Tavisuflebis instituti, 2004

religiis Tavisufleba

Tbilisi 2004

avtorTa jgufi: malxaz narindoSvili vano gogelia TaTia julayiZe zurab jaSi erekle glurjiZe Semdgeneli da redaqtori: giorgi melaZe redaqtori: nodar ladaria stilis redaqtorebi: ana WabaSvili lali qadagiZe marika kveselava dizaini: besik danelia

ISBN 999407147-5

(USAID) gamocemulia aSS-is saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentos ( ) da merilendis universitetis IRIS Center-is finansuri mxardaWeriT -is #114-C-00-01-00136-00). (xelSekruleba #114- -00-01-00136-00). gamocemaSi gamoTqmuli mosazrebebi ekuTvniT avtorebs da, SesaZloa, ar emTxveodes USAID-is Tvalsazriss. -is

winasityvaoba
Cemi cxovreba didwilad marTulia keTilgonierebiT, misi ukmarisobis SemTxvevaSi ki _ uzenaesi ZaliT, rwmeniT.

mahaTma gandi

religiisa da rwmenis sakiTxebi adamianis yvelaze Rrma sulier sferos ganekuTvneba da ganuyoflad aris dakavSirebuli pirovnebis Rirsebisa da sindisis xelSeuxeblobasTan. saxelmwifos mier adamianis religiuri uflebebis pativiscema individis pirovnuli xelSeuxeblobisadmi misi marTlzomieri damokidebulebis demonstrirebaa. da piriqiT, adamianis religiuri uflebebis ugulebelyofa da religiur niadagze diskriminacia demokratiuli saxelmwifos mTavari principis uaryofaa, romlis Tanaxmadac xelisuflebis wyaro xalxia. es principi avaldebulebs saxelmwifos, izrunos sakuTar moqalaqeebze da ar dauSvas maTi uflebebis darRveva. aRmsareblobisa da sindisis niadagze devnisa da diskriminaciis dauSveblobis Taobaze debulebebi msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveynis konstituciaSi, maT Soris saqarTvelos uzenaes kanonSic gvxvdeba. Tumca am principis sruli realizaciisaTvis mxolod liberaluri kanonmdebloba sakmarisi ar aris. msoflio gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT kvlav araerTi problema arsebobs. saqarTvelos dRevandeli mdgomareoba sxva ganvi-

Tarebad saxelmwifoebSi arsebuli viTarebis msgavsia. marTalia, xelisuflebis cvlilebasTan erTad religiur niadagze vandaluri aqtebi TiTqmis aRikveTa, Tumca kanonmdeblobasa da misi gamoyenebis praqtikasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi kvlavac aqtualuria. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos damoukidebloba aTeul welze mets iTvlis, Cvens wamyvan saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi jer kidev SemorCenilia komunistur ideologiaze dafuZnebuli saxelmZRvaneloebi, rogorc politikuri mecnierebebis, ise samarTlebrivi gamocdilebis sferoSi. dRemde ar arsebobs literatura, romelic religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sferoSi ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso aqtebis, precedentuli samarTlisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT warmatebul saxelmwifoTa samarTlebrivi gamocdilebis yovlismomcvel analizs SesTavazebda sazogadoebas. wigns `religiis Tavisufleba~ ZiriTadad saganmanaTleblo funqcia ekisreba da misi mizani am sferoSi arsebuli informaciuli vakuumis Sevsebaa. mas wminda praqtikuli daniSnulebac aqvs _ saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis saerTaSoriso standartebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanisa da saerTaSoriso samarTlebrivi aqtebis qarTul samarTlebriv sivrceSi integraciis pirobebSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens saerTaSoriso sasamarTloebis praqtikis codna da misi Sidasaxelmwifoebriv doneze gamoyeneba. wigni `religiis Tavisufleba~ gamiznulia samarTlis sferoSi moRvawe praqtikosi iuristebis, advokatebisa da mosamarTleebisaTvis, studentebisaTvis. Tumca, igi religiisa da rwmenis sakiTxebiT dainteresebuli sxva mkiTxvelisTvisac saintereso iqneba. wignis pirveli Tavi mkiTxvels religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gaazrebaSi daexmareba: religiis raoba, religiuri uflebebis warmoSobis istoria, religiis Tavisuflebis filosofiuri safuZvlebi da ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvencia araerTi avtorisa da mecnieris mier adamianis uflebebis sferoSi SemuSavebul yvelaze qmediT saerTaSoriso aqtad aris miCneuli. saqarTvelo 1999 wlidan evropis sabWos wevri qveyanaa, rac imas niSnavs, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis debulebebi da mis safuZvelze moqmedi adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTali Cveni qveynisaTvis savaldebuloa. saqarTvelos konstituciis me-6 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas, Tu igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos konstitucias, Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebis mimarT upiratesi Zala aqvs. es konstituciuri debuleba naTlad metyvelebs saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobisa da sasamarTlo praqtikis konvenciasTan SesabamisobaSi moyvanis aucileblobaze. amis miuxedavad, qarTuli sazogadoebis iuridiul wreebSi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sferoSi adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTlis

codna nulovan zRvars utoldeba, risi ZiriTadi mizezic qarTul enaze saTanado literaturis ararsebobaa. wignis meore Tavi am danaklisis aRmofxvris mcdelobaa. masSi warmodgenilia religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sakiTxebis Semcveli, konvenciis me-9 da sxva momijnave muxlebis safuZvelze gadawyvetili saqmeebis analizi. garda amisa, am TavSi detaluradaa ganxiluli adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTloSi samarTalwarmoebis struqtura da sistema. wignis mesame Tavi eZRvneba amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebis istoriasa da sasamarTlo (umTavresad uzenaesi sasamarTlos) sistemis farglebSi miRebul mniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebebs. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi saxelwmifoTa Soris erT-erTi im mcireTagania, sadac adamianis religiuri uflebebis dacva praqtikul doneze Seesabameba am qveynis konstituciis Teoriul-deklaraciul debulebebs da erTaderTia, romelsac esoden mdidari sasamarTlo praqtika aqvs religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sferoSi. amitomac, vfiqrob, udavod saintereso unda iyos aSS-s gamocdilebisaTvis Tvalis gadavleba da misi gaazreba qarTul realobasTan mimarTebaSi. zurab adeiSvili

sarCevi
Tavi I Sesavali 1. religia religiis gansazRvreba religiis elementebi religiaTa klasifikacia religiaTa klasifikaciis veberis sistema religiuri organizaciis formebi 2. religiuri uflebebi _ istoriuli mimoxilva adreuli eklesia eklesia da saxelmwifo bunebiTi uflebebis idea religiuri uflebebis aRmoceneba 3. adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia adamianis religiuri uflebebi da adreuli religiuri moZRvrebani adamianis religiuri uflebebi da religiis buneba adamianis religiuri uflebebi da adamianis Rirseba adamianis religiuri uflebebi da saero saxelmwifo religiis Tavisufleba da adamianis sxva uflebebi adamianis religiuri uflebebi da saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba

19 21 21 22 22 24 24 27 29 30 32 34 41 42 46 48 51 55 56

4. religiis Tavisuflebis perspeqtivebi religiis Tavisuflebis teqtonika religiis Tavisuflebis lokiseuli revolucia religiis Tavisuflebis analizis pirobiTi modeli religiis Tavisufleba da saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvna 5. SeniSvnebi

60 61 64 67 69 75

Tavi II religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvenciis safuZvelze 1. Sesavali religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb evropis konvenciis ZiriTadi debulebebis mimoxilva adamianis uflebebis evropuli sasamarTlo da komisia evropuli komisiis procedura evropuli sasamarTlos procedura evropuli komisiis gauqmeba da sxva cvlilebebi me-11 oqmis safuZvelze saCivris dasaSveboba saproceso uflebamosileba eklesiebi da sxva religiuri organizaciebi iuridiuli pirebi 2. religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvreba konvenciis me-9 muxli evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis praqtika zogadi liberaluri midgoma politikuri da filosofiuri mrwamsi individualizebuli religia da rwmena alternatiuli midgomebi religiisa da rwmenis definiciebis mimarT saerTaSoriso samarTali Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTloebi 3. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, rogorc pozitiuri ufleba

79 81 82 84 84 85 85 86 87 87 88 91 91 93 93 94 95 96 97 98 102 102 104

10

negatiuri valdebuleba piradi sferos upiratesi xasiaTi Forum internum-isa da forum externum-is gamijvna saxelmwifos Careva forum internum-Si saxelmwifo eklesia finansuri garigebebi saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris kontroli saeklesio personalze religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba da forum internum ganaTlebaSi skolis uflebamosilebis farglebi skolis diskreciuli uflebamosilebis SezRudva evropuli sasamarTlos bolodroindeli gadawyvetilebebi religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisufleba 4. religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis ufleba individualuri an jgufuri da sajaro an kerZo gamoxatva RvTismsaxureba, swavleba, ritualebis Sesruleba da wes-Cveulebebis dacva gamoxatvis saxeebis eqskluziuri Tu inkluziuri buneba RvTismsaxureba da ritualebis Sesruleba swavleba wes-Cveulebebis dacva erousmitis saqme: gamoxatvis aucileblobis testi faqtobrivi mimoxilva komisiis gadawyvetileba gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi erousmitis saqmeSi erousmitis testi testis buneba erousmitis testis gamoyeneba testis gamoyeneba `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ farglebs gareT erousmitis testis analizi evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis meTodologia aucileblobis gansazRvrisas aucileblobis mtkicebuleba upiratesoba erousmitis testis safuZvelze alternatiuli midgomebi gamoxatvis saxeebis mimarT gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis dokumentebi religiuri uflebebis nebayoflobiTi daTmoba

106 106 108 109 112 113 115 118 119 121 121 124 130 130 132 132 133 134 136 137 137 137 138 140 140 140 141 143 143 144 144 145 147 147

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nebayoflobiTi modeli saxelmwifo eklesiis farglebSi nebayoflobiTi modeli sxva konteqstebSi 5. religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudva evropuli sasamarTlos midgoma me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilisadmi evropuli sasamarTlos uari me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis ganxilvaze saqmeebi, romlebzec sasamarTlom me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRveva daadgina evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis zogadi midgoma SemzRudveli pirobebis mimarT kanoniT gansazRvruli SezRudvebi evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis zogadi midgoma kanoniT gansazRvruli SezRudvebi da konvenciis me-9 muxli SezRudvis aucilebloba demokratiul sazogadoebaSi saxelmwifos roli aucileblobis gansazRvraSi da misi diskrecia diskreciuli uflebamosileba me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi proporciulobis principi legitimuri mizani religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvis safuZvlebi sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvis aucilebloba janmrTelobis dacvis aucilebloba moralis dacvis aucilebloba sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis aucilebloba gamoxatvis SezRudva omisa da sagangebo mdgomareobis dros 6. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT tradiciuli midgoma diskriminaciis saqmeebSi alternatiuli midgoma keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi da erousmitis testi gansxvavebuli midgoma zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT precedentuli samarTlis winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTi zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis analizi midgoma me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze

148 149 152 153 153 154 155 156 156 157 159 159 160 161 163 165 165 168 171 172 175 178 180 182 184 187 187 190 191 191

keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis aRiareba saerTaSoriso samarTalSi 183 zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi precedentul samarTalSi186

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religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis minimaluri SezRudva, rogorc saxelmwifos valdebuleba socialuri anarqiis argumenti me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Sesustebis argumenti religiuri umciresobebis interesebis gaTvaliswineba 7. daskvna evropuli sasamarTlos praqtikasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobis araRiareba Seusabamoba da sicxadis nakleboba mtkicebuleba da obieqturoba saxelmwifo interesebis pativiscema religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis rekonceptualizacia me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili me-9 muxlis meore nawili sasamarTlo tendenciebi 8. SeniSvnebi

193 195 198 199 202 202 203 204 205 206 206 206 208 209 211

Tavi III religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba aSS-s konstituciis safuZvelze 1. Sesavali

235 237

2. konstituciis pirveli Sesworeba da sxva samarTlebrivi debulebebi 240 religiuri testis klauzula pirveli Sesworeba pirveli Sesworebis inkorporacia sxva debulebebi 3. religiuri klauzulebis interpretacia gansxvavebuli midgomebi religiuri klauzulebis interpretaciisadmi religiuri klauzulebis fuZemdebluri principebi 4. aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebisa da dawesebis klauzulebis standartebis mimoxilva aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis standartebi dawesebis klauzulis standartebi lemonis testi upiratesobis miniWebis dauSvebloba aramxardaWera 240 240 241 242 243 243 245 252 252 254 254 255 256

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araiZuleba neitraloba 5. eklesiebsa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobebis mokle istoria aSS-Si gansxvavebuli koloniuri sistemebi: dawesebuli eklesiebi religiis Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg damfuZnebeli Taoba: religiis Tavisuflebis ganmtkiceba Statebis konstituciaTa doneze, religiuri gadasaxadis gauqmeba da pirveli Sesworebis miReba me-19 saukune: protestantuli qristianobis de facto daweseba da konstituciis me-14 Sesworebis miReba religiuri pluralizmi, saxelmwifosa da eklesiebs Soris Tanamedrove urTierTobebi 6. religiuri valdebulebebi kardakar qadageba da religiuri literaturis gavrceleba

256 256 258 258

260 265 268 272 272

qenTveli koneqtikutis Statis winaaRmdeg merdoki pensilvaniis Statis winaaRmdeg jimi svogartis sazogadoeba kaliforniis Statis Tanasworobis dacvis sabWos winaaRmdeg
qadageba sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi

274 278 282
284

hefroni kriSnas saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis winaaRmdeg
kerpis Tayvaniscema

286
288

minersvilis ganaTlebis sabWo gobitisis winaaRmdeg dasavleT virjiniis ganaTlebis sabWo barnetis winaaRmdeg
uari mkvlelobaze, omis mxardaWerasa da masSi monawileobaze

289 292
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SeerTebuli Statebi zigeris winaaRmdeg uelSi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg negri larsenis winaaRmdeg tomasi sameTvalyureo sabWos winaaRmdeg
SabaTis wesis aRsruleba

298 302 305 307
308

Serberti verneris winaaRmdeg
religiis gamoxatva samuSao adgilze

308
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dasaqmebis Tanabari SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofis komisia Tounlis sainJinro-samrewvelo kompaniis winaaRmdeg

313

`ukanaskneli dRis wmindanebis~ ieso qristes eklesiis arqiepiskoposis sazogadoeba da sxvebi amosisa da sxvebis winaaRmdeg; SeerTebuli Statebi amosisa da sxvebis winaaRmdeg 315
bavSvTa ganaTleba 319

viskonsinis Stati ioderis winaaRmdeg

320

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religiuri samosis tareba

325

goldmani uainbergeris winaaRmdeg
religiuri rituali cixeSi

325
328

o’lone `Sabazis sakuTrebis~ winaaRmdeg
peiotis moxmareba

329
333

dasaqmebis samsaxuri smitis winaaRmdeg
wminda miwisa da wminda adgilebis dacva

333
341

lingi Crdilo-dasavlel indielTa sasaflaos dacvis asociaciis winaaRmdeg qalaqi borni floresis winaaRmdeg
cxovelTa msxverplad Sewirva

343 350
356

lukumi babalu eis eklesia floridis Statis qalaq haialeas winaaRmdeg
religiuri sazogadoebis wevrobis uflebis dacva ucxoTa da CagrulTa daxmareba mkurnaloba locviTa da rwmeniT 7. rwmena da rwmenis organizacia rwmenis gamoZieba

357
360 363 364 366 366

SeerTebuli Statebi balardis winaaRmdeg saientologiis fuZemdebeli eklesia SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg torkaso votkinsis winaaRmdeg
eklesiis statusis gansazRvra

367 370 372
372

iglsi samuelsis winaaRmdeg koqsi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg SeerTebuli Statebi munis winaaRmdeg
ufleba saeklesio sakuTrebaze

373 374 375
377

kedrofi CrdiloeT amerikis ruseTis marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wminda nikolozis sakaTedro taZris winaaRmdeg

378

presbiterianuli eklesia SeerTebul StatebSi meri elizabet blus memorialuri presbiterianuli eklesiis winaaRmdeg 379 uflis eklesiaTa merilendisa da virjiniis uxucesTa sabWo Sarpsburgis uflis eklesiis winaaRmdeg SeerTebuli Statebisa da kanadis serbuli marTlmadidebeli eparqia milivoeviCis winaaRmdeg jonsi volfis winaaRmdeg
8. ganaTleba dawyebiTi da saSualo religiuri skolebi

381 383 385
392 392

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eversoni euingis olqis ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg lemoni kurcmanis winaaRmdeg; erli di Cenzos winaaRmdeg; robinsoni di Cenzos winaaRmdeg miuleri alenis winaaRmdeg grend rapidis saskolo olqi bolis winaaRmdeg agilari feltonis winaaRmdeg reiCel agostini da sxvebi beti-luiz feltonisa da sxvebis winaaRmdeg; qalaq niu-iorkis ganaTlebis sabWos kancleri da sxvebi beti-luiz feltonisa da sxvebis winaaRmdeg gai miTCeli meri l. helmsis winaaRmdeg
sajaro skolebi religiuri swavlebisaTvis gamoyofili dro

392 394 398 400 401

404 408
411 411

makkolumi ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg zoraxi klausonis winaaRmdeg
locva da bibliis kiTxva skolebSi

411 414
416

enjeli vitales winaaRmdeg abingtonis saskolo olqi Sempis winaaRmdeg; miurlei karletis winaaRmdeg
aTi mcnebis gamokvra skolis SenobebSi

416 418
422

stouni grehemis winaaRmdeg
locvisTvis gankuTvnili dro

422
423

uolasi jefris winaaRmdeg
moswavleebis mier inicirebuli da maT mier Catarebuli locva

424
426

vestsaidis sazogadoebis skolebis ganaTlebis sabWo mergensis winaaRmdeg
locva gamosaSveb saRamoebsa da sportul Sejibrebebze

426
430

li vaismanis winaaRmdeg santa-fes damoukidebeli saskolo olqi jein dous winaaRmdeg
mecniereba da religia saswavlo kurikulumSi

431 437
440

epersoni arkanzasis Statis winaaRmdeg edvardsi agilaris winaaRmdeg
skolis sakuTrebis gamoyeneba religiaze sasaubrod umaRlesi ganaTleba instituciuri xelSewyoba da studentebis mxardaWera

442 443
449 450 450

tiltoni riCardsonis winaaRmdeg
Tanabari xelmisawvdomoba

451
454

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vidmari vinsentis winaaRmdeg rozenbergeri virjiniis universitetis winaaRmdeg
gadasaxadebisagan gaTavisufleba

455 457
462

bob jonsis universiteti SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg; goldsboros qristianuli skolebi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg 463
9. ormagi efeqti religiuri Sekrebebi sazogadoebriv parkebSi 466 466

fouleri rod ailendis Statis winaaRmdeg
kvira dRes vaWrobis akrZalva

466
468

makgoveni merilendis Statis winaaRmdeg
religiuri sakuTrebis gaTavisufleba gadasaxadebisagan

468
469

volci niu-iork sitis sagadasaxado komisiis winaaRmdeg
religiuri literaturis gavrcelebis dabegvra

469
474

jimi svogarti kaliforniis Statis marTvis sabWos winaaRmdeg
kapelanis samsaxuri

474
477

marSi Cembersis winaaRmdeg ketkofi marSis winaaRmdeg
religiuri simboloebis ganTavseba saxelmwifo sakuTrebaze

477 480
483

linCi donelis winaaRmdeg alegenis olqi amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis pitsburgis filialis winaaRmdeg; `Cabadi~ amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis pitsburgis filialis winaaRmdeg; qalaqi pitsburgi amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis pitsburgis filialis winaaRmdeg
religiuri organizaciebis monawileoba saxelmwifo socialur programebSi boueni kendrikis winaaRmdeg 10. politikuri monawileoba eklesiaTa uflebebi eklesiebisa da sasuliero pirebis mier saxelmwifo uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba

483

487
491 491 495 495 496

makdanieli petis winaaRmdeg
moZraoba samoqalaqo uflebebisaTvis abortis mxardamWeri da mowinaaRmdege moZraobebi

497
501 503

harisi makreis winaaRmdeg daba forjis qristianuli koleji eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciisaTvis gaerTianebuli amerikelebis winaaRmdeg abortis uflebis mxardamWerTa moZraoba reganis winaaRmdeg

506 507 507

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11. seqsualuri morali poligamia

510 510

klivlendi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg
qorwineba

510
511

lovingi virjiniis Statis winaaRmdeg
sodomia

511
513

bouersi hardvikis winaaRmdeg romeri evansis winaaRmdeg
12. SeniSvnebi danarTi: terminTa ganmarteba

513 516
518 529

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Sesavali

pirveli Tavi

19

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religia
religia xSirad amboben, rom stumrad yofnisas Tavi unda avaridoT politikaze, seqssa da religiaze saubars. ratom iqceva religia yovelTvis gaafTrebuli davis sagnad? maTTvis, vinc mas eziareba, sakiTxi Rrmad piradul xasiaTs iZens — adamianebi wyveten, risi unda swamdeT (Tuki saerTod apireben, risime swamdeT), maT aRaSfoTebT nebismieri eWvi maTi arCevanis marTebulobaze. adamianis sicocxlisaTvis azris micema religiis erTerT umTavres funqcias warmoadgens. eWvqveS daayeneT religiuri rwmena da Tqven mtkivneulad SeexebiT yvelaze idumal azrebs samyaroSi adamianis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb. religiis gansazRvreba ra igulisxmeba sityvaSi `religia?~ sociologi gerhard lenski religias gansazRvravs, rogorc `sistemas rwmenaTa Zalebisa, romlebic, saboloo jamSi, marTaven adamianis beds, da masTan dakavSirebuli ritualebisa, romlebic gamoiyeneba gansazRvruli jgufis wevri adamianebis mier.~ Tumca es gansazRvreba Zalze farToa; igi moicavs rwmenaTa sxva tipis sistemebsac, rogoricaa komunizmi, socializmi da humanizmi. miuxedavad imisa, rom rwmenaTa es sistemebi umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs adamianTa cxovrebaSi, isini naklebad Seesabameba Cveulebriv warmodgenebs religiaze. sxva sociologis, ronald jonstounis gansazRvreba ufro misaRebi Cans: `religia ewodeba rwmenaTa da ritualTa sistemas, romelTa meSveobiT adamianTa jgufi xsnis da reagirebs imaze, rasac zebunebrivad da sakralurad miiCnevs~.

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religiis elementebi jonstounis mier CamoTvlilia xuTi ZiriTadi elementi, romelic gvexmareba gavarkvioT, warmoadgens Tu ara religias rwmenaTa esa Tu is sistema. upirveles yovlisa, ra Tqma unda, religia gulisxmobs morwmuneTa jgufis arsebobas. Tumca is, SesaZloa, dakavSirebuli iyos Rrmad piradul gancdebTanac. jonstounis aseTi warmodgenac axsnadia, vinaidan sociologiis interesis sagans Seadgens religiuri jgufebi da is, riTac isini sxva socialuri jgufebisgan gansxvavdebian. meore — religia asocirebulia warmodgenebTan, romlebic sakralurad iTvleba. igi zRvars avlebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebis sagnebsa da uCveulo movlenebs, saswaulebs, Soris (magaliTad, locvis gziT adamianis gadarCena an iesos mier wylis Rvinod qceva). aseTi movlenebi miiCneva sakralurad, vinaidan iTvleba, rom isini dakavSirebulia raRac zebunebrivTan, iseT ZalasTan an arsebasTan, romlis SesaZleblobebi ar aris SezRuduli bunebis kanonebiT. sxvadasxva religiaSi arsebobs gansxvavebuli sakraluri sagnebi da movlenebi. amerikelebis umravlesobisaTvis Zroxas yoveldRiuri samomxmareblo mniSvneloba aqvs, indusebi ki mas wminda arsebad miiCneven. mesame elementis mixedviT, religia gulisxmobs rwmenaTa gansazRvrul erTobliobas — sarwmunoebas. es rwmenebi xsnis adamianur bunebas, garemomcvel garemosa da zebunebriv Zalebs, romlebic sakralurad iTvleba. magaliTad, nixirenis seqtis wevr budists swams, rom adamianTa sulebs SeuZliaT srulyofilebas miaRwion uwyvet gardasaxvaTa gziT, amitom msoflmxedvelobaTa mis sistemaSi xoWos aranaklebi mniSvneloba eniWeba, vidre qveynis prezidents. meoTxe — religia moicavs ritualebisa Tu sxva tipis qmedebebis gansakuTrebul erTobliobas. ritualebs jonstouni ganmartavs rogorc qcevaTa saxeobas wminda da zebunebriv ZalTa mimarT (magaliTad, eklesiasTan axlos gavlisas kaTolike qristiani pirjvars iwers da locvas warmoTqvams). diurheimma ki ritualebi gansazRvra Rirebulebebad, romlebic adamianebs udgenen qcevis wesebs sakraluri sagnebis maxloblad yofnisas. Tavad ritualebi Tavis TavSi aucileblad ar moicavs religiur azrs, Tumca isini religiur mniSvnelobas iZens, rodesac adamianebi gansazRvrul situaciebSi iyeneben maT sakralur ZalebTan kavSiris gamoxatvis mizniT. magaliTad, yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi wyali gamoiyeneba Sxapis misaRebad Tu wyurvilis dasakmayofileblad, magram naTlobis wesis Sesrulebisas igi sakralur substanciad miiCneva da religiur sazogadoebaSi axali wevris miRebis simbolizebas axdens. dabolos, religia Tavis TavSi moicavs gansazRvrul warmodgenebs cxovrebis marTlzomier wesze. religiaTa umravlesoba morwmuneebs qcevis maregulirebel mcnebaTa Tu normaTa sistemas uwesebs. es normebi adgens, Tu rogor unda moiqces morwmune gansazRvrul garemoebebSi. iseT masobriv da rTul religiebSi, rogoricaa qristianoba, islami an iudaizmi, formulirebulia mkafio moraluri principebi. savaraudod, yvelaze naTel magaliTs warmoadgens mkvlelobis, mruSobisa da a. S. amkrZalavi aTi bibliuri mcneba. religiaTa klasifikacia arsebobs mravali Teoria, Tu rogor unda moxdes religiaTa klasificireba; Se-

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iZleba Tu ara qristianobisa da hare kriSnas moZRvrebis daxasiaTebisas identuri terminebis gamoyeneba? saukeTeso gamosavals am SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens religiaTa klasificireba maTi mimdevrebis mier miniWebuli saxelwodebebis Sesabamisad: protestantuli, marTlmadidebeli, kaTolikuri, iudaisturi, muslimuri da a. S. Tumca sociologiaSi miRebulia aseve religiaTa klasificirebis sistema primitiulidan Tanamedrove moZRvrebebamde evoluciis mixedviT. es sistema me-19 saukunis bolos Camoyalibda. meoce saukunis dasawyisSi igi mkacrad iqna gakritikebuli, sociologiaSi ki aRiareba moipova robert belaxis mier warmodgenilma axalma Teoriam. belaxma warsulisa da Tanamedrove religiaTa klasificirebaSi gamoyo xuTi kategoria: 1) primitiuli: magaliTad, avstraliuri; simboloTa sistema — adamianTa da saganTa sagvareulo miTuri gamosaxva; religiuri qceva — identifikacia, sagvareulo gamosaxulebebze istoriaTa `kvlavwarmoeba~; religiis organizacia — eklesiis ararseboba, religiisa da sazogadoebis erTianoba; socialuri mniSvneloba — socialuri solidarobis ganmtkiceba. 2) arqauli: magaliTad, polineziuri da afrikuli; simboloTa sistema — Zlevamosili miTuri arsebebi (RmerTebis msgavsi); religiuri qceva — Tayvaniscema da msxverplSewirva; religiis organizacia — gansxvavebuli kultebi; socialuri mniSvneloba — socialuri konformizmis moTxovna. 3) istoriuli: magaliTad, Zvelebrauli; simboloTa sistema — kavSiris gawyveta bunebrivsa da zebunebrivs Soris; religiuri qceva — sulis xsna keTili saqmeebis safuZvelze, Tavisufali nebis koncefcia; religiis organizacia — eklesiebi: religiuri organizaciebis gamoyofa sazogadoebis sxva aspeqtebisgan; socialuri mniSvneloba — daZabuloba religiasa da sazogadoebas Soris. 4) adreuli modernistuli: magaliTad, reformaciis epoqis protestantizmi; simboloTa sistema — pirdapiri kavSiri zebunebriv Zalasa da individs Soris; religiuri qceva — mTlianad moicavs cxovrebas, rwmenis koncefcia; religiis organizacia — nebayoflobiTi wevroba religiur erTobaSi; socialuri mniSvneloba — Zireuli cvlileba socialur sistemebSi. 5) modernistuli: magaliTad, Tanamedrove religiebi; simboloTa sistema — pirovneba da misi valdebuleba; religiuri qceva — pirovnuli eTikuri principebis Zieba; religiis organizacia — garkveulwilad eklesiis wevroba, Tumca umTavresad piradi pasuxismgebloba; socialuri mniSvneloba — sazogadoebis kulturisa da pirovnuli Rirebulebebis SesaZlo mudmivi srulyofa. es kategoriebi ar aris dakavSirebuli `progresTan~. belaxi ar miiCnevda, rom rTuli religiebi ufro srulyofilia, vidre primitiuli. kategoriebi ubralod aRweren religiis martivi formebidan gadasvlas ufro rTulze. isini ar iTvaliswineben TiToeuli religiis TviTmyofadobas; aucilebeli ar aris, TiToeulma maTganma ganviTarebis erTnairi etapebi gaiaros; calkeul religiebs SeiZleba hqondeT niSnebi, romlebic ori an meti stadiisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. garda amisa, martiv moZRvrebaTa safuZvelze yovelTvis ar xdeba ufro rTulis formireba; zogjer SeiniSneba dabruneba ufro adreul stadiebSi an ganviTarebis sruli ararseboba.

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religiaTa klasifikaciis veberis sistema maqs veberi religiaTa klasificirebas sulis xsnisadmi maTi midgomis safuZvelze axdenda: ra saxis qceva uzrunvelyofs samudamo netarebas sikvdilis Semdgom? ra qmedeba wiravs adamians jojoxeTSi moxvedris an miviwyebisaTvis? veberma sulis xsnasTan dakavSirebuli Sexedulebebis analizisas or ZiriTad momentze gaamaxvila yuradReba: 1. moiTxovs Tu ara sulis xsna pasiur ganWvretas (misticizms) Tu adamianis mier Tavisi nebis aqtiur marTvas (asketizms); 2. sulis xsna xorcieldeba amqveyniur Tu romelime sxva samyaroSi (adamianis Sinagan samyaroSi Tu mis miRma, zeciur sasufevelSi). aRmosavlur religiaTa umravlesobis Tanaxmad, sulis xsna misticizmis safuZvelze xdeba — induistebi ewevian meditacias an iogas, xolo budistebi sulis gasxivosnebisken miiswrafvian. dasavlur religiebSi ZiriTadi mniSvneloba asketizms eniWeba, romelic moiTxovs TviTSewirvasa da TviTdisciplinas uzenaesi idealis misaRwevad. rodesac muslimebi uars amboben sayvarel sakvebze da ar ewevian yoveldRiur saqmianobas ramadanis dResaswaulis dros, isini asketizms avlenen. sulis xsnis mimarT aRniSnuli midgomebis niadagze SesaZlebelia msoflios ZiriTad religiaTa klasificireba gamartivebuli wesiT. mxedvelobaSi miiReba gansxvavebebi, erTi mxriv, am da mis miRma arsebul samyaroebs, xolo meore mxriv — misticizmsa da asketizms Soris. aseTi klasifikaciiT konfucianizmi, induizmi, iudaizmi da kaTolicizmi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba imdenad, ramdenadac xsenebuli gansakuTrebuli niSnebi dominirebs maT moZRvrebebSi. konfucis swavleba sulis xsnas gvTavazobs amqveyniur samyaroSi. es mistikuri moZRvreba Tavis mimdevrebs mouwodebs garemomcveli samyaros ganWvretisa da masTan harmoniis miRwevisken. induizmi aseve Seicavs mowodebas ganWvretisken, Tumca masSi mTavaria imqveyniur samyaroSi sulebis gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb rwmena. iudaizmSi xazgasmulia aqtiuri qmedebebis, mkacri ritualis mniSvneloba. saboloo sazRauri gaicema am samyaroSi RvTis wyalobis an risxvis Sedegad. dabolos, adreuli qristianebi umTavresad miiCneven saiqio cxovrebas; qristes mkvdreTiT aRdgoma saiqio cxovrebis gansaxierebas warmoadgens; TviTSewirvisken es mowodeba Semosilia asketizmis suliT. religiuri organizaciis formebi arsebobs religiuri organizaciis oTxi ZiriTadi tipi: eklesia, seqta, denominacia da kulti. germaneli RvTismetyveli, ernst trelCi eklesias gansazRvravs rogorc religiur organizacias, romelic mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli sazogadoebis farTo masebTan da mis wiaRSi moqmedebs. praqtikulad, sazogadoebis yvela wevri avlens religiur erTgulebas eklesiisadmi, romelic, Cveulebriv, saxelmwifosTanaa dakavSirebuli. anglikanuri eklesia saxelmwifo eklesiad iTvleba inglisSi. mefe da dedofali Tavs `rwmenis damcvelebad~ acxadeben. istoriulad kaTolicizmi safrangeTsa da italiaSi saxelmwifo religias warmoadgenda, Tumca, saboloo jamSi, orive qveyana eklesiisgan gamijnul saxelmwifod iqca.

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trelCis Tanaxmad, seqta ewodeba organizacias, romelic uaryofs danarCeni sazogadoebis Rirebulebebs da konfliqtSia mis kulturasa da tradiciebTan. rogorc wesi, seqtebi warmoiqmneba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac eklesiis warmomadgenelTa mcire jgufi ukmayofiloa tradiciuli ritualebiT, amitom Sordeba mas da qmnis axal religias. vinaidan amgvari jgufi Tavis Tavs upirispirebs sazogadoebas, sadac eklesiaa gabatonebuli, seqtis wevrebi xSirad ar monawileoben mis cxovrebaSi. magaliTad amiSebi TavianTi Svilebis saojaxo ganaTlebas aniWeben upiratesobas imis SiSiT, rom saxelmwifo saganmanaTleblo sistema Selaxavs maTi rwmenis siwmindes. analogiurad, rodesac `qristianuli mecnierebis~ swavlebis mimdevrebi simsivnis mkurnalobisas uars amboben dasxivebaze da ewirebian daavadebas, romlis gankurneba SesaZlebeli iyo, isini mxolod TavianTi seqtis miTiTebebs asruleben, romelTa mixedviTac, RmerTis Rrma rwmena nebismier daavadebas gankurnavs. denominacia, religiuri organizaciis mesame forma, warmoadgens Suamaval rgols eklesiasa da seqtas Soris. denominaciebis saqmianobis arsebiT niSnad SeiZleba CaiTvalos aqtiuri misioneruli moRvaweoba. isini konkurireben erTmaneTTan da eklesiasTan rac SeiZleba meti wevris mizidvis mizniT. seqtebsa da sazogadoebas Soris urTierTobebi iZabeba, maSin, rodesac denominaciebi, imis miuxedavad, rom ar warmoadgenen saxelmwifo religiebs, normalur urTierTobas inarCuneben sazogadoebasTan, radgan ar uaryofen masSi damkvidrebul tradiciul normebs. protestantul denominaciebs miekuTvnebian baptistebi, presbiterianelebi, episkopaluri eklesiis wevrebi, meTodistebi, kongregacionistebi da sxva mravali. zogjer denominaciebis formireba seqtebis niadagze xdeba. martin luTeri aujanyda kaTolicizms 1517 wels, roca adgilobriv eklesiaSi Tavisi axali moZRvrebis 95 Tezisi Camoayaliba. dResdReobiT luTeranoba oficialuri religiaa skandinaviuri qveynebis umravlesobaSi da amerikaSi protestantuli eklesiis mravali denominaciidan erT-erTs warmoadgens. aseTi evolucia xorcieldeba ramdenime faqtoris zegavleniT. pirvel rigSi, garkveuli drois gasvlasTan erTad adamianTa jgufSi yalibdeba gansazRvruli ritualebi da wesebi. meore, liderebis Tanmimdevruli cvlilebis uzrunvelyofisaTvis seqtam unda Seqmnas Tavisi sulieri arsis, miznebisa da amocanebis SenarCunebis sistema. es procesi aseve xels uwyobs ufro mkafio normebisa da ritualebis Camoyalibebas. mesame, zrdasTan erTad seqtam unda daafinansos Tavisi saqmianoba wevrebis Semowirulobebisa da saqvelmoqmedo bazrebis xarjze. es faqtorebi xels uwyobs zogierTi seqtis gadaqcevas denominaciad, sadac yalibdeba biurokratiuli wesrigi da ufro farTo urTierToba sazogadoebasTan. zogierTi seqta iSleba, maTi gansazRvruli nawili ki (amiSebisa da kvakerebis saxiT) ar amJRavnebs denominaciad gadaqcevis survils. religiuri organizaciis meoTxe formaa kulti. es aris seqtis yvelaze radikaluri forma. sawyis etapze igi emijneba saxelmwifo eklesias specifikuri religiuri ritualebis garSemo warmoqmnili uTanxmoebis Sedegad. kultebi TavianT mimdevrebs individis, sazogadoebis an orives radikaluri Secvlisaken mouwodebs. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi iseTi kultebi, rogorebicaa `unifikaciis eklesia~ (munistebi), `qristianuli mecniereba~ da `RvTaebrivi ganaTlebis misia~ Tavdasxmis obieqtebad iqca axali wevrebis mozidvisa da SenarCunebisaTvis arazneobrivi meTodebis gamoyenebis gamo. religiis TavisuflebaSi mtkiced darwmunebuli

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bevri adamiani amtkicebs, rom kulti srulebiT ar warmoadgens religias da mxolod yalbi `mesiisaTvis~ saxelis moxveWas isaxavs miznad zedmetad mimndobi da cxovrebiT ukmayofilo adamianebis motyuebis gziT. bolo wlebSi sakmaod gaxSirda kultis mimdevarTa mSoblebis mier `sulier moZRvarTa~ daqiravebis praqtika TavianT Svilebze kultis zegavlenis SewyvetisaTvis. Tavis mxriv, kultis liderebma da mimdevrebma aRZres mravali saqme mSoblebisa Tu sulier moZRvarTa winaaRmdeg, imis mtkicebiT, rom isini aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas xelyofdnen.1

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religiuri uflebebi _ istoriuli mimoxilva
meore msoflio omis Semdgom wlebSi religiis Tavisufleba adamianis uflebebis nawilad iqna gacxadebuli gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis mraval dokumentSi da TiTqmis yvela ZiriTadma qristianulma eklesiam am idealis mxardaWera gamoxata. bunebrivia, yovelTvis aseTi viTareba ar yofila. aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi kacobriobis istoria religiuri SeuwynareblobiTa da devniT iyo gamorCeuli. dasavluri gamocdileba, romelsac wignis am nawilSi SevexebiT, garkveulwilad paradigmatulia, radganac bunebiTi uflebebis (adamianis uflebebis) doqtrina Tavdapirvelad swored qristianul dasavleTSi aRmocenda. ra Tqma unda, msoflios yvela did religiur kulturaSi gamoxatulia adamianebis cxovrebaSi samarTliani wesrigis idealebi, magram ara subieqturi bunebiTi uflebebis saxiT. TviT dasavleTSic religiuri uflebebi Zalze gvian da mtkivneuli gzis gavlis Sedegad aRmocenda im tradiciidan, romelic gacilebiT iolad aRiarebda sxva tipis uflebebs. dResdReobiT ki Zalze banalurad JRers ioane pavle I I -is bolodroindeli gancxadeba imis Sesaxeb, rom religiuri uflebebi sxva yvela uflebis `qvakuTxeds~ warmoadgens. Tumca, Tu istorias gadavavlebT Tvals, religiuri uflebebi yvelaze gvian Camoyalibda; religiis Tavisufleba yvelaze rTuli warmosadgeni da, miT umetes, cxovrebaSi yvelaze rTulad gasatarebeli faseuloba aRmoCnda. kaTolikuri eklesia ukanaskneli qristianuli aRmsarebloba iyo, romelmac religiis Tavisuflebis principi aRiara. 1965 wels gamoqveynda vatikanis religiis Tavisuflebis deklaracia, romlis Tanaxmadac: vatikanis I I msoflio kreba acxadebs, rom adamians aqvs ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze. aRniSnuli Tavisufleba gulisxmobs, rom yvela

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adamiani Tavisufalia individebis, socialuri jgufebis an sxva nebismieri adamianuri Zalis mxridan iZulebisagan ... religiis Tavisuflebis safuZveli adamianis pirovnebis RirsebaSia, radganac es Rirseba uflis gacxadebuli sityvis Tanaxmadaa cnobili. deklaraciis es nawili, yovlismomcvelad Seexeba iZulebas ara marto saxelmwifos, aramed `nebismieri adamianuri Zalis~ mxridan. igi religiis Tavisuflebas gansazRvravs rogorc `uflebas~, romelic damaxasiaTebelia adamianis pirovnebisaTvis da, Sesabamisad, bunebiT, anu adamianis uflebas warmoadgens. vatikanis deklaraciiT, adamianuri sawyisis mqone es bunebiTi ufleba, rogorc qristianuli mrwamsisaTvis mniSvnelovani movlena, dakavSirebuli iqna saRvTo gamocxadebasTan. deklaracia aseve Seicavda erTgvar miniSnebas, rom masSi gamoxatuli mtkicebani warmoadgenda religiuri represiis im politikis radikalur uaryofas, rasac kaTolikuri eklesia saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi axorcielebda. miniSneba SeiZleba danaxuli iqnes deklaraciaSi warmodgenil winadadebaSi, rom adamianuri Rirseba `mxolod mravalsaukuneobriv gamocdilebaTa Sedegad iqna ukeT gaazrebuli da Secnobili~. am daskvnis utyuarobas adasturebs lateranis IV saeklesio krebis mier 1215 wels gamoqveynebuli dekreti,2 sadac vkiTxulobT: Cven eklesiidan ganvkveTT da anaTemas gadavcemT mwvaleblobis yovel gamovlinebas, romelic wminda, orTodoqsuli da kaTolikuri mrwamsis winaaRmdeg gailaSqrebs ... saero xelisuflebmac, Tu surT, rom morwmuneTa Soris iqnen ganxilulni, unda dadon fici, rom keTilsindisierad ibrZoleben da yvelafers iRoneben, rac ZaluZT, eklesiis mier miTiTebuli eretikosebis gasanadgureblad. sainteresoa, rogor mivida dasavluri samyaro eretikosTa, anu mwvalebelTa, represiidan religiis Tavisuflebis deklarirebamde. am ori radikalurad gansxvavebuli teqstis winaSe mdgomi skeptikosi ganacxadebda, rom religia erTs niSnavda 1215 wels da meores _ 1965 wels. ufro keTilganwyobil mimomxilvels SeeZlo aReniSna, rom eklesiam moaxdina swavlebaTa modificireba droTa ganmavlobaSi, magram mxolod imitom, rom `saukuneobrivma gamocdilebam~, rogorc vatikanis krebam aRniSna, gamoiwvia eklesiis fuZemdeblis mier gacxadebul WeSmaritebaTa axleburad da gacilebiT Rrmad gaazreba. Jak maritenis mtkicebiT, adamianis uflebebze saubrisas xdeba maTi ukeT gaazreba, vinaidan `ganviTarda adamianis moraluri Segneba~.3 droTa ganmavlobaSi cnobierebis amaRleba ar aris mxolod Tanamedrove istorizmze dafuZnebuli novatoruli koncefcia. me-13 saukuneSi franciskanelma Teologma pietro olivam miuTiTa `uflis wminda eklesiaSi — droTa ganmavlobaSi ufro da ufro metad — mrwamsis uzenaes WeSmaritebaTa axleburad gaazrebis~ aucileblobaze, olivas maswavlebelma, wmindanad Seracxulma bonaventurem ki bibliaSi WeSmaritebis `marcvlebis~ Sesaxeb, romlebic nel-nela momwifda adamianTa SegnebaSi, aRniSna, rom `ar SeiZleba biblia da misi saidumloebani iqnes gagebuli manam, sanam istoriis mimdinareobis gaazreba ar moxdeba~. aseTi avtorebi amtkicebdnen, RvTis wyaloba ki ar icvleba, aramed bibliis gaazrebaa damokidebuli saukuneebzeo. SeiZleba mxolod imis damateba, rom xSirad gaazreba SeiZleba miRweul iqnes mxolod specifikur, umetesad sastik istoriul gamocdilebaTa sakuTar Tavze gadataniT. es gansakuTrebiT marTldeba, rodesac religiuri uflebebis sakiTxs vexebiT.

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adreuli eklesia qristianobis dasawyisidanve mis tradiciaSi arsebobda elementebi, romlebsac SeeZlo miveyvaneT rogorc religiis Tavisuflebis doqtrinamde, ise devnis praqtikamde. ieso, Tavis mxriv, sayovelTao siyvarulis moZRvrebas qadagebda: `xolo me geubnebiT Tqven, giyvardeT Tqveni mterni; daloceT Tqveni mawyevarni; keTili uyaviT Tqvens moZuleT da iloceT Tqvensav mdevnelTa da SeuracxmyofelTaTvis~.4 iesom uaryo iZulebaze dafuZnebuli politikuri mesiis roli, rodesac ganacxada: `Cemi meufeba ar aris amqveyniuri~.5 da man axali tipis Tavisufleba SesTavaza Tavis mimdevrebs: `da SeicnobT WeSmaritebas da WeSmariteba gagaTavisuflebT~.6 savaraudod, sulieri Tavisuflebis ideali yovelTvis aSkara iyo adamianis pirovnebis, rogorc sindisiT, inteleqtiTa da Tavisufali nebiT dajildoebuli moralurad avtonomiuri individis iudaur-qristianul gaazrebaSi. Tumca, aseve, yovelTvis arsebobda Seuwynareblobis potenciali adreuli qristianebis upativcemulo damokidebulebaSi sxva religiebis mimarT da maT rwmenaSi, rom mxolod maTTvis iyo cnobili erTaderTi WeSmariti RmerTi, marto isini idgnen xsnis gzaze da yvela, vinc eklesiis gareT imyofeboda, dakarguli iyo bneleTisa da codvis ufskrulSi. amis miuxedavad, adamianis rwmena Tavisi arCevanis marTebulobisa srulebiT ar gulisxmobs, rom man Tavis mrwamsze sxvebi iZulebiT unda gadmoibiros. eklesiis adreul periodSi qristianebi, rogorc wesi, keTilganwyobil damokidebulebas iCendnen religiuri Semwynareblobisadmi, albaT imitom, rom xSirad Tavad xdebodnen devnis msxverplni. viTareba kardinalurad Seicvala mas Semdeg, rac imperatorebma Tavad miiRes qristianuli sarwmunoeba. 313 wels konstantinem gamosca e. w. `milanis ediqti~, riTac Seiwynara qristianuli eklesia da yvela sxva religia `ise, rom nebismier adamians SeeZlo RvTismsaxureba Tavisi survilisamebr~. ufro mogvianebiT imperatorebma SedarebiT mkacri da represiuli damokidebuleba gamoiCines araqristianuli religiebis mimarT, Tumca me-4 saukuneSi qristianobis apologetebma hilarius puatielma da laqtanciusma kvlav daicves religiis Tavisuflebis principi. ukve saukunis bolos ki kaTolikuri eklesiis mier wmindanad Seracxulma martin turelma sastikad dagmo episkoposTa jgufi, romelic eretikosebis sikvdiliT dasjis aucileblobaSi arwmunebda imperators. savaraudod, yvelaze mWermetyvelurad religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxi laqtanciusis sityvebSia gamoxatuli: Tavisuflebam religiaSi Casaxleba gadawyvita. araferia imdenad Tavisufali nebis sakiTxi, ramdenadac religia da aravis SeiZleba moeTxovos, rom aRasrulos is RvTismsaxureba, romelic ar surs.7 eklesiis mamebis azrovnebaSi Semobrunebis gadamwyvet wertilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos avgustine avreliusis (354-430) swavleba. 395 wels avgustine CrdiloeT afrikaSi mdebare hiponas episkoposi gaxda, sadac eklesiaSi sastiki ganxeTqileba iyo orTodoqs kaTolikeebsa da donatistebad cnobil disidentTa jgufs Soris. religiuri SuRli xSirad masobriv samoqalaqo areulobaSi gadaizrdeboda xolme. wlebis ganmavlobaSi avgustine amtkicebda, rom mxolod mSvidobiani darwmunebis gza unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli uTanxmoebis mogvarebisaTvis. Tumca, sabolood, man Tavisi megobari episkoposebis mosazreba gaiziara, rom aucilebeli iyo saero xelisuflebisaTvis disidentebis represirebisken mowodeba. naSromebi, romlebic man amgvari politikis dacvas miuZRvna, ewinaaRmdegeboda mis adrindel nawerebs, sadac avgus-

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tine xazs usvamda Tavisuflebas religiur sakiTxebSi. avgustine yovelTvis acxadebda, rom igi eretikosebis gadarCenas cdilobda. `umjobesia, giyvardes sisastikiT, vidre SecdomaSi Sexvide mowyalebiT~ — dawera man. avgustine eretikosTa mimarT iZulebis gamoyenebis dasabuTebisas eyrdnoboda qristes igavs mdidris Sesaxeb, romelic didi dResaswaulisaTvis emzadeboda: rodesac arc erTi dapatiJebuli ar gamoexmaura gagzavnil mowvevebs, batonma Tavis xelqveiTebs sxva stumrebis moyvana daavala. Tumca, rodesac mosamsaxureebma uTxres mas, rom magidasTan kidev iyo darCenili Tavisufali adgilebi, maSin: uTxra batonma monas: gadi gzebsa da SukebSi da ZaliT moreke wveulni, raTa aivsos Cemi saxli.8 avgustinesaTvis ukanaskneli sityvebi gadamwyveti iyo. misi interpretaciiT, stumrebi, romlebmac uari Tqves misvlaze, ebraelebi iyvnen, xolo vinc nebayoflobiT miiRo mowveva, _ araiudevelebi, romlebmac qristianoba miiRes; da isini, vinc iZulebiT miiyvanes, iyvnen eretikosebi, romlebmac datoves eklesia da romelTa iZulebis wesiT dabruneba sruliad dasaSvebi iyo. Tanamedrove istorikosebis garkveuli nawili, romelmac Seiswavla avgustine, keTilganwyobiT aRniSnavs, rom religiur davebSi igi yovelTvis diskusiasa da darwmunebas aniWebda upiratesobas; rom igi ar iwonebda eretikosebis mimarT sastiki sasjelis gamoyenebas — magaliTad, mxars ar uWerda sikvdiliT dasjas; rom misTvis iZulebis mizans warmoadgenda ara dasja, aramed eretikosTa dabruneba WeSmarit mrwamsSi da, Sedegad, maTi gadarCenis uzrunvelyofa. avgustinesadmi naklebad simpaTiurad ganwyobili istorikosebi ki mas `mdevnelTa princad da patriarqad~ da `inkviziciis pirvel Teoritikosad~ moixsenieben. avgustines Sexedulebebs udavod didi gavlena hqonda Sua saukuneebSic. aTaswleulis manZilze eklesia religiuri disidentebis represirebis politikas misdevda. eklesia da saxelmwifo yvelaze aSkara gza, riTac Sua saukuneebis eklesiis mimdevrebma (ra Tqma unda, Segnebuli ganzraxvis gareSe) xeli Seuwyves Tanamedrove religiis Tavisuflebis warmoqmnas, mdgomareobda saero mmarTvelTa kontrolis sferodan eklesiis gamosvlis daJinebul moTxovnaSi. Sua saukuneebSi arasodes yofila absoluturi xelisuflebis ganmaxorcielebeli erTaderTi samTavrobo ierarqia, aramed yovelTvis arsebobda ori — eklesia da saxelmwifo, xSirad erTmaneTTan dapirispirebaSi myofi da erTmaneTis Zalauflebis SemzRudveli. xelisuflebis amgvari dualizmi kacobriobis istoriis sakmaod uCveulo movlena iyo. sagvareulo tomze an qalaq-saxelmwifoze did sazogadoebebSi yvelaze gavrcelebul mmarTvelobis formad gansazRvruli tipis Teokratiuli absolutizmi gvevlineboda. egviptis faraonebi, perus inkebi da iaponiis imperatorebi _ yoveli maTgani RvTiur figurad ganixileboda. sazogadoebis wesrigi kosmosSi arsebuli saRvTo wesrigis nawilad miiCneoda; mmarTveli uzrunvelyofda aucilebel kavSirs samoTxesa da dedamiwas Soris. aseT sazogadoebebSi religiis Tavisufleba warmosaxvaSic ki ar arsebobda. qristianoba imTaviTve gansxvavebulad viTardeboda. igi aRmocenda ucxo kulturaSi — romisa da saberZneTis ganviTarebul klasikur civilizaciaSi. qristianad gaxdoma da am religiis wevrad Tavis SenarCuneba Tavisufali personaluri arCevanis

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sakiTxi iyo, xSirad TavganwirvasTan dakavSirebuli. adreuli qristianebisaTvis imperatori iyo ara RvTiuri mmarTveli, aramed WeSmariti mrwamsis mdevneli. daZabuloba romaul saxelmwifosa da qristianul eklesias Soris TviT iesos sityvebSia gamoxatuli: `miageT keisars keisrisa, xolo RmerTs RmrTisa~.9 qristianobis ganviTarebis yvela periodSi am mrwamsis mimdevrebi yovelTvis ixsenebdnen petres sityvebs: `morCileba RvTis mimarT ufro gvmarTebs, vidre kacTa mimarT~.10 konstantines traqtatisa da qristianuli imperiis dafuZnebis Semdgom gansazRvruli drois ganmavlobaSi iyo SesaZlebloba, rom eklesias religiur saqmeTa departamentis saxe mieRo imperiul Teokratiul eklesia-saxelmwifoSi. Tumca aRmosavleTSi imperiuli Zalauflebis damxobis Sedegad eklesiis damoukidebeli roli mtkiced iqna gacxadebuli imdroindeli papis, gelasiusis (492-496) mier: `amqveynad aris ori xelisufleba...“; religiuri azrovnebisa da saqmianobis mTeli rigi sakiTxebi, gelasiusis mtkicebiT, ar eqceoda saero mmarTvelis kontrolis sferoSi. imperiisa da papebis sakiTxi axali simwvaviT wamoiWra germaniaSi otonTa dinastiis mmarTvelobis periodSi. mefeebi amtkicebdnen, rom am qveyanaze RvTis nacvlebs isini warmoadgendnen da Tavis Tavze aiRes eklesiaTa kontroli; isini regularulad niSnavdnen episkoposebs TavianT samflobeloebSi. rodesac germaniis imperatori italiaSi SeiWra da romis okupacia moaxdina, man iseve daiwyo papebis SerCeva da daniSvna, rogorc episkoposebisa. eklesia TandaTanobiT erTi formis Teokratiidan meoreSi gadadioda. Tumca dramatulad ganviTarda movlenebi grigol V I I -is papobis periodSi (1073-1085). man erTianad dagmo arsebuli sazogadoebrivi wesrigi, rogorc RvTiur samarTlianobasTan radikalurad winaaRmdegobaSi myofi. grigolma sakuTari Tavi sikvdilamde `eklesiis TavisuflebisaTvis~ mebrZolad gamoacxada. igi Seudga Tavisi politikis cxovrebaSi gatarebas, akrZala mefeebis mier episkoposebis daniSvna da saTave daudo brZolas, romelsac Tanamedrove istorikosebi sul ufro xSirad pontifikalur revolucias uwodeben. hainrix IV-m, germaniis mefem da SemdgomSi imperatorma, grigols brali dasdo fsevdopapobaSi da eretikosad gamoacxada; grigolma ki hainrixs mefis titulis CamorTmeviT upasuxa. papsa da hainrix IV-s Soris dapirispireba iyo rogorc propagandistuli orTabrZola, ise realuri samoqalaqo omi germaniasa da italiaSi. erTxel hainrixs sakuTari Tavis damcireba mouxda da italiis qalaq kanosaSi morCilad iTxova papisgan patieba, Tumca mogvianebiT misma jarebma romis okupacia moaxdines da grigoli gandevnes. verc erTma mxarem ver SeZlo saboloo gamarjvebis mopoveba. kompromisuli mSvidobis miRweva mxolod vormsis konkordatis dadebiT moxerxda (1122). brZola papebsa da mefeebs Soris momdevno saukuneebSic gagrZelda. mefeTa Teokratiuli pretenziebis dagmobis Semdeg papebi xSirad cdilobdnen Teokratiuli funqciis miTvisebas. maTi Teokratiuli moTxovnebis umaRles wertilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos bonifacius V I I -is gancxadeba: `aucilebelia yvela daeqvemdebaros romis paps~. Tumca bonifaciusi safrangeTis mefesTan brZolaSi damarcxda. eklesiisa da saxelmwifo xelisuflebis mudmivi urTierTqmedebis, gadakveTisa da dapirispirebis miuxedavad, verc erTi mxare Tavisi moTxovnebis srul realizebas ver axdenda. Sedegad, eklesiisa da saxelmwifos dualizmi Sua saukuneebis dasavlur sazogadoebaSi ucvlel movlenad darCa. ukve Sua saukuneebis bolosken

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kaTolike mefeebma miaRwies farTo kontrols saeklesio daniSvnebze; Tumca reformaciis epoqaSi samefo titulis RvTiuri Camomavlobis Teoria daigmo protestis axleburi formebis gamoyenebiT, ramac, saboloo jamSi, dasavluri civilizacia religiuri uflebebis mxardaWeris axal gzebamde miiyvana. eklesiis Tavisufleba saxelmwifos kontrolisgan Tanamedrove religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgens. magram is mxolod nawilia. Libertas Ecclesiae,11 rasac Sua saukuneebis papebi iTxovdnen, ar warmoadgenda religiis Tavisuflebas TiToeuli individisaTvis, aramed mxolod eklesiis, rogorc Tavisi saqmianobis erTpirovnulad warmmarTveli institutis, Tavisufleba iyo. igi Riad tovebda eklesiis mier Tavisi disidenti wevrebis devnis SesaZleblobas. Sedegad, rodesac eklesiisa da saxelmwifos interesebi emTxveoda erTmaneTs, rasac Zalze xSirad hqonda adgili mwvaleblobis mimarT, mniSvnelovani sivrce iqmneboda religiuri disidentebis usastikesi SeviwroebisaTvis. Tumca, miuxedavad saukuneebis manZilze warmoebuli devnisa, adgili hqonda Sua saukuneebis azrovnebisa da praqtikis iseT aspeqtebs, romlebsac SeiZleboda xeli Seewyo religiuri Semwynareblobis alternatiuli tradiciisTvis. bunebiTi uflebebis idea Sua saukuneebis moazrovneebma safuZveli Cauyares doqtrinas, romelmac didi gavlena iqonia religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb gviandeli Teoriebis Camoyalibebaze — ideas, rom yvela adamiani flobs bunebiT uflebebs. Tanamedrove mecnierTa Soris ar arsebobs Tanxmoba am doqtrinis wyaros Sesaxeb, iseve, rogorc qristianuli azrovnebis tradiciasTan misi kavSiris Taobaze. Jak maritenis mtkicebiT, adamianis uflebaTa ideas yovelTvis gamokveTili xasiaTi hqonda TiToeuli individis pirovnebis Rirsebisa da Rirebulebis Taobaze iudaur-qristianul swavlebaSi.12 leo Strausi ki, piriqiT, tomas hobsis aTeistur Teoriebze amaxvilebda yuradRebas. is tomas hobss Tanamedrove uflebebis Teoriis fuZemdeblad miiCnevda da acxadebda, rom bunebiTi uflebebis idea ucxo iyo qristianuli tradiciisaTvis.13 Tumca es mosazreba ar Seefereba simarTles, vinaidan qristianuli bunebiTi uflebebis Teoretikosebi hobsamdec arsebobdnen, magaliTad, suaresi da grociusi. farTod aRiarebuli, garkveulwilad Suamavluri Sexeduleba, maikl vilis ekuTvnis. misi TqmiT, bunebiTi uflebebis idea modis qristianobidan, Tumca qristianuli azrovnebis mrude formidan, kerZod ki, me-14 saukunis mecnieris, uiliam okamis nominalisturi da voluntaristuli filosofiidan. vilis mtkicebiT, okamma `semantikuri revoluciis~ inicireba moaxdina, rodesac laTinuri sityva ius (ufleba) ganmarta `subieqturi Zalis mqoned~ (potestas).14 Tumca ufro gviandeli gamokvlevis Sedegad dadginda, rom `uflebisa~ da `Zalis~ asociacia miRebuli iyo adreul Suasaukuneobriv iurisprudenciaSi. episkoposebis arCevis Taobaze 1200 wlamde moRvawe kanonikosma huguciom dawera Semdegi: `mas aqvs marTvis Zala (potestas), rac marTvis uflebaa (ius)~.15 bolodroindeli kvlevebis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT bunebiTi uflebebis ukanaskneli Teoriebis wyaro moZiebul unda iqnes me-12 saukunis qristianul iurisprudenciaSi, gansakuTrebiT am epoqis kanonikosTa naSromebSi. me-12 saukunes ganaxlebis dro SeiZleba ewodos cxovrebisa da azrovnebis araerT sferoSi. iqmneboda

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axali savaWro qselebi. Seiqmna axali xelovneba, arqiteqtura da literatura (aristokratiuli romantika). religiurma azrovnebam axali aqcenti gaakeTa adamianis pirovnebaze — braleulobis dadgenisas individualur ganzraxvaze, qorwinebaSi individualur Tanxmobaze, sindisis individualur Sefasebaze. xolo saero sferoSi, sazogadoebis TiToeul doneze, Cven ukve vxedavT dainteresebas adamianis uflebebiTa da TavisuflebebiT. Tumca, pirvel rigSi, me-12 saukune samarTlebrivi renesansis periodi iyo, romelic gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia klasikuri romauli samarTlis kanonTa mTeli erTobliobis aRdgeniTa da eklesiaSi dagrovili kanonikuri samarTlis pirveli adekvaturi kodifikaciiT (1140). momdevno aTwleulebSi Zveli teqstebiT STagonebuli iuristebis Tanmimdevrulobam gamoxatuleba hpova Tanamedrove iuridiul enaSi axali impulsebis moZiebiT. CvenTvis yvelaze aRsaniSnavi albaT is iyo, rom religiur cxovrebaSi axalma personalizmma da saero sazogadoebaSi samarTlebrivi sakiTxebiT yoveldRiurma dainteresebam didi gavlena moaxdina kanonikosebis diskursze, rodesac isini miadgnen bunebiTi uflebebis, ius naturale, koncefciis ganxilvas. Tavdapirvelad fraza ius naturale gagebuli iyo obieqtur WrilSi, rogorc bunebiTi samarTali, anu `is, rac bunebrivad uflebaa~. Tumca me-12 saukunis kanonikosebma moaxdines Zveli teqstebis gaazreba TavianT gacilebiT humanur da individualistur kulturaSi da mas sxva definiciac daumates. maT nawerebSi ius naturale zogjer gansazRvruli iyo subieqtur formaSi, rogorc individisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ufleba, uflebamosileba, Zala da unari. am sawyisi subieqturi definiciidan kanonikosebma ganaviTares bunebiTi uflebebis mniSvnelovani erToblioba. 1250 wels romis papma inokenti IV-m dawera, rom qonebis sakuTreba bunebiTi samarTlidan warmoebuli ufleba iyo, riTac TviT urwmunoebic sargeblobdnen, sakuTar mTavrobaTa formirebis uflebasTan erTad.16 sxva bunebiT uflebebs, romelTa mxardaWerac xdeboda me-13 saukuneSi, Seadgenda ufleba Tavisuflebaze, Tavdacvaze, RaribisaTvis mdidris nameti qonebidan daxmarebaze. Tumca religiuri uflebebis ganviTarebuli koncefciis ararseboba kvlav SesamCnevi iyo. 1300 wlisTvis samarTlebrivi ena imdenad ganviTarda, rom SesaZlebeli gaxda bunebiTi uflebebis doqtrinis gamoxatva. Semdgom nabijs warmoadgenda uflebaTa iuridiuli ideebis asimilacia politikuri filosofiis naSromebSi. swored aq Seasrula mniSvnelovani roli uiliam okamma. igi daeyrdno kanonikuri samarTlis adreul tradicias, Tumca masze ar SeCerda. mis erT-erT yvelaze did miRwevad SeiZleba CaiTvalos saxarebiseuli Tavisuflebis bibliuri ideis bunebiTi uflebebis doqtrinaSi gadatana. rodesac pavle mociquli qristianul Tavisuflebaze werda, igi gulisxmobda Tavisuflebas Zveli aRTqmis samarTlisgan an Tavisuflebas codvisgan, Tumca okamma pavles teqsti gamoiyena nebismieri tiranuli xelisuflebisgan, gansakuTrebiT eklesiis farglebSi, Tavisuflebis mtkicebisaTvis. TviT paps, werda igi, ara aqvs ufleba ziani miayenos `uflisa da bunebis mier marTlzomierad aRiarebul uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs~. garda amisa, okamma ganaviTara `hipoTezuri~ an SesaZlo bunebiTi uflebebis koncefcia adamianis ZiriTad moTxovnilebaTa mimarT, romlebic gansxvavebuli garemoebebis pirobebSi sxvadasxva gziT vlindeba. es idea, savaraudod, garkveulwilad relevanturia kulturuli mravalferovnebis samyaroSi zogadi normebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebul problemebTan mimarTebaSi.

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okamis ideebi SemdgomSi ganavrco Jan Jersonma, saxelganTqmulma Teologma, romelic 1400 wlisTvis moRvaweobda. Jersonma SeimuSava uflebis, ius, rogorc `keTilgonierebis diqtatebis Sesabamisi, TiToeulisaTvis kuTvnili Zalis an unaris~ Zalze mniSvnelovani definicia da amtkicebda, rom adamiani, znedacemulic ki, inarCunebs mraval aseT uflebas. Jersonma aseve ganaviTara idea, romlis mixedviTac qristes samarTali Tavisuflebis samarTali iyo, rasac, misi mtkicebiT, aRar hqonda adgili arsebul eklesiaSi. piriqiT, qristianebi Seviwroebulni iyvnen adamianuri xelisuflebis, imave eklesiuri ierarqiis mier dakisrebuli kanonebis, regulaciebisa da valdebulebebis aratolerantuli tvirTiT. aseTi kanonebi, misi TqmiT, xafangis funqcias asrulebda adamianis sulis SetyuebisaTvis. bunebiTi uflebebis sakuTar ideasTan pavles qristianuli Tavisuflebis doqtrinis kombinirebiT Jersoni mivida daskvnamde, rom TiToeuli qristianis valdebuleba iyo Tavisufali nebis safuZvelze saRvTod gamxelili bibliuri samarTlisa da sakuTari gonebiTa da sindisiT Secnobili bunebiTi samarTalis aRiareba. Jersonis mtkicebiT, ukanasknel saSualebad adamians SeuZlia gamoiyenos Tandayolili bunebiTi ufleba Tavdacvaze nebismieri tiranuli xelisuflebis, maT Soris despoti papis winaaRmdeg da misi warTmeva arc erT amqveyniur samarTals ar xelewifeba. Jersonis sityvebs xSirad Tanamedrove JReradoba aqvT da misma ideebma didi gavlena moaxdines bunebiTi uflebebis Semdgomi Teoriebis ganviTarebaze. isini aitaces Tanamedrove samyaros sawyis etapze, me-16 saukuneSi, gansakuTrebiT, espaneli sqolastikosebis mier amerikeli indielebis uflebebze gamarTuli debatebis procesSi. kerZod, barTlome de las kasasi cdilobda indielebis dacvas qristianul religiaze iZulebis wesiT gadmobirebisagan Sua saukuneebis Teologiur da samarTlebriv wyaroebze dafuZnebuli bunebiTi uflebebis doqtrinaze dayrdnobiT.17 Sua saukuneebis azrovnebis yvela xsenebuli aspeqtis gaTvaliswinebiT — daJinebuli moTxovna individualuri sindisis upirates xasiaTze, iZulebiTi konversiis uaryofa, bunebiTi uflebebis aRmoceneba — vinmem SesaZloa, gonivrul niadagze ivaraudos, rom Sua saukuneebis, sul mcire, ramdenime moazrovnem mainc ganavrco es winapirobebi da religiis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebuli doqtrinis mtkicebamde miaRwia. araferi amdagvari ar momxdara. yvela Suasaukuneobriv mwerals, romelic am sakiTxs ganixilavda, mwvalebloba miaCnda codvad da danaSaulad, romelic sruliad kanonierad samarTldeboda eklesiis mier da isjeboda saero xelisuflebis daxmarebiT. TviT Jersonsac ar hqonda religiis Tavisufleba gaazrebuli ise, rogorc Cven vigebT mas; sinamdvileSi mas monawileoba aqvs miRebuli eretikosad Seracxuli ian husis sasamarTlo processa da dawvaSi. Jersons SeeZlo daecva qristianebis uflebebi eklesiis farglebSi, magram mas arasodes mosvlia azrad imis mtkiceba, rom eretikosebsac hqondaT uflebebi eklesiis winaaRmdeg. religiuri uflebebis aRmoceneba Suasaukuneobrivi cxovrebis konteqstSi religiuri devna marTebulad da aucileblad moCanda. aravis SeeZlo warmoedgina, rom `eklesiis Tavisufleba~ SesaZlebelia gulisxmobdes TiToeuli qristianis sindisis Tavisuflebas, an rom Tavisuflebis bunebiTi ufleba sruliad ar aris sakmarisi, Tuki Tavis TavSi ar moicavs uflebas religiis Tavisuflebaze. me-16 saukunis reformaciam axali istoriuli kon-

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teqsti Seqmna, sadac yvela am sakiTxs xelaxali Sefaseba mieca qristianuli swavlebebis axleburi gaazrebis WrilSi, ris formirebazec udidesi gavlena iqonia martin luTeris pirveli saprotesto gamosvlebis Semdgomi saukuneebis istoriulma gamocdilebam. ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi ar iyo mxolod Seucnobeli `protestantizmis sulis~ an pirveli didi reformistis specifikur swavlebaTa Sedegi. Znelia moiZebnos religiis Tavisuflebis niSnebi martin luTeris mtrul damokidebulebaSi kaTolikeebisa da ebraelebis mimarT, an kalvinis mier servetusis sikvdiliT dasjis Semdgom religiuri devnis dacvaSi. luTeri, kalvini, beca, bulingeri, melanqtoni _ yoveli maTgani aRiarebda maTi drois tradiciul Sexedulebebs, rom unda moxdes eretikosebis Seviwroeba iseve, rogorc amas kaTolikeebi akeTebdnen. ufro metic, luTeranobam evropas moutana `samarTliani mmarTvelis~ doqtrina, romlis funqciebSic sxva yvelaferTan erTad kerpTayvanismcemlobisa da codvis aRmofxvrac Sedioda. kalvinma ki warmoadgina axali tipis klerikaluri Teokratiis modeli, romelsac SeeZlo, iseTive Seuwynarebeli yofiliyo rogoric Sua saukuneebis eklesiuri ierarqia iyo. religiis Tavisufleba aRmocenda SemTxveviTi movlenebis iseTi kombinaciis Sedegad, romelic aravis daugegmavs da uwinaswarmetyvelia. tomas karlailis Tanaxmad axali istoriuli movlenebi ar aRmocenebula mxolod erTi konkretuli mizezis gamo, aramed grZeli mizezSedegobrivi jaWvis — rogorc `Tanamedrove, ise winamdebare sxva yvela SemTxvevis~ _ Sedegad.18 SemdgomSi man aRniSna, rom axali movlena kombinirebulia yvela sxvasTan Semdgomi cvlilebis mosaxdenad. swored amgvari saxis viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac religiis Tavisuflebaze vsaubrobT. me-16 da me-17 saukuneebSi kauzaciaTa axali qseli Seiqmna. evropa religiuri motiviT warmoebuli usastikesi omebis momswre gaxda, rasac Sedegad religiuri erTianobis darRveva mohyva uamravi seqtis Camoyalibebis saxiT. yovelive aman ki gamoiwvia im saxelmwifoTa raodenobis zrda, romelTac SeeZloT loialobis gamoCena mravalferovani religiuri mrwamsebis mimdevrebisadmi. Tumca, sanam saboloo Sedegi dadgeboda, dawesebuli mrwamsis uarmyofeli religiuri jgufebis devna ganxorcielda mraval qveyanaSi — hugenotebi safrangeTSi, romaeli kaTolikeebi da puritani separatistebi inglisSi, luTeranebi germaniis kaTolikur sagrafoebSi da kaTolikuri eklesiis mowinaaRmdege disidentebi espaneTSi. TiToeul qveyanaSi devnis msxverplni mxolod sakuTari mrwamsis mimarT iTxovdnen tolerantobis gamoCenas; Tumca Tavdapirvelad es moTxovnebi ar efuZneboda religiis Tavisuflebis, rogorc aseTisadmi, erTgulebas. mmarTvelis ufleba da valdebuleba religiuri codvis dasjaze RvTisgan miniWebulad ganixileboda; TiToeuli jgufi darwmunebuli iyo, rom mxolod is misdevda WeSmaritebas. 1615 wels inglisSi anonimuri pamfleti mefe jeims I-s puritanTa mimarT kanonebis Semsubuqebasa da kaTolikeebisaTvis sikvdiliT dasjis SemoRebis aucileblobaSi arwmunebda. religiuri speqtris meore boloSi iezuiti robert parsonsi aprotestebda kaTolikeebisaTvis savaldebulo erTgulebis fics, zogadad iZulebis sawinaaRmdego mWermetyveluri gancxadebebiT: `ebraelisa da TurqisaTvis wminda samebaze ficis dadebis iZuleba maTi sindisis sawinaaRmdegod ... autanel tanjvas miayenebs maT~. Tumca, amave dros, parsonsi icavda eklesias, romelic devnida religiur disidentebs, sadac amis unari Seswevda. TiToeuli religiuri jgufi Tvlida, rom igi unda

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yofiliyo Sewynarebuli, vinaidan mxolod is iyo WeSmariti da, piriqiT, mowinaaRmdegeebis devnas mxars uWerda, radganac isini aucileblad cdebodnen. oliver kromvelma erTxel aRSfoTebulma ganacxada: `yvelas surs Tavisufleba, magram Tavad aravin gascems mas~.19 j. n. fijisma warsuli drois daxasiaTebisas dapirispirebul seqtebze dawera Semdegi: `es iyo ... erTi seqtis mier sxvaTa ganadgurebis SeuZlebloba, ramac sabolood uzrunvelyo Tavisufleba~.20 ra Tqma unda, aRniSnul gancxadebaSi WeSmaritebis gansazRvruli marcvlis povna SesaZlebelia, Tumca igi ar Seesabameba srul simarTles. me-16 saukunis Sua periodidan moyolebuli, ramdenimem marTlac aimaRla xma WeSmariti religiis Tavisuflebis dasacavad. protestantul jgufebs Soris anabaptistebi da baptistebi yovelTvis gmobdnen iZulebas religiur sakiTxebSi. mwvaleblobis braldebiT servetusis sikvdiliT dasjam kalvinistur JenevaSi (1553) gamoiwvia sebastian kastelios pasuxi, romelmac Tavis naSromSi `eretikosTa da maTi devnis aucileblobisTvis~ pirvelad Camoayaliba yovlismomcveli argumenti sindisis Tavisuflebis sasargeblod. saukunis Semdeg, puritanul parlamentsa da stiuartTa dinastiis mefeebs Soris samoqalaqo omis dros arsebulma cvalebadma da kompleqsurma situaciam inglisi drois garkveul monakveTSi religiis Tavisuflebis idealis forsirebis principul niadagad aqcia. parlaments, romelmac Carlz I daamarcxa, akontrolebdnen presbiterianelebi, romelTac surdaT saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi Zalis gamoyenebiTac ki, mkacri presbiterianuli disciplinis damyareba inglisis eklesiaSi. maTi pozicia tomas edvardsis gancxadebaSi iyo reziumirebuli: `Semwynarebloba ewinaaRmdegeba reformaciis bunebas, reformacia da tolerantoba diametrulad sawinaaRmdego movlenebia.~21 amis miuxedavad saparlamento gamarjvebebis SemoqmedTa umravlesoba sxvadasxva seqtebis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen — kongregacionistebi, baptistebi, unitarianelebi, mexuTe monarqiis xalxi da sxva mravali. yoveli maTgani iTxovda da, kromvelis dros, sargeblobda kidec Semwynareblobis gansazRvruli doziT. ufro metic, bevr literaturul gamocemaSi, romelTa raodenobac dRiTidRe izrdeboda, sul ufro xSirad avtorebi ayalibebdnen argumentebs yvelasaTvis, da ara romelime erTi jgufisaTvis, realuri religiis Tavisuflebis sasargeblod. presbiterianelma riCard baqsterma, romelic kromvelis erT-erT samxedro polkSi msaxurobda kapelanad, gamkicxavi toniT aRniSna, rom jariskacebs Soris `yvelaze xSiri da mwvave disputebi imarTeboda sindisis Tavisuflebis Temaze, rogorc Tavad uwodebdnen mas; rom ... yvela adamians SeuZlia ara marto iqonios azri, aramed iqadagos da imoqmedos religiis sakiTxebSi sakuTari survilisamebr~. savaraudod, yvelaze mgznebare gancxadeba gaakeTa rojer uiliamsma, romlisTvisac devna kargad iyo nacnobi, rogorc Zvel, ise axal inglisSi. Tavis naSromSi `devnis sisxliani dogmati~ uiliamsma dawera: uflis nebasa da brZanebas warmoadgens (misi Zis, ufali iesos amqveynad movlinebis Semdeg) nebarTvis miniWeba yvelaze warmarTuli, ebrauli, Turquli da antiqristianuli sindisis qonaze da RvTismsaxurebis uflebaTa miniWeba yvela adamianisaTvis yvela naciasa da qveyanaSi. me-17 saukuneSi protestantis mxridan Turqebisa da ebraelebis mimarT tolerantobisaken mowodeba namdvilad ar yofila uCveulo movlena. es iyo iZulebiTi konversiis sawinaaRmdego Suasaukuneobrivi doqtrinis morigi dadasturebis gza. Tumca uiliamsi gamorCeuli iyo Tavisi miswrafebiT, Seewynarebina TviT romaeli kaToli-

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keebi. misi TqmiT, TviT kaTolikeebsac hqondaT, `metad Tu naklebad~, sindisi, romlis mimarTac aucilebeli iyo pativiscemis gamoCena. uiliamsis Tanaxmad, adamiani, romelic keTilsindisierad gaxda kaTolike, sruliad SesaZlebelia, kvlavac iyos `erTguli da mSvidobismoyvare~ pirovneba. Tanamedrove samyaros adreul etapze devnis praqtikaze ganxorcielda Seteva, romelic dafuZnebuli iyo skepticizmze, mizanSewonilobasa da Tavad qristianuli mrwamsis ZiriTadi principebis gamoyenebaze sami ZiriTadi mimarTulebis argumentaciiT. es argumentebi ar iyo Tanabari Rirebulebis. maTgan pirveli oris gamoyeneba mxolod SezRuduli donis tolerantobis mtkicebisaTvis iyo SesaZlebeli; marto mesames SeeZlo safuZvlis Seqmna religiis Tavisuflebis idealisadmi principuli erTgulebisaTvis. skeptikur midgomas Rrmad hqonda fesvebi gadgmuli renesansul humanizmSi. humanistebma moRvaweoba Tavdapirvelad sqolastikuri filosofiis CaxlarTuli argumentebis, rogorc mosawyeni nonsensis, uaryofiT daiwyes; SemdgomSi humanistebis gansazRvrulma nawilma identuri mosazrebebis ganviTareba daiwyo im mwvave Teologiuri disputebis mimoxilvisas, romlebmac qristianul eklesiebs Soris ganxeTqileba gamoiwvia. swored es gaxldaT kastelios poziciis safuZveli. humanistebis skepticizmi ar warmoadgenda skepticizms qristianuli mrwamsis mimarT. rogorc kasteliom dawera, `aravis epareba eWvi RmerTis arsebobaSi, mis sikeTeSi, misadmi siyvarulisa da msaxurebis aucileblobaSi...~22 meore mxriv, is Temebi, romlebzedac qristianebi ver Tanxmdebodnen — bediswerasTan, Tavisufal nebasTan, naTlobasTan, ziarebasTan dakavSirebuli doqtrinebi — davis sagans warmoadgenda, radganac bibliaSi ar iyo naTeli miTiTeba maT Sesaxeb. kastelios mosazrebiT, am sakiTxebis Secnoba da gaazreba sruli WeSmaritebiT SeuZlebeli iyo. amitom absoluturad usargeblod da araadamianurad sastikad miaCnda mas qristianebis mier erTmaneTis devna am sakiTxebze arsebuli azrTa sxvadasxvaobis niadagze. devnilma hugenotma piter beilma gacilebiT radikaluri Seteva miitana religiur devnaze. man Tavis naSromSi zRvari gaavlo qristian humanistebsa da ganmanaTleblobis ukompromiso skepticizms Soris. misi SexedulebiT, ar SeiZleba ganmanaTleblobis wvlilis ardafaseba. udavoa, rom aucilebeli iyo volteris skeptikuri dacinva dawesebuli eklesiebis sisastikeTa da crurwmenaTa mxilebisaTvis. Tumca, saboloo jamSi, skepticizmi ar aris sakmarisi. misi mosazrebiT, adamianebi religiuri cxovelebi arian da maTi mrwamsis WeSmaritebaSi eWvis Setanisa da Sedegad misi gaxunebis SemTxvevaSi isini, savaraudod, axal da ufro velur Semcvlelebs moigoneben. ganmanaTleblobam ar moitana mSvidobisa da harmoniis axali era; man revoluciur safrangeTSi teroris gabatonebamde da religiuri devnis axali raundis dawyebamde migviyvana, amtkicebda beili. tolerantobis sasargeblod argumentebis meore mimarTuleba ubralo mizanSewoniloba iyo. am poziciis gansaxierebas warmoadgenda safrangeTis mefe anri IV, romelmac Tavisi religia, protestantizmi, samefo gvirgvinis mopovebis mizniT kaTolicizmze gacvla, Tumca Semdeg gamosca nantis ediqti (1598), romelic mniSvnelovan Tavisuflebebs aniWebda protestantebs. anris mmarTvelobis periodSi inglisis dedofali elisabedic religiur politikas misdevda saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. iyo ekonomikuri mosazrebebiT xelmZRvanelobis magaliTebic. ni-

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derlandebSi espaneTis wargzavnilma mmarTvelma, avstrielma don xuanma, 1577 wels dawera: `oraneli princi yovelTvis daJinebiT amtkicebda ... rom sindisis Tavisuflebas didi mniSvneloba hqonda komerciuli keTildReobisaTvis~. am argumentis udidesi Teoriuli momxre iyo politikuri filosofosi Jan bodeni. igi adasturebda, rom religiuri erTianoba sasurveli iyo da arc imas ayenebda eWvqveS, rom saxelmwifos sruliad kanonierad SeeZlo religiuri disidentebis Seviwroeba. Tumca, amave dros, misi mtkicebiT, rodesac esa Tu is religia imdenad gaZlierdeba, rom misi represireba SeuZlebeli iqneba samoqalaqo daZabulobis gamowvevis gareSe, yvelaze gonivruli politika misi Sewynareba unda iyos.23 mizanSewonilobis argumentTan dakavSirebuli problema imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mravali garemoebis arsebobisas tolerantoba ar Cans yvelaze aSkarad mizanSewonil qmedebaTa mimarTulebad. xSirad iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom wesrigisa da erTianobis SenarCunebis yvelaze efeqturi gza disidentebis devnaze gadis. me-17 saukuneSi garemoebaTa sakmaod uCveulo erTobliobas hqonda adgili, rac xSirad devnas araefeqturs xdida. mizanSewonilobiT argumentireba Riad tovebda garemoebaTa Secvlis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlo ganaxlebuli devnis sakiTxs. Semwynareblobis mesame argumenti, rom devnis praqtika radikalurad ewinaaRmdegeba Tavad qristes swavlebas, udavod yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo. am argumentma mravali moazrovnis naSromSi hpova asaxva. magaliTad, kastelio devnis Sesaxeb wers: `SeuZlebeli iyo satanis mier qristes nebasa da bunebasTan amaze sawinaaRmdegos gamogoneba~. ase msjelobda pier beilic, man Semwynareblobis sasargeblo argumentacia Camoayaliba, rogorc komentari teqstisaTvis `ZaliT moreke~, romelsac avgustine da Toma akvineli devnis gamarTlebisaTvis iyenebdnen; Tumca beils gansxvavebuli daskvna gamohqonda am sityvebidan da amtkicebda, rom qristes naTqvamis amgvari gageba `TviT saxarebis suliskveTebas ewinaaRmdegeba~.24 marTalia, beili skeptikuri temperamentis adamiani iyo, magram analogiuri argumentebi mohyavdaT mgznebare religiuri mrwamsis mqone mwerlebsac. rojer uiliamsma mravali mtkicebuleba warmoadgina religiis Tavisuflebis sasargeblod, Tumca maTgan yvelaze fundamenturi iyo devnis Seracxva `mSvidobis meufis sulTan, gonebasa da saqmianobasTan pirdapir winaaRdegobaSi myofad~.25 drois moTxovnilebebma gonieri qristianebi Zveli rwmenis uaryofiTi Sedegebis ufro Rrma gaazrebamde miiyvana. bevri avtori eklesiis mamebis citirebas axdenda religiis Tavisuflebis sasargeblod. xSirad ifqlisa da RvarZlis igavi mohyavdaT Semwynareblobis argumentad. 1661 wlis baptistur pamfletSi gacxadebuli iyo, rom sindisis Tavisufleba `qristianuli religiis nawilia~. inglisel mwerlebs Soris, jon miltonma gaaanaliza religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb pavle mociqulis teqstebi (teqstebi, romlebic Jersonma da okamma gacilebiT adre gamoiyenes) da gamoitana daskvna, rom mrwamsis sakiTxebSi Zalis gamoyeneba ewinaaRmdegeba `qristianuli religiis yvelaze Rrma da mniSvnelovan safuZvlebs~. azrovnebis axali klimatis pirobebSi, rodesac devna da Seviwroeba dagmobili iyo, rogorc qristes swavlebis sawinaaRmdego movlena, xelaxla moxda yvela Zveli argumentis gaJRereba saero xelisuflebis kontrolidan eklesiis Tavisuflebis, sindisis uzenaesi avtoritetisa da bunebiTi uflebebis arsebobis Sesaxeb, oRond amjerad ganaxlebul WrilSi. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, yvela es argumenti SesaZlebelia religiis Tavisuflebis doqtrinis ganviTarebisaTvis xelSemwyobi gamxdariyo, Tumca Sua

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saukuneebis konteqstSi maT es Sedegi ar moitanes. Sua saukuneebis Semdgom samyaroSi, axal istoriul konteqstSi, es argumentebi gaxda safuZveli im sasargeblo daskvnebis gamotanis, romlebic yovelTvis aSkara iyo, Tumca gamokveTilad arasodes uRiarebiaT. ZvelisZveli moTxovna, rom eklesia ar unda iyos saero mmarTvelTa kontrolis qveS, axali kuTxiT ganimarta, rogorc saero magistratis mxridan pirovnebis religiur arCevanze zemoqmedebis dauSvebloba. protestantebi yovelTvis miuTiTebdnen, rom magistrati ar iyo romis papze da mis episkoposebze metad ucodveli da uSecdomo. garda amisa, uiliam volvinis mtkicebiT, `is, vinc cdeboda, SeiZleba WeSmaritebaSi myofis damsjeli aRmoCeniliyo~.26 religiaSi samTavrobo iZulebis sawinaaRmdego sxva argumentis Tanaxmad, progresi, gagebuli rogorc saRvTo wyaloba, SeiZleboda miRweuli yofiliyo mxolod Tavisufali da motivirebuli diskursis gziT. rodesac miltoni werda axal etapze `reformaciis reformirebis~ Sesaxeb, igi sagangebod moiTxovda presis Tavisuflebas.27 Sua saukuneebis Teologebi zogjer msjelobdnen droTa ganmavlobaSi Tanmimdevrul progresze bibliis gaazrebaSi. axali TvalTaxedvis mixedviT, aseTi progresi moiTxovda azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. Sexeduleba, rom eklesiis Tavisufleba moiTxovda saero magistratis mxridan religiur sakiTxebSi Carevisgan Tavis Sekavebas, farTod iyo gavrcelebuli inglisSi moqmedi separatistuli jgufebis wevrebs Soris. uaiTholSi 1648 wels gamarTuli SeiaraRebuli dapirispirebis dros erT-erTma maTganma ganacxada: `arc erT adamiansa Tu magistrats am samyaroSi ar gaaCnia religiur sakiTxebSi Carevis ufleba~.28 momdevno wels daweril levelerebis pamfletSi Camoyalibebuli iyo analogiuri doqtrina, rac, saboloo jamSi, amerikelebisaTvis gacxadebul iqna pirveli SesworebiT: [Cven] ar vavalebT, arc nebas vrTavT Cvens warmomadgenlebs ... sasjelebis gamoyenebiT an sxvagvarad nebismier adamians aiZulon raime mrwamsis, religiis an RvTisadmi msaxurebis sakiTxebSi, an SezRudon nebismieri adamiani Tavisi mrwamsis aRmsareblobaSi, an Tavisi religiis gamoxatvaSi sakuTari sindisis Sesabamisad...29 rojer uiliamss, romelic nebismieri saxis erTiani eklesia-saxelmwifos modelis winaaRmdeg gamodioda, ekuTvnis fraza: `wall of separation between the Garden of the church and the Wilderness of the world~ — `separaciis kedeli eklesiis walkotsa da amqveyniur velurobas Soris~.30 Sua saukuneebis argumentebis kidev erTi wyeba, romelic Tanamedrove epoqis adreul etapze ganviTarda, Seexeboda individualuri sindisis mniSvnelobas. me-17 saukunis Sua xanebSi gavrcelebul mosazrebas warmoadgenda religiuri uTanxmoebis amosaval wertilad `codvaSi fesvebgamdgari borotebis~ miCneva.31 Tumca im droisaTvis gamoTqmuli iyo ramdenime alternatiuli Sexedulebac. inglisSi samoqalaqo omis Semdgom wlebSi keTilsindisieri da saRad moazrovne adamianebisaTvis sakmaod rTuli gaxda imis dajereba, rom maT mezoblebs, im mamakacebs, romlebTan erTadac isini mxardamxar ibrZodnen saerTo miznisaTvis,zogjer marTlac demonebi STaagonebdnen, rom avi saqmeebi ekeTebinaT mxolod Teologiis romeliRac bundovan sakiTxze uTanxmoebis gamo. swored es rwmena, rom gansxvavebuli azris mqone adamiani boroteba iyo, mwvaleblobis mimarT Suasaukuneobrivi zizRis ZiriTad safuZvlad iqca. rodesac SesaZlebeli gaxda religiur warmodgenebs Soris gansxvavebebi mxolod SecdomaSi daenaxaT da ara borot ganzraxvaSi, gaixsna gza Semcdari sindisis mimarT marTebuli damokidebulebis Seqmnisaken. uiliam volvinma ganixila teqsti `rac mrwamsidan ar modis, is codvaa~ (igive teqsti, romelsac Sua saukuneebis avtorebi iyenebdnen

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sindisis upiratesi xasiaTis dacvisaTvis) da mivida daskvnamde, romelic Sua saukuneebis arc erT Teologs ar mosvlia TavSi: `yvela adamians unda hqondes sindisis Tavisufleba, rwmenis miuxedavad~.32 igi amtkicebda, rom pirovnebis sindisze gavlenis moxdena mxolod misive gonebas ZaluZs. volvinis SexedulebiT, SeuZlebeli iyo pirovnebis iZuleba, erwmuna WeSmariteba, romelic mis Segnebasa da sindiss mcdarad miaCnda; adamiani scodavs, Tuki iZulebis gziT sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg moqmedebs; Tumca is, vinc aiZulebs mas, codvis Tanamonawilea da despotis msgavsad moqmedebs. es mosazreba iqca saerTo argumentad maTTvis, vinc sindisis Tavisuflebis dacvas cdilobda. TviT yvelaze ukiduresi roialisti maikl hadsonic amtkicebda, rom magistrati, romelic aiZulebs adamians sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg imoqmedos, sicruis saxiT codvis Cadenas aiZulebs mas; magistrati ki, Tavis mxriv, damnaSavea `im sulier prerogativebSi mkrexeluri Carevis gamo, romelic RmerTma sakuTari TavisTvis Semoinaxa~. anglikani Teologis mtkicebiT, pirovneba, romelic Tavis codvil sindiss misdevs, ar scodavs: `Tuki RmerTi ar gabrazdeba gauazreblad Semcdar adamianze, adamianebi ratom unda ganrisxdnen erTmaneTze?~33 sindisis Taobaze axali argumentis saboloo Sedegi mdgomareobda religiis Tavisuflebis idealis bunebiTi uflebebis gacilebiT Zvel doqtrinasTan SerwymaSi. sindisis Tavisufleba ganixileboda bunebiTi samarTliT garantirebul adamianis erT-erT bunebiT uflebad. uiliam peni wers: `me yovelTvis mesmoda, rom sindisis Tavisufleba yvela adamianis bunebiT uflebas warmoadgens...~34 igi amtkicebs, rom xalxi ar da ver dauTmobs am bunebiT uflebas arcerT xelisuflebas. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifos ar SeiZleba hqondes kanonieri ufleba, individis am uflebis xelyofis. rogorc kvakeri, peni Tavisi drois dominirebuli religiuri azrovnebis miRma imyofeboda, Tumca amave epoqaSi moRvawe uaRresad pativcemuli episkoposi barneti analogiur Sexedulebas gamoxatavda: `me didi xania sindisis Tavisuflebas vuyureb, rogorc adamianis erT-erT bunebiT uflebas, romelic win uswrebda politikuri sazogadoebis Camoyalibebas da romelsac arc erTi adamiani ar daTmobs ...~35 jon lokic wers, rom `sindisis Tavisufleba yvela adamianis bunebiT uflebas warmoadgens~.36 inglisis farglebs gareT pier beili icavda sindisis Tavisuflebas37 , spinoza ki bunebiTi uflebebis Tavis gansakuTrebul doqtrinas iyenebda religiis Tavisuflebis xelSeuxeblobis mtkicebisas.38 me-17 saukunis bolos religiis Tavisuflebis adekvaturi Teoriebi iqna formulirebuli, Tumca maTma implementaciam gacilebiT meti dro waiRo. ukve me-18 saukuneSi religiur niadagze devnis SemTxvevebis raodenoba erTeulebamde davida, Tumca religiis Tavisufleba mxolod me-19 saukunis liberaluri revoluciebis Semdgom gaxda farTod aRiarebuli dasavlur saxelmwifoTa konstituciebSi. ZiriTadma qristianulma eklesiebma ki mxolod meoce saukuneSi aRiares religiuri uflebebi qristianuli mrwamsis ZiriTad damaxasiaTebel niSnad.

