the writing of memoranda, police reports, and civilian letters.

1. Correctness. No error, fault, mistake, or departure from truth. In order to avoid error which may be inadvertently done in spelling, punctuation, price, specification, sentence structure and grammar among others, the correspondence should be thoroughly edited.

2. Conciseness. Brief or limited in words. We should always consider that our superiors as well as the subordinates are always busy. They therefore have no ample time to read wordy letters that would only tarry their work. In fact, most of them only spot the essential information in a written correspondence. However, concision (brief) does not mean deleting words that count and make your statements brusque (rough in manner). Brevity means using necessary words only as you retain the natural tone of your sentences.


new innovation in the event of hold in abeyance a large number a total of 42 basically not aware of new recruits past experience protest against qualified expert reason why equipped with bring the matter to the attention

true facts for recreation purposes whether or not general consensus were as follows joined together strangled to death controversial issue future plans completely eliminated definite decision totally destroyed never before in the past

with reference to in view of the fact that request notwithstanding the fact that circumstances in the event that a period of a week sufficient amount of at an earlier point in time make use of my personal opinion lend assistance to submitted hereunder In addition in relation to

for the reason that in compliance with your under the prevailing

arrive at an agreement other alternatives earlier, before end product was in communication with enclosed hereto/herewith attached herewith kind consideration

true facts for recreation purposes whether or not general consensus were as follows joined together controversial issue future plans completely eliminated definite decision totally destroyed never before in the past new recruits

new innovation in the event of hold in abeyance a large number a total of 42 basically not aware of past experience protest against qualified expert reason why equipped with bring the matter to attention of

2b) AVOID GOOBLEDYGOOK These are impressive, bombastic and unnecessary use of long words and stuffy style that complicates the message of a letter or memorandum and makes it less understandable or readable to the receiver. Examples:
 Aerodynamic personnel decelerators - parachutes  Interlocking slide fasteners - zippers  Wood inter-dental stimulators - toothpick

Example of gobbledygook paragraph This pertains to your delivery that I ordered last 10 April 2007 and was delivered yesterday, Tuesday, 26 April 2005 by your delivery men in our new address in 101 central Avenue, Quezon City that contains several broken items. Better paragraph : Your delivery dated 10 April 2007 contains 20 broken chandeliers.

Here are two well-known proverbs with gobbledygook:
 Feathered bipeds of similar plumage will

live gregariously.
 Too great a number of culinary

assistants may impair the flavor of the consomme’.

2c) Avoid triteness (tired old phrases or clichés) Examples:
 in the final analysis  hard as a rock  last but not the least  bite the bullet  cold as ice  like a new born babe

2d) Avoid misleading euphemisms or use euphemisms sparingly (expressions aimed at politeness or at making unpleasant subjects seem less offensive) Examples:  meet our Creator (dying)  policy of disinformation (lying to the public)  conflicts and collateral damage ( wars and civilian casualties)  downsized workers (laid-off workers)

2e)Avoid weak phrases
 wealthy business person  business prosperity  carrying a child  long years  one year old boy

tycoon boom pregnant years one year of

age boy

2f) Avoid generality
traveled in another country one kilo of rice visit the province my better-half -

traveled in Japan one kilogram of rice visit Batangas my husband; my wife

Significant to conciseness is the readability formula suggested by Robert Gunning (1984) –THE FOG FORMULA It is a device used to estimate the reading level appropriate to your written correspondence. Keep in mind that most successful correspondence write to a general reading level of ninth grade or third year high school or lower. Try conducting a Fog Index on a sample correspondence and compare it with your own writing.

Procedures:  Step 1. Select a 100 – word sample of writing.  Step 2. Find the average number of words per sentence in the sample. If the 100th word is in the middle of a sentence, count the rest of the words in the sentence and use that number to compute the average.  Step 3. Count the number of words in the 100 – word sample that have three or more syllables. Do not count proper names or three syllable verb forms ending in - ing, - ed, o –es.  Step 4. Add the average number of words per sentence to the number three – syllable words and multiply by 0.4.

The result is an estimate of the reading level required to understand your writing. Fog index is affected mainly by two factors :
 

the level of vocabulary ; and the length of the sentences.

The purpose of using the Fog Index is to make sure your writing can be understood by the reader.

 Level of 8 is easy to comprehend  Level of 16 is quite difficult  Level over 20 is very difficult.

As a general rule, the lower the readability index, the easier is the comprehension.

3. Completeness This means perfection, fullness or sufficiency of the correspondence as regards to information and parts. Check the document if it caries all the necessary messages intended to be transmitted. This prevents possible clarification calls or replies that may only delay transactions including desired actions to messages.

4. Courtesy This is akin to acts or expressions that manifest politeness, civility, affability, urbanity, considerateness and respectfulness. Expressions like please, kindly, thank you so much, we are glad, we appreciate in both oral and written communication promote goodwill.

