of learning and research that are primarily concerned with human
behaviour in his social, cultural and economic aspects.
To ascertain whether a field of study belongs to the social sciences, the Encyclopedia
Americana (1997: 131) poses two questions to be answered. These are:
(i) does the field deals with human behaviour?
(ii) does it gather and study its materials in a scientific manner?

These are important questions, because, the aim of the social sciences is to establish
generalizations about human behaviour, that can be supported by empirical evidence(s), since man and
his social relationships, which are the focus of the social sciences are unpredictable. Thus, the social
scientist seeks to research and collect data in an objective and scientific way, rather than rely on
documentary practices, with the use of more precise instruments of research to bring about an accurate
or a closer prediction of man’s behaviour in society.
To do so, he acquires a wide range of tools and techniques, ranging from electrical devices to
measure and record brain activities, psychological tests of attitudes and personality, tests of learning and
social interactions, interviews, surveys and polls, statistical processes and the application of instruments;
such as recording devices and use of computers. Based on the above, the disciplines of Political
Science, Economics, Sociology, Social Studies and Education among others fall within the field of
Social Sciences, as they have something to do with different aspects of human behaviour.
Why Study the Social Sciences in Schools
The study of the Social Sciences according to Asuka and Paulley (in press) is useful to man because it:
helps man to understand and control his emotions, prejudices and fears, as he lives in the social
environment;
helps man to find the basis of a strengthened value system, and the means whereby one can
achieve those ends that will provide the progress of civilizations. This is so because, in many
instances, we possess numerous facts arising from researches and thoughts in the Social
Sciences basic to the betterment of our social dilemmas;
provides man with a honest and dispassionate criticisms of the effectiveness or evils of society
as well as proffering solutions to such evils/vices aimed at bettering the society;
helps in the training of professionals, who take and influence the making and implementation
of some policies, for the improvement of social life; and
makes one to be rational in one’s thinking and actions.

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The Concept of Education
The word ‘education’ is derived from the Latin word ‘educare’
meaning to bring up, to lead out, to raise up and to educate. In its original sense, to educate means
acting in order to lead out fully all the potentialities of an individual. Education, therefore, is one of the
social institutions invented by man to satisfy societal needs of progress and accelerated development
There are today many definitions of education, varying with educational philosophers, scholars
and students. Even one person can define education in more than one way, and one’s definition of the
word may change from time to time. This according to Kosemani (1995:1), is so because “each society
has its unique needs distinct from others”. This is what Dewey in Kosemani (1995:1) meant when he
said:
the aim (of education) is a matter of emphasis at a given time, which suggests
that the role, direction and character of education is a function of the prevalent
philosophy of life and circumstances operative in any society or state at any point
in time.
A few of the current ideas and definitions of education are presented for analysis in the following
paragraphs.
According to Moses (1981:3-4) sees education may be seen as:
the process by which the young ones of the human family are prepared for happy
and useful membership of the world into which they are born…a continuous
process of growth and development in all aspects of one’s being…and intended to
fit one for the type of life that is both satisfying to himself and acceptable to the
community in which he lives, grows and works.
The above definition of education implies that education is a composite of all the means
(formal and informal), and ends of nurturing and developing the intellectual and physical abilities,
attitudes and values, in conformity with the approved and acceptable norms of behaviour in the society.
For Okafor (1987), education is one of the most important factors that distinguish man from
animals, since it is one of the principal outcomes of man’s rationality. Plato, as cited by Okafor (1987),
puts it that a good education consists of giving to the body and to the soul all the beauty and all the
perfections of which they are capable. Okafor, therefore defined education as a process of
acculturation, through which the individual is helped to attain the development of his potentialities and
their maximum activation when necessary, according to right reason and to achieve thereby his perfect
self-fulfillment (sic). This definition by Okafor sees education not as ‘casual experience’, but as
something well planned and handled. The potentialities of an individual may be in the psychomotor,
affective or cognitive perspective. It must not be one sided. It must involve the totality of the
individual.
Hernrich, Pestallozi and Huxley as cited in Rusk (1976) see education as an instrument/process
of developing the individual for social reforms, by mastering the laws of nature and utilizing them
effectively and judiciously in our life experiences. For O’Connor (1957:7), education is “an elaborate
social mechanism, designed by any society to bring about in those submitted to it, certain skills and
activities that are judged desirable in that society.” This, therefore, suggests that education is the bye-
product of its environment as its character and direction are usually influenced by their history, political
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system, sociology, religion and economy of that society. Kaduna (1963) and Castle (1966), claim that
education is the transmission of culture from the older generation to the young. This concept is often
expressed not only by educational historians, but also by sociologists and psychologists who study
education. Callaway, as quoted by Jekayinfa and Kolawole (2003:4) holds the view that life is education
and education is life. This implies that the process of education, spans through a man’s life.