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adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia
didi xnis ganmavlobaSi adamianis religiur uflebebs mcire adgili eTmoboda msoflio masStabiT adamianis uflebebisaTvis brZolasa Tu masze gamarTul debatebSi. am qveTavis mizans adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologiis mcdeloba warmoadgens, vinaidan isini adamianis uflebebisaTvis brZolis safuZvelSi Zevs da pirovnebis sulier sferos moicavs. adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia aseve zogadad, adamianis uflebaTa safuZvlis ganmtkicebas isaxavs miznad. termini `adamianis religiuri uflebebi~, rogorc wesi, monacvleobiT gamoiyeneba terminTan `religiis Tavisufleba~. Cvenc ase moviqceviT. adamianis religiur uflebebSi igulisxmeba pirovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ufleba kerZo Tu sajaro RvTismsaxurebaze an RvTismsaxurebaSi monawileobis armiRebaze; ama Tu im mrwamsis aRmsareblobasa Tu gadacemaze; erTmorwmuneTa gaerTianebis wevrobaze; da religiuri identurobis Secvlaze — yovelgvari dabrkolebis da diskriminaciis gareSe. adamianis religiuri uflebebi moiTxovs kanonis winaSe yvela religiaTa Tu arareligiaTa Tanasworobas; arc erTi moqalaqe ar unda sargeblobdes raime upiratesobiT da arc ziani unda miadges gansazRvruli religiuri mrwamsisa Tu identurobis gamo. adamianis religiuri uflebebis samarTlis kanonier principad aRiareba msoflio Tanamegobrobis qveynebis universalurad gaziarebul aqsiomur movlenad iqca da es aRiareba meoce saukunis erT-erTi udidesi miRwevaa. uamravi mtkicebulebis miuxedavad, romlebic miuTiTebs, rom Tanamedrove samyaros mraval wertilSi religiis Tavisufleba jer kidev Sors aris egzistencialuri realobisgan, adamianis religiuri uflebebi normatiul principad iqca msoflio masStabiT saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi da, Sesabamisad, maT realiza-

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ciaze uari TiTqmis yvelgan gaumarTleblad miiCneva rogorc moralurad, ise samarTlebrivad. Sedegad, religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebis garantiebi dResdReobiT erovnul konstituciaTa umravlesobaSi gvxvdeba, TviT iseT qveynebSic ki, sadac xelisufleba komunisturi aTeizmis mimdevaria. amis miuxedavad, religiuri uflebebis pativiscema — kerZod, religiaze an rwmenaze damyarebuli diskriminaciis ararseboba da yvela religiis Tanasworoba kanonis winaSe — Tanamedrove msoflios mraval qveyanaSi Sorsaa realobisgan. miuxedavad adamianis religiuri uflebebisadmi TiTqmis universaluri erTgulebisa, romelic gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis mier 1948 wels miRebul adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSia gamoxatuli da kidev ufro naTlad Camoyalibebuli religiasa da rwmenaze dafuZnebuli Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis nebismieri formis aRmofxvris 1981 wlis deklaraciaSi, ar arsebobs universaluri konsensusi maTi inteleqtualuri da filosofiuri safuZvlis Sesaxeb. ra Tqma unda, arsebobs mniSvnelovani praqtikuli da politikuri mizezebi religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebis argumentirebisaTvis, magram TviT isinic saWiroebs garkveul filosofiur principebze dayrdnobas da ar aris damokidebuli mxolod politikur mizanSewonilobaze. adamianis religiuri uflebebi da adreuli religiuri moZRvrebani adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia, pirvel rigSi, SesaZlebelia danaxul iqnes TviT religiaTa Tavdapirvel swavlebebSi. maSin, roca religiuri uflebebis aRmoceneba SedarebiT Tanamedrove fenomenia, religiis Tavisuflebis koncefcias xangrZlivi, Tumca araerTgvarovani istoria aqvs. religiuri uflebebis cneba msoflios udides religiaTa swavlebebSi iCens Tavs, Tumca, rogorc wesi, praqtikaSi igi naklebad TvalsaCino iyo Tavad am religiaTa mTeli istoriis manZilze. vinaidan zogadad religia Seadgenda pirovnebis, rogorc gvaris, Temis Tu naciis wevris identurobis safuZvels, individis religiuri identuroba qmnida safuZvels misi gansxvavebisa sxva gvaris, Temisa Tu naciis da, Tu ufro farTod mivudgebiT sakiTxs, mTeli danarCeni samyaros wevrobisagan. xSirad religia iqceoda jgufebs Soris konfliqtis safuZvlad — magaliTad, qristianebsa da romael warmarTebs, siqebsa da induistebs, muslimebsa da ebraelebs, marTlmadideblebsa da kaTolikeebs, kaTolikeebsa da protestantebs Soris da a. S. Sedegad, religia xels uwyobda daqsaqsvas da ara gaerTianebas, konfliqts da ara Tanxmobas da yvela am konfliqtisa Tu daqsaqsvis siRrmeSi ido sxvadasxva religiebis warmodgenebi WeSmaritebaze, dafuZnebuli winaswarmetyvelur gamocxadebaze, garkveul mistikur gamocdilebaze an cxovrebis racionalur gaazrebaze. religiis amgvari istoriulad damaxasiaTebeli niSani namdvilad ar uwyobda xels Semwynareblobas an adamianis religiuri uflebebis aRiarebas gansazRvruli religiuri tradiciis farglebs gareT. zogadad, yvela religia amtkicebda an, sul mcire, gulisxmobda sakuTar uzenaesobas, inkluziurobas da sargeblobda sinkretizmis garkveuli formiT WeSmaritebis Taobaze Tavis filosofiur an Teologiur koncefciebSi. amis miuxedavad, unda aRiniSnos, rom Seuwynareblobis sawinaaRmdego da adamianis religiuri uflebebis pativiscemisaken mowodebis kvali, SesaZloa, uZveles msoflioSic iqnes aRmoCenili. jer kidev ocdasami saukunis win budizmis mimdevarma mefe

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aSokam mosaxleobas Semwynarebluri cxovrebisken mouwoda. misi sityvebi dResac iseve aqtualuria, rogorc maSin: `ujeroa martooden Tvisi Temis pativgeba an upirobod sxvisi Temis SebRalva. mxolod raime nakli SeiZleba iyos Seginebis safuZveli, raki nebismieri Temi ama Tu im mizeziT pativis Rirsia. roca amgvarad iqceva adamiani sakuTar Tems ganadidebs da imavdroulad sakadrisad epyroba sxvisas. sxvagvarad moqcevisas adamiani Tavis Tavs vnebs da daumsaxureblad amcirebs sxvisas. vinaidan, vinc pativs miagebs Tavis Tems da sxvas ki martooden sakuTaris erTgulebisa da gandidebis ganzraxviT Seuracxyofs, sinamdvileSi udides zians gvris mSobliur Tems.~. msoflios yvela ZiriTadi religia Seicavs swavlebas Semwynareblobis Sesaxeb, gmobs religiur iZulebasa da religiuri Sexedulebebis upativcemulobas. es swavlebebi mudmivi Sexsenebaa Sesabamisi religiis mimdevrebisTvis. adamianis religiuri uflebebis mxardamWerma, maTive religiuri tradiciebis wminda werilebma, SesaZloa, Seqmnan urTierTpativiscemis, keTilganwyobisa da dialogze dafuZnebuli mrwamsebsSorisi urTierTobis safuZveli. garda amisa, es swavlebani uzrunvelyofen rogorc erovnul, ise saerTaSoriso doneze religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb konstituciuri da samarTlebrivi debulebebis mxardaWeras. induizmis uZveles swavlebaSi gamokveTilad aris dagmobili sxva mrwamsebis mimdevarTa religiuri uflebebis Seuwynarebloba da Seuracxyofa. induisturi tradiciis safuZvels warmoadgens Semdegi gancxadeba: `WeSmariteba erTia; brZenni mas sxvadasxva saxelwodebiT moixsenieben.~39 induizmis wminda werilSic vkiTxulobT: `uvicia is, vinc ambobs: rasac vambob, WeSmaritebaa, sxvebi ki cdebiano. swored uvicTa aseTi damokidebulebis Sedegia, rom arsebobs eWvebi da gaugebrobebi RmerTTan dakavSirebiT. swored amgvari damokidebuleba iwvevs davas adamianebs Soris. Tumca yvela eWvi qreba, rodesac adamiani TviTkontrols moipovebs da simSvides miaRwevs WeSmaritebis sulis realizebiT. amis Sedegad davac dasruldeba.~40 induizmis uZveles wminda teqstebSi Cans ara marto sxvebis religiuri tradiciebisadmi Semwynareblobasa da pativiscemaze miTiTeba, aramed dasturdeba, rom am Semwynareblobis da pativiscemis safuZvels warmoadgens rwmena, romlis mixedviTac yvela religiaSia SesaZlebeli kargis monaxva: `sxvadasxva yvavilebidan Taflis Semgrovebeli futkris msgavsad, brZeni miiRebs gansxvavebul moZRvrebaTa arss da yvelafer kargs dainaxavs yvela religiaSi~. meoce saukunis induizmis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili moazrovnis sarvepali radhakriSnanis Tanaxmad, `sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo sxvaTa mrwamsebs surT pativcemulni iyvnen. maT mimarT pativiscemiT adamiani amaRlebs Tavisas da, amave dros, samsaxurs uwevs sxvaTa mrwamss. sxvanairad moqcevisas adamiani zians ayenebs Tavisas da cud samsaxurs uwevs sxvaTa mrwamss. Tuki adamiani xotbas asxams Tavis mrwamss da Seuracxyofs sxvisas sakuTari mrwamsis sadideblad, sinamdvileSi mZime zians ayenebs mas.~41 analogiurad, budizmic aRiarebs religiis Tavisuflebisa da religiuri uflebebis pativiscemis koncefcias. masSi waxalisebulia guluxvi damokidebuleba yvela religiuri warmodgenisa da maTi mimdevrebisadmi. budizmis fuZemdebeli sidhartha gautama arwmunebda Tavis mimdevrebs, ar hqonodaT mtruli ganwyoba maT mimarT, vinc maTze cuds ityoda. gautama acxadebs: `Tu vinme Cemze, Cems swavlebaze an miTiTebebze cudad ilaparakebs, ar ganewyoT uaryofiTad mis mimarT, ar gauwyreT, arc

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gulis siRrmeSi aRSfoTdeT, Torem sakuTar Tavs avnebT~.42 da isev budisturi teqstebis citatebs moviyvanT. `buda ambobs, rom gansazRvruli mosazrebebisadmi kuTvnilebas, xolo sxva SexedulebebisaTvis zemodan yurebas brZeni borkilebs uwodebda43 . yvela morwmunis Sesaxeb moZRvrebisas gautamam ganacxada: `Tuki adamiani ambobs, es aris Cemi mrwamsio, igi WeSmaritebas inarCunebs. magram amiT is ar SeiZleba mivides absolutur daskvnamde _ mxolod es aris WeSmariteba da yvela danarCeni mcdaria~.44 iaponiaSi erT-erTi budisturi seqtis, omoto kios wminda teqstSi vkiTxulobT: `arc erTi kuTxe ar arsebobs samyaroSi, sadac ar iyos RmerTi~.45 msoflios udides religiebs Soris budizmi gaxda pirveli saerTaSoriso religia, da mTeli Tavisi istoriis manZilze sxva mrwamsebTan damokidebulebiT moaxdina tolerantobisa da pativiscemis sulis demonstrireba. sxva religiuri tradiciebic mouwodeben gansxvavebuli mrwamsebis mimdevarTa mimarT pativiscemisken. budizmis msgavsad, qristianuli epoqis dawyebamde 6 saukuniT adre dafuZnebuli jainizmis wminda teqstebis Tanaxmad: `isini, vinc TavianT doqtrinebs xotbas asxamen da sxvebisas Seuracxyofen, ver gadaWrian verc erT sirTules~.46 jainistebis wminda werilebSi maT miTiTebuli aqvT, `Caswvdnen erT filosofiur Sexedulebas meoris srulfasovani Seswavlis gziT~.47 aseTi damokidebuleba sxva religiuri tradiciebisadmi aRiarebulia konfucianizmSic. konfucis Tanaxmad, `samyaroSi mravali gansxvavebuli gzaa, Tumca daniSnulebis adgili erTia~.48 iudaizmis tradicia xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi ibrZoda adamianis religiuri uflebebisaTvis. iudaizmSi, WeSmariti aRTqmis Tanaxmad, uflis siyvaruli gankuTvnilia yvela adamianisaTvis da am aRTqmiT `samyaroSi yvela ojaxi dalocvilia~.49 iudaizmis wminda wignSi, romelic qristianebis wminda werilicaa, vkiTxulobT: `radgan didi iqneba Cemi saxeli xalxebSi mzis aRmosavleTidan dasavlamde; yvelgan daukmeven sakmevels Cems saxels da wminda ZRvens Semomwiraven; radgan didi iqneba Cemi saxeli xalxebSi, ambobs ufali sabaoT~.50 toseftaSi rabini joSua acxadebs: `arseboben RvTismosavi adamianebi erebs Soris, romlebic samyaros inawileben~.51 iudaizmSi yvela adamianuri uflebis pativiscema gansakuTrebiT Cans mis swavlebaSi, romelic TiToeuli pirovnebis usazRvro Rirsebasa da yoveli adamianuri sicocxlis siwmindes Seexeba. pativiscema gansxvavebuli mrwamsebis mimarT aSkarad da naTlad ikveTeba iudaistur TalmudSi. miSnaSi vkiTxulobT: `da qmnili iqna adamiani erTi (pirveli), rom gaswavlos, Tuki vinme moklavs erT adamians ... wminda werili mas miusjis qveynierebis mkvlelobas, da vinc gadaarCens erT suls ... wminda werili mas qveynierebis gadarCenas miawers ... amitom yvelam unda Tqvas, CemTvis yofila samyaro Seqmnilio.~52 meoce saukunis iudaizmis erT-erT yvelaze pativsacem mecniers, mogvianebiT rabins, abraam heskels uyvarda Tqma: `RmerTis xma mraval enaze ismis~ — Sexeduleba, romelic farTod aris gaziarebuli iudaizmSi. qristianobaSi, iudaizmis msgavsad, religiuri Semwynarebloba da religiuri uflebebis siwminde SesaZlebelia yvelaze gamokveTilad davinaxoT gancxadebaSi, rom ufalma Tavis xatad da msgavsad Seqmna adamiani. biblia aseve aRiarebs da gamoxatavs tolerantobis ideas ucxoelTa mimarTac, rodesac acxadebs: `Tu ucxoeli mova SenTan, nurafers dauSaveb. miiRe, rogorc Seni naTesavi da Seiyvare, rogorc Tavi Seni, radgan ucxoni viyaviT egviptelTa miwaze, me var ufali RmerTi Seni.~53

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garda amisa, axali aRTqmis mixedviT, ufals `umowmeblad arasodes dautovebia Tavisi Tavi~54 . aq vkiTxulobT `naTeli WeSmaritis~ Sesaxebac, `romelic gaanaTlebs yvela kacs, momavals qveynad~.55 religiuri Semwynarebloba da pativiscema religiuri uflebebisadmi SeiZleba davinaxoT bibliaSi moyvanil uflis mier yvela adamianisadmi mopyrobis magaliTebSi. petre, romelic iesos mowafe iyo da adreuli qristianobis liderad iqca, ambobs: `WeSmaritad vrwmundebi, rom miukerZoebelia RmerTi, aramed yvela xalxSi misi moSiSi da simarTlis moqmedi sandoa misTvis.”56 ebraelebsa da araebraelebs Soris gansxvavebaze saubrisas pavle mociquli aRniSnavs: `mikerZoeba ucxoa RmerTisTvis~.57 bibliis Tanaxmad adamians Tavisuflebis unari uflisgan aqvs boZebuli. rogorc pavle ambobs, `sadac aris suli uflisa, iqvea Tavisufleba~.58 maTes saxarebaSi vkiTxulobT: `Tu gsurs, rom srulqmnili iyo, wadi, gayide, rac gabadia, mieci glaxakT da geqneba saunje caSi~. ieso yoveli aseTi mowvevisas iyenebda sityvebs: `Tu gsurs...~59 — im sityvebs, romlebic Tavisi bunebiT pativiscemas gamoxatavs adamianis arCevanisadmi religiuri mrwamsis sakiTxebSi. RmerTis damokidebuleba yvela adamianisadmi qristianul wminda werilebSi arsad ise kargad ar Cans, rogorc axali aRTqmis bolo wignSi apokalifsi, sadac gamokveTiladaa warmodgenili pativiscema TiToeuli pirovnebis religiuri uflebebis xelSeuxeblobisadmi: `aha, karTan vdgavar da vakakuneb. Tu vinme gaigebs Cems xmas da kars gamiRebs, Seval misas da masTan vWam purs, xolod is — CemTan~.60 islamis fuZemdebelma, muhamedma, Tavis mimdevrebs dauwera eTikis kodeqsi, sadac aRniSna: `RmerTisa da misi mociqulis, muhamedis saxeliT vacxadeb, rom yvela qristians najransa da mis mezobel teritoriebze aqvT usafrTxod cxovrebis ufleba da daculi iqneba, rogorc maTi sicocxle, aseve rwmena, maTi miwa da qoneba. aseve eqnebaT usafrTxo gadaadgilebis ufleba da xeli ar SeeSlebaT sakuTari rwmenis qonaSi. arc erT mRvdels ar aekrZaleba mrevlTan urTierToba; arc erTi beri ar iqneba gaZevebuli monastridan da arc darajs aekrZaleba eklesiis meTvalyureoba. da pirobis aRsrulebis sawindaria RvTis neba da misi mociqulis muhamedis sityva. qristianebis ufleba ar iqneba SezRuduli manam, sanam isinic daicaven da keTilsindisierad Seasruleben sakuTar valdebulebebs muslimi mezoblebis mimarT.~ yurani kategoriulad acxadebs, rom `dauSvebelia religiuri iZuleba~.61 yuranSi aseve gacxadebulia, rom rwmena ukiduresad personaluri arCevanis sakiTxia: `Tqvi: WeSmariteba RvTisgan modis; visac unda, morwmune iyos, irwmunos da visac unda, urjulo iyos, iyos.~62 Semwynarebloba sxva religiaTa mimarT nabrZanebia maTTvis, vinc yurans misdevs: `nu agineb RmerTebs, romelTac mouwodeben RvTisa Tanaswor~.63 yuranis swavlebaTa Sesabamisad pirovnebis arCevanis Tavisufleba mrwamsis winapirobas warmoadgens. da kvlav yuranis sityvebs Tu moviSveliebT, `RmerTs rom enebebina, yoveli qveynieri adamiani iwamebda. gwadia, eri aiZulo morwmune gaxdes? rogor SeuZlia suls iwamos RvTis uneburad?”64 msgavsi swavlebani gvxvdeba aseve siqizmSi, romlis fuZemdebeli, nanaki acxadebda: `nu eZieb WeSmaritebas Sors; igi TiToeul gulSia~.65 siqizmis Tanaxmad, uflis xalxis moZebna SesaZlebelia yvela religiaSi. siqizmis wminda werilebis mixedviT, `arseboben isini, vinc kiTxulobs vedas da sxvebi — qristianebi, muslimebi, ebraelebi — romlebic swavloben semitur werilebs. zogs lurji, zogsac TeTri perangi acvia. zogi Tavis Tavs uwodebs muslims, zogic — induss. zogi miiswrafvis bahiSatisken

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(muslimTa samoTxe), zogic svargasken (indusTa samoTxe). nanaki acxadebs: is vinc gaacnobierebs RvTis nebas, gaigebs uflis saidumloebebs!~. miuxedavad imisa, rom religiuri swavlebebis zemoT moyvanil citatebs mniSvnelovani roli eniWeba adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologiis formulirebaSi, kidev erTxel unda aRiniSnos, rom religiuri uflebebisadmi Semwynareblobisa da pativiscemis suliskveTeba srulebiT ar iyo istoriulad damaxasiaTebeli am religiebisaTvis. samwuxarod, arc erT ZiriTad religias ar umoqmedia mTlianad Tavisi swavlebebis Sesabamisad adamianis religiur uflebaTa mimarT. Seusabamoba swavlebebsa da istoriul gamocdilebas Soris udavoa. msgavsi winaaRmdegoba rwmenasa da praqtikas Soris damaxasiaTebeli iyo msoflios yvela religiisaTvis da, Sedegad, isini xSirad mxolod TavianTi realuri arsis aCrdilebi Tu iyvnen. simarTlea isic, rom TiToeuli pirovnebis uflebaTa xelSeuxeblobas da adamianis ZiriTad uflebas religiur identurobaze gamudmebiT da usastikesi formebiT arRvevdnen Tavad religiebi. faqtobrivad, religiis istoriis ZiriTad niSnebs warmoadgens Seuwynarebloba da ara Semwynarebloba, morCileba da ara daumorCilebloba, azrTa erTianoba da ara mravalferovneba. SeuZlebelia imis uaryofa, rom aTaswleulze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi qristianobis istoriisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo ebraelebisa da eretikosebad Seracxuli sxva religiuri disidentebis intensiuri devna. ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vityviT, rom istoriis sakmaod didi nawilis manZilze imaze meti omi gaimarTa da devna ganxorcielda religiis saxeliT, vidre sxva nebismieri deviziT. rogorc erT-erTma istorikosma gadmosca lakonurad, `arsad RmerTisa da samarTlianobis saxelwodeba ise xSirad ar gamoCenila, rogorc dampyroblis droSebsa da farebze.~66 religiebis istoriasa da mrwamss Soris Seusabamobis miuxedavad, adamianis religiuri uflebebis apologia moiTxovs religiuri uflebebis koncefciis aRiarebas Tavdapirvelad swored Tavad religiaTa wminda werilebSi, vinaidan isini avtoritetul moZRvrebebs warmoadgens TiToeuli religiuri tradiciisa da misi mimdevrebisTvis. TviT aq moyvanili mwiri informaciidanac kargad Cans, rom religiur uflebaTa koncefcia ar yofila ucxo msoflios ZiriTadi religiebisaTvis da waxalisebulic kia maT swavlebebSi. adamianis religiuri uflebebi da religiis buneba adamianis religiuri uflebebis apologia ar unda iqnes danaxuli mxolod msoflios ZiriTad religiaTa wminda werilebSi, igi pirdapir kavSirSia religiis bunebasTan. amitom religiuri Seuwynarebloba religiis antiTezaa da misi yvelaze dauZinebeli mteria. rwmenis qona nebayoflobiTi aqtia. imisaTvis, rom religia sakuTar TavTan marTali iyos, igi unda daelodos imaT nebayoflobiT gamoxmaurebas, vinc Tavisufalia iZulebisgan. mxolod am SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli, religiuri mrwamsi gulwrfeli iyos. es kargad hqondaT gaazrebuli adreuli eklesiis mamebs. me-2 saukunis bolos qristianma mweralma, iustine mowamem, romelic mxars uWerda princips logos spermatikos, kerZod ki, RvTiuri sityvis Canasaxovan arsebobas qristianuli tradiciis farglebs gareT, dawera Semdegi: `araferi ar aris iseT winaaRmdegobaSi religiasTan, rogorc iZuleba~. me-3 saukuneSi, rodesac imperatorma lucius septimius severusma 202 wels gamosca qristianobaze iZulebiT moqcevis amkr-

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Zalavi dekreti, tertulianem67 dawera, rom religiis Tavisufleba fundamentur uflebas warmoadgens. misi gancxadebiT, `rogorc adamianuri, ise bunebiTi samarTlis sakiTxia is, rom yvela adamians SeuZlia RmerTis Tayvaniscema ise, rogorc amas Tavad moisurvebs ... iZulebiTi Tavs moxveva ar devs religiis bunebaSi ... igi nebayoflobiT unda iqnes miRebuli~. TiTqmis saukunis Semdgom aTanasiusma68 ganacxada: `ara xmliTa da laxvriT, ara meomrebiT Tu samxedro ZalebiT, aramed saubriTa da keTili darwmunebiT unda moxdes WeSmaritebis gavrceleba~. analogiurad laqtanciusi,69 imperator konstantines Svilis aRmzrdeli moZRvari amtkicebda, rom `araferia ise axlos adamianis Tavisufal nebasTan, rogorc religia, da dauSvebelia, adamians moeTxovos RvTismsaxureba, Tuki mas es ar surs. mas SeuZlia Tavi moikatunos, magram SeuZlebelia undodes~. Sua saukuneebSi, rodesac evropaSi arsad ar arsebobda religiis Tavisufleba, kaTolike iuristi marsilius padueli me-14 saukuneSi mWermetyvelurad amtkicebda, rom iZuleba sruliad ucxoa religiis WeSmariti bunebisaTvis da SeuZlebelia religiuri warmodgenebis gaziarebis daZaleba. religiur xelisuflebas ara aqvs vinmes mier religiuri miTiTebebisadmi morCilebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT iZulebis gamoyenebis ufleba, acxadebda padueli. misi TqmiT, `pirvel rigSi es usargeblo iqneba TviT adamianisaTvis, vinaidan pirovneba, romelic daemorCileba iZulebis safuZvelze, ar dgams nabijs saukuno xsnisken~.70 `qristes ar miuTiTebia, rom misi samarTlisadmi damorCilebis mizniT vinme unda aiZulon da mas amqveynad arc mosamarTle dauniSnavs, romelsac Zalaufleba eqneboda qristes samarTlis damrRvevze~.71 religiis Tavisuflebis mxardamWeri misi winamorbedebis msgavsad marsiliusi religiis Tavisuflebas principis sakiTxad da WeSmariti religiis ZiriTad niSnad ganixilavda. ori saukunis Semdgom udidesi kaTolike humanisti erazmus roterdamelic, igive dezideriusi werda, rom iZuleba ewinaaRmdegeba religiis bunebas da amtkicebda `devnis unayofobas~. Tavis werilSi ioane karondoletis misamarTiT, igi acxadebs: `rodesac mrwamsi ufro bageebSia, vidre gulSi, rodesac bibliis codna gvRalatobs, Cven vaiZulebT adamians irwmunos is, risic ar sjera, uyvardes is, rac ar uyvars, icodes is, rac ar icis. visac aiZuleben, is SeuZlebelia gulwrfeli iyos da vinc ar aris moxalise, is ver aamebs qristes~.72 gansakuTrebiT unda aRiniSnos radikali reformistebis roli, romelTac daicves nebayoflobiTobis principi religiaSi da misi Sedegi, saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvnis saxiT. es niSnavda religiuri saqmeebis gamijvnas saero xelisuflebisagan da uars saero xelisuflebis gamoyenebaze religiur sakiTxebSi. religiis Tavisuflebaze reformistebis am radikaluri frTis moTxovnebi efuZneboda saxarebaze araiZulebiTi reagirebis princips. maTi mtkicebiT, swored es principi iyo WeSmariti eklesiis ZiriTadi niSani. Sesabamisad, isini mZafr oponirebas uwevdnen iZulebis gamoyenebas religiaSi. baltazar hubmaieris gancxadebiT, `Turqs an eretikoss ver davarwmunebT cecxliTa da maxviliT, aramed mxolod locviTa da moTminebiT: amitom Cven moTminebiT unda davelodoT RmerTis gadawyvetilebas~.73 saukunis Semdgom tomas helvisi wignSi, romelSic inglisis istoriaSi pirvelad iqna Camoyalibebuli ufleba religiis universalur Tavisuflebaze, amtkicebda, rom religiis bunebam gamoitana igi saero mmarTvelobis iurisdiqciidan:

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Cveni batoni mefea, magram mas aqvs Zalaufleba mxolod amqveyniur saqmeebSi ... adamianTa religia aris maTsa da RmerTs Soris; mefe pasuxs ver agebs masze, arc samarTlis gaCena SeuZlia adamiansa da RmerTs Soris. eretikosebi, Turqebi, ebraelebi, an vinc ar unda iyvnen isini, ar unda daisajon amqveyniuri ZaliT.74 analogiurad, ramdenime wlis Semdeg leonard buSeri, inglisSi pirveli baptisturi kongregaciis wevri, wers religiaSi saero Zalauflebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb: `es marto sisastike ki ar aris, es arabunebrivi da sazarelicaa, diax, saSinelebaa, erTi qristianis mier meoris xelyofa da ganadgureba religiaSi gansxvavebebis gamo~.75 religiuri mrwamsis nebayoflobiTobis aRiareba Tanamedrove azrovnebis mzardi tendenciaa. religiaSi voluntarizmis xelaxali gaazreba naTlad gamoCnda, magaliTad, meoce saukunis qristianul ekumenur azrovnebaSi. eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos mravaljer gamouxatavs Tavisi xedva religiis Tavisuflebis, rogorc religiisa da religiuri mrwamsis ganuyofeli nawilis Sesaxeb. `RmerTis macxovnebeli zrunva adamianebis mimarT ar aris iZulebiTi xasiaTisa. Sesabamisad, adamianebis mcdelobani, sakanonmdeblo an socialuri tradiciis zewoliT Zaladoba ixmaron an gaanadguron mrwamsi, RmerTisken mimavali adamianis fundamenturi gzebis xelyofas warmoadgens. Tavisufleba, romelic RmerTma mogvaniWa, ... gulisxmobs RmerTis siyvarulze Tavisufal gamoxmaurebas...~76 imisaTvis, rom religia iyos WeSmariti, igi unda iyos nebayoflobiTi, personaluri da Tavisufali aqtis Sedegi. mrwamsi aRar aris mrwamsi, Tu misi nebayoflobiToba xelyofilia iZulebiT. rogorc kaTolike Teologi avgustine leonardi wers, `dakisrebuli mrwamsi winaaRmdegobaSia religiis bunebasTan. mrwamsi Tavisufali unda iyos, Tu ar surs, gaanadguros sakuTari Tavi.~77 religiis Tavisuflebis aRiarebas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc TviT religiuri, ise sxva yvela uflebis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT. eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos religiis Tavisuflebis mdivnis, karilo albornozis sityvebs Tu moviSveliebT, `araviTar inteleqtualur gonebamaxvilobas an religiur dawesebulebas, aranairi saxis iZulebas an darwmunebis Zalas ar SeuZlia imis Secvla, rom RmerTi adamianebs epyroba, rogorc Tavisufal da pasuxismgebel arsebebs da rom igi maTgan nebayoflobiT gamoxmaurebas moelis~.78 an, rogorc albert hartmani acxadebs, `RmerTis nebis SecnobisaTvis adamianis erTaderT saSualebas warmoadgens sakuTari sindisis xma~.79 ufleba religiur identurobasa da personalur religiur mrwamsze, erTmorwmuneebTan gaerTianebis CaTvliT, moiTxovs nebayoflobiTobas. Sesabamisad, adamianis religiuri uflebebis xelyofa gardauvalia, rodesac xdeba individis nebismieri saxiT iZuleba. adamianis religiuri uflebebi da adamianis Rirseba adamianis religiuri uflebebis dauZlevadi argumenti danaxuli unda iqnes adamianis Rirsebisa da individis sindisis xelSeuxeblobis pativiscemaSi, vinaidan orive maTgani Seadgens SezRuduli saxelmwifosa da Tavisufali da demokratiuli sazogadoebis safuZvels. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSi (1948) marTebulad aris moxseniebuli `sakacobrio ojaxis yvela wevrisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rirseba~ da `adamianis pirovnebis Rirseba da Rirebuleba~. rogorc samoqalaqo da

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politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtisaTvis (1966), ise ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtisaTvis (1966) saerTo preambulaSi vkiTxulobT: `es uflebebi pirovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rirsebidanaa warmoebuli~. pirovnebis xelSeuxebloba sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli, rogorc adamianis yvela uflebis safuZveli. Tumca misi mniSvneloba albaT religiuri mrwamsis mimarTaa yvelaze aqtualuri. adamianis pirovnebis Rirebuleba ubralod Zalian wmindaa imisaTvis, rom moxdes misi Selaxva religiuri iZulebiT an iZulebiTi morCilebiT. imisaTvis, rom adamianis religiur uflebebs realuri mniSvneloba hqondes, aucilebelia saxelmwifos mxridan arsebobdes rwmenis sakiTxebSi gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaze adamianis Tandayolili uflebis samarTlebrivi aRiareba. rogorc eklesiaTa msoflio sabWom aRniSna Tavisi dafuZnebisas TiTqmis ormoci wlis win, `adamianis buneba da bediswera ... awesebs zRvars, romlis miRmac saxelmwifos ar SeuZlia dausjelad wavides~.80 aseve, rogorc vatikanis meore saeklesio krebam ganacxada, `adamianis xelSeuvali uflebebis dacva da xelSewyoba mTavrobis erT-erT ZiriTad valdebulebas warmoadgens~.81 adamianis pirovnul RirsebasTan mWidro kavSirSia sindisis Tavisuflebis koncefcia. savaraudod, marsilius padueli iyo pirveli, vinc sindisis Tavisufleba aRiara rogorc bunebiT, ise politikur uflebad. imis miuxedavad, rom religiis Tavisufleba dRevandel msoflioSi religiur azrovnebasTan Rrmad dakavSirebul movlenad ganixileba, igi swored `sindisis Tavisuflebis~ koncefciidan gamomdinareobs. protestantuli reformacia zogadad religiis Tavisuflebisa da adamianis religiuri uflebebis mxardamWerad ar gamosula, Tumca es iyo amboxi, rogorc dawesebuli religiebis, ise politikuri xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg da, Sesabamisad, xeli Seuwyo axali nacia-saxelmwifoebis da erovnuli sulis warmoqmnas evropasa da did britaneTSi. reformacia iyo pirveli amboxi dawesebuli religiuri xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg. rodesac martin luTeris Sexedulebebi bibliaze gaakritika misi drois eklesiurma xelisuflebam, man ganacxada: `me ar SemiZlia da ar msurs uarvyo raime, vinaidan sindisis winaaRmdeg wasvla arc marTebulia da arc usafrTxo~; radgan `me ufro sakuTari gulisa meSinia, vidre papisa da misi yvela kardinalisa~. renesansuli humanizmiT xelSewyobili, Tavisuflebis axali mamaci suli gamoCnda religiaSi, romelmac gardauvalad daudo saTave princips: `rwmena Tavisufalia~. religiis Tavisuflebis principi TandaTanobiT sajarod iqna gacxadebuli, ramac, saboloo jamSi, migviyvana religiur sakiTxebSi individis RvTisgan boZebuli kompetenciis daJinebul moTxovnamde. religiis Tavisufleba gacxadebuli iqna, rogorc bunebiT, ise saRvTo uflebad. amiT safuZveli Caeyara mtkicebas, rom religiis Tavisufleba moiTxovda samoqalaqo Tavisuflebas, es ukanaskneli ki — sindisis Tavisuflebas. `sxva yvela Tavisuflebaze upiratesad momeciT codnis miRebis, azrovnebis, rwmenisa da Tavisuflad gamoTqmis Tavisufleba, sindisis Sesabamisad~, _ wers jon miltoni Tavis didebul wignSi Areopagitica 1644 wels. religiis TavisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi Tavisufalma eklesiebma mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules sindisis Tavisuflebis, rogorc religiis Tavisuflebis safuZvlis, warmoqmnaSi. franklin litelis sityvebs Tu davesesxebiT, `Tavisufali eklesiebis yvelaze didi daxmareba individualuri moqalaqeebis mimarT, miuxedavad imisa, eklesiis wevrebs warmoadgenen Tu ara isini, mdgomareobs sindisis Tavisuflebis

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dawesebaSi~.82 sindisis TavisuflebaSi moiazreboda TiToeuli pirovnebis ufleba Tavisi sindisis miTiTebebis mimdevari yofiliyo samoqalaqo xelisuflebisgan yovelgvari Carevis gareSe. Tavis ukvdav naSromSi, History of Freedom, lordi aqtoni acxadebs: sindisis Tavisufleba aris `garantia, rom yoveli adamiani iqneba daculi imis keTebisas, rac Tavis valdebulebad miaCnia xelisuflebaTa da umravlesobaTa tradiciebisa da mosazrebebis sawinaaRmdegod~. dasavlur samyaroSi sindisis Tavisufleba or fundamentur princips emyareba. pirveli — sindisis Tavisufleba yvela adamianis bunebiTi da saRvTo uflebaa. es is sferoa, romelic WeSmaritad demokratiulma saxelmwifom unda daicvas da romelSic gaumarTleblad ar unda Caerios. iq, sadac religiis saboloo mizans WeSmariteba warmoadgens, saxelmwifos mizani unda iyos Tavisufleba, an, rogorc mas benediqte spinozam uwoda, `mTavrobis WeSmariti mizani~.83 meore aqsioma imaSi mdgomareobs, rom, vinaidan sindisis Tavisufleba bunebiTi da saRvTo, Tandayolili da universaluri uflebaa, dauSvebelia erTi pirovneba meoreze maRla iqnes dayenebuli misi gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis TvalsazrisiT. yvela adamiani Tanasworia uflebebSi iseve, rogorc valdebulebebSi da, Tu pirvel SemTxvevaSi dauSvebelia xelisuflebis mier maTi warTmeva, bolo SemTxvevaSi ar SeiZleba — raodenobis diskriminaciuli zrda. sindisis Tavisuflebaze religiuri uflebis aRiareba gulisxmobs adamianis uflebis dadasturebas, iwamos an ar iwamos esa Tu is religiuri dogma; erTi an ramdenime RmerTis msaxureba Seasrulos, an saerTod ar CaerTos RvTismsaxurebaSi; iyos an ar iyos religiuri gaerTianebis wevri; gamoxatos Tavisi religia yovelgvari samoqalaqo tipis xelis SemSleli garemoebebis gareSe iqamde, sanam aseTi gamoxatva ar aris zianis momtani sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da usafrTxoebisaTvis. etimologiurad sindisi axlosaa moralur msoflmxedvelobasa da cnobierebasTan, romlis mixedviTac adamiani ganicdis impulss, moiqces sworad da Tavs ikavebs cudis keTebisagan. religiis buneba moiTxovs, rom igi Rrmad iyos gamjdari sindisSi, romelsac Teologebi axasiaTeben uflis `niWad~ an `xmad~. naxevari saukunis win aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare harlenma gobitisis saqmeSi ganacxada, rom, Tuki Tavisuflebis konstituciur garantiebs `raime mniSvneloba aqvs, maT unda ... Seakavon saxelmwifos zegavlena rwmenis an misi gamoxatvis iZulebaze, Tu es gamoxatva ewinaaRmdegeba pirovnebis religiur Sexedulebebs~.84 saxelmwifos mxridan sindisis xelSeuxeblobis xelyofa faqtobrivad warmoadgens mis mier im uzenaesi Zalauflebis misakuTrebas, romelic mxolod RmerTs ekuTvnis. SeuZlebelia, adamianis religiuri uflebebi daculi iyos im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki, Tundac umravlesobaTa koleqtiuri nebiT mxardaWeril saxelmwifos da mis institutebs nebadarTuli aqvT sindisidan gamomdinare uflebaTa ignorireba. sindisis Tavisuflebis aRiareba Tavisufali da demokratiuli sazogadoebis siRrmeSi Zevs da politikuri absolutizmis dabrkolebas warmoadgens. rogorc henri devid torom dawera TiTqmis saukunis win, `saxelmwifo arasodes iqneba WeSmaritad Tavisufali, sanam ar aRiarebs individs masze maRal da damoukidebel Zalad, saidanac mTeli misi Zalaufleba da xelisuflebaa miRebuli da jerovnad ar moepyroba mas. me maxarebs Tundac iseTi saxelmwifos warmodgena, romelic, sul mcire, yvela adamianisTvis iqneba Seqmnili~.85

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adamianis religiuri uflebebi da saero saxelmwifo adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia unda davinaxoT saero saxelmwifos koncefciaSi. arsebobs rogorc istoriuli, ise filosofiuri kavSiri religiur uflebebsa da saero saxelmwifos Soris. saero aris is saxelmwifo, sadac xelisuflebis Zalaufleba sekularuli sferoTi Semoifargleba; saxelmwifo Tavisufalia instituciuri religiis an eklesiis zegavlenisgan da piriqiT, instituciuri religia damoukidebelia saxelmwifo an politikuri kontrolisgan. es aris saxelmwifo, romelsac ar gaaCnia iurisdiqcia religiur saqmeebze, ara imitom, rom isini saxelmwifos interesis miRmaa, aramed ufro imitom, rom religiuri interesebi ganixileba Zalze wmindad imisaTvis, rom iqces Secdomebisaken midrekili samoqalaqo xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa nebis obieqtad. praqtikaSi saeroa is saxelmwifo, romelic uars ambobs politikuri saSualebebis gamoyenebaze religiuri miznebis misaRwevad an religiuri SesaZleblobebiT sargeblobaze politikuri miznis ganxorcielebisaTvis. vinaidan misi xelisufleba saero saqmeebiT izRudeba, urTierToba saxelmwifosa da religias Soris neitraluri unda iyos, rogorc mravalricxovan morwmuneTa sazogadoebebis, ise arareligiebis mimarT, anu saero saxelmwifoSi moqalaqeebi ar unda sargeblobdnen xelisuflebis mxridan keTilganwyobiT an uaryofiTi damokidebulebiT religiur niadagze. es aris saxelmwifo, sadac xelisuflebas ar gaaCnia religiis institutebze dominirebis ufleba da arc religiur institutebs aqvT msgavsi ufleba saxelmwifos mimarT. religiis Tavisuflebis msgavsad saero saxelmwifos warmoqmnasac Rrma fesvebi aqvs istoriaSi. Tanamedrove epoqamde saero saxelmwifos idea mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli dasavlur civilizaciasTan. istoriulad igi gulisxmobda qristianul an zogadad religiur saxelmwifoze uaris Tqmas, rac, Sesabamisad, ewinaaRmdegeboda gansakuTrebul religiur tradiciaze dafuZnebul erovnuli identurobis koncefcias. saero saxelmwifosaTvis damaxasiaTebelia sekularul da sulier xelisuflebasa da, zogadad, religiur da saxelmwifo institutebs Soris mkafio separacia. saero saxelmwifos SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo xelisuflebis safuZvels warmoadgens samoqalaqo da bunebiTi samarTali da ara religiuri dekreti an saRvTo samarTali. gansazRvruli politikuri xelisuflebis, rogorc monarqis, ise sxva politikuri subieqtis mxridan xdeba Tavis arideba mtkicebisaTvis, rom misi Zalaufleba saRvTo samarTals efuZneba. analogiurad, nebismieri gancxadeba ama Tu im naciis religiur saxelmwifod yofnaze srulebiT ewinaaRmdegeba saero saxelmwifos koncefcias. saero saxelmwifos erT-erT mTavar arqiteqtorad moiazreba marsilius padueli, me-14 saukunis saxelganTqmuli romaeli kaTolike moazrovne. 1324 wels gamoqveynebul mis didebul samecniero naSromSi Defensor Pacis man mZafrad gaakritika saxelmwifoze eklesiis uzenaesobis Sesaxeb mtkicebani da uaryo qristianuli saxelmwifos ideac,_ mundus Christianus. man es gaakeTa mkacri gansxvavebis safuZvelze, romelic, marsiliusis mosazrebiT, aucileblad unda ganisazRvros saRvTo da adamianur samarTals Soris. igi daJinebiT moiTxovda, rom saxelmwifo dafuZnebuli yofiliyo bunebiT samarTalze da eklesias ar hqonoda iurisdiqcia saxelmwifoze. marsiliusma aSkarad gauswro Tavis dros. man ganacxada: kanonebi Zalauflebas iZenen erisgan da misi mowonebis gareSe kanonieri Zala ar gaaCniaT. vinaidan mTeli yovelTvis ufro didia, vidre misi

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nebismieri nawili, ar aris swori, rodesac nawili kanons iRebs mTelisTvis; vinaidan adamianebi Tanasworni arian, arasworia, rom erTi iyos SeboWili meoris miRebuli kanoniT. im kanonebisadmi damorCilebiT, romlebzedac yvela adamiani SeTanxmda, yvela maTgani realurad marTavs sakuTar Tavs ... igi (monarqi) pasuxismgebelia erze da eqvemdebareba am kanons; da erma, romelic niSnavs mas da aniWebs valdebulebebs, meTvalyureoba unda gauwios mis mier konstituciis Sesrulebas da daiTxovos, Tuki daarRvevs mas!86 marsiliusi ara marto mxars uWerda saero saxelmwifos ideas, aramed uaryofda eklesiis uflebas sekularuli Zalauflebis qonaze an ganxorcielebaze. igi Tvlida, rom, vinaidan qriste da misi mociqulebi ar iTxovdnen saero Zalauflebas, arc eklesias hqonda amis ufleba. igi aseve amtkicebda, rom dauSvebeli iyo saRvTo samarTlis cxovrebaSi gatareba an daweseba saero xelisuflebis daxmarebiT; mxolod RmerTia saRvTo samarTlis ganmsjeli. Sesabamisad, dauSvebelia saero iZulebis nebismieri formis gamoyeneba religiisadmi morCilebis miRwevis mizniT. saero sferoTi SezRuduli sekularuli saxelmwifosa da saRvTo samarTlis bunebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT, SeuZlebelia iZulebis gamoyeneba religiur sakiTxebSi. rogorc marsiliusma dawera, `moqalaqeTa uflebebi damoukidebelia maTi aRmsareblobisagan; dauSvebelia adamianis dasja misi religiisaTvis~. saxelmwifos Sesaxeb igi amtkicebda, rom `samarTlis wyaro unda veZioT ara saRvTo uflebaSi an mmarTvelebSi, arc nebismieri klasis an sazogadoebis uzenaes sibrZneSi, aramed mis yvela moqalaqeSi~.87 marsiliusis ideebi saero saxelmwifosa da religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb absoluturi ignorirebis obieqti iyo ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi, Tumca, rogorc konstituciuri samarTlis erTma mecnierma aRniSna, isini `gamiznuli iyo, gavlenis mosaxdenad ara mxolod maTze, vinc reformaciaze iyo pasuxismgebeli, aramed Tanamedrove konstituciuri samarTlis fuZemdeblebzec~88 . marsiliusis ideebis gacxadebidan ori saukunis Semdgom radikaluri reformaciidan aRmocenda reformistuli moZraoba, dafuZnebuli qristesadmi araiZulebis safuZvelze erTgulebis gamomxatveli adamianebisgan Semdgari nebayoflobiTi eklesiis koncefciaze da ara qristianul samyaroze, sadac eklesiisa da sazogadoebis an saxelmwifos wevroba faqtobrivad Tanmxvedr movlenebad iTvleboda. protestantuli reformaciis es memarcxene frTa mxars saero saxelmwifos ideas uWerda. isini ibrZodnen religiaSi voluntarizmis, morwmuneTa naTlobisa da qristesadmi WeSmaritad erTgulTagan Semdgari voluntaruli eklesiis principebisaTvis. am principebis realizaciis Sedegs ki, bunebrivia, saxelmwifosa da eklesiis separacia warmoadgenda. mrwamsi, romelsac isini acxadebdnen, da misi gavrceleba efuZneboda religiis araiZulebiT gaziarebas. es, radikali reformistebis mtkicebiT, WeSmariti religiis aucilebeli elementi iyo. 1549 wels miTiTebaSi iakob Sturmisadmi kaspar Svenkfeldma, romlis sulier STamomavalTa umravlesobam mogvianebiT amerikas miaSura, dawera Semdegi: `samoqalaqo xelisuflebas ar gaaCnia iurisdiqcia uflis sasufevelze; xelisufleba uflis mier kurTxeulia erTaderTi miznis, sazogadoebaSi adamianTa mSvidobiani Tanacxovrebis SenarCunebisaTvis, magram ar gaaCnia religiur warmodgenebze zegavlenis moxdenisa da arc maTSi Carevis ufleba; individi angariSvaldebulia mxolod ieso qristes, rogorc saRvTo sasufevlis meufisadmi.~

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radikali reformistebis interesis sagans warmoadgenda ara adamianis uflebebi, rogorc aseTi (romlebic mogvianebiT jon lokis, ganmanaTleblebisa da jon stiuart milis mier iqna mxardaWerili), aramed saxelmwifo xelisuflebis CamoSoreba religiisgan. saero saxelmwifos idealis realizacia — didi xnis ganmavlobaSi propagandirebuli sxvadasxva politikuri Tu socialuri filosofosebis, anabaptistebisa da sxva religiuri jgufebis mxridan — sabolood mxolod rod ailendis eqsperimentis Sedegad gaxda SesaZlebeli. aq, pirvelad kacobriobis istoriis manZilze, rojer uiliamsis wyalobiT dafuZnda arsebiTad sekularuli saxelmwifo, sadac yvela politikuri ufleba religiuri mrwamsis miuxedavad garantirebuli iyo. eklesiisa da saxelmwifos gamijvnis amerikuli tradiciis aRiarebuli arqiteqtori, rojer uiliamsi cdilobda Teologiuri safuZveli moeZebna saero saxelmwifosaTvis. misi TqmiT, saxelmwifo xelisufleba `ar aris religiuri, qristianuli da a. S., aramed bunebiTi, adamianuri da samoqalaqoa~; da, Sesabamisad, `ukanonoa~ saxelmwifos mier sindisisa da religiis sakiTxebis gansazRvra an akrZalva. `yvela saero saxelmwifo, Tavis sasamarTlo CinovnikebTan erTad Tavs saerod acxadebs Tavisive konstituciasa da administraciaSi da ara sulieri an qristianuli saxelmwifos mosamarTled, mmarTvelad an damcvelad~. `Sesabamisad~ _ uiliamsis mtkicebiT _ `SeuZlebelia saero saxelmwifo an qveyana WeSmaritad qristianulad iqnes wodebuli, imis miuxedavad, rom iq SeiZleba WeSmariti qristianebi cxovrobdnen~.89 uiliamsisTvis eklesia da saxelmwifo erTmaneTisgan gamijnuli unda iyos ara mxolod imitom, rom eklesia darCes eklesiad, aramed imitomac, rom saxelmwifo darCes saxelmwifod, RmerTi iyos RmerTi da qristiani iyos qristiani. uiliamsis gancxadebiT, `cxovrebaSi iZulebiT gatarebuli religiis erTianoba mTeli eris an samoqalaqo saxelmwifos masStabiT erTmaneTSi urevs saeros da religiurs da amiT uaryofs qristianobisa da civilurobis principebs...~90 yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, uiliamsma daaskvna, rom iZulebiTi da gadasaxadebiT mxardaWerili religia araqristianulia; bibliuri israeli ar aris saxelmwifo modeli qristianebisaTvis da yvela adamianisa da jgufis Tanasworoba kanonis winaSe samoqalaqo xelisuflebis fundamentur pasuxismgeblobas warmoadgens. jon lokis mier saxelmwifos ideis SedarebiT ufro srulfasovani formulireba moxda ara Tavisuflebis qristianul-Teologiuri, aramed konstituciuri xelisuflebis safuZvelze. lokis politikuri azrovnebis aTvlis wertili iyo ara saxelmwifo, aramed individi. lokis Tanaxmad, yvela individs aqvs Tandayolili uflebebi sicocxleze, Tavisuflebasa da sakuTrebaze; saxelmwifo xelisufleba xorcieldeba misi mmarTvelobis qveS myofTa Tanxmobis, magaliTad, urTierTSeTanxmebis an sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis safuZvelze, da saeklesio Zalauflebas ar eqvemdebareba. WeSmariteba, lokis azriT, imaSi mdgomareobs, rom saxelmwifo Seiqmna individebis mier maTive interesebisaTvis — kerZo sakuTrebis dacvisa da sazogadoebrivi keTildReobisaTvis kanonTa aRsrulebis mizniT. misi mtkicebiT, yvela kanoni angariSvaldebulia moqalaqeebis winaSe, politikuri absolutizmi ki `Seusabamoa samoqalaqo sazogadoebis cnebasTan~. aqedan gamomdinare, yvela xelisuflebis Zalaufleba SezRudulia pirovnebis, rogorc individis, bunebiTi uflebebiT.91 lokisTvis `saero~ niSnavs arsebiTad SezRudul saxelmwifos — Sexeduleba, romelic kvlavac rCeba saero saxelmwifos ganmartebis kvintesenciad.

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miuxedavad imisa, rom sekularuli saxelmwifos koncefciam ganmanaTleblobis periodSi didi gavlena iqonia inglissa da safrangeTze, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi iqca pirvel saxelmwifod msoflio istoriaSi, romelmac konstituciurad aRiara saero saxelmwifos sistema, sadac xelisuflebas ar gaaCnia iurisdiqcia religiur sakiTxebze, anu akrZaluli aqvs `aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis~ uaryofa; dauSvebelia religiuri testis gamoyeneba sajaro Tanamdebobis dasakaveblad; yvela religiuri jgufi Tanasworia kanonis winaSe, Tavisufalia nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis an gamorCeuli mopyrobisgan; saxelmwifos mier yvela religiuri dajgufeba ganixileba kerZo da nebayoflobiT gaerTianebad. sekularulma saxelmwifom neitraloba unda gamoiCinos rogorc religiaTa, ise arareligiaTa mimarT da aRiaros sruli arakompetenturoba religiur sakiTxebSi. WeSmaritad saero saxelmwifo cdilobs, arc Seuwyos xeli da arc ziani miayenos religias da religiur identurobas moqalaqis uflebebis uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT umniSvnelod miiCnevs. 130 wlis win, eklesiisa da saxelmwifos urTierTobasTan dakavSirebul pirvel saqmeSi SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganacxada: am qveyanaSi nebismieri religiuri mrwamsis aRiarebis, nebismieri religiuri principis gamoxatvisa da nebismieri religiuri doqtrinis swavlebis sruli da Tavisufali ufleba, romelic ar arRvevs zneobisa da sakuTrebis normebs da romelic ar xelyofs personalur uflebebs, yvelas aqvs miniWebuli. kanoni ar icnobs mwvaleblobas da ar aris midrekili, mxari dauWiros nebismier dogmas an romelime seqtis dawesebas. ufleba nebismieri religiuri doqtrinis gamoxatvasa da gavrcelebaSi daxmarebis mizniT nebayoflobiTi religiuri gaerTianebis organizebaze, mis farglebSi mrwamsis sadavo sakiTxebis gadaWrisa da yvela individualuri wevris, kongregaciisa da Tanamdebobis piris erTiani eklesiuri xelisuflebisadmi daqvemdebarebisaTvis tribunalebis Seqmnaze udavo xasiaTs atarebs.92 sekularuli saxelmwifos koncefciis Taobaze aucilebelia aRiniSnos, rom igi ar aRmocenebula religiisadmi mtrobis safuZvelze. piriqiT, religiisadmi mtroba Seusabamoa sekularuli saxelmwifos bunebasTan, vinaidan is Tavisufalia nebismieri religiis Tu uzenaesi rwmenis sakiTxebisgan; saero saxelmwifos idea Rrmad aris gamjdari sindisis Tavisuflebis ganuyofel uflebasa da religiuri voluntarizmis principSi. is, rom arsebobs daZabuloba da konfliqtic ki eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris — religiur sazogadoebasa da politikur xelisuflebas Soris — ara marto gardauvali, aramed misasalmebelicaa. es aris konfliqti, romlis sruli mogvarebac SeuZlebelia swored religiis bunebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romelic efuZneba religiur TvalTaxedvas rogorc pirovnebis, ise sazogadoebis Camoyalibebasa da ganviTarebaze. amave dros, sekularuli saxelmwifos koncefcia harmoniaSia rogorc religiis, ise saxelmwifos (religiisgan) TavisuflebasTan. aRniSnuli mizezebis gamo, saero saxelmwifo saukeTesoa rogorc Tavad saxelmwifos, ise religiisaTvis da mniSvnelovnad uzrunvelyofs orives Tavisuflebas. Tu istorias gadavxedavT, sekularuli saxelmwifos warmoqmnas udidesi istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvs Tanamedrove msoflioSi adamianis religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebis warmoSobisaTvis.

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religiis Tavisufleba da adamianis sxva uflebebi adamianis religiur uflebaTa apologia unda veZioT religiuri uflebebis gansakuTrebul kavSirSi adamianis sxva, rogorc individualur, ise socialur uflebebTan. is gamomdinareobs im Sinagani Rirebulebidan, rac adamianis pirovnebas miewereba da rac, saboloo jamSi, individis yvela uflebis safuZvels qmnis. swored pirovnebis Sinagani Rirebuleba, imis miuxedavad, gamokveTilad aRiarebulia Tu ara igi, axdens demokratiisa da konstituciuri xelisuflebis safuZvlis formirebas, sadac adamianis uflebaTa gansazRvruli principebi miCneulia Tandayolil da, Sesabamisad, xelisuflebis mavaldebulebel faseulobebad. adamianis religiuri uflebebi mWidro kavSirSia adamianis sindisis xelSeuxeblobasTan da maTi garantirebis gareSe adamianis yvela uflebas safrTxe emuqreba. religiis Tavisufleba sayovelTaod aris aRiarebuli adamianis uflebebis safuZvlad. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, religiis Tavisufleba, faqtobrivad, yvela naciisTvis iqca konstituciaSi gamoxatul normatiul principad. imis miuxedavad, rom, garkveuli mosazrebiT, adamianis uflebebi ganuyofelia, sruliad naTelia religiuri uflebebis gansakuTrebuli adgili msoflio masStabiT Tanamedrove samyaroSi adamianis uflebebis gaazrebis horizontebis gafarToebaSi. es, ra Tqma unda, srulebiT ar niSnavs ekonomikuri da socialuri, iseve, rogorc sxva samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis mniSvnelovani rolis dakninebas adamianis uflebebisaTvis sayovelTao brZolaSi, sadac yvela ufleba mWidro urTierTkavSirSia. religiuri uflebebis arsebiTi mniSvneloba adamianis uflebebis xelSewyobis saqmeSi maT Sinagan safuZvelSi mdgomareobs, adamianuri pirovnebis bunebisa da Rirebulebis saxiT. swored amitom, rogorc amerikul iurisprudenciaSi, ise ekumenuri azrovnebis udides nawilSi, religiis Tavisufleba adamianis yvela uflebis faqtobriv qvakuTxedad aris miCneuli. meore msoflio omis Semdgom TviT dasavleTis farglebs gareT Catarebul ekumenur konferenciebSi `religiis Tavisufleba yvelaze fundamentur~ Tavisuflebad iqna aRiarebuli.93 eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos gancxadebiT, `religiis Tavisufleba yvela WeSmariti Tavisuflebis sawyisi da damcvelia~.94 cxadia, rom religiis Tavisuflebis gareSe aSkara safrTxe emuqreba rogorc sityvis, ise presis, Sekrebisa da gaerTianebis Tavisuflebas. aseve naTelia, rom adamianis religiuri uflebebis aRiarebis gareSe safrTxis qveS dgas zogadad ufleba gansxvavebulobaze. rogorc SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlos yofilma Tavmjdomarem Carlz evans hiuzma aRniSna, `rodesac vkargavT uflebas, viyoT gansxvavebulni, Cven vkargavT uflebas, viyoT Tavisufalni~. pativiscema religiuri uflebebisadmi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania adamianis sxva uflebebze saxelmwifos mxridan zrunvisa da individualuri moqalaqeebis Rirebulebaze misi Sexedulebis gansazRvris TvalsazrisiT. sinamdvileSi, rodesac saxelmwifo pativs scems religiur uflebebs, igi Tavisi moqalaqeebis Rirsebaze realur zrunvas gamoxatavs. aseTi aRiareba ara mxolod saxelmwifos SezRuduli xelisuflebis dadasturebaa, aramed, savaraudod, adamianis sxva, rogorc politikuri da samoqalaqo, ise socialuri da ekonomikuri uflebebis gacilebiT farTo aRiarebaSi gadaizrdeba. Tu karilo albronozis sityvebs moviSveliebT, savsebiT logikuria imis mtkiceba, rom

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adamianis uzenaesi Rirebulebebis (religiuri xasiaTis) pativiscema iqneba adamianis yvela sxva Rirebulebis daskvniTi `testi~ da saukeTeso garantia. Tuki, magaliTad, totalitaruli saxelmwifo ar aRiarebs TviT religiis yvelaze sulier sferos da adamianis Sinagan avtonomias, is, savaraudod, arc sxva naklebad mniSvnelovani faseulobebisa da Sinagani sferoebis winaSe daixevs ukan. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, savsebiT sworia Sexeduleba, rom, Tu sazogadoeba pativs ar scems religiasa da mis Tavisuflebas, aravinaa uzrunvelyofili, rom maT mimarT gamoiCenen pativiscemas.95 religiisa da rwmenis niadagze Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis nebismieri formis aRmofxvris deklaraciis miRebiT gaerom aRiara, rom aseTi diskriminacia ganxiluli unda iqnes rogorc ara mxolod adamianis Rirsebis damcireba, aramed rogorc gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis wesdebaSi ganmtkicebuli principebis uaryofa da adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSi garantirebuli uflebebis darRveva. rogorc qvemoT ukve aRiniSna, religiuri uflebebi ar aris mxolod individualuri, aramed korporatiuli da socialuricaa, amitomac isini unda moicavdes uflebas Sesabamis socialur konteqstSi religiur gaerTianebasa da religiis gamoxatvaze. religiuri uflebebis, rogorc adamianis yvela sxva uflebis — samoqalaqo, ekonomikuri da socialuri — qvakuTxedad aRiareba Tavisufali da pluralisturi nacia-saxelmwifos warmoqmnaze mianiSnebs, sadac SesaZlebelia individualuri da socialuri uflebebisadmi pativiscemis realizeba. adamianis religiuri uflebebi da saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba dabolos, adamianis religiuri uflebebis apologia SegviZlia davinaxoT saerTaSoriso samarTalSi da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT religiuri uflebebisaTvis miniWebul aRiarebaSi, kerZod, adamianis uflebebis sayovelTao deklaraciaSi (1948), samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtSi (1955), helsinkis daskvniTi aqtis principebSi (1975) da religiisa da rwmenis niadagze nebismieri formis Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis aRmofxvris deklaraciaSi (1981). imis miuxedavad, rom religiis Tavisufleba xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi mxardaWerili iyo calkeuli individebisa da religiuri disidentebis mier, romlebic, sul mcire, TavisTvis moiTxovdnen mas, religiis Tavisuflebis sruli realizeba ar momxdara Tanamedrove epoqamde da, dResac ki, igi Sors aris realobisgan msoflios mraval qveyanaSi. amis miuxedavad, religiis Tavisufleba saerTaSoriso samarTlis aRiarebuli postulatia. udidesi istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis formirebidan (1945) sul mcire droSi gadaidga Tanmimdevruli nabijebi religiis Tavisuflebis principis, rogorc fundamenturi uflebis, formulirebisaTvis. gaeros wesdebaSi mocemuli erT-erTi fuZemdebluri principia `yvela adamianisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Rirseba da Tanasworoba~. aqedan gamomdinare, yvela wevr-saxelmwifos mier aRebuli iqna valdebuleba, `ganexorcielebina, rogorc erToblivi, ise damoukidebeli qmedebani adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvisadmi sayovelTao pativiscemis, xelSewyobisa da mxardaWerisaTvis, miuxedavad rasisa, sqesisa, enisa da religiisa~. dafuZnebidan sami wlis Semdgom gaeros generalurma asambleam miiRo `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia~, sadac gansakuTrebuli yuradReba iqna gamaxvi-

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lebuli religiis Tavisuflebaze, rogorc adamianis fundamentur uflebaze. meore muxlis Tanaxmad, deklaraciaSi gacxadebuli yvela ufleba da Tavisufleba miniWebuli aqvs TiToeul adamians, miuxedavad religiisa da rwmenisa. me-18 muxlis mixedviT ki, `yvela adamians aqvs ufleba azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebaze; es ufleba moicavs religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis, erTpirovnulad an sazogadoebaSi sxvebTan erTad, kerZod an sajarod religiis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, swavlebiT, RvTismsaxurebiT, religiur da ritualur wes-CveulebaTa SesrulebiT.~ deklaraciis es nawili sxvadasxva formiT iqna inkorporirebuli mravali saxelmwifos erovnul konstituciaSi. TiTqmis oTxi aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi molaparakebebisa da konsultaciebis Sedegad gaeros generalurma asambleam miiRo `deklaracia religiisa da rwmenis niadagze Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis nebismieri formis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb~, sadac aseve ganmtkicebuli iqna `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciiT~ gaTvaliswinebuli religiuri uflebebi. garda amisa, 1981 wlis deklaracia kategoriulad acxadebs, rom `aravin ar SeiZleba gaxdes nebismieri saxelmwifos, dawesebulebis, adamianTa jgufis an pirovnebis mxridan diskriminaciis msxverpli religiis an sxva mrwamsis safuZvelze~. aseTi diskriminacia, deklaraciis mixedviT, aris ara mxolod adamianis Rirsebis `Selaxva~, aramed gaeros wesdebaSi ganmtkicebul principTa `uaryofa~ da `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSi~ garantirebul uflebaTa darRveva~. aqedan gamomdinare, religiuri uflebebi samudamod iqna aRiarebuli erTa TanamegobrobaSi, rogorc adamianis xelSeuvali ufleba. saerTaSoriso samarTalSi religiis Tavisuflebis mzard aRiarebas Tan sdevda eklesiaTa mxridan misi farTo ekumenuri mxardaWera. eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos pirveli asambleis mier 1948 wels religiis Tavisuflebis gamokveTilad mxardamWeri mosazreba iqna gatarebuli Sedgenil dokumentSi, romelsac ewoda `religiis Tavisuflebis deklaracia~. deklaracia eklesiebs mouwodebda, mxari daeWiraT `nebismieri mcdelobisaTvis, romelic mimarTuli iyo adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso aqtis farglebSi religiisa da sindisis Tavisuflebis adekvaturi dacvis garantirebisaken~, rac moicavda `yvela adamianis uflebas mrwamsis qonasa da Secvlaze, mis gamoxatvaze RvTismsaxurebisa da ritualebis gziT, sxvebis damoZRvrasa da darwmunebaze, sakuTari Svilebis religiuri ganaTlebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebaze.~ deklaraciaSi SemdgomSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom religiis Tavisufleba `saerTaSoriso wesrigis arsebiTi elementia ... romelic yvelgan unda iqnes uzrunvelyofili.~96 deklaracia mouwodebda yvela qristians, ar moeTxovaT maTTvis im privilegiebis miniWeba, romlebic sxvebisTvis ar iqneboda xelmisawvdomi. amsterdamSi miRebuli deklaracia kvlav rCeba religiis Tavisuflebis istoriaSi Semobrunebis wertilad da, savaraudod, didi gavlena iqonia gaeros mier `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelao deklaraciis~ saboloo variantis miRebaze (ramdenime Tvis Semdgom amsterdamis deklaraciis miRebidan). eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos momdevno Sekrebebi ara mxolod adasturebs amsterdamis deklaraciis mniSvnelobas, aramed agrZelebs religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebisadmi sabWos erTgulebas. analogiurad, gansakuTrebulad aRsaniSnavia religiis Tavisuflebis mxardaWera romis kaTolikuri eklesiis mier. korporaciul Tavisuflebaze bunebiTi uflebis, iseve, rogorc individualuri religiis Tavisuflebis aRiarebisas, vatikanis meore saeklesio krebam ganacxada: `religiis Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebis safuZveli adamianis pirovnebis RirsebaSia; dauSvebelia

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adamianis iZuleba, imoqmedos Tavisi sindisis sawinaaRmdegod; religiur sazogadoebebs aqvT TavianTi mrwamsis daubrkoleblad, rogorc beWdviTi, ise zepiri formiT sajaro swavlebisa da gacxadebis ufleba.~97 aqve aucilebelia imis aRniSvnac, rom istoriulad religiis Tavisuflebisa da Semwynareblobis moTxovnebi religiis niadagze uflebaCamorTmeuli da devnili religiuri umciresobebisa da disidentebis mxridan modioda. aseve aRsaniSnavia, rom Tanamedrove samyaroSi ZiriTadi progresuli nabijebi adamianis religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebis aRiarebis mimarT gadaidga ara religiuri konfesiebis, sabWoebisa da sinodebis, aramed konstituciebis, sakanonmdeblo organoebisa da sasamarTloebis mier. Sua saukuneebis Semdgom axali nacia-saxelmwifoebisa da axali erovnuli sulis aRmocenebam ise Seasusta uZvelesi eklesiebis politikuri Zalaufleba, rom maT ver SeZles avtoritetis aRdgena. TandaTanobiT religiis Tavisufleba Tanamedrove demokratiul saxelmwifos daukavSirda. meoce saukuneSi msoflio masStabiT rogorc rwmenaze dafuZnebul sazogadoebebs, ise nacia-saxelmwifoebs Soris, sul mcire, garkveul doneze mainc, Camoyalibda farTo konsensusi religiis Tavisuflebis principis mxardaWerasTan dakavSirebiT. religiis Tavisuflebis samarTlebriv aRiarebas, rogorc principis doneze, ise praqtikaSic, gansakuTrebiT daexmara saerTaSoriso urTierTobebi, rac gadaizarda saxelmwifoebs Soris xelSekrulebaTa ratifikaciaSi. ormocdaaTi wlis win daweril religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb erT-erT ZiriTad swavlebaSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom `saerTaSoriso samarTali da religiis Tavisufleba mWidro urTierTkavSirSi viTardeboda~.98 swavlebaSi naTlad Cans, rom saerTaSoriso samarTlis ZiriTad xelSekrulebaTa avtorebis didi umravlesoba, saerTaSoriso samarTlis kodifikator, hugo grociusis droidan moyolebuli, sakuTar dokumentebSi exeboda religiis Tavisuflebas. me-19 saukuneSi, romelic gansxvavebul religiur tradiciebTan identificirebuli suverenuli saxelmwifoebiT xasiaTdeboda, xelSekrulebaTa SemuSavebisas wesad iqca maTSi im debulebebis Setana, romlebic religiis gamoxatvis uflebas aniWebda TiToeuli monawile mxaris moqalaqeebs sxva kontraqtorTa teritoriaze. arsebobs saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebiT religiis Tavisuflebis xelSewyobis mravali magaliTi. ruseT-TurqeTis omis dasasruls miRebuli berlinis SeTanxmeba (1878), religiuri umciresobebis Tanabari uflebebis Sesaxeb Tavisi debulebebiT, aRiarebuli iqna, `religiis Tavisuflebaze saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis yvelaze mniSvnelovan gamoxatvad~ pirvel msoflio omamde. religiis Tavisuflebis erTgvarad msgavsi garantiebi iqna Setanili afrikul teritoriebTan dakavSirebul generalur aqtsa (romelsac xeli moewera berlinSi 1885 wels) da umciresobaTa xelSekrulebebSi 1919-23 wlebSi pirveli msoflio omis Semdgom. ufro mogvianebiT, 1975 wels, ocdaTxuTmetma saxelmwifom moawera xeli helsinkis daskvniT aqts (evropaSi uSiSroebasa da TanamSromlobaze gamarTuli konferenciis daskvniTi aqti), sadac religiuri uflebebi iqca evropis, kanadisa da amerikis 35 saxelmwifos Soris dadebuli ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebis ganuyofel nawilad. dokumentis me-7 principi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebs `adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa pativiscemaze, azris, sindisis, religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis CaTvliT~. amave periodSi meti da meti qveyana kisrulobda konstituciur da saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebs sakuTari moqalaqeebis, iseve, rogorc ucxoeli rezidentebis religiis Tavisuflebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT. msoflios

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ZiriTad religiaTa mimdevrebis farTo geografiuli ganawilebis wyalobiT ukve Tavad religiebi aprotestebdnen im saxelmwifo politikas, romelic uaryofda maTi mrwamsis mimdevarTa da sazogadoebaTa religiur uflebebs. Tanamedrove realobaSi religiis Tavisuflebis principi iqca TiTqmis universalurad aRiarebul erT-erT aqsiomatur valdebulebad. garkveuli modificirebuli formiT religiis Tavisuflebis principi, faqtobrivad, yvela erovnulma xelisuflebam ganamtkica Tavisi qveynis kanonmdeblobaSi. Tumca uaRresad SezRuduli, magram religiis Tavisuflebis garkveuli garantiebi msoflios masStabiT TiTqmis yvela qveynis konstituciaSi gvxvdeba. amis miuxedavad, religiis Tavisufleba da adamianis religiuri uflebebis pativiscema Sors aris srulad realizebisgan Tanamedrove msoflios mraval nawilSi. gasakviria, Tumca swored meoce saukuneSi, roca saerTaSoriso samarTlis normad da, faqtobrivad, universalurad aRiarebul principad religiis Tavisuflebisa da adamianis religiuri uflebebis aRmocenebis momswre gavxdiT, ganxorcielda xsenebuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis mravaljeradi da sastiki Selaxva. pirvelad samyaros istoriaSi qveynebis saTaveebSi movidnen xelisufalni, romlebic ucvlelad mtrul damokidebulebas iCendnen religiis mimarT da gamokveTilad moqmedebdnen yvela religiis Zirfesvianad aRmofxvris ganzraxviT. rogorc Zveli, ise axali nacia-saxelmwifoebis demokratiebSi adamianis religiuri uflebebi — religiis Tavisufleba — Tavisufali sazogadoebis umniSvnelovanes faqtorebad aris miCneuli. magaliTad, evropis masStabiT konstituciur reformaTa komisiebi CarTulni arian religiuri uflebebisa da religiis Tavisuflebis garantiebis uzrunvelyofaSi. zogierT qveyanaSi Seiqmna mudmivmoqmedi saparlamento komitetebi mimdinare reJimSi religiasTan SexebaSi myof axal kanonebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad. miuxedavad imisa, rom kvlav gadauWrelia mravali kompleqsuri da rTuli sakiTxi, religiis Tavisuflebam, ise rogorc arasdros, demokratiisa da Tavisuflebisaken saxelmwifoTa msvlelobis procesSi fundamenturi mniSvneloba SeiZina.