5. Visual appeal. Any written communication should be attractive, has visual impact and generally looking good but not multicolored. 1. Us quality paper (Substance 20), and prescribed font size and style (Arial, 12) should be used. 2. Format, spacing, margin and indention are matters to be carefully visualized. 3. Avoid crafting written communications by using full uppercase letters or full lowercase letters all throughout the document. 4. Vividness may be instituted through boldface in titles, names and on significant information for purposes also of emphasis. We should always remember that prints with vigor, vividness and retentiveness make a document important to the reader.

6. Tonal appeal.
Statements may exude tense, hostility, artificiality, friendliness, naturalness or sincerity of the communicator. In several communication situations, there are no substitutes for simplicity, straight, forward, modern and readers words and phrases. Hence we should organize a letter sounding like we are talking personally to our reader.

7. ACCURACY – Use the words that
exactly serve your purpose. What exactly do you mean? Have you made your readers see and feel what you want them to see and feel? i.e. in labeling an action of a crime… What do you want them to understand? Example: “Crime”? “Offense”? “Sin”? Or “Vice”? Or” Infractions”?

About Genderism Modern writing requires us to refrain from using terms that discriminate or show biases in the treatment of males and females. Neutral terms should be used to manifest, fairness and equality between sexes.
Bias if a woman drives businessman man-made manpower chairman salesman foreman Fair if a person drives businessperson artificial; synthetic; human power ; workforce chairperson salesperson; sales clerk construction supervisor

      

 It is a note, a reminder, or a statement that one

wishes to remember or preserve for future use.  It evolved from a Latin term memorandus which means to be remembered or memorare to remind.  Its various tense forms may be done by shortening memorandum to memo so that conjugation can be done like memoing, memos and memoed.  Memorandum is definitely singular while its plural form may be memoranda or memorandums.

1. MEMORANDUM FOR is used by a subordinate official in communicating to a superior on matters which are recommendatory/advisory or informative in nature, briefings, or reports. The tone of the memorandum from a subordinate office must be formal. 2. Officials of equal positions shall use MEMORANDUM FOR in inter-office communications but the tone may be personal.

3. MEMORANDUM TO is used by a superior or higher office/position to a subordinate office/position. - This is used to issue administrative instructions to a subordinate that requires compliance by or information of the majority or all of the subordinate offices or personnel in the same office/unit. - It may also be of limited application such as those directed to, or requiring performance or action by an individual or group within a particular directorate, command, service, office, station , or unit. - The tone of memorandum is impersonal.

4. The MEMORANDUM FOR serving as a Decision Paper shall be used in lieu of Staff Disposition Form (SDF) as it is applicably addressed also to a head of an office who can make a decision. The tone must be formal. The recurring line should be incorporated in the basic memorandum form as : THRU: Deputy Chief for Administration and The Chief Directorial Staff.

GUIDELINES: MEMORANDUM  In order to conform with the civilian character of the PNP, BJMP, and BFP the “subject-to-letter format” which is the standard military type of communication should not be used anymore in all correspondence and instead be replaced with the “Memorandum” format which is the standard and acceptable type among civilian offices.
 As per Letter Directive No. 95-09-26 DHRDD,PNP-

NHQ dated October 27,1995, the use of Memoranda and Memorandum from the DHRDD Director dated February 11,1998, is limited to the preparation of decision papers, proposals, reports, requests and replies to queries.

 For distinction however, memorandum shall

be used between offices within the PNP,BJMP,and BFP only. Letters shall be used for communications intended for offices outside the PNP,BJMP,and BFP.  Memorandums shall be numbered consecutively by calendar years. The first two digits shall represent the last two digits of the calendar years when the issuance was prepared, and the number after the hyphen shall represent the serial number of the specific issuance. The last two digits shall be immediately below the last letter of the issuance category or type, as MEMORANDUM No.92-9

Punctuations shall be used in accordance with grammatical principles pertaining thereto.
 Prescribed formats shall be strictly

followed in the preparation of letter and memoranda.
 In the absence of institutional rules, rules

of technical writing shall prevail.