To Taiwo (1986), education is the total efforts a community put in to raise its social, economic
and political standard of life. For Majasan (1967), as quoted by Jekayinfa and Kolawole (2003:4),
“education is the process by which society passes its culture from one generation to another” while
Ajayi, (1965) holds the view that education should aim not merely at creating and transferring
technology, but also at developing people and resources. Another popular definition of education is
that of Good (1945), who sees education as the art of making available to each generation, the
organized knowledge of the past, which is the process by which the traditions and culture of a society
are passed on from one generation to the other, from the older to the younger ones.
Fafunwa (1995), was of the view that education is the aggregate of all the processes by which a
child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour, which are of positive
value to the society in which he/she lives; that is to say, it is a process for transmitting culture in terms
of continuity and growth and for disseminating knowledge either to ensure social control or to
guarantee rational direction of the society or both. Fafunwa, went further to observe that the end
(objective) of education is to produce an individual who is honest, respectful, skilled, co-operative, and
who would conform to the social order.
The above definitions of education point to the fact that any education that goes contrary to the
idea of developing the potentialities of individual, so that he will be able to benefit and also contribute
to the development of the society in which he find himself may not be seen as functional.
Ezewu (1993:29-33), after reviewing the views of several philosophers including Plato, Aristotle,
Milton, Rousseau, Dearden, Jefferys and Castle, came to the conclusion that:
education is the process through which an individual born into a human society is
exposed to and learns the culture which includes knowledge, skills and values of
the given society consciously or unconsciously so that he can function efficiently in
the given society.
Similarly, Obanya (2004:22) opines that “every human society devotes a considerable amount of
time and energy in transmitting its cultural heritage to its younger generation.” The scholar went
further to state that “it is this inter-generational transmission of cultural heritage that is the primary
meaning and function of education.”
In spite of the many definitions of education as given above, two things appear common to all
of them. These are:
• that the goals of education are derived from the society’s value system; and
• that education is intended to equip the learner with knowledge, attitudes, skills and competences
necessary for the production of rational and productive citizens for societal transformation in all its
ramifications. The essence is to stimulate national development.
In this paper, education is used specifically to mean all those planned and deliberate
programmes of the schools, leading to the acquisition of knowledge, skills and values, adjudged
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desirable by the state, guided by its philosophy and ideology aimed at producing the type of individuals
needed by the state. The main purpose of education is to develop the individual so that he can be
useful to himself, his family, and the society, generally.
What is Social Science Education?
Every society needs capable people to hold the various offices available in it. To supply these
personnel, the school provides a variety of courses (education as a discipline) which will enable people
acquire the relevant skills, knowledge and information that will make them fit in properly for the
performance of their roles for the benefit of the society. This is so because, most people, the world
over look up to education for the realization of their life ambitions to become functional members of
the society in which they find themselves. The school as an agent of the formal educative process has a
great role to play in this direction. This is where Social Science education comes in to meet the needs of
social interactions so as to keep the system in equilibrium.
Social Science Education, therefore, involves the study of the experiences of human
relationships as they affect one’s culture in the society. These experiences and their rightful application
form the values which become controls for the social relations of each individual.
To achieve the above in the modern concept of education, the role of the teacher cannot be
over emphasized. The teacher in this context has the duty of adapting his lessons to the needs of the
learner’s environment so as to make the lesson have a lasting impact on him. The school through the
teacher should teach the children to learn their roles as learners, group members in the family and the
community at large, since as social animals, they cannot live in isolation. The children should be made
to appreciate the demands and needs of group living (spirit of tolerance). They should be informed
about the society in which they live (Geography), how the society is ruled (Political
Science/Government), how members use their limited resources to meet their many needs
(Economics) and how the community is kept clean for the survival of the individuals (Environmental
Education). They should be equally taught beliefs and customs (Religious Education), national
consciousness and history (History/Civic Education), other parts of the world, their cultures and how
they live (Sociology) among others.
Emphasis must, however, be placed on the study of the local environment with excursion
arranged so that the students can learn about other parts of the country with the aim of ensuring
peaceful co-existence which is an essential ingredient of national integration.
What then is National Integration?
According to Section 14 (3) (4) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, national
integration refers to the specific problems of creating a sense of territorial nationality, which eliminates
subordinate parochial loyalties. This assumes that there exists in every ethnically plural society, like
Nigeria, the issue of each group trying to protect its own peculiarities such as language or other self
conscious cultural qualities thereby weakening the foundation of the entire state. This is because the
various groups are all struggling to protect their micro solidarities, allegiance or secessionist tendency.