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religiis Tavisuflebis perspeqtivebi
adamianis ufleba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze, bolo ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki meore msoflio omis Semdgom periodSi, msoflio masStabiT saxelmwifoTa konstituciebis umravlesobaSi aisaxa. Tumca Cvens mzardad saero samyaroSi am Rirebulebam ukana planze gadaiwia da Tavisi interesis sfero Semofargla mxolod adamianuri Rirsebis iseTi arsebiTi xelyofis, rogoricaa wameba da sxva arahumanuri da damamcirebeli mopyroba, aRkveTis amocaniT. erTerTi avtoris mtkicebiT, religiis Tavisufleba iqca `adamianis uflebaTa moZraobis ugulebelyofil gerad~. imis miuxedavad, ra metaforas gamoviyenebT Tavisuflebis arsebuli mdgomareobis dasaxasiaTeblad yofil iugoslaviaSi, irlandiasa Tu libanSi, arc Tu ise Soreul warsulSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi imis naTel Sexsenebas warmoadgens, rom religiuri konfliqtebi, SesaZloa, krizisul sazogadoebriv problemebSi gadaizardos. sul ufro izrdeba fundamenturi erovnuli samarTlis sakiTxidan religiis Tavisuflebis WeSmaritad saerTaSoriso uflebad rekonceptualizaciis aucilebloba. garemomcvel samyarosTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis msgavsad, religiuri identurobis problema scdeba erovnul sazRvrebs. erT qveyanaSi religiur sazogadoebebze mZime tvirTis dakisrebas an maTTvis zianis miyenebas mwvaved ganicdian sxva saxelmwifoSi myofi imave religiis mimdevrebi. ufro metic, globaluri perspeqtiva xels uwyobs wonasworobis aRdgenas da, Sesabamisad, SurisZiebis waxalisebas. globalur doneze yvela — qristiani, muslimi, ebraeli, budisti, indusi, nebismieri sxva religiis mimdevari an aramorwmune — umciresobis jgufis nawils warmoadgens. rac unda dominantur poziciaSi imyofebodes gansazRvruli jgufi

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erT qveyanaSi, Cveni pluralisturi samyaros romelime sxva adgilas is umciresobis nawilia. swored aRniSnuli realobebi qmnis im saerTo suraTs, romelTan SepirispirebaSic unda moxdes religiis Tavisuflebis da gaazreba. religiis Tavisuflebis samarTlebrivi dacva mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba sxvadasxva saxelmwifoSi da damokidebulia mraval faqtorze, maT Soris politikuri reJimis stabilurobaze, saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris tradiciuli urTierTobis bunebasa da istoriaze, adgilobriv doneze religiuri pluralizmis xarisxze, dominanti religiis (an religiebis) xasiaTze da mis (maT) Sinagan damokidebulebaze religiis Tavisuflebisa da Semwynareblobisadmi, religiuri jgufebis urTierTkavSiris istoriasa da sxva mraval garemoebaze. kulturuli mravalferovnebis WrilSi religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxis ganxilvisas mravali Seusabamoba iCens Tavs am Tavisuflebis uflebaTa bunebis mimarT. es gansakuTrebiT dasturdeba evropasa da amerikaSi, sadac dasavlurma konstituciurma tradiciebma da adamianis uflebaTa uamravma saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebam udidesi gavlena iqonia religiis Tavisuflebis normaTa artikulaciaze. Tumca, imis miuxedavad, rom religiis Tavisuflebis ganmsazRvreli verbaluri formulebi Tanmxvedri xasiaTisaa, mniSvnelovani sxvaoba arsebobs sxvadasxva qveyanaSi saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobis institucionalizaciisa da religiis Tavisuflebis miRwevis gzebSi. wignis mocemuli qveTavi mowodebulia, SeimuSaos struqtura, romlis farglebSic SesaZlebeli iqneba ama Tu im samarTlebriv sistemaSi religiis Tavisuflebis implementaciis instituciuri saSualebebis dasaxva da am procesSi mocemuli struqturis calkeul aspeqtebTan kavSirSi myofi filosofiuri da praqtikuli sakiTxebis mimoxilva. religiis Tavisuflebis teqtonika uaxloes warsulSi msoflios araerT qveyanaSi ganxorcielda eqstraordinaruli konstituciuri cvlilebebi. meoce saukunis bolos mravali movlenis momswreni gavxdiT berlinis kedlis ngrevidan komunizmis kolafsamde. es kolafsi da misi talRovani zemoqmedeba, ara marto yofil sabWoTa kavSirsa da aRmosavleT-centralur evropaSi, aramed samyaros sxva nawilebSic, Tan sdevda konstituciuri cvlilebebis uprecedento process. axali konstituciebi iqna SemuSavebuli postkomunistur blokSi. samxreT afrikaSi aparTeidis institutebi aRmoifxvra, religiuri daZabuloba irlandiaSi ki ganmuxtvisaken warimarTa. am periodis eiforiam progresulad imoqmeda religiis Tavisuflebis samarTalze. axali konstituciebi Tanabrad Seicavs debulebebs religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb.99 garda amisa, gvaqvs sindisis Tavisuflebisa da religiuri gaerTianebis Sesaxeb `aRmasrulebeli~ kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebis magaliTebi, romelic didi avtoritetiT sargeblobs konstituciur sivrceSi moqmedebis gamo. analogiuri tipis samarTlebriv reformebs adgili hqonda ara marto yofili komunisturi blokis qveynebSi, aramed laTinur amerikaSic, sadac gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia meqsikis konstituciis antiklerikaluri debulebebis gauqmeba.100 mokled rom vTqvaT, es periodi eqstraordinaruli iyo zogadad konstitucionalizmis, gansakuTrebiT ki religiis TavisuflebisaTvis. Tumca, 1989 wlis Semdgomi eiforiis ZiriTadi elementebis TandaTanobiT gaqrobasTan erTad, naTeli

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xdeba, rom religiis Tavisuflebas kvlav uamravi problema Sexvdeba gzad da am sirTuleTa gadalaxvas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebisa da sayovelTao mSvidobisaTvis. amis safrTxe sul ufro cxadi gaxdeba, Tu saerTaSoriso daZabulobis wyaroebs mimovixilavT. komunizmis kolafsTan erTad Cven mowmeni gavxdiT uZvelesi kulturuli gansxvavebebis naTlad warmoCenisa, rasac profesorma hantingtonma `civilizaciaTa Sejaxeba~ uwoda.101 fundamenturad gansxvavebul civilizaciebs Soris daZabuloba safuZvlad udevs da umeteswilad xsnis Tanamedrove msoflioSi arsebul dapirispirebebs. msgavsi konfliqtebis umravlesoba mxolod mowinaaRmdege civilizaciebs Soris xangrZlivi brZolis ukanasknel seismur aqtivobebs warmoadgens. savaraudod, civilizaciaTa xsenebuli Sejaxebis yvelaze axalgazrda nairsaxeobas warmoadgens dapirispireba protestantizmsa da kaTolicizms Soris. es kulturuli gansxvaveba kvlav Zalze mwvaved warmoCndeba CrdiloeT irlandiaSi da dasavleT naxevarsferoSi CrdiloeTsa da samxreTs Soris urTierTobisaTvis damaxasiaTebel faqtorad rCeba. Tu ufro farTod ganvixilavT mocemul dapirispirebas, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom religiis Tavisuflebis Tanamedrove koncefciebi swored am fundamenturi kulturuli ganxeTqilebidan gamomdinare brZolisa da sazogadoebrivi mRelvarebis Sedegia. Tavdapirvelad, roca maTi implementacia ganxorcielda amerikis miwaze, religiis Tavisuflebis am aqsiomaturma cnebebma daadastura, rom dapirispirebul civilizaciebs Soris religiurad motivirebuli daZabulobis ganmuxtvis saSualebas warmoadgenen. Tu istoriaSi ufro Rrmad da politikuri geografiis aRmosavleTiT gadavinacvlebT, sxva umniSvnelovanes kulturul wyalgamyofs mivadgebiT, romelic aRmosavluri (marTlmadidebeli) da dasavluri qristianobis separacias axdens. saxarebis qadagebisa da prozelitizmisadmi gansxvavebuli midgomebi dapirispirebis umniSvnelovanes wyarod iqca. marTlmadidebluri aRmosavleTi qristianul mrwamsze gadmobirebis dasavlur mcdelobebs kulturul Seuracxyofad ganixilavs: `es adgilebi qristianuli iyo aTaswleulis ganmavlobaSi; ratom unda movidnen aq misionerebi?~ dasavluri religiuri jgufebi ki gacilebiT pluralisturi samyarodan modian da SezRudvebs maT saqmianobaze ganixilaven imis damadasturebel mtkicebulebad, rom yofil komunistur qveynebs jer kidev sakmarisad kargad ar auTvisebiaT Tavisuflebis Tanamedrove koncefciebi. es sapirispiro warmodgenebi kidev ufro mwvavdeba ekonomikuri da politikuri sxvaobiT. ormocdaaT, Tu samocdaaTwliani komunisturi mmarTvelobis qveS dasustebuli marTlmadidebluri tradicia safrTxed ganixilavs eqspansiur evangelistur kampaniebs, romlebsac efeqturi sareklamo teqnologiebisa da Tanamedrove mediis gamoyeneba TavianTi `mesijis~ gasavrceleblad SeuZliaT. meore mxriv, dasavluri jgufebi eWvis TvaliT uyureben nacionalizmiT ganmtkicebul marTlmadideblur gavlenas, romelsac SeuZlia usamarTlo da xSirad faruli kontroli ganaxorcielos biurokratiul aparatebze, romelTa uflebamosilebasac miekuTvneba, miiRon gadawyvetilebebi religiur muSa-mosamsaxureTa Tu moxaliseTa unarze, SeaRwion marTlmadidebluri qveynebis teritoriaze da sakuTari religiuri gaerTianebebis registracia moaxdinon. savaraudod, am konfliqtebis umravlesoba gardamavali periodis travmebis Sedegia da droTa ganmavlobaSi religiis Tavisuflebisa da ormxrivi pativiscemis principebis implementacia im mdgrad

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urTierTobebSi gadaizrdeba, romlebic dResdReobiT dasavleT evropaSi dominirebs. kidev ufro Zveli da dResdReobiT yvelaze kritikulia daZabuloba islamsa da qristianobas Soris. kolizia dasavlur, aRmosavlur da muslimur msoflmxedvelobas Soris naTlad gamoCnda bosniaSi. unda iTqvas, rom aRmosavluri qveynebis mier dasavleTTan kavSiris ganmtkicebiT, saerTaSoriso doneze qristianul-muslimuri mimarTulebebis polarizacia sul ufro Zlierdeba. amave dros, mosalodnelia situaciis garTuleba rogorc erovnul, ise adgilobriv doneze. muslimuri umciresobebis raodenobis zrdam evropaSi SesaZloa Seqmnas niadagi politikuri partiebis moqmedebisaTvis. droTa ganmavlobaSi aman SeiZleba migviyvanos religiur mimarTulebebs Soris winaaRmdegobis zrdamde da, Sesabamisad, dasavlur qveynebSi qristianul-muslimuri daZabulobis warmoqmnamde. aRniSnuli sirTuleebi kidev ufro kompleqsuri xdeba imis gamo, rom liberaluri politikuri kulturis iseTi fundamenturi aqsiomebi, rogorebicaa Tanasworoba da saxelmwifos neitraloba religiis mimarT xSirad sruliad ucxo xilia islamur konteqstSi. zogadad, islams Semwynareblobis gacilebiT ukeTesi istoria aqvs, vidre qristianobas, Tumca Sewynarebulebi yovelTvis meorexarisxovan poziciaSi imyofebodnen da arc yuranSia raime naTqvami imis Taobaze, rom sxva religiebi islamTan gaTanabrebul mdgomareobaSi unda iqnen Cayenebulni. nawilobriv, islamur qveynebSi dasavluri imperializmis Zalisxmevisa da TeologiaSi arsebuli arsebiTi gansxvavebebis gamoc mravali muslimani lideri adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso normebs dasavluri neoimperializmis moqnil formad ufro ganixilavs, vidre WeSmaritad universalur Rirebulebebad. am problemebs damatebuli mwvave ekonomikuri sirTuleebi da islamuri fundamentalizmis gaRviveba civilizaciaTa dapirispirebas yvelaze Znelad mosagvarebels xdis. istoriulad ganxeTqilebis sxva kulturuli wyaroebi iCens Tavs aRmosavleTiT. grZeldeba ebrauli konfliqti sxva msoflio religiebTan, ramac ukve gamoiwvia msoflio mSvidobis darRveva Sua aRmosavleTSi. Tumca am konfliqtis ZiriTad gamoxatulebas mainc saukunis yvelaze didi tragedia, ebraelebis genocidi warmoadgens. msoflios sxva ZiriTadi religiebi da msoflmxedvelobebi qmnian sxva ZiriTad kulturebs. am WrilSi kvlevas eqvemdebareba aseve induizmi, siqizmi, budizmi, konfucianizmi da a. S. modernizaciis gavlenis miuxedavad, es tradiciebi kvlav ganagrZoben sxvadasxva kulturis formirebas msoflios mraval nawilSi. azrTa sxvaoba maT Soris iseTsave daZabulobis keras qmnis, rogorc qristianul ganStoebebs Soris. dReisaTvis, rodesac marqsizmma dro moWama an, sul mcire, ganiaraRebul iqna, daZabulobis ukanasknel keras, romlis aRniSvnac Rirs, warmoadgens saganmanaTleblo sekularizmi. es msoflmxedveloba xSirad `neitraluri~ da `mecnieruli~ poziciis mantiaSi gvevlineba, Tumca msoflios araerTi religiis mier igi ukiduresi safrTxis Semcvelad ganixileba. unda iTqvas, rom postsaganmanaTleblo antiklerikalizms usastikesi formebi miuRia. qristianuli da muslimuri fundamentalizmis aRzeveba SesaZloa nawilobriv ganmartebuli iqnes, rogorc sapasuxo reaqcia am gavrcelebul axal kulturul Zalaze. sociolog jeims devison hanteris mtkicebiT, Tanamedrove SeerTebul StatebSi ZiriTadi kulturuli omebi moicavs dapirispirebas ara kaTolicizms, protestantizmsa da iudaizms, aramed am tradiciaTa orTodoqsul Zalebsa da saganmanaTleblo sekularizmTan dakavSirebul `progresul~ orien-

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tacias Soris.102 igive iTqmis samyaros sxva nawilebzec: dapirispireba sxvadasxva religiur msoflmxedvelobas Soris daCrdilul iqna daZabulobiT tradiciul religiur warmodgenebsa da ufro sekularistul orientaciebs Soris. xSirad religiis Tavisuflebis ideali ganixileba saganmanaTleblo sekularizmidan warmoqmnil movlenad, gansakuTrebiT sakuTari homogenurobis SenarCunebisaken midrekil tradiciul kulturebSi. mniSvnelovanwilad swored amiT aixsneba adamianis religiur uflebaTa normebis aRiarebisadmi islamuri kulturebis winaaRmdegoba. gamosavals mocemul SemTxvevaSi religiis Tavisuflebis imgvari gaazrebis miRweva warmoadgens, romlis farglebSic Tavisufleba rogorc religiuri, ise saero tradiciebisaTvis saerTo faseulobad iqneba aRiarebuli. Tumca am sferoSi konsensusis miRweva uCveulod rTuli amocanaa. problemis kompleqsurobis miuxedavad, religiis Tavisuflebis idealebis progresuli implementacia (Tundac umniSvnelo sxvaobis mqone idealebisa, romlebic gansxvavebuli religiuri da saero tradiciebidan momdinareobs) Tanamedrove msoflioSi dapirispirebul civilizaciaTa daZabulobis aSkara kerebis aRmofxvris gasaRebia. religiis Tavisuflebis lokiseuli revolucia `religiuri pluralizmis teqtonikis~ Semadgeneli uZvelesi kulturuli sxvaobebis zedapirze gamoCena uzrunvelyofs safuZvels religiis TavisuflebaSi lokiseuli revoluciis axleburad gaazrebisaTvis. msoflios mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi dominirebda warmodgena, rom religiuri WeSmariteba moiTxovda religiuri mrwamsis saxelmwifo implementacias da politikur stabilurobaSi moiazreboda religiuri da kulturuli homogenuroba. religiuri warmodgenebis gansazRvruli erTobliobis WeSmaritebad ganxilva zogadad qmnida maTi implementaciis logikur safuZvels. ufro metic, gabatonebuli iyo varaudi, rom SeuZlebeli iyo sazogadoebaSi stabilurobis miRweva dawesebuli homogenuri religiis gareSe, romelic Semkvreli socialuri rgoli da arsebuli reJimisadmi erTgulebisa da morCilebis mZlavri motivacia iqneboda. es warmodgena ganmtkicebuli iyo evropis damangreveli religiuri omebiT. sul mcire, Teoriis doneze, Tavis naSromSi Letter Concerning Toleration103 (werili Semwynareblobis Taobaze) jon lokma warmoadgina zemoxsenebuli Sexedulebisgan STambeWdavad gansxvavebuli mosazreba. lokis Sexedulebebi, savaraudod, yvelaze metad aRsaniSnavia im myari argumentebis gamo, romelTa mixedviTac saxelmwifo iZulebis manqana araefeqturia religiur sferoSi: saxelmwifos Zalebs aRemateba, vinmes iZulebiT RmerTisken Semobruneba. maqsimumi, risi gakeTebac mas xelewifeba, garegani TvalTmaqcobis stimulirebaa. religiis Tavisuflebis Tanamedrove reJimebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania lokis werilis bolo nawilSi Cadebuli azri: Tu eklesia, romlis religiasac eTanxmeba xelmwife, isargeblebs samoqalaqo xelisuflebis mxardaWeriT, es mxolod imitom moxdeba, rom xelmwife keTili, xolo kanonebi mis mimarT keTilganwyobilia; raoden ufro didi iqneba xelisuflebis usafrTxoeba, sadac yvela kargi subieqti, miuxedavad misi religiisa da religiis mniSvnelobis niadagze yovelgvari gansxvavebis gareSe, isargeblebs xelmwifisa da kanonebis mxardaWeriT, am

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ukanasknelTa saerTo mxardamWerad da damcvelad gadaiqceva; aq aravis eqneba kanonebis simkacrisadmi SiSis safuZveli, imaT garda, vinc zians ayenebs mezoblebs da danaSauls sCadis samoqalaqo mSvidobis winaaRmdeg! lokis am gancxadebis arsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Semwynareblobasa da pativiscemas politikuri reJimis destabilizaciis nacvlad sruliad sapirispiro Sedegis motana SeuZlia. pluralisturi sazogadoebis konteqstSi, reJimi, romelic pativs scems gansxvavebul mrwamsebs, maT mxardaWeras moipovebs, rac ufro myar stabilurobaSi gadaizrdeba, vidre erTi dominanti jgufisadmi keTilganwyobiTaa SesaZlebeli. lokis mosazrebis idea is aris, rom umciresobebi imdenad madlobelni iqnebian maT mimarT gamJRavnebuli pativiscemisaTvis, rom ganxeTqilebisa da socialuri dezintegraciis centrebad gadaqcevis sanacvlod madlierebis grZnobiT da, Sesabamisad, arsebuli reJimisadmi loialuri damokidebulebiT ganimsWvalebian, rac gacilebiT mtkice socialuri stabilurobis safuZvels Seqmnis, vidre sazogadoebis mZlavri elementebis hegemoniis ganmtkiceba. msgavsi msoflmxedvelobiT safuZveli Caeyara religiis Tavisuflebas Tanamedrove politikur reJimebSi. imis sapirispirod, rasac saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi miiCnevdnen, lokis mtkicebiT, religiur sakiTxebSi arCevanis Tavisufleba warmoadgens politikuri reJimebisaTvis rogorc legitimurobis, ise stabilurobis wyaros. amgvari Sexeduleba Seadgenda kopernikul revolucias politikur TeoriaSi, romelic udrida kantis kopernikul revolucias epistemologiasa da eTikur filosofiaSi. Tu kantma filosofiaSi revolucia moaxdina gare obieqtidan Sinaganze yuradRebis centris gadataniT rogorc empiriuli samyaros, ise eTikis safuZvlebis gagebaSi, lokma Tavisi warmodgeniT, Tu rogor SeiZleba religiurma (ufro zogadad ki politikurma) Tavisuflebam, romelsac yovelTvis anarqiis wyarod ganixilavdnen, daTesos politikuri wesrigi, politikur azrovnebaSi revolucias daudo saTave. Sesabamisad, lokis warmodgenebma SesaZlebloba mogvca, axali perspeqtivis WrilSi dagvenaxa politikuri kosmosi. faseulobaTa Tanavarskvlavedis centrSi Tavisuflebis moTavsebiTa da imis aRiarebiT, rom pativiscema individis Tavisuflebisa da Rirsebisadmi, Tavis mxriv, umaRlesi rangis moralur da religiur WeSmaritebas warmoadgens, lokma politikuri sazogadoebebis stabilizebisa da legitimaciis safuZvlebis transformireba moaxdina. Tavdapirvelad dawesebuli eklesiebis mqone Semwynarebluri reJimebis, xolo SemdgomSi religiurad neitralur qveynebSi religiis Tavisuflebis gamocdilebam lokiseuli midgoma daadastura. idea Tavidan, ra Tqma unda, Teoriul xasiaTs atarebda, magram igi religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli `cxovrebiseuli eqsperimentis~ centralur aspeqtad iqca SeerTebul StatebSi. bolo ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi religiis Tavisuflebis idealma sayovelTao aRiareba moipova msoflio masStabiT. igi gamokveTilad aris aRiarebuli adamianis uflebaTa yvela ZiriTad saerTaSoriso deklaraciasa104 da konvenciaSi105 , iseve, rogorc msoflio konstituciebis umravlesobaSi. evropuli konstituciebis umravlesoba da dasavleT naxevarsferos yvela konstitucia gamokveTilad uzrunvelyofs religiis Tavisuflebis dacvas, Tumca, ra Tqma unda, arsebobs mniSvnelovani sxvaoba sxvadasxva qveyanaSi am faseulobis implementaciis meTodebsa da masStabebSi. mravlismetyvelia is, rom religiis Tavisuflebis principi sul ufro met mxardaWeras iZens religiur tradiciebSi, iseve, rogorc pluralistul sazogadoebebSi,

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maT xelisuflebasa da konstituciebSi. am mxriv, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia romis papis enciklika106 Dignitatis Humanae Personae (pirovnebis RirsebisaTvis), sadac xazgasmuli iyo kaTolikuri tradiciis Sinagani dadastureba adamianis Rirsebis aspeqtad religiis Tavisuflebis aRiarebis mniSvnelobisa. vatikanis magaliTi mraval religiur tradiciaSi arsebuli tendenciis msgavsia.107 zogadad, arsebobs mzardi konsensusi imis Taobaze, rom aucilebelia religiis Tavisuflebis pativiscema da rom adamianis am fundamenturi uflebis dacva stabilurobasa da mSvidobas ganapirobebs. religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxze arsebuli konsensusi asaxavs globalur ganzomilebaSi pluralizmis sakiTxis ganxilvis ufro zogad aucileblobas. emigrantebisa da Tavisufali SromiTi moZraobis wyalobiT Zalze maRali demografiuli pluralizmia msoflios mraval wertilSi. homogenurobis rRvevis garda, rasac aseTi moZraobebi iwvevs, globalizacia TavisTavad afarToebs pluralizmis gagebas. Tumca arsebiTi religiuri homogenurobis anklavebi kvlavac SemorCenilia samyaros calkeul nawilebSi, an, sul mcire, aris adgilebi, sadac erTi religiuri jgufi aSkarad umravlesobaSi imyofeba. amis miuxedavad, globalur doneze ar arsebobs umravlesobaTa religiebi. mWidrod SekavSirebul samyaroSi religiuri tradiciebis mimdevrebs erT qveyanaSi Zlieri da pirdapiri kavSirebi aqvT msoflios sxvadasxva wertilSi myof erTmorwmuneebTan. aqedan gamomdinare, yvela religiuri tradicia marto umciresobis poziciaSi ki ar aris, aramed ufro metic, erTgan umravlesobis tradiciebis mimdevrebma kargad ician, rogoria umciresobis poziciaSi yofna. globaluri demografiuli pluralizmis damaxasiaTebeli es niSnebi, savaraudod, religiis Tavisuflebis cxovrebaSi gatarebisa da lokiseuli warmodgenebis gamoyenebis xelisSemwyob faqtorebs warmoadgens. yvelafris miuxedavad, lokiseuli revoluciis gavlena kvlavac SezRudulia. mas ar SeuRwevia yvela samarTlebriv da religiuri mrwamsis sistemaSi. nacionalisturi, religiurad eqstremistuli da sxva antiliberaluri Zalebi xSirad mis sawinaaRmdegod moqmedeben. iqac ki, sadac man fesvebis gadgma moaxerxa, ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze kvlav davis sagnad rCeba. religiis Tavisuflebis interpretireba mravalmxriv aris SesaZlebeli, dawyebuli uaRresad sekularistuli versiidan, romelic saxelmwifos neitralobas religiis Tavisuflebis fundamentur dacvad miiCnevs, damTavrebuli iseTi midgomiT, romlis mixedviTac umciresobaTa religiebisaTvis nebadarTulia RvTismsaxurebis gancalkevebiT Sesruleba, Tumca, sxva mxriv, isini naklebad sargebloben Semwynarebluri damokidebulebiT. Tavad loki ar ganixilavda religiis Tavisuflebas usazRvro movlenad. mTeli rigi istoriuli Tu kulturuli mizezebis gamo mis mier Camoyalibebuli sazRvrebi metismetad SezRuduli iyo; igi miiCnevda, rom religiuri Semwynareblobis miseuli zogadi principebis gamoyeneba ar unda momxdariyo kaTolikeebis, muslimebisa da aTeistebis mimarT. imis miuxedavad, rom lokma garkveulwilad arasworad gaiazra Tavisive sabaziso principebi, man, sul mcire, sami ZiriTadi kiTxva aRiara marTebulad. es kiTxvebi moiTxovs gare sazRvrebis dawesebas rogorc religiis Tavisuflebaze, ise zogadad pluralizmzec: 1) ramdenad tolerantuli unda iyos sazogadoeba maT mimarT, vinc ar iziarebs urTierTSemwynareblobisa da urTierTpativiscemis principebis mxardaWeras? 2) ramdenad tolerantuli unda iyos sazogadoeba maT mimarT, vinc ar Seasrulebs dadebul fics an micemul dapirebas (maT Soris danapi-

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rebs, daemorCilos sazogadoebriv xelSekrulebas)? 3) ramdenad tolerantuli unda iyos sazogadoeba maT mimarT, vinc miiswrafvis, gaanadguros sazogadoeba Sinagani amboxisa Tu saerTaSoriso omebis gziT? es sami kiTxva moiTxovs im sazRvrebis dawesebas, romliTac TviT yvelaze liberalurma da Semwynareblurma sazogadoebamac unda SeizRudos Tavi. kerZod, isini moiTxoven, Sesabamisi TanmimdevrobiT, urTierTSemwynareblobis, valdebulebaTa Sesrulebisa da sazogadoebrivi TviTgadarCenis normebis formulirebas. gansxvavebuli sazogadoebebi udavod gansxvavebul midgomebs SeimuSaveben am sakiTxebisadmi. Tumca yvelaze mniSvnelovania swored is, rom isini sakmaris sivrces toveben sxvadasxva perspeqtividan momdinare gansxvavebuli jgufebis mxridan sazogadoebrivi principebis mxardaWerisa da sazogadoebaSi am jgufebis maTive pirobebis safuZvelze miRebis SesaZleblobis aRiarebisaTvis. aseTi mravalferovnebisadmi maqsimaluri pativiscemis gamoCenas SeuZlia umniSvnelovanesi roli Seasrulos sazogadoebrivi wesrigis miRwevasa da dapirispirebaTa im kerebis aRmofxvraSi, rasac Tanamedrove msoflioSi kulturuli gansxvavebebi iwvevs. religiis Tavisuflebis analizis pirobiTi modeli wina or paragrafSi Cven mier identificirebul iqna, rogorc calkeuli kulturuli dapirispirebis kerebi, romlebic religias SuRlis gaRvivebis potencials aniWeben, ise lokiseuli Sexedulebani, romlebic Tanamedrove sazogadoebas daexmara imis gaazrebaSi, Tu rogor SeiZleba pativiscema religiisadmi gadaizardos stabilizaciaSi da ara sazogadoebisa da misi politikuri institutebis dezintegraciaSi. axla ki SevecdebiT religiis TavisuflebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis uzrunvelmyofi religiuri da saxelmwifo institutebis SesaZlo konfiguraciis pirobiTi struqturis dasaxvas. religiis Tavisuflebis sawyisi pirobebi arsebobs gansazRvruli sawyisi pirobebi, romelTa arsebobac aucilebelia religiis Tavisuflebis warmoqmnisaTvis; unda arsebobdes 1) pluralizmis, 2) ekonomikuri stabilurobisa da 3) politikuri legitimurobis garkveuli done. damatebiT, 4) aseve aucilebelia gansxvavebuli religiuri jgufebisa da maTi mimdevrebis neba, icxovron erTad. TiToeuli am sawyis pirobaTagan farTo analizs saWiroebs, Tumca Cven calkeuli komponentebis mimoxilviT SemovifarglebiT. minimaluri pluralizmi. sazogadoebaSi mrwamsebis fundamentur sistemebs Soris garkveuli dapirispirebis warmoqmnamde religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxi arc ki dgeba dRis wesrigSi. adamianis miswrafeba fundamenturi sakiTxebis garSemo uTanxmoebisa da Tavisive msgavsebTan brZolisaken gamoricxavs sazogadoebaSi iseTi socialuri homogenurobis didxans SenarCunebas, rodesac misi yvela wevri iziarebs identur warmodgenebs fizikuri da moraluri samyaros bunebis Taobaze. meore mxriv, SeiZleba iseTi sazogadoebis warmodgena, sadac didi xnis ganmavlobaSi dominantur religiur Sexedulebebze efeqturi konsensusia miRweuli. zogierTi Suasaukuneobrivi evropuli sazogadoeba udavod amgvarad funqcionirebda. amis msgavsad aseve SesaZlebelia iseTi sazogadoebis warmodgena, romelic Tavis homogenurobas inarCunebs gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis mqoneTa ucxoebad an ucxoelebad SeracxviT. swored jgufebis diferencirebas SeuZlia gadafaros sawyisi plu-

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ralizmis warmoSoba. TiToeul jgufs Tavisi warmodgena aqvs samyaroze. dapirispireba mowinaaRmdege jgufebs Soris erTis Sexedulebis meorisaze dominirebisaTvis brZolad ganixileba. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sakmaod iolia jgufis datoveba, pirveladi jgufi inarCunebs Tavis homogenurobas da arc religiuri pluralizmis moTxovnilebaa aRqmadi. gansxvavebuli Sexedulebis mqone moRalated, an, sul mcire, ucxod ganixileba. religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxi mxolod im SemTxvevaSi dgeba, rodesac gansxvavebebi warmodgenebs Soris seriozulad unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli, rogorc Sesabamisi sazogadoebis gardauvali nawili. kulturulma sibecemac SeiZleba analogiuri roli Seasrulos religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis moTxovnilebis daCrdilvaSi. kolonizaciis periodSi Zalze xSirad dominanti evropuli jgufebi ar iCendnen adekvatur pativiscemas aborigeni mosaxleobis rwmenaTa sistemisadmi. amis msgavsad, TviT keTilSobiluri miznebis mqone biurokratebic ver amCneven, erTi SexedviT standartul regulacias, ra mZime Sedegebis motana SeuZlia garkveuli religiuri sazogadoebisaTvis. ekonomikuri stabiluroba. ukiduresi siRaribis pirobebSi religiis Tavisuflebis interesebi naklebi prioritetiT sargeblobs, vidre ekonomikuri problemebi. aRmosavleT evropaSi, magaliTad, ekonomikuri problemebis mogvareba ufro saswrafo interess warmoadgens, vidre religiis Tavisufleba. Tumca is, rom am ukanasknelis arseboba SesaZlebelia ekonomikurad Zalze sust qveynebSic, imaze miuTiTebs, rom es piroba arc ise mZlavri xasiaTisaa da SesaZlebelia, formulirebuli iqnes Semdegnairad: rodesac ekonomikuri krizisi gansakuTrebulad mwvavea, arsebuli reJimi ar aris imdenad myari, rom uzrunvelyos religiis Tavisuflebis garantiebi. politikuri legitimuroba. vinaidan religia sazogadoebaSi legitimaciis (deligitimaciis) mZlavr Zalas warmoadgens, religiis Tavisuflebis miRwevis SesaZlebloba mcirdeba imdenad, ramdenadac sustia reJimis politikuri legitimuroba. aseTi reJimi, savaraudod, an isargeblebs dominanti religiis legitimaciis ZalauflebiT (gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis mqone jgufebis represirebis Tanmdevi riskiT), an zogadad religias safrTxed Seracxavs. pativiscema gansxvavebuli mrwamsis mqoneTa uflebebis mimarT. religiis Tavisuflebis arseboba zogadad SeuZlebelia, Tu erTi jgufi ara marto uaryofs meoris mrwamss, aramed ar surs masTan erTad cxovreba. Tu aratolerantuli jgufi dominirebs sazogadoebaSi, rogorc wesi, xdeba sxva jgufebis mimdevarTa devna. Tuki igi ar aris dominanturi poziciis mqone, maSin igi Tavad iqneba devnili Tavisi religiuri Sexedulebebis realizebis mcdelobisaTvis. orive SemTxvevaSi ar moxdeba sazogadoebaSi religiis Tavisuflebis idealis sruli ganxorcieleba, vinaidan iarsebebs, sul mcire, erTi jgufi, romelic xelyofili iqneba Tavisi religiuri warmodgenebis realizebisaTvis. am problemis mogvareba SesaZlebelia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu sazogadoebis religiur tradiciaSi arsebobs gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis mqoneTa uflebebisadmi Semwynareblobis an pativiscemisadmi mowodebis safuZvlebi. sabednierod, arsebobs sxvaTa mimarT pativiscemis sakmarisi resursebi religiur tradiciaTa umravlesobaSi. kaTolikur tradiciaSi arsebobs romis papis enciklika Dignitatis Humanae Personae; islamSi arsebobs `bibliuri erebisadmi~ Semwynareblobis doqtrina; religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb mravali gancxadeba aqvs gakeTebuli eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos.

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religiis Tavisufleba da saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvna sazogadoebaSi religiis Tavisuflebis xarisxi SeiZleba Sefasdes ori aspeqtis mixedviT: 1) saxelmwifos qmedebiT religiur mrwamssa da mis gamoxatvaze tvirTis dakisrebis doniT, 2) saxelisuflebo da religiur institutebs Soris urTierTobis formiT. SeerTebul StatebSi qveynis konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis religiuri klauzulebis teqstis108 safuZvelze am or aspeqtad, Sesabamisi TanmimdevrobiT, miiCneva `aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba~ da `religiis daweseba~. Tumca SedarebiTi miznebisaTvis umjobesia maTi ufro farTo cnebebis saxiT (religiis Tavisuflebisa da saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris identifikaciis done) ganxilva. diletanturi mosazrebiT, arsebobs pirdapirproporciuli kavSiri am or faseulobas Soris, rac SesaZlebelia Semdegnairad gamoisaxos: totaluri religiis Tavisufleba — sruli araidentifikacia, aradaweseba (separacia); da piriqiT, religiis Tavisuflebis ararseboba — sruli identifikacia, daweseba. Tumca aseTi midgoma Zalze amartivebs gansaxilvel sakiTxebs. mxolod religiaTa Zalze mcire raodenoba Tu yofila odesme iseTi totalitaruli, rom saxelmwifosTan sruli identifikaciisTvis mieRwios. ra Tqma unda, am kuTxiT, ukidures situaciamde misvla TavisTavad religiis Tavisuflebis ararsebobaze miuTiTebs. es gansakuTrebiT Seefereba simarTles umciresobaTa religiebis mimdevarTa mimarT. Tumca SeiZleba igive iTqvas umravlesobis religiis mimarTac, vinaidan es ukanaskneli mniSvnelovnad dazaraldeba saxelmwifos mxridan misi saqmianobis regulirebis, mis saqmeebSi saxelmwifos gadaWarbebuli monawileobis an religiuri institutebis saxelmwifoze mniSvnelovnad damokidebulebis Sedegad. garda amisa, mxolod is, rom saxelmwifos ar gaaCnia formalurad dawesebuli eklesia, srulebiT ar gulisxmobs, rom mas iseTi separaciuli reJimi aqvs, romelic SeiZleba mtkiced daxasiaTdes, rogorc araidentifikacia religiasTan. ufro metic, arsebobs mniSvnelovani uTanxmoeba saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobis zust konfiguraciasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic religiis Tavisuflebis zrdas uwyobs xels da savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom erTi kulturisaTvis optimaluri konfiguracia gamousadegari iyos meorisaTvis. sirTule kidev ufro izrdeba imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom aseve gaurkvevelia `araidentifikaciis~ saboloo Sedegi. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom aradaweseba da separacia gadaizardos negatiur identifikaciaSi: SuRlsa da devnaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, Tu SesaZlebelia arsebobdes religiur niadagze devna saxelmwifosa da eklesiis urTierTdamokidebulebis kontinuumis orive boloSi, arsebiTad gaurkveveli xdeba sakiTxi, rogor urTierTkavSirSia religiis Tavisufleba xsenebul kontinuumTan. gacilebiT progresulad gamoiyureba Semdegi modeli, romlis mixedviTac saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris rogorc Zlieri pozitiuri, ise Zlieri negatiuri identifikacia religiis Tavisuflebis dabal dones gulisxmobs. orive SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifo Zalze mkveTr damokidebulebas iCens erTi an meti religiisadmi, gansxvavebuli azrisaTvis SemWidrovebuli sivrcis datovebiT. unda iTqvas, rom xSirad politikuri reJimebis cvla ukiduresi poziciebis urTierTCanacvlebaSi gadaizrdeba. amis naTel magaliTs warmoadgens saxelmwifo-eklesiis urTierTobis espaneTis istoria, sadac asaxulia radikaluri cvlilebebi dawesebuli eklesiis mtkiced mxardamWeri reJimidan sekularistul, antiklerikalur reJimebamde.

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ukanaskneli modelis upiratesobaze isic metyvelebs, rom misi mixedviT ar arsebobs pirdapiri kavSiri saxelmwifosa da eklesiis separaciasa da religiis Tavisuflebas Soris. gansazRvrul doneze agresiuli gamijvna gadaizrdeba religiisadmi dapirispirebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, meqanikuri separaciis nebismier fasad miRwevis mcdelobam, SesaZloa, sistemas ubiZgos Seuwynareblobisa da mizanmimarTuli devnisken. stalinisturi konstituciebi, rogorc wesi, saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvnis mZlavr debulebebs Seicavda, Tumca veravin ityvis, rom aman religiis Tavisuflebis zrdas Seuwyo xeli sabWoTa kavSirSi. es debulebebi ganmartebuli iyo rogorc saxelmwifo moqmedebis yvela sferodan religiis gamoricxvis moTxovna. Tumca totalitarul saxelmwifoSi igi religiis TiTqmis arsebobis Sewyvetis donemde marginalizaciis moTxovnad gadaiqca. sxva qveynebSi religiis mxolod SeuzRudavi `piradi sferoTi~ SemosazRvris sekularistuli moTxovnebi, Tumca naklebi simwvaviT, magram aseve SesaZlebelia gadaizardos religiuri cxovrebis marginalizaciasa da, Sesabamisad, religiis Tavisuflebis SemcirebaSi. religiis Tavisuflebisa da identifikaciis zemoT moyvanili zogadi niSnebis Semdeg upriani iqneba, gadavideT am ori kontinuumis urTierTkavSiris konkretuli struqturebis daxasiaTebaze, rasac SeiZleba saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobis sxvadasxva reJimebis wardgenac ewodos. dawesebuli eklesiebi. termini `dawesebuli eklesia~ sakmaod bundovania da realurad SeiZleba moicvas saxelmwifosa da eklesiis urTierTobis SesaZlo konfiguraciaTa farTo speqtri. dawesebuli eklesiis ukidures models, romelic Teokratiuli mmarTvelobis wesTan mWidro kavSiriT xasiaTdeba, warmoadgens iseTi reJimi, sadac mas miniWebuli aqvs sruli, mkacri iZulebiT uzrunvelyofili monopolia religiur saqmeebSi. italia da espaneTi TavianTi istoriis gansazRvrul etapebze swored aseTi modelis klasikur magaliTebs warmoadgendnen. dawesebuli religiis Semdegi modelia iseTi reJimi, romelic Semwynarebluria gansxvavebuli mrwamsebis SezRuduli erTobliobisadmi, magaliTad, islamuri qveyana, romelic tolerantulia bibliuri erebis da araviTar SemTxvevaSi sxvebis mimarT. sxva modeli SesaZloa iyos dawesebuli qristianuli eklesia, romelic Semwynareblobas iCens ramdenime ZiriTadi mrwamsisadmi, magram gmobs sxvebs. Semdegi modelia iseTi qveyana, sadac SenarCunebulia dawesebuli eklesia, magram uzrunvelyofilia Tanabari mopyroba yvela religiuri mrwamsisadmi. didi britaneTi am modelis Sesaferisi magaliTia. mxardaWerili eklesiebi. es kategoria Sedgeba iseTi reJimebisgan, romlebic Tumca formalurad ar aRiareben erT gansazRvrul eklesias qveynis oficialur religiad, magram adastureben, rom Sesabamis eklesias gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs qveynis kulturaSi. aseTi reJimebi ZiriTadad damaxasiaTebelia iseTi qveynebisaTvis, sadac kaTolicizmi dominantur poziciaSia, xolo konstituciebi uaxloes warsulSi iqna miRebuli.109 mxardaWerili eklesia specialuri aRiarebiT sargeblobs, Tumca konstituciiT sxva jgufebsac Tanabari dacva aqvT miniWebuli. zogierT SemTxvevaSi mxardaWerili eklesiis pirobebSi arsebuli reJimi SedarebiT usafrTxoa da mxolod saxelmwifos istoriasa da kulturaSi ama Tu im religiuri tradiciis mniSvnelovani rolis aRiarebiT Semoifargleba. sxva SemTxvevebSi mxardaWeris reJimi moqmedebs, rogorc dawesebuli eklesiis prerogativebis SenarCunebis TvalTmaqcuri meTodi, liberaluri modelis formalurad SenarCunebis fonze.

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urTierTTanamSromlobis reJimebi. reJimis Semdegi kategoria ar aniWebs dominant eklesiebs specialur statuss, Tumca saxelmwifo agrZelebs maTTan TanamSromlobas sxvadasxva gziT. aseTi reJimis pirobebSi saxelmwifo sxvadasxva eklesiasTan dakavSirebuli tipis iseT saqmianobas afinansebs, rogoricaa religiuri ganaTleba an eklesiaTa Senaxva, sasuliero pirTa saqmianobis anazRaureba da a. S. Zalze xSirad amgvari urTierToba mowesrigebulia specialuri SeTanxmebebis, konkordatebis da sxva aseT safuZvelze. espaneTi, italia, poloneTi, saqarTvelo da ramdenime samxreTamerikuli qveyana misdevs aseT wess. saxelmwifos aseve SeuZlia daxmareba gauwios religiuri tipis organizacias SemowirulobaTa akrefaSi (magaliTad, saeklesio gadasaxadis amoReba germaniaSi). amis miuxedavad, urTierTTanamSromlobiTi reJimis mqone qveynebi arc erTi religiis mimarT ar iCenen specialur mxardaWeras da TiToeul maTgans Tanabari mopyrobiT uzrunvelyofen. Tumca, vinaidan sxvadasxva religiur sazogadoebebSi gansxvavebuli moTxovnilebebia, urTierTTanamSromlobiTi programebis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia Tanabar mopyrobasTan dakavSirebuli mravali interdenominaciuri problemis warmoqmna. arsebobs potencialis maRali done TanamSromlobiTi programebis saxelmwifos mxridan garkveuli religiuri mimdinareobebisaTvis upiratesobis miniWebaSi gadazrdisa. garda amisa, ufro separaciuli reJimebis mimarT gacilebiT kompleqsuri problemebi iwevs wina planze, religiuri organizaciebis TviTgansazRvrebisa da Sinagani avtonomiis dacvis saxiT. adaptaciuri reJimebi. aRniSnuli reJimis moTxovnas SesaZloa warmoadgendes saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvna, Tumca, imavdroulad, keTilganwyobili neitralobis SenarCuneba religiisadmi. SesaZloa, adaptaciuri midgoma ganxilul iqnes rogorc urTierTTanamSromlobiTi modeli religiisa Tu religiuri ganaTlebis pirdapiri finansuri subsidirebis gareSe. adaptaciuri reJimis pirobebSi, erovnuli Tu adgilobrivi kulturis nawilad religiis aRiarebis yovelgvari ganzraxvis gareSe xorcieldeba sazogadoebriv garemoSi religiuri simboloebis adaptacia, sagadasaxado, dieturi, sadResaswaulo, SabaTis wesis dacvasTan dakavSirebuli da sxva msgavsi gamonaklisebis daSveba zogadi daniSnulebis kanonmdeblobidan. aseTi reJimis magaliTs warmoadgens SeerTebuli Statebi.110 separaciuli reJimebi. rogorc eklesiisa da saxelmwifos stalinisturi separaciis daxasiaTebisas aRiniSna, `eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciis~ lozungis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia urTierTsapirispiro reJimebis farTo wris mimarT. keTili miznebisaTvis separaciuli reJimi Zalze mcirediT Tu gansxvavdeba adaptaciuri modelisgan. mTavari gansxvaveba mdgomareobs separaciuli reJimis ufro mkacr moTxovnaSi saxelmwifos eklesiisgan gamijvnaze. nebismieri winadadeba religiis saxelmwifo mxardaWeraze Seusabamod miiCneva aseTi reJimis pirobebSi; akrZalulia religiuri simboloebis, maT Soris qristes Sobis scenis demonstrireba saxelmwifo Senobeba-nagebobebSi.111 TviT religiebis arapirdapiri saxiT subsidireba sagadasaxado gamoqviTvebis an gadasaxadebisagan gaTavisuflebis gziT akrZalulia an, sul mcire, sadavod ganixileba. religiis niadagze gamonaklisebis daSveba zogadi daniSnulebis saxelmwifo kanonebidan religiisadmi dauSvebel favoritizmad iTvleba. ar aris daSvebuli aranairi saxis religiuri swavleba an indoqtrinaciis mcdeloba saxelmwifo (sajaro) skolebSi (Tumca religiis swavleba obieqtur formaSi SesaZloa daSvebuli iyos). sasuliero pirTa wris warmomadgenlebs ar aqvT saxelmwifo (sajaro) Tanamdebobis dakavebis ufleba.112

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separaciis ukiduresi formebis pirobebSi aqtiurad xorcieldeba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebidan religiis gandevnis mcdelobebi. erT-erTi saxe, rac am mcdelobebma SeiZleba miiRos, aris saxelmwifo monopoliis gaZliereba gansazRvruli saxis saganmanaTleblo da socialur momsaxurebaze. saganmanaTleblo sferoSi saxelmwifos SeuZlia erTianad akrZalos saojaxo swavleba da kerZo skolebi an akreditaciis miRebisaTvis aucilebeli iseTi mkacri moTxovnebi daadginos, rom faqtobrivad SeuZlebeli gaxdeba damoukidebeli religiuri ganaTlebis funqcionireba. rac Seexeba religiuri qorwinebis aRiarebas, sxvadasxva reJims gansxvavebuli midgoma aqvs am sakiTxTan. mTeli rigi socialuri da saqvelmoqmedo momsaxurebani (janmrTelobis dacvis saxiT) SesaZloa regulirebuli iqnes iseTi gziT, rac gaarTulebs religiuri organizaciebis mxridan TavianTi valdebulebebis Sesrulebas mocemul sferoebSi. `separacia~ Tavis yvelaze arasasurvel formaSi moiTxovs religiis Seviwroebas nebismier sferoSi, romlis okupaciasac saxelmwifo moindomebs, Tumca aTavisuflebs mas saxelmwifos mxridan Tavs moxveuli regulaciebisa da religiur saqmeebSi Carevisgan. aragamiznuli gulgriloba. xSirad Cinovnikebi ar ganasxvaveben erTmaneTisgan ama Tu im qmedebis regulirebas saero da religiur ganzomilebaSi. xSir SemTxvevaSi samarTliani religiuri adaptaciebi damakmayofileblad moqmedebs amgvari problemebis mogvarebaze. es regulaciebi Zalze xSirad ar aris ama Tu im religiis sawinaaRmdegod gamiznuli; maTi avtorebisTvis, SesaZloa, arc ki iyo cnobili religiaze maTi potenciurad uaryofiTi zegavlena. zogjer aragamiznuli tvirTiT dazaralebulebi xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebs awvdenen xmas TavianTi problemebis Sesaxeb. aq ki ukve an gonivruli adaptaciis SemuSaveba xdeba, an aragamiznuli gulgriloba gadaizrdeba Segnebul devnaSi. aragamiznul gulgrilobas meore mxarec aqvs. SesaZlebelia is Zalze moqnilad (an mouqnelad) gadaizardos ZiriTadi mimarTulebis an dominanti religiuri jgufebis privilegirebaSi. Zalze iolia im Tanamdebobis pirebisaTvis, romlebic ZiriTad religiur jgufebTan muSaoben, naklebi daintereseba gamoiCinon mcire jgufebis moTxovnilebebisadmi da maT Sesaxeb diskreditaciulad isaubron. SuRli da Ria devna. tests am sferoSi Seadgens damokidebuleba mcire religiuri jgufebisadmi. xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi iSviaTad devnian msxvil religiur jgufebs. devna SeiZleba gamoixatos im pirTaTvis Tavisuflebis aRkveTaSi, romlebic cdiloben imoqmedon TavianTi gansxvavebuli religiuri mrwamsis Sesabamisad. Tumca Tavis yvelaze mwvave formaSi igi moicavs `eTnikur wmendas~ an, SesaZloa, genocidsac ki. ufro tipuri problemebi ki am kuTxiT ZiriTadad naklebad aSkara biurokratiul barierebs moicavs, romlebic religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovan Selaxvas iwvevs. es SeiZleba gamoixatos rogorc registraciaSi gatarebaze (samarTlebrivi statusis mimniWebeli registracia) uaris TqmaSi an dayovnebaSi, ise miwis sakuTari miznebis Sesabamisad gamoyenebisaTvis xelis SeSlaSi. arsebobs argumentaciis sakmaod didi sivrce imis gadasawyvetad, zemoT moyvanili reJimebidan romeli uwyobs maqsimalurad xels religiis Tavisuflebis ganmtkicebasa da ganviTarebas. istoriuli gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom religiis Tavisuflebis maqsimaluri donis miRweva yvelaze metad maSin aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierToba gamoixateba adaptaciur an keTilganw-

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yobil separaciul formaSi. religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovani done aseve SeiZleba arsebobdes urTierTTanamSromlobiT an mxardaWerili eklesiis reJimebSi, Tu realurad moqmedebs religiuri Tanasworobis principi. Tumca msgavsi tipis reJimebSi igrZnoba, rom mcire religiuri sazogadoebebi meorexarisxovani statusiT sargebloben da, Tu saxelmwifo saxsrebiT pirdapiri gziT xorcieldeba ZiriTadi eklesiebis programebis dafinanseba, religiuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebs yovelTvis eqnebaT SegrZneba, rom saxelmwifo maT aiZulebs, mxari dauWiron im religiur programebs, romlebsac ar eTanxmebian. rac Seexeba separaciul da adaptaciur modelebs, adaptacias Tanamedrove wyobaSi aqvs zRvari, romlis miRmac saero saxelmwifo moqmedebs sayovelTao keTildReobis sasicocxlo interesebidan gamomdinare. iq, sadac saxelmwifos gavlena aRwevs socialuri cxovrebis sul ufro met sferoebSi, separaciis meqanikuri moTxovna Zalze iolad gadaizrdeba religiis marginalizaciaSi. ufro metic, regulaciebis momravlebasTan erTad izrdeba religiuri moTxovnilebebis adaptaciisaTvis aucilebeli gamonaklisebis daSvebis moTxovna. aseT pirobebSi ki reJimi, romelic ver uzrunvelyofs adaptaciis principis cxovrebaSi gatarebas, religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovnad dabali doniT SeiZleba daxasiaTdes. mkacri separaciis mimarTulebis momxreni adaptaciis winaaRmdeg Tanasworobis principiT operireben. maTi mtkicebiT, religiuri moTxovnilebis adaptacia moqmedi kanonmdeblobis farglebSi gardauvlad iwvevs religiuri individis an jgufisadmi gansakuTrebul mopyrobas, rac saxelmwifos neitralobisa da Tanabari dacvis moTxovnebis darRvevas warmoadgens. msgavsi xedva uyuradRebod tovebs imas, rom gansxvavebuli mopyroba ar aris aucileblad Tanasworobis normebis darRveva, rodesac arsebobs gonivruli safuZveli aseTi diferencirebisaTvis. religiis Tavisuflebis uflebaTa dacva uzrunvelyofs ara marto racionalur safuZvels, aramed gonivruli adaptaciebis dauZlevad gamarTlebasac. zemoT moyvanil analizSi adaptaciebis daSveba (an alternatiulad, saxelmwifo miznebis miRwevis procesSi naklebad SemzRudveli saSualebebis gamoyeneba im religiuri praqtikis poziciidan gamomdinare, romelzedac saxelmwifo axdens zegavlenas) saukeTeso gzas warmoadgens imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom religiurad gansxvavebuli pirovnebebis Rirseba Tanabari pativiscemiT sargeblobdes. gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis mqoneTa mimarT damokidebuleba maTi gansxvavebebis gaTvaliswinebiT gacilebiT Rrma pitiviscemis demonstrirebaa, vidre yvelas Tanabrad morgeba prokrustes sarecelze. kulturulma an istoriulma sxvaobebma SeiZleba aseve gavlena iqonion im midgomaze, romelic konkretul qveyanaSi maqsimalurad uwyobs xels religiis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebas. magaliTad, religiuri swavlebis adaptacia SesaZloa gacilebiT mniSvnelovani iyos iseT qveynebSi, rogoricaa germania, sadac skolis sekularizacia istoriulad religiur devnasTanaa asocirebuli. amis sapirispirod, SeerTebul StatebSi indoqtrinaciuli stilis swavlebis Setana sajaro skolebSi iqneboda saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobis myarad damkvidrebuli tradiciis darRveva. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom arsebiTad identuri saxis qmedebas gansxvavebuli kulturuli mniSvneloba aqvs sxvadasxva erovnul wyobilebaSi. amitom aucilebelia, religiis Tavisufleba mgrZnobiare iyos aseTi tipis socialuri realobebis cvalebadobisadmi.

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saxelmwifosa da eklesiis urTierTdamokidebulebis saxeebis mimoxilva sasargebloa ara mxolod instituciuri konfiguraciebis sxvadasxva tipebis Sedarebis, aramed calkeuli reJimebis instituciuri perspeqtivebis gansazRvrisaTvis. gansxvavebuli SesaZlo konfiguraciebis erTad Tavmoyra iZleva SesaZleblobas, amocnobili iqnes is gzebi, romelTa meSveobiTac erTi tipis reJimi, romelic gamiznulia, xeli Seuwyos religiis Tavisuflebis zrdas, SesaZloa TandaTanobiT gadaizardos umciresobaTa SeviwroebaSi an, zogadad, religiis devnaSi. samwuxarod, vinaidan religiuri saxelisuflebo institutebi gavlenisa da prestiJisken miiswrafvian da radganac adaptaciis miRweva ar aris mxolod susti winaaRmdegobis `biurokratiuli biliki~, mraval sistemaSi arsebuli tendenciebi arsebiTad scildeba religiis Tavisuflebis optimalur pativiscemas. es niSnavs, rom aucilebelia sifxizle, xolo samarTlebrivi dacvis saSualebebs gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba am tendenciebisaTvis winaaRmdegobis gasawevis TvalsazrisiT.

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erT-erTi aseTi saqme adamianis uflebaTa evropulma sasamarTlomac ganixila. Riera Blume and others v. Spain, Eur. Ct. H.R., 9 marti, 1999. saqmeSi mopasuxes warmoadgenda espaneTis saxelmwifo, romelmac neba darTo mSoblebs, iZulebiT daekavebinaT kultis mimdevari Svilebi, radikaluri religiuri mimdinareobis zegavlenisagan maTi gaTavisuflebis mizniT. sasamarTlom adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis me-5 muxli specialur normad (lex specialis) miiCnia da daadgina, rom espaneTis qmedeba am muxlis pirveli nawilis (romelic krZalavs Tavisuflebis ukanono aRkveTas) darRvevas warmoadgenda. sasamarTlom saWirod aRar CaTvala me-9 muxlis (religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba) safuZvelze saqmis ganxilva. W. H. Abbot, trans., The Documents of Vatican (New York, 1966). Jacques Maritain, The Rights of Man and Natural Law (New York, 1943). saxareba maTesi 5:44. saxareba ioanesi 18:36. saxareba ioanesi 8:32. Lactantius, De divinis institutionibus. saxareba lukasi 14:23. saxareba markozisa 12:17. mociqulTa saqme 5:29. eklesiis Tavisufleba (laT.). Maritain, The Rights of Man. Leo Strauss, Natural Right and History (1950). Michael Villey, La Formation de la pensee juridique moderne. R. L. Benson, The Bishop-Elect: A Study in Medieval Ecclesiastical Office. Commentaria Innocentii ... super quinque libros decretalium. Brian Tierney, “Aristotle and the American Indians-Again”, Cristianesimo nella storia 12 (1991). Thomas Carlyle, “On History”, in Critical and Miscellaneous Essays: Collected and Republished (London, 1872).

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W. Abbott, ed., The Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Cambridge, MA, 1937-47). J. N. Figgis, Churches in the Modern Srtate (London, 1913). Thomas Edwards, Antapologia (London, 1641). Sebastian Castellio, On Heretics, Roland H. Bainton, trans. (New York, 1935). Jean Bodin, Six Books of the Commonwealth, M. J. Tooley, trans. (Oxford, 1955). Castellio, On Heretics, 123; Pierre Bayle’s Philosophical Commentary, A.G. Tannenbaum, trans. (New York). Williams, “Bloudy Tenet”, in id., Complete Writing, 3:219. W. B. Haller, Tracts on Liberty in the Puritan Revolution, 1638-47 (New York, 1934). John Milton, Milton: Areopagitica, J. W. Hales, ed. (Oxford, 1904). Woodhaouse, Puritanism and Liberty. “An Agreement of Free People”, in W.B. Haller and G.Davies, ads., The Leveller Tracts, 1647-1653. Williams, Writings. Haller, Liberty and Reformation. Haller, Tracts of Liberty. Jordan. Toleration. M. Searle Bates, Religious Liberty: An Inquiry (New York, 1945), 297, quoting William Penn, England’s Present Interest Discovered (London, 1679). Gilbert Burnet, History of My Own Times. John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration. Bayle, Philosophical Commentary. “A Theologico-Political Treatise”, in R.H.M. Elwes, ed., The Chief Works of Benedict de Spinoza, 2 vols. (London, 1883). Rig Veda Book 1, Hymn 164:46. Srimad Bhagavatam 11:15. S. Radhakrishnan, Religion in a Changign World (London, 1967). Digha Nikaya 1:3. Sutta Nipata 798. Majjhima Nikaya 2:176. Michi-no-Shiori. Sutrakritanga 11:50. Acarangasutra 5:113. I Ching, 2:5. Genesis 12:3. malaqia winaswarmetyveli 1:11 Tosefta Sanhedrin, 13.2. M. Sanhedrin, 4:5. leviaTani (19:33-4). mociqulTa saqme 14:17. saxareba ioanesi 1:9. mociqulTa saqme 10:34,35. pavle mociqulis epistoleni, romaelTa mimarT 2:11. pavle mociqulis epistoleni, meore korinTelTa mimarT 3:17. maTes saxareba 19:21,22. ioane RvTismetyvelis gamocxadeba (apokalifsi) 3:20. yurani 2:256. yurani 18:28. yurani 6:108.

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yurani 10:99,100. sxva Targmanis mixedviT winadadeba mTavrdeba Semdegnairad: “mainc daaZaleb kacobriobas Tavisi nebis sawinaaRmdegod irwmunos?”. M.A. MacAuliffe, The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings, and Anthems, 1:328. Hubert Müller, Religion and Freedom in the Modern World (1963). Tertullian, Ad Scapulam, 2, in Migne, Patrologia Latina, 1:699. Athanasius, Divina Instituta, 2, in Migne, Patrologia Latina, 6:1061. Lactantius, Divina Instituta, 54, in Migne, Patrologia Latina, 6:516. Marselius, Defencor Pacis, Alan Gewirth, trans. (New York, 1956). Marselius, Defencor Pacis, Alan Gewirth, trans. (New York, 1956). Desiderius Erasmus, Opus epistolarum, 5:11. Balthasar Hubmier, Theologian of Anabaptizm. Thomas Helwys, A Short Declaration of the Mistery of Iniquity. Leonard Busher, Religious Peace or Plea for Liberty of Conscience. “gancxadeba religiis Tavisuflebaze”, delis moxseneba, eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos mesame asamblea, 1961. Augustin Leonard, Freedom of Faith and Civil Toleration. A.F. Carrillo de Albornoz, The Basis of Religious Liberty (New York, 1963). Albert Hartmann, Toleranz and christlicher Glaube (Frankfurt am Main, 1955). eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos pirveli asamblea, amsterdami, 1948. “De Liberate Religiosa”, in Documents of Vatican. Franklin H. Littell, The Free Church (Boston, 1957). Baruch Spinoza, Tractatus-Teologica-Politicus (1670). Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586 (1940). Henry David Thoreau, “Essay on Civil Disobedience”. Marselius, Defencor Pacis, Alan Gewirth, trans. (New York, 1956). Marselius, Defencor Pacis, Alan Gewirth, trans. (New York, 1956). Leo Pfeffer, Church, State, and Freedom (Boston, 1967). Roger Williams, The Bloody Tenet of Persecution i (1644). Roger Williams, The Bloody Tenet of Persecution i (1644). Jhon Lock, Two Treaties of government (1989). Watson v. Jones, 669 (1872). aRmosavleT aziis konferencia, bangkoki, 1949. “Statement on religious Liberty”, in Minutes and Reports, Central Committee of the World Council of Churches (Chichester, 1949). Albornoz, The Basis of Religious Liberty. Visser’t Hooft, ed., The First Assembly of the World Council of Churches. “A Declaration on Religious Freedom”, in Document of Vatican. Bates, Religious Freedom, “A review of the fortyseven writers of the more important treaties on international law”. ruseTis federaciis konstituciis me-14, me-19, 28-e, 29-e, 55-e, 56-e muxlebi (1993); bulgareTis konstituciis me-6, me-13 da 37-e muxlebi (1991); sloveniis konstituciis me-7, me-14 da 41-e muxlebi (1991). meqsikis konstituciaSi Sesuli SesworebebiT akrZalul iqna religiis damwesebeli da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SemzRudveli kanonebis miReba; religiur gaerTianebebs mieniWa samarTlebrivi statusi da qonebis SeZenisa da gankargvis ufleba; arameqsikel sasuliero pirebs qveynis teritoriaze Semosvlis neba daerToT; aRdga meqsikel RvTismsaxurTa ufleba arCevnebSi monawileobis miRebaze; legalizebul iqna samrevlo skolebi da berebis ordeni; aseve nebadarTul iqna RvTismsaxureba saeklesio Senobanagebobebis gareT.

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Samuel P. Huntington, “The Clash of Civilizations”, Foreign Affairs 72 (1993). James Davison Hunter, Culture Wars: The Struggle to define America (New York, 1991). John Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration (First Published in 1689; cited edition: Bufalo, NY, 1990). adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia, me-18 muxli; adamianis uflebaTa da valdebulebaTa amerikuli deklaracia, me-3 muxli; gaeros deklaracia religiisa da rwmenis niadagze Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis yvela formis aRmofxvris Taobaze. samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqti, me-18 muxli; adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvencia, me-9 muxli; adamianis uflebaTa amerikuli konvencia. enciklika — romis papis mimarTva, werili yvela kaTolikesadmi politikis, religiis, moralis da misT. sakiTxebze. eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos pirveli asamblea, “Declaration on Religious Liberty”, amsterdami, 4 seqtemberi, 1948; eklesiaTa msoflio sabWos mesame asamblea, “Statement on Religious Liberty”, deli, 5 dekemberi, 1961; eklesiaTa saerTaSoriso saqmeebis komisiis aRmasrulebeli komiteti, meoce aRmasrulebeli komiteti, eklesiaTa msofilio sabWo, “Human Rights and Religious Liberty”, Jeneva, 12 ivlisi, 1965. aSS-s konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis Tanaxmad: `kongresi ar miiRebs religiis damwesebel an aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SemzRudvel kanons~. bolivia, kosta-rika, panama, paragvai, espaneTi da a. S. aq, peiotis (kanoniT akrZaluli narkotikuli saSualeba) moxmareba nebadarTuli iqna indieli amerikelebis mier sakraluri miznebisaTvis; federaluri kanonmdeblobiT religiuri organizaciebi gaTavisuflebulni arian saSemosavlo gadasaxadisagan. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT aikrZala qristes Sobis scenis amsaxveli skulpturis demonstrireba saolqo sasamarTloSi. County of Allegheny v. Aclu, Greater Pitsburg Chapter; Chabad v. ACLU, Greater Pittsburg Chapter;City of Pittsburg v. ACLU, Greater Pittsburg Chapter, 492 U.S. 573 (1989). Tumca arsebobs gansxvavebuli midgomebic: amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT sasuliero pirebis mier politikuri Tanamdebobis dakavebaze arsebuli Statis konstituciuri debuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda federaluri konstituciis pirvel Sesworebas. McDaniel v. Paty, 435 U.S. 618 (1978). SeerTebul Statebze naklebad separaciuli laTinuri amerikis ramdenime qveyanaSi sasuliero pirebi ar daiSvebian arCeviT maRal Tanamdebobebze, mag. argentinaSi, boliviaSi, salvadorSi, gvatemalasa da panamaSi.

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religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvenciis safuZvelze

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Sesavali
azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba, savaraudod, adamianis yvelaze Zvirfas uflebaTagania da misi realobad qceva dRevandeli dRis imperatiul aucileblobas warmoadgens nebismieri individisaTvis, miuxedavad misi religiisa an rwmenisa, statusisa Tu sazogadoebrivi mdgomareobisa. am uflebiT sargeblobis survilma daamtkica, rom is erT-erT yvelaze mZlavr da gadamdeb politikur Zalas warmoadgens, rac ki msoflios odesme uxilavs. Tumca misi sruli realizacia SesaZlebeli iqneba mxolod maSin, roca moxdeba im represiuli qmedebebis gamovlena, Seswavla, gaazreba da aRkveTa kooperatiuli meTodebiT, romlebiTac igi SezRudulia bevrgan da roca am umTavresi Tavisuflebis gafarToebisaTvis aucilebeli meTodebisa da saSualebebis realizeba moxdeba rogorc saerTaSoriso, ise erovnul doneze. arkot kriSnasvami1 religia da rwmena saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi diskusiis sagani iyo evropaSi. romis imperiis epoqidan moyolebuli, umciresobebi idevnebodnen religiisa Tu rwmenis niadagze. wameba da mkvleloba eretikosebisa da aramorwmuneTa mimarT mopyrobis ordinarul gzebs warmoadgenda, xolo XX saukuneSi kontinenturi evropa ebraeli xalxis genocidis mcdelobis momswre gaxda. omi yofil iugoslaviaSi2 imis Sexsenebaa, rom, dResac ki, adamianebs xelewifebaT religiur niadagze usastikesi qmedebebis Cadena sxvaTa winaaRmdeg. Tumca droTa ganmavlobaSi evropelma xalxebma dainaxes religiuri Semwynareblobis aucilebloba da daiwyes religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvaze zrunva.

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wignis es Tavi Seexeba evropaSi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis erT formas, adamianis uflebaTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvencias. am konvenciaSi Camoyalibebulia rogorc uflebebi, romlebiTac aRWurvilni arian xelSemkvreli mxareebis iurisdiqciis qveS myofi pirebi, ise am uflebaTa dacvis meqanizmebi. mravali avtorisa Tu mecnieris mier es konvencia aris miCneuli adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi SemuSavebul yvelaze efeqtur saerTaSoriso aqtad. organoebma, romlebic uflebamosilni arian, ganixilon saqmeebi konvenciis safuZvelze, ganaviTares farTo precedentuli samarTali religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis kompleqsur da sakamaTo sakiTxebze. wignis am TavSi mocemulia religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli konvenciis muxlebis detaluri gamokvleva da maT safuZvelze ganviTarebuli precedentuli samarTlis kritikuli analizi. am nawilSi mocemuli masalebis or ZiriTad wyaros warmoadgens konvenciis travaux preparatoires3 da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier ganxiluli saqmeebi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze. ra Tqma unda, mraval qveyanaSi arsebobs farTo precedentuli samarTali religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze, magram winamdebare Tavi ar isaxavs miznad nebismieri saxelmwifos an saerTaSoriso organizaciis poziciis yovlismomcvel analizs. miuxedavad amisa, calkeul Temebze moyvanilia konvenciis precedentuli samarTlis Sedareba sxva sasamarTloebisa da adamianis uflebaTa dacvis organoebis praqtikasTan (ZiriTadad igulisxmeba gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis patronaJiT dafuZnebuli organoebi da aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlo). religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb evropis konvenciis ZiriTadi debulebebis mimoxilva konvenciis nebismieri interpretacia misi debulebebis ganmartebiT unda daiwyos. konvencia Seicavs religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebul sam ZiriTad da ramdenime sxva muxls, romelTa gamoyenebac SesaZlebelia religiis Tavisuflebis dasacavad, miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi ZiriTadi mizani ar aris pirdapir kavSirSi religiasTan. religiis Tavisuflebis mimarT konvenciis yvelaze mniSvnelovan debulebas warmoadgens me-9 muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac: yvelas aqvs azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba; es ufleba moicavs religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisuflebas da, aseve, adamianis Tavisuflebas marto an sazogadoebis sxva wevrebTan erTad da sajarod an kerZod gamoxatos Tavisi religia da rwmena RvTismsaxurebiT, swavlebiT, ritualebis SesrulebiT an wes-Cveulebebis dacviT. religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros mxolod kanoniT gansazRvrul SezRudvebs, romlebic aucilebelia demokratiul sazogadoebaSi sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis interesebidan gamomdinare, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis, janmrTelobis, moralis, an sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvisaTvis. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvisaTvis mniSvnelovan meore debulebas warmoadgens konvenciis me-14 muxli, romelic adgens konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul uflebaTa dacvas religiur an sxva niadagze yovelgvari diskriminaciis gareSe. am muxlis Tanaxmad:

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konvenciaSi mocemuli uflebebiTa da TavisuflebebiT sargebloba uzrunvelyofili iqneba nebismier safuZvelze yovelgvari diskriminaciis gareSe, sqesis, rasis, kanis feris, enis, religiis, politikuri Tu sxva Sexedulebis, erovnuli Tu socialuri warmoSobis, umciresobisadmi kuTvnilebis, sakuTrebis, dabadebisa Tu sxva statusis miuxedavad. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovan dacvas uzrunvelyofs konvenciis kidev erTi debuleba, kerZod, pirveli oqmis meore muxli, romlis mixedviT: aravis ar SeiZleba uari eTqvas ganaTlebis miRebaze. saxelmwifom, nebismieri funqciis Sesrulebisas, romelsac igi Tavis Tavze iRebs ganaTlebisa da swavlebis dargSi, pativi unda sces mSoblebis uflebas, uzrunvelyon iseTi ganaTleba da swavla Tavisi SvilebisaTvis romelic SesabamisobaSi iqneba maT religiur da filosofiur mrwamsTan. konvenciis es muxli yvelaze sakamaTo aRmoCnda da damoukidebel oqmSi Seitanes, vinaidan mis teqstze ZiriTadi dokumentis xelmoweris droisaTvis SeTanxmeba ver iqna miRweuli. konvencia Seicavs sxva muxlebsac, romelTa gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis calkeuli aspeqtebis dacvisaTvis, am uflebasTan pirdapiri kavSiris ararsebobis miuxedavad. aRniSnuli muxlebis CamonaTvali moicavs me-8 (piradi da saojaxo cxovrebis pativiscemis ufleba), me-10 (gamoxatvis Tavisufleba) da me-11 muxlebs (mSvidobiani Sekrebis Tavisufleba). aSkaraa sxvadasxva muxlebis gadakveTis potenciuri SesaZlebloba. jgufs, romelsac religiuri procesiis organizeba surs, SeuZlia waradginos Tavisi saCivari, rogorc religiis Tavisuflebis, ise Sekrebis Tavisuflebis safuZvelze.4 garda amisa, pirs, romelic iTxovs religiuri sityviT gamosvlas, SeuZlia daeyrdnos gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis zogad uflebas, iseve, rogorc religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis specifikur Tavisuflebas.5 religiuri devnis iseTi mcdeloba, rogoricaa adamianTa wameba an maTTvis Tavisuflebis aRkveTa religiis an rwmenis Secvlis iZulebis mizniT, aseve iqneba safuZveli saCivrebisa konvenciis sxvadasxva muxlebze dayrdnobiT.6 sawyis etapze adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlo da komisia damoukideblad ganixilavdnen im muxlebs, romlebsac eyrdnoboda esa Tu is saCivari. magaliTad, saqmeSi erousmiti gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,7 sadac pacifisti msjavrdebuli iqna lifletebis garcelebisaTvis, romlebiTac samxedro mosamsaxureebs mouwodebda, uari eTqvaT staJirebaze CrdiloeT irlandiaSi. momCivnis moTxovna ganixiles cal-calke, orive (me-9 da me-10) muxlis mixedviT. msgavsi midgomis potenciuri mniSvneloba SeiZleba danaxuli iqnes mosamarTle opsalis gadawyvetilebaSi, romlis Tanaxmadac gaerTianebuli samefos qmedebebiT me-10 muxli dairRva, Tumca ar momxdara me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis xelyofa. miuxedavad amisa, xSirad sasamarTlo da komisia wyvetda, rom esa Tu is muxli warmoadgens saCivris lex specialis8 da Sesabamisad xdeboda sxva muxlebidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis ignorireba.9 magaliTad, saqmeSi riera blumi da sxvebi espaneTis winaaRmdeg10 sasamarTlom daadgina, rom espaneTis mxridan mSoblebisaTvis nebis darTva, iZulebiT daekavebinaT TavianTi Svilebi (romlebic kultis wevrebi iyvnen) maTi religiuri mrwamsis Secvlis mizniT, warmoadgenda konvenciis me-5 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevas (es muxli Seexeba Tavisuflebis ukanono aRkveTas) da, Sesabamisad, miiCnia,

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rom aRar iyo saWiro imis garkveva, hqonda Tu ara adgili me-9 muxlis darRvevasac. miuxedavad imisa, rom es gadawyvetileba mniSvnelovani winsvla iyo religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis sferoSi, sasamarTlom airCia arapirdapiri gza da kultis wevrebze gaavrcela konvenciis dacva, ise rom Tavidan airida rTuli, Tumca mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi, romelTa gamokvlevac aucilebeli gaxdeboda momCivnebis im argumentTa ganxilvisas, romlebic religiis Tavisuflebaze iyo dafuZnebuli. mravali momCivani Tavis saCivars konvenciis muxlebis did raodenobas ukavSirebs da sasamarTlos mxridan marTlac keTilgonivruli praqtikaa, fokusireba moaxdinos mxolod yvelaze mniSvnelovan moTxovnebze. Tumca lex specialis doqtrinis Zalze farTo gamoyenebam SesaZloa Seusabamod SezRudos sasamarTlos mier gansaxilveli sakiTxebis nusxa. miuxedavad imisa, rom religiis Tavisuflebis dacva SesaZlebelia konvenciis sxva muxlebis safuZvelze, wignis es Tavi koncentrirebulia me-9 muxlis mimoxilvaze. me-14 muxlidan gamomdinare diskriminaciul sakiTxebs SevexebiT mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac es me-9 muxlisaTvis aris relevanturi. pirveli oqmis meore muxli kompleqsuri xasiaTisaa da didi mniSvneloba aqvs sakiTxebis farTo speqtrisaTvis, romelTa umravlesobac mxolod zedapirulad aris dakavSirebuli religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan. miuxedavad amisa, ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli saqmeebi marTlac relevanturia am dargSi religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebisaTvis da xSirad momCivanTa moTxovna aRniSnul sferoSi swored me-9 muxls efuZneba. Sesabamisad, am TavSi mimoxiluli iqneba mxolod mocemuli tipis saqmeebi. rac Seexeba sxva muxlebze dafuZnebul saCivrebs, maT mxolod im donemde SevexebiT, rac sakmarisia religiis TavisuflebasTan pirdapir dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gamosakvlevad. adamianis uflebebis evropuli sasamarTlo da komisia preambulis Tanaxmad, konvenciis erT-erT ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens `pirveli nabijis gadadgma sayovelTao deklaraciaSi gacxadebuli gansazRvruli uflebebis cxovrebaSi koleqtiurad gatarebisaTvis~. konvenciis safuZvelze Seiqmna adamianis uflebaTa evropuli komisia11 da adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlo,12 xelSemkvrel mxareTa mier `aRebul valdebulebaTa Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT~.13 1998 wlis pirvel noembramde, sanam me-11 oqmis14 mixedviT Seicvleboda konvenciis safuZvelze saCivrebis miRebis sistema, es ori organo asrulebda ZiriTad rols konvenciiT ganmtkicebuli uflebebis darRvevis arsebobis Taobaze gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis sferoSi. aqedan gamomdinare, me-9 muxlis qvemdebare precedentuli samarTlis didi nawili Zveli sistemis safuZvelze iqna gadawyvetili. evropuli komisiis procedura 1998 wlis pirvel noembramde komisias SeeZlo saCivrebis miReba `nebismieri piris, arasamTavrobo organizaciis an individebis jgufis mxridan, romlebic Tavs erT-erTi xelSemkvreli mxaris mier konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis darRvevis msxverplad acxadebdnen~.15 komisia uflebamosili iyo, ar mieRo saCivari, Tuki ar iyo amowuruli saxelmwifos qmedebis gasaCivrebis yvela Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi saSualeba,16 saCivari anonimur xasiaTs atarebda an arsebiTad imave sakiTxs warmoadgenda, romelic

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ukve gamokvleuli iqna komisiis an sxva saerTaSoriso sagamoZiebo struqturis mier.17 aRniSnuli uflebamosileba ar aris dakavSirebuli raime gansakuTrebul sakiTxTan religiis Tavisuflebis konteqstSi. Tumca 27-e muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze komisia uflebamosili iyo, aseve dauSveblad mieCnia is saCivari, `romelic Seusabamoa konvenciis moqmed debulebebTan, aSkarad dausabuTebelia an peticiiT mimarTvis uflebis borotad gamoyenebas warmoadgens~. saCivris aSkarad dausabuTeblad miCnevis ufleba komisias nebas rTavda, gamartivebuli wesiT uareyo ara marto is saCivrebi, romlebic procedurulad iyo dauSvebeli, aramed isinic, romlebic ganwiruli iyo warumateblobisaTvis ukve arsebiTi ganxilvis stadiaze. es ki komisias saSualebas aZlevda, gamoerCia uimedo da susti saCivrebi procedurebis daCqarebisa da usafuZvlo moTxovnebze drois dakargvis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu komisia daadgenda, rom saCivari dasaSvebi iyo, is SemdgomSi ukve cdilobda megobruli SeTanxmebis miRwevas mxareebs Soris18 da, unda aRiniSnos, rom religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebul ramdenime saqmeSi miRweuli iqna amgvari tipis morigeba.19 Tuki SeTanxmeba ver iqneboda miRweuli, komisia adgenda moxsenebas, sadac ayalibebda saqmeSi arsebul faqtebsa da Tavis pozicias konvenciis debulebebis darRvevis arsebobis Taobaze.20 vinaidan komisia ar warmoadgenda sasamarTlo organos, misi moxseneba ar atarebda savaldebulo xasiaTs saxelmwifoebisaTvis, Tumca sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi saqme gansaxilvelad gadaecemoda ministrTa komitets an sasamarTlos.21 ministrTa komitetis gadawyvetileba konvenciis darRvevis Taobaze savaldebulo xasiaTs atarebda saxelmwifoebisaTvis, Tumca, vinaidan komiteti, ZiriTadad, politikuri organo iyo da ar gadauxvevia komisiis poziciidan me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeTa mimarT, misi praqtikis mimoxilva irelevanturia amave muxlis interpretaciis miznebisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, ministrTa komitets aRar SevexebiT. evropuli sasamarTlos procedura Tavdapirvelad mxolod komisia da Sesabamisi saxelmwifoebi flobdnen sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTvis uflebamosilebas.22 aqedan gamomdinare, miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT ukmayofilo Cveulebrivi moqalaqeebi damokidebulni iyvnen komisiaze an Tavis mSobliur saxelmwifoze. me-9 oqmis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli gaxda momCivnis mier sasamarTlosaTvis mimarTva, Tumca sasamarTlos Semadgenlobas mieniWa uflebamosileba, gamoekvlia msgavsi saCivrebi, raTa darwmunebuliyo, rom isini `konvenciis interpretaciasTan an mis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebul mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs Seexeboda~.23 amis Semdeg sasamarTlos hqonda ufleba, gamoetana saboloo gadawyvetileba24 saxelmwifos mier konvenciis safuZvelze aRebuli valdebulebebis darRvevis da dazaralebuli mxarisaTvis `samarTliani dakmayofilebis~ miniWebis Taobaze.25 sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba savaldebulo iyo xelSemkvreli mxareebisaTvis26 da misi Sesruleba umaRles valdebulebas warmoadgenda.

evropuli komisiis gauqmeba da sxva cvlilebebi me-11 oqmis safuZvelze miuxedavad imisa, rom konvenciis safuZvelze Camoyalibebuli sawyisi sistema adamianis uflebaTa dacvis yvelaze warmatebul saerTaSoriso reJims warmoadgenda,

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garkveulwilad igi Tavisive warmatebis msxverplad iqca. wardgenili saCivrebis raodenoba imdenad swrafad izrdeboda, rom xSirad mravali weli gadioda, sanam saqme komisiamde miaRwevda. procedurebis daCqarebisa da ufro sasamarTlo, vidre politikuri sistemis Seqmnis mizniT, SemuSavebuli iqna me-11 oqmi.27 me-11 oqmis SemoRebis umTavres mizans warmoadgenda komisiis gauqmeba, ministrTa komitetis rolis Semcireba da iseTi axali sasamarTlos dafuZneba, romelic SeZlebda SedarebiT mcire palatebis saSualebiT saqmeTa gacilebiT didi raodenobis ganxilvas. me-11 oqmis mixedviT, sasamarTlo plenumi, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Semaval mosamarTleTa raodenoba xelSemkvreli mxareebis raodenobis Sesabamisia, mxolod iseT administraciul sakiTxebs wyvets, rogorebicaa prezidentisa da vice _ prezidentebis arCeva, anda sasamarTlos reglamentis miReba.28 Sesabamisad, saqmeTa mosmena xdeba sasamarTlos SedarebiT mcire qvedanayofebSi. sami mosamarTlisagan Semdgar komitetebs xmebis erTsulovnebiT saCivris dauSveblad gamocxadebis uflebamosileba aqvT.29 Tuki aseTi gadawyvetileba ar iqneba miRebuli, dasaSvebobis Taobaze gadawyvetilebas miiRebs Svidi mosamarTlisagan Semdgari palata, romelic aseve arsebiTad ganixilavs saqmeebs.30 Tuki palata miiCnevs, rom misi ganxilvis qveS myofi saqme warmoqmnis konvenciis interpretirebasTan dakavSirebul mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, mas SeuZlia iurisdiqcia gadasces Cvidmeti mosamarTlisagan Semdgar did palatas.31 didi palata aseve uflebmosilia, erT-erTi mxaris moTxovnis safuZvelze ganixilos palatebis mier ukve gadawyvetili saqmeebi, Tuki CaTvlis, rom saqme exeba konvenciis interpretirebasTan dakavSirebul mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs.32 saCivris dasaSveboba komisiis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes funqcias warmoadgenda konvenciis safuZvelze warmodgenili saCivrebis dasaSvebobis sakiTxis gadawyveta. miuxedavad amisa, winamdebare TavSi ar iqneba ganxiluli saCivrebis dasaSvebobasTan dakavSirebuli calkeuli SemTxvevebi. magaliTad, komisias SeeZlo uareyo saCivari warmodgenil mtkicebulebaTa ukmarisobis33 an dacvis Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi saSualebebis bolomde gamouyeneblobis34 safuZvelze. garda amisa, calkeul saqmeebSi, sadac momCivnebma, romlebic me-9 muxlis darRvevas amtkicebdnen, ver SeZles xelisuflebisagan maTi religiuri valdebulebebis SesrulebisaTvis aucilebeli saSualebebis gamoTxovis,35 aseve xelisuflebis mxridan religiis Tavisuflebaze maTi uflebis xelmyofi qmedebis damtkiceba. erT-erT saqmeSi ebraeli patimari amtkicebda, rom mas ar aZlevdnen koSeruli sakvebis miRebis SesaZleblobas, Tumca cixis administraciam warmoadgina imis mtkicebuleba, rom msgavsi sakvebi xelmisawvdomi iyo da rom TviT ebrauli saTvistomos warmomadgenlebTanac ki ganxorcielda konsultacia maTi TanamoZme patimris dietasTan dakavSirebiT.36 sxva saqmeSi momCivanma ar daakmayofila komisiis ramdenjerme gameorebuli moTxovna saqmesTan dakavSirebiT damatebiTi informaciis warmodgenis Taobaze da, Sedegad, misi saCivari dauSveblad iqna miCneuli.37 msgavsi tipis saqmeebs komisia Zalze operatiuli wesiT umklavdeboda. isini zogadi bunebisaa da, Sesabamisad, naklebad mniSvnelovania me-9 muxlis mimarT komisiisa da sasamarTlos midgomis gaazrebis TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad xsenebuli saCivrebis gamartivebuli wesiT uaryofisa, isini garkveul analizs imsaxureben. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia is saCivrebi, rom-

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lebic dauSveblad iqna cnobili aSkara dausabuTeblobis niadagze, vinaidan is, rom komisiam ver SeZlo saTanado seriozulobis gamoCena xsenebuli tipis saCivrebisadmi, naTlad cxadyofs mis konservatiul midgomas me-9 muxlisadmi. garda amisa, sasamarTlos calkeuli wevrebis mtkicebiT, saCivris dauSveblad cnobis teqnikuri safuZvlebi (mag. dacvis Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi saSualebebis srulad gamouyenebloba) sasamarTlos rTuli da sakamaTo sferoebis ganxilvisaTvis Tavis aridebis mizniTac gamouyenebia.38 am TavSi ganxilulia mxolod is SemTxvevebi, rodesac arsebobs mtkicebuleba sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier msgavsi teqnikuri safuZvlebis xsenebuli miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis Taobaze. saproceso uflebamosileba dasaSvebobis teqnikur sferos, sadac yvelaze xSirad wamoWrila religiis TavisuflebisaTvis mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi, miekuTvneba saproceso uflebamosileba. konvenciis 39-e muxlis mixedviT, sasamarTlo komitets SeuZlia miiRos `nebismieri piris, arasamTavrobo organizaciisa da individebis jgufis saCivari, romlebic Tavs... konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli erT-erTi uflebis darRvevis msxverplad acxadeben~. amis Sesabamisad, komisiac regularulad ismenda calkeuli individebisa Tu jgufur saCivrebs me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. eklesiebi da sxva religiuri organizaciebi eklesiebis saproceso uflebamosileba Zalze problemur sakiTxs warmoadgenda komisiisaTvis. rogorc wesi, komisiis gadawyvetilebaTa mixedviT eklesiebs da sxva religiur organizaciebs ar hqondaT saCivris wardgenis ufleba me-9 an pirveli oqmis meore muxlis safuZvelze. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba hqondaT eklesiis mimdevrebs da ara TviT am religiur organizaciebs. saqmeSi eklesia X gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg39 gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam ganacxada, rom gansazRvruli jgufi an `kulti~ sazogadoebisaTvis safrTxes warmoadgenda. mTavrobam marTlac operatiul da farTomasStabian zomebs mimarTa eklesiis saqmianobis SezRudvis mizniT, misTvis registraciis gauqmebis, eklesiaSi muSaobisa da swavlebis msurvelebis, aseve saerTaSoriso konferenciaSi monawile 800 delegatisaTvis britaneTis sazRvrebis gadakveTaze uaris gacxadebis da jgufis qmedebebis limitirebisaTvis gamiznuli sxva RonisZiebebis saxiT. eklesiam, romelic asociacias warmoadgenda, saCivari Seitana sakuTari da eklesiis wevrebis saxeliT. komisiam uaryo saCivari imis safuZvelze, rom `sazogadoebas, romelic warmoadgens iuridiul da ara fizikur pirs, ar SeuZlia konvenciis me-9 da pirveli oqmis meore muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebiT sargebloba. man ar gaiTvaliswina is, rom eklesia garkveulwilad gansxvavdeba Cveulebrivi komerciuli iuridiuli pirisagan da, SesaZloa, Zalze efeqturi organizaciac iyos religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli debulebebis cxovrebaSi gatarebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT im pirobebSi, rodesac mTavroba yvela zomas iRebs religiuri jgufis efeqturobis da ara misi individualuri wevrebis uflebaTa SezRudvis mizniT.40 komisiis mier identuri gadawyvetileba iqna miRebuli saqmeSi X SvedeTis winaaRmdeg,41 sadac wina saqmis msgavsi argumentaciis safuZvelze uaryves SvedeTis evangelistur-luTeranuli eklesiis ufleba, waredgina saCivari skolebSi religiur ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebiT.