Republic of the Philippines Department of the Interior and Local Government Philippine Public Safety College Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City

MEMORANDUM 08-47 Name and Title Your title GUIDELINES FOR FORMATTING MEMOS Serves as a chronological record for future reference _____________________________________________________ 1. References: a. Memo from TCDS dated August 28, 2005.Subject:Formats; b. 2. Body 3. Conclusion Signature LORENZO D BRAÑA Distribution: To : From : Subject: Date :

Republic of the Philippines Department of the Interior and Local Government Bureau of Jail Management and Penology Address MEMORANDUM 08-47 TO : FROM : SUBJECT: DATE : Name and Title Your title GUIDELINES FOR FORMATTING MEMOS Serves as a chronological record for future reference

1. References: a. Memo from TCDS dated August 28, 2005.Subject:Formats; b. 2. Body 3. Conclusion

Signature LORENZO D BRAÑA Jail Senior Inspector

Republic of the Philippines Department of the Interior and Local Government Philippine Public Safety College JAIL NATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTE Camp Vicente Lim, Calamba City

MEMORANDUM 08-47 FOR : Name and Title FROM : Your title SUBJECT: GUIDELINES FOR FORMATTING MEMOS DATE : Serves as a chronological record for future reference 1.. References: a. Memo from TCDS dated August 28, 2005.Subject:Formats; b. 2. Body 3. Conclusion Signature LORENZO D BRAÑA Jail Officer 1 Distribution:

 Subject Line

Announce the memo’s purpose of contents, to orient readers to the subject and help them assess its importance. An explicit title also makes filing by subject easier.  Introductory Paragraph Unless you have reason for being indirect, state your main point immediately.  Topic headings Headings help you organize and they help readers locate information quickly.

 Body

-Interpret findings and draws conclusions
-Make general recommendations -Expand on each recommendation -Discuss benefits of following the recommendations

 Signature Block
The signature appears above the printed name at the signature block below, not after the line or sender line above. A signature authenticates, corroborates, confirms, attests or certifies the correctness, truthfulness or veracity of the content of the instrument by which the signature is affixed. A signature likewise carries responsibility or accountability over the statement or information indicated before it.

 Paragraph Spacing

Indent the first line of paragraphs. Single space within paragraphs and double space between them.  Second Page Headings When the memo exceeds one page, begin the second and subsequent pages with recipient’s name, date, and page number. Example: Sgt. Co, June12, 2007, page 2. Place this information three lines from the page top and begin your text three lines below.  Copy Notation When sending copies to people not listed on the “To” line, include a copy notation two spaces below the last line, and list, by rank, the names and titles of those receiving copies.


Recommendation Memorandums HOW TO THINK CRITICALLY AS YOU FORMULATE, EVALUATE, AND REFINE YOUR CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Conclusions should be logically derived from accurate interpretations. Recommendations should propose an appropriate response to the problem or question. Express your conclusions and recommendations with assurance and authority. Be direct and assertive. Let the reader know where you stand. If your analysis yields nothing definite, do not force a simplistic conclusion on your material. Instead, explain your position. Remember, a wrong recommendation is far worse than no recommendation at all.

2. Justification Memorandums
As the name implies, it justifies the writer’s position on some issue. It is a unique class of recommendation memo. They are often initiated by the writer rather than requested by the readers. Justification reports therefore typically begin rather than end with the request or recommendation. Such memo answer the key questions for readers: Why should we? Typically, it follows a version of this arrangement: 1. State the problem and your recommendations for solving it. 2. Point out the cost, savings, and benefits of your plan. 3. If needed, explain how your suggestions can be implemented. 4. Conclude by encouraging the reader to act.

3. Progress report
It serves as a paper trail on a project.  Summarize achievements to date  Describes work remaining, with timetable  Describes the problems encountered

4. Survey Report
It examines the conditions that affect an organization. Announce the purpose of the memo Presents the date in tabular form, for easy comparison Names the source ( The report should describe how the data were collected) Discuss the conclusions to be drawn from the table

   

5. Memorandum to Inform 6. Memorandum to Answer a Question 7. Memorandum to Record a Significant Event 8. Memorandum Serving as a Decision Paper

Letter refers to a message in writing, which may be in any language or in a code, contained in a sealed or unsealed envelope or not in an envelope at all intended for delivery to a person or entity displayed legibly on one of its faces.

A civilian letter is used when communicating with the president of the country, cabinet members, local officials and business personalities; or outside the organization. Its paragraphing is not numbered, not unless in tabulation and enumeration.

 Heading (Letterhead)

A part that contains the name of the institution represented by the writer.  Date (Dateline) It specifies the day when the letter was written, not when the document was dispatched.

 Inside Address

This usually contains the correct and name, position, business name and business address of the addressee.  Salutation The greetings in the letter that provides a courteous opening.  Body of the Letter It embodies the text of the message, usually the longest part of the letter.  Complimentary Close The farewell part of the letter which signals the ending of the message.