In essence, it is a ploy aimed at fighting such divisive elements within such ethnically plural states such
that the interest of the state as a whole will be upper most in the minds of all the people.

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National integration therefore leads to political cohesion and sentiment of loyalty towards the
central political institutions. This is so because it helps in creating a national central authority over
subordinate political units. Conceived in this way, national integration is a subjective feeling which
individuals belonging to different social groups or historically distinct political units have towards a new
state. Such feeling is created through the objective control, which the central authority has over the
entire territory under its claimed jurisdiction.
Sanda (1992:65-66) sees national integration as synonymous with national unity. He, therefore, defines
it as the “collective orientation of members of a society towards the nation and its society such that
micro-loyalties are not allowed to jeopardize the continued existence of the state, its objectives and
ideals.”
A nation (state) is said to be integrated according to Bhatia (2004:235)
if its citizens, may be belonging to any caste, community, religion, language and state,
have feeling of oneness, share each other’s joys and sorrows, smiles and tears and have an
interest in the welfare of the nation (state) as a whole.
The citizens of an integrated nation, he continued,
have mutual understanding, tolerance and respect for the culture, traditions and ways
of life of the different sections of people in their country. They have common national
ideals, common objectives, common interests and above all a profound confidence in the
future of the nation. National Integration is the end whereas emotional integration is
the means to achieve that end, he concludes.
From the above, it implies that national integration covers a vast range of human relationships
and attitudes – such as integration of diverse and discrete cultural loyalties, development of a sense of
nationality, a means for the maintenance of a political system from disintegrating. In spite of the
diverse ways it is seen, they all have a common link, as they all point to the fact that national integration
is aimed at holding society and the political system together.
Why National Integration in Nigeria
National integration is a problem facing developing countries with diverse ethnic groups. Nigeria as a
developing country with diverse ethnic groups is, therefore, not an exception. This view was aptly
captured by Ajayi (1989:218) when he said:
the problems of national integration in Nigeria stare us in the face all the time, and no
one can argue that we ignore them. But they are problems which require long term
solutions and yet we deal with them on an ad-hoc basis without a consistent or coherent
policy or ideology.
This being the case, how can education and more specifically the Social Science Education as
provided in the National Policy on Education (2004) promote National Integration in Nigeria?
Levels of Education in Nigeria and Specific Social Science Education Objectives as Contained
in The National Policy on Education
Pre-Primary/Early Childhood Care and Development Education: This is meant for children of
ages between 2 and 5+. It is intended to help the child acquire rudimentary knowledge of social norms,
a spirit of inquiry, co-operation and team work (Social Science Education objectives). This level of
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education (that is ECCDE), according to Obanya (2004:29), is based on the well-known principle that
the foundations for education and personal development is laid before the child is born. It is at this
stage that the intellectual, emotional and sound traits for lifelong functional education are awakened and
stimulated. As crucial as this level of education is in the educational development of the child and the
country, the sector is unfortunately left solely in the hands of private proprietors, business men and
women who see it as yet another means to make money. The implications of this are many, three of
which are that:
education contrary to the government policy of free and compulsory for all at the foundation
level is not after all free.
accordingly, only children of the well-to-do are likely to have this rudimentary education; and
assuming that all children attend the state controlled free primary schools (now the lower basic)
those children with pre-primary/early childhood care development education background are
most likely to be at an advantaged position due to the disparity in the system.

Basic Education: This is made compulsory for all children whose ages range from 6 to 15 years.
Accordingly, parents are liable for fines and imprisonment for failing to send their children to school
according to the UBE Act of 2004 (See Part I Section 4 (a-c). Its Social Science Education objectives
include inculcating in the child citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and
contributes to the society, mould the character and develop sound attitude, moral training of the child
and ability to adapt to the changing environment.
Secondary Education: This is being offered to children between the ages of 16 and 18 years who
would continue in academics after the nine years of continuous school under the UBE. The Social
Science Education objectives here are to prepare the child for useful living in society, developing and
protecting the Nigerian culture, raising a generation of people who can think for themselves (rational
thinking) respect for the feelings of others (tolerance), respect for the dignity of labour, foster Nigerian
unity with emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity. Social Studies, Government,
Christian Religion Knowledge (C.R.K), Geography among other subjects are taught to inculcate these
feelings among the children.
Higher Education: Higher Education is given to adults from 18 years and above which is intended
to help the adults acquire, develop and inculcate proper value orientation for the survival of the
individual as useful members of the community as well as having an objective view of the local and
external environment. Here such courses as Sociology, History and Diplomacy, Philosophy, Political
Science, Religion, Psychology, Economics, Education among others help to inculcate these feelings
among the adults.