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mogvianebiT komisiam Secvala Tavisi gadawyvetileba, eklesiebisaTvis saproceso uflebamosilebis miniWebaze uaris Sesaxeb. saqmeSi X da saientologiis eklesia SvedeTis winaaRmdeg,42 saCivari iqna Setanili SvedeTis winaaRmdeg, am ukanasknelis mier akrZaluli eleqtrofsiqometris reklamasTan dakavSirebiT. saientologiis eklesiis mtkicebiT, meqanizmi gankuTvnili iyo adamianis mentaluri keTildReobis gansazRvrisaTvis. saCivrebi (me-9 da me10 muxlebis safuZvelze) wardgenili iqna erToblivad eklesiis winamZRvrisa da TviT eklesiis, rogorc Tavisi wevrebis warmomadgenlis mier. Tuki adre komisia uaryofda eklesiebis aseT warmomadgenlobiT statuss, am saqmeSi man Secvala adrindeli midgoma. komisia dRes im poziciazea, rom ... gansxvaveba eklesiasa da mis wevrebs Soris me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze xelovnuri xasiaTisaa. rodesac eklesia waradgens saCivars me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, realurad igi amas akeTebs Tavisi wevrebis saxeliT. aqedan gamomdinare, aRiarebuli unda iqnes, rom eklesiuri tipis organizacias SeuZlia me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gansazRvruli uflebebis floba da maTi gamoyeneba, rogorc Tavisi wevrebis warmomadgenels. komisiam aseve aRiara, rom zogierT eklesias SeuZlia iyos arasamTavrobo organizacia da, Sesabamisad, hqondes uflebamosileba 25-e muxlis safuZvelze.43 es gacilebiT srulfasovani midgomaa, vinaidan msgavs saqmeTa umravlesobaSi eklesia swored yvelaze Sesaferis organizacias warmoadgens saCivris wardgenisaTvis. Tumca eklesiis es ufleba warmoebuli xasiaTisaa da efuZneba misi wevrebis uflebaTa erTobliobas, vinaidan sakuTriv eklesias ar SeuZlia aRZras saCivari sakuTari uflebebis darRvevis Taobaze.44 aRsaniSnavia, rom komisiam Tavisi gadawyvetileba gaavrcela im asociaciebzec, romlebsac religiuri da filosofiuri miznebi aqvT.45 iuridiuli pirebi komisiis gadawyvetilebis miuxedavad, romlis Tanaxmadac eklesias, rogorc iuridiul pirs, aqvs religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevis Taobaze saCivris wardgenis ufleba, sindisis Tavisufleba ar aris gamoyenebadi faseuloba sxva tipis iuridiuli pirebisaTvis.46 komisia erTmniSvnelovnad uaryofda mogebaze orientirebuli iuridiuli pirebis uflebas saCivris wardgenaze me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. 1979 wels man ar miiRo erT-erTi kompaniis saCivari, romlis mixedviTac, momCivnis iZuleba, gadaexada saeklesio gadasaxadebi, warmoadgenda religiis Tavisuflebaze misi uflebis darRvevas.47 komisiis gancxadebiT, `SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoebas, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom igi komerciuli tipis korporaciaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, ar SeuZlia arc isargeblos da arc daeyrdnos konvenciis me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul uflebebs~. komisiam aseve miuTiTa, rom organizacias, romlis dafuZnebis mizansac warmoadgens narkotikuli saSualebebisagan reabilitacia, ar gaaCnia ufleba me-9 muxlis dacviT sargeblobaze. SedarebiT mogvianebiT ganxilul saqmeSi, komisiam `ar gamoricxa~,48 rom komerciul organizacias, romlis mizansac filosofiuri rwmenis sajaro gavrceleba warmoadgenda, SeiZleba hqonoda uflebebi me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. komisiam es saqme sxva safuZvlebze dayrdnobiT gadawyvita da, Sesabamisad, ar ganuxilavs sakiTxi, Tu ra zomamde ufro filosofiuri an religiuri unda iyos organizacia, vidre komerciuli.

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saproceso uflebamosilebasTan dakavSirebuli midgomis cvlileba udavod misasalmebelia. im saCivrebis uaryofa, romlebic eklesiebis da ara individebis mier iyo wardgenili, saSualebas aZlevda komisias, ZiriTadad teqnikuri mizezebis niadagze, Tavi aeridebina calkeuli religiuri jgufebis winaaRmdeg saxelmwifoTa moqmedebis SemTxvevebis ganxilvisaTvis.49 religiuri jgufebis mimarT sayovelTao diskriminaciis an mTavrobis mxridan devnis pirobebSi, eklesia an sxva religiuri organizacia SesaZloa gacilebiT ukeTes viTarebaSi iyos sasamarTlos winaSe warmomadgenlobiTi saCivris warsadgenad. am uflebis aRiareba namdvilad gaaZlierebs daucveli jgufebis poziciebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom komisias religiuri organizaciisaTvis miniWebuli uflebamosileba ar gamouyenebia sistemur diskriminaciasa da devnasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis ganxilvaSi CarTvisaTvis, jgufuri saCivrebis wardgena, savaraudod, ufro metad iqneba warmatebis momtani am sferoSi, vidre mxolod erTi momCivnis mier `reprezentaciuli~ saCivris gacxadeba. msgavsi tipis jgufuri saCivrebis potenciali, SesaZloa, danaxuli iqnes saqmeSi, sadac komisiam dauSveblad miiCnia saientologiis eklesiis mier wardgenili saCivari (Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi resursebis bolomde gamouyeneblobis safuZvliT), romelic germaniis mxridan misi wevrebis mimarT sistemur devnas Seexeboda. komisiam miuTiTa, rom aseT saCivrebs SeeZlo wamoeWra me-9 muxlis safuZvelze saxelmwifos mxridan individebis dacvis pozitiuri valdebulebis Seusruleblobis sakiTxi.50 *** ukanasknel xanebSi sasamarTlos muSaobis moculoba uCveulod gaizrda da, savaraudod, asec gagrZeldeba momavalSi, gansakuTrebiT, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT evropis sabWos gafarToebas aRmosavleT evropuli saxelmwifoebis xarjze. mas Semdeg, rac SesaZlebeli gaxda komisiisadmi mimarTva, pirveli aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi (1954-64) 2088 saCivari iqna wardgenili.51 1999 wlis ganmavlobaSi ki 8396 saCivari iqna sasamarTlos winaSe aRZruli.52 me-11 oqmis ZalaSi Sesvlis miuxedavad, sasamarTlos samuSao datvirTva saCivrebis dasaSvebobis Taobaze gadawyvetilebebis miRebis kuTxiT ar Semcirebula. xsenebuli garemoeba garkveulwilad zewolasac ki axdens sasamarTloze, raTa man saCivrebis mniSvnelovani nawili dasaSvebobis stadiazeve uaryos, vinaidan mas ar gaaCnia aTasobiT saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvisaTvis sakmarisi resursi. rogorc me-9 muxlis konteqstSi iqneba ganxiluli, am viTarebam SeiZleba migviyvanos saCivrebis uaryofamde sasamarTlos adrindeli gadawyvetilebebis meqanikuri gamoyenebiT aSkarad dausabuTeblobis niadagze, gansxvavebebis mxedvelobaSi miRebisa da imis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, ramdenad Sesabamisia sawyisi gadawyvetileba arsebul viTarebasTan. aRniSnulis garda, saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis dros sasamarTlo garkveul SezRudvebs eqvemdebareba. kerZod, gadawyvetileba gonivrul vadaSi unda iqnes miRebuli mosamarTleTa umravlesobis mier. aman, SesaZloa, migviyvanos erTmniSvnelovan gadawyvetilebaTa Semcirebamde, romlebic nakleb warmodgenas Seqmnian maTi realuri mizezebis Taobaze da adrindeli gadawyvetilebebis nawyvetebis gameorebisken iqneba midrekili. profesor merilsis Tanaxmad, umravlesobaTa gadawyvetilebebi `iSviaTad aCvenebs rogorc damajereblobas, ise saukeTeso individualur mosazrebaTa siRrmiseuli samarTlebrivi analizis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs~. amis gamo cal-

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keul mosamarTleTa gansxvavebuli mosazrebani SesaZloa ganmartebiT xasiaTs atarebdes, Tumca zemoxsenebuli formulirebis Tanaxmad, isini ar asaxaven sasamarTlos erTian pozicias. amis msgavsad, profesori merilsi xazs usvams saqmis arsebiTi ganxilvis Sedegad miRebuli gadawyvetilebis mniSvnelobas, romelic amomwuravi samarTlebrivi dasabuTebisa da analizis gziT cxadyofs saqmeSi arsebuli sakiTxebis gaazrebas. sxvagvarad, misi gancxadebiT, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani `cudad informirebuli an TviTneburi xasiaTis mqoned gamoCndeba, rac sasamarTlosadmi ndobis xelSemwyob faqtors namdvilad ar warmoadgens~. am avtoris mixedviT, miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo zogadad cdilobs, srulad daasabuTos Tavisi gadawyvetilebani arsebuli sistemiT SeboWvis pirobebSi, zogjer sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani gonivrulad dasabuTebuli ar aris. es problemebi sistemuria da mxolod me-9 muxlis konteqstSi ar aris aqtualuri. miuxedavad amisa, vinaidan religiis Tavisufleba yvelaze sakamaTo sferos warmoadgens, yvelaze rTuli, SesaZloa, swored aq iyos mosamarTleebs Soris konsensusis miRweva. miuxedavad religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebisadmi naTeli, Sesabamisi da principuli midgomis SemuSavebis TvalsazrisiT praqtikuli sirTuleebis arsebobisa, ar mcirdeba sasamarTlos wevrebis valdebuleba, daicvan xelSemkvreli saxelmwifoebis iurisdiqciis qveS myofi individebis religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba. rogorc Semdgom qveTavebSi vixilavT, maT ver SeZles TavianTi valdebulebis adekvaturad Sesruleba.

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religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvreba
religiisa da rwmenis definicia me-9 muxlis precedentuli samarTlis ganviTarebis umTavresi faqtoria, Tumca es sakiTxi imdenad sakamaTo sferos miekuTvneba, rom konsensusi dRemde ver iqna miRweuli am terminis mniSvnelobis Taobaze. adamianis uflebaTa arc erTi dokumenti, konvenciis CaTvliT, ar Seicavs religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvrebas. am sakiTxis Taobaze gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciaSi mimdinare kamaTi Zalze arTulebs imis mtkicebas, rom am organizaciis oficialuri dokumentebis avtorebs raime saerTo ganzraxva amoZravebdaT misi gamoyenebisas. magaliTad, mwvave debatebis sagnad iqca sakiTxi imis Taobaze, moicavda Tu ara religiisa da rwmenis definicia aTeizmsa da agnosticizms. am debatebs konkretuli Sedegi ar mohyolia. arc konvenciis avtorebs gauTvaliswinebiaT terminis interpretirebasTan dakavSirebuli es problema. aqedan gamomdinare, religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvrebisas ZiriTadi datvirTva sasamarTlosa da komisiaze iqna gadatanili. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, man konvenciis imgvari interpretacia unda moaxdinos, romelic `konvenciis ganzraxvisa da misi miznebis Sesabamisia da ar aris mimarTuli xelSemkvreli mxareebis mier aRebuli valdebulebebis maqsimaluri SezRudvisaken~.53 man aseve aRiara konvenciis iseTi gziT gamoyenebis aucilebloba, romelic uzrunvelyofda am dokumentiT miniWebuli uflebebis `praqtikul da efeqtur~ da ara mxolod `Teoriul da iluzorul~ xasiaTs.54 konvenciis me-9 muxli me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT daculia `ufleba azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebaze~, rwmenis

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xsenebis gareSe, Tumca amave nawiliT daculia `religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis ufleba~. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis meore segmenti Seexeba adamianis uflebas religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze, `RvTismsaxurebiT, swavlebiT, ritualebis SesrulebiT an wes-Cveulebebis dacviT~, azrisa da sindisis xsenebis gareSe. aqedan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom `azri da sindisi~ garkveulwilad gansxvavdeba `religiisa da rwmenisagan~, vinaidan me-9 muxlidan gamomdinareobs absoluturi valdebuleba azrisa da sindisis dacvaze, magram ara ufleba maTi gamoxatvisa.55 amasTanave, sityvebi `azri~ da `sindisi~ Zalze bundovani da rTulad gansasazRvria (SesaZloa religiasa da rwmenaze metadac). amrigad, arsebobs samarTlebrivad mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba or kompleqsur da msgavs ideas Soris (`azrsa da sindissa~ da `religiasa da rwmenas~ Soris). me-9 muxlis teqsti mxolod amgvari gansxvavebis arsebobaze metyvelebs, Tumca aseve SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom sasamarTlom ideaTa erTi erToblioba meoris gansazRvrisTvis unda gamoiyenos. es imas ar niSnavs, rom, magaliTad, sasamarTlom religia da rwmena imdenad farTod unda gansazRvros, rom misma definiciam moicvas yvelaferi is, rac azrisa da sindisis cnebis farglebSi eqceva. rasakvirvelia, xsenebuli gansxvavebis principuli Camoyalibeba urTulesi amocanaa, gansakuTrebiT, am ideaTa mWidro urTierTkavSiris gaTvaliswinebiT. bevri adamiani Tavis religiur rwmenas sakuTari sindisis saSualebiT eziareba da, piriqiT, sindisis Camoyalibeba religiuri rwmenis bunebiT aris ganpirobebuli. morwmune adamianisTvis maT Soris gansxvaveba ar unda iyos didi mniSvnelobis mqone. Tumca sxvaoba me-9 muxlSi iqna formulirebuli da, Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaze unda moaxdinos zegavlena. me-9 muxlTan dakavSirebul sxva, SedarebiT ufro naklebad problemur sakiTxs warmoadgens termin `rwmenis~ gamoyeneba am muxlis pirveli nawilis meore segmentSi. igi srulad moicavs iseT jgufebs, rogorebic arian aTeistebi da agnostikosebi, da, savaraudod, im jgufebsac, romelTac axasiaTebT garkveuli religiuri elementebi, Tumca ar eqcevian religiis kategoriis farglebSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi ki me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili sakmaod ucnauri Sedegis matarebelia. magaliTad, am muxlis Tanaxmad, aTeistebs aqvT rwmenis manifestaciis ufleba, Tumca maTi ufleba rwmenis qonaze ar aris daculi. amgvari anomaliuri situaciidan saukeTeso gamosavali albaT imis aRiareba iqneba, rom rwmenis kategorias azrisa da sindisis SedarebiT farTo kategoriebi moicavs. sasamarTlom da komisiam TavianTi saqmianoba im varaudis safuZvelze warmarTes, romlis Tanaxmadac arsebobs rogorc rwmenis qonis, ise misi manifestaciis ufleba, am sakiTxze yovelgvari argumentaciis Camoyalibebis gareSe. miuxedavad amisa, aSkaraa, rom aseTi midgoma savsebiT logikuria mTlianad me-9 muxlis konteqstSi. rwmenisadmi Sesabamisi midgomis SemuSavebis procesSi sasamarTlos, SesaZloa, daxmareba teqstis frangulma versiamac gauwia. sayovelTao deklaraciis SemuSavebisas Tavdapirelad termini `croyance~ (aRmsarebloba) iqna gamoyenebuli inglisur termin `belief~-is (rwmena) sinonimad. termin `croyance~-is gamoyeneba religiur rwmenasTan mWidro kavSirze miuTiTebda. Tumca deklaraciis Semdgom proeqtebSi igi Canacvlebuli iqna terminiT conviction (mrwamsi), romelic SedarebiT naklebadaa religiurad orientirebuli da arareligiuri rwmenebis gacilebiT farTo speqtrs moicavs, vidre croyance. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom, miuxedavad inkluziurobis maRali

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donisa, srulad arc termin conviction-is gamoyenebam mohfina naTeli me-9 muxlis gansazRvrebidan gamomdinare problemur sakiTxebs. evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis praqtika zogadi liberaluri midgoma me-9 muxlis konteqstSi religiisa da rwmenis definiciis Camoyalibebis amocana ZiriTadad komisiis mier iqna Sesrulebuli. mraval Sidasaxelmwifoebriv sistemaSi, sadac religiis (zogan rwmenis) Tavisufleba daculia konstituciuri Tu mimdinare kanonmdeblobis reJimebiT, sakiTxi imis Taobaze, Tu ra igulisxmeba religiaSi, didi kamaTis sagans warmoadgenda.56 komisia zogadad ar Careula aRniSnul kamaTSi. Tumca arsebobs calkeuli gamonaklisebic. saqmeSi, romelSic individs ar surda, dasaflavebuliyo sasaflaoze, sadac saflavebis umravlesoba qristianul simboloebsa da warwerebs Seicavda, aramed sakuTari gvamis dawva da darCenili ferflis Tavisi qveynis farglebSi mimobneva undoda,57 komisiam aRiara, rom am qmedebis survili `Zlieri personaluri motivaciiT~ iyo ganpirobebuli, Tumca ar imsaxurebda dacvas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, vinaidan pirovnebis survili ar gamoxatavda `damajerebel Sexedulebas fundamentur problemebze~. aqedan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom raRac religiad an rwmenad CaiTvalos, aucilebelia arsebobdes garkveuli donis inteleqtualuri an moraluri damajerebloba: bundovani survilebi ar aris sakmarisi. aRniSnuli midgoma sasamarTlom gaimeora saqmeSi kempbeli da kosansi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,58 sadac miuTiTa, rom `mrwamsi~ konvenciis pirveli oqmis meore muxlis safuZvelze ar aris identuri me-10 muxlSi gamoyenebuli `mosazrebis~ an `ideebisa~, aramed gacilebiT axlo dgas me-9 muxlSi moyvanil termin `rwmenasTan~. imisaTvis, rom rwmena gaTanabrebuli iqnes pirveli oqmis meore muxlSi moyvanil `mrwamsTan~, aucilebelia `miaRweul iqnas garkveuli damajerebloba, seriozuloba, erTianoba da mniSvneloba~. Sesabamisad, am saqmeSi mSoblebis filosofiuri opozicia bavSvebis fizikuri dasjis mimarT, sasamarTlom miakuTvna `adamianuri qcevis arsebiT aspeqts~, romelsac damajereblobis, seriozulobis, erTianobisa da mniSvnelobis saTanado done hqonda, riTac gansxvavdeboda ideebisa da mosazrebebisagan.59 aRniSnulisgan gansxvavebiT, saqmeSi, sadac mSoblis mier fizikuri dasja gaprotestebuli iqna im motiviT, rom aseTi sasjeli Seusabamo iyo misi Svilis saqcielTan konkretuli garemoebebis pirobebSi, komisiis mier momCivnis qmedeba ar iqna miCneuli iseTad, romelic daakmayofilebda damajereblobis, seriozulobis, erTianobisa da mniSvnelobis savaldebulo dones konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT sargeblobisaTvis.60 unda aRiniSnos, rom zogadad sasamarTlom religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvrebisadmi sakmaod didsulovani migdoma SearCia. saientologTa eklesia aRiarebuli iqna me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul dacviT sargeblobis uflebis mqoned, im sakiTxebis ganuxilvelad, romlebic erovnul sasamarTloebs ainteresebda.61 pacifizmi rwmenad iqna aRiarebuli, maSinac, roca igi garkveul religias ar ukavSirdeba.62 tradiciuli religiebi da rwmenebi, rogoricaa qristianuli denominaciebi,63 islami,64 induizmi,65 budizmi,66 iudaizmi67 da aTeizmi68 mikuTvnebuli iqna me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilisadmi. TviT druidebi69 da RvTiuri naTlis centri70 komisiis mier religiad an rwmenad

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iqna prezumirebuli da orsave SemTxvevaSi me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze gadawyda saqme. politikuri da filosofiuri mrwamsi rogorc vxedavT, damajereblobisa da seriozulobis garkveuli cudad gansazRvruli donis arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli moTxovnis garda, komisias ar ucdia religiisa da rwmenis formaluri definiciis SemuSaveba. xSir SemTxvevaSi igi ubralod Tavs aridebda mocemuli sakiTxis ganxilvas da sxvadasxva safuZvelze dayrdnobiT wyvetda saqmeebs. konvenciis moqmedebis sawyis etapze saqmeTa Zalze rTuli saxeoba gamoikveTa faSisturi da nacisturi mrwamsis mimdevarTa konteqstSi. aseTi tipis pirvel saqmeSi, X avstriis winaaRmdeg,71 momCivani msjavrdebuli iqna neonacisturi qcevis waqezebis braldebiT (komisiam TiTqmis identur WrilSi gadawyvita sxva, ufro gvian ganxiluli saqme, romelic faSisturi saqmianobisaTvis individis msjavrdebas Seexeboda72 ). misi saCivari ZiriTadad sasamarTlo procesis samarTlianobasa da neonacisturi qcevis bundovan gansazRvrebas exeboda. momCivnis mtkicebiT, misi dapatimreba me-9 muxlis darRvevas warmoadgenda. komisiam aRiara, rom marTlac hqonda adgili me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevas, Tumca iqve miuTiTa, rom avstriis mTavroba konvenciis safuZvelze uflebamosili iyo, ganesazRvra neonacizmis amkrZalavi kanonebis aucilebloba demokratiul sazogadoebaSi me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze.73 es saqme komisiisagan moiTxovda, ganesazRvra, nacizmi rwmena iyo Tu mxolod azrisa da sindisis cnebis farglebSi eqceoda (an saerTod scildeboda me-9 muxlis moqmedebis sazRvrebs). komisiam Tavi aarida aseT ganxilvas da pirdapir me-9 muxlis meore nawilis qvemdebare sakiTxebis mimoxilvaze gadavida. Tumca komisiis qmedebidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom nacizmi rwmenas warmoadgens, vinaidan me-9 muxlis meore nawili mxolod religiisa da rwmenis manifestacias Seexeba da ar gamoiyeneba azrisa da sindisis Tavisuflebis mimarT. Sesabamisad, pirdapir me-9 muxlis meore nawilis ganxilvaze gadasvliT komisiam igulisxma, rom nacizmi rwmena iyo, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, irelevanturi iqneboda sakiTxi imis Taobaze, SeiZleba Tu ara misi SezRudva demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. savaraudod, komisia ar gegmavda mocemul Sedegs, aramed me-9 muxlis meore nawili mxolod imitom gamoiyena, rom saCivris uaryofis yvelaze iol gzas warmoadgenda. miuxedavad amisa, sxva saqmeSi komisiam dauSveblad miiCnia komunisturi rwmenis manifestaciaze momCivanTa moTxovnebis uaryofa dasaSvebobis stadiaze.74 Tumca aqac detalurad ar ganxilula rwmenis definicia an misi gansxvaveba azrisa da sindisisagan. aqedan gamomdinare, ar aris naTeli, garkveuli politikuri mrwamsi eqceva Tu ara `religiisa da rwmenis~ cnebis qveS me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. savsebiT SesaZlebelia, rom TviT mrwamsTa iseTi erTobliobani, romlebic Seusabamoa adamianis uflebaTa faseulobebTan, rogoricaa nacizmi an faSizmi, imsaxurebdes dacvas, rogorc rwmena me-9 muxlis iurisprudenciis safuZvelze. komisiis mier politikur/eTikurad motivirebuli pacifizmis rwmenad aRiareba faqtobrivad filosofiuri da, SesaZloa, politikuri mrwamsebis farTo speqtris me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli rwmenis definiciis farglebSi Tavmoyris SesaZleblobas gulisxmobdes.75

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individualizebuli religia da rwmena sxva tipis SemTxveva, romelic aseve rTuli definiciuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetis winaSe ayenebda komisias, Seexeba individebs, romlebic garkveuli religiisa Tu rwmenis mimdevrebad acxadebdnen Tavs, romelTa arsebobasac komisia eWvqveS ayenebda. am sferoSi ori wamyvani saqme dakavSirebuli iyo patimrebTan, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom cixis administraciis mier dairRva maTi ufleba religiis gamoxatvaze. saCivrebis dasabuTebulobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad, komisias unda daedgina, arsebobda Tu ara religia, romlis gamoxatvac SesaZlebeli iyo. pirvel saqmeSi momCivani amtkicebda, rom igi WeSmariti morwmune iyo, Tumca ar daukonkretebia, ra igulisxmeboda amaSi, an rogor uSlida cixis administracia xels mas rwmenis manifestaciaSi.76 realurad komisias ar daudgenia, rom WeSmariti morwmuneoba me-9 muxlis moqmedebis sazRvrebs gareT eqceoda, aramed miuTiTa, rom warmodgenili mtkicebulebebi ar iyo sakmarisi saCivris dasabuTebisaTvis.77 meore saqmeSi momCivani amtkicebda, rom igi `vika~-s religiis wevri iyo. piri aprotestebda cixis administraciis uars sapatimro dawesebulebis dokumentaciis xelmisawvdomobaze.78 am saqmeSi komisiam daadgina, rom ar arsebobda mtkicebuleba, romelic daadasturebda, Tu rogor uSlida momCivans xels cixis administracia Tavisi religiis gamoxatvaSi, vinaidan ar yofila warmodgenili mtkicebuleba, rom mas odesme moeTxovos sapatimros xelmZRvanelobisagan sakuTari rwmenis manifestaciisaTvis aucilebeli saSualebani. garda amisa, komisiam damatebiT miuTiTa, rom `am saqmeSi momCivnis mxares ar uxsenebia arc erTi faqti, romlis safuZvelzec SesaZlebeli iqneboda `vika~-s religiis arsebobis dadgena~. bolo winadadeba sakmaod saintereso sakiTxebs wamoswevs wina planze. udavoa, rom dawesebuli religiis mimdevars aravin mosTxovs, magaliTad, kaTolicizmis an induizmis arsebobis damtkicebas. aqedan gamomdinare, saTanado mtkicebulebebis warmodgenis moTxovna axlad daarsebul an ufro individualisturi religiisa Tu rwmenis mimarT warmoiqmneba. komisia ar akeTebs miTiTebas imis Taobaze, Tu ra raodenobis mimdevari unda hyavdes `religias~, ramdeni xnis ganmavlobaSi unda arsebobdes, rogori ganviTarebuli wesebi unda hqondes, an sxva ra kriteriumi CaiTvleba mniSvnelovnad, raime religiis arsebobis an ararsebobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. erTi avtoris mtkicebiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom religiis arsebobis mtkicebis tvirTi momCivans ekisreba, misi gantvirTva sakmaod iolad da samarTlianad SeiZleba. Tumca mas ar daukonkretebia, rogor aris SesaZlebeli amis ganxorcieleba.79 religiisa da rwmenis definiciis ararsebobis pirobebSi gaurkvevelia, ra saxis mtkicebuleba iqneba relevanturi. amave dros aSkaraa, rom sxvadasxva definiciis SemTxvevaSi gansxvavebuli tipis mtkicebuleba iqneba saWiro. sakiTxi kidev ufro rTuldeba, Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT, rom terminma `rwmenam~ SesaZloa moicvas SedarebiT individualisturi rwmenebi, romlebic ar warmoadgenen struqturirebuli religiis an morwmuneTa organizaciis nawils. aTeistTa umravlesoba swored am kategoriis farglebSi eqceva. sasamarTlom gamokveTilad aRiara, rom konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacva vrceldeba rogorc `Tavisuflad moazrovneTa~, ise `religiisadmi indiferentuli damokidebulebis mqoneTa~ mimarT.80 arsebobs legitimuri SeSfoTebis safuZveli imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom savsebiT SesaZlebelia me-9 muxlis borotad gamoyeneba, magaliTad, patimrebis mier, romlebic

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igoneben `religias~ an `rwmenas~ im privilegiebiT sargeblobis mizniT, romlebsac sxva SemTxvevaSi ver miiRebdnen. patimrebTan dakavSirebul zemoxsenebul saqmeebSi komisia imis didi albaTobiT iyo Sewuxebuli, rom es religiebi mxolod moCvenebiTi xasiaTisa iyo.81 amis miuxedavad, SeiZleboda aseTi SiSi ufro pirdapiri gziT dafiqsirebuliyo. magaliTad, texasis Statis saolqo sasamarTlom zemoxsenebuli SemTxvevebis msgavs saqmeSi ganacxada, rom religia, romlis fuZemdebladac patimari acxadebda Tavs, warmoadgenda `TvalTmaqcobas pirveli SesworebiT uzrunvelyofili dacvis miRebis ganzraxviT~.82 imis miuxedavad, rom TaRliTuri rwmenis Sefaseba kompleqsur sakiTxs warmoadgens, iseTi testis SemuSavebam, romelic Zalze bevrs moiTxovs rwmenis arsebobis damadasturebel `mtkicebulebad~, SesaZloa me-9 muxlis dacvis miRma datovos individualisturi rwmenis mqone namdvilad gulwrfeli adamianebi. im saqmeebSi, sadac sicruis eWvi arsebobs, arakeTilsindisierebis dasamtkiceblad aucilebeli mtkicebulebis buneba gansxvavebuli iqneba konkretul saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT. nebismier SemTxvevaSi mtkicebis tvirTi saxelmwifos unda daekisros. swored man unda daamtkicos, rom pirovneba religiur Tu sxva saxis rwmenas TaRliTuri ganzraxviT iyenebs. es gacilebiT damakmayofilebeli pasuxi iqneboda individualistur rwmenasTan dakavSirebul problemebze, vidre mxolod imgvari gadawyvetilebis miReba, rom isini ar eqcevian me-9 muxlis farglebSi. saqmeSi, sadac momCivans sazogadoebriv sasaflaoze damarxvis nacvlad, sakuTari gvamis dawva da ferflis mimobneva surda,83 komisia ufro naklebad iyo mzad, gadayvetileba momCivnis sasargeblod mieRo, vidre igi piris struqturirebuli religiuri organizaciis wevrad yofnis SemTxvevaSi iqneboda. mizezi, ris gamoc momCivans Tavisi gvamis dawva erCivna, is iyo, rom mas ar surda, dasaflavebuliyo qristianuli simboloebiT savse sasaflaoze. Tuki momCivnis protesti daefuZneboda imas, rom TviTon araqristianuli religiis warmomadgeneli iyo (gansakuTrebiT im religiisa, romelic dasaflavebis specialur rituals icavs), albaT dabrkoleba ar Seeqmneboda imis mtkicebisas, rom misi interesi `religiiT an rwmeniT~ iyo motivirebuli.84 Tuki axlad Seqmnili sasamarTlo, komisiis msgavsad, mzad iqneba, uaryos momCivanTa moTxovnebi imis safuZvelze, rom maTi rwmena, gulwrfeli xasiaTis miuxedavad, ar aris sakmarisad damajerebeli, raTa gaTanabrebuli iqnes rwmenasTan me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, arsebobs konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis sferodan individualizebuli da personaluri rwmenebis farTo speqtris gamoricxvis didi potenciali. alternatiuli midgomebi religiisa da rwmenis definiciebis mimarT mraval sasamarTlosa Tu sxva samarTlebriv dawesebulebas hqonia Sexeba `religiis~ an `religiisa da rwmenis~ definiciasTan konstituciuri da sxva sakanonmdeblo debulebebis, konvenciebis da saerTaSoriso aqtebis interpretirebisas. amocana sakmaod rTulia da dRemde ver moxerxda sayovelTaod aRiarebuli definiciis SemuSaveba. arc erTi saerTaSoriso SeTanxmeba, romelic religiis Tavisuflebas Seexeba, ar moicavs xsenebuli terminebis gansazRvrebas. TviT yvelaze detaluri saerTaSoriso aqti mocemul sferoSi _ deklaracia religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis Taobaze, ar iZleva zust miTiTebas religiisa da rwmenis sazRvrebis

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Sesaxeb. zogierTi avtoris mtkicebiT, definiciis SemuSavebis nebismieri mcdeloba araproduqtiuli iqneboda da, savaraudod, konfliqtisa da davis sagnad gadaiqceoda. SeTanxmebis miRwevis SemTxvevaSic iqneboda definiciis meqanikurad da SezRudulad gamoyenebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba, ris Sedegadac konvenciis dacvis sferodan im rwmenaTa gamoricxva moxdeboda, romlebic aseT dacvas realurad imsaxureben.85 miuxedavad amisa, vinaidan sasamarTloebi dRemde zogad cnebebs iyenebdnen specifikur saqmeebSi, imisaTvis, rom maTi gamoyeneba Sesabamis da naTel xasiaTs atarebdes, aucilebelia SemuSavdes garkveuli saxis definicia.86 saerTaSoriso samarTali saerTaSoriso doneze arsebobs zogadi konsensusi imis Taobaze, rom termini `religia da rwmena~ moicavs `Teistur, araTeistur da aTeistur rwmenebs~. aseTi formulireba gamoyenebuli iqna religiuri Seuwynareblobis nebismieri formis aRmofxvris deklaraciis proeqtSi. am sakiTxis irgvliv mimdinare mwvave diskusias cxadyofs isic, rom TviT es minimaluri definiciac ki ar Seitanes deklaraciis saboloo variantSi, calkeul aRmosavleTevropul saxelmwifoTa protestis Sedegad, romlis mixedviTac es gansazRvreba ver uzrunvelyofda arareligiuri rwmenebis adekvatur dacvas. SemoTavazebuli iyo ramdenime sxva, ufro mkafio definiciac, maT Soris, zogierTi maTgani rwmenaTa iseT sistemebs moicavda, rogoricaa rasizmi, nacizmi da aparTeidi. miuxedavd amisa, sabolood miRebuli iqna gadawyvetileba, rom termini `religia~ da `rwmena~ ar saWiroebs Semdgom srulyofas. aqedan gamomdinare, arc gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis da arc regionuli SeTanxmebebi ar iZleva religiisa da rwmenis definicias. miuxedavad imisa, rom gaeros sxvadasxva aqtebis travaux preparatoires87 marTlac metyvelebs araTeisturi rwmenebis termin `rwmenaSi~ Setanis Taobaze arsebul farTo konsensusze, ar aris naTeli, Tu konkretulad ra igulisxmeba am cnebaSi. Sesabamisi organoebi am SeTanxmebebis gamoyenebisas aseve, sizustes moklebuli, farTo da inkluziuri definiciebis sasargeblod ixrebodnen. am sakiTxze sasamarTlosa da komisiis midgoma Seesabameba gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetis msjelobas. samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtis me-18 muxlis zogad komentarSi komitetma aRniSna, rom: me-18 muxli icavs Teistur, araTeistur da aTeistur rwmenebs, iseve rogorc uflebas arc erTi religiisa da rwmenis aRiarebaze. terminebi `religia~ da `rwmena~ farTod unda iqnes ganmartebuli. me-18 muxlis gamoyeneba ar aris SezRuduli tradiciuli religiebiT an im religiebiTa da rwmenebiT, romelTa institucionaluri niSnebi da saqmianoba tradiciuli religiebis analogiuria.88 es definicia sakmaod sasargebloa imis dasadastureblad, rom religia da rwmena moicavs aTeizms, Tumca mainc fokusirebulia imaze, rom ar iyos gamomricxavi xasiaTisa. am definiciiT mxardaWerilia zogadi liberaluri midgoma inkluziurobis sakiTxis mimarT, Tumca realurad usargebloa termin `religiis~ an `rwmenis~ sazRvrebis dadgenisas. cxadia, rom unda arsebobdes garkveuli sazRvrebi da komitetma uari ganacxada iseTi jgufis religiad aRiarebasa da, Sesabamisad, misTvis samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtis me-18 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis miniWebaze, romlis rwmena da saqmianoba mxolod marixuanas (an `uf-

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lis sicocxlis xis~, rogorc es jgufi uwodebda) kultivirebiT, gavrcelebiTa da gamoyenebiT Semoifargleboda.89 Tumca komitetis gadawyvetileba Zalze specifikuri iyo da mxolod miuTiTebda, rom `rwmena, romelic ZiriTadad RvTismsaxurebisa da narkotikuli saSualebebis gavrcelebaSi mdgomareobs, savaraudod, ar SeiZleba konvenciis me-18 muxlis farglebSi moeqces~. es gadawyvetileba faqtobrivad aRiarebs WeSmariti religiis arsebobis SesaZleblobas, romelic narkotikul saSualebebs Tavisi religiis nawilad an RvTismsaxurebis erT-erT formad iyenebs,90 Tumca ar gamoxatavs im realur mizezs, romlis gamoc moxda am jgufis gamoricxva religiis definiciidan. SesaZloa, komitetis gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad daedo varaudi, romlis Tanaxmadac xdeboda religiis arsebobis inscenireba kanonisgan Tavis daRwevis mizniT. Tuki es ar Seesabameba simarTles, maSin komitetis definiciis bundovaneba ar iZleva sxva principuli axsnis povnis SesaZleblobas, ratom ar moxda religiad im jgufis aRiareba, romelic narkotikebs iyenebda `RvTismsaxurebis~ procesSi. gansxvavebuli definicia iqna mocemuli diskriminaciis aRkveTisa da umciresobaTa dacvis qvekomisiis specialur momxsenebel odio benitos mier, romlis mixedviTac religia `aris sicocxlis arsisa da mis Sesabamisad cxovrebis axsna. yvela religias, sul mcire, msoflmxedveloba, qcevis kodeqsi da kulti aqvs. Tumca, misi gancxadebiT, es ar aris definicia, vinaidan `aRniSnuli sityvebis mniSvneloba zogadad yvelasaTvis gasagebia~. Tavis swavlebaSi arkot kriSnasvami mxolod imas Seexo, rom religia da rwmena gagebuli unda iqnes `araTeisturi, aTeisturi da agnostikuri rwmenebis momcvel cnebebad~. Tumca amgvari definiciebi oficialuri xasiaTis ar aris da arc religiisa da rwmenis sazRvrebs adgens sruli sicxadiT. Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTloebi erovnuli sasamarTloebi, saerTaSoriso organoebisgan gansxvavebiT, iZulebulni iyvnen ufro mkafioni yofiliyvnen, Tumca isinic did sifrTxiles iCendnen religiis an rwmenis gadametebulad SemzRudveli, an konservatiuli definiciis SemuSavebis SiSiT. aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, termini religia ar moicavs `ufro filosofiur da personalur an samoqalaqo safuZvlis mqone rwmenas~.91 Tumca isic naTelia, rom ara mxolod tradiciuli religiuri rwmena eqceva religiis definiciis farglebSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom aSS-s konstituciis pirvel SesworebaSi ar aris naxsenebi `rwmena~, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, moTxovna `uzenaesi arsebis~ rwmenisa, rogorc erT-erTi kriteriumisa keTilsindisieri safuZvlebiT samxedro samsaxuridan gasaTavisufleblad, moicavda `rwmenas, romelic gulwrfelia da mniSvnelovan adgils ikavebs misi mflobelis cxovrebaSi RmerTis mimarT orTodoqsuli rwmenis paralelurad~.92 evropuli sasamarTlosgan gansxvavebiT, romelic aqcents rwmenis damajereblobaze akeTebs, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamokveTilad aRiara, rom aucilebeli ar aris, religiuri rwmena `misaReb, logikur, Sesabamis da gasageb~ xasiaTs atarebdes, raTa pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT isargeblos.93 zusti definiciis Camoyalibebisas uzenaesi sasamarTlo daeyrdno Teologebis, gansakuTebiT pol tilixis, naSromebs, imis gansasazRvrad, rom religiur rwmenebSi gaerTianebulia yvela gulwrfeli rwmena, romelic ikavebs religiis paralelur

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rols.94 tilixi iyenebs `ukiduresi interesis~ gagebas da mas religiuri gamocdilebis qvakuTxedad miiCnevs. am testis Tanaxmad, nebismier adamians aqvs ukiduresi interesi, romelic gansazRvravs da orientacias aZlevs mis cxovrebas.95 aqedan gamomdinare, im pirisaTvis, visTvisac religia ukiduresi interesis sferoa, aucilebelia daamtkicos, rom aqvs interesi (anu Zlieri motivacia), romelic imavdroulad ukiduresi xasiaTisaa (anu fundamenturia da kompromiss ar uSvebs). es testi mxardaWerili iqna rogorc religiis samarTlebrivi definicia, vinaidan igi funqcionaluri xasiaTisaa, ar aris Sinaarsze orientirebuli da ar moicavs yvelafers, Tavidan icilebs religiur Sovinizms da pirveli SesworebiT religiisaTvis miniWebuli statusis Sesabamisia. is gaakritikes kompleqsuri ideis erTaderT definiciamde dayvanis mcdelobis gamo. testi araerTmniSvnelovania da SesaZloa gamoiwvios sapirispiro qvecnobieri Sedegi. magaliTad, ebrael patimars religia nebas rTavs miiRos arakoSeruli sakvebi gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi. es ki imas niSnavs rom iudaizmis dieturi moTxovnebi ukiduresi xasiaTisa ar aris, vinaidan SesaZlebelia kompromisze wasvla, uimedo narkomans ki SeuZlia uaryos yvela sxva faseuloba narkotikuli saSualebis miRebis mizniT. Tumca, rasakvirvelia, absurdi iqneba, vamtkicoT, rom pirveli SemTxveva, meorisgan gansxvavebiT, aranair kavSirSi araa religiasTan. am midgomisagan gansxvavebiT, kent grinvolti gvTavazobs analogiebze dafuZnebul koncefcias. misi midgoma pirvel rigSi CamoTvlis im ramdenime niSans, romlebic damaxasiaTebelia religiis arsebobis aSkara SemTxvevis dros, Semdgom ki amowmebs sxva rwmenebs am niSnebTan analogiis mixedviT, anu momCivanma unda aCvenos sakmarisi msgavseba `udavod religiur~ niSnebTan. grinvoltis CamonaTvali96 fokusirebulia religiur/sulier aspeqtebze, SesaZloa, nawilobriv imitom, rom pirveli Sesworeba Seexeba mxolod `religias~ da, aseve, im mizeziTac, rom igi Zalze did sirTules xedavs imaSi, rom religia ganasxvaos filosofiisa da arareligiuri rwmenisagan, `Tuki saqme ar Seexeba ideebs umaRles WeSmaritebaze~. aseTi midgoma iqna gamoyenebuli avstralieli mosamarTleebis mier avstraliis konstituciis 116-e muxlis ganmartebisas.97 maTi gancxadebiT, ar arsebobs erTiani daxasiaTeba, romlis samarTlebriv kriteriumad gamoyenebac iqneboda SesaZlebeli, imis gadasawyvetad, ideebisa da saqmianobis gansazRvruli sistema aris Tu ara religia ... maqsimumi, risi ganxorcielebac SeiZleba, niSan-Tvisebebis an saxelmZRvanelo principebis formulirebaa, romelTa gamoyenebac SesaZlebels gaxdida am sakiTxis gadawyvetas. am niSnebis erToblioba aRiarebul religiebze empiriuli dakvirvebidan unda iqnes miRebuli. maTi cvlileba unda moxdes socialuri mdgomareobis SecvlasTan erTad da konkretulad romelime maTganis mniSvneloba damokidebuli iqneba Sesabamis saqmeze.98 maT CamoTvales ramdenime yvelaze seriozuli niSan-Tviseba religiisa, iseTebi, rogoricaa zebunebrivis rwmena, adamianuri bunebisa da samyaroSi misi adgilis koncefcia, gansazRvruli qcevis kodeqsis mimdevroba da sxva aseTi faqtorebi. es kriteriumebi gamoiyenes imis gadasawyvetad, saientologTa eklesia iyo Tu ara religia konstituciidan gamomdinare.

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*** religiis gansazRvreba kompleqsuri da sakamaTo sakiTxia, romelmac Tavisi problematuroba daamtkica rogorc erovnuli sasamarTloebis, ise saerTaSoriso doneze. konvenciis me-9 muxlSi religiis damatebad mocemul termin `rwmenas~, SeuZlia naTeli mohfinos ramdenime sakiTxs (gansakuTrebiT im sakiTxs, aTeistebi uflebamosilni arian Tu ara, isargeblon religiis TavisuflebiT uzrunvelyofili dacviT). garda amisa, misi gamoyeneba aseve gulisxmobs, rom termin `religiisa da rwmenis~ farglebSi prezumirebuli unda iqnes iseTi marginaluri SemTxvevebi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, e.w. `axali religiebi~, miuxedavad imisa, rom zogierTi qveyana uars acxadebs religiebad per se maT aRiarebaze. Tumca Semdgom doneze terminma `rwmenam~ gazarda konceptualuri dabneuloba am sferoSi, komisiis mier gamoyenebulma midgomam ki kidev ufro gaaZliera igi. rogorc azri, ise sindisi, religia da rwmena gaurkveveli sazRvrebis mqone terminebia, Tumca yoveli maTgani erTmniSvnelovnad gamoiyeneba konvenciaSi. kerZod, mxolod religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebis (da ara azrisa da sindisis gamoxatvis uflebis) xsenebiT me-9 muxli erTi tipis filosofias aSkarad ganasxvavebs sxvebisagan dacvis gacilebiT didi donis miniWebiT. zogierTis mtkicebiT, Seusabamo da SeuZlebelia aseTi saxis gansxvavebis ganxorcieleba, Tumca me-9 muxlis teqsti da sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetili ramdenime saqme aseTi gansxvavebebis samarTlebriv aucileblobaze miuTiTebs. im testisaTvis upiratesobis miniWebis miuxedavad, romelic religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvrisas mxolod garkveuli donis inteleqtualur damajereblobasa da mniSvnelobas iRebs mxedvelobaSi, komisiam ar aRiara, rom misi testis gamoyeneba Tanabrad aris SesaZlebeli im movlenaTa mimarTac, romlebic, SesaZloa, azrad an sindisad CaiTvalos. am problemas daemata komisiis mier konteqstisgan izolirebulad `rwmenis~ ganxilvis tendencia. rwmenis cnebis dakavSireba religiis rolTan, savaraudod, moicavs iseT jgufebs, rogoricaa aTeistebi da agnostikosebi, aseve mosazRvre dajgufebebs, axali religiebisa da zogierTi aRmosavluri filosofiis CaTvliT (daoizmi, budizmi), romlebic garkveulwilad uxerxulad moiazreba religiis tradiciuli definiciis farglebSi. kavSiri religiasTan aTeizmisa da agnosticizmis SemTxvevaSi sruliad naTelia, vinaidan orive ukiduresi mniSvnelobis identuri fundamenturi sakiTxebis, RmerTis arsebobisa da adamianur saqmeebSi zebunebrivis rolis gamoZaxils warmoadgens. RmerTis cnebis uaryofa SeiZleba iseTive mniSvnelobis mqone iyos TviTidentifikaciisaTvis, rogorc misi arsebobis aRiareba. aseT definiciaSi sxva kvazireligiebis Seyvana ki uzrunvelyofs, rom mas ar eqneba gadametebuli kavSiri istoriasTan da arc religiis bunebis Taobaze iudaur-qristianuli warmodgenebis zegavlenis qveS moeqceva. Tumca komisia gacilebiT ufro abstraqtulad ganixilavda termin `rwmenas~ da ar aRiarebda mis kuTvnilebas me-9 muxlSi mocemul terminisadmi, `religia da rwmena~. amas ki mivyavarT `rwmenaSi~ iseTi cnebebis Seyvanis sakiTxamde, rogoricaa politikuri kuTvnileba an farTo eTikuri Sexeduleba. SesaZlebeli iyo am koncefciuri dabneulobis nawilis Tavidan acileba, Tuki rwmenis mniSvneloba ufro viwro xasiaTisa iqneboda, imis xazgasmiT, rom igi iseTive rols TamaSobs individis cxovrebaSi, rogorsac religia. aucilebeli ar aris, rom formulirebas, romlis gamoyenebac SesaZlebeli iqneboda rwmenis rolis gansazRvrisaTvis, ubralo definiciis saxe hqondes (rogoricaa aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebuli `ukiduresi

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interesi~), aramed mxedvelobaSi sxvadasxva faqtoris erTobliobas unda iRebdes. es ufro konceptualuri midgoma religiisa da rwmenisadmi, savaraudod, uzrunvelyofda, rom zemoT ganxiluli termini, erTi mxriv, ar gamxdariyo gadametebulad SemzRudveli da gamomricxveli axali religiuri jgufebis mimarT, xolo meore mxriv — metismetad Ria. igi aseve saSualebas miscemda sasamarTlos, uari eTqva SedarebiT ganuviTarebel cnebaze, romlis Tanaxmadac religia da rwmena rwmenebis mniSvnelovani da damajerebeli erTobliobaa. mravali, gacilebiT ufro srulyofili midgomis mixedviT, religia ar aris mxolod Teoriebis erToblioba, aramed mas SeiZleba hqondes moraluri, eTikuri, zebunebrivi an simboluri roli adamianTa cxovrebaSi. es srulebiT ar gulisxmobs iseTi sakiTxebis mniSvnelobis uaryofas, rogoricaa politikuri orientacia an filosofiuri Sexedulebebi. es imis konstataciaa, rom xsenebuli faseulobebi daculia konvenciis safuZvelze, ufro farTo sazRvrebis miniWebis yovelgvari saWiroebis gareSe, rac maTi `gamoxatvis~ uflebis SesaZleblobas miscemda maTive mflobelebs. ufleba azrisa da sindisis Tavisuflebaze daculia me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT da SezRudvebs ar eqvemdebareba. aqedan gamomdinare, nebismier adamians aqvs ufleba, Tavisuflad ganaviTaros sakuTari inteleqtualuri da eTikuri Sexedulebebi, saxelmwifos mxridan yovelgvari Carevis gareSe. yvela adamiani aseve Tavisufalia, gamoxatos Tavisi mosazrebebi me-10 muxlis mixedviT, SeuerTdes TanamoazreTa gaerTianebebs me-11 muxlis safuZvelze da aqvs ufleba piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobaze me-8 muxlis Tanaxmad, romlis farglebSic SeuZlia sakuTari ideebi ganaviTaros. arsebobs mravali ufro Sesaferisi gza adamianis uflebis uzrunvelsayofad, misdios ideaTa gansazRvrul erTobliobas da isargeblos dacviT saxelmwifosa da im pirTa Seuwynareblobisagan, romlebic ar eTanxmebian mis Sexedulebebs. miuxedavad amisa, yvela filosofiis mimarT Tanabari da samarTliani mopyrobis mcdelobisa da religiis Tavisuflebis Teoriis ganviTarebis survilis uqonlobis gamo komisiam imdenad gaafarTova rwmenis gageba, rom Sedegad damatebiTi dacva mieniWa mraval ideas, romelTa mimarT umjobesi iqneboda azrisa da sindisis cnebis gamoyeneba. TviT me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis meore segmentSi CamoTvlili gamoxatvis formebi naTlad metyvelebs imaze, rom rwmenis sazRvrebi ar unda iyos Zalze zogadi da farTo, radganac daculi manifestaciebi SedarebiT ufro tradiciul religiur saqmianobasTanaa dakavSirebuli. es ki dilemis winaSe ayenebs komisias im SemTxvevebSi, sadac saqme religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobasa da gamoxatvis cnebis sazRvrebs Seexeba. `rwmenebis~ garkveuli raodenobis gamoricxvis saSualebad gansazRvrebiTi stadiis argamoyenebis pirobebSi, aucileblobas warmoadgens me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis zustad gansazRvra, raTa Tavidan aviciloT mocemuli muxlis arapraqtikul debulebad gadaqceva. Tuki yvelas eqneboda Tavisi mrwamsis gamoxatvis aSkarad farTo ufleba (miuxedavad maTi politikuri, eTikuri, filosofiuri Tu personaluri xasiaTisa), igi gamoiwvevda saxelmwifos saqmianobis didi nawilis Seferxebasa da konvenciis mravali muxlis de facto usargeblod gadaqcevas, vinaidan yvelaferi, risi dacvac specifikuri muxlebiT iyo SesaZlebeli, gafarToebuli me-9 muxlis farglebSi moeqceoda. rogorc Semdgomi ori qveTavi gviCvenebs, komisiam da sasamarTlom `religiisa da rwmenis~ liberaluri definiciis nacvlad saboloo jamSi mainc religiisa da rwmenis Zalze SezRudul mosazrebas mianiWes upiratesoba da, Sedegad, am cnebebis mimarT konservatiuli koncefcia ganaviTares.

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religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba
adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis me-9 (1) muxlis Tanaxmad, `yvelas aqvs azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba~, Tumca cnebebi `azri, sindisi da religia~ ar aris gansazRvruli da arc `Tavisuflebis~ naTeli definiciaa mocemuli am muxlSi. rogorc gaeros konteqstSi aRiniSna, gasaocaria, rom, miuxedavad religiisadmi saxelmwifoTa gansxvavebuli damokidebulebisa, samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis SemuSavebisas azrTa sxvadasxvaoba ar gamouwvevia im fundamentur princips, romlis Tanaxmadac `yvelas aqvs azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba~.99 imaves Tqma SeiZleba adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis xsenebul muxlzec. me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad, religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba moicavs religiisa da rwmenis Secvlisa da gansazRvrul formebSi religiis Tu rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. Tumca, rogorc aRniSnuli teqstidan (gansakuTrebiT araamomwuravi terminis `moicavs~ gamoyenebiT), ise sasamarTlosa da komisiis gadawyvetilebebidan gamomdinare, naTelia, rom es ori elementi religiis Tavisuflebis gacilebiT farTo gansazRvrebis nawilia. am qveTavSi mocemulia religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis koncefciis analizi, religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebisgan damoukideblad. Semdeg qveTavSi ki ganxilulia sakiTxebi, romlebic wamoiWreba religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis safuZvelze. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba sasamarTlos mier sakmaod cxadad Camoyalibda azri, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba konvenciiT garantirebuli umniSvnelovanesi uflebaa. saqmeSi kokinakisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg100 mocemulia me-9 muxlis safuZvelSi mdebare `zogadi principebi~:

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me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad, azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba `demokratiuli sazogadoebis~ fundaments warmoadgens. igi, Tavisi religiuri mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, ara marto morwmuneTa pirovnebisa da maTi cxovrebis arsis ganmsazRvreli umniSvnelovanesi elementi, aramed aTeistebis, agnostikosebis, skeptikosebisa da religiisadmi indiferentuli damokidebulebis mqoneTa uZvirfasesi sakuTrebacaa. swored maszea damokidebuli, pluralizmi, rogorc demokratiuli sazogadoebis ganuyofeli Semadgeneli nawili. am zogadi principebiT religiis Tavisufleba miCneulia udidesi mniSvnelobis mqoned, rogorc pirovnebis TviTidentifikaciis, ise sazogadoebaSi demokratiuli pluralizmis ganviTarebisaTvis. sasamarTlom xazi gausva sindisis upirates xasiaTs, TumcaRa aRniSna, rom igi aseve moicavs adamianis uflebas religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze. sasamarTlom Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi miuTiTa, rom me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilSi Camoyalibebuli uflebis fundamenturi mniSvneloba ganmtkicebulia mTavrobis mxridan nebismieri SezRudvis dawesebis akrZalviT religiis qonasa da mis Secvlaze. rac Seexeba religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas, me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad, igi SeiZleba legitimuri SezRudvis obieqtad iqces. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobaze miTiTebisas, aqcentireba, pirvel rigSi, Sinagani sindisis doneze moaxdina. Tumca Tavisuflebis Sinaarsi sasamarTlos mxridan mniSvnelovani ganxilvis sagani ar yofila. Tavisi yvelaze sawyisi gagebiT igi SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes, rogorc mosazrebaTa (religiur an sxva mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze) Cumad, saxelmwifos mxridan Carevis gareSe qonis ufleba. am doneze saxelmwifos mxridan religiis Tavisuflebis darRveva faqtobrivad SeuZlebelicaa, Tu fsiqologiuri damuSavebisa da sistematuri indoqtrinaciis meSveobiT ar moaxdens ideologiur, fsiqologiur da moralur zemoqmedebas. msgavsi midgomaa SemuSavebuli arkot kriSnasvamis swavlebaSi religiuri diskriminaciis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac religiis Tu rwmenis qonis an Secvlis Tavisufleba, pirvel rigSi, swored individis Sinagani rwmenisa da sindisis farglebSi eqceva. am kuTxiT Tu mivudgebiT mocemul sakiTxs, SesaZloa gamovitanoT daskvna, rom nebismieri intervencia garedan ara marto aralegitimuri, aramed SeuZlebelicaa. azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa im donemde, sanam pirovnebas mxolod maTi qona SeuZlia, miuxedavad imisa, ramdenad abrkolebs mas saxelmwifo, uflebis mxolod minimalur realizebas niSnavs. konvenciis SemuSavebis periodSi, meore msoflio omis Semdeg da civi omis wina periodSi evropelebs arc ki eqnebodaT SesaZlebloba, kmayofileba egrZnoT sakuTari qveynis xelisuflebiT, rom mas ar ucdia Tavisi Zalauflebis gamoyeneba iZulebis wesiT adamianebis religiisa da rwmenis Sinagani aspeqtebis SecvlisaTvis. konvenciis SemuSavebis erT-erTma monawilem me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilze ganacxada, rom igi policiur saxelmwifoebSi miRebuli araadamianuri mopyrobis sawinaaRmdego bastionia.101 ser devid maqsvel-faivi amtkicebda pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis aucileblobas da konvenciaze muSaobis monawileebs axsenebda imas, `rac ... totalitarizmis saSineli aspeqtia, kerZod, rom totalitarul qveynebSi axalgazrdoba izrdeba saxelmwifo an naxevrad saxelmwifo organoebis mxridan totalitarul-dogmaturi swavlebis safuZvelze, rac SeuZlebels xdis mSoblebis mier TavianTi Svilebis aRzrdas sakuTari religiuri da filosofiuri mrwamsis safuZvelze~.102 aqedan gamomdinare, umniSvnelovanesi iyo imaSi darwmuneba, rom es meTodebi akrZaluli iyo konvenciiT, TumcaRa ar aris naTeli, sad gadis zRvari or Zaladobas Soris, romelTagan pirveli adamians aiZulebs rwmenis Secvlas, meore ki _ garkveuli wesiT moqcevas. am sakiTxs ori aspeqti aqvs. pirveli

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imaSi mdgomareobs, rom saxelmwifos pozitiuri valdebuleba aqvs, Seqmnas iseTi pirobebi, romelic adamians SesaZleblobas miscems Tavisuflad ganaxorcielos Tavisi ufleba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze, Tu saxelmwifos negatiuri valdebuleba ekisreba, Tavi Seikavos aRniSnul TavisuflebaSi Carevisagan. meore — ramdenad arRvevs saxelmwifos mier religiisa da rwmenis SezRudva qveynis negatiur valdebulebas, Tavi Seikavos religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebaSi Carevisagan. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, rogorc pozitiuri ufleba erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis CarCo-konvenciis preambulaSi asaxulia saxelmwifos pozitiuri rolis gageba individebis mier TavianTi uflebebis Tavisuflad ganxorcielebis uzrunvelyofaSi. konvenciis Tanaxmad, `pluralisturi da WeSmaritad demokratiuli sazogadoeba valdebulia, ara marto pativi sces TiToeuli pirovnebis eTnikur, kulturul, enobriv da religiur kuTvnilebas, aramed Seqmnas saTanado pirobebi maT mier TavianTi kuTvnilebis gamoxatvis, dacvisa da ganviTarebisaTvis~.103 zemoTqmuli gulisxmobs, rom saxelmwifo, romelic icavs umciresobaTa uflebebs, valdebulia, ara mxolod Tavi Seikavos maTTvis zianis miyenebisagan, aramed pozitiuri monawileoba miiRos umciresobaTa mier sakuTari kuTvnilebis, maT Soris religiuri kuTvnilebis, gamoxatvisaTvis saTanado pirobebis SeqmnaSi. me-9 muxlTan dakavSirebiT ibadeba kiTxva, Tu ramdenad ekisreba saxelmwifos aseTi pozitiuri rolis Sesrulebis valdebuleba. me-9 muxlis formulireba ar iZleva am sakiTxis erTmniSvnelovnad gadawyvetis SesaZleblobas. yvelas aqvs ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze, Tumca didi xnis ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifos valdebuleba am uflebis uzrunvelyofaSi Semoifargleboda ufro mis ganxorcielebaSi Carevisgan Tavis SekavebiT, vidre saTanado pirobebis SeqmniT am faseulobis ganviTarebisaTvis. miuxedavad amisa, qveynebis nawilma sxvadasxva dros SezRuda garkveuli uflebebi religiis Tavisuflebis calkeuli elementebis dacvis mizniT. es qmedebebi safuZvlad daedo moTxovnas, romlis Tanaxmadac gansazRvruli garemoebebis arsebobisas saxelmwifo valdebulia, garkveuli zomebi miiRos religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis mizniT. am sakiTxis ganxilvis sawyis etapze erT-erT saientologs undoda eCivla mecnierisTvis, romelmac damamcireblad isaubra saientologiaze.104 man saCivriT mimarTa komisias saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg imis safuZvelze, rom es ukanaskneli ver uzrunvelyofda samarTalwarmoebis im formas, romelic mas SesaZleblobas miscemda, eCivla profesorisTvis. komisiam saCivari aSkarad dausabuTeblad cno, igi dauSveblad miiCnia da Tavisi gadawyvetilebis argumentirebisas miuTiTa, rom ar Tvlis, `TiTqos gansazRvruli religiis Tu rwmenisaTvis religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba kritikisgan Tavisuflebas niSnavdes~, TumcaRa Riad datova saxelmwifos mxridan pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis sakiTxi im SemTxvevaSi, roca agitacia garkveuli religiis winaaRmdeg gansakuTrebulad mZime xasiaTs atarebs. Sedegad, saqmeSi oto premingeris instituti avstriis winaaRmdeg105 sasamarTlom uaryo reJisoris saCivari sityvis Tavisuflebis darRvevis Taobaze, kerZod, mas ar misces sakuTari filmis (romelic Seicavda qristiani wmindanebis da qristianuli doqtrinebis dacinvas) Cvenebis ufleba qalaq tirolSi. sasamarTlom miiRo avstriis saxelmwifos argumentebi, rom mas SeeZlo aRniSnuli filmis konfiskacia, radganac igi religiuri grZnobebis mZime Seuracxyofas gamoiwvevda kaTolikeebiT mWidrod

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dasaxlebul provinciaSi, sadac filmis Cveneba unda Semdgariyo. sasamarTlom xelmeored miuTiTa, rom religiuri mimdinareobebi ar aris Tavisufali kritikisgan, Tumca, misive gancxadebiT, zogierT gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi religiisa da rwmenis sawinaaRmdego meTodebi `SesaZloa iwvevdes Sesabamisi rwmenis Tu religiis mimdevarTa mier TavianTi Tavisuflebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSlas~. es argumenti Seexeba iseT situacias, rodesac, magaliTad, garkveuli jgufi aqtiurad axdens sxvaTa daSinebas religiuri mrwamsis gamo, an maTi Sexvedris adgilebis blokirebas axorcielebs. amave saqmeSi komisia ufro Sors wavida da ganixila `morwmuneTa religiuri grZnobebis pativiscemis sakiTxi, rac me-9 muxliTaa garantirebuli~, miuxedavad imisa, rom arsad me-9 muxlSi aseTi pativiscema ar aris naTlad Camoyalibebuli. rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mosamarTlis es ganmarteba safuZvlad daedo sxva saqmes, sadac religiis pativiscemis es farTo gansazRvreba, ori momCivnis mtkicebiT, pozitiur uflebas warmoadgenda. maTi moTxovniT saxelmwifo valdebuli iyo, sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna ewarmoebina polonuri Jurnalis winaaRmdeg, romelmac dabeWda mariam RvTismSoblisa da yrmis gamosaxuleba (kaTolicizmis Tayvansacemi xati) airwinaRiT, statiis ilustrirebis mizniT, romelic garemos dabinZurebas Seexeboda.106 poloneTis mTavrobam Seiswavla mravali saCivari, sadac momCivnebi Seuracxyofilni iyvnen am suraTiT, Tumca gadawyvita, ar waeyenebina braldeba JurnalisTvis. rodesac momCivnebma mimarTes komisias imis safuZvelze, rom darRveuli iqna maTi ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze, komisiam ar miiRo saCivari warmoebaSi, cno ra igi aSkarad dausabuTeblad. Tumca komisiam daadastura, rom saxelmwifos SesaZloa garkveuli pozitiuri valdebuleba ekisrebodes, daicvas religiis Tavisufleba, amave dros, xazi gausva imas, rom momCivnebs `xeli ar SeSliaT TavianTi rwmenis qonisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis realizebaSi~. ukve ramdenime Tvis Semdeg, saqmeSi uingrou gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg, sasamarTlo kvlav Seexo `moqalaqeTa uflebas, religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofisgan dacvis Sesaxeb~.107 am saqmeSi videofiris Cveneba, sadac qals, romelic wminda terezas asaxierebda, gauCnda erotikuli fantaziebi ieso qristes mimarT, savaraudod, marTlac Seuracxyofda bevr qristians, magram ar aris naTeli, ramdenad moaxdina aman zegavlena qristianul sazogadoebaSi qristianebis uflebis ganxorcielebaze _ hqondeT sakuTari rwmena, gamoiyenon TavianTi religia an gamoxaton mosazrebebi maT religiasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze (maT Soris gaakritikon filmebi). aqedan gamomdinare, sadavoa, arsebobs Tu ara ufleba, ar iqnes Seuracxyofili vinmes religiuri grZnobebi im SemTxvevaSi mainc, roca saqme exeba Segnebul da usafuZvlo Seuracxyofas.108 sakiTxi, Tu ra aris sakmarisad Seuracxmyofeli ama Tu im religiuri jgufisTvis, rac samoqalaqo an sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis dakisrebis safuZvels SeiZleba warmoadgendes, swored is sakiTxia, sadac qveynebi sakmaod farTo diskreciiT sargebloben. sasamarTlom Tavi aarida im SemTxvevis ganxilvasac, roca qveynis kanonmdebloba mxolod gansazRvrul religias icavs zemoT aRniSnuli Setevisagan.109 es ki niSnavs, rom man faqtobrivad ar aRiara pozitiuri ufleba, romelsac mravali momCivani daeyrdnoboda, magram, amave dros, farTo SesaZlebloba misca saxelmwifoebs, miiRon zomebi sazogadoebis wevrTa religiuri grZnobebis dasacavad, Tundac es iwvevdes sxva uflebebis, maT Soris sityvis Tavi-

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suflebis, SezRudvas. es SesaZloa gagebul iqnes, rogorc saxelmwifosaTvis nebis darTva, danebdes im jgufebis zewolas, romelnic ar arian Semwynarebelni maTi religiis sawinaaRmdegod gamoTqmuli kritikisadmi. miuxedavad imisa, rom, savaraudod, jer kidev arsebobs sazRvrebi, romlis miRmac saxelmwifos moqmedeba ar iqneba dadebiTad Sefasebuli (mag., garkveuli religiis akademiuri kritikis cenzura), amgvari gadawyvetilebebiT moqmedebis farTo sivrce eZlevaT qveynebis mTavrobebs religiis mxatvruli kritikiT gamowveul erovnul ukmayofilebaze reagirebisaTvis. amgvari gadaxveva saientologiis saqmeSi Camoyalibebuli sawyisi principebisgan arasasurvelia, vinaidan amiT is religiuri gaerTianebebi isargebleben, romelnic mzad arian, kritikasa da dacinvas SeuwynareblobiT da aRSfoTebiT upasuxon. iq, sadac farTod aris gavrcelebuli diskriminaciuli damokidebuleba religiuri umciresobis mimarT, an sadac kerZo pirebi religiuri SuRlis, diskriminaciis an religiur niadagze devnis momxreebad gvevlinebian, SeiZleba arsebobdes argumenti, rom saxelmwifos unda ekisrebodes valdebuleba, miiRos zomebi, raTa daareguliros amgvari situacia. SesaZloa ise moxdes, rom individisTvis faqtobrivad SeuZlebelic ki gaxdes, Tavisuflad gamoxatos sakuTari religia Tu rwmena mosaxleobis da SesaZloa calkeuli saxelmwifo uwyebebis mxridan mtruli damokidebulebis gamo.110 saxelmwifoebs imdenad farTo diskreciuli uflebamosileba aqvT miniWebuli moqmedi precedentuli samarTlis safuZvelze, rom im umciresobebis mier, romlebic seriozul Setevebs ganicdian, saxelmwifos mxridan religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis pozitiuri valdebulebis ganxorcielebis moTxovnis dakmayofileba sakmaod did sirTuleebTan aris dakavSirebuli. negatiuri valdebuleba piradi sferos upiratesi xasiaTi komisiisa da sasamarTlos midgoma religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis bunebisadmi da sazRvrebi, romlis farglebSic igi zRudavs mTavrobebs, sakmaod bundovania, Tumca maT SeimuSaves ramdenime ZiriTadi gansazRvreba. yvelaze mniSvnelovani maT Soris aris e.w. forum internum. arc komisias da arc sasamarTlos ar ganumartavs detalurad, Tu ra igulisxmeba am cnebaSi. orive Semoifargleba standartuli ganmartebiT, romlis Tanaxmad `me-9 muxli, pirvel rigSi, rwmenisa da religiis personalur sferos icavs, romelsac zogjer forum internum-s uwodeben~.111 aqedan gamomdinare, me-9 muxlis interpretirebisas aqcentirebulia individis Sinagani, piradi mosazreba, sindisi da religia. Tumca jerac ar aris gansazRvruli, konkretulad ra igulisxmeba am cnebaSi. Tuki igi gulisxmobs pirovnebis uflebas, iqonios Sinagani rwmena, komunikaciis yovelgvari mcdelobis an Sesabamisi rwmenis safuZvelze moqmedebis gareSe, maSin profesori malkolm evansi miiCnevs, rom: naklebi sirTule warmoiqmneba mis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT rogorc simartivis, ise misi darRvevis iSviaTobidan gamomdinare, vinaidan am SemTxvevaSi momCivanma unda aCvenos, rom adgili hqonda Sinagan rwmenaze gavlenis mosaxdenad sakmaris gare zewolas. sinamdvileSi miRebuli midgoma SedarebiT farToa da fokusirebas axdens indoqtrinaciis safrTxeze, avaldebulebs ra saxelmwifos, Tavi Seikavos vinmes iZulebisagan, imoqmedos Tavisi Sinagani rwmenis sawinaaRmdegod.112

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es analizi, savaraudod, sworia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT saqmeTa Sedegebs, Tumca sasamarTlo da komisia im mosazrebas emxrobian, rom zRvari forum internum-sa da forum externum-s (religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva) Soris TavisTavad naTelia da mxolod mcire ganmartebas saWiroebs. miuxedavad amisa, sakmaod bundovania zRvari, romlis miRmac vinmes iZuleba, imoqmedos Tavisi rwmenis sawinaaRmdegod, indoqtrinaciad iqceva. saqmeSi derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg, komisia, savaraudod, swored amgvari definiciis SemuSavebas Seecada, roca ganacxada, rom me-9 (1) muxli `icavs yvelas sakuTari nebis sawinaaRmdego religiur saqmianobaSi monawileobis iZulebisagan~.113 Tumca ar iqna ganxiluli, ramdenad pirdapiri xasiaTi unda hqondes amgvar monawileobas, aseve saSualebebi, romelTa gamoyenebac pirovnebis `sakuTari nebis sawinaaRmdegod~ religiur saqmianobaSi CarTvad CaiTvleboda, da aris Tu ara es erTaderTi gza, romliTac saxelmwifos SeuZlia daarRvios forum internum. sirTule, dakavSirebuli forum internum-is aseTi bundovani koncefciis gamoyenebasTan, naTlad warmoCnda erT-erT ukanasknel saqmeSi, romelSic sasamarTlom ugulebelyo gansxvaveba me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis or segments Soris. saqmeSi buskarini da sxvebi san-marinos winaaRmdeg,114 san-marinos generaluri didi sabWos (parlamenti) axal wevrebs mosTxoves bibliaze ficis dadeba, rom TavianT valdebulebebs saTanadod Seasrulebdnen. ramdenime maTgani daTanxmda mxolod dapirebebze, magram gamoricxa bibliaze daficeba. sabolood maT mainc dades fici bibliaze, oRond mas Semdeg, rac ganumartes, rom daumorCileblobis SemTxvevaSi TavianT saparlamento adgilebs dakargavdnen. sasamarTlom miiRo gadawyvetileba, romlis mixedviTac amgvari saxiT ficis dadebis valdebuleba ewinaaRmdegeboda me-9 muxls, radganc `igi gansazRvruli religiisadmi erTgulebis daficebas moiTxovda~. es saqme savaraudod swored forum internum-Si Carevis naTel magaliTs warmoadgenda, Tumca sasamarTlos ar ganuxilavs amgvari SesaZlebloba, ubralod miuTiTa, rom saqme religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvasTan iyo dakavSirebuli ise, rom arc ki uxsenebia TviT religiis fundamenturi Tavisufleba. amis sapirispirod man ganixila, aucilebeli iyo Tu ara fici demokratiul sazogadoebaSi, me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad.115 buskarinis saqme mosmenil iqna axlad dafuZnebuli didi palatis mier. unda aRiniSnos, rom am sasamarTlo organos wevrebs idealuri SesaZlebloba hqondaT me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis mimarT TavianTi iurisprudenciis ganviTarebisa, Tumca ar gamoiyenes is, rac TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rom uaxloes momavalSi ar unda velodeT sasamarTlos mxridan forum internum-is gaumjobesebuli gansazRvrebis SemuSavebas. erT-erTi, vinc Seecada forum internum-is farglebis dadgenas, iyo bahii tahzibi. wignSi saerTaSoriso doneze religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis Sesaxeb mis mier mocemulia ramdenime gza saxelmwifos mxridan forum internum-Si Carevis SesaZleblobisa, sistemuri fsiqologiuri damuSavebis gamoklebiT. ukanono Carevis miseuli CamonaTvali moicavs: diskriminacias gansazRvruli religiisa Tu rwmenis qonis an arqonis niadagze; gansazRvruli rwmenisa Tu religiisadmi kuTvnilebis kanongareSed gamocxadebas; pirovnebis iZulebas, gaamxilos Tavisi religia Tu rwmena, an mis gamovlenas mflobelis Tanxmobis gareSe; fizikuri Zalis an sanqciebis gamoyenebis muqaras individebis iZulebis mizniT, rom isini sakuTari an sxva religiis mimdevrebi gaxdnen, uaryon an Seicvalon sakuTari religia an rwmena.