Attention Line
The name mentioned immediately after the attention line is the final receiver of the letter. The letter is only coursed through the person mentioned in the inside address. Coursing the letter to the addressee means that he is superior to the person mentioned after the attention line; therefore, as a matter of protocol should know official matters communicated to his subordinates. Once the inside addressee received the letter and forwards the same to his subordinate, he has likely attested, consented or approved the purpose of the documents. A letter using an attention line comes from other organization or outside party not connected with the office of the addressee.
MR. MIKE A. MARIANO Manager Best Enterprise 15 Narra St., Commonwealth 1108 Quezon City

Attention: Chief Marketing Division


 Reference Initial

Reference Initial is an acronym, initial or code of all or any of the writer, dictator or encoder of the letter. They severally take administrative responsibility as regards the veracity and the content of the letter. This is usually indicated below the signature block. Very truly yours, HON. JOEY A. MARCOS City Mayor Rab’05/lmc’05

writer’s initial encoder’s initial

 Copy Furnish Notation

This shows that a copy of the letter is being sent to another person other than the addressee. In most instances, a person is furnished a copy of the letter for reference and information.
Very truly yours, MICHELLE A. SANTOS Administrative Officer cf: 1. File 2. Art c. Quebec Budget Officer 3. Lily C. Basco Chief Accountant

 Enclosure

This part, if any, serves as a reminder to the receiver that an additional material is in the envelope. This may also be called attachment. So, some writer may use enclosed as stated or attached as stated.
Very sincerely yours, SUSAN M. CRUZ Corporate Secretary Encl.: Minutes of our previous meeting Or Attached a/s

 Postcript (or PS Notation)

This part of the letter must be indicated to re-emphasize an important message and not to call attention to some information the writer has forgotten to state in the body of the letter. Very truly yours, DAN A. SANTIAGO Marketing Manager P.S.

 Through Line

- This part appears in the letter if the
sender is a subordinate who writes to a person higher in position than his immediate superior. - It is a protocol that communications should pass through channels. These channels represent the hierarchy of a system, the persons who should have knowledge regarding the content of any letter communicated to any persons in the higher levels of an organization.

DR. ANAMARIE O. CORTEZ President Retailers Bank Quezon Avenue 1108 Quezon City Through: LUCILA M. SANDOVAL Chief Account Division Madam:
Note: This madam (Salutation ) refers to the President, not the chief, because she is the addressee in the letter.

 Notation Line

- It indicated below the signature block which means that the instrument is made known or consented by a person higher in rank than the sender. - The word NOTED means that the person who should note the letter noted it personally. - NOTED BY means that the letter is noted by a person who is authorized to note but not the actual person who should note it. The letter sender and the persons who noted the letter are jointly accountable for the content or spirit of the document.

It is a chronological or step-by-step account of an incident that took place as a given time. Paragraphing process:  1st -- what sort of crime is being described  2nd -- the recounting of various steps or actions done  3rd -- end paragraph which concludes the report ( Conclusions includes the status of the case, the disposition of the individuals involved (hospitalized? Jailed? taken home?, and the disposition of the evidence obtained.)



INVESTIGATION REPORT  The materials are presented following a certain pattern with the following headings: AUTHORITY MATTERS INVESTIGATED FACTS OF THE CASE DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS  If a heading is not important because it is absorbed in another heading, such can be excluded.  Headings are capitalized and followed by a colon.  All the paragraphs composing the text of the report are numbered consecutively.  The investigator signs the report.  On top of the letterhead and on the lower fold of the paper, the word CONFIDENTIAL is typed or stamped

SPOT REPORT AND SPECIAL REPORT  It is done after an important incident took place in a certain area at a given time. The idea is to inform an immediate chief, or that one from a higher headquarters or office, regarding the details relative to a particular occurrence.  On the other hand, a special report is done either because on feels he has some reporting to do so or he is obligated to report. PARTS OF A TYPICAL SPECIAL REPORT  Problem. What is the report all about?  Rationale. What are the details supporting the problem?  Action. What action must the receiver/reader do?

BEAT INSPECTION REPORT AND AFTER PATROL REPORT Beat inspection report is submitted daily by any duty officer after their routine check on foot; while the after patrol report is submitted by assigned sector using official vehicles and is signed by the team leader.

SITUATION REPORT (SITREP)  The situation report is done on a need basis. It contains the actual situation of a particular incident or incidents which are of public interest.

This is primarily addressed to the commander or chief for him to know the actual situation before the media and the public is informed. A SITREP may be done every hour, every 6 hours, of every 8 hours depending on the situation. During peaceful and ordinary days, a SITREP is not necessary.

FORMAL REPORT They serve as records for administrators in planning, directing and organizing the unit. It may also be used as a legal document in the prosecution of criminals. Basic Parts of a Formal Report
1. Introduction –background statement  Why the report was written?  How the data were gathered?  What does the report includes (scope) and what is does not include (delimitations)?  What are the materials and instruments used inn gathering the data?


Body - detailed presentation of the facts gathered. Summary- the brief presentation of the findings. Graphs and tables may be included in the summary. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions tells what data mean to the writer, while the recommendations tell what the writer thinks should be done about the matter reported. When the report is just a result of a factfinding one, conclusions are not required.



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