Apart from the above categories specified, other categories of education as provided in the
National Policy on Education (FRN:2004) include Mass Literary, Adult and Non Formal Education as
well as Teacher Education with each of them also having specific provisions for Social Science
Education. For instance, the Social Science Education provisions for Mass Literacy, Adult and Non
Formal Education include giving the adult citizen of the country necessary cultural and civic
education for public enlightenment.
Teacher Education as a specialized training giving to those who are being prepared to take up
appointment as professional teachers has such Social Science Education objectives of helping the
teacher fit into the social life of the country and society at large and to enhance the commitment of the
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teacher to national objectives.
Role of Social Science Education in National Integration
From the above, therefore, a well co-ordinated Social Science Education Programme as provided in the
National Policy on Education (2004) will enhance the following for the overall integration of the
diverse groups for the development of the Nigerian state.
making the Nigerian child to be efficient and selfless leader/statesman and devoted enlightened
follower:
instilling in the child a strong sense of group loyalty, that is the country as a group.
instilling a sense of approval and devotion to the national ideals.
showing love and admiration of the nation’s past and present heroes/leaders.
instilling in the child a sense of obligation to the service of the state. This is a recognition that
the state has a supreme claim upon one’s service.
instilling in the child love of the fatherland which should include appreciation of the physical
features and the diverse indigenous cultures (spirit of tolerance) a key to harmonious group
living.
helping the child to be familiar with and appreciate national symbols such as the national flag,
anthem, coat of arm, currency and leaders, as well as the need to respect them.
providing for both personal/individual as well as for national economic efficiency .
instilling in the child how to make effective use of his resources such as intellect, time, income
and other materials possessions.
teaching the child the importance and necessity of conserving natural resources.
inculcating in all the ideals of wise saving and spending, and
developing in the child a sense of self discipline and responsibility, creativity, critical thinking
and ability to take initiative.

It is hoped that the above will give the child a sense of belonging to his community, state and
the country which incidentally are the overall objectives of the National Policy on Education. With this
type of education, progressive and happy citizens will be produced for the integration of the entire
country.
The Problem
Nigeria’s problem is not that of policy formulation, but that of implementation. The translation of
these ideals into reality so as to stimulate the needed integration of the country using education as a tool
is the responsibility of the teacher and the other enablers of the teaching and learning environment.
The question, therefore, is how is the government the greatest employer of teachers and the
ultimate beneficiary of the national integration effort treating issues relating to teachers on whose
shoulders every other thing relating to the successful implementation of any educational programme
revolves. This bit was aptly captured by Coombs (1968) cited by Amadi (1986:vii) when he said “the
quality of education in any country cannot rise above the quality of its teachers.” This assertion in the
specific case of Nigeria had been re-emphasized by the government in the National Policy on
Education (FRN:2004:39).
In spite of the above position, there appears to be a great distaste for teaching in the country
due to the way teachers are being treated. Commenting on the lack of interest in teaching among
people in the country, The Punch Newspaper in its editorial of September (20:2005:16) raised a number
of issues ranging from contempt with which the teaching profession is been held presently, poor
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funding, half – hearted implementation of most government education policies (UPE, the 6-3-3-4 and
the current UBE programme among others), and more importantly the discouraging remuneration of
teachers. Teachers are believed to operate under lamentable working conditions, inadequate facilities,
lack of job satisfaction, stressful classroom situations which often lead to burnout.
Accordingly, a lot of teachers believe that society does not value their input and that they are
not getting enough respect. As a result, most people go in for teaching as a last resort. This is evident
in the dwindling fortunes of admissions into the country’s faculties of education, whose responsibility it
is to produce graduate teachers, in recent time.
The Way Forward
In view of the strategic role of the teacher in the actualization of the Social Science Education goals for
the promotion of national integration, government in particular and the society as a whole should take
issues relating to teachers’ welfare a little more serious, for no matter how well a country’s educational
system is been planned, until it attracts an efficient and highly motivated teaching force, it will amount
to effort in futility. The much talked about Teachers Salary Scale (TSS) should be implemented across
the country with no further political intrigues. Again, the current effort of the Teachers Registration
Council in registering teachers to make teaching a real profession as it is with law, medicine, surveying
among others is a move in the right direction that should be sustained. This way, teachers will have a
sense of pride, as it will no longer be an all comer affairs as it is currently.
Until these are done, good and credible persons will continue to shun the teaching profession.
The implication, therefore, will be that the much talked about national integration using Social Science
Education as a tool will continue to be a wishful thinking. This according to Nnoli (1980:175) is so
because Nigeria (as a country) has been suffering from self-fulfilling and self-sustaining dynamic of the
various ethnic groups. This jinx can only be broken in the thinking of this author using Social Science
Education if best practices are put in place in matters relating to the teacher.
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