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komisia da sasamarTlo bevr saqmeSi Seegua amgvar praqtikas da ganixila ara rogorc Careva religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom es CamonaTvali gacilebiT naTlad aris Camoyalibebuli, vidre komisiisa da sasamarTlos gansazRvreba, forum internum-sa da forum externum-s Soris mkafio zRvaris gavlebis aucilebloba ZalaSi rCeba, Tumca aSkarad miuTiTebs am amocanis gadaWris SesaZleblobaze. Forum internum-isa da forum externum-is gamijvna sakmaod sadavoa mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom rwmena da rwmenidan gamomdinare qmedebebi gacalkevebuli da gansxvavebadi kategoriebia.116 mocemuli Sexeduleba arc sasamarTlosa da komisiis117 iurisprudenciiT aris aRiarebuli. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi amgvari zRvaris gavleba rwmenasa (xelSeuvali) da qmedebas (SezRudvebis obieqti) Soris pirveli Sesworebis precedentuli samarTlis nawilad iqca.118 misi farTo gamoyenebis miuxedavad, uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare, burgerma ganacxada, rom `SeuZlebelia rwmenasa da qmedebas Soris naTeli zRvaris gavleba~.119 aSS-s konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis religiuri klauzulebis gamoCenilma komentatorma filip kirklandma, saerTod gamoricxa rwmenisa da qmedebis erTmaneTisgan gamijvnis SesaZlebloba da ganacxada, rom `ar arsebobs zRvari, romelic dagvexmareboda ... rTuli problemebis mogvarebaSi~.120 mravali avtori miuTiTebs im sferoze, sadac religiur an sxva rwmenaTa da qmedebaTa gadakveTa xdeba. am konteqstSi erTma maTganma ganacxada, rom `yvela didi religia mxolod rwmenis sakiTxi ar aris; igi cxovrebis wesia, qmedebaa~ da erT-erTi yvelaze `sastiki gakicxva religiaSi gankuTvnilia TvalTmaqcebisTvis, romlebsac swamT, magram ver axerxeben rwmenis safuZvelze moqmedebas~.121 precedentul samarTalSi gakeTebuli xazgasma Sinagani an rwmenaze dafuZnebuli sistemebis upirates xasiaTze, rogorc religiis arsze, SesaZloa srulebiT ar Seesabamebodes im gansazRvrebas, romelsac mravali religiuri mimdinareoba ayalibebs sakuTari Tavis mimarT. rogorc profesori dona salivani amave konteqstSi amtkicebs, `mravali religiuri doqtrina Tu rwmena adgens socialuri qcevisa da pasuxismgeblobis standartebs da moiTxovs morwmuneTagan maT Sesrulebas. maTTvis, vinc icavs socialuri pasuxismgeblobis am principebs, gansxvaveba religiur da politikur saqmianobas Soris SesaZloa xelovnuric iyos~. gamoCenili Teologis kantuel smitis mosazrebiT, tradiciuli evropuli religiebis farglebs gareT religiis mTeli arsi, Tavi rom davaneboT garkveuli rwmenis upiratesobas, imaSi mdgomareobs, rom is, vinc ewinaaRmdegeba religiuri cxovrebis wess, iTvleba ucxotomelad.122 aqedan gamomdinare, Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac religia, pirvel rigSi, garkveuli, urTierTdakavSirebuli rwmenebis erTobliobas warmoadgens, rogorc amas me-9 muxlis precedentuli samarTali gvTavazobs, ar Seesabameba yvela religiur mimdinareobaTa Tu maT mimdevarTa mosazrebebs. pirovnebis iZuleba, moiqces Tavisi religiisa Tu rwmenis moZRvrebaTa sawinaaRmdegod, an misi dasja sakuTar religiur swavlebaTa Sesabamisi qmedebisaTvis, ar aris irelevanturi mravali adamianis rwmenisa Tu religiisaTvis. religiis mravali definicia xazs usvams eTikis kodeqsis mixedviT cxovrebisa da ganviTarebis, qcevis saerTo magaliTebis mimdevrobisa da ritualebSi monawileobis miRebis mniSvnelobas. mxolod religiis Zalze

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viwro definiciebi zRudavs mas upirvelesad adamianis gonebaSi ideebisa da rwmenaTa sistemis ganviTarebis inteleqtualuri sferoTi. ufro gaumjobesebuli gansazRvrebebi ki miuTiTebs, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia religias adamianis mier Tavisi cxovrebis warmarTvaSi. me-9 muxlis formulireba, Tavis mxriv, gvTavazobs, rom saWiroa ganvasxvaoT zogadi ufleba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze da ufleba maT gamoxatvaze. Sesabamisad, gaugebaria, ramdenad relevanturia me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili, roca gansazRvruli tipis gamoxatva kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgas. garkveuli mosazrebiT, rwmenis gamoxatvis garTulebam SesaZloa mZime zegavlena moaxdinos Sinagan sferoze. msgavsi pozicia daafiqsira aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare burgerma saqmeSi Wisconsin v. Yoder,123 sadac gasaCivrebuli iqna kanoni, romlis safuZvelzec savaldebulo iyo 16 wlamde bavSvebis skolaSi siaruli viskonsinis StatSi. amiSebi iTxovdnen gaTavisuflebas am wesisgan, radganac miiCnevdnen, rom swavlebis bolo 2 weli dabrkolebas uqmnida bavSvebis integrirebis unars amiSebis religiur da socialur sazogadoebaSi. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirveli Sesworebis safuZvelze maT hqondaT aRniSnuli wesisgan gaTavisuflebis ufleba. Tu ra nayofi gamoiRo aRniSnulma gadawyvetilebam, sakmaod sadavoa, Tumca misi dasabuTeba zustad im zRvarze miuTiTebs, romlis miRmac Sinagani da garegani sferoebis gadakveTa xdeba. religia amiSebisTvis ar Semoifargleba mxolod `Teokratiuli rwmenebiT~, aramed `Rrma religiur mrwamss~ warmoadgens, romelic mTel maT cxovrebiseul gzas gansazRvravs. Careva cxovrebis wesSi gardauvali Sedegis saxiT rwmenaSi Carevas gamoiwvevda.124 garkveuli mosazrebiT, valdebulebaTa dakisreba rwmenis gamoxatvaze aseve warmoadgens fundamenturi uflebis darRvevas religiis Tavisuflebaze. saxelmwifos Careva forum internum-Si rogorc profesorma evansma ganacxada, zemoT aRniSnulis citirebisas, komisiam garkveulwilad daadastura, rom pirovnebis iZuleba, imoqmedos Tavisi religiisa da rwmenis sawinaaRmdegod, mZime zegavlenas axdens ara marto forum externum-ze aramed aseve kerZo, Sinagan sindisze. sfero, sadac evropuli saxelmwifoebi yvelaze xSirad iqnen dadanaSaulebulni indoqtrinaciis mcdelobaSi, Seexeba swavlebas skolaSi. garkveul doneze, yoveli SemTxveva, roca saxelmwifo moiTxovs individisgan, imoqmedos Tavisi religiuri wesebis sawinaaRmdegod an awesebs sasjels adamianis uarisaTvis, imoqmedos Tavisi sindisis sawinaaRmdegod, mZimed zemoqmedebs forum internum-ze. amis yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTs warmoadgens pirovnebis iZuleba, monawileoba miiRos religiur ritualSi, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba mis rwmenas, an uaryos sakuTari religia. am tipis saqmesTan sasamarTlos jer ar hqonia Sexeba. daaxloebiT amgvari saxisa iyo ieRovas mowme bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli ori saqme, sadac momCivanTa gancxadebiT, isini daisajnen uarisTvis, monawileoba mieRoT samxedro aRlumSi. momCivnebis mtkicebiT, maTi iZuleba, monawileoba mieRoT amgvar aRlumebSi, warmoadgenda pacifizmis religiur mimdevrobaze maTi uflebis darRvevas. sasamarTlom uaryo maTi saCivrebi.125 aRniSnul saqmeebSi sasamarTlos warmodgeniT saqmis arsi religiis gamoxatvaSi mdgomareobda, Tumca locvaSi monawileobis miRebaze bavSvebis iZulebis SemTxvevas rom hqonoda adgili, religiisa da rwmenis Sinagan da garegan aspeqtebs Soris mkafio sazRvris gavlebis sirTule albaT ufro

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ukeT iqneboda aRqmuli sasamarTlos mier. pirovnebis iZuleba, moiqces Tavisi religiuri mrwamsis aSkara darRveviT, savaraudod, religiis an rwmenis uaryofis iZulebis ekvivalenturia. Zalze Znelia aseT saqmeebSi Sinagan da garegan sferoebs Soris zusti zRvaris SenarCuneba. Forum internum-is TviT SezRuduli gagebac ki sistemurad ar iqna gamoyenebuli sasamarTlos mier. es naTlad Cans saskolo marSTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis Sedarebisas saqmesTan derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg, sadac sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirovnebis iZuleba, gadaixados im eklesiis gadasaxadebi, romelsac igi ar miekuTvneba, warmoadgens mniSvnelovan Carevas forum internum-Si.126 aqedan gamomdinare, sakmaod Znelia komisiis midgomasa da mis gadawyvetilebebs Soris Sesabamisobis povna, ieRovas mowmeTa saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT. SesaZloa, sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gagebul iqnes im konteqstSi, rom momCivans derbis saqmeSi aiZulebdnen, monawileoba mieRo im religiaSi, romlis mimdevaric igi ar iyo, bavSvebs ki aiZulebdnen, monawileoba mieRoT ufro samoqalaqo programaSi, vidre uSualod religiaSi. Tumca SesaZloa TiToeul, calke aRebul SemTxvevaSi momCivanTa mxridan saqmis arsis gaazreba identuri xasiaTisa iyo. arc erT saqmeSi saxelmwifo ar wasula ise Sors, rom SeuZlebeli (Tundac gansakuTrebulad rTuli) gaexada individebisaTvis Sinagani rwmenis SenarCuneba, Tumca TiToeul SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos moTxovna individebisadmi imaSi mdgomareobda, rom moqceuliyvnen sakuTari rwmenis moTxovnaTa sawinaaRmdegod. es ki faqtobrivad warmoadgenda moTxovnas individebisadmi, TavianTi qceviT uareyoT sakuTari religia. konfliqti moTxovnil qmedebasa da rwmenas Soris imdenad seriozuli iyo, rom, savaraudod, zegavlenas axdenda rogorc garegan, ise Sinagan sferoze. aqedan gamomdinare, gadamwyveti mniSvnelobisaa sakiTxi, Tu ra stadiaze iqceva saxelmwifos qmedeba iseTad, rom zegavlenas axdens ara marto pirovnebis uflebaze, gamoxatos Tavisi religia, aramed mis uflebaze, iqonios religia an rwmena. pasuxi, rogorc Cans, Semdegia: saxelmwifos qmedeba gansakuTrebulad represiul xasiaTs unda atarebdes, imisaTvis, rom sasamarTlos mxridan Sefasdes, rogorc Careva forum internum-Si. derbis saqmis gamoklebiT, ar yofila sxva SemTxveva, sadac saxelmwifos qmedeba, kerZod, individebis iZuleba, emoqmedaT TavianTi sindisis sawinaaRmdegod an religiuri qcevis dasja, Sefasebuli yofiliyo, rogorc Careva forum internum-Si. rogorc profesori evansi acxadebs, adamianebi unda moelodnen `garkveuli sazRauris gaRebas~ TavianTi religiis an rwmenisaTvis da mxolod garkveuli valdebulebebis dakisreba pirovnebaze, romelic cdilobs, daicvas Tavisi religiis an rwmenis moTxovnebi, ar aris sakmarisi, rom CaiTvalos me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevad. maSin, roca sazRauri SesaZloa Zalze maRali iyos (mag. wameba an Tavisuflebis aRkveTa), ramdenime zomierad seriozuli valdebuleba ar iqna miCneuli me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevad. samxedro mosamarTlis saqmeSi, romelic gaTavisuflebuli iqna Tanamdebobidan fundamentalisturi islamuri jgufis wevrobis gamo, sasamarTlom daadgina (Secvala ra komisiis gadawyvetileba), rom aRniSnuli saqme me-9 muxlis qvemdebare ar iyo.127 sasamarTlom Tavisi gadawyvetileba nawilobriv im garemoebiT daasabuTa, rom samxedro samsaxurSi SesvliT momCivani nebayoflobiT Tanxmdeboda mis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebze garkveuli SezRudvebis dawesebas, nawilobriv ki imiT, rom mosamarTle gaTavisuflebuli iqna ara mosazrebaTa, aramed qcevisa da poziciis gamo. Tumca saqcieli da pozicia, rogorc samsaxuridan gaTavi-

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suflebis safuZveli, mdgomareobda swored `ukanono fundamentalisturi mosazrebebis~128 aRiarebaSi. sasamarTlo mxolod bundovani ganmartebiT Semoifargla momCivnis mxridan samxedro disciplinis darRvevis Taobaze. vinaidan detalebi ar iqna mocemuli, Sesabamisad, gaugebaria, Tu raSi gamoixata disciplinis darRveva. es saqme SesaZloa forum internum-Si Carevis tahzibiseuli CamonaTvalis pirvel jgufs miesadagebodes, kerZod, diskriminacias gansazRvruli religiisa Tu rwmenis qonis an garkveuli Sexedulebebis argaziarebis gamo. es faqtobrivad asecaa, vinaidan saqmeSi ar yofila warmodgenili arc erTi mtkicebuleba, romlis mixedviTac momCivnis religia armiaSi misi rolis Sesrulebas uSlida xels, aqedan gamomdinare, komisiam miiCnia, rom mosamarTlis daTxovna me-9 muxlis darRvevas warmoadgenda.129 am gadawyvetilebis Secvlisas sasamarTlom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis imdenad viwro definicia gamoiyena, rom gaugebaria, saerTod rogor aris SesaZlebeli totalitaruli qveynebis umravlesobis mxridan misi darRveva. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifoebs umravles SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebloba eZlevaT, gansazRvruli religiis an rwmenis gaziareba gaxadon arasasiamovno an mavaldebulebeli, faqtobrivad, forum internum-Si Carevis gareSe. miuxedavad zemoaRniSnulisa, SesaZloa sasamarTlos zogierTi wevris damokidebuleba Seicvala kidec me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis ufro farTo interpretaciis mimarT. saqmeSi cavaCidisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg,130 komisiis ramdenime wevris mosazrebiT, religiis an rwmenis niadagze saidumlo policiis mxridan pirovnebaze sistematuri meTvalyureoba religiis qonaze adamianis uflebis darRveva iyo. komisiis wevrebis umravlesoba ki miiCnevda, rom aseTi zedamxedveloba mxolod piradi saidumloebis xelyofas warmoadgenda (da, Sesabamisad, me-8 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze dasaSvebi iyo mxolod aucileblobisas demokratiul sazogadoebaSi), Tumca garkveuli formiT religiuri jgufebis organizebuli daSineba saxelmwifo organoTa warmomadgenlebis mxridan SesaZloa utoldeboda kidec forum internum-Si Carevas. saqmes sasamarTlomde ar miuRwevia, vinaidan mxareebi morigdnen.131 Tumca erT-erT bolo saqmeSi sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom saxelmwifo organoTa, gansakuTrebiT policiis, warmomadgenelTa TanamSromloba im ojaxis wevrebTan, romlebmac daakaves TavianTi zrdasruli Svilebi am ukanasknelTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod maTi religiuri mrwamsis Secvlis mizniT, warmoadgenda adamianis uflebis darRvevas, ar yofiliyo ukanonod dakavebuli.132 samwuxarod, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom, radganac moTxovna me-5 (1) muxlis qvemdebare iyo, me-9 muxlis damoukidebeli gamokvleva aRar iyo saWiro. miuxedavad amisa, es saqme SesaZloa garkveulwilad mianiSnebdes sasamarTlos mzaobaze, daicvas adamianis ufleba religiuri mrwamsis Tavisuflebaze (Tundac Zalze sadavo religiuri mrwamsisa), miuxedavad imisa, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi dacva mopovebuli iqna konvenciis sxva, da ara me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. maSin, roca komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier saxelmwifos mxridan arareligiur programebSi monawileobis iZuleba forum internum-Si Carevad Sefasda SedarebiT nakleb SemTxvevebSi, savaraudod, gansxvavebulad unda iqnes gansjili gansazRvruli religiuri Sexedulebis ganviTarebisaTvis saxelmwifos xelSemwyobi qmedeba an misi mcdeloba. arsebobs ori ZiriTadi gza amis ganxorcielebisa: saxelmwifo eklesiis dafuZneba da saxelmwifo skolebSi bavSvebis ganaTleba. orive gavlenas axdens forum internum-ze.

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saxelmwifo eklesia konvenciis proeqtis SemuSavebisas samuSao procesSi monawile bevr saxelmwifoSi arsebobda garkveuli formiT dawesebuli an saxelmwifo eklesia. dResdReobiT konvenciis mravalricxovan monawileebs TavianT konstituciebSi aqvT miTiTeba garkveuli eklesiis an religiis Taobaze.133 arc erT saxelmwifos ara aqvs sxva religiaTa devnisa da maT mimarT araSemwynarebluri damokidebulebis oficialurad gacxadebuli politika, rogorc es zogierT SemTxvevaSi istoriulad arsebobda.134 Tumca umravlesoba mainc mniSvnelovan privilegiebs an sul mcire upiratesobas aniWebs gansazRvrul eklesias an eklesiebs sxva religiebisa da eklesiebis mimarT. saxelmwifo eklesiebis konteqstSi didi mniSvneloba aqvs sakiTxs, warmoadgens Tu ara TavisTavad maTi arseboba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis darRvevas. rac Seexeba gaeros aqtebs religiis Tavisuflebaze, SeiniSneba am sakiTxis ganxilvisTvis Tavis aridebis tendencia, Tumca religiisa da rwmenis niadagze Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis aRmofxvris Taobaze 1967 wels SemuSavebuli deklaraciis proeqtis 1 (d) muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos mxridan gansazRvruli religiis daweseba da aRiareba TavisTavad ar SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes, rogorc Seuwynareblobis an diskriminaciis erT-erTi forma.135 es debuleba saboloo jamSi deklaraciis saboloo variantSi ar iqna Setanili. sasamarTlom da komisiam aseve gadawyvites, rom garkveuli religiis daweseba TavisTavad ar warmoadgens konvenciis darRvevas.136 saqmeSi derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg137 komisiam ganacxada: saxelmwifo eklesiis sistema TavisTavad ar SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes konvenciis me-9 muxlis darRvevad. realurad amgvari sistema konvenciis monawile mraval saxelmwifoSi arsebobs da arsebobda maSinac, roca konvenciis SemuSaveba xdeboda da es qveynebi misi monawileni gaxdnen. imisaTvis, rom saxelmwifo eklesiis sistemam daakmayofilos me-9 muxlis moTxovnebi, igi unda Seicavdes TiToeuli individis religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis specialur saSualebebs. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifo eklesias micemuli ara aqvs e.w. carte blanche. kerZod, saxelmwifos ar gaaCnia ufleba, aiZulos individebi, SeuerTdnen eklesias, an aukrZalos maT eklesiis datoveba. Tuki es moxdeba, adgili eqneba forum internumSi Carevis aSkara SemTxvevas. dawesebuli eklesiis arsebobis sanqcireba badebs mniSvnelovan kiTxvebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra tipis daxmarebis gawevis ufleba aqvs saxelmwifos eklesiisaTvis, vidre gansazRvruli religiisaTvis aqtiur xelSewyobaSi gadaizrdebodes misi qmedeba. arkot kriSnasvami, Tavis swavlebaSi religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb aRniSnavda, rom istoriulad `qveyanaSi dawesebuli eklesiis an saxelmwifo religiis arseboba asocirebuli iyo sastik diskriminaciasTan — zogjer aSkara devnasTanac ki — im individebis mimarT, romlebic am eklesiis mimdevrebi ar iyvnen. misive analiziT, saxelmwifo eklesiis ubralo arseboba ar warmoadgens religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis Taobaze miRebuli saerTaSoriso aqtebis darRvevas, Tumca igi qmnis msgavsi eklesiebis mier gansxvavebuli religiebis an rwmenaTa mimdevrebis mimarT ukanono diskriminaciaSi saxelmwifoTa CaTrevis SesaZleblobis detaluri gamokvlevis aucileblobas. dasaSvebi done saxelmwifos mxridan gansazRvruli religiisadmi mxardaWerisa,

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pirvel rigSi, sagadasaxado sakiTxebsa da finansur kontribucias, aseve eklesiis SigniT, saeklesio personalze, gansakuTrebiT sasuliero pirebsa da eklesiis winamZRvrebze saxelmwifo kontrols moicavs. saxelmwifo eklesiis gavlenis naTel ilustracias warmoadgens ficis dadebis moTxovna saparlamento adgilebis dakavebisas (rac konvenciis darRvevas warmoadgens)138 da erTi konkretuli religiis mimarT mkrexelobis amkrZalavi kanonebis miReba (rac ar warmoadgens konvenciis darRvevas).139 finansuri garigebebi saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris saxelmwifos SeuZlia pirdapiri gziT akrifos dawesebuli eklesiisaTvis (an sxva nebismieri eklesiisaTvis) gankuTvnili saeklesio gadasaxadebi mocemuli eklesiis wevrebisgan.140 aRniSnuli miznis misaRwevad saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, religiis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi pirovnebisgan moiTxovos informireba xsenebulis Taobaze, rac SesaZloa ganvixiloT rogorc darRveva adamianis uflebisa, ar gaamxilos Tavisi religia. komisiis mier saxelmwifoebs mieniWaT farTo diskrecia informirebis gzebis gansazRvris mimarTulebiT.141 miuxedavad amisa, qveynebis mTavrobebs ar aqvT ufleba, saeklesio gadasaxadebisagan gaTavisuflebis sanacvlod Seusabamo valdebulebebi daakisron pirebs, romlebic ar miekuTvnebian Sesabamis eklesias. saqmeSi derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg,142 komisiam miuTiTa, rom molodini pirovnebis mier sacxovrebeli qveynis Secvlisa saxelmwifo eklesiis gadasaxadis gadaxdisagan gaTavisuflebis mizniT, warmoadgenda konvenciis me-9 muxlis darRvevas. amave dros saxelmwifo uflebamosilia Seasrulos eklesiis warmomadgenlis funqciebi religiuri miznebisaTvis misi wevrebisgan fulis asakrefad, anu miniWebuli aqvs kerZo garigebis sferoSi Carevis ufleba. saxelmwifos aseve SeuZlia TviT eklesias an eklesiebs mianiWos pirdapiri gziT saeklesio gadasaxadebis gadaxdis moTxovnis ufleba, aseve, neba darTos maT, gamoiyenon gadaxdis iZulebis sasamarTlo meqanizmi.143 mocemuli saqmeebis Sefasebisas komisiis mier eklesiis wevroba ramdenjerme gaTanabrebuli iqna kerZo organizaciis wevrobasTan. kerZo organizacia ki uflebamosilia, Tavisi wevrebisgan moiTxovos Senatanis gadaxda da gamoiyenos saxelmwifo, am ukanasknelis Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi, gadaxdis iZulebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT.144 komisiam mxedvelobaSi ar miiRo, rom am tipis garigeba individisgan moiTxovs saxelmwifos informirebas Tavisi religiis, aseve religiis SecvlasTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri gadawyvetilebis Sesaxeb. aman ki SesaZloa zogs xeli SeuSalos Tavisufal arCevanSi da, Sesabamisad, zegavlena moaxdinos forum internum-ze.145 komisiam aseve neba darTo saxelmwifos, aramorwmuneTa mxridanac moeTxova saxelmwifo eklesiis gadasaxadebis proporciuli raodenobis gadaxda, romelic gankuTvnili iqneboda eklesiis mier im `samoqalaqo funqciebis~ ganxorcielebisaTvis, rogoricaa dabadebisa da gardacvalebis TariRebis aRricxva, qorwinebisa da dakrZalvis ceremoniebis ganxorcieleba. iZulebiTi wesiT gadasaxadebis gadaxdas SesaZloa is individic daeqvemdebaros, romelic kategoriulad winaaRmdegia saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris kavSirisa am `samoqalaqo funqciebis~ ganxorcielebaSi.146 erT-erTi eklesiis wevrebs, romlebic aprotestebdnen wess, romlis safuZvelzec maTi saeklesio gadasaxadis ganawileba xdeboda ramdenime religiur mimdinareobas Soris, imis nacvlad, rom mxolod maTi eklesiisaTvis yofiliyo gamoyenebuli, aseve

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uari eTqvaT saqmis ganxilvaze me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. komisiam es gadawyvetileba miiRo, momCivanTa protestis miuxedavad (isini mzad iyvnen, daetovebinaT TavianTi eklesiis rigebi, rom Semwynarebluri damokidebuleba ar gamoeCinaT amgvari garigebis mimarT).147 saxelmwifo aseve aRWurvilia uflebiT, Sevides iseTi tipis garigebebSi, romlebic garkveul upiratesobas aniWebs erT an ramdenime eklesias sxva eklesiebisa Tu religiebis mimarT. saqmeSi iglesia bautista `el salvadori~ da ortega maratila espaneTis winaaRmdeg148 komisiam daadgina, rom is sagadasaxado sistema, romelic privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi ayenebda kaTolikur eklesias protestantuli eklesiebis mimarT, ar arRvevda me-9 da me-14 muxlebs. espaneTSi kaTolikuri eklesia gaTavisuflebuli iyo uZravi qonebis gadasaxadisagan. momCivnebi _ protestantuli eklesia da protestanti winamZRvari _ aseve iTxovdnen, am gadasaxadis gadaxdisgan gaTavisuflebas, Tumca maT uari eTqvaT im motiviT, rom saxelmwifos daTmoba kaTolikuri eklesiis mimarT ganpirobebuli iyo espaneTsa da kaTolikur eklesias Soris dadebuli konkordatiT. protestantul eklesiasTan aseTi SeTanxmebis ararsebobis pirobebSi gadasaxadis gadaxdisgan misi gaTavisufleba moklebuli iqneboda yvelanair iuridiuli safuZvels. religiis Tavisuflebaze ufleba ar gulisxmobs garkveuli eklesiis gaTavisuflebas sagadasaxado valdebulebebisgan. saxelmwifos ar ekisreba RvTismsaxurebis ganxorcielebis adgilebis gaTavisufleba gadasaxadebis gadaxdis valdebulebisagan. amave dros saxelmwifo uflebamosilia gansazRvruli eklesia an religiuri organizacia gaaTavisuflos gadasaxadebis gadaxdisgan me-14 muxlis darRvevis gareSe, Tuki arsebobs `obieqturi da dasabuTebuli~ gamarTleba msgavsi gansxvavebuli damokidebulebisa. komisiam ganacxada, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi, konkordatis arsebobidan gamomdinare, saxelmwifos moqmedebas hqonda aseTi gamarTleba. konkordati garkveul valdebulebebs akisrebda kaTolikur eklesias (magaliTad, misi istoriuli, mxatvruli da dokumenturi memkvidreobis Cayeneba espaneli xalxis samsaxurSi), saxelmwifos mxridan garkveuli sargeblis miRebis sanacvlod (magaliTad, gadasaxadis gadaxdisgan gaTavisufleba). vinaidan protestantul eklesiasTan ar iyo dadebuli amgvari garigeba, Sesabamisad, arc diskriminacias hqonda adgili protestantuli eklesiis mimarT. saboloo jamSi, komisiam uaryo is argumenti, TiTqos, kaTolikuri eklesiisgan gansxvavebiT, protestantuli eklesiis mimarT gadasaxadebis gadaxdis moTxovnis SenarCunebiT saxelmwifo erT eklesias meoris subsidirebas aiZulebda. komisiam ganacxada, rom gadasaxadebis dakisreba neitralur aqts warmoadgens yovelgvari mizanmimarTuli qveteqstis gareSe. momCivanma aseve ver SeZlo imis damtkiceba, rom mis mier gadaxdili gadasaxadebi raime saxiT gamoyenebuli iqna kaTolikuri eklesiisaTvis daxmarebis gawevis mizniT. aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba daskvnis gamotana, rom saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, erT eklesias, meorisgan gansxvavebiT, daakisros gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebuleba an gauwios finansuri daxmareba, Tuki saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris dadebulia SeTanxmeba, romelic ormxriv valdebulebebs akisrebs mxareebs. komisiam ar ganixila sakiTxi imis Taobaze, hqonda Tu ara protestantul eklesias saxelmwifosTan garigebis dadebis moTxovnis ufleba, Tumca miRebul gadawyvetilebaSi TavisTavad igulisxmeba, rom amis ufleba momCivan eklesias ar gaaCnia. rogorc Cans, am gadawyvetilebaze gavlena iqonia im

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faqtormac, rom saxelmwifo eklesiis statusi Tavisi arsiT dakargavda mniSvnelobas, Tuki misTvis damaxasiaTebeli yvela privilegiiT sargeblobis ufleba sxva religiebsac eqnebodaT. kontroli saeklesio personalze sxva iuridiul sirTuleTa jgufs, rac sazogadoebaSi romelime eklesiis an religiis dawesebis Sedegad warmoiqmneba, miekuTvneba is, rom saxelmwifo xelisuflebas miniWebuli aqvs ufleba, monawileoba miiRos religiasTan dakavSirebiT im gadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi, rac sxva SemTxvevaSi saSinao religiur saqmed CaiTvleboda.149 magaliTad, saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, daadginos samuSaoze ayvanis kriteriumebi sasuliero pirebisaTvis an Camoayalibos maT mier Sesasrulebeli valdebulebebi saxelmwifos winaSe. saxelmwifos aseve SeuZlia monawileoba miiRos dakisrebul movaleobaTa jerovnad Seusruleblobis safuZvelze sasuliero piris gaTavisuflebis Taobaze gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis procesSi. saxelmwifoSi, sadac arsebobs dawesebuli eklesia, qveynis mTavrobas ufleba aqvs, Camoayalibos eklesiaSi samuSaos dawyebis rogorc zogadi xasiaTis pirobebi, ise moTxovnebi konkretuli Tanamdebobis mimarT.150 saxelmwifos mxridan Tanamdebobaze daniSvnis win erTgulebis ficis dadebis moTxovnaze uflebas komisiam aSkarad dauWira mxari saqmeSi knudseni norvegiis winaaRmdeg.151 komisiam aseve mxari dauWira saeklesio xelmZRvanelobis gadawyvetilebas, romelmac uari ganucxada qalTa samRvdelo xeldasxmis mowinaaRmdege pastors eklesiaSi samuSaos dawyebaze, imis safuZvelze, rom Tavis poziciaze mas SesaZloa damxmare qal sasuliero pirebTan hqonoda Sexeba.152 sakiTxi sasuliero pirTa dasaqmebis moTxovnaTa Sesaxeb ar ganekuTvneba ordinarul saxelmwifo interesTa sferos, amitom iq, sadac saxelmwifo eklesiis msgavsi warmonaqmni ar arsebobs, amgvari Careva SesaZloa ganxiluli yofiliyo, rogorc me-9 muxlis darRveva.153 Tumca es srulebiT ar gulisxmobs imas, rom dawesebuli eklesiis pirobebSi saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris arsebuli, zemoT ganxiluli, urTierToba legitimur elfers sZendes mTavrobis mxridan eklesiis saSinao saqmeebSi Carevas. yvela SemTxvevaSi, konvenciis safuZvelze, aseTi urTierToba saxelmwifos mxridan moiTxovs garkveul moqmedebasa da pasuxismgeblobas eklesiis gansazRvruli qmedebebisTvis. sasuliero pirTa da gansazRvruli religiuri mimdinareobis wevrTa uflebebi aseve SezRudul xasiaTs atarebs. saxelmwifo eklesiis sistemaSi saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, garkveuli garemoebebis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi mainc, moiTxovos sasuliero pirisgan gansazRvruli tipis qceva, moTxovnis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi ki — samuSaos datoveba. mdgomareoba ar icvleba im SemTxvevaSic, roca sakiTxi Tavisi arsiT religiuri xasiaTisaa. komisiam mxari dauWira daniis saxelmwifo eklesiis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebas im sasuliero piris disciplinuri pasuxismgeblobis Taobaze, romelmac mSoblebs maTi Svilebis monaTvlis pirobad am ukanasknelTaTvis religiuri swavlebis 5 gakveTilis Catareba wauyena.154 komisiis mier Tavisi gadawyvetilebis dasabuTeba sakmaod mniSvnelovania, rogorc saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris urTierTobis, ise gansazRvruli eklesiis wevrTa religiis Tavisuflebis konteqstSi, miuxedavad imisa, sakiTxi dawesebul eklesias Seexeba, Tu ara. komisiam ganacxada, rom

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eklesia organizebuli xasiaTis religiuri sazogadoebaa, dafuZnebuli identur an arsebiTad msgavs Sexedulebebze. misi wevrebisaTvis me-9 muxlis safuZvelze miniWebuli uflebebidan gamomdinare, Tavis mxriv, daculia eklesiis uflebebi religiis gamoxatvaze, RvTismsaxurebis organizebasa da Catarebaze, swavlebaze, ritualebis Sesrulebaze an wes-Cveulebebis dacvaze, aseve Tavisufleba, aRasrulos da iZulebis wesiT uzrunvelyos am sakiTxTa erTgvarovneba. garda amisa, saxelmwifo eklesiis sistemaSi eklesiis msaxurni ayvanilni arian samuSaoze konkretuli religiis gamoyenebisa da swavlebis mizniT. azrze, sindissa da religiaze maTi individualuri uflebis ganxorcielebas adgili aqvs sasuliero pirad muSaobaze Tanxmobis an uaris Tqmis momentidan. garda amisa, maTi ufleba eklesiis datovebaze warmoadgens garantias saeklesio personalis religiis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofisa. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, eklesia ar aris valdebuli, uzrunvelyos misi wevrebisa da msaxurTa religiis Tavisufleba, saxelmwifosgan gansxvavebiT, romelsac ekisreba es valdebuleba Tavisi iurisdiqciis farglebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, sasuliero pirs ar gaaCnda uflebamosileba, daedgina damatebiTi pirobebi naTlobisaTvis. pastors ufleba hqonda, daecva arsebuli direqtivebi an daetovebina dakavebuli Tanamdeboba. komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, adgili ar hqonia religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevas, vinaidan arsebobda Tanamdebobis datovebis uflebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. komisiam amgvari gadawyvetileba miiRo, roca gaamarTla norvegiis eklesiisa da ganaTlebis ministris qmedeba sasuliero piris dakavebuli Tanamdebobidan gaTavisuflebis Taobaze. am sasuliero pirma uari ganacxada saxelmwifo funqciebis nawilis ganxorcielebaze abortis Sesaxeb axali, liberaluri kanonis winaaRmdeg protestis gamoxatvis mizniT.155 sasuliero piris uari Seesabameboda misi eklesiis moZRvrebas da Seexeboda dakisrebul valdebulebaTa mxolod nawils (ZiriTadad, qorwinebis sferoSi). miuxedavad amisa, komisiam gadawyvita, rom abortis kanonis saprotestod mimarTuli misi qmedeba ar iyo savaldebulo im religiis Tanaxmad, romelsac sasuliero piri miekuTvneboda. gansazRvruli funqciebis ganxorcielebaze momCivnis uari motivirebuli iyo mxolod abortisadmi misi uaryofiTi damokidebulebiT. es damokidebuleba ki, Tavis mxriv, misi religiiT iyo motivirebuli.156 saxelmwifos ar hqonda momCivnis iZulebis ufleba, rom es ukanaskneli eklesiis an samRvdeloebis wevrad darCeniliyo, magram saxelmwifo uflebamosili iyo, daeregulirebina misi qceva, rogorc eklesiis wevrisa, radganac `saxelmwifo eklesiis sistemaSi Semaval sasuliero pirs, garda imisa, rom religiuri valdebulebebi aqvs, ekisreba aseve garkveuli movaleobebic saxelmwifos winaSe~. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo aRWurvilia mniSvnelovani uflebiT, Caerios saxelmwifo eklesiis rogorc organizebaSi, ise religiuri moTxovnebis dawesebis sferoSi. kerZod, saxelmwifos roli gamoixateba eklesiaSi samuSaod miRebisa da gaTavisuflebis pirobebis dadgenaSi, religiis Tavisuflebisadmi mniSvnelovani yuradRebis miqcevis gareSe. Tumca, savaraudod, arsebobs zRvari, romlis farglebSic saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, ganaxorcielos Tavisi Zalaufleba. knudsenis saqmeSi komisiam miuTiTa, rom daumorCileblobis motiviT saxelmwifo samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba SesaZloa daeqvemdebaros saqmis aRZvras me-9 muxlis safuZvelze `gansazRvruli garemoebebis

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arsebobisas~, Tumca aranairi miniSneba imis Taobaze, Tu ra igulisxmeba am garemoebebSi, ar gakeTebula. komisiam saxelmwifos moqmedebis dasaSvebobis dasabuTebisas aRniSna, rom sasuliero pirs mTavrobam mxolod saxelmwifo funqciebi CamoarTva da mis sasuliero rolSi ar Careula. saxelmwifos roli arasamTavrobo religiuri jgufebis liderTa qmedebebis regulirebaSi gacilebiT SezRudulia. saqmeSi serifi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg157 saberZneTis mTavrobam braldeba wauyena serifs rodoptSi muslimTa adgilobrivi sazogadoebis muftad Tavis gamocxadebisa da muftis samosis tarebisaTvis. serifi arCeuli iqna adgilobriv meCeTSi paraskevis locvaze damswre muslimTa mier da sazogadoebaSi mravali mimdevari hyavda, Tumca saberZneTis mTavrobis mier muftis Tanamdebobaze sxva adamiani iyo daniSnuli. xelisufleba acxadebda, rom religiur liderTa qcevis regulireba warmoadgens aucileblobas, pirvel rigSi, imitom, rom maT gansazRvruli samoqalaqo uflebebi aqvT miniWebuli saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze (rogoricaa saqorwino ceremoniebis Sesruleba, SezRuduli uflebebi saojaxo sakiTxebis gadawyvetasa da samxedro samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebaze) da aseve, sazogadoebis dacvis mizniT im daZabulobisgan, rac SesaZloa ori religiuri lideris arsebobas gamoewvia. sasamarTlom daakmayofila momCivnis moTxovna da ganacxada, rom pirovnebis dasja `mxolod im religiuri jgufis liderisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli qcevisaTvis, romelic misi nebayoflobiTi mimdevari iyo, ar SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes rogorc religiuri pluralizmis moTxovnebis Sesabamisi qmedeba demokratiul sazogadoebaSi~. Tumca sasamarTlo saqmes sxva Sefasebas miscemda, Tuki momCivani iuridiuli Sedegebis gamomwvevi qmedebebis (rogoricaa saqorwino ceremoniebi, religiuri da moraluri lideroba) ganxorcielebas Seecdeboda saxelmwifo kontrols gareT. rac Seexeba religiuri sazogadoebebis erTiani xelmZRvanelobis SenarCunebas, sasamarTlos miTiTebiT, saxelmwifo ar iyo is subieqti, romelsac mocemuli miznis ganxorcielebisaTvis unda mieRo zomebi. aqedan gamomdinare, maSin, roca saxelmwifos qmedebebze religiuri (gansakuTrebiT aradawesebul eklesiaTa) liderebis winaaRmdeg SezRudvebia dawesebuli, me-9 muxli dawesebuli eklesiebisTvis privilegiebis miniWebis da maTze gansazRvruli donis kontrolis ganxorcielebis mniSvnelovan SesaZleblobas aniWebs mTavrobebs. sakiTxi im zRvaris Sesaxeb, romlis miRmac eklesiis dawesebam SesaZloa rogorc eklesiis wevris, ise arawevrTa forum internum-Si Careva gamoiwvios, iSviaTad miiReboda mxedvelobaSi da mxolod derbis saqmeSi miiyvana komisia im daskvnamde, rom saxelmwifo Zalze Sors wavida Tavisi eklesiis interesebis mxardaWerisas. rogorc Cans, evropaSi dawesebuli eklesiebis istoriulma mniSvnelobam sasamarTlo iZulebuli gaxada, xeli moekida rTuli filosofiuri sakiTxebisTvis, romlebic dakavSirebulia zemoxsenebul zRvarTan, romlis miRmac eklesiis dawesebam SesaZloa iseTi garemo Seqmnas, romelic ereva gansazRvruli religiis rogorc mimdevarTa, ise aramimdevarTa forum internum-Si.158 religiuri umciresobebis, gansakuTrebiT ieRovas mowmeTa (saberZneTis winaaRmdeg), saqmeebi, naTlad metyvelebs im potenciur problemebze, romlebic saxelmwifos gadametebulma aqtivobam SeiZleba gamoiwvios sxvaTa xarjze erTi eklesiis interesebis mxardaWerisas, maSinac, roca, rogorc saberZneTis (eladis) marTlmadidebeli eklesiis SemTxvevaSi, eklesia inarCunebs gansazRvruli donis avtonomias. saxelmwi-

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fos roli SesaZloa danaxuli iqnes prozelitizmis sawinaaRmdego kanonebis miRebaSi, romlebic gansakuTrebiT mkacrad iqna cxovrebaSi gatarebuli ieRovas mowmeebis mimarT, Tumca arasodes yofila gamoyenebuli marTlmadidebeli eklesis sawinaaRmdegod.159 nebarTvebis miReba mSeneblobaze qristianuli mimarTulebebis eklesiaTaTvis arasodes warmoadgenda did problemas, maSin roca ieRovas mowmeebma aRmoaCines, rom maTi gancxadebebi (nebarTvis misaRebad) SesaZloa, wlebis ganmavlobaSi yofiliyo Seferxebuli da unda mieRo adgilobrivi marTlmadidebeli episkoposis nebarTva.160 arsebobda saidumlo policiis mier umciresobaTa religiur jgufebze meTvalyureobis mtkicebulebac.161 miuxedavad imisa, rom am kanonebis arseboba (Tumca xSirad maTi gamoyeneba dauSvebeli miznebisTvis xorcieldeboda) sasamarTlos mier ar iqna cnobili konvenciis darRvevad, gansazRvruli religiuri jgufebisadmi saxelmwifos undoblobam da maTTvis cxovrebis garTulebis mizniT miRebulma zomebma aCvena gza, romliTac saxelmwifos sakanonmdeblo da administraciul Zalauflebas SeuZlia zewola moaxdinos religiur umciresobaTa forum internum-ze. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba da forum internum ganaTlebaSi Forum internum-Tan dakavSirebul sxva sakamaTo sferos warmoadgens bavSvebis ganaTleba.162 es is sferoa, sadac Tanamedrove demokratiul saxelmwifos aqvs Sansi da valdebulebac, monawileoba miiRos sazogadoebis yvelaze daucveli wevrebis ideaTa da mosazrebaTa formirebis procesSi. zRvaris povna akrZalul indoqtrinacias, rogorc forum internum-Si Zaladobriv Carevasa da ganaTlebas Soris, romelic xels uwyobs mozardebs, ipovon sakuTari Tavi sazogadoebaSi (xSirad religiurad pluralisturSi), sakmaod Znelia. konvenciis avtorTa Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaoba gamoiwvia mSobelTa uflebebis dacvis sakiTxma Svilebis religiur da moralur ganaTlebaze. miRweuli iqna zogadi SeTanxmeba, romlis Tanaxmadac dauSvebeli iyo skolebis gamoyeneba indoqtrinaciis mizniT, rac, SesaZloa, Zalze saxifaTo iaraRi gaxdes totalitaruli mTavrobis xelSi. Tumca gamoiTqva mosazreba, rom Svilebis religiur da moralur aRzrdaze mSoblebis uflebam ar unda gamoiwvios xarjebi saxelmwifos mxridan. aqedan gamomdinare, erTi mxriv, mSoblebs ufleba aqvT, mosTxovon saxelmwifos, rom am ukanasknelma ar aswavlos maT Svilebs garkveuli wesiT, Tumca, meore mxriv, ar aqvT ufleba, moiTxovon qveynis mTavrobisgan garkveuli tipis religiuri da moraluri ganaTlebis dafinanseba. sasamarTlosa da komisias sxvadasxva dros mouwia araerTi saqmis ganxilva, sadac momCivnebi saxelmwifosgan moiTxovdnen garkveuli saxis ganaTlebisa Tu saganmanaTleblo doqtrinis dafinansebas. rogorc sasamarTlom, ise komisiam, yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi erTmniSvnelovnad uaryo mosazreba imis Taobaze, rom saxelmwifo valdebuli iyo, daefinansebina kerZo skolebi,163 uzrunveleyo saSualo da seleqciuri ganaTleba,164 aseve gansazRvruli mimarTulebis swavlebis kursi,165 ganexorcielebina swavlebis dafinanseba dawyebiTi skolis Semdeg,166 agreTve wamyvan skolebSi unarSezRuduli bavSvebis integrireba167 da im kerZo skolebis registracia, romlebic ver akmayofileben saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis SeqmnisaTvis dadgenil obieqtur kriteriumebs.168 Sesabamisad, SezRudulia pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlidan gamomdinare saxelmwifos finansuri valdebuleba. rogorc sasamarTlom miuTiTa belgian lingvistikis saqmeSi,169 ganaTlebis ufleba emsaxureba mxolod

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xelSemkvreli saxelmwifos iurisdiqcias daqvemdebarebul pirTa uflebis garantirebas, gamoiyenon arsebuli saganmanaTleblo saSualebebi. konvencia ar adgens am saSualebaTa masStabebsa da maT organizebasa da subsidirebasTan dakavSirebul specialur valdebulebebs. Sesabamisad, zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, mSoblebs aqvT SesaZlebloba, Seqmnan kerZo religiuri skolebi, magram ar unda moelodnen mTavrobis mxridan dafinansebas. saxelmwifo, Tavis mxriv, uflebamosilia, sakuTari survilisamebr moaxdinos amgvari skolebis subsidireba an gadaixados gansazRvruli tipis ganaTlebis safasuri (rogorc saxelmwifo, ise arasaxelmwifo skolebSi). konvenciis SemqnelTa mizans (aSS-s konstituciis SemoqmedTagan gansxvavebiT) warmoadgenda ara saxelmwifos datoveba religiis gareSe, religiuri ganaTlebis CaTvliT, aramed saxelmwifos im finansuri moTxovnebisgan gaTavisufleba, romelTa dakmayofilebis survilic am ukanasknels ar gaaCnia. damoukidebeli skolebis funqcionirebis SesaZlebloba gagebuli iqna, rogorc saganmanaTleblo saSualebebis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofis mniSvnelovani nawili mSoblebisTvis, romelnic ar eTanxmebian im moralur da religiur swavlebas, rasac maTi bavSvebi iReben saxelmwifo saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi. amgvari skolebi religiurad pluralisturi sazogadoebis mniSvnelovan nawils warmoadgens.170 ra Tqma unda, yvela bavSvi ver ivlis damoukidebel religiur skolebSi da, aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifo valdebulia, uzrunvelyos mSoblebis mrwamsis pativiscema saxelmwifo skolebis sistemaSi. es rom ara, ufleba ganaTlebis procesSi religiuri mrwamsis pativiscemaze daculi iqneboda mxolod maTTvis, vinc SeZlebda gadasaxadis gadaxdas kerZo skolebSi da vis religiur jgufsac sakmarisi resursi eqneboda damoukideblad skolis funqcionirebis uzrunvelsayofad.171 saxelmwifo skolebSi ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebul saxelmwifo valdebulebaTa farglebi kamaTis sagania, radganac swored am sferoSi warmoCindeba yvelaze mZafrad indoqtrinaciisa da sindisSi Carevis sakiTxebi. is, Tu rogor wyvetda aseT sakiTxebs komisia, naTlad metyvelebs me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmentiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis SezRudul xasiaTze forum internum-Tan dakavSirebiT. skolis uflebamosilebis farglebi sasamarTlo dilemas awydeba, rodesac saqme Seexeba skolas, romelsac gansazRvruli tipis saswavlo kursis gatareba surs, mSoblebi ki aRniSnuli kursis gansxvavebulad swavlebas an saerTod gauqmebas emxrobian an am kursis swavlebisgan maTi Svilebis nawilobriv an mTlianad gaTavisuflebis survils gamoTqvamen. aucilebelia rogorc bavSvebis dacva indoqtrinaciisgan, aseve mSoblebis uflebis uzrunvelyofa, airCion TavianTi Svilebis moraluri da religiuri ganaTleba. amasTanave, sasamarTlom unda gaiTvaliswinos bavSvis sruli ganaTlebis miRebis ufleba da skolisaTvis praqtikuli sirTuleebis warmoqmnis SesaZleblobac, Tuki gamonaklisis saxiT bevr moswavles gaaTavisufleben garkveul sagnebze daswrebisgan. aseve mniSvnelovania sakiTxi, aqvs Tu ara sazogadoebas legitimuri interesi, darwmundes, rom yvela bavSvi karg zogad ganaTlebas iRebs. aman, SesaZloa, moicvas informacia im sakiTxebze, rac moralurad da religiurad sakamaTo xasiaTisaa. saqmeSi kieldseni, busk madseni da pederseni daniis winaaRmdeg sasamarTlo Se-

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ecada am faqtorebs Soris daZabulobis daZlevas.172 am saqmeSi daniis ganaTlebis sistemis xelmZRvanelobam SeimuSava swavlebis erTiani kursi skolebisaTvis, romelic erT-erT sagnad Seicavda seqsualur aRzrdas. ramdenime moswavlis mSobelma gaaprotesta es. isini acxadebdnen, rom seqsualuri aRzrdis integracia swavlebis erTian kursSi faqtobrivad savaldebulos xdida mas, es ki ewinaaRmdegeboda maT rwmenas. mSobelTa mtkicebiT, aseTi tipis ganaTleba bavSvma saxlSi unda miiRos, sadac saTanado yuradReba iqneba gamaxvilebuli seqsualurobis moralur da religiur konteqstze. skola amtkicebda, rom bavSvebisTvis seqsualur sakiTxebze miwodebuli informacia faqtobrivi xasiaTisaa da skolas ar gaaCnia moraluri pozicia seqsualuri aRzrdis sagnad swavlebis mimarT. garda amisa, skolis mxarem ganacxada, rom am informaciis axalgazrdebisaTvis xelmisawvdomoba sazogadoebrivi interesis sferoSi Sedis. seqsualuri aRzrdis mimarT sazogadoebis legitimuri interesi mdgomareobs veneriul daavadebaTa gavrcelebis, arasrulwlovanTa arasasurveli fexmZimobisa da abortis Tavidan acilebaSi, risi miRwevac moswavleTaTvis faqtobrivi informaciis miwodebiTaa SesaZlebeli. sasamarTlom xazi gausva, rom ganaTlebis ufleba da masze dawesebuli SezRudva, rac saxelmwifos mxridan mravaljer iqna indoqtrinaciis saSualebad gamoyenebuli, miznad isaxavda `ganaTlebaSi pluralizmis SesaZleblobis dacvas~ da aucilebeli pirobebis Seqmnas demokratiuli sazogadoebis ganviTarebisaTvis. sasamarTlom uaryo daniis mxaris argumenti imis Taobaze, rom mSoblebis mrwamsis pativiscema Camoyalibebuli pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis meore winadadebaSi, Seexeboda mxolod religiur, konfesiur swavlebas. sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom mSoblebis rwmenaTa da filosofiur SexedulebaTa pativiscemaze saxelmwifos valdebuleba vrceldeboda saxelmwifo ganaTlebis mTlian sistemaze. Semdgom ki ganacxada, rom skolis valdebuleba mSoblebis filosofiuri da religiuri mrwamsis pativiscemaze mWidro kavSirSia pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis pirveli winadadebiT dadgenil ganaTlebis uflebasTan. TumcaRa sasamarTlom misaRebad miiCnia argumenti, romlis Tanaxmadac saswavlo kursis dadgena da dagegmva xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoTa kompetencias warmoadgens da arsebobs sazRvrebi, romelTa farglebSic skolebsa da ganaTlebis sistemis xelmZRvanelebs SeuZliaT sakiTxebis gadawyveta mizanSewonilobis principze dayrdnobiT, Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos ar SeuZlia misi regulireba. sasamarTlo TanagrZnobiT moekida im praqtikul problemebs, romlebic mSobelTaTvis mniSvnelovani uflebebis miniWebas SeeZlo gamoewvia. sasamarTlom gaiziara Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac saxelmwifos moqmedebas gansazRvruli Tavisufleba unda mieces ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi da daadgina, rom: pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis meore winadadeba xels ar uSlis saxelmwifoebs swavlebis an ganaTlebis gziT pirdapiri an arapirdapiri religiuri an filosofiuri tipis informaciis an codnis gavrcelebaSi. igi nebasac ar rTavs mSoblebs, gaaproteston aseTi swavlebis an ganaTlebis Setana skolis kurikulumSi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, yvela institucionaluri swavleba gamousadegrad aRiarebis riskis winaSe dadgeba. sinamdvileSi Zalze rTulia iseTi saskolo sagnis moZebna, romelsac filosofiuri aspeqti an qveteqsti ar axasiaTebdes. igive iTqmis religiur datvirTvazec, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom religiaTa formireba Zalze farTo dogmatur da

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moralur organizmebad moxda, romelTac aqvT, an SesaZloa hqondeT, pasuxi filosofiur, kosmologiur an moraluri bunebis nebismier kiTxvaze. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gamyarebuli iqna konvenciiT, gansakuTrebiT me-8, me-9, da me-10 muxlebiT gaTvaliswinebul sxva uflebebze miTiTebiT,173 da imiT, rom daniis mTavrobam didsulovani nabiji gadadga da finansurad uzrunvelyo kerZo religiuri skolebi, aseve saojaxo ganaTleba, romelTa gamoyenebis saSualebac swored integrirebuli saswavlo kursiT ukmayofilo mSoblebs hqondaT. Tumca aRsaniSnavia, rom mxolod am tipis saSualebebis arseboba ar aTavisuflebs saxelmwifos valdebulebisgan, pativi sces mSobelTa religiur da filosofiur mrwamss saxelmwifo ganaTlebis sistemis farglebSi. skolis diskreciuli uflebamosilebis SezRudva sasamarTlom Camoayaliba saxelmwifos diskreciuli uflebamosilebis sfero saswavlo kursis dadgenis TvalsazrisiT, SemdgomSi ganixila is SezRudvebi, romlebsac pirveli oqmis me-2 muxli akisrebs skolis xelmZRvanelobas. man aRniSna, rom me-2 muxlis meore winadadebaSi, meore mxriv, igulisxmeba saxelmwifos valdebuleba ganaTlebisa da swavlebis mimarT Tavisi funqciebis ganxorcielebisas uzrunvelyos, rom saswavlo kursSi Setanili informacia da codna gadmocemuli iyos obieqturad, kritikulad da pluralisturad. saxelmwifoebs ekrZalebaT indoqtrinacia, romelic SesaZloa ganxilul iqnes, rogorc mSoblebis religiuri da filosofiuri mrwamsis upativcemloba. es aris zRvari, romlis gadalaxvac dauSvebelia. aqedan gamomdinare, imisaTvis, rom ar iqnes darRveuli pirveli oqmis me-2 muxli, aucilebeli ar aris, saxelmwifo gaeqces religiuri da filosofiuri masalis swavlebas, aramed unda uzrunvelyos misi `obieqtur, kritikul da pluralistur~ konteqstSi warmodgena. es, sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, Tavidan agvacilebs indoqtrinaciis safrTxes konvenciis sxva uflebaTa darRvevisa da saxelmwifo saganmanaTleblo sistemis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis uzarmazari praqtikuli sirTuleebis Seqmnis gareSe. am saqmis saboloo Sedegi is gaxldaT, rom, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, seqsualuri aRzrdis integracia daniis saswavlo kursSi TavisTavad ar warmoadgenda konvenciis darRvevas. daniis xelisufleba legitimurad iyo SeSfoTebuli saTanado seqsualuri ganaTlebis naklebobiT gamowveuli socialuri problemebiT da gonivruli gza airCia maTi gadawyvetisaTvis. sasamarTlom daadastura, rom arsebobs seqsualurobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis mSobelTa rwmenisaTvis Seuracxmyofelad swavlebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba calkeul maswavlebelTa mxridan daudevrobis an uadgilo prozelitizmis gziT. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, am problemis Tavidan acilebaze unda izrunon rogorc mSoblebma, ise skolis xelmZRvanelobam. isini unda gaumklavdnen am problemas ufro individualur doneze, vidre iseTi qmedebebiT, rogoricaa sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilva. alternativis saxiT, mSoblebs SeuZliaT TavianTi Svilebi miabaron kerZo skolebSi, sadac ar aswavlian maTTvis miuRebel sagnebs. evropuli sasamarTlos bolodroindeli gadawyvetilebebi sasamarTlom axlo warsulSi moismina pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlidan gamomdinare

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sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime saqme, maT Soris gaxmaurebuli saqme fizikuri dasjis Sesaxeb, kempbeli da kosansi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg.174 maSin, roca momCivani amtkicebda, rom me-2 muxliT garantirebuli dacva moicavda moTxovnas skolebis mxridan mSobelTa survilebis pativiscemis Taobaze (am saqmeSi mSobelTa survils bavSvebis fizikuri dasjis aRkveTa warmoadgenda), sasamarTlom ZiriTadad kieldsenis175 saqmeSi dadgenili samarTlebrivi struqturiT ixelmZRvanela. gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetma sasamarTlos mgavsi mimarTuleba airCia da daadgina, rom religiisa da eTikis istoriis kursi ar arRvevs samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtis me-18 (4) muxls, Tuki igi gadmocemuli iqneba neitraluri da obieqturi gziT da im mSoblebisa Tu meurveTa mrwamsis pativiscemiT, romlebic arc erTi religiis mimdevrebi ar arian.176 evropuli sasamarTlo ar dabrunebia saskolo swavlebis kursis Sinaarsis sakiTxs, komisiam ki SemdgomSi ramdenjerme ganixila amgvari saqme. saqmeSi angeleni SvedeTis winaaRmdeg177 cxadad ikveTeba zemoT aRniSnuli problema. am saqmeSi momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom darRveuli iqna me-9, me-14 da pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlebi, radganac maTi qaliSvili ar gaaTavisufles religiuri swavlebis gakveTilebze daswrebisagan. momCivnebi aTeistebi iyvnen da acxadebdnen, rom aTeistis iZuleba, monawileoba miiRos ZiriTadad qristianobaze fokusirebul religiur swavlebaSi, warmoadgens rogorc mSoblebis filosofiis pativiscemis uflebis darRvevas, aseve moswavlis uflebis darRvevas religiis Tavisuflebaze. pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlze dafuZnebuli moTxovna komisiam ar miiRo gansaxilvelad, radganac SvedeTis mTavrobam daTqma gaukeTa aRniSnul muxls, rodesac daadgina, rom qristianuli swavlebisgan SeiZleba gaTavisufldnen mxolod `Sveduri eklesiisgan gansxvavebuli rwmenis mimdevari bavSvebi, kerZod, isini, vinc damakmayofilebeli religiuri swavlebiT arian uzrunvelyofilni~. ar gaTavisufldebian is bavSvebi, romelTa mSoblebsac ufro filosofiuri uTanxmoeba aqvT Svedur eklesiasTan, vidre religiuri, an romelTa mSoblebic TavianTi SvilebisTvis ver uzrunvelyofen alternatiul da damakmayofilebel religiur swavlebas. rac Seexeba moswavlis moTxovnebs me-9 da me-14 muxlebis safuZvelze, isini, ra Tqma unda, amave daTqmaSi ar eqcevian. komisiam miuTiTa, rom SvedeTis mTavrobas ufro metad religiis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodeba surs, vidre religiuri swavleba da, Sesabamisad, mTavrobis mizani, uzrunvelyos moswavleebis garkveuli religiuri codna, legitimuri xasiaTsaa. aqedan gamomdinare, ar xdeba diskriminacia me-14 muxlis safuZvelze, radgan religiuri swavlebisgan gaTavisuflebulni arian mxolod is moswavleebi, romlebic religiis alternatiul gakveTilebs eswrebian. rac Seexeba moTxovnas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, komisiam ganacxada, rom momCivani faqtobrivad gaTavisuflebulia religiuri swavlebis udidesi nawilisgan (Tumca, garkveulwilad, SvedeTis kanonis moqmedebis farglebs gareT) am sagnisadmi misi mtkiced opoziciuri damokidebulebis gamo. komisiam aseve miuTiTa, rom adgili ar aqvs momCivnis mimarT religiuri indoqtrinaciis mcdelobas: `sabavSvo donidan skolaSi religiuri swavlebis qristianobaze fokusireba ar gulisxmobs, rom momCivani konvenciis me-9 muxlis darRveviT daeqvemdebara indoqtrinacias~. Tumca ar aris cxadi, ramdenad aris Sesrulebuli testi informaciis `zogadad da neitralurad~ miwodebis Taobaze, roca informaciis mniSvnelovani nawili mxolod erT religias Seexeba. sistemaSi, sadac maswavleblebs moeTxovebaT

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eqspertoba qristianobaSi, xolo sxva religiebis Sesaxeb mxolod umniSvnelo codna, safrTxe gakveTilebis prozelitizmSi an sxva religiuri mrwamsis mqoneTa izolirebaSi gadazrdisa, sul cota, izrdeba mainc. rogorc Cans, testis aqcentma informaciis `zogadad da neitralurad~ miwodebidan, rogorc potenciuri indoqtrinaciisagan dacvis saSualebidan, gadainacvla momCivanTa mimarT moTxovnaze, aCvenon TviT indoqtrinaciis faqti, rac, TavisTavad, gacilebiT maRali standartia.178 garda amisa, SeiZleba imis aRniSvnac, rom komisia yovelTvis ufro naklebi simpaTiiT iyo ganwyobili aTeist/agnostikosebisadmi, romlebic amtkicebdnen maTi religiuri swavlebisgan gaTavisuflebis aucileblobas, vidre sxva religiuri mrwamsis mqoneTa mimarT. angelenis saqmisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac komisiam SvedeTSi arsebuli religiuri swavleba dasaSvebad miiCnia, sxva saqmeSi, romelSic momCivnebad evangelistur-luTeranuli eklesiis warmomadgenlebi gamodiodnen,179 komisiam xeli Seuwyo mxareebs, mieRwiaT megobruli SeTanxmebisaTvis da am gziT daexmara momCivnebs, gaTavisuflebuliyvnen religiuri swavlebis gakveTilebze daswrebisagan. msgavsi midgoma ganmeorda saqmeSi bernardi luqsemburgis winaaRmdeg,180 sadac sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom kanoni, romelic religiuri gakveTilebisgan aTavisuflebda mxolod im moswavleebs, romelTa religiur sazogadoebebs saskolo saaTebis ganmavlobaSi hqondaT axalgazrdebis maTive rwmenis Sesabamisi swavlebiT uzrunvelyofis SesaZlebloba, iyo diskriminaciuli, Tumca ar arRvevda me-14 muxls, radganac gansxvavebul damokidebulebas am moswavleebisadmi (sxva jgufebis, magaliTad, aTeistebis mimarT, romelTac aseve surdaT gaTavisufleba, magram ver uzrunvelyofdnen sakuTar Tavs saTanado religiuri swavlebiT), `obieqturi da dasabuTebuli~ gamarTleba hqonda. komisiis mier gamoCenili xedvis uunaroba zogadobisa da neitralobis moTxovnaTa miRma, misi svla „indoqtrinaciis“ gacilebiT maRali testisken da simpaTiis nakleboba araTeistur rwmenaTa mimdevrebis mimarT, naTlad warmoCnda agnostikosi bavSvis saCivris ganxilvis dros, romelic Seexeboda poloneTSi arsebul religiur swavlebas. religiuri swavleba saxelmwifo skolebSi fokusirebuli iyo kaTolicizmze, Tumca moswavleebs hqondaT misgan gaTavisuflebis ufleba. orive momCivanma moswavlem isargebla kidec am uflebiT. komisiis azriT, es saswavlo kursis `nebayoflobiTobaze~ metyvelebda. momCivnebi ki amtkicebdnen, rom arsebuli sistema zewolas axdenda moswavleebze, raTa maT monawileoba mieRoT religiur swavlebaSi, gansakuTrebiT arakaTolikeTa mimarT poloneTSi farTod gavrcelebuli socialuri diskriminaciis fonze. erT-erTi momCivani 12 wlis gogona iyo, romelsac ubrZanes, skolis koridorSi moecada religiuri swavlebis gakveTilebis mimdinareobisas. mozardis mier micemuli Cvenebis mixedviT, amas xSirad mosdevda dakiTxva maswavlebelTa mxridan da zewola maswavleblisa da sxva moswavleebisagan, daswreboda gakveTilebs. Sedegad, mamamisis survilis sawinaaRmdegod, igi danebda da daeswro gakveTilebs. komisiis mosazrebiT, es ar warmoadgens me-9 muxlis darRvevas, radganac miRebuli gadawyvetileba `nebayoflobiTi~ xasiaTisaa.~181 magram komisiam ar gamoikvlia, ramdenad nebayoflobiTi SeiZleboda yofiliyo bavSvis gadawyvetileba arsebuli socialuri zewolis fonze. komisiam aseve uari ganacxada, detalurad ganexila sxva momCivani moswavlis moTxovna (mas skola eTikis swavlebas sTavazobda religiis gakveTilebis alternativis saxiT), romlis Tanaxmadac arakaTolikeTa

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mimarT farTod gavrcelebuli socialuri diskriminacia (magaliTad, Sromis bazarze) warmoadgens zewolas, miiRos ganaTleba religiaSi da ara eTikaSi. komisiis gancxadebiT, poloneTSi moqmedebs kanonebi, romlebic krZalavs religiur diskriminacias, ase rom nebismieri ziani SeiZleba iyos mxolod `umniSvnelo~ da rom konkretulad, momCivans ar misdgomia ziani, vinaidan is, Tu ra sagnis arCeva xdeba moswavleTa mier, ar aisaxeba skolis angariSSi. tahzibis mosazrebiT, religiuri mrwamsis gamxelis iZuleba (maSinac, roca adgili ara aqvs seriozul ukmayofilebas diskriminaciis mimarT) warmoadgens Carevas forum internum-Si. sxva avtorebmac gaiziares msgavsi midgoma sakuTari religiis saxelmwifosagan saidumlod Senaxvis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb.182 polonur saqmeSi komisiis wevrebma ganacxades, rom yovelTvis arsebobs potenciuri SesaZlebloba, moswavlem gaiaros im religiis kursi, romlis mimdevaric igi ar aris. amitomac ar momxdara momCivnis iZuleba, gaemJRavnebina Tavisi religia. es nawilobriv simarTles Seefereba, Tumca zemoT ganxilul saqmeSi studenti faqtobrivad iZulebuli iyo, gaevlo kaTolikuri swavlebis kursi an uaris SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisad, de facto gaemJRavnebina, rom, sul mcire, seriozuli uTanxmoeba hqonda am swavlebasTan. yvelaze dabal doneze students uwevs Tavisi religiis gamxela saskolo xelmZRvanelobisaTvis. es sakiTxi komisiam ganixila mxolod me-8 muxlis konteqstSi da daadgina, rom adgili hqonda pirad cxovrebaSi mxolod umniSvnelo Carevas, romlis gamarTlebac SesaZlebeli iyo demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. Tumca am SemTxvevaSi religiis gamxela, religiurad Seuwynarebeli sazogadoebis pirobebSi,183 sakmaod mZime Sedegebis matarebelia forum internum-isTvis, romelic me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad absoluturi xasiaTisaa da aranair SezRudvas ar eqvemdebareba. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saxezea mcdeloba sazogadoebis legitimur saganmanaTleblo mizansa da azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebas Soris Zalze rTuli balansis dadgenisa. miuxedavad imisa, rom testi `zogadi da obieqturi~ swavlebisa, sakmaod adekvaturia Teoriul doneze, praqtikaSi misi gamoyenebisas sasamarTlom da komisiam gverdi auares imis gamokvlevas, Tu ramdenad SeuZlia amgvar swavlebas zewola moaxdinos moswavleebze, raTa maT gansxvavebuli religiuri swavlebis kursi gaiaron da gaumxilon sakuTari religiuri mrwamsi saxelmwifosa da skolis xelmZRvanelobas. religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisufleba zemoT ganxilul iqna adamianis ufleba, SeinarCunos religia da rwmena saxelmwifos mxridan ukanono Carevis gareSe, Tumca religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovan aspeqts aseve warmoadgens religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis ufleba. Tuki pirovnebis avtonomia da xelSeuxebloba safuZvlad udevs adamianis uflebas religiis Tavisuflebaze, naTelia, rom SeuZlebelia es avtonomia Semoifarglos mxolod erTjeradi arCevaniT gansazRvruli religiisa Tu rwmenis sasargeblod. es arCevani umravlesobisTvis bavSvobaSi keTdeba mSoblebis mier, vidre arCevanis damoukideblad gakeTebis SesaZlebloba miecemaT. religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvris ufleba gangrZobadi TviTidentifikaciis procesia da, aqedan gamomdinare, nebismieri Careva religiisa Tu rwmenis Secvlis uflebaSi warmoadgens Carevas forum internum-Si. miuxedavad imisa, rom religiis Secvlis Tavisufleba seriozuli kamaTis sagani gaxda gaeroSi, konvenciis teqstSi igi ar iyo sadavo sakiTxi. religiisa da rwmenis

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Secvlis Tavisufleba yovelgvari ganxilvis gareSe iqna Setanili konvenciis proeqtSi, xolo SemdgomSi ki saboloo dokumentSi. sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna religiis Secvlis Tavisufleba prozelitizmTan dakavSirebul ramdenime saqmeSi, romlebic qvemoTaa ganxiluli.184 komisiam da sasamarTlom dauSveblad miiCnies gansazRvruli religiebis wevrTa ramdenime saCivari sakuTari religiebis winaaRmdeg, im motiviT, rom individebs sakuTari survilis Sesabamisad hqondaT eklesiis Semadgenlobis datovebis SesaZlebloba. miuxedavad imisa, rom arc erTi am saqmeTagani religiis datovebas an mis rigebSi Sesvlas ar exeboda, maTi arseboba zogadad iwvevs imis aucileblobas, rom sasamarTlom swored amgvari tipis saqmeebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebiT daasabuTos ufleba religiis Secvlis Tavisuflebaze da kidev erTxel gausvas xazi mis mniSvnelobas. zemoT ganxiluli saqme, riera blumi espaneTis winaaRmdeg, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo mSoblebis mier sakuTar zrdasrul SvilTa dakavebasTan (maTi religiuri mrwamsis Secvlis ganzraxviT), Tumca uSualod religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxs ar exeboda, naTlad warmoaCina sasamarTlos neba individis uflebis mxardaWerisa, gaekeTebina sakamaTo arCevani ara dominanti religiis, aramed e.w. `kultis~ sasargeblod.185 miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo da komisia yovelTvis saTanado mxardaWeras gamoxatavdnen religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisuflebisadmi, mainc sakmaod viwrod ganmartavdnen mas. erT-erT saqmeSi, romelic uSualod religiis Secvlis uflebas Seexeboda, wyvili amtkicebda, rom ar iyo valdebuli, gadaexada gadasaxadebi kaTolikuri eklesiisaTvis, radganac orivem ukve naTlad gamoxata Tavisi survili, daetovebina es eklesia, miuxedavad imisa, rom ar damorCilda saxelmwifos moTxovnas eklesiis datovebis Taobaze am ukanasknelis informirebis Sesaxeb.186 komisiam daadgina, rom saxelmwifos informirebis es wesi ar ereoda momCivanTa mier TavianTi religiis Secvlis uflebaSi, aramed administraciul mizans, kerZod, eklesiisaTvis gadasaxadebis gadaxdis valdebulebis mqoneTa gansazRvras emsaxureboda. am saqmeSi saeklesio gadasaxadebis gadaxdis valdebuleba ar warmoadgenda me-9 muxlis darRvevas, vinaidan wyvils hqonda am movaleobis Sesrulebisgan gaTavisuflebis SesaZlebloba, Tuki Seasrulebda sakmaod martiv administraciul moTxovnebs. kidev erTxel dadasturda saxelmwifos `farTo diskrecia imis gansazRvraSi, Tu individis ra qmedeba CaiTvleba religiuri konfesiis datovebis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebis miRebad~.187 sxva, gacilebiT specifikur saqmeSi sasamarTlom uaryo momCivnis moTxovna, rom saxelmwifo valdebuli iyo, momCivnis naTlobisa da konfirmaciis anulireba moexdina, savaraudod, im motiviT, rom es anulireba ar iyo aucilebeli momCivnis mier Tavisi religiis uaryofis SesaZleblobisaTvis.188 miuxedavad aseTi frTxili midgomisa, naklebad savaraudoa sasamarTlos mxridan iseTi kanonis mxardaWera, romelic mniSvnelovan valdebulebebs daawesebda pirovnebis uflebaze, daetovebina gansazRvruli religia an Seecvala rwmena, gansakuTrebiT im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sasamarTlo iziarebs midgomas, romlis Tanaxmadac religiuri organizaciebi gaTanabrebulni arian nebayoflobiT organizaciebTan — midgomas, romelic iTvaliswinebs religiuri organizaciis datovebis SesaZleblobis mniSvnelobas. im saqmeebSi, sadac religiisa da rwmenis Secvlasa Tu SenarCunebaze potenciuri zewola, erTi mxriv, SeumCnevel xasiaTs atarebs, sasamarTlom da komisiam Tavi aarides amgvari sakiTxebis ganxilvas. magaliTad, poloneli moswavlis saqmeSi, sadac gogonaze

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xorcieldeboda zewola, rom iZulebiT gaevlo kaTolikuri swavleba. gamoikveTa ramdenime sakiTxi religiisa da rwmenis SenarCunebisa Tu Secvlis Sesaxeb, romelTa ganxilvasac komisiam ubralod Tavi aarida.189 saxelmwifosa Tu sxva dawesebulebisaTvis religiisa Tu rwmenis gamxelis valdebuleba, savaraudod, ar warmoSobs problemebs religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis an SenarCunebis mxriv SedarebiT pluralistur Tu tolerantul sazogadoebaSi. Tumca iq, sadac sazogadoeba religiurad homogenuri an arSemwynarebluria, religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis an SenarCunebis ufleba SeiZleba zewolis sagnad iqces damqiravebelTa da sxva kerZo dawesebulebaTa mxridan. Tuki amgvar sazogadoebaSi mTavroba advilad xelmisawvdoms gaxdis informacias mosaxleobis rwmenaTa Sesaxeb, Tundac arapirdapiri gziT _ skolis angariSebis saSualebiT, aman SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos, erTi mxriv, mtruli garemos Seqmnas religiuri umravlesobis warmomadgenelTa mimarT, romelTac TavianTi rwmenis Secvla surT da, meore mxriv, sazogadoebrivi zewola moaxdinos religiuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebze, raTa maT sakuTari rwmena ZiriTad rwmenaTa sasargeblod Seicvalon. SesaZloa, amgvari zewola scildebodes sasamarTlosa da komisiis kompetencias, radganac am saxis saqmeebi saWiroebs naTel warmodgenas, zogadad sazogadoebis, da konkretulad saxelmwifos im qmedebaTa Sesaxeb, romlebic zegavlenas axdenen kerZo pirTa qcevaze. Tuki religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis an SenarCunebis Tavisufleba fundamenturi mniSvnelobisaa, rasac sasamarTlo da komisia xSirad aRniSnaven, am tipis saqmeebis ganxilvas sasamarTlo ufro didi yuradRebiTa da sifrTxiliT unda moekidos momavalSi. erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxi, ramac religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisufleba aseTi sakamaTo gaxada, prozelitizmTanaa dakavSirebuli. samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis me-18 muxli icavs individebs `iZulebisgan, romelic zRudavs (maT) Tavisuflebas, survilisamebr iqonion an miiRon romelime religia~. religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis Sesaxeb deklaraciis pirveli muxli aseve krZalavs iZulebas. es damateba gaeros ukanasknel aqtebze imaTi SiSis sapasuxo qmedebas warmoadgenda, visac prozelitizmi potenciurad Zaladobriv da arahumanur saqmianobad miaCnda. Tumca sxvebi zrunavdnen imaze, rom mxolod inteleqtualuri diskusia da debatebi ar CaTvliliyo `iZulebad~. profesor Sous mtkicebiT, konvenciis me-17 muxls SeeZlo igive roli eTamaSa konvenciis farglebSi, rasac iZulebis akrZalva asrulebs gaeros aqtebSi. me-17 muxlis Tanaxmad, `araferi konvenciaSi ar SeiZleba ganmartebuli iqnes, rogorc saxelmwifos, jgufis an pirovnebisTvis uflebis miniWeba _ ganaxorcielon qmedeba, romelic miznad konvenciaSi Camoyalibebuli uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis xelyofas isaxavs~. aqedan gamomdinare, vinmes iZuleba, Seicvalos religia, ganxorcielebuli saxelmwifos an kerZo piris mier ar SeiZleba dacul iqnes me-9 muxlis safuZvelze.190 prozelitizmi, Tavis mxriv, religiis manifestacias warmoadgens, yovel SemTxvevaSi, aseTi daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebuli diqotomiis safuZvelze. Tumca is aseve mWidro kavSirSia forum internum-idan gamomdinare religiis Secvlis uflebasTan. es is sferoa, sadac sasamarTlom gonivrulad Tanmimdevruli, Tumca garkveulwilad konservatiuli, midgoma SeimuSava religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis farglebis Taobaze. es sakiTxi naTlad gamoikveTa saqmeSi kokinakisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg191 . es iyo pirveli saqme, sadac sasamarTlom daadgina, rom adgili hqonda adamianis religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis darRvevas. am saqmeSi momCivans warmoadgenda xandazmuli ieRovas mowme, romelic gasamarTlebuli iqna

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saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze prozelitizmTan dakavSirebuli akrZalvis darRvevisaTvis.192 saberZneTis kanonmdeblobiT mocemuli iyo prozelitizmis Semdegnairi gansazRvreba: kerZod, nebismieri pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri mcdeloba sxva religiuri mimdinareobis pirovnebis religiur rwmenaze zemoqmedebisa misi xelyofis ganzraxviT rogorc moraluri da materialuri mxardaWeriT an misi dapirebiT, ise TaRliTuri meTodebiT, an dazaralebulis gamoucdelobis, ndobis, saWiroebis, dabali inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis an gulubryvilobis borotad gamoyenebiT. momCivani kokinakisi sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxisgebaSi misces prozelitizmis braldebiT. igi ewvia adgilobrivi marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mgalobelis meuRles da ieRovas mowmeTa Taobaze esaubra. policiis gamoZaxebis Sedegad kokinakisi da misi coli (romelic Tan axlda, Tumca saubarSi ar CarTula) daakaves. qalbaton kiriakiss cota ram Tu axsovda saubridan da ganacxada, rom mis religiur Sexedulebebze gavlena ar mouxdenia kokinakisis monaTxrobs. momCivani gaasamarTles arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmis braldebiT, imis miuxedavad, rom sasamarTlo procesze qalbatonis gansakuTrebuli gulubryvilobis aranairi mtkicebuleba ar yofila warmodgenili. es gadawyvetileba yvela zemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlom daamtkica. SemdgomSi kokinakisma komisias mimarTa, im safuZvliT, rom darRveuli iqna me-9 muxlidan gamomdinare misi ufleba. erT-erTi mizezTagani, ris gamoc sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom arsebobda ufleba sxvaTa darwmunebaze gansazRvruli religiisa Tu rwmenis WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb, is iyo, rom sxvagvarad religiis Secvlis Tavisufleba, `savaraudod, gamouyenebeli darCeboda~.193 mocemuli dasabuTeba analogiuria sityvis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi gamoyenebuli argumentaciisa, sadac Tavisufali mediis mniSvnelobis xazgasmisas sasamarTlom yuradReba gaamaxvila imaze, rom mediis SezRudvebi Seexeba ara mxolod komunikaciis msurvelTa uflebebs, aramed im pirTa uflebebsac, visTvisac aRniSnuli informacia xelmisawvdomi unda iyos.194 miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis mizani `arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmis~ akrZalvisa kanonieri iyo, vinaidan sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvas isaxavda miznad (Tumca sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom saqmeSi gamoyenebuli saSualebebi ar warmoadgenda aucileblobas demokratiul sazogadoebaSi). mosamarTle martensma Tavis damoukidebel, magram Tanmxvedr azrSi, aRniSna, rom es daskvna religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisuflebas sakmaris mniSvnelobas ar aniWebda. misi mtkicebiT, religiis Tavisufleba `absolutur~ faseulobas warmoadgens konvenciaSi da, Sesabamisad, religiis qonisa Tu Secvlis TavisuflebaSi `saxelmwifos mxridan Carevis sivrces ar tovebs~.195 me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli Tavisuflebebi moicavs uflebas religiis Secvlaze, aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifosTvis ar aris mniSvnelovani Sedegis momtani, vinme gadawyvets Tu ara, Seicvalos sakuTari religia, an daiyoliebs Tu ara sxvas religiis Secvlaze. swavleba, romelic Zalze mkafiod aris daculi konvenciaSi sxvadasxva rwmenis mimdevari uamravi adamianis religiur valdebulebas warmoadgens da saxelmwifos ara aqvs masSi Carevis ufleba. mosamarTlem daadastura, rom zogjer es swavleba SeiZleba `prozelitizmSi gadaizardos~ da, Sesabamisad, konfliqtSi movides sxvis uflebasTan, SeinarCunos sakuTari religia.

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Tumca saxelmwifos kompetencias ar ganekuTvneba, Caerios am `konfliqtSi~ prozelitorsa da prozelits Soris. pirvel rigSi, imitom, rom, vinaidan adamianis Rirsebisa da Tavisuflebebis pativiscema gulisxmobs saxelmwifos mxridan aRiarebas, rom yvela uflebamosilia, gansazRvros sakuTari bedi im gziT, romelsac CaTvlis saukeTesod, ara aqvs gamarTleba saxelmwifos mier Tavisi Zalauflebis gamoyenebas prozelitis `dasacavad~ (sxvagvarad SeiZleba iyos im gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi, rodesac saxelmwifos aqvs zrunvis gansakuTrebuli valdebuleba, Tumca aseTi situacia ar vrceldeba mocemul saqmeze). meorec, imitom, rom TviT `sazogadoebrivi wesrigi~ ver amarTlebs saxelmwifo Zalauflebis gamoyenebas im sferoSi, sadac Semwynarebloba moiTxovs, rom `Tavisufali diskusia da debatebi~ gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis iyos. da mesamec, imitom, rom konvenciis safuZvelze yvela religia Tu rwmena, im donemde, sadamdec saxelmwifo aris Careuli, Tanabari mopyrobiT unda sargeblobdes. Camoyalibebul argumentaciaSi igulisxmeba, rom mTavrobas ar gaaCnia legitimuri roli religiis Secvlis Tavisuflebis regulirebis sferoSi, Tundac xalxis prozelitizmisgan `dacvis~ mizniT. Sesabamisad, nebismieri kanonmdebloba, romlis mizansac religiis Secvlis mcdelobaTa SezRudva warmoadgens, gansakuTrebulad gamonaklisi SemTxvevebis garda, sruliad aralegitimuri xasiaTisaa.196 es kanonebi SeuZlebelia legitimuri miznisa iyos, vinaidan isini cdiloben, daicvan adamianebi im gamocdilebisgan, romlis Sesaxebac saxelmwifo ver ityvis, marTalia Tu mcdari.197 es sakiTxi uSualod Zevs adamianis individualur sindisSi, forum internum-Si. sxva mosamarTleni ar iyvnen mzad, aseTi farTo Sexeduleba warmoedginaT am sakiTxze, Tumca, maTi analizis mixedviT, religiis Secvlis ufleba ar gulisxmobs, rom saxelmwifos ar gaaCnia ufleba, miiRos zomebi adamianTa im pirebisgan dasacavad, romlebic maT sakuTar religiaze gadabirebas cdiloben. *** sasamarTlom aRiara, rom azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs rogorc TiToeuli adamianis, ise pluralisturi da demokratiuli sazogadoebisaTvis. miuxedavad amisa, man mainc ver SeZlo am koncefciis gamoxatva saTanado gziT da, Sesabamisad, Zalze mcire sivrce dautova maT moTxovnebs, vinc TavianTi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvas cdiloben. vidre religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebis pozitiuri koncefciis ganviTareba daiwyeboda, pozitiuri valdebulebis ZiriTadi roli religiuri grZnobebis dacvis mizniT sxva uflebebSi (rogoricaa gamoxatvis Tavisufleba) saxelmwifos Carevis legitimaciaSi gamoixateboda, imis gaazrebis gareSe, Tu ramdenad aucilebelia es religiis TavisuflebisaTvis. saxelmwifos negatiuri valdebulebis farglebis gansazRvrisas sasamarTlom da komisiam Zalze viwro Sexeduleba Camoayalibes imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra moeTxoveba saxelmwifos. Forum internum-is mcdarad gamoxatuli arsisTvis miniWebuli centraluri roli saxelmwifoebs mniSvnelovan uflebamosilebas aniWebs, moiTxovon individebisgan TavianTi religiisa Tu rwmenis sawinaaRmdego qmedeba, sakuTari religiis saxelmwifo organoebisaTvis gamxela da gansazRvruli `sazRauris gaReba~, magali-

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Tad, samsaxuris dakargvis saxiT, sakuTari religiuri mrwamsis mimdevrobisTvis. amgvar saqmeebSi sasamarTlom da komisiam daadgines, rom adgili ar hqonda Carevas forum internum-Si, imis saTanado ganxilvis gareSe, axdens Tu ara gavlenas adamianis iZuleba religiiT an rwmeniT akrZalul moqmedebaze religiisa da rwmenis absolutur Sinagan Tavisuflebaze, iseve rogorc maT manifestaciaze. saxelmwifo eklesiis dawesebisa da saxelmwifo skolebSi bavSvTa ganaTlebis sferoebSic, sadac saxelmwifos mxridan gansazRvruli religiis propagandisa Tu ciliswamebis realuri saSiSroeba arsebobs, sasamarTlo da komisia ukiduresi pativiscemiT ekidebodnen saxelmwifoTa moTxovnilebebs da evropaSi dawesebul eklesiaTa istoriul rols. maSin, roca individi garkveuli dacviT sargeblobs Teoriulad (iseTi moTxovnebidan gamomdinare, rogoricaa religiuri swavlebis ganxorcieleba neitralurad da obieqturad), am dacvis praqtikaSi gamoyenebis miuxedavad, individs rCeba Zalze mcire TavSesafari saxelmwifosgan, romelic intervencias axdens gansazRvrul religiasa Tu rwmenaSi. religiisa da rwmenis Secvlis Tavisuflebas gacilebiT ukeTesi dacva mieniWa, vidre zogadad religiis Tavisuflebis ufro abstraqtul gagebas. Tumca aqac sasamarTlos ar gamouCenia didi survili, ganexila is rTulad gasarCevi gzebi, romelTa meSveobiTac saxelmwifos aqvs SesaZlebloba waaxalisos daucveli pirovneba, gansakuTrebiT bavSvi, Seicvalos religia an xeli SeuSalos individebs religiisa Tu rwmenis SecvlaSi, kerZod, prozelitizmis SemzRudveli kanonebis gamoyenebiT. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis ufleba, ar iqna naTlad gansazRvruli da, Sesabamisad, misi gamoyeneba Zalze viwrod xdeboda. aqedan gamomdinare, me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeTa umravlesobaSi wamoiWreba (xSirad sasamarTlos warmodgeniT wamoiWreba) me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis meore segmentis relevanturi sakiTxebi _ religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciis ufleba RvTismsaxurebiT, swavlebiT, ritualebis SesrulebiT an wes-Cveulebebis dacviT.

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religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis ufleba
me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad, yvelas aqvs `Tavisufleba marto an sazogadoebis sxva wevrebTan erTad da sajarod an kerZod gamoxatos Tavisi religia da rwmena RvTismsaxurebiT, swavlebiT, ritualebis SesrulebiT an wesCveulebebis dacviT~. religiis qonis uflebisgan gansxvavebiT, religiis gamoxatvis ufleba eqvemdebareba garkveul SezRudvebs me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad. miuxedavad amisa, igi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelovan nawils Seadgens, gansakuTrebiT me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmentis SezRuduli mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare. me-9 muxlSi mocemulia gamoxatvis oTxi saxis CamonaTvali. TiToeuli maTgani mravalferovan interpretacias eqemdebareba. komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier aRiarebuli iqna gamoxatvis am saxeTa SedarebiT viwro gansazRvrebani, gansakuTrebiT `wes-Cveulebebis~ mimarT, rac xSirad sakmao sirTuleebs uqmnida momCivnebs imis dasamtkiceblad, rom SeizRuda maTi ufleba religiis gamoxatvaze. im SemTxvevebSic, roca adgili aqvs aSkara SezRudvas, momCivnebi iZulebulni arian, aCvenon, rom `nebayoflobiT~ ar dauTmiaT ufleba religiis gamoxatvaze, magaliTad, gansazRvruli organizaciis im wesebisadmi daqvemdebarebiT an im tipis samuSaosaTvis xelis mokidebiT, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba maTi religiiT an rwmeniT gaTvaliswinebul wes-Cveulebebs. individualuri an jgufuri da sajaro an kerZo gamoxatva rwmenis gamoxatva `marto an sazogadoebis sxva wevrebTan erTad~ da `sajarod an kerZod~, morwmunis arCevanis sagans warmoadgens. muslimi skolis maswavleb-

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lis saqmeSi momCivani iTxovda skolidan gaTavisuflebas yovel paraskevs adgilobriv meCeTSi SuadRis RvTismsaxurebaze dasaswrebad. mopasuxe, didi britaneTi, ki amtkicebda, rom maswavleblis ufleba RvTismsaxurebaze sakmarisad iyo daculi, vinaidan locvisTvis gankuTvnili specialuri oTaxi momCivnisTvis skolis SigniT iqna gamoyofili.198 komisiam uaryo mocemuli argumenti da daadgina, rom ufleba sxvebTan erTad religiis gamoxatvaze yovelTvis iTvleboda religiis Tavisuflebis umniSvnelovanes nawilad, rom me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemuli ori alternativa, `marto an sazogadoebis sxva wevrebTan erTad~ ar SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes, rogorc gamoxatvis erTmaneTis gamomricxavi formebi an xelisuflebisaTvis arCevanis gakeTebis SesaZleblobis micema, aramed mxolod imis aRiareba, rom religia SesaZlebelia gamoxatuli iqnes orive formiT. roca saqme Seexeba mTavrobaTa mxridan religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze dawesebuli SezRudvebis dasabuTebas, am ganmartebam SesaZloa gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZinos. magaliTad, Zneli iqneba saxelmwifos mxridan imis damtkiceba, rom aucilebelia kerZo RvTismsaxurebis aRkveTa, vidre didi jgufis mier sajarod RvTismsaxurebis ganxorcielebis uflebaze SezRudvebis dawesebis saWiroebis demonstrireba.199 komisiis gadawyvetileba, romlis Tanaxmadac TviT individebis gadasawyvetia, rogori wesiT sjobs religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva, swori midgoma unda iyos, gansakuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom gansazRvruli religiis moTxovnas SesaZloa garkveul doneze erToblivi RvTismsaxurebis ganxorcieleba warmoadgendes, maSin, roca sxva pirTaTvis (gansakuTrebiT maTTvis, vinc ar miekuTvneba organizebul religiur sazogadoebas) SeiZleba kerZo formis RvTismsaxureba sjobdes.200 saxelmwifo ar aris uflebamosili, Caerios amgvari sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca amis ukiduresi aucilebloba arsebobs. marTalia, individebs aqvT ufleba, Seikribon RvTismsaxurebis an religiuri ritualis Casatareblad, magram naTeli ar aris, Tu ramdenad gulisxmobs es ufleba sajarod, sxvebTan erTad religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis da aseve garkveuli religiisa Tu rwmenis interesebis dasacavad organizaciaTa, dawesebulebaTa an sxva mudmivmoqmedi jgufebis Seqmnis SesaZleblobis qonas. komisiam gadawyvita, rom me-9 muxlidan ar gamomdinareobs religiis formaluri wesiT aRiarebisa da registraciis ufleba im saxelmwifoebSi, sadac erTmaneTisgan jer kidev ganasxvaveben aRiarebul da araRiarebul religiebs.201 Tumca situacia arsebiTad icvleba, rodesac araRiarebul religiebs ekrZalebaT religiuri saqmianoba. saqmeSi besarabiis mitropolituri eklesia da sxvebi moldovis winaaRmdeg202 sasamarTlom mxari dauWira momCivanTa moTxovnebs, romlebic amtkicebdnen, rom adgili hqonda konvenciis me-9 muxlis darRvevas moldovis mTavrobis mxridan. moldovis kanonmdeblobis, kerZod, religiur denominaciaTa aqtis Tanaxmad, gansazRvruli eklesiis saqmianoba an Sekrebis Tavisufleba religiuri miznebisaTvis SeiZleba ganxorcielebuli iqnes mxolod saxelmwifos mxridan ama Tu im denominaciis aRiarebis SemTxvevaSi. moldovis saxelmwifo, romelic uars acxadebda momCivani eklesiis registraciaze, faqtobrivad uspobda mas legaluri saqmianobis SesaZleblobas. moldovis mTavroba Tavisi uaris safuZvlad asaxelebda safrTxes qveynis teritoriuli xelSeuxeblobisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigisaTvis, rac SeiZleboda am eklesiis saqmianobas gamoewvia. sasamar-

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Tlom uaryo misi argumentebi da saxelmwifos qmedeba konvenciis me-9 muxlis darRvevad aRiara. SesaZloa, xSir SemTxvevaSi, morwmuneTaTvis garkveul saWiroebas warmoadgendes organizaciebis dafuZneba religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis sakuTari individualuri uflebis gansaxorcieleblad. amgvari jgufebis arsebobis saWiroeba izrdeba, Tu miznad RvTismsaxurebis CatarebisaTvis gankuTvnili Senoba-nagebobebis mSenebloba da funqcionireba, religiuri skolebis Tu saswavlo jgufebis moqmedeba an Zvirfasi saritualo obieqtebis Sesyidvaa dasaxuli.203 profesor ioram dinsteinis mtkicebiT, `religiis Tavisufleba, rogorc individualuri ufleba, SeiZleba anulirebulad CaiTvalos, Tuki igi ar moicavs religiuri jgufis wevris koleqtiur uflebas saTanado infrastruqturis mSeneblobaze, romelic SesaZlebels gaxdida individebisaTvis am Tavisuflebis sruli moculobiT sargeblobas.204 religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis winaaRmdeg deklaracia aseve did mniSvnelobas aniWebs am uflebebs, roca aRiarebs religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvad RvTismsaxurebis Casatarebeli nagebobebis Tu SekrebaTa adgilebis, saqvelmoqmedo da humanitaruli daniSnulebis dawesebulebebis dafuZnebisa da funqcionirebis, religiuri liderebis daniSvnisa da rogorc Tanamemamule, ise ucxoel Tanamoazre morwmuneebTan urTierTobis uflebas.205 im SemTxvevaSic, roca me-9 muxli ver moicavs yvela am uflebas, momCivnebs SeuZliaT daeyrdnon me-11 muxlis debulebebs, romelic Sekrebis Tavisuflebas Seexeba, rac maT daexmareba mudmivmoqmedi asociaciebis dafuZnebis uflebis uzrunvelyofaSi. RvTismsaxureba, swavleba, ritualebis Sesruleba da wes-Cveulebebis dacva gamoxatvis saxeebis eqskluziuri Tu inkluziuri buneba Zalze mniSvnelovania imis garkveva, aris Tu ara sityvebi `RvTismsaxureba, swavleba, ritualebis Sesruleba an wes-Cveulebebis dacva~ me-9 muxliT dacul manifestaciaTa eqskluziuri Tu inkluziuri CamonaTvali. gaeros dokumentebi, gansakuTrebiT kriSnasvamis swavleba, miuTiTebs, rom aRniSnuli terminebi gamoiyenes religiaTa da rwmenaTa manifestaciis saxeebis farTo speqtris dafarvis mizniT da gamiznuli ar iyo maTi SezRuduli interpretireba. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis komentirebisas kriSnasvamim daaskvna: `Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT, rom, erTi mxriv, deklaraciis momzadeba moxda mis farglebSi yvela religiis Tu rwmenis Tavmoyris mizniT, xolo, meore mxriv, manifestaciaTa saxeebi da maTTvis miniWebuli mniSvneloba gansxvavebuli xasiaTisaa TiToeul religiasa da rwmenaSi, SesaZlebelia uSecdomod vivaraudoT, rom ganzraxva yvela religiisa da rwmenis SesaZlo manifestaciebis saxeebis erTad moqcevaSi mdgomareobda terminebis, `RvTismsaxureba, swavleba, ritualebis Sesruleba an wes-Cveulebebis dacva~, gamoyenebiT. Tumca me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilSi es terminebi upirobod aris gamoyenebuli, rom CamonaTvali gamiznulia, iyos reprezentaciuli Tu inkluziuri. saqmeSi erousmiti gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,206 gaerTianebuli samefo amtkicebda, rom me-9 muxlSi mocemuli CamonaTvali gamomricxavi (eqskluziuri) bunebis iyo. Sesabamisad, misi ganmarteba SezRuduli wesiT unda momxdariyo. kerZod, religiis yvela saxis manifestacia RvTismsaxurebis analogiuri iyo da sakiTxi imis

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Taobaze, saqme religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas Seexeboda Tu ara, obieqturad unda gadawyvetiliyo da ara momCivnis subieqturi moTxovnebis safuZvelze.207 es ukanaskneli ki amtkicebda, rom CamonaTvali eqskluziuri bunebisa ar iyo da Tuki iyo, maSin misi qmedebani Tavisi rwmenis moZRvrebis Sesabamisi `wes-Cveulebebis~ nawili iyo. komisiam ar ganixila mxareTa gansxvavebuli midgomebi. amis sanacvlod man fokusireba moaxdina imis garkvevaze, momCivnis qmedebani eqceoda Tu ara `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ definiciis farglebSi. komisiam daadgina, rom momCivnis qmedebani ar SeiZleboda ganxiluli yofiliyo rogorc `wes-Cveulebebis dacva~ da aRarc is argumenti gamoikvlia, romlis Tanaxmadac me-9 muxlSi mocemuli CamonaTvali ufro inkluziuri xasiaTisa iyo, vidre eqskluziuri. Sesabamisad, saCivari uaryofili iqna. amis msgavsad, sxva ramdenime saqmeSic, sadac momCivnebi iTxovdnen, rom manifestaciis arsi ufro farTod yofiliyo gagebuli da moecva sxvadasxva qmedeba, maT Soris ganqorwinebis ufleba an qveyanaSi Sesvlis mizniT religiur morwmuneTa mier vizis miRebis ufleba, komisiam ar daakmayofila momCivnis moTxovnebi.208 aqedan gamomdinare, komisiam da sasamarTlom uari ganacxades `axali uflebebis Seqmnaze~, romlebic uSualod ar aris moxsenebuli konvenciaSi da me-9 muxlis am CamonaTvalis interpretireba moaxdines, rogorc eqskluziuri bunebis mqonisa. amis mizezi nawilobriv isicaa, rom termin `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ mniSvnelobaTa potenciurad imdenad farTo speqtri arsebobs, rom argumentebi konvenciis safuZvelze manifestaciaTa sazRvrebis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad ufro imazea fokusirebuli, Tu ramdenad farTod unda iqnes es termini interpretirebuli, vidre CamoTvlili oTxi saxeobisadmi manifestaciaTa tipebis mikuTvnebis mcdelobaze. religiis gamoxatvis ufleba SeiZleba ganxorcieldes rogorc aqtiurad, ise pasiurad. magaliTad, RvTismsaxurebis ufleba moicavs adamianis uflebas, ar iqnes misi nebis sawinaaRmdegod, iZulebis wesiT, CarTuli RvTismsaxurebaSi. pasiuri ufleba religiis manifestaciaze mxolod saqmeTa mcire raodenobaSi iqna cnobili darRveulad, Tumca arc erT SemTxvevaSi adgili ar hqonia konkretuli SemTxvevis Sesabamisobas me-9 muxlSi mocemuli manifestaciebis saxeebTan. buskarinis saqmeSi mxari dauWires adamianis uflebas, ar moeTxovos saxarebaze daficeba, Tumca ar aris naTeli, ramdenad moicavs am uflebis sapirispiro pozitiur mxares RvTismsaxureba, swavleba, ritualebis Sesruleba an wes-Cveulebebis dacva. am sakiTxis gadawyvetasTan dakavSirebuli sirTule, ficis dadebis iZuleba, forum internum-Si Carevas warmoadgens Tu mxolod religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze pasiuri uflebis darRvevas, naTlad amtkicebs, rogor aris SesaZlebeli or sferos Soris sazRvris waSla, gansakuTrebiT im pirobebSi, roca sasamarTlom da komisiam ver SeZles saTanado dasabuTebis warmodgena am problemasTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi. RvTismsaxureba da ritualebis Sesruleba RvTismsaxurebas umaRlesi statusi aqvs miniWebuli me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilSi mocemul manifestaciaTa saxeebis CamonaTvalSi. me-9 muxlis mimoxilvisas komisiam ganacxada, rom igi, pirvel rigSi, icavs personalur rwmenas da religiur msoflmxedvelobas, aseve maTTan mWidro kavSirSi myof qcevebs, rogoricaa RvTismsaxureba da locva.209 komisiis mier ar iqna Camoyalibebuli am cnebis zusti sazRvrebi, Tumca

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es sakiTxi sadavo arc gamxdara dRemde ganxilul saqmeebSi. miuxedavad amisa, ramdenime problemuri sakiTxi mainc gamoikveTa. erT-erT saqmeSi komisiam gadawyvita, rom cixeSi protestanti sasuliero pirisa da saeklesio msaxurebis arseboba akmayofilebda anglikanuri eklesiis mimdevari patimris uflebas RvTismsaxurebaze.210 komisia aseve mzad aRmoCnda, daedgina, rom Careva sajaro RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gankuTvnili nagebobebis agebis SesaZleblobaSi wamoWrida RvTismsaxurebisa da religiuri ritualebis Sesrulebis uflebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.211 saqmeSi wminda monastrebi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg,212 gatarebulia mosazreba, rom Careva (konfiskaciis gziT) RvTismsaxurebisaTvis saWiro obieqtebis gankargvaSi warmoadgens Carevas zemoxsenebul uflebaSi, Tumca saxelmwifo kontrolis ganxorcieleba miwebze, sadac monastrebia ganlagebuli, ar CaiTvala RvTismsaxurebis uflebis SezRudvad.213 gansxvaveba miwaze dawesebul saxelmwifo SezRudvebsa da saritualo obieqtebis gankargvaSi Carevas Soris arc iseTi cxadia, rogorc amas sasamarTlo miiCnevs, vinaidan TiToeul maTgans potenciurad SeuZlia religiur sazogadoebaTa ritualebis Catarebis SesaZleblobis SezRudva. termini `ritualebis Sesruleba~ sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier calke ar ganxilula da, rogorc Cans, RvTismsaxurebis odnav ufro farTo gagebaSi gaerTianda. magaliTad, saqmeSi manusakisi da sxvebi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg, ieRovas mowmeTa mimarT warmoebuli sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna, mTavrobis mxridan nebarTvis miRebis gareSe RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gankuTvnili nagebobis mSeneblobis motiviT, sasamarTlos mier miCneuli iqna Carevad RvTismsaxurebasa da ritualebis SesrulebaSi. gansxvaveba am terminebs Soris ar iqna Camoyalibebuli. sasamarTlo da komisia `RvTismsaxurebasa~ da `ritualebis Sesrulebas~ TavisTavad naTel definiciebad Tvlis, maTi gansazRvris yovelgvari saWiroebis gareSe. swavleba termini `swavleba~ SedarebiT dawvrilebiT iqna ganxiluli, Tumca, RvTismsaxurebisa da ritualebis Sesrulebis msgavsad, gansakuTrebulad naTlad arc is ganusazRvravT. saqmeSi, kokinakisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg,214 sasamarTlos Semadgenlobis umravlesobam miiCnia, rom Careva prozelitizmSi warmoadgenda religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebaSi Carevas, Tumca mosazrebis gamoTqmas ar mohyolia misi dasabuTeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom gamoxatva, erTi SexedviT, naklebadaa swavlebis215 sagani, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, sxvaTa informirebis mcdeloba garkveuli religiisa Tu rwmenis Taobaze eqceva swavlebis mniSvnelobis farglebSi, sanam is `arakeTilsindisier prozelitizmad gadaiqceodes~.216 sasamarTlom gamoiyena msoflio eklesiaTa sabWos moxseneba, romelic sakuTar rwmenaze sxvaTa gadmobirebis qristianTa valdebulebas Seexeboda, rogorc garkveuli qcevis tipis mtkicebuleba, romelic prozelitizms swavlebis sferos farglebs gareT aqcevda da mas gansazRvravda, rogorc konkretuli prozelitisTvis socialuri da materialuri sargeblis SeTavazebas, adamianTa manipulirebas sulieri tkivilis gancdis periodSi an Zaladobisa da ideologiuri damuSavebis gamoyenebas. Tumca sasamarTlom uari ganacxada `arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmis~ gansazRvraze. kokinakisisa da larisisis217 saqmeebidan aSkaraa, rom igi mzadaa, daicvas prozelitizmis ufleba, rogorc garkveuli religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva swavlebis gziT.

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ramdenime mosamarTlem termin `swavlebis~ mimarT gacilebiT viwro midgoma SeimuSava. mosamarTle valtoqsis mtkicebiT, `eWvgareSea, rom swavleba Seexeba saswavlo kurss skolebsa Tu religiur dawesebulebebSi~.218 umravlesobam ar gaiziara es midgoma, nawilobriv im motiviT, rom, Tuki garkveuli saxis saojaxo swavleba ar iyo SesaZlebeli, maSin religiisa Tu rwmenis Secvlis ufleba araefeqturad da gamousadegrad iqceoda. miuxedavad imisa, rom mosamarTle valtoqsi adasturebda adamianis uflebas, hqondes saubari sxva pirebTan sakuTari religiisa Tu rwmenis Taobaze, kokinakisis saqmeSi arsebul faqtebs `sxvaTa rwmenebis mimarT Zalmomreobas~ uwodebda. Tavisi mosazrebis Camoyalibebisas igi daeyrdno sxva saqmes, kerZod, hofmani avstriis winaaRmdeg, romelic imave dros sxva palataSi ixileboda. am saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebis mixedviT, ieRovas mowme kviraSi erTxel axorcielebda vizitebs sakuTari rwmenis gavrcelebis mizniT. mosamarTle amas ganixilavda mtkicebulebad, romlis Tanaxmadac ieRovas yvela mowme `sakuTar sarwmunoebaze sxvaTa gadmobirebis sistemuri mcdelobiT~ iyo dakavebuli, rac am ukanasknelTa religiasa da rwmenaze SetevaSi gamoixateboda. valtoqsis definiciis mixedviT, prozelitizmi `aris rwmenis gavrcelebis mcdeloba, mis mimdevrebad prozelitebis gadaqcevis ganzraxviT~. valtoqsis mtkicebiT, amgvari qceva ar warmoadgens religiis manifestacias. mosamarTle valtoqsis mier saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebis mokle gadmocema naTlad metyvelebs im sxvaobaze, romelic man dainaxa konvenciiT dacul swavlebasa da qcevis im saxes Soris, romliTac ieRovas mowme kokinakisi iyo dakavebuli: modi, mokled mimovixiloT saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebi. erTi mxriv, saqme gvaqvs ieRovas agresiul mowmesTan, prozelitizmis eqspertsa da gadmobirebis specialistTan, kriminalur sasamarTloTa wamebulTan, romelsac adrindeli msjavrdebani mxolod xels uSlida Tavis brZolaSi da, meore mxriv, idealur msxverplTan, gulubryvilo qalTan, marTlmadidebeli eklesiis mgalobelis meuRlesTan (Tuki moaxerxebs mis darwmunebas, rogori triumfi iqneba!). Tavs daatydeba mas, auwyebs, rom kargi ambebi unda acnobos, axerxebs, rom qalma Sin SeuSvas da rogorc gamocdili komivoiaJori da im rwmenis moxerxebuli mimwodebeli, romlis gavrcelebac surs, ganumartavs mas Tavisi inteleqtualuri warmoebis produqts, SefuTuls universaluri mSvidobisa da gasxivosnebuli bednierebis mantiaSi. vin ityvis sinamdvileSi uars mSvidobasa da bednierebaze? mxolod es aris kokinakisis rwmenis gamoxatuleba, Tu adgili aqvs mgalobelis meuRlis ubralo sulis SecdomaSi Seyvanis mcdelobas? nuTu konvencia msgavsi saqmianobis dacvas uzrunvelyofs? ra Tqma unda, ara. sxva orma mosamarTlem, romlebmac aseve gansxvavebuli pozicia daafiqsires, fokusireba moaxdines termin `swavlebaze~ da gacilebiT TavSekavebuli midgoma ganaviTares prozelitizmis mimarT. isini amtkicebdnen, rom `swavleba~ moiTxovda maswavleblisgan `Riaobas, patiosnebasa da SecdomaSi Semyvani an mcdari saSualebebis, an yalbi qveteqstebis gamoyenebisagan Tavis Sekavebas~. rac Seexeba religiis specialistebs, mosamarTleTa azriT, maT ar unda gamoiyenon sakuTari upiratesoba piradi miznebisaTvis da swavlebisas valdebulni arian, `pativi scen sxvaTa religias~. aqedan gamomdinare, swavlebis SemuSavebis procesSi maswavlebelma saimedo gziT unda imoqmedos da miukerZoebloba da obieqturoba gamoamJRavnos. am saqmeSi, maTi azriT,

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momCivani swavlebiT ar iyo dakavebuli, vinaidan man qalis saxlSi SeRweva moaxerxa imis mtkicebiT, rom `kargi ambebi~ unda ecnobebina, sakuTari ganzraxvis naTlad axsnis sanacvlod. mosamarTleebma Zalze mZime tvirTi daakisres maT, visac gamiznuli aqvs prozelitTa gadabireba da maTgan moiTxoves moqmedeba absoluturi pirdapirobiTa da patiosnebiT (gacilebiT maRali, vidre umravlesobis mier gamoyenebuli standarti, arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmis arganxorcielebisa), aseve daakisres valdebuleba komunikaciis obieqtebis religiuri ganswavlulobis gansazRvrisa, raTa darwmundnen, rom ar isargebleben pirovnebis umecrebiT. es aris swavlebis uflebis SezRuduli gageba da ara iseTi, romelic aRiarebuli iqna sasamarTlos mier, romelmac farTo sazRvrebi mianiWa uflebas, prozelitizmis udavod sakamaTo sferoSic ki. prozelitizmis konteqstis farglebs gareT swavlebis gziT religiis gamoxatvis ufleba ZiriTadad saskolo ganaTlebis sferoSi wamoiWreba. Tumca adamianebs aqvT religiis swavlebisa da religiuri skolebis Camoyalibebis ufleba, Tuki isini saxelmwifos mier dadgenil minimalur standartebs akmayofileben, swavlebis uflebis pativiscemis mimarT saxelmwifos valdebuleba Tavisi arsiT negatiuri xasiaTisaa. saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba, Caerios kerZo religiur swavlebaSi da, amave dros, ar moeTxoveba misi uzrunvelyofa an subsidireba. religiuri liderebisa da sasuliero pirTa saTanado religiuri momzadebis ufleba, rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise mis farglebs gareT, aseve gamomdinareobs swavlebis gziT religiis gamoxatvis uflebidan, Tumca am SemTxvevaSic saxelmwifo valdebulia, mxolod Tavi Seikavos religiur liderTa ganaTlebaSi Carevis an misi akrZalvisagan. liderTa amgvari ganaTleba TavisTavad aris ufleba da, amave dros, didi sargeblis momtania TviT religiuri sazogadoebebisaTvis, maTi wevrebis ganaTlebis donis amaRlebis TvalsazrisiT. wes-Cveulebebis dacva termini `wes-Cveulebebis dacva~ religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciis oTx saxes Soris yvelaze Znelad gansasazRvrad iTvleba. potenciurad is SeiZleba Zalze farTod iqnes ganmartebuli, maT Soris, garkveuli religiisa Tu rwmenis yvela moZRvrebaTa da direqtivaTa erT cnebaSi Tavmoyris gziT. amave dros, igi SesaZloa Zalian viwroc iyos, Tuki masSi moviazrebT mxolod uSualod religiuri tipis saqmianobas, romelic Tavisi arsiT RvTismsaxurebis identuria. es interpretacia zogjer argumentirebulia terminis franguli versiiT, romelic iyenebs mravlobiT les pratiques.219 frangul termins mravlobiT ricxvSi ufro religiuri elferi dahkravs, vidre mxolobiTs, Tumca arc isaa inglisur Sesatyvisze ufro cxadi da gasagebi. arc sasamarTlosa da arc komisias pirdapiri gziT ar ganuxilavT es sakiTxi, Tundac SesaZlo Seusabamoba terminis inglisur da frangul versiebs Soris, romelTagan orive Tanabrad avtoritetulia. erousmitis saqme220 Seexeboda `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ ideas da misi ganxilvisas SeimuSaves testi, romelic am terminis, rogorc religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis erT-erTi saxis, religiiTa da rwmeniT stimulirebul da motivirebul qmedebaTa farTo wridan gamorCevas isaxavda miznad. zogadad, igi kargi magaliTia termin `wesCveulebebis dacviT~ gamowveul sirTuleTa ilustrirebisaTvis da, Sesabamisad, aucilebelia misi detaluri mimoxilva.

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erousmitis saqme: gamoxatvis aucileblobis testi
faqtobrivi mimoxilva pacifisti pet erousmiti msjavrdebul iqna jariskacebs Soris lifletebis gavrcelebisaTvis, romliTac is arwmunebda samxedro mosamsaxureebs, uari ganecxadebinaT CrdiloeT irlandiaSi gamgzavrebaze.221 lifletebi ufro konkretuli situaciisTvis (CrdiloeT irlandiaSi gamgzavrebasTan dakavSirebiT) iyo gamiznuli da ar iyo zogadi pacifisturi Sinaarsisa. aq mowodebuli iyo praqtikuli informacia ori alternativis _ dezertirobisa da samxedro samsaxurze sajarod uaris Tqmis (amave dros, Seicavda gafrTxilebas, rom amgvar qmedebas Sedegad samxedro tribunali da cixe mohyveboda), aseve armiis datovebis kanonieri gzis Sesaxeb (magaliTad, garkveuli Tanxis safasurad, Tavis legaluri gamosyidvis gziT). momCivans adrec hqonda gavrcelebuli amgvari lifletebi da maSin britaneTis generalurma prokurorma gadawyvita, ar ganexorcielebina mis mimarT sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna. SemdgomSi momCivani da misi megobrebi sxva samxedro bazaze imave mizniT gaemgzavrnen. policiis moTxovniT, erousmitis megobrebma Sewyvites lifletebis gavrceleba, avad momCivani ki ar daemorCila samarTaldamcavebs im motiviT, rom TiTqos generalurma prokurorma lifletebis Sinaarsis sanqcireba moaxdina. Sedegad igi daakaves da gaasamarTles. erousmits braldeba 1934 wels miRebuli ukmayofilebis gaRvivebis aqtis safuZvelze wauyenes, romelic krZalavda `Segnebulad da boroti ganzraxviT misi udidebulesoba dedoflis samxedro Zalebis nebismieri wevris darwmunebas, misi udidebulesoba dedoflis erTgulebasa Tu mis mimarT valdebulebis Sesrulebaze uaris Tqmaze~222 an im dokumentebis flobasa Tu gavrcelebas, romelsac, savaraudod, amgvari Sedegis gamowveva SeuZlia.223 momCivans, romelic nafic msajulTa sasamarTlom gaasamarTla, 18 TviT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesaja. saapelacio instanciis sasamarTlom Seamsubuqa sasjeli (maSin, roca msjavrdebuls ukve 9 Tve hqonda moxdili), Tumca qveda instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba daamtkica.224 erousmitma saCivriT mimarTa komisias imis safuZvelze, rom mis mimarT darRveuli iqna konvenciis me-5, me-9, me-10 da me-14 muxlebi. saCivari miRebuli iqna warmoebaSi, vinaidan igi, konvenciidan gamomdinare, mraval seriozul sakiTxs Seexeboda.225 saqmis arsis Taobaze miRebul gadawyvetilebaSi ki komisiam daadgina, rom momCivanma ver SeZlo Tavisi moTxovnis samarTlianobis dasabuTeba zemoT moyvanili mniSvnelovani muxlebis safuZvelze. komisiis gadawyvetileba komisiam misaRebad miiCnia momCivnis gancxadeba, romlis Tanaxmadac igi aqtiuri pacifisti iyo da rom pacifizmi SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc `garkveuli politikuri Tu sxva miznebis uzrunvelyofis filosofiis mimdevroba, rogorc Teoriulad, ise praqtikulad, garemoebebis miuxedavad, nebismieri adamianis mimarT Zalis gamoyenebis an misi muqaris gareSe, Tundac Zalis gamoyenebis an misi muqaris sapasuxod~.226 komisiam aseve aRiara, rom pacifizmi, am definiciidan gamomdinare, warmoadgens rwmenas da, Sesabamisad, imsaxurebs dacvas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. amrigad, momCivans unda eCvenebina, rom lifletebis gavrceleba warmoadgens rwmenis gamoxatvas pacifisturi `wes-Cveulebis dacvis~ gziT.

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`wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ definiciis mimoxilva komisiam SeniSvniT daiwyo: `komisia miiCnevs, rom konvenciis me-9 muxlSi Camoyalibebuli termini `wes-Cveulebebis dacva~ ar moicavs religiiT an rwmeniT motivirebul an maTi zegavleniT gamowveul yvela qmedebas~. amave dros komisiam ar ganmarta, Tu ra saxis qcevebs moicavs es termini. komisiis poziciis arsi SesaZloa veZioT missave daskvnaSi: pacifizmis ideis sajaro deklarireba da araZaladobrivi Sexedulebebis gaziarebisaken mowodeba SesaZloa ganxiluli iqnes rogorc pacifisturi rwmenis normaluri da aRiarebuli manifestacia. Tumca, roca individis qmedeba, faqtobrivad, ar gamoxatavs Sesabamis rwmenas, is ar sargeblobs me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT, maSinac, roca aRniSnuli qmedebani ganpirobebulia am rwmeniT. komisiam gadawyvita, rom lifletebis gavrceleba ar warmoadgenda pacifistur qcevas, vinaidan es lifletebi uSualod pacifizms ar Seexeboda (ramdenime citata Seicavda rCevas samxedro mosamsaxureTaTvis, rom garkveul SemTxvevaSi brZola adekvaturi da misaRebia), aramed ufro CrdiloeT irlandiaSi saxelmwifos politikisadmi opoziciuri damokidebulebis gamoxatulebas warmoadgenda. aqedan gamomdinare, amgvari lifletebis gavrceleba bevrs SeeZlo, vinc ewinaaRmdegeboda saxelmwifo politikas CrdiloeT irlandiaSi da ar miekuTvneba pacifistebs. Sesabamisad, erousmitis qmedeba ar warmoadgenda momCivnis pacifizmis manifestacias. garda amisa, komisiam miuTiTa, rom lifletebi gankuTvnili iyo uSualod jariskacebisTvis da ara farTo sazogadoebisTvis. es daexmara komisias imis dadgenaSi, rom lifletebSi mocemuli rCeva `ar iyo gankuTvnili pacifizmis ideis xelSewyobisaTvis~. mosamarTle opsalma Tavis damoukidebel da nawilobriv gansxvavebul azrSi miuTiTa, rom im qmedebaze pasuxismgebel pirebze zegavlenis moxdenis mizani, romelsac esa Tu is individi ewinaaRmdegeba, warmoadgens `gamoxatvis da azris Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebis ZiriTad da legitimur aspeqts~. Zalze ucnauria imis mtkiceba, rom pacifisti, romelic Tavis dros jariskacebisadmi mimarTvaSi xarjavs, raTa maT uari ganacxadon samxedro Zalis gamoyenebaze, naklebad gamoxatavs Tavis rwmenas, vidre vinme, vinc detalurad ayalibebs pacifistur idealebs msoflios winaSe. gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi erousmitis saqmeSi ori mosamarTlis gansxvavebuli azri miuTiTebs garkveul safrTxeze, rac SeiZleba umravlesobis poziciidan gamomdinareobdes. opsali daeTanxma umravlesobas, rom religiiT an rwmeniT motivirebuli yvela qmedeba ar SeiZleba me-9 muxlis dacviT sargeblobdes, vinaidan, magaliTad, ordinaruli danaSaulebi, rogoricaa Zaladoba da qurdoba, ar SeiZleba sanqcirebuli iqnes mxolod imitom, rom religiiT an rwmeniT aris inspirirebuli. Tumca, amave dros, mosamarTlem komisiis gadawyvetilebas `Zalze saeWvo~ uwoda da miuTiTa, rom sxvagvar pozicias daiWerda, rom ara misive Sexeduleba, romlis Tanaxmadac erousmitis qmedebis dacva me-10 muxlis safuZvelze ufro upriani iqneboda: Cemi azriT, ar SeiZleba me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis sferodan gamoiricxos gaerTianebuli samefos kanonmdeblobiT akrZaluli yvela qmdeba, romelic uSualod rwmenis manifestacias ar warmoadgens, Tumca aSkarad rwmeniT aris motivirebuli. amave dros, me-9 muxlis meore nawili

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religiis gamoxatvis TavisuflebaSi Carevis gamarTlebisaTvis pirobebs ayalibebs da gviCvenebs, rom garkveuli qmedeba ar SeiZleba SeizRudos mxolod imitom, rom ukanonod iqna gamocxadebuli. Cemi SexedulebiT, me-9 muxlis gamoyeneba SesaZlebeli unda gaxdes mravali iseTi qmedebis mimarT, romelic, erTi SexedviT, ar axdens im rwmenis manifestacias, romliTac is aris motivirebuli, Tuki rwmenis gamoxatva qmedebis avtoris gulwrfel mizans warmoadgens. opsalis mtkicebiT, amgvari situacia gansakuTrebiT maSin iqmneba, rodesac piris qmedeba konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva uflebebiT ar aris daculi. is garemoeba, rom momCivnis qmedeba SeiZleba ganxorcielebuliyo sxva piris mier, vinc mis rwmenas ar iziarebda, ar iyo aqtualuri, vinaidan religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba niSnavs, rom ama Tu im qmedebas SesaZloa gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqondes pirTa gansazRvruli wrisaTvis (romlebic isargebleben me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT), gansxvavebiT sxva individebisagan (romlebic ver isargebleben am dacviT). daskvnis saxiT opsalma aRniSna, rom `sazRvari (konvenciiT dacul da daucvel qmedebebs Soris) ar unda ganisazRvros imgvarad, rom mxolod manifestaciis gansazRvruli, savaraudod, ufro tradiciuli saxeebi, iqnes daculi, gulwrfeli motivaciis faqtoris sruli ugulebelyofiT~. rac Seexeba meore mosamarTles, Tavisi gansxvavebuli azris Camoyalibebisas, igi ufro Sors wavida da ganacxada, rom pet erousmitis gasamarTleba warmoadgens me-9 muxlidan gamomdinare valdebulebis darRvevas gaerTianebuli samefos mier. misi mosazrebiT, momCivnis mier lifletebis gavrceleba `ara mxolod rwmenis gagrZelebas, aramed misi Sinagani sferos nawils warmoadgens~. mosamarTle miuTiTebda im faqtebze, romlebic umravlesobis mier ar iqna naxsenebi, kerZod, rom momCivani aqtiurad iyo CarTuli irlandiis respublikuri armiis (britaneli samxedroebis msgavsad) darwmunebaSi, SeewyvitaT sabrZolo moqmedebani CrdiloeT irlandiaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, mosamarTle klekerma daaskvna, rom jariskacebs Soris lifletebis gavrceleba pacifisturi rwmenis gamoxatvas warmoadgenda. mosamarTlis mosazrebiT, momCivnis namdvili motivacia iyo ara mTavrobis politikis gakritikeba, rogorc umravlesoba miiCnevda, aramed orive mxaris darwmuneba problemis mSvidobiani gziT mogvarebaSi. klekeris midgoma sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac igi sakmaod farTo midgomas aviTarebs rwmenaTa sistemisadmi. msgavsi midgomis gamoyeneba xSirad gansxvavebuli daskvnebis gamotaniT sruldeba an, sul mcire, gacilebiT kompleqsuri kiTxvebi ibadeba, vidre ufro viwro midgomis pirobebSi. es Zalze mniSvnelovania imis gansasazRvrad, konkretuli qmedeba religiuri an sxva rwmenis farTo definiciis manifestacias warmoadgens Tu ara. religiisa da rwmenis farTo konteqstis nawilad gansazRvruli qmedebis aRiarebaze uaris Tqma udris adamianis rwmenaTa sistemis arsebobis ignorirebas. yoveli individis nebismieri qmedeba integrirebulia mis cxovrebiseul filosofiaSi da am konteqstis ignorireba, rogorc es komisiam gaakeTa erousmitis saqmeSi, potenciurad religiis Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebis Selaxvis SesaZleblobas qmnis.

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erousmitis testi testis buneba erousmitis saqmeSi komisiam daadgina, rom me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT religiiT an rwmeniT motivirebuli yvela qmedeba ar sargeblobs, Tumca ver SeZlo realuri testis miTiTeba imis gansasazRvrad, Tu ra qmedebebs moicavs es muxli. aqedan gamomdinare, komisiis gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom rwmenasa da qmedebas Soris Zalze mWidro kavSiri unda arsebobdes imisaTvis, rom qmedeba me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebul `wes-Cveulebebis dacvad~ CaiTvalos. sxva saqmeebis ganxilvisas komisiis mier igi interpretirebuli iqna, rogorc `aucileblobis~ testis gansazRvruli saxe, SemdgomSi wodebuli, rogorc erousmitis testi.227 erousmitis amgvari interpretacia momCivanTagan moiTxovs, aCvenon, rom iZulebulni iyvnen konkretuli gziT emoqmedaT Tavisi religiisa Tu rwmenis gamo. im saqmeTa gamokvleva, sadac erousmitis testi gamoiyenes, naTlad adasturebs sicxadis naklebobasa da sirTuleebs, rac damaxasiaTebelia am testis Tanmimdevruli gamoyenebisaTvis. erousmitis testis gamoyeneba `aucileblobis~ midgoma badebs erT-erT umniSvnelovanes kiTxvas: daculia Tu ara me-9 muxliT religiiT mxardaWerili an daSvebuli, Tumca ara savaldebulo, qceva? rogorc Cans, am kiTxvaze pasuxi Semdegia: amgvari qceva daculi ar aris. gadawyvetileba, romliTac ganmtkicebulia es daskvna, gamotanili iqna saqmeSi xani gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg. komisiam daamtkica Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, romliTac 21 wlis axalgazrda mamakaci iqna msjavrdebuli 14 wlis gogonasTan, am ukanasknelis mSoblebis survilis sawinaaRmdegod, islamuri saqorwino ceremoniis CatarebisaTvis. islamuri kanonis Tanaxmad, mSoblebis Tanxmobis gareSe qalis qorwineba daSvebulia 12 wlis asakidan, maSin roca britanuli kanonmdeblobiT saqorwino asaki ganisazRvreba 18 wliT. momCivani gasamarTlebuli iqna gogonas gatacebis braldebiT da 9 TviT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesaja. saCivari, romliTac momCivani amtkicebda, rom darRveuli iqna misi ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze, qorwinebasa da ojaxis Seqmnaze, komisiam uaryo, nawilobriv im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom islami, britaneTis kanonmdeblobisgan gansxvavebiT, qorwinebas uSvebs adreul asakSi, Tumca ar moiTxovs mas. sxva saqmeebSic msgavsi dasabuTeba iqna warmodgenili. saqmeSi X avstriis winaaRmdeg,228 komisiam daamtkica germaniis mTavrobis gadawyvetileba, romliTac e.w. `munis seqtis~ mimdevrebs asociaciis dafuZneba aekrZalaT. komisiam daadgina, rom adgili ar hqonda Carevas sxvebTan erTad RvTismsaxurebis Catarebis uflebaSi, vinaidan maTi rwmenis gamoxatvisaTvis aucilebeli ar iyo iuridiuli asociaciis dafuZneba. komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, budist patimars, romelsac cixis administracia budistur JurnalSi statiebis gagzavnis nebas ar rTavda, uari eTqva saCivris dakmayofilebaze, vinaidan momCivanma ver SeZlo daemtkicebina, rom werilebis gagzavna aucilebeli iyo misi religiisaTvis.229 sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas zianis anazRaurebis Taobaze im ebraelis winaaRmdeg, romelmac samoqalaqo wesiT ganqorwinebis Semdgom uari ganucxada Tavis ukve yofil meuRles ganqorwinebis damadasturebeli xelwerilis micemaze (rac, Sesabamisad, iudaisturi samarTlis safuZvelze, qalis-

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Tvis SeuZlebels xdida SemdgomSi qorwinebas) aseve mxari dauWira komisiam da uari uTxra momCivans saqmis arsebiT ganxilvaze religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevis motiviT, radgan, rogorc ebraeli religiuri liderebi acxadebdnen, uari xelwerilis gacemaze iudaizmis moTxovnas ar warmoadgenda.230 saCivarTa Zalze didi raodenoba aRiZra zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT (rogoricaa kanonebi gadasaxadebis, savaldebulo vaqcinaciisa da sapensio sistemis Sesaxeb) imis safuZvelze, rom isini ereoda religiasa da rwmenaSi. am saqmeTa umravlesobaSi komisiam gamoiyena erousmitis testi da daadgina, rom isini, vinc mocemuli kanonebisgan gaTavisuflebas iTxovdnen mxolod religiiTa da rwmeniT iyvnen motivirebulni da ar gamoxatavdnen TavianT religiasa da rwmenas. testis gamoyeneba `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ farglebs gareT erousmitis testi Tavdapirvelad SeimuSaves, rogorc erT-erTi saSualeba potenciurad SeuzRudavi terminis, `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ gansazRvrisa da limitirebisaTvis. miuxedavad amisa, komisiam is ramdenjerme me-9 muxlSi CamoTvlili manifestaciis erT-erTi sxva saxis mimarT gamoiyena. am TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia sakmaod sakamaTo gadawyvetileba saqmeSi X gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg.231 saqmis arsi mdgomareobda SemdegSi: skolam uari ganacxada Seecvala gakveTilebis cxrili, raTa muslimani maswavlebelisTvis mieca SesaZlebloba paraskevobiT daswreboda SuadRis locvas meCeTSi. komisiam saqme gadawyvita sxva safuZvelze, radgan miiCnia, rom igi ar iyo me-9 muxlis qvemdebare. momCivanma ver SeZlo imis dasabuTeba, rom misi religiis moTxovna iyo paraskevis locvebze daswreba da swored es gaxda komisiis mier am daskvnis gamotanis safuZveli. amgvari midgoma Seusabamo iqneboda im saqmeebSi, sadac komisiam da sasamarTlom miuTiTes, rom Careva RvTismsaxurebis an swavlebis uflebaSi prima facie warmoadgens me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevas, erousmitis testis gamoyenebis gareSe.232 magaliTad, kokinakisis saqmeSi sasamarTlom yovelgvari ganxilvis gareSe miuTiTa, rom SezRudvebi prozelitizmis uflebaze ewinaaRmdegeba me-9 muxls,233 Tumca SesaZloa am daskvnamde sasamarTlos misvla, pirvel rigSi, iman ganapiroba, rom TviT saberZneTis mxare ganixilavda prozelitizms religiis manifestaciad. ar iyo naTeli prozelitizmi gamoxatvas warmoadgenda imis gamo, rom momCivnis religiiT iyo savaldebulo, swavlebas warmoadgenda, Tu imitom, rom wes-Cveulebebis dacvis erTerTi forma iyo. Zalze Znelia erousmitis da kokinakisis saqmeebs Soris gansxvavebis povna, radgan orive momCivani miznad sazogadoebis wevrebis im mosazrebaTa Secvlas isaxavda, romlebic maTTvis gansakuTrebiT miuRebeli iyo. orive Tavisi rwmenisa da religiis Sesabamisad moqmedebda da orives saqcielma mtruli damokidebuleba gamoiwvia.234 Semdgomi Seusabamobani ramdenime saqmeSi komisiis mier testis bunebis faqizad da moxerxebulad Secvlam gamoiwvia. saqmeSi karadumani TurqeTis winaaRmdeg,235 momCivani iyo muslimi qalbatoni, romelsac uari uTxres universitetis damTavrebaze, vinaidan man, Tavis mxriv, uari ganacxada Tavsaburavis gareSe saidentifikacio fotosuraTis gadaRebaze. sauniversiteto wesebiT (konstituciis, TurqeTis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos da saxelmwifo sabWos gadawyvetilebaTa Sesabamisad), akrZaluli iyo Tavsaburavis tareba saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi, maT Soris skolebsa

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da universitetebSi, rogorc saxelmwifosa da religiis gamijvnis principis darRveva. gadawyvetileba am saqmeze miRebuli iqna sxva garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tumca komisiam miuTiTa, rom universitetis uari karadumanisTvis fotosuraTis TavsaburaviT gadaRebaze, savaraudod, ar warmoadgenda momCivnis religiis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas. komisia aseve miiCnevs, rom universitetis xarisxis sertifikati gamiznulia, daadasturos studentis SesaZleblobani dasaqmebis miznebisaTvis; igi ar aris gamiznuli farTo sazogadoebisaTvis. fotografirebis mizani im piris identificirebaa, romelsac sertifikati ekuTvnis. piris mier sertifikatis gamoyeneba SeuZlebelia sakuTari religiis gamoxatvis mizniT. erousmitis midgomis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi unda gamoekvliaT, aris Tu ara Tavsaburavis tareba da uari mis gareSe fotosuraTis gadaRebaze islamis moTxovna. religiuri samosis tarebis sakiTxidan, romelic, erTi SexedviT, saCivris arss warmoadgenda, aqcentis gadatana fotografirebaze miuTiTebs erousmitis testis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT komisiaSi arsebul konceptualur uTanxmoebaze. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, erousmitis testis sazRvrebi ar aris mkafiod gansazRvruli. rogorc Cans, zogadad, igi wes-Cveulebebis sakiTxebiTaa SezRuduli, magram, amave dros, sasamarTlosa da komisias aqvT diskrecia, konkretuli SemTxveva wes-Cveulebebis dacvis an manifestaciis iseT sxva saxeobas miakuTvnon, rogoricaa swavleba. garda amisa, savaraudod, komisia mzadaa, daadginos, rom esa Tu is saqme ar eqceva me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis farglebSi, gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebis mizniT erousmitis an sxva testis gamouyenebladac. magaliTad, rodesac saientologiis eklesias aekrZala eleqtrofsiqometris reklamireba mecnieruli gancxadebebis mcdari da SecdomaSi Semyvani xasiaTis gamo, komisiam miiCnia, rom saqme ar Seexeboda religiis Tavisuflebas, vinaidan saxelmwifo aregulirebda eklesiis mxolod komerciul da ara religiur saqmianobas.236 samxedro mosamsaxuremac aseve ver miiRo dacva me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. igi gasamarTlebuli iqna samxedro tribunalis mier daumorCileblobis braldebiT. momCivani cdilobda, udisciplinoba da daumorCilebloba islamur religiasTan daekavSirebina, Tumca komisiam daadgina, rom amboxi samxedro xelmZRvanelobis winaaRmdeg ar warmoadgenda me-9 muxliT dacul qmedebas.237 zemoT ganxiluli saCivrebis msgavsad, uaryofili iqna mamakacis saCivari, romelmac ver SeZlo CrdiloeT irlandiaSi samoqalaqo wesiT ganqorwineba, Tumca amis nebarTva mas sakuTari eklesiisgan hqonda miRebuli. sasamarTlos mtkicebiT, ganqorwineba ar warmoadgens im sakiTxs, romelic me-9 muxls SeeZlo moecva, `Tavisi ordinaruli mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare~.238 logika am gadawyvetilebebSi ar aris srulebiT cxadi da savsebiT SesaZlebelia, sasamarTlos gansxvavebuli pozicia daefiqsirebina komerciul/religiur sferoSi, magaliTad, Tuki saqmeSi iqneboda ara eleqtrofsiqometris reklamireba religiuri umciresobis mier, aramed bibliis an nakurTxi wylis reklama dominanti qristiani eklesiebis mxridan. aqedan gamomdinare, Zalze Znelia, religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciis dacvaze komisiis saerTo midgomasa da zemoT ganxilul saqmeebs Soris Sesabamisobis povna. rogorc Cans, am saqmeebis gauTvaliswineblad, zogadi principis Tanaxmad, erousmitis testis safuZvelze momCivani valdebulia, daamtkicos, rom ama Tu im wes-Cveulebis dacva aucileblobaa misi religiis an rwmenisaTvis, maSin, roca RvTismsaxu-

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rebis, swavlebis an ritualis Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi sakmarisia mxolod Carevis Cveneba me-9 muxlis darRvevis damtkicebis mizniT. es ki niSnavs, rom erousmitis testis gamoyeneba SezRuduli xasiaTisaa, Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, momCivanTa umravlesoba, romelTa saCivrebic me-9 muxlis darRvevasTan aris dakavSirebuli, cdilobs, daamtkicos, rom SeizRuda maTi ufleba religiur an rwmenidan gamomdinare wesCveulebis dacvaze. Sesabamisad, am testis mniSvneloba Zalze didia, gansakuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom mas zogjer wes-Cveulebis definiciis farglebs gareTac iyeneben, me-9 muxlSi CamoTvlili manifestaciebis sxva saxeebis mimarT. erousmitis testis analizi evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis meTodologia aucileblobis gansazRvrisas erousmitis testi moiTxovs imis gansazRvras, savaldebuloa Tu ara esa Tu is qmedeba momCivnis religiiT an rwmeniT. sasamarTlo da komisia am sakiTxs `obieqturad~ wyveten da ar iCenen mzadyofnas, momCivanTa moTxovnebi sakuTari rwmenisa da religiis Sesaxeb mniSvnelovan faqtorebad miiCnion am aucileblobis gansazRvris procesSi.239 rogorc erT-erTma avtorma aRniSna, sasamarTlo xSirad iTvaliswinebda Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTlo organoebis gadawyvetilebebs, radgan miaCnda, rom maT ukeT unda scodnodaT sakuTari sazogadoebebi. amgvar mowiwebul damokidebulebas sasamarTlo ar iCenda, rwmenisa da gansazRvruli tipis religiuri qmedebis an gamoxatvis mniSvnelobis Taobaze individebis moTxovnebis mimarT.240 sasamarTlo da komisia SeiZleba gakritikebulni iqnen imis gamo, rom sakuTar Tavze iReben religiisa Tu rwmenis moTxovnebis gansazRvris amocanas da xSirad ugulebelyofen momCivanTa mosazrebebs sakuTari rwmenis Sesaxeb. sasamarTlosa da komisiis midgomasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis ilustrirebas warmoadgens valsamis da efstratius241 saqmeebi, sadac momCivnebi ieRovas mowme moswavleebi da mSoblebi arian, mopasuxe ki — saberZneTis mTavroba. am saqmeebs safuZvlad daedo ieRovas mowme im moswavleTa ramdenime dRiT daTxovna skolidan, romelTac uari ganacxades, monawileoba mieRoT saberZneTis erovnuli dRisadmi (dRe, rodesac omi gaCaRda saberZneTsa da faSistur italias Soris) miZRvnil aRlumSi. moswavleTa mSoblebs ar surdaT, rom maT Svilebs monawileoba mieRoT aRlumSi, radgan am RonisZiebaSi omis dResaswauls xedavdnen, rac ieRovas mowmeTa pacifistur Sexedulebebs ewinaaRmdegeba. mSoblebma saCivari waradgines pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlis, xolo moswavleebma me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. sasamarTlom uaryo momCivanTa moTxovnebi im motiviT, rom iseTs verafers xedavda aRlumSi, rasac maTi religiuri Sexedulebebis Seuracxyofa SeeZlo. garda amisa, mosamarTleebma ganacxades, rom aRlumebi nawilobriv pacifistur miznebsac ki emsaxureba.242 Sesabamisad, mxedvelobaSi ar miiRes momCivanTa mier warmodgenili mtkicebuleba, rom aRlumi ewinaaRmdegeba maT religias, rac sakmaod ucnauria, radgan gadawyvetilebaSi ar aris moyvanili arc erTi mtkicebuleba (garda TviT mosamarTleTa Sefasebebisa), romelTa dapirispirebac sasamarTlos SeeZlo, momCivanTa SexedulebebisaTvis sakuTari rwmenis moTxovnebis Taobaze.

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aucileblobis mtkicebuleba sasamarTlo da komisia xSirad ubralod acxadeben, rom ar aris konfliqti momCivnis rwmenas an religias da saxelmwifos mxridan moTxovnil qmedebas Soris. aseTi midgoma gaugebars xdis, Tu ris safuZvelze iRebdnen komisia da sasamarTlo amgvar gadawyvetilebebs. zog SemTxvevaSi, roca mosamarTleebi ar endobian sakuTar Sefasebebs momCivanTa valdebulebebis Sesaxeb, isini iyeneben religiuri liderebis eqspertul mtkicebulebebs.243 skolis muslim maswavlebels ar darTes amgvari mtkicebulebis warmodgenis neba (nawilobriv imitom, rom gadawyvetileba saqmeze miiRes sxva garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT).244 kokinakisis saqmeSi sasamarTlo daeyrdno msoflio eklesiaTa sabWos moxsenebas imis gadasawyvetad, rom prozelitizmi yvela qristianis `ZiriTadi misiis~ nawilia, Tumca arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmi am misiis `garyvnas~ warmoadgens.245 igi ar daeyrdno sxva religiur avtoritetebs, magaliTad, ieRovas mowmeTa wesebs. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sasamarTlo da komisia mxedvelobaSi ar iRebdnen momCivanTa subieqtur Sefasebebs, Tu ra iyo savaldebulo maTi religiisa da rwmenis safuZvelze, mtkicebulebis erT-erTi obieqturi forma, savaraudod, Sesabamisi religiisa da rwmenis liderTa eqspertuli mtkicebulebebi, aseve religiuri da rwmenaze dafuZnebuli jgufebis wesebi an dogmebi unda yofiliyo.246 sasamarTlos, rogorc Cans, surs, drodadro amgvar mtkicebulebebs daeyrdnos, Tumca maTi gamoyeneba araTanmimdevrulia. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos `obieqturi~ midgoma manifestaciaTa mimarT obieqtur kriteriums ar efuZneba. upiratesoba erousmitis testis safuZvelze erousmitis testis namdvil bunebas, garkveuli religiisa Tu rwmenis mqone sxva individebisagan gansxvavebiT, SesaZloa arasasurveli Sedegi hqondes religiuri organizaciebis morCili wevrebisaTvis privilegiebis miniWebis saxiT. individualisturi rwmenebis SemTxvevaSi, rogoricaa, mag., pet erousmitis pacifizmi, SeiZleba arc arsebobdes ufro maRali avtoriteti an wesebis erToblioba, romliTac SesaZlebeli iqneba ganisazRvros, Tu ra saxis qcevaa savaldebulo am rwmenis mixedviT. araierarqiuli tipis religiebSi, savaraudod, Zalze garTuldeba imis dadgena, Tu visa aqvs sakmarisi kvalifikacia eqspertuli daskvnis misacemad,247 garda amisa, iseTi religiis an rwmenis mimdevrebs, romelic aqcents individualuri sindisis ganviTarebaze ufro akeTebs, vidre wesebis gansazRvruli erTobliobis dacvaze, erousmitis testi sakmaod gaurTulebs imis damtkicebis SesaZleblobas, rom esa Tu is qceva misi religiisa da rwmenis moTxovnas warmoadgens. erousmitis testis gamoyenebam aseve SeiZleba arasasurvelad imoqmedos pirze, romelic garkveul religiur jgufs miekuTvneba, Tumca misTvis am religiis yvela swavleba ar aris misaRebi, an Tu miiCnevs, rom sakuTari religia an rwmena damatebiT moTxovnebs uwesebs mas.248 magaliTad, ieRovas mowmis an kvakerisTvis SeiZleba gacilebiT ioli iyos imis Cveneba, rom pacifizmi misi religiis mkacrad gansazRvruli nawilia, vidre sxva eklesiis wevri qristianisTvis, romlis eklesiac mxars ar uWers pacifizmis zogad princips (maSinac, roca moTxovna gulwrfelia da efuZneba individis mier rwmenis gagebas). garkveuli religiis an rwmenis mravalricxovan wevrebs Soris uTanxmoebisas doqtrinasa Tu religiur saqmianobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze, komisiis survilma,

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rom obieqturi da avtoritetuli pasuxi miiRos kiTxvaze, konkretuli saxis religiuri qmedeba savaldebuloa Tu ara, SeiZleba igi sapirispiro midgomebs Soris arCevanis gakeTebamde miiyvanos. Sedegad, komisiam SeiZleba im motiviT uaryos momCivnis saCivari, rom igi Sesabamisi religiisa Tu rwmenis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis farglebs gareT eqceva.249 es ki ewinaaRmdegeba aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier aRiarebul midgomas. kerZod, saqmeSi, sadac individis mtkicebiT, religia mas ukrZalavda monawileobas samuSaoSi, romelic pirdapiri gziT iyo dakavSirebuli SeiaraRebis warmoebasTan, miuxedavad imisa, rom imave religiis sxva wevrebi asrulebdnen identur samuSaos, uzenaesma sasamarTlom miuTiTa: rwmenis SigniT arsebuli amgvari uTanxmoebani ar aris uCveulo gansazRvruli msoflmxedvelobis mimdevrebs Soris da sasamarTlo procedurebi gansakuTrebiT cudad aris aRWurvili amgvar uTanxmoebaTa gadawyvetis SesaZleblobebiT ... aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis garantia ar aris SezRuduli im rwmenaTa sistemebiT, romlebic gaziarebulia gansazRvruli religiuri jgufis yvela wevris mier.250 amgvari midgoma sasamarTlosgan moiTxovs mzadyofnas, ufro seriozulad moekidos momCivnebis moTxovnebs, vidre eZios garkveuli obieqturi safuZvlebi aucileblobis Sesafaseblad. alternatiuli midgomebi gamoxatvis saxeebis mimarT erousmitis testTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebis gamo, ramdenime mosamarTlis mier SemoTavazebuli iqna alternatiuli midgomebi imis gadasawyvetad, aris Tu ara esa Tu is religiuri qceva religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva. komisia, Tavis mxriv, sxvadasxva dros iyenebda gansxvavebul formulirebas imis garkvevis gziT, iyo Tu ara momCivnis qmedebani misi religiis an rwmenis `gamoxatuleba~. es midgoma SedarebiT naklebad SemzRudveli xasiaTisaa, vidre momCivnis davaldebuleba, daamtkicos Tavisi qcevis aucilebloba sakuTari rwmenisa Tu religiisaTvis. igi gacilebiT axlosaa erousmitis saqmeSi mosamarTle opsalis mier SemoTavazebul testTan, vidre Cveulebriv gamoyenebul testTan. `gamoxatulebis testiT~ sargebloba Zalze iSviaT SemTxvevebSi Tu momxdara da yovelTvis mopasuxis sasargeblod gadawyvetil saqmeebSi.251 Tumca imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom erousmitis testi regularulad gamoiyeneba, naklebad savaraudoa, aucileblobis tests sxva, momCivanTa mimarT gacilebiT keTilganwyobili testi Caenacvlos. efstratius da valsamis saqmeebSi mosamarTleebis tor vilhelmsonisa da iamberkis mier TavianT erTobliv gansxvavebul azrSi SemoTavazebuli iqna potenciurad alternatiuli testi.252 maTi winadadebis mixedviT, sasamarTlom ar unda Seafasos ama Tu im rwmenis dasabuTebuloba an gansazRvruli moqmedebis mniSvneloba momCivnisTvis. amis sanacvlod, mosamarTleTa mosazrebiT, `sasamarTlos mier aRiarebuli unda iqnes saskolo aRlumisa da misi religiuri da filosofiuri qveteqstis aRqma da gaazreba momCivanTa mier, Tuki igi aSkarad usafuZvlo da aragonivrul xasiaTs ar atarebs~. amis msgavsad, pirveli oqmis me-2 muxlTan dakavSirebuli saCivris ganxilvisas mosamarTle vedrosma ganacxada, rom sasamarTlom unda Seamowmos momCivanTa gancxadebebi sakuTari religiuri mrwamsis Sesaxeb (raTa darwmundes, rom momCivanTa mxridan adgili ar hqonda TvalTmaqcobas), Tumca valdebulia, `pativi sces maT ideologias, Tuki aseTi ideologia naTlad iqneba gamoxatuli~.253

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es alternativa, romelic pativs scems momCivanTa uflebas, TviTon gansazRvron maTi iZuleba ama Tu im saqmianobis ganxorcielebis mizniT an maTTvis gansazRvruli tipis moqmedebis Sesrulebis akrZalva zians ayenebs Tu ara maT religiur grZnobebs, ufro gasagebi testia da ar moiTxovs mosamarTleTagan piris religiuri mrwamsis an misi religiis moTxovnaTa gansazRvras. am midgomis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, momCivanTa mxridan misi borotad gamoyenebis potenciuri Sansis Semcireba SesaZlebeli iqneboda me-9 muxlis meore nawiliT da imiT, rom moxdeboda aSkarad `usafuZvlo da aragonivrul~ rwmenaTa gamoricxva. aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos praqtika cxadad metyvelebs, rom es midgoma praqtikuli xasiaTisaa da misi gamoyeneba gamodgeboda Tundac SedarebiT arapluralistur sazogadoebaSic. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ar gamoiCina daintereseba, CarTuliyo ama Tu im religiis Tu rwmenis moTxovnaTa gansazRvraSi. zogadi wesis Tanaxmad, igi ar ayenebda kiTxvis niSnis qveS momCivanTa Sexedulebebs, rom ama Tu im tipis qmedeba savaldebulo an Seusabamo iyo maT religiasTan Tu rwmenasTan, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca moTxovna `iseTi eqscentruli da motivaciiT gamokveTilad arareligiuri iyo, rom ar imsaxurebda dacvas aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis safuZvelze~.254 evropuli sasamarTlosgan gansxvavebiT, aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier aRiarebuli midgoma gacilebiT seriozul damokidebulebas amJRavnebs momCivanTa moTxovnebis mimarT. es ki naTlad metyvelebs imaze, rom aSS-Si kargada aqvT gaazrebuli is potenciuri problemebi, romlebic warmoiqmneba im SemTxvevaSi, roca sasamarTlo Tavad cdilobs, gansazRvros, Tu ra moeTxovebaT momCivnebs. miuxedavad imisa, rom aseTi subieqturi midgoma, Tavis mxriv, garkveuli safrTxiT xasiaTdeba (gansakuTrebiT momCivanTa mxridan TvalTmaqcobis TvalsazrisiT), gacilebiT sjobs tests, romliTac mosamarTleebs evalebaT, TviTon gansazRvron, xSirad mcire mtkicebulebebis safuZvelze, ama Tu im religiis Tu rwmenis moTxovnebi. es gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sasamarTlo da komisia Zalze xSirad daudanaSaulebiaT araqristianul Tu im religiaTa moTxovnebis mimarT naklebi simpaTiis gamoCenis gamo, romelTac evropaSi xangrZlivi istoria ar aqvT.255 maT arasodes gadauwyvetiaT saqme momCivnis sasargeblod, roca saCivris safuZveli religiuri samosis tarebas an specifikur garegnobas Seexeboda,256 romelTac SesaZloa garkveuli mniSvneloba hqondeT individebisaTvis, Sesabamisi religiuri tradiciidan gamomdinare. meore mxriv, komisiam da sasamarTlom swrafad da operatiulad imoqmedes, roca mxari dauWires uflebas prozelitizmze. gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis farglebSi gamarTul debatebSi am sferos sakamaTo xasiaTis miuxedavad. sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis miReba imis Taobaze, ra aris da ra ar aris savaldebulo momCivnis religiisa Tu rwmenisaTvis, zrdis misi mxridan im religiuri ritualebisa Tu wes-CveulebebisTvis upiratesobis miniWebis potenciur SesaZleblobas, romlebic axlosaa sasamarTlos wevrebTan da romelTac isini kargad icnoben. es ki umciresobebisTvis sakmaod mZime SedegebTan aris dakavSirebuli da amJRavnebs im safrTxes, romelic erousmitis testidan momdinareobs da romlis Sesaxebac mosamarTle opsalma miuTiTa, rom igi upiratesobas tradiciuli tipis religiur gamoxatvas aniWebs, axal rwmenaTa mimdevrebis religiur qcevasTan SedarebiT.257

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gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis dokumentebi sasamarTlos mxridan momCivanTa subieqturi moTxovnebisTvis ufro obieqturi elementebis damatebis survilis gamoCenis SemTxvevaSi, erT-erT resursad SesaZloa gamoyenebuli yofiliyo mecnieruli swavlebani religiis Tavisuflebis sferoSi (gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis msgavsad). momCivanTa moTxovnebTan kavSirSi am swavlebaTa gamoyeneba SesaZlebeli iyo qcevis im saxeebis demonstrirebisaTvis, romlebic saerTaSorisod aris aRiarebuli religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvad. aseT SemTxvevaSi, Tuki momCivani SeZlebda saxelmwifos mxridan saerTaSorisod aRiarebul swavlebaSi Camoyalibebuli gamoxatvis erT-erTi saxis SezRudvis Cvenebas da sakuTari religiisaTvis manifestaciis am tipis mniSvnelobis dasabuTebas, imoqmedebda prezumfcia, rom saqme me-9 muxlis qvemdebare iyo, sanam ar damtkicdeboda saCivris TaRliTuri xasiaTi. Tavis cnobil swavlebaSi religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb arkot kriSnasvamim Camoayaliba religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis ramdenime saxe, romelic, misi SexedulebiT, imsaxurebs dacvas adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis safuZvelze. kriSnasvamis CamonaTvali moicavda religiuri wes-Cveulebebis dacvas, dakavSirebuls qorwinebasa da ganqorwinebasTan, religiuri samosis tarebasTan, dakrZalvis ritualis Sesrulebas, komunikacias sxva Tanamoazre morwmuneebTan, aseve individualur da korporaciul RvTismsaxurebas. amis msgavsad, deklaraciaSi religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis Taobaze mocemulia rwmenis manifestaciaTa CamonaTvali da Sesabamisi muxlebi, romelTa gamoyenebac unda moxdes religiisa da rwmenis Sesabamisad ritualebis Sesrulebis, religiisa da rwmenis Taobaze masalebis publikaciisa da gavrcelebis, mosaxerxebel adgilebSi swavlebis Catarebis, SabaTis wesis dacvis, dResaswaulis aRniSvnisa da ceremoniebis Catarebis SemTxvevaSi.258 gaeros es masalebi SesaZloa Zalze Zvirfas resurss warmoadgendes sasamarTlosaTvis, vinaidan isini eyrdnoba farTo saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis swavlebasa da gamocdilebas. maSin roca sasamarTlos mosamarTleTa umravlesoba ZiriTadad qristianul sazogadoebebs warmoadgenen, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis swavlebani erTmaneTSi aerTianebs im qveynebis komentarebs, romlebic gacilebiT farTo speqtrs Seadgenen religiuri demografiebis TvalsazrisiT. iseTi jgufebi, rogoricaa muslimanebi, indusebi an budistebi, romlebic umciresobebs warmoadgenen evropis sabWos wevr qveynebSi, qmnian umralesobebs gaeros sxva wevr saxelmwifoebSi. aqedan gamomdinare, iseT sakiTxs, rogoricaa religiuri samosis tareba, romelsac ramdenime dasavleli avtori259 da mosamarTle260 religiisTvis umniSvnelod miiCnevs, udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba saerTaSoriso dokumentebSi.261 am masalebis gaziarebam, SesaZloa, xeli Seuwyos sasamarTlos imis uzrunvelyofaSi, rom religiis manifestaciis Taobaze umravlesobis cnebebma ar SeiZinos Seusabamod didi mniSvneloba sasamarTlos precedentul samarTalSi. religiuri uflebebis nebayoflobiTi daTmoba komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier manifestaciis SezRuduli testis gamoyenebiT gamowveuli sirTuleebis raodenoba momCivanTaTvis izrdeba imis gamo, rom zog SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlosa da komisiis gadawyvetilebiT isini religiis Tavisuflebaze sakuTari uflebis ganxorcielebisgan Tavis Sekavebaze nebayoflobiT Tanxmdebod-

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nen.262 aseT SemTxvevebSi komisia adgenda, rom adgili ar hqonda me-9 muxlis darRvevas, iqamde, vidre SesaZlebeli iyo mdgomareobis gamosworeba. komisiam daadastura iseTi viTarebis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba, rodesac, sakuTari religiis an rwmenis SeuzRudavi gamoxatvisaTvis, momCivnebis mier mdgomareobis Secvla aragonivrul tvirTs akisrebda maTze. magaliTad, derbis saqmeSi, komisiam uaryo SvedeTis mxaris argumenti, romlis Tanaxmadac momCivans SeeZlo Tavi daeRwia saeklesio gadasaxadebis gadaxdisagan SvedeTSi xSiri mgzavrobis gziT.263 am gansakuTrebul saqmeSi, komisiam aRiara, rom momCivnis gadawyvetileba, `nebayoflobiT~ ecxovra sxva saxelmwifoSi ar iyo sakmarisi safuZveli imis saTqmelad, rom man uari Tqva religiis Tavisuflebaze saeklesio gadasaxadis gadaxdis sasargeblod. arsebobs garkveuli dasabuTeba amgvari midgomisa, romelic im adamianebis piradi avtonomiis pativiscemas gulisxmobs, romelTac arCevanis gakeTebis SesaZlebloba aqvT, sanam isini mzad arian TavianTi gadawyvetilebiT gamowveuli Sedegebis pirobebSi icxovron. komisiam ar unda Caayenos individebi iseT mdgomareobaSi, roca isini iZulebulni iqnebian daemorCilon TavianTi religiis dogmebs, magaliTad, rodesac piri iseTi samuSaos Sesrulebas amjobinebs, romelic mas SabaTis wesis darRveviT avaldebulebs muSaobas.264 komisiis argumentacia swored individebs utovebs arCevanis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas TavianTi religiisa da rwmenis wesebsa da im sargebels Soris, romelic SeiZleba miRebuli iqnes Sesabamisi religiisa Tu rwmenis manifestaciasTan Seusabamo qmedebis ganxorcielebiT. amas didi mniSvneloba aqvs sakuTari religiuri jgufis mxridan Seviwroebisagan individebis dasacavad. rogorc gaeros yofilma specialurma momxsenebelma franCesko kaportortim aRniSna, `mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac umciresobebTan dakavSirebuli saerTaSoriso normebi mxolod garkveuli jgufis koleqtiuri faseulobebis dacvis mizans emsaxureba, Seicavs safrTxes, rom gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis mqone individebi moqceuli iqnen qcevis im erTian sistemaSi, romlis SemuSavebac dominanti wreebis mier moxda~.265 nebayoflobiTi modeli saxelmwifo eklesiis farglebSi zogierT SemTxvevaSi, komisia da sasamarTlo Zalze martivad ganixilaven nebayoflobiT arCevans religias an rwmenasa da alternatiuli saxis qcevas Soris. magaliTad, rodesac saxelmwifo aiZulebs individs, arCevani gaakeTos rwmenasa da garkveul socialur rols Soris, Tavisufali arCevanis idea arabunebriv xasiaTs iZens. erT-erTi sfero, sadac problema gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT iCens Tavs, aris Tavisufleba eklesiebis an sxva religiuri organizaciebis, gansakuTrebiT saxelmwifo eklesiis farglebSi. komisiis mier sxvadasxva dros aRiniSna, rom eklesia ar aris valdebuli, Tavisi wevrebis religiis Tavisufleba uzrunvelyos, Tuki maT eklesiis Tavisuflad datovebis SesaZlebloba aqvT.266 es Seexeba saeklesio koleqtivs, romelsac miekuTvneba, magaliTad, mRvdeli, romelic valdebulia damqiraveblis direqtivebi Seasrulos. amgvari midgoma religiebs nebayoflobiT, kerZo organizaciebad ganixilavs. sanam individebs aqvT arCevanis SesaZlebloba, darCnen an datovon religia, isini am sazogadoebis mier dadgenil normebs eqvemdebarebian, ise rogorc golfis moTamaSeni arian valdebulni, daemorCilon im klubis wesebs, romelsac isini miekuTvnebian da uxdian Senatans, an unda datovon igi. es analizi ar warmoadgens im mizezebis ganxilvas, ro-

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melTa gamoc `daemorCile an wadi~-s martivi modeli ver upasuxebs morwmunesa da eklesiis urTierTobis procesSi warmoqmnil sirTuleebs. aq saqme iseT SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs, rodesac adgili aqvs saero xelisuflebis Carevas eklesiis marTvaSi. naTlisRebasTan dakavSirebul saqmeSi uTanxmoeba sasuliero piris keTilsindisier religiur rwmenasa (naTlobamde religiuri instruqciis mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT) da eklesias Soris, romlis mimdevaric igi gaxldaT, swored saero xelisuflebis brZanebam gamoiwvia. saqmeSi, sadac mRvdeli daiTxoves samuSaodan misi uaris gamo, Seesrulebina garkveuli saxelmwifo funqciebi da gamoxata protesti abortis Sesaxeb kanonmdeblobis liberalizaciisadmi, misi protesti da dakavebuli pozicia misaRebi iyo mrevlisa da saeklesio xelmZRvanelobisaTvis, magram ara saxelmwifo xelisuflebisaTvis.267 amgvar saqmeebSi sindisis efeqtur dacvasTan eklesiis datovebis SesaZleblobis gaigiveba uaryofs saxelmwifos rols sindisis krizisis SeqmnaSi. maSinac, roca saxelmwifo ar ereva, religiis datoveba gacilebiT kompleqsuri sakiTxia, vidre sxva kerZo tipis organizaciebisa.268 bevrisTvis religia ar aris iseTi `nebayoflobiTi~, rogoric socialuri an politikuri jgufebi SeiZleba iyos. gansazRvrul religiebSi bevrisTvis maTi religia xsnisa da simarTlis wyaros warmoadgens. isini SeiZleba ar eTanxmebodnen sakuTari religiis struqturis garkveul aspeqts, rogoricaa saeklesio gadasaxadebis gadaxdis moTxovna, mxardaWerili samarTlebrivi sanqciebiT,269 Tumca misi datoveba SeiZleba Tavisi sulieri keTildReobisaTvis seriozuli zianis momtanad miaCndeT. sxva doneze gadawyvetilebis miReba mWidrod SekavSirebuli religiuri sazogadoebis datovebis Taobaze imiT rTuldeba, rom pirs SesaZlebelia jgufisgan metad susti ekonomikuri, socialuri da personaluri damokidebuleba hqondes, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi datovebis Teoriuli ufleba aqvs.270 aseT SemTxvevebSi, imis dasamtkiceblad, rom ar arsebobs sindisis Tavisuflebis saWiroeba religiuri organizaciebis farglebSi, komisiis mier gamoyenebuli nebayoflobiTi organizaciis modeli problemur xasiaTs iZens. nebayoflobiTi modeli sxva konteqstebSi idea uflebebze `nebayoflobiT~ uaris Tqmisa arareligiuri jgufebis konteqstSi warmoSobs sxva problemebs. komisiis mxridan Tavis Sekaveba, Caerios religiis Sida organizaciaSi ara imitom, rom religiuri jgufebi nebayoflobiTi organizaciebia, aramed imitom, rom amgvari Careva, Tavis mxriv, Seicavs risks, gadaiqces SeWrad jgufis sxva wevrebis religiis TavisuflebaSi, jgufis erTi wevris dacvis motiviT, SesaZloa misaRebadac CaiTvalos. Tumca amgvari msjeloba ar gamodgeba im konteqstSi, roca SezRudvebi religiis Tavisuflebaze dawesebulia arareligiuri organizaciebis an individebis mier. amgvar saqmeebSi komisiam me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT sargeblobis saSualeba ar misca momCivnebs, romlebmac nebayoflobiT daiwyes muSaoba, daikaves sauniversiteto adgilebi an gaxdnen im organizaciis wevrebi, romelTa miznebic winaaRmdegobaSi modioda momCivanTa religiasa Tu rwmenasTan. im SemTxvevaSi, roca individi arCevans ama Tu im organizaciis wevrobis an garkveuli moqmedebis Sesrulebis sasargeblod akeTebs da, amave dros, aqvs Sesabamisi samuSaosa Tu dawesebulebis datovebis SesaZlebloba, me-9 muxli ar irRveva, Tuki organizaciis an damsaqmeblis mier dadgenili wesebis Sesruleba xorcieldeba maTi religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaSi Carevis gziT.

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amgvari SemTxvevis erT-erT magaliTs warmoadgens skolis muslimi maswavleblis saqme, sadac momCivani daTxovnili iqna samuSaodan imis safuZvelze, rom paraskevs 45 wuTis ganmavlobaSi datova skola samuSao saaTebSi adgilobriv meCeTSi SuadRis locvaze daswrebis mizniT.271 komisiam daadgina, rom momCivnis mier religiuri moTxovnebis xsenebis gareSe maswavleblis samuSao adgilis miRebiT, man arCevani SemoTavazebuli pirobebis (rac ar moicavda gaTavisuflebas paraskevis locvebze dasaswrebad) mixedviT samuSaos Sesrulebis sasargeblod gaakeTa. sxva saqmeSi, sadac qalma religiuri da ojaxuri mizezebis gamo gaaprotesta kvira dRes samuSao cvlaSi muSaoba, komisiis mier miCneuli iqna, rom saCivari usafuZvlo iyo, vinaidan momCivans Tavisuflad SeeZlo samuSaos datoveba, Tuki misTvis miuRebeli iyo kvira dRes muSaoba religiuri mizezebiT.272 aseve ar iqna aRmoCenili konvenciis darRveva saqmeSi, sadac muslim students mosTxoves saidentifikacio fotosuraTis gadaReba Tavsaburavis gareSe (rac ewinaaRmdegeboda mis rwmenas). komisiam daadgina, rom saero universitetSi SesvliT momCivani daTanxmda gansazRvruli wesebis, maT Soris im moTxovnis Sesrulebas, rom Tavsaburavis gareSe gadaeRo saidentifikacio fotosuraTi.273 samxedro mosamarTlis SemTxvevaSi, romelic Tanamdebobidan gaaTavisufles fundamentalistebTan kavSiris gamo,274 iseve rogorc samxedro mosamsaxuris saqmeSi, romelic disciplinur pasuxisgebaSi iqna micemuli Cadenili gadacdomebisaTvis,275 sasamarTlom da komisiam miiCnies, rom, roca momCivnebi Cairicxnen armiis rigebSi, nebayoflobiT daeqvemdebarnen armiaSi arsebul disciplinasa da Sinaganawess, rac, yvelaferTan erTad, garkveul SezRudvebsac moicavda maTi religiis Tavisuflebaze.276 yvela zemoT ganxilul saqmeSi komisiam daadgina, rom momCivanTa religiis Tavisufleba da SesaZlebloba misi gamoxatvisa ar iqna darRveuli, vinaidan maT hqondaT arCevanis gakeTebis saSualeba. kerZod, momCivnebs SeeZloT SeecvalaT is mdgomareoba, roca garTulebuli iyo maT mier sakuTari religiis gamoxatva. Tumca komisiam ar imsjela im sirTuleze, rac umciresobebisTvis iqmneboda amgvar situaciebSi.277 magaliTad, skolis muslimi maswavleblis saqmeSi momCivans arCevani naklebad anazRaurebad arasrul samuSao drosa da samuSaodan wasvlas Soris unda gaekeTebina. naklebad savaraudoa, analogiuri arCevanis winaSe damdgariyvnen inglisis qristiani maswavleblebi, romelTaTvisac samuSao kviris Sedgena imgvarad xdeboda, rom kvira dRe rCeboda Tavisufali. muslimani qalis winaSe, romelsac fotosuraTis gadaReba TavsaburaviT surda, idga arCevani or alternativas Soris _ an ufaso saxelmwifo ganaTleba mieRo, magram kompromisze wasuliyo sakuTari religiuri rwmenis winaSe an gadaexada kerZo ganaTlebis safasuri (Tuki hqonda amis SesaZlebloba) da eswavla iseT garemoSi, sadac igi SeZlebda srulad gamoexata sakuTari religiuri rwmena.278 amgvar situaciebSi komisia arCevanis SesaZleblobasa da gadawyvetilebis `nebayoflobiT~ miRebaze saubrobs iseT konteqstSi, sadac nebismieri arCevani SeiZleba mxolod usiamovno xasiaTisa iyos. profesori malkolm evansi Tavis analizSi komisiisa da sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebis Taobaze SeniSnavs, rom religiis TavisuflebiT sargebloba aucilebeli ar aris gansazRvruli sazRauris gaRebis gareSe moxdes, Tumca ar adasturebs, rom sazRauris odenoba ufro did da mZime xasiaTs unda atarebdes umciresobebisTvis, vidre umravlesobisaTvis, romlis rwmenisTvis socialuri struqturebi ufro ukeT aris mowyobili.

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*** religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis ufleba konvenciis safuZvelze religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis fundamentia es gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCino xdeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, ra viwrod ganmartes komisiam da sasamarTlom me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmenti. aseT viTarebaSi, me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT praqtikaSi, savaraudod, mxolod religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciad aRiarebuli esa Tu is qmedeba isargeblebs. bolo wlebSi sasamarTlo gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg gadawyvetilebebis miRebis TvalsazrisiT. mis mier aqcenti ZiriTadad qristianuli rwmenis sabaziso sferoebis dacvaze keTdeboda, rogoricaa RvTismsaxureba da prozelitizmi. saCivrebi, romlebic naklebad tradiciul manifestaciebs Seexeboda, ar iqna sasamarTlos mier warmoebaSi miRebuli, nawilobriv wes-Cveulebebis dacvis SezRuduli testis ganviTarebis gamo da nawilobriv im daskvnis safuZvelze, rom momCivnebi nebayoflobiT daTanxmdnen sakuTari religiisa da rwmenis SezRudvas. aqedan gamomdinare, komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier religiisa da rwmenis definiciisadmi SemuSavebuli SedarebiT liberaluri midgoma manifestaciis stadiaze Seicvala. vinaidan sasamarTlom da komisiam itvirTes imis gansazRvra, Tu ra aris savaldebulo konkretuli religiisa da rwmenis safuZvelze da radganac maT es amocana eqspertul mtkicebulebebze, saerTaSoriso standartebsa da momCivanTa moTxovnebze dayrdnobis gareSe Sesasrules, faqtobrivad religiisa da rwmenis is koncefcia ganaviTares, romelic uaryofs religiisa da rwmenis maTive yovlismomcvel definicias. imis miuxedavad, rom konvenciiT aRiarebulia umciresobebisa da individualistur morwmuneTa dacva, es dacva mxolod im manifestaciebiT Semoifargleba, romlebic qristianuli rwmenis analogiuria. im SemTxvevebSic, roca momCivnebma SeZles maT rwmenasa Tu religiaSi saxelmwifos Carevis damtkiceba, komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier gamoyenebuli koncefcia religiis nebayoflobiT `klubad~ ganxilvisa, mraval momCivans urTulebda saCivris safuZvlianobis mtkicebas. orive testi araproporciul zegavlenas axdens umciresobebze, romelTa religiuri wes-Cveulebebis Sesaxeb naklebadaa sasamarTlosaTvis cnobili da romlebic iseT pirTa mxridan, rogoricaa damqiravebeli, seriozul zewolas ganicdian, raTa Tavi Seikavon TavianTi religiuri wes-Cveulebebis Sesrulebisgan, dominant kulturaSi maTi ukeT asimilaciis ganzraxviT.

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religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudva
morwmuneTa garkveuli raodenobisaTvis religiisa Tu sindisis moTxovnebi absoluturi xasiaTisaa. zogierTi mzadaa, misdios Tavisi religiis wesebs kanonis moTxovnaTa da gamowveuli Sedegebis miuxedavad, wamebisa da sikvdilis CaTvliT.279 Tumca es srulebiT ar gulisxmobs, rom saxelmwifom am adamianTa yovelgvar gadawyvetilebas unda sces pativi.280 Tuki religiis Tavisuflebas saxelmwifo da sazogadoeba afasebs rogorc erT mTlians, vinaidan igi pluralizmisa da pirovnuli avtonomiis damkvidrebas uwyobs xels, saxelmwifos SeiZleba hqondes ufleba da valdebulebac ki, Caerios religiis gamoxatvaSi, rom sxvaTa avtonomiisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis sxva aspeqtebis dacva uzrunvelyos. erTi mxriv, cxadia, rom religiis Tavisuflebis saxeliT saxelmwifo ar aris valdebuli, Semwynarebluri damokidebuleba gamoiCinos adamianTa msxverplSewirvis mimarT, im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca es konkretuli religiis gamoxatvis umniSvnelovanes komponents warmoadgens.281 Tumca, meore mxriv, isic aSkaraa, rom saxelmwifom ar unda SeuSalos xeli religiis manifestacias umizezod an minimaluri safuZvlebis arsebobis pirobebSi. me-9 muxlis meore nawili cdilobs urTierTsapirispiro interesebis dabalansebas adamianis religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebasa da saxelmwifos legitimur interess Soris, raTa uzrunvelyofili iqnes, rom amgvarma manifestaciebma ukanonod ar xelyon sazogadoebrivi janmrTeloba da wesrigi, morali da sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. SesaZloa vifiqroT, rom, vinaidan sasamarTlom da komisiam religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciis SezRuduli interpretacia moaxdines, Sedegad, saxelmwifoTa SesaZlebloba Tavisi qmedebebis me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze dasabuTebisa aseve SezRudulad unda

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yofiliyo ganmartebuli. saqmeTa umravlesobaSi, romlebic ganxilvas me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze daeqvemdebara, momCivnebs, erousmitis testidan gamomdinare, unda daemtkicebinaT, rom saxelmwifos mier SezRuduli qmedeba aucilebeli iyo maTi religiisa da rwmenisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifom seriozuli damokidebuleba unda gamoiCinos am viwrod gansazRvruli uflebisadmi da maRali standarti unda daakmayofilos religiis gamoxatvaze SezRudvebis dasabuTebis mizniT. miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo da komisia mzad arian, detalurad ganixilon saxelmwifos qmedebani, maSinac roca aSkara da saerTaSoriso diskriminacias aqvs adgili garkveuli religiuri jgufebis winaaRmdeg, isini zogadad saxelmwifoebs Zalze farTo sivrces aniWebdnen imis gansasazRvrad, SezRudvebi religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze aucilebeli iyo Tu ara. rogorc Cans, saqmeTa umravlesobaSi sakmarisia, saxelmwifom aCvenos, rom keTilsindisierad moqmedebda da me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze daasabuTos SezRudvebi religiasa da rwmenaze. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis SezRuduli sazRvrebidan gamomdinare, saqmeTa SedarebiT mcire raodenoba iqna gadawyvetili amave muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. am saqmeTa umravlesobaSi sasamarTlo da komisia arasaTanado yuradRebas uTmobdnen me-9 muxlis pirvel nawils, sruliad ugulebelyofdnen mas, an mcire ganmartebiT Semoifarglebodnen misi darRvevis Taobaze. evropuli sasamarTlos midgoma me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilisadmi evropuli sasamarTlos uari me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis ganxilvaze ramdenime saqmeSi komisiam ar ganixila sakiTxi imis Taobaze, mTavrobis mier ganxorcielebuli qmedebebiT SeizRuda Tu ara ufleba religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze, radgan es qmedebani ase Tu ise dasabuTebuli xasiaTisa iyo me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. amgvarma midgomam komisias SesaZlebloba misca, Tavidan aecilebina rTuli sakiTxebis ganxilva da gaemarTlebina saxelmwifos qmedebani, yovelgvari miTiTebis gareSe, Tu ra gadawyvetileba iqneboda miRebuli garemoebaTa cvlilebis SemTxvevaSi. erT-erTi aseTi saqmea Capeli gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,282 sadac britanelma druidebma gaasaCivres mTavrobis ufleba, aekrZala maTTvis zafxulis buniobis ritualebis Sesruleba `stounhenjze~ (uZvelesi megaliTuri nageboba). komisiam gadawyvita, ar ganesazRvra, iyo Tu ara druidizmi religia, Tumca miuTiTa, rom, Tuki druidizmi religiaa, maSin mTavrobis amgvari qmedeba qurumebis religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudva iyo. komisiam, saboloo jamSi, daadgina, rom me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis qvemdebare sakiTxebi (maT Soris is sakiTxic, druidizmi religias warmoadgens Tu ara) ar saWiroebda gansazRvrebas, vinaidan mTavrobam warmoadgina Tavisi qmedebis gamamarTlebeli mtkicebulebani me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. kerZod, mTavrobis arguments im uwesrigobisa da ukanonobis gameorebis aRkveTa warmoadgenda, rasac wina wlebSi hqonda adgili. komisia pirdapir me-9 muxlis meore nawilis ganxilvaze gadavida, amave muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevis gansazRvris gareSe. amiT komisiam Tavi aarida religiisa da rwmenis gansazRvrebis rTuli, Tumca mniSvnelovani sakiTxis ganxilvas. druidizmis religiad Tu rwmenad miCnevis sakiTxis gadawyvetaze aSkara uaris TqmiT komisiam Zalze sakamaTo gaxada sakiTxi, yovelgvari

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miTiTebis gareSe, rogor iyo misi gadawyveta SesaZlebeli. druidebi iseT mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen, rom ver miiRes pasuxi sakuTari uflebebis sazRvrebis da imis Sesaxebac, saerTod hqondaT Tu ara uflebebi me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. gaerTianebuli samefo informirebul iqna, rom misi qmedebani gamarTlebuli iyo, Tumca komisias ar miuTiTebia, ra pozicias daikavebda igi im garemoebaTa cvlilebis SemTxvevaSi, rac safuZvlad daedo mopasuxis qmedebaTa gamarTlebas. komisiam aseve ivarauda me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRveva saqmeebSi, romlebic religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze adamianis uflebis sazRvrebs Seexeboda. saqmeSi, sadac siqizmis mimdevari ocjer iqna msjavrdebuli damcavi muzaradis gareSe motociklis tarebisaTvis (igi uars acxadebda im motiviT, rom muzaradis daxurvis SemTxvevaSi Calmis moxsna mouwevda), komisiam daadgina, rom kanonis moTxovna motociklis muzaradis tarebaze me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze aucilebelia janmrTelobis dacvisaTvis.283 komisiam aRar ganixila, amgvari kanoni warmoadgens Tu ara (Tumca daSvebuls) siqi motociklistebis uflebis SezRudvas da mxolod SeniSna, rom `nebismieri Careva momCivnis religiis TavisuflebaSi~ kanonieria. siqisaTvis Calmis tarebis mniSvnelobis da religiis TavisuflebaSi am kanonis Carevis sazRvrebis detaluri ganxilvis pirobebSi SesaZlebeli iqneboda im konteqstis ukeT Camoyalibeba, sadac komisias unda ganesazRvra, aris Tu ara kanoni proporciuli an, sul mcire, gadaewyvita siqi motociklistis mavaldebulebeli kanonis dasaSvebobis sakiTxi sxva SemTxvevaSi, maT Soris, roca ar iqneboda amis ukiduresi socialuri aucilebloba (arsebiTi sakiTxi evropaSi religiur umciresobaTa mravali jgufisTvis, romelTa mixedviTac savaldebuloa gansazRvruli religiuri samosis tareba). saqmeebi, romlebzec sasamarTlom me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRveva daadgina im saqmeebSic ki, sadac dadgenili iqna me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRveva, sasamarTlosa da komisiis dasabuTeba xSirad zedapirulia. magaliTad, saqmeSi kokinakisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg, sasamarTlo mxolod erTi winadadebiT Semoifargla da miuTiTa, rom Careva prozelitizmSi religiis Tavisuflebaze adamianis uflebis darRvevas warmoadgenda.284 amis msgavsad, saqmeSi, sadac individi msjavrdebul iqna imis gamo, rom kinoTeatris gareT idga da alkoholuri sasmelebis miRebasa da pornografiis yurebas codvad acxadebda xmamaRla, komisiam mxolod SeniSna, rom, piris gasamarTleba sazogadoebrivi wesrigis darRvevisaTvis udavod momCivnis religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebis darRvevis tolfasi iyo.285 SesaZlebelia imis mtkicebac, rom komisiisa da sasamarTlos roli konkretul saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebis gadawyvetiT Semoifargleba da ar gulisxmobs Teoriul diskusiebSi Cabmas, rac Sesabamisi saqmis gadawyvetisaTvis aucileblobas ar warmoadgens. Tumca me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan gamomdinare, sakiTxebis Tundac mokle mimoxilvas sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier ramdenime upiratesoba aqvs. pirveli aris is, rom aseTi mimoxilva SesaZleblobas iZleva, ganisazRvros, aris Tu ara esa Tu is qmedeba religiis an rwmenis manifestacia konvenciis safuZvelze. im SemTxvevaSic, roca komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier warmodgenili dasabuTeba detaluri ar aris, uamrav saqmeSi arsebuli faqtebis mimoxilvis Sedegad, sadac konvenciis darRvevis SemTxveva iqna dafiqsirebuli, sul mcire, SesaZlebelia uxeSi warmodgenis Seqmna me-9 muxlis pirveli

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nawiliT daculi qmedebebis Sesaxeb. meore upiratesoba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi ukeTes warmodgenas uqmnis rogorc momCivans, ise saxelmwifos imaze, aqvs Tu ara momCivans ufleba, romlis ganxorcielebac SeuZlia, garda im SemTxvevebisa, rodesac saxelmwifos sakmarisad safuZvliani mizezi aqvs mis SesazRudad, an aris Tu ara es is sfero, romelic ar eqvemdebareba dacvas religiis Tavisuflebis safuZvelze da, Sesabamisad, Riaa mTavrobis mxridan regulirebisaTvis. im konkretuli garemoebebis cvlilebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic amarTlebda saxelmwifo SezRudvebs, mxareebs eqnebaT SesaZlebloba, gansazRvron TavianTi Sesabamisi uflebani da valdebulebani, sasamarTlosa da komisiisaTvis mimarTvis gareSe. savaraudod, yvelaze mniSvnelovani mizezi imisa, Tu ratom unda iyos sasamarTlo da komisia windaxeduli me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis ganuxilvelad datovebisas, is aris, rom mocemul doneze xdeba momCivnis poziciaze aqcentis gakeTeba. amgvarma Semowmebam SesaZloa morwmunisaTvis saxelmwifos mier SezRuduli qmedebebis mniSvnelobis Semxseneblis funqcia itvirTos da daexmaros mosamarTleebs, fokusireba swored im situaciaze moaxdinon, romelSic momCivani imyofeba. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis Taobaze yovelgvari diskusiis gareSe, amave muxlis meore nawilis gansakuTrebulma aqcentirebam SesaZloa arasasurveli Sedegi moitanos, sasamarTlos mxridan kanonisa da misi gamoyenebis dasabuTebis Taobaze saxelmwifoTa argumentebisadmi Seusabamod didi yuradRebis gamoCeniTa da konkretuli momCivnisaTvis religiis gamoxatvis mniSvnelobis mxedvelobaSi naklebad miRebiT. evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis zogadi midgoma SemzRudveli pirobebis mimarT rodesac gadawydeba an CaiTvleba, rom SeizRuda momCivnis religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze, aucilebelia ganisazRvros, SesaZlebelia Tu ara amgvari Careva gamarTlebuli iqnes amave muxlis meore nawilis mixedviT. me-9 muxlis meore nawili saxelmwifoebs avaldebulebs, aCvenon, rom SezRudvebi `gansazRvrulia kanoniT da aucilebelia demokratiul sazogadoebaSi, sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis interesebidan gamomdinare, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis, janmrTelobis, moralis an sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvisaTvis~. es formulireba identuria im struqturisa, romelic gamoyenebulia konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva ramdenime uflebis dasaSvebi SezRudvebis gansazRvrisaTvis: me-8 (piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis ufleba), me-10 (gamoxatvis Tavisufleba), da me-11 muxlebi (mSvidobiani Sekrebisa da gaerTianebis ufleba). aqedan gamomdinare, Sedegis momcemia imis mxedvelobaSi miReba, Tu rogor gamoiyeneboda es SemzRudveli pirobebi, iseve, rogorc religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebidan gamomdinare specifikuri sakiTxebis mimoxilva. sasamarTlos mier TiToeul am muxlSi Camoyalibebuli pirobebis interpretaciisas msgavsi midgoma iqna gamoyenebuli, Tumca es muxlebi, msgavsebis miuxedavad, identuri ar aris. me-9 muxlis SemzRdveli pirobebis Camoyalibeba diskusiis sagani iyo konvenciis SemuSavebis procesSi. am saerTaSoriso dokumentis avtorTa mier uaryofili iqna Sexeduleba, rom konvenciiT gansazRvruli yvela uflebisaTvis identuri pirobebi unda yofiliyo dadgenili (rogorc sayovelTao deklaraciis

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SemTxvevaSi). me-9 muxlis meore nawilis saboloo varianti warmodgenil teqstebs Soris yvelaze viwro xasiaTisaa da amitom ufleba religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze yvelaze nakleb SezRudvas eqvemdebareba, sxva nebismier uflebasTan SedarebiT. rac Seexeba religiisa da rwmenis qonisa da Secvlis uflebas, igi absoluturi xasiaTisaa da saerTod ar eqvemdebareba SezRudvebs. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlo da komisia ise farTod ganmartavdnen me-9 muxlis meore nawils, rom, rogorc Cans, praqtikaSi Zalze mcire sxvaobaa am muxlsa da naklebad SezRudul me-10 muxlis meore nawils Soris, saxelmwifos qmedebaTa SezRudvis TvalsazrisiT. magaliTad, rodesac pirs msjavri daedo nacisturi saqmianobisaTvis, komisiam gaaerTiana me-9 da me-10 muxlebidan gamomdinare sakiTxebi da saxelmwifos qmedebaTa gamarTlebas safuZvlad daudo erovnuli uSiSroebis miznebi, anu piroba, romelic me-9 muxlSi naxsenebi ar aris.286 religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze SezRudvebis dasabuTebisas sazRvrebis waSla saxelmwifos qmedebaTa gamarTlebis sxvadasxva pirobebs Soris arRvevs sasamarTlos mier Camoyalibebul princips, romlis Tanaxmadac konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebidan gamonaklisebi viwrod unda iqnes ganmartebuli.287 kanoniT gansazRvruli SezRudvebi evropuli sasamarTlosa da komisiis zogadi midgoma me-9, me-10 da me-11 muxlebis Tanaxmad, am muxlebSi Camoyalibebuli yvela SezRudva unda iyos `kanoniT gansazRvruli~. me-8 muxlSi gamoyenebulia termini `kanonTan SesabamisobaSi~, Tumca misi interpretireba zemoT xsenebuli muxlebis msgavsad xorcieldeba.288 am moTxovnis mizania, uzrunvelyos, rom ar moxdes uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa SezRudva, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca adgili aqvs Sesabamis samarTlebriv proceduras, nawilobriv dacvis im saproceso saSualebebis gamo, rasac igi gulisxmobs da nawilobriv kanonis uzenaesobis moTxovnis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlis Tanaxmadac TiToeulma adamianma winaswar unda icodes kanonmdeblobiT dawesebuli SezRudvebi, raTa SeZlos maT Sesabamisad moqmedeba.289 saqmeTa umravlesobaSi, sadac, momCivanTa mtkicebiT, SezRudvebi ar iyo kanoniT gansazRvruli (xolo me-9 muxlTan dakavSirebul yvela saqmeSi), warmodgenili iyo kanoni, romelic ase Tu ise aregulirebda Sesabamis sferos. aqedan gamomdinare, momCivnebi cdiloben, aqcenti gaakeTon ara uSualod kanonis ararsebobaze, aramed SezRudvebis mimarT mis bundovan xasiaTze. kanonSi, romelic Zalze bundovani da zogadia, SeiZleba esa Tu is SezRudva sakmod mkafiod ar iyos Camoyalibebuli imisaTvis, raTa CaiTvalos, rom igi kanoniT gansazRvrulia. konvenciiT savaldebulo gansazRvrulobis donis gasarkvevad sasamarTlom SeimuSava testi, romelic Zalze lmobieria saxelmwifoTa mimarT: pirvel rigSi, kanoni adekvaturad xelmisawvdomi unda iyos: moqalaqes unda hqondes adekvaturi warmodgenis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi normebis Sesaxeb, romelTa gamoyenebac konkretul SemTxvevaSi unda moxdes. meore, norma ar CaiTvleba `kanonad~, Tuki igi sakmarisad mkafiod ar aris formulirebuli, raTa moqalaqeebs mieceT SesaZlebloba, mis Sesabamisad daareguliron sakuTari qceva: moqalaqes unda SeeZlos, winaswar ganWvritos gonivrul donemde, arsebuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, is Sedegi, rac konkretul qmedebas SeiZleba mohyves. ar aris aucilebeli, Sedegebi absoluturi sandoobiT iyos prognozirebadi:

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gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom es miuRwevadia. Tumca, miuxedavad imisa, rom sandooba Zalze sasurvelia, mas SesaZloa mohyves gadaWarbebuli mouqneloba, amitom kanons, yvelaferTan erTad, unda SeeZlos, fexi auwyos garemoebaTa cvlilebas. Sesabamisad, bevri kanoni gardauvlad bundovani iqneba. amgvari kanonebis interpretacia da gamoyeneba praqtikis sakiTxebs warmoadgens. aqedan gamomdinare, kanonma, romelic bundovnad an farTodaa Camoyalibebuli, SesaZloa SeiZinos sakmarisi gansazRvruloba Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTloebisa Tu dawesebulebebis mier interpretaciis gziT. kanoniT gansazRvruli SezRudvebi da konvenciis me-9 muxli me-9 muxlis safuZvelze ganxilul saqmeebSi momCivanTa nawili Seecada, `kanoniT gansazRvrulobis~ Sesaxeb moTxovna gamoeyenebina konkretuli saqmis sasamarTlo precedentad gadasaqcevad kanonis konvenciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxis ufro zogadad ganxilvis mizniT. amgvar SemTxvevebs gansakuTrebiT maSin hqonda adgili, roca saqme farTod SemuSavebul kanons Seexeboda, romlis regulirebis obieqts konkretuli religiuri qceva warmoadgenda. kokinakisis290 saqmeSi prozelitizmis amkrZalavi kanonebis, xolo manusakisis291 saqmeSi RvTismsaxurebis adgilebis regulaciis gasaCivreba amgvari SemTxvevebis magaliTebia. Tumca dRemde me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeSi momCivans ar miuRwevia warmatebisTvis imis gamo, rom SezRudva ar iyo kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli. zogadad, sasamarTlo pirdapir miuTiTebda, rom saxelmwifos qmedebani kanoniT iyo gansazRvruli, miuxedavad am midgomis mwvave kritikisa sasamarTlos gansxvavebuli mosazrebebis mqone sxva wevrebis mxridan. da mainc, manusakisis saqmeSi sasamarTlom ufro frTxili damokidebuleba gamoiCina sakiTxisadmi da pirdapiri gziT ar gamouxatavs, iyo Tu ara saxelmwifos qmedebani kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli. sasamarTlos tipuri midgoma SezRudvis kanoniT gansazRvrulobis sakiTxis gadawyvetisadmi SeiZleba davinaxoT kokinakisis saqmeSi. aq momCivanma gaasaCivra saberZneTis `antiprozelitisturi~ kanoni imis safuZvelze, rom prozelitizmis definicia Zalze bundovani iyo, ris gamoc misi qcevis akrZalva kanoniT ar iyo gansazRvruli. saberZneTis kanonmdeblobaSi prozelitizmis cnebis ganxilva iwyeboda sityviT `kerZod~ da moicavda sxvaTa rwmenebze `zemoqmedebis~ rogorc pirdapir, ise arapirdapir mcdelobas.292 momCivani amtkicebda, rom samarTaldarRveva Zalze bundovnad iyo gansazRvruli imisaTvis, rom kanoniT gansazRvrulad CaTvliliyo. sasamarTlo Semadgenlobis umravlesobam miuTiTa, rom kanoni marTlac Zalian zogadi iyo, Tumca teqstis orazrovneba kompensirebuli iyo precedentuli samarTliT, romelic mocemul samarTaldarRvevas gacilebiT detalurad gansazRvravda. maT aRar miiRes mxedvelobaSi is garemoeba, rom, Tu saberZneTis sasamarTloebma marTla zustad gansazRvres danaSauli, maSin ratom iqna damtkicebuli momCivnis msjavrdeba saberZneTis Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTlo sistemis yvela doneze. mosamarTle petiti gacilebiT kritikulad iyo ganwyobili kanonis mimarT. misi gancxadebiT, kanoni saxifaTod farTo iyo da SesaZlebeli iyo misi gamoyeneba saSiS iaraRad, gansakuTrebiT avtoritaruli saxelmwifos pirobebSi. es mosamarTle Tavisi msjelobis dadasturebad `braldebis bundovani xasiaTisa da kanonebSi prozelitizmis naTeli definiciis naklebobas~ asaxelebda. mosamarTle martensi ufro Sors wavida da ganacxada, rom kokinakisis msjavrdeba ara marto konvenciis me-9, aramed me-7 muxlis (romlis Tanaxmadac aravin SeiZleba

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aRiarebuli iqnes damnaSaved qmedebisaTvis, romelic ar warmoadgenda danaSauls im droisaTvis, rodesac igi iqna Cadenili) darRvevasac warmoadgenda. misi gancxadebiT, me-7 muxli mowodebuli iyo, daecva adamianebi despoturi devnisgan,293 saberZneTis kanonebi prozelitizmis Sesaxeb TviTneburi gamoyenebis potencials Seicavda, vinaidan prozelitizmis definicia `saxifaTod araerTmniSvnelovani iyo~. mosamarTle martensi gansakuTrebiT SeSfoTebuli Canda imiT, rom arsebobda Seviwroebis instrumentad kanonis gamoyenebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba: xarvezebi imdenad seriozulia, rom religiuri Seuwynareblobis atmosferoSi am kanonis meoTxe muxli uzrunvelyofs srulfasovani da saxifaTo instrumentis arsebobas heterodoqsuli umciresobebis represirebisaTvis. warsulSi is ukve gamouyenebiaT kidec amgvari miznisaTvis da, amave dros, arc awmyoSia, rbilad rom vTqvaT, gamoricxuli amis gameoreba. igi miiCnevda, rom amgvari kanonebis borotad gamoyenebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba gansakuTrebiT didi iyo evropaSi religiuri Seuwynareblobis mzardi xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT. igi aRiarebda, rom bolo xanebSi saberZneTis sasamarTloebi am kanonis ganmartebas imgvarad cdilobdnen, rom SeemcirebinaT misi araerTmniSvnelovneba, Tumca amtkicebda, rom sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebani ar warmoadgenda sakmaris dacviT saSualebas, vinaidan Tavis droze, saberZneTSi religiuri Seuwynareblobis pirobebSi, sasamarTlo xelisuflebam religiuri umciresobebis sazianod Secvala precedentuli samarTali. mosamarTle martensis SeSfoTeba gaziarebuli iqna mosamarTle repikis mier ufro gviandel saqmeSi larisisi da sxvebi espaneTis winaaRmdeg,294 sadac man aRniSna, rom kokinakisis saqmis Semdeg saberZneTis sasamarTloebma ufro subieqturi midgoma SeimuSaves prozelitizmis definiciis mimarT da dacvis is garkveuli saSualebebi, rasac adrindeli gadawyvetilebebi Seicavda, uaryofil iqna mogvianebiT ganxilul saqmeebSi. umciresobaSi myofi mosamarTleebi, sasamarTlo Semadgenlobis umravlesobisgan gansxvavebiT, mzad iyvnen, samarTlianad ganemartaT moTxovna religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvebis kanoniT gansazRvrulobis Sesaxeb. zogadad, amgvari midgoma, romelic fokusirebas Tavdapirvelad saqmidan gamomdinare specifikur faqtebze axdenda, vidre `kanoniT gansazRvrulobis~ ufro farTo problemas mimoixilavda, ar iyo sasamarTlosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli. Tumca kanonebis SedarebiT moculobiTi mimoxilvis garkveuli mcdeloba gamoCnda manusakisis 295 saqmeSi. samarTlebriv normas, romelSic Camoyalibebuli iyo kriteriumebi, romelTa dakmayofilebis pirobebSic iyo mxolod SesaZlebeli RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gankuTvnili adgilebis funqcionireba, Seicavda samefo dekreti, saberZneTis parlamentis mier miRebuli kanonis safuZvelze. dekretis teqsti iTvaliswinebda ramdenime diskreciul uflebamosilebas da TiToeuli maTgani sakmaris safuZvels warmoadgenda gancxadebebze negatiuri pasuxis gacemisaTvis. garda amisa, am samarTlebrivi aqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli iyo adgilobrivi marTlmadidebeli episkoposis CarTva, sxvadasxva sakiTxis, maT Soris, gansazRvrul adgilas araorTodoqsuli RvTismsaxurebis Catarebis saWiroebis gadasawyvetad. sxva saqmeebisgan gansxvavebiT, am saqmeSi sasamarTlom mkafiod ar gamoxata, rom SezRudvebi akmayofilebda `kanoniT gansazRvrulobis~ tests. ufro sworad, sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom saCivris es safuZveli `ufro ieRovas mowmeebis mimarT obstruqciuli damokidebulebis zogadi politikis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, vidre konkretul SemTxvevaSi im mopyrobisadmi, romelTa msxverplic isini

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iyvnen... aqedan gamomdinare, realurad isini adgilobriv relevantur kanonmdeblobas asaCivrebdnen. sasamarTlom Tavi aarida kanoniT gansazRvrulobis sakiTxis ganxilvas, radgan religiis Tavisuflebaze dawesebuli SezRudvebi konvenciis Seusabamod cnes sxva garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. rogorc vxedavT, sasamarTlom ar gaakeTa aSkarad gamoxatuli miTiTeba SezRudvebis kanoniT gansazRvrulobis Taobaze da, roca saqme Seexo im sakiTxis gadawyvetas, aucilebeli iyo Tu ara amgvari regulaciebi demokratiul sazogadoebaSi, man detalurad Seiswavla da mimoixila is gzebi, romliTac saberZneTis administraciuli da maregulirebeli dawesebulebebi araorTodoqsuli religiebis, gansakuTrebiT ieRovas mowmeebis, mimarT kanons iyenebdnen `sastiki an amkrZalavi~ wesiT. prozelitizmis kanonmdeblobis msgavsad, am kanonis SemTxvevaSic is, rom zogadad saberZneTis sasamarTloebi auqmebdnen ukanono msjavrdebebs arsebuli wesebis safuZvelze, ar iyo sakmarisi religiis Tavisuflebis dacvisaTvis. miuxedavad amisa, saqmeSi, sadac sasamarTlom naTlad gamoxata SeSfoTeba kanonis sazRvrebisa da misi borotad gamoyenebis potenciuri SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb, mainc uari ganacxada, ganexila sakiTxi religiis Tavisuflebaze dawesebuli SezRudvebis kanoniT gansazRvrulobis Taobaze. amis mizezi SesaZloa isic iyos, rom momCivnis mizans TviT kanonis samarTlianobis sakiTxis ganxilva warmoadgenda, sasamarTlom ki ar ineba am Temaze msjeloba. imisaTvis, rom moTxovnam, romlis Tanaxmadac samarTlebrivi normebi sakmarisad naTlad unda iyos gadmocemuli, rom Sesabamisma subieqtebma mis safuZvelze SeZlon sakuTar qmedebaTa daregulireba, efeqturi xasiaTi SeiZinos garkveul SemTxvevebSi, sasamarTlo mzad unda iyos, ganixilos uSualod kanonTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebi. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom sasamarTlo evropaSi adamianis uflebaTa dacvis erT-erT upirveles organos unda warmoadgendes, igi mzad unda iyos kokinakisis da manusakisis msgavsi saqmeebis ufro farTod gansaxilvelad, radgan am saqmeebSi aSkaraa, rom saxelmwifos mxridan represiuli qmedebani ganxorcielda kanonis safuZvelze. sanam sasamarTlo ar gamoiCens saxelmwifo kanonebis gadasinjvis mzadyofnas, kanoniT gansazRvrulobis moTxovnas ar eqneba didi efeqti me-9 muxlis konteqstSi. SezRudvis aucilebloba demokratiul sazogadoebaSi saxelmwifos roli aucileblobis gansazRvraSi da misi diskrecia Tuki religiasa da rwmenaze SezRudvebi kanoniT aris gaTvaliswinebuli, amis Semdgom sasamarTlo ganixilavs sakiTxs, warmoadgenda Tu ara `aucileblobas demokratiul sazogadoebaSi~ es kanoni an misi gamoyeneba me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli miznebisaTvis. aucileblobis gansazRvris testi moiTxovs dabalansebas mTel rig kompleqsur faqtorebs Soris. saqmeSi hendisaidi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,296 sasamarTlom SeimuSava aucileblobis koncefcia, romelsac daeyrdno momdevno saqmeebSi.297 moTxovnis ganmartebisas sasamarTlom gaixsena konvenciis monawile saxelmwifoTa upirvelesi valdebuleba adamianis uflebaTa dacvisa. konvenciis Tanaxmad, es valdebuleba aRiarebulia sxvadasxva gziT, maT Soris, moTxovniT, rom momCivnebma unda amowuron dacvis Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi saSualebebi, sanam evropul sasamarTlos mimarTaven. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom ganaviTara mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac saxelmwifoebs aqvT diskreciuli uflebamosileba,

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gadawyviton, arsebuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aris Tu ara savaldebulo ama Tu im uflebaze dawesebuli konkretuli SezRudvebi: sakuTar saxelmwifoTa sasicocxlo ZalebTan pirdapiri da gangrZobadi kavSiris gamo, konkretuli qveynis xelisufalni saerTaSoriso mosamarTleze principulad ukeTes poziciaSi arian, raTa Sefaseba miscen warmodgenil moTxovnaTa zust Sinaarss, maT Soris dawesebuli `SezRudvis~ an `sasjelis aucileblobis~ TvalsazrisiT. am garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasamarTlo SeniSnavs, rom `aucilebloba~... ar aris `savaldebulos~ sinonimi, mas arc iseTi moqniloba aqvs, rogorc terminebs `misaRebi~, `ordinaruli~, `sasargeblo~, `gonivruli~ an `sasurveli~. Tumca swored erovnuli xelisufleba aris is subieqti, romelmac unda moaxdinos Tavdapirveli Sefaseba termin `aucileblobidan~ gamomdinare arsebuli realobisa, socialuri saWiroebis TvalsazrisiT. aqedan gamomdinare, miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmwifos aqvs gansazRvruli diskrecia, mas ar gaaCnia uzomod didi sivrce aucileblobasTan dakavSirebul moTxovnebze gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis sferoSi. `Sesabamisad, Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi diskrecia evropuli zedamxedvelobis mxardamxar xorcieldeba~.298 sasamarTlo, aniWebs ra moqmedebis gansazRvrul Tavisuflebas saxelmwifoebs, amave dros, inarCunebs sazedamxedvelo funqcias. es SesaZloa arTulebdes kidec winaswar imis gansazRvris SesaZleblobas, konkretul SemTxvevaSi ramdenad farTo SeiZleba iyos saxelmwifoTa diskreciuli uflebamosileba. calkeuli relevanturi faqtorebi saxelmwifoTa diskreciis sididisa, romelTa aRiarebac moxda komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier, aris konsensusis maRal doneze xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoebs Soris.299 kerZod, zRvari, romlis miRmac sakiTxi momCivnis pirad cxovrebas Seexeba,300 uflebis mniSvneloba demokratiuli da pluralistuli sazogadoebisaTvis301 da konkretuli saqmis garemoebebi da pirobebi.302 diskreciuli uflebamosileba me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi miuxedavad imisa, rom TeoriaSi ar aris gansxvaveba saxelmwifos diskreciul uflebamosilebebs Soris calkeuli muxlebis mimarT, mopasuxe saxelmwifoebi me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi arsebuli tendenciis gaTvaliswinebiT moqmedebis farTo sazRvrebiT sargebloben. sakuTar teritoriaze saxelmwifos urTierToba religiebTan Tavisi arsiT sadavo sakiTxia. imis miuxedavad, rom evropaSi, SesaZloa, iseTi Rrma religiuri dayofa ar arsebobs, rogorc msoflios sxva kuTxeebSi, TiToeul xelSemkvrel qveyanaSi religiuri situacia sakmaod mravalferovania. Sesabamisad, Zalze rTulia sasamarTlosaTvis, SeimuSaos me-9 muxlTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi saxelmwifoTa diskreciis dadgenis universaluri an masTan miaxloebuli evropuli koncefcia. oto premingeris institutis saqmeSi,303 magaliTad, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom `SeuZlebelia sazogadoebaSi religiis mniSvnelobis erTiani koncefciis Secnoba... da SesaZloa amgvari koncefciebi erTi qveynis farglebSic ki gansxvavdebodnen erTmaneTisgan.~304 uingrous saqmeSi sasamarTlom gaimeora amgvari midgoma da aRniSna is, Tu, savaraudod, ra miayenebs Seuracxyofas religiur individebs, gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan droisa da adgilis gaTvaliswinebiT da rom saxelmwifoebi ukeTes poziciaSi arian imisaTvis, rom gansazRvron, ramdenad aris aucilebeli SezRudvebi sityvis Tavisuflebaze sxvaTa

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religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofisgan dasacavad.305 aqedan gamomdinare, sul mcire, sxvaTa religiuri grZnobebis dacvis mimarT (rac ZiriTad sakiTxs warmoadgens mocemul saqmeebSi), saxelmwifoebs farTo diskreciuli uflebamosileba aqvT.306 sasamarTlom mxolod saqmeTa Zalze mcire raodenobaSi CaTvala religiis Tavisufleba imdenad mniSvnelovnad, rom viwro diskreciis saWiroeba eRiarebina. magaliTad, manusakisis saqmeSi, sadac saCivari sajaro RvTismsaxurebis Tavisuflebas Seexeboda, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos diskreciuli uflebamosilebis gansazRvrisas, sasamarTlom mxedvelobaSi unda miiRos saqmis arsi, kerZod, WeSmariti religiuri pluralizmis, rogorc demokratiuli sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ganuyofeli niSnis, uzrunvelyofis aucilebloba. erT-erTi avtoris mixedviT, sasamarTlo da komisia, savaraudod, religiur qmedebaTa pirdapiri wesiT maregulirebel kanonebs ufro ganixilaven detalurad, vidre im zogadi daniSnulebisa da religiurad neitralur kanonebs, romelTa SemTxveviT Sedegsac warmoadgens religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis SezRudva da sadac saxelmwifos diskrecia ufro farTo xasiaTisaa.307 miuxedavad imisa, rom, rogorc Cans, saxelmwifos diskrecia SedarebiT farToa me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi, mas ara aqvs miniWebuli sruli Tavisufleba religiis Tavisuflebis SemzRudveli qmedebis aucileblobis gansazRvris sferoSi. saxelmwifo uflebaTa SezRudvebi SeiZleba danaxuli iqnes gansakuTrebiT im saqmeebSi, romlebic religiur umciresobebs Seexeba saberZneTSi.308 saberZneTi, savaraudod, im warsuls daubrunda, romelic evropul saxelmwifoebs Soris konsensusis yvelaze naklebi doniT xasiaTdeba, kerZod, sakuTari erovnuli eklesiisaTvis nebismier sxva qveyanaze meti xelSewyobisTvis, iseTi kanonebis gamoyenebis gziT, romelic gansakuTrebiT urTulebs umciresobaTa eklesiebs saberZneTSi moqmedebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlom ar ineba saberZneTis arc erTi kanonis me-9 muxlis darRvevad aRiareba, saxelmwifos qmedebani, mocemuli kanonebis safuZvelze, adamianebis samarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebis saxiT, ar iqna mis mier miCneuli aucileblobad demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. sasamarTlos amgvari damokidebuleba garkveulwilad imanac ganapiroba, rom arc erT sxva xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoSi ar iqna gamoyenebuli iseTi ukiduresi zomebi ieRovas mowmeebis mimarT, rogorc saberZneTSi. proporciulobis principi sakiTxis gadawyvetisas, warmoadgens Tu ara SezRudvebi `aucileblobas demokratiul sazogadoebaSi~, sasamarTlo (warsulSi komisiac) aseve mxedvelobaSi iRebs, iyo Tu ara kanoni an misi gamoyeneba `proporciuli~ konkretul SemTxvevaSi. proporciulobis testis dakmayofilebis dadgenisas sasamarTlo da komisia arkvevdnen xom ar iyo gadaWarbebuli `momCivnisaTvis miyenebuli ziani mTavrobis legitimur mizanTan SedarebiT~.309 amis gansazRvra didadaa damokidebuli saqmis konkretul faqtebsa da sasamarTlos mier uflebis mniSvnelobisa da SezRudvebis simkacris aRqmaze. magaliTad, saqmeSi larisisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg,310 samxedro oficerTa jgufis msjavrdeba maT daqvemdebarebaSi myofi piris TavianT rwmenaze gadmobirebis (prozelitizmis) mcdelobis braldebiT, proporciulad iqna miCneuli sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis xelyofis aRkveTasTan mimarTebaSi. Tumca imave pirTa gasamarTleba prozelitizmisaTvis samoqalaqo piris mimarT araproporciulad iqna

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miCneuli. am saqmeSi sasamarTlom miiRo argumenti, rom prozelitizmis nebismieri mcdeloba ufrosi oficrebis mxridan uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebas warmoadgens, miuxedavad mosamarTle van dijkis gansxvavebul azrSi moyvanili argumentisa, romelic swored amgvar absolutur midgomas miiCnevda araproporciulad. misi SexedulebiT, amgvar saqmeebSi unda emoqmeda uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis prezumfcias, Tumca igi uaryofadi unda yofiliyo. mosamarTlis TvalsazrisiT, am konkretul saqmeSi es prezumfcia uaryofili iyo erT-erTi umcrosi oficris mimarT, romlis mtkicebiTac, masze zewola ar ganxorcielebula da igi nebayoflobiT gaxda ormocdaaTianelTa eklesiis wevri. aSkaraa, rom proporciulobis cneba yovelTvis iqneba Semdgari gansazRvruli subieqturi elementebisgan da mniSvnelovanwilad damokidebuli konteqstze. sasamarTlos arasodes hqonia naTlad Camoyalibebuli pozicia proporciulobis ideis mimarT. roli, romelsac igi asrulebs me-9 muxlis iurisprudenciaSi, garkveulwilad bundovania. sasamarTlosaTvis sakmaod mogebiania konkretul saqmeSi ama Tu im kanonis gamoyenebis armiCneva aucileblad demokratiul sazogadoebaSi TviT am kanonis xelSeuxeblobis xelyofis gareSe. amgvari midgoma sasamarTlom gamoiyena kokinakisis saqmeSi, sadac aSkarad gaamarTla antiprozelitisturi kanonebis arseboba, Tumca daadgina, rom momCivnis msjavrdeba maT safuZvelze ar iyo aucilebeli sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvisaTvis.311 mosamarTle martensma mocemul saqmeSi proporciulobis ideisadmi gacilebiT ufro saRi midgoma SeimuSava da gaakritika sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba im gadamwyveti sakiTxisadmi zerele damokidebulebisaTvis, hqonda Tu ara saxelmwifos prozelitizmis danaSaulad aRiarebis ufleba me-9 muxlis safuZvelze.312 mosamarTle petitma aseve daaskvna, rom zogadi sisxlissamarTlebrivi kanonis gamoyeneba am miznis misaRwevad araproporciuli iyo.313 amave dros, igi aRiarebda, rom mTavrobebi valdebulni arian, daicvan gansakuTrebulad daucveli individebisgan Semdgari mcire jgufebi (maT Soris, arasrulwlovnebi da fsiqikurad daavadebulni), risi gakeTebac Zalze specifikuri kanonmdeblobiTaa SesaZlebeli. sxva SemTxvevaSi prozelitizmi iseTi kanondarRveva iqneboda, rogoricaa, magaliTad, `gansacdelSi myof pirTa dauxmarebloba an ganzrax Tu gaufrTxileblad zianis miyeneba~. bundovnad Camoyalibebuli kanoni, romelic prozelitizmis per se kriminalizacias axdenda, ar iyo mcirericxovani daucveli individebis dacvis miznis proporciuli. sasamarTlo Semadgenlobis umravlesobam arc erTi zemoT ganxiluli argumenti ar miiRo mxedvelobaSi. isini im poziciidan amovidnen, rom prozelitizmi SesaZloa ukanono xasiaTs atarebdes, vinaidan SeiZleba xelyos sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, da mividnen daskvnamde, rom saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, prozelitizmi danaSaulad aRiaros. amis miuxedavad, aucilebeli ar aris mocemuli midgomis gaziareba. savsebiT SesaZlebelia savaraudo zianis Tavidan acileba specialurad ama Tu im religiuri qmedebis, maT Soris prozelitizmis, daregulirebis mcdelobis gareSe. me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi proporciulobis testis gamoyeneba SesaZlebelia dRis wesrigSi demokratiul sazogadoebaSi ama Tu im kanonis (gansakuTrebiT im kanonis, romelic sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas iTvaliswinebs) aucileblobis sakiTxis dasayeneblad. jerjerobiT, me-9 muxlis konteqstSi, sasamarTlos ar gamouCenia proporciulobis doqtrinis gavrcobis neba faqtobriv/kon-

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teqstualuri midgomis farglebs gareT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, kanons kiTxvis niSnis qveS ar ayenebda. magaliTad, ar gamouyenebia proporciulobis is gageba, romelic dasvamda sakiTxs, SeiZleboda Tu ara religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebisadmi kanonebis SemuSaveba naklebad SemzRudveli saxiT, kanonmdeblobis erTiani miznisadmi zianis miyenebis gareSe. legitimuri mizani religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze dawesebuli nebismieri SezRudva aucilebeli unda iyos demokratiul sazogadoebaSi `sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis interesebidan gamomdinare, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis, janmrTelobis, moralis, an sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvisaTvis~. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoebis mxridan imis mtkiceba, rom maTi qmedebani aucilebeli iyo ama Tu im saxelmwifo interesis dacvisaTvis, ar aris sakmarisi. maT unda aCvenon, rom Sesabamis SemzRudvel qmedebas `legitimuri mizani~ hqonda. magaliTad, kanons, romlis mizania sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacva, aqvs legitimuri mizani religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze SezRudvebis gamarTlebisaTvis. meore mxriv, kanons, romelsac mecnieruli codnis gaRrmavebis mizani aqvs, legitimuri mizani ar gaaCnia. garda amisa, sul mcire, TeoriaSi erovnuli uSiSroebis msgavsi SemzRudveli pirobebi, romlebic ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli me-9 muxliT, Tumca moxseniebulia sxva muxlebSi, ar SeiZleba legitimur miznad iqnes miCneuli, religiis Tavisuflebaze SezRudvebis dawesebisaTvis.314 sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila saxelmwifoTa moTxovnebi, romlebsac gansazRvruli SezRudvebis safuZvlad garkveul eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris tradiciuli da istoriuli kavSiri mohyavdaT.315 sasamarTlom detalurad ar ganixila sakiTxi, Tumca misi uari am mizanTa legitimurobis aRiarebaze naTlad metyvelebs sasamarTlos mxridan imis dadasturebaze, rom mizezebi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze SezRudvebis dawesebisaTvis me-9 muxlis meore nawiliT Semoifargleba. erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxi imis gadasawyvetad, aqvs Tu ara kanons legitimuri mizani, aris is sazRvrebi, romelTa farglebSic sasamarTlo da komisia mzad arian, misaRebad miiCnion saxelmwifoTa mtkicebani. magaliTad, saqmeSi kokinakisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg,316 umravlesobas miaCnda, rom prozelitizmis Sesaxeb kanons hqonda saberZneTis mTavrobis mier mtkicebadi mizani im pirTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis saxiT, romlebic, SesaZloa, prozelitizmis msxverplni gamxdariyvnen. mosamarTle martensi kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda saxelmwifos im qmedebis gamarTlebis sakiTxs, romelic prozelitizmisgan sxvaTa `dacvis~ mcdelobas warmoadgenda. martensis SexedulebiT, saxelmwifosaTvis naklebad mniSvnelovani unda iyos, vinme SeinarCunebs Tu Seicvlis sakuTar religias. umravlesobam ar gamoikvlia mocemuli sakiTxi da arc mosamarTle petitis mosazreba miiRo mxedvelobaSi, romlis mixedviTac kanonis mizani `saxelmwifosaTvis prozelitoris dasjis mizniT gansazRvruli pirovnebis sisustis Sefasebis miTvisebis SesaZleblobis micema iyo, rac saxifaToa, gansakuTrebiT, avtoritaruli saxelmwifos mxridan misi gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi~.317 umravlesobam aseve ar ganixila momCivnis mier warmodgenili mtkicebuleba, romlis Tanaxmadac, zogadi xasiaTis kanonebi, romlebic, erTi SexedviT, arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, sinamdvileSi marTlmadidebeli umravlesobis mier religiuri umciresobebis represirebis saSu-

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alebad gamoiyeneboda. es mtkicebuleba sakmaod damajerebeli Canda, gansakuTrebiT imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom marTlmadidebeli eklesiis arc erTi wevri ar iqna msjavrdebuli am kanonebis safuZvelze, maSin, roca 1975-dan 1992 wlamde ieRovas 4400 mowme iqna dakavebuli, maTgan 1233 _ sasamarTlos mier gasamarTlebuli, saidanac 208 — zemoxsenebuli kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze.318 am statistikis gaTvaliswinebiT, savaraudod, sasamarTlom gacilebiT kritikulad unda ganixilos saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis miznebis Taobaze mTavrobis mier warmodgenili argumentebis dasabuTebulobis sakiTxi. sasamarTlos mxridan saxelmwifoTa argumentaciis dasabuTebulobis detaluri gamokvlevis (aris Tu ara igi mxolod garegnuli xasiaTisa) mimarT survilis argamoCenis mizezebi sakmaod naTelia: saxelmwifos ukeT unda hqondes gaazrebuli, vidre sasamarTlos, Tu ratom miiRes mocemuli kanoni da Tu es ukanaskneli eWvqveS daayenebs saxelmwifos mxridan gacxadebul mizans, es faqtobrivad arakeTilsindisierebasa da sicrueSi saberZneTis dadanaSauleba iqneba.319 aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlo amjobinebs, aRiaros kanonis safuZvlad saxelmwifos mxridan mtkicebadi legitimuri miznis arseboba. Tumca gasagebia, rom amgvari midgoma zogjer sasamarTlos moqmedebis saSualebas arTmevda, rodesac saqme iseT kanons Seexeboda, romelsac aralegitimuri mizani hqonda. dResdReobiT miznis legitimurobis testi, me-9 muxlis konteqstSi mainc, imdenad sustia, rom Zalze mcire zewolis moxdena SeuZlia saxelmwifoebze. am ukanasknelT ki sakmaod damajerebeli argumentis warmodgena SeuZliaT imis ubralo gacxadebiT, rom kanonis mizani Seesabameba me-9 muxlis meore nawilSi moyvanil erT-erT pirobas. problema kidev ufro mwvavdeba, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom sasamarTlo da komisia xSirad arasakmarisad mkafiod avlebdnen sazRvrebs dasaSveb SezRudvaTa sxvadasxva tipebs Soris. gansakuTrebiT adrindel saqmeebSi komisia xSir SemTxvevaSi ubralod CamoTvlida SezRudvis sxvadasxva saxes (magaliTad, sazogadoebrivi wesrigi da sxvaTa uflebebi) da acxadebda, rom saxelmwifoTa qmedebebi aucilebelia am mizezTa gamo, Tavisi poziciis yovelgvari dasabuTebis gareSe. Capelis saqmeSi komisiam daaskvna, rom gadawyvetileba `sTounhenjis~ daxurvis Taobaze aucilebeli iyo sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis interesebisaTvis, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvis an sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvisaTvis~.320 `an~ sityvis gamoyeneba, iseT STabeWdilebas qmnis, rom TviT komisiamac ver daadgina sabolood, risi damtkiceba SeZlo saxelmwifom. ra Tqma unda, SesaZlebelia erTze meti mizezi arsebobdes imisaTvis, rom SezRudva me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze iyos aucilebeli. religiuri msvleloba, romelic, savaraudod, masobriv areulobasa da religiaTa Soris SuRlis gaRvivebas gamoiwvevs, SesaZlebelia aikrZalos sazogadoebrivi wesrigis (masobrivi areulobis aRsakveTad), sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis (im pirTa janmrTelobis dasacavad, romlebic, savaraudod, daSavdebian sazogadoebrivi werigis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi), sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis (im pirTa dasacavad, romlebic SesaZloa dazaraldnen sakuTari rwmenisa Tu religiis gamo, an romelTa kuTvnil nagebobebsac SesaZloa miadges ziani) dasacavad. miuxedavad amisa, saxelmwifos mxridan religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze SezRudvebis dawesebis SesaZlo safuZvlebis ubralo CamoTvla, yovelgvari axsna-ganmartebis gareSe, Tu ratom moxda ama Tu im

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SemTxvevaSi maTi gamoyeneba, da momCivanTa im uflebebze miuTiTeblad, romelTa xarjzec moxda maTi dabalanseba, qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom saxelmwifoTa interesebs gacilebiT didi mniSvneloba eniWeba, vidre pirovnebis uflebebs. es midgoma aseve spobs gansxvavebas legitimuri miznis mqone kanonsa da im kiTxvas Soris, iyo Tu ara konkretul SemTxvevaSi kanonis gamoyeneba aucilebeli da proporciuli. religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvis safuZvlebi sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvis aucilebloba religiuri rwmenis manifestaciebma SesaZlebelia namdvili mRelvareba gamoiwvios sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis TvalsazrisiT. aris tendencia religiasa da rwmenaze dawesebuli SezRudvebis gamarTlebaze mocemuli ori saxis erT, `sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis~ cnebaSi gaerTianebisa. Tavis mxriv, sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoeba Zalze iSviaTad yofila gamoyenebuli erTaderT safuZvlad religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvebis gamarTlebisaTvis. udavoa, rom arsebobs aSkara saWiroeba sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis mizniT SezRudvebis dawesebis nebis darTvisa, vinaidan zogierTi religiuri jgufi SesaZloa CarTuli iyos Zaladobis provocirebasa da organizebaSi.321 amgvari zomebi aseve aucilebelia sazogadoebebSi, sadac antagonizmi da Seuwynarebloba sufevs sxvadasxva religiur dajgufebebs Soris da sadac religiis gamoxatva SesaZloa religiebs Soris SuRlisa da sazogadoebrivi wesrigis darRvevis kerad gadaiqces.322 miuxedavad amisa, arsebobs safrTxe sazogadoebrivi wesrigisaTvis aucilebeli SezRudvis Zalze farTo interpretirebisa, rac saxelmwifoebs miscems SesaZleblobas, nebismier dros Caerion religiis gamoxatvaSi, roca igi Semawuxebeli da gamaRizianebeli gaxdeba xelisuflebaSi myofi pirebisaTvis.323 magaliTad, komisiam daadgina, rom saxelmwifos hqonda sazogadoebrivi wesrigis gamamarTlebel garemoebad gamoyenebis uflebamosileba im piris gasamarTlebisTvis, romlis qmedebac `sazogadoebriv aRSfoTebas~ iwvevda — es standarti konvenciaSi Camoyalibebulze ufro dabalia.324 amis msgavsad, bevri avtori SezRudvebs sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da usafrTxoebis dacvisaTvis `sazogadoebrivi interesidan gamomdinare SezRudvebs~ uwodebs. es termini gacilebiT farTo xasiaTisaa, vidre konvenciaSi gamoyenebuli ori ufro zusti cneba. erT-erTi sfero, sadac gamamarTlebel garemoebad xSirad gamoiyeneboda sazogadoebrivi wesrigi, aris patimarTa saqmeebi.325 am saqmeebSi miCneuli iqna, rom daxuruli da izolirebuli cixis sazogadoeba xasiaTdeba `sazogadoebrivi wesrigiT~.326 es SesaZloa SevadaroT gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis adamianis uflebaTa komitetis midgomas, rom patimrebi, `sruli moculobiT agrZeleben religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebiT sargeblobas im donemde, rac Seesabameba Tavisuflebis aRkveTis specifikur bunebas~.327 religiis gamoxatvaze patimris uflebis SezRudvis aucileblobisaTvis mniSvnelovani argumentis magaliTs warmoadgens saqme Caildsi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg.328 momCivani am saqmeSi iyo araerTi mkvlelobisaTvis gasamarTlebuli patimari, romelmac ramdenime patimris winaaRmdeg misca Cveneba da, aqedan gamomdinare, SeeZlo cixeSi areulobis gamowveva. igi ganmartoebul sakanSi ixdida sasjels da ar rTavdnen nebas,

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daswreboda kapelanis wirvas. cixis direqtori darwmunebuli iyo, rom patimris wirvaze daswreba wesrigis darRvevas gamoiwvevda. amgvar saqmeSi SesaZlebelia danaxuli iqnes sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvisaTvis gamiznuli SezRudvebis relevanturoba. patimars, romelic mxolod saSiSi damnaSave ki ar aris, aramed misdami sxva patimarTa mxridan mtruli damokidebulebac arsebobs, SeuZlia seriozuli uwesrigoba gamoiwvios cixeSi da safrTxe Seuqmnas rogorc Tavis, ise sxvaTa (magaliTad, sapatimros dacvis wevrTa janmrTelobas, romelTac mouwevT am patimris dacva sxvaTa Semotevebisagan) janmrTelobas, Tuki RvTismsaxurebas daeswreba. garda amisa, komisiam miuTiTa, rom patimarTan regularul vizitebs axorcielebda kapelani da mas hqonda SesaZlebloba, daswreboda gansazRvruli tipis religiur msaxurebas.329 Sesabamisad, gaerTianebulma samefom SeZlo daemtkicebina, rom yvelanairad cdilobda, daecva momCivnis religiis Tavisufleba arsebuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sxva saqmeebi, romelTa arsic cixis konteqstSi sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvaSi mdgomareobda, naklebad damajerebelia. erT-erT amgvar saqmeSi cixis administraciis uari JurnalistTan patimris Sexvedraze gamarTlebuli iqna sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvis aucileblobiT, Tumca ar gakeTebula naTeli miniSneba imis Taobaze, Sexvedra areulobas cixis SigniT gamoiwvevda Tu farTo sazogadoebaSi.330 komisias sakuTari daskvna ar ganumartavs. sxva saqmeSi budisti patimari amtkicebda, rom ar hqonda SesaZlebloba, sruli moculobiT gamoexata Tavisi religia, maT Soris, moeSva wveri da monawileoba mieRo erTobliv locvaSi.331 am saqmeSi komisiam uaryo SezRudvis dawesebiT konvenciis darRveva, im motiviT, rom es aucilebeli iyo sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvisTvis. uari wveris moSvebaze efuZneboda arguments momCivnis identifikaciis saWiroebaze (moTxovna, romelic gansakuTrebiT ucnauria, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT, rom momCivani erTaderTi patimari iyo cixeSi, romlis religiiTac aucilebeli iyo wveris moSveba). rac Seexeba uars erToblivi locvis Catarebaze, nawilobriv igi efuZneboda zrunvas patimris janmrTelobaze, xolo nawilobriv _ cixis disciplinas. amis msgavsad, patimars, romelsac surda Tanamoazre morwmuneebTan komunikacia budistur gazeTSi statiebis publikaciiT, uari uTxres am moTxovnaze cixis administraciisaTvis damatebiTi administraciuli problemebis Seqmnis gamo.332 am saqmeebSi warmodgenili cixis sastiki disciplinis aucileblobaze damyarebuli aSkarad banaluri argumentebi, komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, amarTlebda mopasuxeebs, romlebic acxadebdnen, rom administraciis qmedebani saWiro iyo sazogadoebrivi wesrigis an usafrTxoebis dasacavad. cixis konteqstis farglebs gareT, sazogadoebrivi wesrigi ramdenime saqmeSi iyo relevanturi da, patimarTa saqmeebis msgavsad, xSirad igi gamoyenebula ara rogorc erTaderTi, aramed rogorc SezRudvebis gamamarTlebeli ramdenimedan erT-erTi garemoeba. sfero, sadac sazogadoebrivi wesrigi aseve figurirebda, aris saxelmwifo dagegmareba. saqmeSi ISKCON gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,333 adgilobrivi dagegmarebis kanonebi gamoyenebuli iqna induisturi taZris sawinaaRmdegod, romelic aigo mwvane zonis midamoebSi, patara soflis axlomaxlo. dagegmarebis kanonebi zRudavda taZris gamoyenebis gzebsa da taZarSi mimsvlelTa raodenobas. TandaTanobiT taZris stumrebma gadaaWarbes daSvebul raodenobas, ramac garkveuli problemebi Seuqmna sofels. gaerTianebuli samefos mtkicebiT, misi moqmedebani mimarTuli iyo `sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis~ — am SemTxvevaSi, soflis mosaxle-

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obis uflebebis — dacvisken. sasamarTlo daeTanxma mopasuxes da damatebiT miuTiTa, rom arsebobda SezRudvebis gamamarTlebeli sxva garemoebac. am garemoebis mixedviT, kanonebi gamiznuli iyo `sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da janmrTelobis dacvisaTvis... dagegmarebis kanonmdebloba zogadad aucileblad aris miCneuli Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi, ukontrolo mSeneblobebis aRkveTis mizniT~. manusakisis saqmeSic,334 sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom im kanonebis arseboba, romlebic mTavrobis nebarTvas moiTxovda RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gankuTvnili adgilebis dasafuZneblad, gamarTlebuli iyo sazogadoebrivi wesrigis safuZvelze, vinaidan isini SesaZleblobas aZlevdnen saxelmwifos, saTanado nebarTvis gacemamde darwmunebuliyo, rom religiuri asociacia ar iyo zianis momtani saqmianobiT dakavebuli. yovelive zemoaRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gamovitanoT daskvna, rom sazogadoebrivi wesrigi SesaZlebelia xSirad iqnes gamoyenebuli dagegmarebis kanonebiT gaTvaliswinebuli SezRudvebis gasamarTleblad. es is sferoa, sadac sasamarTlom cxadad moaxdina saxelmwifos farTo diskreciis demonstrireba.335 ISKCON-is gakritikebul saqmeSi warmodgenilia sferoebi, sadac sazogadoebrivi wesrigi, rogorc gamamarTlebeli garemoeba, SesaZloa relevanturi iyos. imis gauTvaliswineblad, Tu ramdenad SeZlo komisiam ama Tu im saqmeSi saTanado balansis povna, arsebobs saWiroeba, rom daculi iqnes sofeli, romelic aTasobiT stumars iRebs da ar gaaCnia maTi momsaxurebis adekvaturi SesaZleblobani. am SemTxvevaSi dacvis Sesabamis saSualebebad SesaZlebelia CaiTvalos religiuri procesiebis daqvemdebareba sazogadoebrivi procesiebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli SezRudvebisadmi, an moTxovna religiuri msaxurebis Catarebisa, RvTismsaxurebis adgilTan axlos mcxovrebTa mimarT pativiscemis gamoCenis gziT. dRis wesrigSi kvlav dgeba proporciulobis sakiTxi da mTeli rigi kompleqsuri da gansazRvrul donemde ganuzomeli faqtorebis Sefasebis aucilebloba mniSvnelovan sirTuleebs iwvevs. magaliTad, Zalze Znelia imis mtkiceba, rom arsebobs obieqturi gza im xalxis wuxilis dabalansebisa, romelTac aRviZebs muslimis xmamaRali mowodeba locvisaken, religiis TavisuflebisaTvis zianis miyenebis gareSe. amgvari faqtorebis dabalansebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs im argumentisaken mivyavarT, rom umjobesia am sferoSi gadawyvetilebebis gamotana Sidasaxelmwifoebriv xelisuflebas mivandoT. aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc Cans, amgvar saqmeSi saxelmwifos mier warmodgenili logikuri dasabuTeba ar unda warmoadgendes komisiis detaluri mimoxilvis sagans. saxelmwifo dagegmarebis interesi legitimuria da, savaraudod, sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da usafrTxoebis pirobis Sesabamisia, Tumca, amis miuxedavad, komisias naklebad aqvs gaazrebuli, rom zogierT SemTxvevaSi es interesi ar aris upiratesi xasiaTis. proporciulobis moTxovnas warmoadgens balansis povna sazogado interessa da konkretul uflebebs Soris, Tumca, sazogadoebrivi wesrigidan da usafrTxoebidan gamomdinare, SezRudvebTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis ganxilvisas komisia ufro saxelmwifo politikis Taobaze mTavrobis moTxovnebis gamarTlebis povniT iyo dainteresebuli, vidre religiis Tavisuflebaze dawesebul SezRudvebTan misi SedarebiT. sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoeba da wesrigi, gansazRvrul konteqstebSi, SesaZloa gamarTlebis mTavar garemoebas warmoadgendes, adamianTa sicocxlis dacvis da sazogadoebrivi uwesrigobis gavrcelebis aRkveTis mizniT, religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze SezRudvebis dawesebis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca sxva konteqstebSi, rogoricaa

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cixe da dagegmarebis kanonebi, sazogadoebrivi saWiroeba arcTu ise Zlieria da, Sesabamisad, gacilebiT didi yuradReba unda mieqces im mZime tvirTs, rasac amgvari SezRudvebi momCivnebs akisrebs. arsebobs safrTxe, rom sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoeba da wesrigi, me-9 muxlis konteqstSi, gaTanabrebuli iqnes mxolod administraciul sargebelTan.336 Tumca bolo dros, rogorc Cans, sasamarTlos mier gaazrebul iqna sazogadoebrivi wesrigis argumentis farTo interpretaciis potenciuri safrTxe. buskarinis saqmeSi, magaliTad, man arc ki ganixila mTavrobis argumenti, rom religiuri fici aucilebeli iyo sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebisadmi sazogadoebrivi ndobis da, Sesabamisad, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis SenarCunebisaTvis da ganacxada, rom fici ar aris aucilebeli demokratiul sazogadoebaSi.337 Tumca san marinos mxaris mier warmodgenili argumenti imdenad susti iyo, rom igi SeiZleba arc CaiTvalos signalad sasamarTlos midgomis Secvlisa sazogadoebrivi wesrigis interpretaciis mimarT, magram misi gadawyvetileba saqmeSi serifi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg338 naTlad miuTiTebs, rom amieridan saxelmwifos argumentebi me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze gacilebiT ufro detalur Semowmebas daeqvemdebareba. mocemul saqmeSi, saberZneTis mTavrobis mtkicebiT, igi valdebuli iyo, samarTlebrivi devna ganexorcielebina im piris mimarT, romelic Tavs adgilobrivi muslimuri sazogadoebis muftad acxadebda, potenciuri sazogadoebrivi uwesrigobisa da daZabulobis Tavidan acilebis mizniT, rac ori individis mier erTi da imave religiuri sazogadoebis legitimur liderad Tavis gamocxadebas SeiZleba mohyoloda. amgvari argumenti warsulSi sakmarisi iqneboda warmatebisTvis, Tumca sasamarTlom serifis saqmeSi uaryo igi. sasamarTlom daadgina: Tumca sasamarTlo aRiarebs, rom SesaZlebelia daZabulobis warmoqmna religiuri an sxva nebismieri sazogadoebis gaxleCis pirobebSi, igi miiCnevs, rom es pluralizmis erT-erTi gardauvali Sedegia. xelisuflebis roli amgvari garemoebebis arsebobisas gamoixateba ara daZabulobis mizezis ganeitralebaSi pluralizmis aRmofxvris gziT, aramed dapirispirebul mxareTa mier erTmaneTisadmi Semwynarebluri damokidebulebis uzrunvelyofaSi. religiuri pluralizmis mniSvnelobis aRiareba sasurvel mimarTulebas warmoadgens da me-9 muxlis meore nawilis interpretaciisadmi sasamarTlos midgomis Secvlis potenciali aqvs. kerZod, Tuki msgavs midgomas sasamarTlo sxva saqmeebSic gamoiyenebs, saxelmwifoebs, romelTa mtkicebiTac sazogadoebrivi wesrigi aucilebels xdis religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, gacilebiT meti mtkicebulebebis warmodgena mouwevT, raTa SeZlon imis demonstrireba, rom sazogadoebriv wesrigs realurad emuqreba safrTxe da zomebis miReba Sidareligiuri urTierTobebis gaumjobesebis mizniT daZabulobas ver ganmuxtavda. janmrTelobis dacvis aucilebloba is, rom gansazRvruli tipis religiur qmedebas rogorc mis monawileTaTvis, ise gareSe pirTaTvis fizikuri an mentaluri zianis miyenebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba aqvs, zogierTi religiuri tradiciis bunebidan gamomdinareobs. rodesac saqme im adamianebis janmrTelobis dacvas Seexeba, romelnic ar arian Sesabamisi religiis

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wevrebi, sakiTxi sakmaod martivia da saxelmwifos Carevis aucilebloba mesame pirTa dacvis mizniT aSkaraa. cixesTan dakavSirebul ramdenime saqmeSi, momCivnis mier Tavisi religiis sruli moculobiT gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSi, realuri safrTxe eqmneboda sxvaTa janmrTelobas. Caildsis saqmeSi,339 magaliTad, sxvaTa janmrTelobasa da usafrTxoebas daemuqreboda safrTxe, Tuki erTobliv religiur msaxurebaze momCivnis daswreba Zaladobis provocirebas moaxdenda. amis msgavsad, saqmeSi, sadac patimars ar darTes neba, hqonoda wigni, romelic Seicavda Tavs sabrZolo xelovnebis Sesaxeb, komisiam gaamarTla administraciis qmedeba, im motiviT, rom patimars wignidan miRebuli codnis gamoyeneba sxvaTa janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebisaTvis zianis misayeneblad SeeZlo.340 kanonebi, romlebic mesame pirebs icaven sxvebis mier religiis gamoxatvis Sedegad fizikuri zianis miyenebis safrTxisagan, naklebad problemuria. gacilebiT ufro rTul SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme, rodesac esa Tu is samarTlebrivi norma zrdasrul religiur morwmuneTa dacvas isaxavs miznad im safrTxisagan, romlis sasargeblodac maT TviTon gaakeTes arCevani. mkurnalobaze uaris gacxadeba religiur niadagze (maT Soris sisxlis gadasxmaze) erovnuli iurisdiqciebis erT-erT yvelaze problemur sferos warmoadgens. amgvari saqme jerjerobiT ar ganxilula konvenciis safuZvelze, Tumca misi aRZvris SemTxvevaSi, umTavresi sakiTxi iqneboda, uflebamosilia Tu ara saxelmwifo, konvenciis safuZvelze aiZulos sakuTari janmrTelobis dacva im pirs, romelic religiuri mizezebidan gamomdinare uars acxadebs am dacvaze. komisiis mier mTel rig saqmeebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba daskvnis gakeTeba, rom saxelmwifos aqvs ufleba, aiZulos individi daicvas sakuTari janmrTeloba im SemTxvevaSic, roca mas am dacvaze uaris Tqmis seriozuli religiuri mizezebi aqvs. erT-erTi aseTi saqme siq motociklists Seexeboda, romelic ocjer gaasamarTles damcavi muzaradis tarebaze uaris TqmisaTvis. siqizmis mimdevaris uari imiT iyo ganpirobebuli, rom muzaradis tareba Calmis moxsnasTan iyo dakavSirebuli.341 komisiam gaaerTiana ori idea, kanonis legitimuri miznisa (motociklistebis janmrTelobis dacvisa) da misi gamoyenebis aucileblobisa, raTa daedgina, rom momCivnis moTxovna aSkarad dausabuTebeli iyo. Tumca komisias sruliad Tavisuflad SeeZlo kanoni legitimurad mieCnia da, amave dros, siqebis mimarT misi gamoyeneba eRiarebina gacxadebuli miznisadmi araproporciulad. SesaZloa zogadad Sesabamisi iyos pirovnebis dacva sakuTari janmrTelobis mimarT daudevrobisa da uyuradRebobisgan, magram ar aris naTeli, ramdenad aucilebelia im individebis dacva, romlebic sakuTari janmrTelobis dacvaze uars Rrma religiuri mizezebis gamo acxadeben. rogorc profesori raci askvnis Tavisi Sexedulebis safuZvlad siqi motociklistis saqmis gamoyenebisas: Tuki `pluralizmi da avtonomia ver uzrunvelyofs pirovnebas SesaZleblobiT, misdios sakuTar moralur rwmenas, maSin es kategoriebi realurad mcire mniSvnelobis mqoned SeiZleba CaiTvalos~.342 siqi motociklistis saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis axsna SeiZleba is iyos, rom komisiasa da sasamarTlos arasodes gamouCeniaT survili pirovnebis mimarT zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis gamoyenebiT religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevis SesaZleblobis aRiarebisa. es ki, Sesabamisad, arTulebs zrdasruli adamianebis mxridan religiur niadagze zogadi daniSnulebis usafrTxoebis kanonebis sawinaaRmdego poziciebis dasabuTebas. sxva saqmeebi, rogorc Cans, am daskvnas adasturebs. rogorc Caildsis,343 ise bu-

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disti patimris saqmeSi, romelsac uari uTxres erTobliv locvaze,344 ziani, romelic SeiZleboda patimars misdgomoda, gamoyenebuli iqna patimrisaTvis religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze uaris mizezad. miuxedavad imisa, rom am midgomas gacilebiT meti gamarTleba aqvs patimarTa saqmeebTan, vidre Tavisufal zrdasrul pirTa mimarT, vinaidan saxelmwifos ZiriTad valdebulebas swored Tavisi zedamxedvelobis qveS myof pirebze zrunva warmoadgens, patimarTa saqmeebis es aspeqti arasodes yofila sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier detalurad gamokvleuli. me-9 muxlis konteqstis farglebs gareT, sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom saxelmwifos ar daurRvevia momCivanTa uflebani, maTi dapatimrebis miuxedavad sakuTar saxlebSi SeTanxmebuli sadomazoxisturi homoseqsualuri aqtebis ganxorcielebisaTvis.345 sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, es is sferoa, sadac gaerTianebul samefos SeuZlia Careva monawileTa janmrTelobis dacvis mizniT, imis miuxedavad, rom amgvari intervencia ar aris sasurveli. es midgoma naTlad gviCvenebs, rom momCivnebs SesaZloa seriozuli problemebi SeeqmnaT sasamarTlos darwmunebaSi, rom saxelmwifos ar aqvs ufleba, daicvas isini im zianisgan, rac SesaZlebelia miadges maT janmrTelobas sakuTari religiuri rwmenis gamo. Tumca, savaraudod, sasamarTlo ufro meti gagebiT im pirebs moekideba, romelTa sakuTari TavisaTvis zianis miyenebis survili ganpirobebulia Rrma religiuri rwmeniT, vidre sado-mazoxistur jgufebs.346 sxva, aseve sadavo sferos, janmrTelobis dacvis konteqstSi, warmoadgens bavSvebisaTvis safrTxis Seqmna maTi mSoblebis religiuri rwmenis gamo. safrTxis Seqmna SesaZloa gamoixatos Svilebis saxeliT mSoblebis uarSi bavSvebis mkurnalobaze347 (rogoricaa sisxlis gadasxma), an religiuri qcevis gamoyenebaSi (rogoricaa locva) standartuli mkurnalobis nacvlad,348 aseve moTxovnaSi bavSvebis mimarT, Seasrulon rituali, romelic maTTvis fizikuri zianis momtania, magaliTad, mdedrobiTi sqesis bavSvebisTvis genitaliebis dasaxiCreba. am sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi konsensusi ar arsebobs. mSobelTa nebis sawinaaRmdegod saxelmwifos mier Tavisi Zalauflebis gamoyeneba bavSvebis mkurnalobisaTvis, bavSvebis janmrTelobis dasacavad, savaraudod, saxelmwifoTaTvis gankuTvnil diskreciaSi moeqceva.349 aseTi daskvna Seesabameba sasamarTlo midgomas saqmeSi hofmani avstriis winaaRmdeg, imis miuxedavad, rom igi pirdapir ar Seexeba zemoxsenebul SemTxvevebs. am saqmeSi, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, avstriis sasamarTlom daarRvia adamianis ojaxuri cxovrebis ufleba, rodesac gamoitana gadawyvetileba meurveobis miniWebis Taobaze dedis sawinaaRmdegod, im motiviT, rom deda ieRovas mowme iyo. sakiTxi sisxlis gadasxmisadmi dedis uaryofiTi damokidebulebisa nawilobriv ganixila erovnulma sasamarTlom, Tumca am garemoebas gadamwyveti roli ar hqonia evropuli sasamarTlos mier gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas. sasamarTlo Seexo avstriuli kanonis debulebebs, romelic nebas rTavda avstriul sasamarTloebs, gaecaT brZaneba bavSvebisaTvis sisxlis gadasxmis Taobaze, roca maTi sicocxle safrTxeSi iyo, Tumca ar daufiqsirebia pozicia amgvari kanonebis samarTlianobis Taobaze. aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi sasamarTlos brZaneba sisxlis gadasxmis Taobaze adekvaturi iqneba. erT-erT saqmeSi komisiam daadgina, rom saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, Caerios mSoblebis mier religiis gamoxatvaSi maTive Svilebis janmrTelobis dacvis mizniT. am saqmeSi mSoblebi asaCivrebdnen kanons, romelic krZalavda mSoblebis mxridan Svilebis `fizikur dasjas~ (Tumca igi ar iTvaliswinebda sasjels am kanonis moT-

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xovnis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi).350 mSoblebi Tavisufali protestantuli eklesiis wevrebi iyvnen. vinaidan am religiis Tanaxmad bavSvebis gawkeplva bibliidan gamomdinareobs, Sesabamisad, es kanoni maTi religiuri rwmenis darRvevas warmoadgenda. komisiam garkveuli SeSfoTeba gamoxata imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu rogor ereoda kanoni ojaxur cxovrebaSi, Tumca, misi SefasebiT, adgili ar hqonia me-8 an me-9 muxlis darRvevas. komisiam daaskvna, rom fizikuri Zaladobis Taobaze SvedeTis kanonmdeblobis moqmedebis gavrceleba mSobelTa mier bavSvebis fizikur dasjaze gawkeplvis gziT `gamiznulia sazogadoebis potenciurad susti da daucveli wevrebis dacvisaTvis~.351 es saqme garkveul uflebas aniWebs saxelmwifoebs, mSobliuri mzrunvelobiT imoqmedon mSoblebis qmedebaTagan Svilebis dacvis mizniT, Tumca ver axdens im sazRvris demonstrirebas, romelic Zevs am uflebasa da mSobelTa uflebas Soris, aRzardon Svilebi sakuTari religiuri mrwamsis Sesabamisad. igi arc im midgomis Sesaxeb akeTebs miTiTebas, romelic im SemTxvevaSi unda iqnes gamoyenebuli, roca bavSvi sakuTari saxeliT asaCivrebs saxelmwifos mxridan mis mimarT ganxorcielebul proteqciul qmedebas da amtkicebs, rom me-9 muxlis darRvevas hqonda adgili.352 Tumca, amave dros, naTlad mianiSnebs, rom sasamarTlo ar gakicxavs saxelmwifos im qmedebebisaTvis, romelTa mizanic bavSvebis dacvaa maTi mSoblebis religiuri mrwamsidan gamomdinare fizikuri zianisagan. es daskvna mxardaWerilia religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis Sesaxeb gaeros deklaraciis me-5 muxliT, romlis Tanaxmadac `religiidan da rwmenidan gamomdinare saqmianoba, romlis pirobebSic xdeba bavSvis aRzrda, ar unda iyos zianis momtani rogorc misi fizikuri da mentaluri janmrTelobis, ise bavSvis sruli ganviTarebisaTvis...~ da, bavSvTa uflebebis konvenciis debulebebiT, bavSvis janmrTeli ganviTarebis Taobaze.353 moralis dacvis aucilebloba saxelmwifos mier religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze SezRudvebis moralze dayrdnobiT gamarTlebis daSveba potenciurad seriozul problemebTan aris dakavSirebuli. religia kvlavac rCeba adamianis da sazogadoebrivi moralis ganviTarebis mTavar faqtorad, Tumca yvela religia ar iziarebs saerTo morals. erTi kompleqsuri kiTxva, rac am sferoSi ibadeba, mdgomareobs SemdegSi: zogadi kanoni, dafuZnebuli moralur koncefciebze, romlebic dominanti, magram ara umciresobaTa zogierTi religiis moralis nawils warmoadgens, aris Tu ara gamarTlebadi darRveva religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebisa? es sakiTxi wamoiWra saqmeSi, romelic konvenciis me-12 muxlis safuZvelze gadawyda (qorwinebisa da ojaxis yolis Tavisufleba), Tumca misi Sedegi aqtualuria me-9 muxlisTvisac.354 qorwinebaSi myofma protestantma CrdiloeTirlandielma mamakacma komisias mimarTa saCivriT, romlis Tanaxmadac ganqorwinebis amkrZalavi irlandiuri kanonebi, inter alia, misi religiis Tavisuflebis ukanono SezRudvas warmoadgenda. maSin, roca kaTolikuri eklesia krZalavda ganqorwinebas, garda gansakuTrebulad gamonaklisi garemoebebis arsebobisa, protestantuli eklesiis wesebis Tanaxmad, romlis wevric momCivani iyo, ganqorwineba nebadarTuli iyo. komisiam daadgina, rom sakiTxi me-9 muxls ar eqvemdebareboda, vinaidan me-12 muxli qorwinebis Sesaxeb konvenciis specialuri norma iyo. komisiam uaryo saCivari me-12 muxlis safuZvelze da miuTiTa, rom irlandiuri kanonebi ar xelyofs qorwinebis uflebas, aramed mxolod

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aregulirebs mas konvenciis safuZvelze saxelmwifos mier aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesabamisad. komisia mwvaved gaakritikes am saqmeSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis gamo, radganac man fokusireba moaxdina saxelmwifos uflebaze, daedgina qorwinebisa da ganqorwinebis wesebi da ar ganuxilavs, warmoadgenda Tu ara msgavsi regulaciebi religiis Tavisuflebis ukanono SezRudvas. am gadawyvetilebam SeiZleba Zalze mZime Sedegebi moitanos, vinaidan konvenciis monawile qveynebis kanonmdebloba konkretul qveyanaSi arsebuli dominanti religiis Tu rwmenis zegavlenas ganicdis an mis moralur safuZvlebs iTvaliswinebs. es gansakuTrebiT naTlad ikveTeba sxvadasxva religiasa da rwmenas Soris iseT konfliqtur sferoebSi, rogoricaa qorwineba, ganqorwineba, aborti da homoseqsualizmi. religiis Tavisuflebis cnebis ubralo gamoyeneba ar aris saukeTeso gza socialurad da moralurad am sadavo sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas. aqedan gamomdinare, unda iTqvas, rom, savaraudod, komisiisa da sasamarTlos wevrebi samarTlianad arian dainteresebulni, ar iqnen CaTreulni precedentuli samarTalwarmoebis am gadatvirTul sferoSi. Tumca gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetma gaafrTxila saxelmwifoebi, rom `moralis dacvis mizniT religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze dawesebuli SezRudvebi unda efuZnebodes principebs, romlebic mxolod erTi eqskluziuri tradiciidan ar gamomdinareobs~.355 SesaZloa, swored am mizezebis gamo SezRudvebis gamarTlebisas saxelmwifoebi iSviaTad eyrdnobian morals, Tumca komisiisa da sasamarTlos mxridan SeiniSneboda saxelmwifoTaTvis farTo diskreciis miniWebis tendencia iq, sadac es Tema aqtualuri xdeboda. xSirad, roca saqmeSi `moraluri~ sakiTxi wamoiWreba, igi sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvasTan aris uSualod dakavSirebuli, rogorc es religiurad provokaciuli filmis cenzuris SemTxvevaSi aRmoCnda. amgvar saqmeebSi komisia da sasamarTlo gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas swored sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvas aniWebdnen, Tumca ufro samarTliani midgomis SemuSavebac iyo SesaZlebeli urTierTsawinaaRmdego moralur SexedulebebTan dakavSirebiT. sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis aucilebloba religiis Tavisuflebis ganxorcieleba sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis irgvliv konfliqtebis warmoSobis safuZvels qmnis.356 zogierTi amgvari konfliqti konvenciiT daSvebuli SezRudvebis sxva safuZvlebsac ukavSirdeba. magaliTad, eretikosebis wamebiT religiis gamoxatvis ufleba xelyofs rogorc sazogadoebriv janmrTelobasa da usafrTxoebaze uflebas, ise wamebisgan Tavisuflebaze sxvaTa uflebas. sxva tipis saqmeebi gacilebiT rTul sakiTxebs ayenebs dRis wesrigSi.357 rogorc sasamarTlom ganacxada, `demokratiul sazogadoebebSi, sadac sxvadasxva religiebi Tanaarseboben erTsa da imave mosaxleobaSi, SesaZloa aucilebeli iyos SezRudvebis daweseba (religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze) calkeuli jgufebis interesebis SeTanxmebisa da yvelas religiuri rwmenis pativiscemis uzrunvelyofis mizniT.358 aqedan gamomdinare, cota ram Tu aris sadavo im TvalsazrisiT, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba garkveul SemTxvevebSi unda SeizRudos sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis mizniT. sakamaTo sakiTxebi wamoiWreba sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis sazRvrebis interpretirebisa da sapirispiro moTxovnaTa dabalansebis sferoSi.359 erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs `sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis~ ganmartebis

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sferoSi warmoadgens imis garkveva, Semoifargleba Tu ara es fraza konvenciiT ganmtkicebuli TavisuflebebiT. dRemde sasamarTlo da komisia am frazis mniSvnelobas zogadad swored amgvari wesiT zRudavdnen, Tumca zog SemTxvevaSi misi farTo interpretirebis sasargeblod gakeTebuli arCevani gvaZlevs safuZvels, vifiqroT, rom am SezRudvis klauzula ar aris limitirebuli konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebiT. ISKCON-is saqmeSi, induisturi taZris dagegmarebis SemzRudveli kanonebis gamoyeneba nawilobriv gamarTlebuli iqna axlomdebare soflis mcxovrebTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebze dayrdnobiT.360 naTelia, rom aTasobiT morwmuniTa da maTi manqanebiT soflis gadatvirTva Semawuxebeli iyo mosaxleobisaTvis, Tumca Znelia am konkretul SemTxvevaSi konvenciiT ganmtkicebul romelime uflebaze gakeTdes miTiTeba. amave dros, aSkaraa, rom swored konvenciis uflebebi Seadgenen `sxvaTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs~ me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. aqedan gamomdinare, religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba safuZvelia rogorc individis mier saCivris wardgenis, ise saxelmwifos mxridan sxvaTa uflebebis SezRudvis gamarTlebisaTvis. es ki badebs kiTxvas, religiis Tavisuflebis, rogorc pozitiuri uflebis, sazRvrebi identuria Tu ara religiis da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sazRvrebisa, rogorc sxva uflebaTa SezRudvis gamarTlebisa? saqmeebi, romlebic Seexeba adamianis uflebas, misi religiuri grZnobebis Seuracxyofisgan dacvis Sesaxeb, miuTiTebs, rom is sazRvrebi, romlis farglebSic sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudvaa SesaZlebeli, religiis Tavisuflebis saxeliT SesaZloa ufro moculobiT xasiaTs atarebdes, vidre TviT es ufleba me-9 muxlis safuZvelze.361 es me-9 muxlis meore nawilis precedentuli samarTlis mimarTulebis nawilia, sadac xSirad sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi bundovnad aris ganmartebuli an konvenciis erT-erT uflebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. Tu oto premingeris institutis saqmeSi362 sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis argumenti daefuZna me-9 muxliT ganmtkicebul religiis Tavisuflebas, uingrous363 saqmeSi (sul cota, erT-erTi gansxvavebuli azris mqone mosamarTlis mixedviT364 ) SezRudvis safuZvlad cnobili iqna me-10 muxlis meore nawili, rac, faqtobrivad, gulisxmobs, rom saWiro ar aris kavSiris Cveneba me-10 muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebul sxvaTa uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebsa da konvenciis sxva muxlebiT ganmtkicebul uflebebs Soris. imis miuxedavad, am saqmeebSi sxvaTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi mxolod me-10 muxlis meore nawilidan gamomdinareobs, Tu aseve me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan, ramdenime avtorma seriozuli SeSfoTeba gamoxata imis gamo, rom religiuri grZnobebis Selaxva SeiZleba warmoadgendes konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebebis SezRudvis safuZvels. amis msgavsad, sasamarTlo sxva saqmeebSic bundovnad ayalibebda, Tu konkretulad sxvaTa romeli uflebebi iqna daculi. magaliTad, kokinakisis saqmeSi sasamarTlom sakmaod operatiulad miiRo saberZneTis mTavrobis argumenti, rom antiprozelitistur kanonebs legitimuri mizani hqonda sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis saxiT,365 Tumca ar aris naTeli, saidan gamomdinareobs ufleba prozelitizmisgan Tavisuflebaze. mravali avtori Tu saxelmwifo miiCnevs, rom adamians aqvs ufleba prozelitizmisgan Tavisuflebaze, rogorc religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis nawilze.366 Tumca es pozicia ar aris udavo. mosamarTle petitma ganacxada, rom prozelitizmi `religiis Tavisuflebis ZiriTadi gamoxatvaa~ da `sxvaTa gadmobirebis mcdeloba TavisTavad ar warmoadgens Setevas maT rwmenasa da Tavisuflebaze

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an maTi uflebebis darRvevas~. uqmnis Tu ara safrTxes sityvisa da azris Tavisuflebas sxva partiis mxardamWeri individis saxlis zRurblze gamoCenili politikosi, romelic mis gadarwmunebas cdilobs, raTa am ukanasknelma Seicvalos Tavisi pozicia? kanonebs, romlebic amgvar saqmianobas akrZalavda, sasamarTlo, savaraudod, me-10 muxlis seriozul darRvevad CaTvlida, Tuki pirs eqneboda SesaZlebloba, daeketa kari an uari eTqva mosmenaze. im argumentebs ki, romelTa Tanaxmadac amgvari saqmianoba saxlis patronis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs daarRvevda, sasamarTlo nakleb mniSvnelobas mianiWebda. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom gaiziara saberZneTis mxaris argumenti, romelic erTmaneTisgan ganasxvavebda `qristianTa valdebulebas, moaqcion sxvebi sakuTar rwmenaze, da arakeTilsindisier prozelitizms~367 (Tumca am ukanasknelis Teoriul gansazRvraze sasamarTlom uari ganacxada). Tavisi gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebisas sasamarTlo ZiriTadad msoflio eklesiaTa sabWos moxsenebas daeyrdno, romlis Tanaxmadac arakeTilsindisieri prozelitizmi qristianTa misiis garyvnas warmoadgenda. am moxsenebaSi gakicxuli iyo mZime sulier Tu materialur mdgomareobaSi myofebze zewola maTi religiis Secvlis mizniT, aseve Zaladobisa da ideologiuri damuSavebis xerxebis gamoyeneba, rogorc sxvaTa uflebebis darRveva (Tumca ar yofila miTiTebuli, rom amgvari prozelitizmi danaSaulad unda iqnes ganxiluli). miuxedavad amisa, saberZneTis kanonmdebloba gacilebiT Sors wavida da Seqmna safuZveli kokinakisis msgavsi individebis gasamarTlebisa, romlebic mxolod damajereblad ayalibebdnen sakuTar Sexedulebebs sxva zrdasruli adamianis winaSe.368 mosamarTle martensis mier damajerebeli argumentebis warmodgenis gaTvaliswinebiT, im daskvnis sasargeblod, rom ar arsebobda prozelitizmis uflebaSi Carevis gamarTleba, umravlesobas ufro zustad unda Camoeyalibebina sakuTari pozicia, Tu rogor aris SesaZlebeli prozelitzmis gziT — gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca igi mxolod saubriT Semoifargleba — sxvaTa Tavisuflebis xelyofa. prozelitizmis saSualebiT sxvaTa Tavisuflebis SezRudvis gza SedarebiT naTlad gamoikveTa sxva saqmeSi,369 sadac sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom zemdgomi oficrebis mcdeloba maT daqvemdebarebaSi myof pirTa mimarT prozelitizmis ganxorcilebisa, SeiZleboda dasjiliyo sisxlis samarTlis kanoniT. amis mizezi is iyo, rom samxedro mosamsaxureni ganicdidnen im zewolas armiis ierarqiuli struqturis mxridan, rasac ver igrZnobdnen samoqalaqo pirebi, romelTac hqondaT sruli Tavisufleba, mieRoT an uareyoT esa Tu is midgoma religiur sakiTxebze. `is, rac samoqalaqo samyaroSi CaiTvleboda ideaTa uwyinar gacvlad, romelTa aRiareba an uaryofa adamianis Tavisufal nebazea damokidebuli, samxedro cxovrebis farglebSi SesaZloa ganxiluli iqnes, rogorc Seviwroebis forma an ukanono zewolis ganxorcieleba uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebiT~. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, saxelmwifos hqonda samxedro mosamsaxuris uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTa dacvis legitimuri mizani, prozelitis mtkicebis miuxedavad, rom misi uflebebi aravis daurRvevia da igi Tavisufali nebis safuZvelze gadavida zemdgomi oficrebis rwmenaze. sasamarTlo aseve mzad iyo, am piris Sefaseba sakuTariT Caenacvlebina da ganacxada (adgilobrivi sasamarTloebisa da piris mamis mtkicebulebaTa safuZvelze), rom `dazaralebuls~ Tavi valdebulad unda CaeTvala, esaubra da, SesaZloa, rwmenac ki Seecvala.370

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amgvari saqmeebi konfliqturi uflebebis Sesaxeb wina planze wamoswevs kompleqsur sakiTxebs, sadac ar aris naTeli, Tu ratom unda mieniWos upiratesoba uflebaTa erT nawils meoresTan SedarebiT. zogierT saqmeSi erT-erTi individis uflebebis upiratesoba SedarebiT naTelia. magaliTad, mamakacis mtkicebiT, misi Svilis dedis gadawyvetileba abortis gakeTebis Taobaze da saxelmwifos uari gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi momCivnis monawileobaze misi religiis Tavisuflebis darRveva iyo. komisiam daadgina, rom mamis uflebaTa interpretirebisas `upirvelesad, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli dedis uflebebi, romelic, pirvel rigSi, aris dainteresebuli fexmZimobiT, misi gagrZelebiT an SewyvetiT~. aqedan gamomdinare, komisiam daaskvna, rom momCivnis uflebebis SesaZlo nebismieri xelyofa gamarTlebuli iyo dedis uflebaTa dacvis aucileblobiT. Tumca amgvari martivi gadawyvetileba mxolod mcire raodenobis saqmeebSi iqna gamotanili. imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom religia da rwmena morwmunis cxovrebis mraval aspeqtze zemoqmedebs, religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas didi potenciali aqvs, konfliqtSi Sevides sxva uflebebTan. msgavsi konfliqtebi ki did davasa da SuRls iwveven dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris. Sedegad, amgvar saqmeebSi sasamarTlo da komisia xSirad farTo da sakmaod bundovan uflebamosilebas aniWebdnen saxelmwifoebs religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvisaTvis sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis mizniT. gamoxatvis SezRudva omisa da sagangebo mdgomareobis dros me-9 muxlis meore nawilis SemzRudveli klauzula aris gamarTlebis is saSualeba, rac saxelmwifoebs dRemde gamouyenebiaT religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaSi Carevis moTxovnilebaTa dasabuTebis mizniT. konvenciis sxva muxls, romelic SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iyos me-9 muxlidan gamomdinare uflebebis SezRudvis gamarTlebad, warmoadgens me-15 muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac: omis an sxva sagangebo mdgomareobis dros, romelic safrTxes uqmnis eris arsebobas, nebismier maRal xelSemkvrel mxares ufleba aqvs, miiRos zomebi, romlebic gadauxvevs am konvenciidan gamomdinare valdebulebebs im donemde, rasac mkacrad moiTxovs arsebuli mdgomareobiT ganpirobebuli ukiduresi aucilebloba, amasTan, amgvari zomebi ar unda iyos Seusabamo saerTaSoriso samarTliT masze dakisrebul sxva valdebulebebTan. me-9 muxlis gamoyeneba sxva ramdenime muxlisgan (1-li, me-2, me-3, me-4 (1) da me-7 muxlebi) gansxvavebiT, SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros me-15 muxlidan gamomdinare SezRudvebs. sagangebo viTarebidan gamomdinare, SezRudvebi moicavs ara mxolod religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebas, aramed me-9 muxls mTlianad, Tumca sakmaod rTulia imgvari situaciis warmodgena, romelic saxelmwifosgan `mkacrad moiTxovdes~ Carevas morwmuneTa forum internum-Si. zogierTi avtoris mtkicebiT, sul cota, religiisa da rwmenis qonisa da Secvlis ufleba ar eqceva me-15 muxlis moqmedebis farglebSi, imis miuxedavad, rom amgvari piroba ar aris specialurad naxsenebi. samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis me-18 muxlis gamoyeneba ar eqvemdebareba SezRudvas sagangebo viTarebis pirobebSi.371 TviT rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebac ar SeiZleba dairRves. aqedan gamomdinare, am paqtis monawile

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evropis sabWos wevr qveynebs ar aqvT uflebamosileba, SeaCeron religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis moqmedeba sagangebo mdgomareobis dros, vinaidan dauSvebelia konvenciis gamoyeneba sxva saerTaSoriso aqtebidan gamomdinare valdebulebaTa SesazRudad. rac Seexeba evropis sabWos sxva wevrebs, maTTvis SesaZlebelia me-15 muxlis gamoyeneba me-9 muxlis SesazRudad. sagangebo mdgomareoba mxolod ramdenjerme ganixila sasamarTlom da garkveulwilad winaaRmdegobrivi miTiTebani gaakeTa im sazRvrebis Taobaze, romlis farglebSic igi zedamxedvelobas gauwevs mTavrobaTa gadawyvetilebebs sagangebo viTarebis SemoRebis Taobaze. saqmeSi loulesi gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,372 komisiam `sagangebo mdgomareoba `miakuTvna `gansakuTrebul kriziss an kritikul viTarebas, romelic mTel sazogadoebas Seexeba~. saqmeSi irlandia gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg,373 sasamarTlom gansakuTrebulad mowiwebuli damokidebuleba daafiqsira sagangebo mdgomareobasTan dakavSirebiT saxelmwifoTa midgomebis mimarT. sasamarTlos gancxadebis mixedviT `arsebul ukidures aucileblobasTan pirdapiri da gangrZobadi kavSiris gamo, erovnuli xelisufleba gacilebiT ukeTes poziciaSi imyofeba, vidre saerTaSoriso mosamarTle, raTa gansazRvros kritikuli situaciis arseboba da misi Tavidan acilebisaTvis aucilebeli SezRudvebis farglebi~. am SemTxvevaSi me-15 muxli farTo diskreciul uflebamosilebas aniWebs saxelmwifoebs.374 jerjerobiT me-15 muxli ar yofila gamoyenebuli me-9 muxlze dawesebuli SezRudvebis gasamarTleblad. Tuki odesme mas am rolSi gamoiyeneben, saxelmwifoebs kvlavac mouwevT imis Cveneba, rom SezRudvebi gansakuTrebiT aucilebeli iyo arsebuli garemoebebis gamo. sasamarTlos darwmuneba, savaraudod, gacilebiT ioli iqneba gamoxatvis uflebasTan dakavSirebiT, vidre religiisa da rwmenis qonis Tu Secvlis uflebis SezRudvis SemTxvevaSi. miuxedavad amisa, me-15 muxli kvlavac erTaderT debulebad rCeba, romelsac potenciurad SeuZlia SezRudos me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili. maSin, roca saxelmwifoTa mxridan zemoT gacxadebuli miznis misaRwevad me-15 muxlis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba sakmaod realuria, Zalze rTulia, winaswar prognozireba, amgvar saqmeebSi gamoyenebul midgomebs Soris aSkara Seusabamobis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu saxelmwifos mier miRebuli zomebis ra doneze gamokvlevisaTvis iqneba sasamarTlo mzad. yovel SemTxvevaSi, me-15 muxlis safuZvelze moqmedebis ufleba sakmaod SezRuduli375 da naklebad relevanturia, vidre me-9 muxlis meore nawilis interpretacia im adamianebis yoveldRiuri cxovrebisaTvis, romlebic cdiloben, sakuTar religiasa Tu rwmenasTan sruli SesabamisobiT icxovron. *** esa Tu is religia an rwmena SeiZleba iseTi yovlismomcveli iyos, rom misi mimdevris cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela aspeqts gansazRvravdes. amas ki xSirad mivyavarT konfliqtisken rogorc saxelmwifoTa gegmebTan, ise im gzasTan, romliTac calkeul adamianebs sakuTari cxovrebis warmarTva Tu uflebaTa realizeba surT. garkveuli kompromisi gardauvalia. amitomac me-9 muxlis meore nawilSi asaxulia sxvadasxva, erTmaneTis sapirispiro kompleqsuri faqtorebis dabalansebis aucilebloba. me-9 muxlis SemzRudavi nawili ufro adre warmodgenil proeqtebTan da konvenciis sxva amgvar SemzRudvel muxlebTan SedarebiT ufro viwrod iqna SemuSavebuli, rac imas

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niSnavs, rom sasamarTlom ar unda waSalos zRvari sxvadasxva SemzRudvel nawilebs Soris da arc farTo an bundovan definiciebs mianiWos upiratesoba. es gansakuTrebiT samarTliania me-9 muxlis konteqstSi, sadac erousmitis testi momCivnisagan moiTxovs imis damtkicebas, rom saxelmwifos mier SezRuduli qceva aucilebeli iyo misi religiisa Tu rwmenisaTvis. Tuki me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan amovalT, ufro Sesabamisi iqneboda gacilebiT rbili testi imave muxlis meore nawilis doneze, radganac religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva udidesi mniSvnelobisaa morwmunisaTvis. vinaidan saxelmwifom unda aCvenos Tavisi qmedebebis proporciuloba dasaxuli miznebis mimarT, religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciis mniSvneloba unda gamoikveTos sasamarTlo Sefasebis procesSi, romelsac es ukanaskneli aucileblobis gansazRvris mizniT axorcielebs. religiasa da rwmenaze dawesebuli SezRudvebis Sefasebis yvela stadiaze sasamarTlo da komisia saocar pativiscemas amJRavnebdnen saxelmwifoTa moTxovnebis mimarT. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis regularulad gverdis avliT faqtobrivad sawyisi etapidanve xdeboda momCivnis Camocileba analizis procesidan. saqmis specifikur faqtebze yuradRebis gamaxvilebisa da SezRuduli sazRvrebis mqone gadawyvetilebis miRebis Tavisive survilma sasamarTlo waaxalisa, eRiarebina, rom farTod SemuSavebuli wesebi kanoniTaa gaTvaliswinebuli da legitimuri mizani aqvs maSinac, roca gansxvavebul poziciaze mdgomi mosamarTleni eWvqveS ayenebdnen kanonis mizans an xazs usvamdnen mis aSkara diskriminaciul gamoyenebas. amis Sedegad ki fokusireba saxelmwifos qmedebis gansazRvraze xdeboda, iyo Tu ara igi aucilebeli da proporciuli me-9 muxlis meore nawilSi warmodgenili erT-erTi miznis mimarT. garda amisa, religiuri da sxva rwmenebis sadavo xasiaTma Zalze gaurTula sasamarTlos konsensusis miRweva, imis Taobaze Tu rogor moegvarebina konfliqtebi religiasa da rwmenas, da sxva legitimur interesebs Soris. aman ki saxelmwifos farTo diskreciamde migviyvana da, Sesabamisad, Zalze garTulda momCivanTaTvis sakuTari moTxovnebis samarTlianobis damtkiceba. msgavs mowiwebul damokidebulebas saxelmwifo xelisuflebis mimarT mxolod im saqmeebis msgavs SemTxvevebSi emuqreba dasasruli, sadac, magaliTad, saxelmwifo da misi kanonebi Segnebulad iyo mimarTuli tradiciuli religiuri qcevis winaaRmdeg, rogoricaa RvTismsaxurebisaTvis gankuTvnili adgilebis daarseba an prozelitizmi. imis miuxedavad, rom am saqmeebSi sasamarTlom kvlav Zalze viwro, faqtobrivi midgoma gamoiyena wamoWrili sakiTxebis mimarT, is mzad aRmoCnda, uareyo saxelmwifo qmedebaTa aucileblobis argumenti da detalurad mimoexila kanonis gamoyenebis gza. Tumca, rogorc Semdgom qveTavSi vixilavT, es kvlav daucvelad tovebs momCivanTa sakmaod farTo jgufs, romlis religia an rwmena ara religiaze specialuri kanonmdeblobiT, aramed zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebiT aris SezRuduli.

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neitraluri da zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebi
urTierTqmedeba zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebsa da religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebas Soris aris sakiTxi, romelmac konceptualuri sirTuleebi gamoiwvia religiis TavisuflebasTan SexebaSi myof sxva iurisdiqciebSi, Tumca sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier ar yofila detalurad ganxiluli. amis mizezia ara saqmeTa nakleboba, romlebic mocemul sakiTxs Seexeboda, aramed is, rom arc sasamarTlos da arc komisias jerovani seriozulobiT ar ganuxilavT amgvari SemTxvevebi. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis problema maSin wamoiWreba, rodesac saxelmwifo iRebs kanonmdeblobas, romelic erTi SexedviT, arc religiur sakiTxebs Seexeba da arc romelime religiuri jgufis diskriminaciad aRiqmeba. Tumca zog SemTxvevaSi warmosaxviTi neitraloba SecdomaSi Semyvania da kanoni SesaZlebelia miRebuli iyos garkveuli religiuri jgufis saqmianobis SezRudvisaTvis376 an gamoyenebul iqnes diskriminaciuli wesiT377 . es kanonebi xSirad mxolod STabeWdilebas qmnis, rom isini neitraluri da zogadi daniSnulebisaa, Tumca realoba sxvagvaria da arc ise rTulia imis gansazRvra, xelyofen Tu ara amgvari kanonebi religiasa da rwmenas. am qveTavSi ganxilulia kanonebi, romlebic realurad neitraluria religiis mimarT da zogadia gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, Tumca calkeul SemTxvevebSi garkveuli religiis an rwmenis mimdevarTa mxridan iseTi qmedebis Sesrulebas moiTxovs, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba maT religiasa da rwmenas.378 es sakiTxi pluralistur evropul sazogadoebebSi SesaZloa mwvave azrTasxvadasxvaobis sagani gaxdes. konkretuli jgufisTvis nebis darTva, Tavi aaridos kanons, romelic zogadi sikeTisTvis iqna miRebuli, zogs usamarTlod miaCnia im pirebis mimarT, romlebic iZulebulni arian, kanonis Sesaba-

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misad imoqmedon, amave dros mas Tvlian potenciuri safrTxis Semcvelad sazogadoebrivi erTianobisa da keTildReobisaTvis. sxvebisTvis ki iZuleba, daemorCilon maT Rrma religiur rwmenasTan winaaRmdegobaSi myof kanonebs, warmoadgens religiuri an sxva rwmenis usamarTlo xelyofas. momCivnebi me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi xSir SemTxvevaSi aRiareben, rom saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, miiRos zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi. am saqmeTa umravlesobaSi warmodgenilia yovelmxrivi sakanonmdeblo sistemebi iseT mravalferovan sferoebSi, rogoricaa msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvis vaqcinacia,379 saavtomobilo dazRveva,380 pensia381 da gadasaxadebi.382 Tuki saxelmwifoebs ar eqnebodaT uflebamosileba, mieRoT amgvari tipis kanonebi sazogadoebrivi keTildReobisaTvis, maSin maTi Zalaufleba usamarTlod iqneboda xelyofili me-9 muxlis safuZvelze. swored aqedan gamomdinare, momCivanTa umravlesoba ar cdilobs imis damtkicebas, rom es kanonebi ar unda yofiliyo miRebuli. xSir SemTxvevaSi momCivanTa moTxovna am kanonebisgan gaTavisuflebas ukavSirdeba an im sakiTxs Seexeba, rom maTi gamoyeneba konkretul SemTxvevaSi Seusabamo iyo, an rom amgvari sakanonmdeblo aqtebis SemuSaveba ufro viwrod unda momxdariyo. sasamarTlosa da komisiis pasuxi amgvar saqmeebSi SeiZleba sami ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT daiyos. pirveli midgomis mixedviT, sanam kanoni neitraluria da aradiskriminaciulad gamoiyeneba, mas ar SeuZlia me-9 muxlis darRveva. meore midgoma mdgomareobs imaSi, rom pirovnebis religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudva zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonis safuZvelze SesaZloa me-9 muxlis darRveva iyos, Tumca Sesabamisi garemoebebis arsebobis pirobebSi igi SeiZleba gamarTlebul iqnes me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. sasamarTlo da komisia me-9 muxlis meore nawilze dayrdnobiT cdiloben gadawyviton, gamarTlebadia Tu ara gasaCivrebuli kanoni demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. alternativis saxiT maT SeeZloT ganexilaT sakiTxi, SeiZleboda Tu ara, kanoni, miuxedavad misi legitimuri miznisa, ufro viwrod mizanmimarTuli yofiliyo, religiis TavisuflebasTan konfliqtis Tavidan asacileblad, da iqneboda Tu ara Sesabamisi im pirTa gaTavisufleba kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli valdebulebisagan, romlebic aprotesteben mis Sesrulebas religiisa da rwmenis niadagze. imis miuxedavad, rom sasamarTlo da komisia ar iTvaliswinebdnen amgvar midgomas, igi ufro Tavsebadi iqneboda religiis Tavisuflebis dacvasTan, vidre arsebuli midgoma. bolo midgoma, romelic zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis erTi tipis mimarT gamoiyenes, konvenciis sxva muxlze specialuri miTiTebiT Semoifargleba. amgvari dasabuTeba tradiciulad samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis saqmeebSi gamoiyeneboda. kanonebi samxedro samsaxurSi moqalaqeTa gawvevis Taobaze zogadi da neitraluria. cxadia, maTi mizani religiuri umciresobebis Seviwroeba ar aris, Tumca isini mniSvnelovan tvirTs akisreben maT, vinc religiiT an rwmeniT pacifistia. saqmis ganxilvis specifika samxedro samsaxuris mimarT keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobasTan dakavSirebiT Zalian hgavs zogadi daniSnulebis kanonisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis sxva nebismier formas.

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keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT bevr xelSemkvrel saxelmwifoSi arsebobs garkveuli formis iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuri. istoriulad bevr evropul qveyanaSi samxedro samsaxuri savaldebulo iyo yvela janmrTeli axalgazrda mamakacisTvis da ar daiSveboda gaTavisufleba sindisis safuZvelze.383 dResdReobiT ki evropul saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuris sistema nebas rTavs moqalaqeebs politikuri, religiuri Tu eTikuri motivebiT Seasrulon alternatiuli samoqalaqo samsaxuri.384 rac Seexeba uars rogorc samxedro, ise alternatiuli samsaxuris Sesrulebaze, igi mravalgvar sasjels iTvaliswinebs, maT Soris Tavisuflebis aRkveTas. dRemde mxolod am bolo xanebSi Tu ganucdiaT konvenciisgan mciredi daxmareba zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis keTilsindisierad mowinaaRmdege pirebs.385 Tumca dReisTvis sasamarTlos ukve SemuSavebuli aqvs midgoma, romelsac ZaluZs uzrunvelyos sasargeblo precedenti im saqmeebisaTvis, romlebic Seexeba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas samxedro samsaxuris konteqstis farglebs gareT. tradiciuli midgoma keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT pirvel saqmeSi, romelic keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas Seexeboda 1966 wels, komisiis mier dakavebuli poziciis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifoebi ar iyvnen valdebulni, eRiarebinaT pirebi, romlebic politikuri, religiuri an eTikuri motivebis safuZvelze uars acxadebdnen samxedro samsaxuris Sesrulebaze.386 komisiis mier warmodgenili dasabuTeba efuZneboda konvenciis me-4 muxls, romelic krZalavda monobasa da Zaladobriv an iZulebiT Sromas. ufro konkretulad ki misi argumentaciis safuZvels me-4 muxlis mesame nawili warmoadgenda: am muxlis miznebisaTvis termini `Zaladobrivi an iZulebiTi Sroma~ ar moicavs:... b) nebismieri saxis samxedro xasiaTis samsaxurs an samsaxurs, gaTvaliswinebuls samxedro samsaxuris nacvlad, im qveynebSi, sadac aRiarebulia keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT. komisiam miiCnia, rom, vinaidan me-4 muxli Seexeba keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadebel pirebs mxolod im qveynebSi, sadac `aRiarebulia uari samxedro samsaxurze religiur-eTikuri motivebis safuZvelze~, ar arsebobs saxelmwifoTa valdebuleba, aRiaron amgvari winaaRmdegoba.387 Sesabamisad, komisiam uaryo samxedro samsaxuris sawinaaRmdego argumenti da ganacxada, rom igi ar imsaxurebs dacvas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze.388 garda amisa, vinaidan alternatiuli samsaxuri gamonaklisia iZulebiTi Sromis wesebidan, komisiam daaskvna, rom amgvari samsaxuri ar arRvevs me-9 muxls.389 komisiam aseve aRniSna, rom swored saxelmwifo diskreciaSi eqceva gadawyvetileba samoqalaqo samsaxuris xangrZlivobis gazrdaze samxedro samsaxuris vadebTan SedarebiT, rogorc damabrkolebeli saSualeba imis uzrunvelsayofad, rom mxolod gulwrfeli rwmenis mqone individebma mianiWon mas upiratesoba.390 samsaxuris vadebis amgvari zrda proporciulobis principis sakiTxia. saxelmwifoebs SeuZliaT gazardon samsaxuris xangrZlivoba, rom gamoricxon yvela, garda gulwrfelad keTilsindisieri moqalaqeebisa, alternatiuli samsaxuris ufro ioli gzis arCevisagan, magram maT ar gaaCniaT ufleba, moaxdinon vadebis iseTi zrda, romelic usamarTlod mZime an damsjeli xasiaTisa iqneba.391 komisias ar ganusazRvravs zRvari,

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romlis miRmac samoqalaqo samsaxuris vada disproporciuli iqneboda da arc saxelmwifos qmedeba CauTvlia odesme konvenciis darRvevad alternatiuli samsaxuris sistemis gamo. evropul saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi, sadac aRiarebulia keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba, alternatiuli samsaxuri ufro xangrZlivia, vidre samxedro da anazRaurebac SedarebiT dabalia.392 vinaidan ar arsebobs alternatiuli samxedro samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis ufleba, komisiam daadgina, rom saxelmwifoebi, sadac amgvari samsaxuri arsebobs, uflebamosilni arian, Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT dasajon is, vinc uars ityvis mis Sesrulebaze da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi gaagrZelon kidec amgvari sasjelebis gamoyeneba zewolis gziT wvevamdelTa iZulebis mizniT, raTa isini daemorCilon kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul valdebulebebs.393 ra Tqma unda, nebismieri amgvari sanqcia kanoniT unda iyos gansazRvruli da me-5 muxlis moTxovnebs unda akmayofilebdes.394 Tumca, komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, ar arsebobs moTxovna me-6 muxlSi Camoyalibebuli samarTliani sasamarTlo procedurebis Sesabamisad, imis gansazRvris aucileblobisa, rom piri valdebuli iyo, gaevlo samxedro an misi Semcvleli alternatiuli samsaxuri, Tuki dapatimrebis mizani ufro iZulebiTia, vidre dasjadi.395 ra Tqma unda, arsebobs garkveuli gamarTleba me-9 muxlis zogad da me-4 muxlis specifikur debulebebs Soris konfliqtis safuZvelze komisiis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebisa samxedro samsaxurTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi. me-4 muxli pirdapir ar Seexeba religiis Tavisuflebas da arc TviT keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas. misi upirvelesi mizani monobisa da Zaladobrivi an iZulebiTi Sromis akrZalvaa. me-4 muxliT bunebrivia, gaziarebulia Sexeduleba, romlis mixedviTac saxelmwifo, romelsac iZulebiTi samxedro an misi Semcvleli alternatiuli samsaxuri aqvs SemoRebuli, SeuZlebelia iZulebiT SromaSi ar CarTvaze adamianis uflebis damrRvevad CaiTvalos. Tumca aseve ar uWers aSkarad mxars im mosazrebas, rom SeiZleba iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuris daZaleba pirisaTvis misi yvelaze Zlieri religiuri rwmenis mxedvelobaSi miuReblad, magram amasve gulisxmobs keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT frazis, `sadac aRiarebulia~, gamoyenebiT. amis miuxedavad, am frazis safuZvelze konfliqti ikveTeba mxolod me-4 da me-9 muxlebs Soris da misi me-4 muxlis sasargeblod ase gadaWriT gadawyveta mizanSewonili ar aris. keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobasTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi komisiis mier dakavebuli pozicia nawilobriv ganpirobebuli iyo im sirTuleebis mxedvelobaSi miRebiT, romlebsac saxelmwifoebi awydebian samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis samarTliani sistemebis ganviTarebis procesSi.396 iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuri SesaZloa mZime, usiamovno da arasasurveli iyos bevri samxedrovaldebulisaTvis, visac samxedro samsaxurisadmi religiuri da filosofiuri winaaRmdegoba ara aqvs. 397 TviT Semcvlelma samsaxurma SesaZloa axalgazrdebi moswyvitos yoveldRiur, Cveulebriv cxovrebas, samuSaos, ganaTlebas da ojaxs. aqedan gamomdinare, samxedro samsaxurisaTvis gamosadegi axalgazrdebis raodenobis nebismierma Semcirebam, SesaZloa, gazardos gawveulTa samsaxuris vada da samuSaos moculoba. amis Sedegad ki ar aris gamoricxuli sazogadoebis farTo wreebSi garkveuli mtruli ganwyobis warmoSoba samxedro samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebulTa mimarT.398 Zalze bevr saqmeSi komisiam miiCnia, rom `iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuris nebismieri sistema mZime tvirTs akisrebs moqalaqeebs~. tvirTi SesaZloa misaRebad CaiTvalos, Tu is ganawilebulia obieqtu-

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rad da Tu gamonaklisi SemTxvevebi safuZvlian mizezebs emyareba. Tu moqalaqeTa gansazRvruli raodenoba gaTavsuflebuli iqneboda damajerebeli mizezebis gareSe, dadgeboda sakiTxi danarCeni moqalaqeebis diskriminaciis Taobaze.399 tradiciuli midgoma diskriminaciis saqmeebSi komisiis uari, zemoT ganxilul saqmeebSi eRiarebina keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ufleba, SemdgomSi xazgasmuli iqna im saqmeebiT, sadac momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom saxelmwifo diskriminaciulad wyvetda sakiTxs, vin iyo uflebamosili, moeTxova gaTavisufleba samxedro samsaxuridan da vin _ ara. amgvari tipis saqmeebSi momCivnebi, ZiriTadad, asaCivrebdnen kanons, romliTac nebadarTuli iyo gaTavisufleba samxedro samsaxuridan, mxolod gansazRvruli tipis religiuri mrwamsis mqone da ara sxva religiisa Tu rwmenis mimdevarTaTvis. am saqmeebSi konfliqti me-4 da me-9 muxlebs Soris ar aris aqtualuri, Tumca komisia kvlav didi pativiscemiT moekida me-14 muxlis gamoyenebis saxelmwifo interesebs. saqmeSi N SvedeTis winaaRmdeg,400 komisiam uaryo momCivnis moTxovna, romlis mixedviTac kanoni, romelic iTvaliswinebda gaTavisuflebas samxedro samsaxuris Sesrulebisagan mxolod maTTvis, visac am valdebulebis ganxorcieleba ar SeeZlo `gansazRvruli religiuri sazogadoebisaTvis kuTvnilebis gamo~, diskriminaciul xasiaTs atarebda. praqtikaSi amgvari dacviT sargeblobdnen mxolod ieRovas mowmeebi, Tumca es debuleba qmnida SesaZleblobas, rom sxva religiur gaerTianebebsac esargeblaT dacviT. kanoni ar iTvaliswinebda samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebas filosofiuri mrwamsis safuZvelze. momCivani Tvlida, rom vinaidan iziarebda ieRovas mowmeTa rwmenas pacifizmis TvalsazrisiT, maT msgavsad kanonismieri dacviT unda esargebla. komisiam uaryo saCivari imis safuZvelze, rom, diskriminacia SvedeTis kanonmdeblobiT gonivrulad gamarTlebuli da obieqturi iyo, vinaidan `ieRovas mowmeTa wevrebi misdeven mravalmxrivi qcevis wesebis erTobliobas, rac yoveldRiuri cxovrebis mraval aspeqts moicavs~. aqedan gamomdinare, ieRovas mowmeTa wevroba warmoadgens Zlier arguments imisa, rom winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT efuZneba gulwrfel religiur Sexedulebebs. ar arsebobs aRniSnulis Tanazomadi mtkicebuleba maT mimarT, vinc uars acxadebs samxedro samsaxurze, Tumca ar aris msgavsi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebis mqone sazogadoebis wevri. me-14 muxlis interpretaciis es midgoma SeiZleba Sedarebuli iqnes gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetis mier gamoyenebul midgomasTan, Zalze msgavsi faqtebis Semcveli saCivris ganxilvis procesSi. komitetma daadgina, rom: samxedro samsaxurze uaris keTilsindisierad ganmcxadebelTa mxolod erTi jgufis gaTavisufleba valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan, yvela sxva danarCenTa mier ki am dacviT sargeblobis uflebis uqonloba ar SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnes gonivrulad ... rodesac ufleba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze aRiarebulia xelSemkvreli saxelmwifos mier, dauSvebelia uaris keTilsindisierad ganmcxadeblebis yovelgvari diferencireba maTi rwmenis bunebis safuZvelze.401 komisiam aseTive viwro midgoma gamoiyena diskriminaciis mimarT, rodesac samxedro samsaxuridan religiuri liderebi gaTavisufldnen iseTi wesiT, romelic erTma-

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neTisgan ganasxvavebda sxvadasxva religiis winamZRolebs. magaliTad, grendreTis saqmeSi germaniis federaluri respublikis kanonmdebloba iTvaliswinebda debulebas, romlis Tanaxmadac evangelisti da kaTolike sasuliero pirebi avtomaturad Tavisufldebodnen samxedro samsaxuris Sesrulebisagan, maSin, roca sxva religiaTa analogiuri wodebis mqone msaxurni dacviT mxolod gancxadebis safuZvelze isargeblebdnen. imisaTvis, rom piri xsenebuli wodebis Tanazomier religiur liderad yofiliyo ganxiluli, aucilebeli iyo imis demonstrireba, rom religiuri lideroba mis ZiriTad profesias warmoadgenda, romelic srul samuSao dRes moicavda. momCivani iTxovda gaTavisuflebas im motiviT, rom igi ieRovas mowmeTa religiuri sazogadoebis bibliis swavlebis lideri iyo. saxelmwifom uaryo misi gancxadeba da miuTiTa, rom ganmcxadeblis ZiriTadi samuSao mxatvris asistentobaa da misi roli, rogorc bibliis swavlebis liderisa, ar aris realuri mniSvnelobis mqone rogorc religiuri sazogadoebis, ise TviT misi profesiisTvis. komisiam mxari dauWira saxelmwifos gadawyvetilebas da miuTiTa, sruli samuSao droiT momuSave religiuri liderebis mimarT gansxvavebuli damokidebulebis gonivrulobaze im pirebTan SedarebiT, vinc srulad ar aris dakavebuli amgvari saqmianobiT. garda amisa, komisiis SexedulebiT, dasaSvebi iyo kanonmdeblobis mixedviT imis prezumireba, rom kaTolike da evangelisti sasuliero pirebi unda gaTavisufldnen samxedro samsaxurisgan (imis miuxedavad, rom calkeul SemTxvevaSi sasuliero pirad yofna maTi ZiriTadi profesia ar aris da kanonmdebloba im pirTa gaTavisuflebasac iTvaliswinebda, romlebic sasuliero seminariaSi aswavlidnen), aseve sxva religiebis wevrebisaTvis TavianTi moTxovnis dasabuTebis aucilebloba. komisias SeeZlo ufro detalurad ganexila diskriminaciis sakiTxi kanonmdeblobaSi, romelic sxvadasxva tests ayalibebda evangelisti da kaTolike sasuliero pirebisa (Tanamdebobrivi testi) da sxvaTa religiuri moTxovnebisaTvis (saqmianobis testi). keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis aRiareba saerTaSoriso samarTalSi miuxedavad imisa, rom komisia uars acxadebda keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze konvenciidan gamomdinare uflebis aRiarebaze, uamravma sxva saerTaSoriso dawesebulebam gamoxata am uflebis mxardaWera. evropis sabWos saparlamento asambleam, sadac am sakiTxze imarTeboda diskusiebi, daaskvna, rom keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba wamoWrida religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis sakiTxebs. man Camoayaliba principebis erToblioba, romelic unda gamoeyenebinaT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis SemTxvevaSi da mouwoda wevr saxelmwifoebs, TavianTi erovnuli kanonmdebloba asambleis mier SemuSavebul saxelmZRvanelo wesebTan SesabamisobaSi moeyvanaT. es principebia: 1) samxedrovaldebuli pirebi, romlebic sindisis an Rrma religiuri, eTikuri, moraluri, filosofiuri an msgavsi motivebiT uars acxadeben samxedro samsaxuris Sesrulebaze, isargebleben personaluri uflebiT, gaTavisufldnen am samsaxuris Sesrulebis valdebulebisagan. 2) es ufleba warmoebulia adamianis fundamenturi uflebebidan kanonis uzenaesobis mqone demokratiul qveynebSi, romlebic garantirebulia adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis me-9 muxlSi.402

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aqedan gamomdinare, saparlamento asambleam da mogvianebiT ministrTa komitetma403 aRiares ufleba samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze (ara alternatiuli samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis gziT), rogorc me-9 muxlidan warmoebuli. gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetma aseve aRiara ufleba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze, romelic religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebidan gamomdinareobs samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtis safuZvelze.404 es midgoma aseve mxardaWeril iqna gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komisiis mier.405 aqedan gamomdinare, SeiZleba daskvnis gamotana, rom adamianis uflebaTa evropuli komisiis praqtika keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobasa da mis kavSirze religiis an rwmenis TavisuflebasTan sagrZnoblad CamorCa saerTaSoriso samarTalSi ganviTarebul movlenebs. alternatiuli midgoma keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT kritikis miuxedavad, komisiam sami aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi SeinarCuna Tavisi viwro midgoma keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT. Tumca bolo ori saqme miuTiTebs gansazRvrul cvlilebaze damokidebulebaSi gansakuTrebiT diskriminaciis sakiTxisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis sistemaSi. pirveli saqme cirlsi da kulumpasi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg406 Seexeboda ieRovas mowmeTa ori msaxuris dapatimrebas samxedro sasamarTloTa gadawyvetilebiT samxedro ZalebSi msaxurze uaris safuZvelze. momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze maT ekuTvnodaT gaTavisufleba samxedro samsaxuridan, radgan `cnobili religiis~ msaxurebi iyvnen. saboloo jamSi, uzenaesma administraciulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ieRovas mowmeebs saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis mixedviT hqondaT gaTavisuflebis ufleba. Sedegad, momCivnebi sapatimrodan gaaTavisufles, Tumca yovelgvari kompensaciis gareSe. komisiam daadgina, rom maTi msjavrdebiT darRveul iqna me-9 muxli, me-14 muxlTan kavSirSi, vinaidan ieRovas mowmeTa msaxurebma Tavisuflebis aRkveTis xangrZlivi periodi gaiares, vidre maTi ufleba samxedro samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebaze iqneboda aRiarebuli, maSin, roca marTlmadidebeli mRvdlebi yovelgvari problemis gareSe sargeblobdnen TavianTi uflebebiT.407 amgvari diskriminaciisaTvis obieqturi da gonivruli safuZvlebi ar arsebobda. Tumca komisia gamokveTilad daeyrdno grendraTis saqmeSi miRebul gadawyvetilebas, romlis Tanaxmadac, sasuliero pirebs ar hqondaT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ufleba da erTi SexedviT gamoCnda, rom is mxolod SedarebiT mkacr midgomas iyenebda keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis kanonebis diskriminaciuli gamoyenebis mimarT, vidre amas warsulSi akeTebda. sasamarTlom Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi fokusireba sasamarTlo processa da ieRovas mowmeTa msjavrdebaze moaxdina da ganacxada, rom aucileblobas ar warmoadgenda me-9 da me-14 muxlebidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis gancalkevebuli mimoxilva. komisiis erT-erTma wevrma Tavis nawilobriv gansxvavebul azrSi pirdapir gaakritika grendraTis saqmeSi sayovelTaod miRebuli midgoma, rom me-9 muxli ar iyo aqtualuri keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobasTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi. qalbaton lidis gancxadebiT, sasuliero pirebis samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis iZuleba Tavisi arsiT warmoadgenda religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis xelyofas.408 misi analizis Tanaxmad me-4 muxlis debulebebSi ar `igulisxmeba, TiTqos me-9 muxli ga-

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mousadegari iyos, aramed xazgasmulia, rom samxedro an alternatiuli samsaxuris aucilebloba me-9 muxlis meore nawilis ganxilvis farglebSi eqceva da saxelmwifos diskrecia gazrdilia me-4 muxlis mesame nawilis Tanaxmad~. qalbaton lidis aRniSnuli mosazreba me-9 muxlis radikalurad farTo interpretaciis Taobaze komisiis interesis sagnad iqca mxolod gansazRvruli drois Semdgom saqmeSi Tlimenosi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg.409 es saqme dakavSirebuli iyo ieRovas mowmesTan, romelic msjavdebuli iqna da Seefarda ori wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevaze uarisaTvis. ramdenime wlis Semdeg man warmatebiT Caabara testi buRaltris Tanamdebobaze. Tumca momCivans uari eTqva samuSaoze im motiviT, rom igi msjavrdebuli iyo mZime danaSaulisaTvis. momCivnis mtkicebiT, es misi uflebebis darRveva iyo me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, me-14 muxlTan kavSirSi. komisiis Semadgenlobis umravlesobam mxari dauWira saCivars me-9 da me-14 muxlebis kombinaciis safuZvelze. umravlesobis komentaris mixedviT, vinaidan ar arsebobda xelmisawvdomi alternatiuli samsaxuris SesaZlebloba, ieRovas mowmeni iZulebulni iyvnen arCevani gaekeTebinaT samxedro ZalebSi msaxursa da msjavrdebas Soris. am garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, komisiam miiCnia, rom momCivnis braleulad cnoba udrida misi uflebis xelyofas religiis gamoxatvaze. maT mxolod miuTiTes, rom komisiis dRemde moqmedi precedentuli samarTliT msjavrdeba keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobisTvis ar iyo me-9 muxlis darRveva, Tumca ar inebes, Tavad mieRoT gadawyvetileba am sakiTxze. es nawilobriv imiTac aixsneba, rom saqmeSi gasaCivrebuli iyo gadawyvetileba, romliTac momCivans uari eTqva buRaltris Tanamdebobis dakavebaze da ara Tavisuflebis aRkveTa.410 daskvna, romlis Tanaxmadac msjavrdeba keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegomisaTvis adamianis uflebis darRvevas warmoadgenda religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze, grendraTis saqmeSi Camoyalibebuli sayovelTaod aRiarebuli mosazrebis gakritikeba (Tumca ara pirdapiri uaryofa) iyo. rac Seexeba komisiis Semadgenlobis umciresobas, igi ufro Sors wavida da saqme pirdapir me-9 muxlis safuZvelze gadawyvita. umciresobaSi myofma komisiis wevrebma mokled mimoixiles warsulSi arsebuli precedentuli samarTali, Tumca miuiTiTes, rom konvenciis iurisprudenciam, grendraTis saqmidan moyolebuli, `imgvari evolucia ganicada, rom eWvqveS daayena~ aRniSnul saqmeSi gamoyenebuli argumentacia.411 maTi mosazrebiT, momCivnis uari samxedro ZalebSi msaxurze me-9 muxlis safuZvelze imsaxurebda dacvas. ieRovas mowmis uari misi religiis gamoxatva iyo, amitomac es SemTxveva gansxvavdeboda sxva saqmeebisagan, sadac individebis qmedebani maTi rwmenis uSualo gamoxatvas ar warmoadgenda (mag, erousmitis saqme) an kanonebs mizanmimarTuli qveteqsti ar gaaCndaT (rogoricaa, sagadasaxado kanonebi). aqedan gamomdinare, umciresobaSi myofi komisiis wevrebi Seecadnen TavianTi gadawyvetileba samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobiT SemoefarglaT. Tlimenosis saqme aseve sasamarTlos didi palatis winaSe moismines da mosamarTleebma TavianTi gadawyvetilebis fokusireba diskriminaciis sakiTxze moaxdines.412 komisiisgan gansxvavebiT, sasamarTlom ar CaTvala saWirod gamoekvlia, ramdenad utoldeboda momCivnis uflebebis xelyofas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze misi msjavrdeba da xelisuflebis uari mis buRaltrad daniSvnaze. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos ar ganuxilavs sakiTxi imis Taobaze, sanqciebi religiuri mosazrebebiT samxedro samsaxurze uaris ganmcxadebelTa mimarT TavisTavad warmoadgens Tu ara me-9 muxliT garan-

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tirebuli uflebis darRvevas azris, sindisis da religiis Tavisuflebaze. sasamarTlo Semoifargla mxolod me-14 muxlis SemowmebiT me-9 muxlTan kavSirSi. man daadgina, rom saberZneTis mTavrobis uari momCivnis mier buRaltris saqmianobis warmarTvaze, diskriminaciuli iyo. sasamarTlos ar ganuxilavs keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobisTvis individebis msjavrdebis konvenciasTan Sesabamisobis sakiTxi, Tumca ganacxada, rom maTi Semdgomi Seferxeba sakuTari profesiebis Sesabamisi saqmianobis ganxorcielebisa disproporciuli iyo im pirTa dasjis miznebisa, romlebic uars acxadeben, emsaxuron sakuTar qveyanas. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos pozicia samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis sakiTxze kvlav bundovania. maSin, roca grendraTis saqmeSi SemuSavebuli mimarTuleba komisiis kritikis sagnad iqca, sasamarTlom uari ganacxada, am stadiaze ganexila es sakiTxi. miuxedavad amisa, Tlimenosis saqmeSi miRebul gadawyvetilebas, romlis mixedviTac arsebuli regulaciebi diskriminaciulia, Tu isini ar iTvaliswinebs im pirTa gaTavisuflebas kanonismieri valdebulebis Sesrulebisagan, romlebic ver daemorCilebian mas religiidan an rwmenidan gamomdinare mizezebis gamo, me-9 muxlis interpretaciaze Zalze didi zegavlenis moxdenis potenciali aqvs. ra Tqma unda, es arsebiTi cvlilebaa sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier im adrindel saqmeebSi dakavebuli poziciisa, sadac pirebi religiisa da rwmenis safuZvelze uars acxadebdnen zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis Sesrulebaze, samxedro konteqstis farglebs gareT. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi precedentul samarTalSi Tuki samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba saxelmwifoTa mxridan mzardi mxardaWeriT sargeblobs, arsebobs zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi, romlebic ar Seexeba samxedro samsaxurs da, Sesabamisad, maT mimarT SeuZlebelia me-4 muxlis gamoyeneba. aqedan gamomdinare, obieqturad me-9 muxlis moqmedebis sferoSi eqceva sakiTxi imis Taobaze, safuZvliania Tu ara maTi moTxovna, vinc religiisa da rwmenis motiviT uars acxadebs amgvari kanonebis Sesrulebaze. imis miuxedavad, rom mowinaaRmdege mxareTa argumentebi samxedro saqmeebSi gacilebiT Zlieri da STambeWdavia, vidre sindisTan SedarebiT `mSvidobiani~ konfliqtebis dros, argumentirebis strategia Zalze msgavsia orive SemTxvevaSi.413 erTi mxriv, saxelmwifoebi cdiloben daicvan TavianTi ufleba, rom Tanabrad gaavrcelon sazogadoebis yvela wevrze sazogado sikeTisaTvis gamiznuli kanonebi da uzrunvelyon, rom nebismieri gamonaklisi viwrod iqnes mizanmimarTuli kanonisaTvis Ziris gamoTxrisa da TaRliTobis waxalisebis Tavidan asacileblad. Tumca, meore mxriv, momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom maTi iZuleba, daemorCilon amgvar kanonebs, qmnis konfliqts maTive uflebasTan religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze da, SesaZloa, religiuri umciresobebis mimarT diskriminaciamde migviyvanos. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis umravlesoba komisiam ganixila, Tumca mis mier gamoyenebuli argumentaciac sakmaod bundovani da Seusabamo iyo. komisias SeeZlo arCevani or farTo mimarTulebas Soris gaekeTebina. pirvelis Tanaxmad, mas SeeZlo mieCnia, rom arc erTi zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanoni ar arRvevs me-9 muxls. meore midgoma iqneboda imis aRiareba, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonmdeblobiT isevea SesaZ-

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lebeli me-9 muxlis xelyofa, rogorc specialurad religiur qcevaze mimarTuli kanonebiT. am mimarTulebis logikuri gagrZeleba iqneboda saxelmwifos mier imis demonstrireba, rom aseTi Careva religiis TavisuflebaSi aucilebelia me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Sesabamisad. samwuxarod, am mocemul or naTel alternativas Soris mdebare naxevarpozicias mieniWa upiratesoba. zogjer komisia adgenda, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebs SeuZliaT SezRudon religiis Tavisufleba, Tumca unda aRiniSnos, rom yvela amgvar SemTxvevaSi komisiis gadawyvetilebiT es SezRudvebi gamarTlebuli iyo me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. sxva SemTxvevebSi ki komisia kanonebis zogad da neitralur statuss gadamwyvet (an uaRresad mniSvnelovan) faqtorad miiCnevda imis dasadgenad, rom ar darRveula me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili. arc komisias da arc sasamarTlos gamokveTilad arasodes daufiqsirebia, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebiT SeuZlebelia me-9 muxlis darRveva, Tumca, precedentuli samarTlidan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia daskvnis gamotana, rom es aris de facto pozicia. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi da erousmitis testi zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi momCivanTa sawinaaRmdego gadawyvetilebebis gamotanas nawilobriv xsnis erousmitis testis gamoyeneba. erousmitis testi momCivnebisgan moiTxovs imis demonstrirebas, rom saxelmwifos mier SezRuduli qmedebebi aucilebeli iyo maTi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvisaTvis. saqmeTa umravlesobaSi, romlebic zogadi daniSnulebis sakanonmdeblo sistemebisadmi keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas Seexeboda, komisiam daadgina, rom momCivanTa qmedebebi ar iyo religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis aucilebeli forma. saqmeebSi, sadac kanonebi zogadi da neitraluria, testi ufro Sekvecili formiT gamoiyeneba, vidre im SemTxvevaSi, roca kanoni specialurad gamiznulia religiuri qcevis daregulirebisaTvis. zogadad, komisia TiTqmis ar aqcevda yuradRebas saqmeSi arsebul faqtobriv garemoebebs, an momCivnis mtkicebas imis Taobaze, Tu rogor xelyo kanonma misi religia an rwmena, aramed mxolod erousmitis testis citirebas axdenda, romlis Tanaxmadac me-9 muxli ar aniWebs individs uflebas, sazogadoebriv sferoSi moiqces Tavisi religiisa da rwmenis moTxovnebTan srul SesabamisobaSi.414 es testi komisiam gamoiyena momCivanTa im moTxovnebis uarsayofad, romlebic me-9 muxlis darRvevas Seexeboda zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mxridan, roca saqme msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvis vaqcinaciasa415 da gadasaxadebTan416 iyo dakavSirebuli. is, Tu rogor swrafad wyvetda komisia amgvar saqmeebs, uflebas gvaZlevs vifiqroT, rom kanonis zogadobisa da neitralurobis argumenti erousmitis testis safuZvelze, sul mcire, mniSvnelovan mtkicebulebas warmoadgens imisa, rom mas ar SeuZlia religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis xelyofa. gansxvavebuli midgoma zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT calkeul SemTxvevebSi komisia amtkicebda, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi saxelmZRvanelo principi scildeba erousmitis testis viwro gamoyenebas da Seadgens cnebas, romlis mixedviTac kanonis neitraluri da zogadi buneba umTavresi faqtoris datvirTvas iZens im sakiTxis ga-

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dawyvetisas, irRveoda Tu ara me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili. am principis yvelaze naTel mtkicebulebas warmoadgens gadasaxadebTan dakavSirebuli ori saqmis, derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg417 da C gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg418 Sedareba. momCivani ukanasknel saqmeSi iyo megobarTa sazogadoebis (cnobili, rogorc kvakerTa sazogadoeba) wevri, pacifizmis mtkice mimdevari. igi uars acxadebda saSemosavlo gadasaxadis im nawilis gadaxdaze, romelic samxedro miznebisaTvis unda yofiliyo gamoyenebuli manam, sanam saxelmwifosgan ar miiRebda garantias, rom es Tanxa sxva, arasamxedro miznebs moxmardeboda. saxelmwifom uari ganacxada am garantiis micemaze da gadawyvita, sasamarTlo wesiT eiZulebina davalianebis gadaxda. momCivanma komisias mimarTa davalianebis iZulebiTi dafarvis Taobaze sasamarTlo brZanebis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT. momCivnis mtkicebiT, sasamarTlos mier pacifizmi `rwmenad~ iyo aRiarebuli da, Sesabamisad, imsaxurebda dacvas me-9 muxlis safuZvelze.419 momCivans surda, sakuTari moTxovna erousmitis testis farglebSi moeqcia, Sesabamisad, is amtkicebda, rom misi arapirdapiri, gadasaxadis gadauxdelobis gziT naTqvami uari, monawileoba mieRo samxedro momzadebaSi, ar warmoadgenda mxolod damatebiT an religiiT motivirebul nabijs, aramed aucilebeli iyo misTvis. am saqmeSi komisiam ganacxada: me-9 muxli pirvel rigSi icavs personaluri rwmenebisa da religiuri msoflmxedvelobis sferos, anu im sferos, romelic xSirad forum internum-ad aris wodebuli. garda amisa, is icavs qmedebebs, romlebic mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli iseT sferosTan, rogoricaa RvTismsaxureba da locva, romlebic religiis gamoxatvis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli formebia. Tumca am piradi sferos dacvisas konvenciis me-9 muxliT yovelTvis ar aris garantirebuli ufleba sazogadoebriv sferoSi amgvari rwmeniT nakarnaxev qmedebaze, magaliTad, rogoricaa uari gadasaxadebis nawilis gadaxdaze, vinaidan igi SeiZleba samxedro daniSnulebisaTvis iyos gamoyenebuli. komisiam igive daadgina 7050/75-e saCivris (erousmiti gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg) ganxilvisas, rodesac ganacxada, rom me-9 muxlis pirvel nawilSi naxsenebi `termini „gamoxatva“ ar moicavs religiiT an rwmeniT motivirebul an maTi zegavleniT stimulirebul yvela qmedebas~. rogorc vxedavT, komisia Semoifargla mxolod erousmitis testis viwro formis gamoyenebiT. mas ar ganuxilavs saqmis konkretuli faqtebi da arc momCivnis mtkiceba, rom mis mier gadadgmuli nabiji aucilebeli iyo misi religiis gamoxatvisaTvis. SemdgomSi komisiam Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi miuTiTa, rom gadasaxadebis gadaxdis valdebuleba zogadi xasiaTisaa da mas ar aqvs mizanmimarTuli qveteqsti. mis neitralobas isic adasturebs, rom gadasaxadebis arc erT gadamxdels ar SeuZlia gansazRvros mizani an raime zegavlena moaxdinos masze, romlis misaRwevadac iqneba gamoyenebuli misi sagadasaxado Senatani. aqedan gamomdinare, gadasaxadebis dakisrebis SesaZlebloba konvenciiT gamokveTilad aRiarebuli sistemaa da miniWebuli aqvs saxelmwifos pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis safuZvelze. argumentaciis naklebobis miuxedavad, komisiam uaryo saCivari, cno ra igi dauSveblad. garkveul kiTxvebs badebs zemoT moyvanili citatis pirveli ori winadadeba. momCivnis mtkicebiT, es gadasaxadebi seriozul zegavlenas axdendnen sindisze

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da calkeul sferoebSi moqalaqeebs, sul cota, imis ufleba mainc unda hqonodaT, rom garkveuli SezRudvebi daewesebinaT im miznebze, romelTa misaRwevadac unda gamoeyenebinaT maTi sagadasaxado Senatanebi. komisiis martivi gancxadeba, rom es ar aris mtkicebuleba, arc mTlad damajerebeli argumentia da arc erousmitis testis arsebiT gamoyenebas niSnavs. komisiis daskvnis Semdgomi nawili ki naTlad mianiSnebs, rom am saqmeSi miRebul gadawyvetilebas safuZvlad ufro kanonis zogadi da neitraluri buneba daedo, vidre erousmitis testi. komisiam miuTiTa: `aqedan gamomdinare, me-9 muxli ar aniWebs momCivans uflebas, Tavisi mrwamsis safuZvelze uari ganacxados kanonmdeblobis Sesrulebaze, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, iTvaliswinebs konvencia da romelic sazogadoebriv sferoSi gamoiyeneba zogadad da neitralurad, me-9 muxliT garantirebul TavisuflebaTa xelyofis gareSe~.420 kvlavac, am argumentaciiT zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebs ar SeuZliaT me-9 muxlis darRveva, Tumca winadadebis bolo nawili TavisTavad arRvevs zogad princips. C gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg da sxva amgvari saqmeebis alternatiuli ganmarteba, romlebic SemdgomSi iqna ganxiluli gadasaxadebis sferoSi, aris is, rom sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba ar arRvevs me-9 muxls, vinaidan saxelmwifos gadasaxadebis dakisrebis uflebamosileba konvenciis pirveli oqmis pirveli muxliT aqvs miniWebuli.421 es argumenti msgavsia me-4 muxlisa da samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis mimarT gamoyenebuli dasabuTebisa. is, rom saxelmwifoebs gadasaxadebis dakisrebis uflebamosileba aqvT, rac aucileblad individis sakuTrebis uflebis SezRudvas ar niSnavs (rac pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis zrunvis sagans warmoadgens), ar gulisxmobs, rom sagadasaxado sistemis nebismieri saxis gamoyeneba amgvar Semowmebas daeqvemdebareba adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sistemis mxridan. C gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg da derbi SvedeTis winaaRmdeg saqmeebis Sedarebis safuZvelze naTlad Cans, rom pirvelSi swored kanonis zogadi da neitraluri xasiaTi aRmoCnda gadamwyveti da ara is, rom kanonebi gadasaxadebs Seexeboda. orive saqmeSi momCivnebi amtkicebdnen, rom sagadasaxado kanonebis gamoyeneba maT mimarT ar unda momxdariyo, vinaidan aseTi gadasaxadebi maTi religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevas warmoadgenda. derbis saqmeSi momCivnis mimarT wayenebul iqna moTxovna, materialurad daxmareboda eklesias, romlis wevric is ar iyo. saqmeSi C gaerTianebuli samefos winaaRmdeg ki momCivans mosTxoves, monawileoba mieRo samxedro sistemis materialur uzrunvelyofaSi, rac mis rwmenas ar Seesabameboda. pirvel saqmeSi, komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, adgili hqonda forum internum-is darRvevas, saxelmwifos mtkicebis miuxedavad, rom mas hqonda gadasaxadebis dakisrebis ufleba pirveli oqmis safuZvelze.422 rac Seexeba meore saqmes, aq komisiam momCivnis moTxovna aSkarad dausabuTeblad miiCnia.423 komisiis mixedviT, gansxvaveba am saqmeebs Soris imaSi mdgomareobs, rom derbis saqmeSi momCivnis saCivari ar Seexeboda misi sagadasaxado Senatanebis gamoyenebas im miznebisaTvis, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeboda mis msoflmxedvelobas, aramed dakavSirebuli iyo momCivnis davaldebulebasTan, gadaexada specialuri gadasaxadi eklesiisaTvis.424 aqedan gamomdinare, rogorc Cans, gansxvaveba mxolod derbis saqmeSi arsebuli gadasaxadis uSualod religiur bunebaSi mdgomareobda. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom kanonis zogadoba da neitraluroba umniSvnelovanes Tu ara, gadamwyvet faqtors mainc warmoadgenda

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komisiisaTvis imis dasadgenad, rom me-9 muxli ar darRveula.425 amis miuxedavad, komisias arasodes uRiarebia igi Tavis zogad principad da arc sakmarisad mzad aRmoCnda, raTa is Tanmimdevrulad, yvela saqmeSi gamoeyenebina. sasamarTlos pozicia kidev ufro winaaRmdegobrivi iyo. magaliTad, saqmeebSi valsamisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg da efstratiu saberZneTis winaaRmdeg426 sasamarTlom mxolod miuTiTa, rom komisiis mixedviT me-9 muxli ar aniWebda individebs disciplinuri wesebisgan gaTavisuflebis uflebas, romelTa gamoyenebac zogadi da neitraluri wesiT xdeboda, Tumca es daskvna komisiam arc gamokveTilad gaiziara da arc misi Semdgomi komentireba moaxdina. sasamarTlos mcdeloba zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonis rolze miTiTebisa aseve SemCneul iqna kalacis saqmeSi, sadac sasamarTlom daadgina, rom samxedro postidan momCivnis gaTavisufleba moxda ara misi religiis an rwmenis, aramed qcevisa da poziciis safuZvelze, rac zogad samxedro saxelmZRvanelo wesebs arRvevda. savaraudod, gacilebiT mravlismTqmelia is, rom sasamarTlos mier arsebiTad ganxiluli, me-9 muxlTan kavSirSi myofi TiTqmis yvela saqme ara zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur, aramed specialur kanonebs Seexeboda, romelTa samizne religiuri jgufebi iyo.427 precedentuli samarTlis winaaRmdegobrivi xasiaTi miuxedavad imisa, rom, rogorc wesi, komisia uaryofda zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis safuZvelze me-9 muxlis darRvevis SesaZleblobas, es ar yofila mtkice wesi. ramdenime erTgvarovan saqmeSi komisiam daadgina, rom adgili hqonda me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevas da ganagrZo ganxilva amave muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. erT-erTi sfero, sadac aris tendencia sasamarTlos mxridan me-9 muxlis meore nawilis midgomis gamoyenebisa, dakavSirebulia RvTismsaxurebis TavisuflebasTan. qurumTa RvTismsaxureba zafxulis buniobis dResaswaulze amis magaliTs warmoadgens.428 kanoni, romelic xuravda sTounhenjs buniobis dResaswaulis dros, zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri iyo da hqonda gamokveTili sazogadoebrivi mizani, romelic religiasTan kavSirSi ar iyo. xelisuflebas ar gamouyenebia es kanoni qurumebis mimarT diskriminaciuli wesiT. miuxedavad amisa, komisiam druidizmi religiad gansazRvra da miiCnia, rom wesebi, romlebic qurumebs ar aZlevda sazafxulo ritualebis Sesrulebis saSualebas, iyo religiis Tavisuflebaze maTi uflebis SezRudva. komisias es gadawyvetileba ar dausabuTebia da arc zogadi da neitraluri kanonebi uxsenebia. RvTismsaxurebis Tavisuflebas Seexeboda ori sxva saqmec. erTSi, sadac momCivnebi patimrebi iyvnen, gasaCivrebul iqna cixis usafrTxoebis zogadi wesebis gamoyeneba, romelic maT gansazRvruli religiuri msaxurebis Catarebis SesaZleblobas arTmevda.429 meore ki induistur taZarSi dagegmarebis wesebis gamoyenebiT RvTismsaxurebis ganxorcielebaSi CarevasTan iyo dakavSirebuli.430 garda amisa, sasamarTlom aseve daadgina, rom meSvide dRis adventisti moswavlis mimarT moTxovnis wayeneba, SabaT dRes daswreboda saskolo gakveTilebs, warmoadgenda Carevas SabaTis wesis dacviT religiis gamoxatvis SesaZleblobaSi, Tumca SezRudva gamarTlebulad miiCnia bavSvis ganaTlebis uflebis safuZvelze.431 arc erT zemoxsenebul saqmeSi is, rom SezRudvebi RvTismsaxurebis uflebaze zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis safuZvelze ganxorcielda, ar qceula gadamwyvet faqtorad me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilidan gamomdinare sakiTxebis mimarT da arc komisias uxsenebia, rogorc mniSvnelovani argumenti.

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SesaZloa, miCneul iqnes, rom RvTismsaxurebis ufleba specialuri SemTxvevaa, Tumca komisiis midgoma zogad da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebiT Seusabamo iyo sxva sferoebSic. saqmeSi hakansoni SvedeTis winaaRmdeg,432 sadac zogadi, mSvidobis darRvevis sawinaaRmdego kanonis gamoyeneba im piris mimarT ganxorcielda, romelic alkoholsa da pornografias sajarod xmamaRla acxadebda codvad, komisiam me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRveva daadgina. sxva, Zalze msgavs saqmeSi ki piris qmedebani, romelic, saaborto klinikis gareT mdgomi, cdilobda qalTa darwmunebas, ar gaekeTebinaT aborti, mkvdari Canasaxisa da qristes suraTebis CvenebiT, me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis dacvis farglebs gareT moeqca komisiis gadawyvetilebiT.433 orive saqmeSi momCivnebi sakuTari religiuri mrwamsiT xelmZRvanelobdnen da imis Secvlas cdilobdnen, rac, maTi azriT, codvaa. orive SemTxvevaSi gamoiyenes zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebi, romlebic sxvebs icavda Semawuxebeli qcevisagan. miuxedavad amisa, komisiam mxolod pirvel SemTxvevaSi aRmoaCina religiis Tavisuflebis darRveva (romelic, Tavis mxriv gamarTlebuli iyo), maSin, roca meore saqmeSi miiCnia, rom momCivnis qmedebani `pirdapir iyo mimarTuli qalTa gadarwmunebisaken, ar gaekeTebinaT aborti~ da, Sesabamisad, ar warmoadgenda religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas.434 yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, uCveulod rTulia zogadi daskvnis saxiT imis gansazRvra, Tu ramdenad gadamwyvetia zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis argumenti me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi. saqmeTa did umravlesobaSi, sadac zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebia gasaCivrebuli, ar xdeba saCivris miReba warmoebaSi me-9 muxlis safuZvelze, aSkara dausabuTeblobis niadagze. garda amisa, saqmeTa nawilSi kanonis zogadoba da neitraloba komisiis argumentaciis nawilia. Tumca, amave dros, komisia yovelTvis ar yofila am principis erTguli. calkeul SemTxvevebSi, komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, adgili hqonda me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevas. magram unda aRiniSnos, rom yvela amgvar saqmeSi komisiis gadawyvetilebiT religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudva zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis safuZvelze gamarTlebuli iyo me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Tanaxmad. aqedan gamomdinare, komisiis de facto pozicia, ganxilul saqmeTa Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT, imaSi mdgomareobs, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonmdebloba me-9 muxls ar arRvevs. rac Seexeba im konceptualur Seusabamobas, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo komisiis mier gamoyenebuli midgomebisaTvis, es naTlad metyvelebs TviT am organoSi me-9 muxlisaTvis zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis relevanturobis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT arsebul azrTa sxvadasxvaobaze. precedentul samarTalSi am sakiTxis irgvliv sicxadis naklebobis gaTvaliswinebiT, upriani iqneboda mimogvexila ramdenime gansxvavebuli argumenti, rac saSualebas mogvcemda, ukeT agvexsna komisiis survilis uqonloba, daikavos mtkice samarTlebrivi pozicia.

zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis analizi midgoma me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze sasamarTlos jer ar Camouyalibebia naTeli pozicia zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT. Tanmimdevruli midgoma iqneboda, Tuki sasamarTlo

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ganacxadebda, rom es kanonebi me-9 muxls ar arRvevs. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, bevrisaTvis aseTi midgoma samarTlianobisa (vinaidan igi yvelas mimarT msgavsi wesebis gamoyenebas gulisxmobs) da demokratiis (vinaidan igi umciresobaTa an `fanatikosebis~ mxridan sazogadoebrivi keTildReobisaTvis gamiznuli kanonebis xelyofis Tavidan acilebis saSualebas iZleva) moTxovnebis Sesruleba iqneboda. Tumca amgvari midgoma ar ikveTeba me-9 muxlis teqstSi, sadac, ubralod, saubaria religiis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze. imisaTvis, rom me-9 muxli efeqturi iyos, zogjer aucilebelia prevalireba moaxdinos arsebul samarTlebriv wesrigze. ufro metic, aRiarebuli unda iqnes, rom TeoriaSi kanonis yvelas mimarT Tanabrad gamoyeneba ar metyvelebs mis samarTlianobaze (msgavsi tvirTis yvelaze dakisrebis TvalsazrisiT). es zogadi mosazreba aRiarebulia samarTlebriv TeoriaSi.435 is kriSnasvamim gaimeora religiisa da rwmenis konteqstSi. am avtoris Tanaxmad, `vinaidan TiToeuli rwmena da religia gansxvavebul moTxovnebs uyenebs Tavis mimdevrebs, meqanikuri midgoma Tanasworobis principisadmi, romelic mxedvelobaSi ar miiRebs am moTxovnaTa mravalferovnebas, migviyvans usamarTlobamde, zog SemTxvevaSi ki diskriminaciamdec~.436 mogvianebiT manve daaskvna, rom `religiisa da rwmenis garkveul manifestaciebze dakisrebul gansazRvrul SezRudvebs, miuxedavad maTi udavod zogadi xasiaTisa, SeuZlia realurad mxolod ama Tu im jgufze moaxdinos zegavlena an sxvebze metad mas miayenos ziani~. aqedan gamomdinare, mraval iurisdiqciaSia aRiarebuli, rom zogadi daniSnulebis kanoni SesaZlebelia arapirdapir diskriminaciuli iyos, radgan igi adamianTa gansazRvrul jgufs akisrebs gacilebiT mZime tvirTs, vidre danarCen mosaxleobas da, Sesabamisad, SeuZlia mniSvnelovanwilad xelyos maTi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba.437 amis magaliTs religiis Tavisuflebis konteqstSi warmoadgens aSS-s amkrZalavi kanonmdebloba. misi gamoyeneba yvelas mimarT Tanabrad xdeboda da gamiznuli iyo sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis uzrunvelsayofad. Tumca, Tuki am kanonebiT ar iqneboda gaTvaliswinebuli gamonaklisebi ziarebisa da sederisaTvis,438 moxdeboda aSkara Careva qristianuli eklesiebisa da amerikeli ebraelebis yvelaze wminda ritualebSi.439 naTelia, rom, magaliTad, kanoni, romelic pirdapiri gziT akrZalavs kaTolikur mesas, daarRvevs religiis Tavisuflebas. aseve logikuria miviCnioT, rom kanoni, romelic arapirdapiri gziT identuri Sedegis momtania, Tuki SeuZlebels xdis aucilebeli saritualo saSualebebiT sargeblobas, aseve arRvevs adamianis uflebas religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze RvTismsaxurebis formiT. aqedan gamomdinare, rTulia imis Tqma, rom sasamarTlom aucileblad prima facie unda gamoricxos zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi me-9 muxlis ganxilvis sazRvrebidan.440 amis miuxedavad, zogierTi avtoris mosazrebis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlom swored es midgoma unda airCios, roca saqme religiis Tavisuflebas Seexeba.441 amgvari debatebi Zalze mwvave iyo aSS-Si, sadac uzenaesma sasamarTlom uamravi midgoma gamoiyena zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT. Tavdapirvelad uzenaesma sasamarTlom pirveli Sesworebisadmi viwro midgomiT isargebla, romelic rwmenis sferos ufro Seexeboda, vidre qmedebebs.442 amgvari interpretacia ar qmnis konfliqts religiis Tavisuflebis sasamarTlo koncefciasa da zogad da neitralur kanonebs Soris.443 Tumca garkveuli drois Semdeg uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRiara, rom religiis Tavisufleba gansazRvrul qmedebebsac moicavda da zogadi daniSnu-

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lebisa da neitralur kanonebsac SeeZloT religiis Tavisuflebis xelyofa. am aRmoCenis umaRles miRwevas warmoadgenda saqme viskonsini ioderis winaaRmdeg,444 sadac uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirveli Sesworebis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo valdebuli iyo, gaeTvaliswinebina gamonaklisebi kanonSi, romelic 16 wlamde savaldebulo swavlebas Seexeboda, vinaidan amiSebis religia Tavisi mimdevrebisagan cxovrebis iseTi wesis SenarCunebas iTxovda, romelic Seusabamo iyo 14 wels zeviT saskolo swavlebasTan. Tumca dResdReobiT, rogorc Cans, sasamarTlom sawyis pozicias dauqvemdebara religiis Tavisuflebis garantiis sazRvrebi. saqmeSi oregoni smitis winaaRmdeg445 uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom pirvel Sesworebas ar arRvevda kanoni, romelic meqsikuri warmoSobis kaqtusisgan damzadebuli narkotikuli nivTierebis (peiotis) miRebis kriminalizacias axdenda yovelgvari gamonaklisis daSvebis gareSe aborigeni amerikelebis, indielebisaTvis, romlebic mas tradiciul religiur ritualebSi iyenebdnen. gadawyvetileba mwvave kritikis sagnad iqca446 da kongresi Seecada, is Seecvala 1993 wels miRebuli religiis Tavisuflebis aRdgenis aqtiT.447 es aqti krZalavda mTavrobis mier `arsebiTi tvirTis~ dakisrebas piris religiis Tavisuflebaze zogado daniSnulebis regulaciebis gamoyenebiT, Tu mTavroba ver aCvenebda, rom tvirTi `sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis xelSewyoba iyo~ da Sesabamisi regulacia `minimalur SemzRudvel saSualebas~ warmoadgenda am interesis mxardaWerisaTvis. Tumca uzenaesma sasamarTlom es kanonmdebloba arakonstituciurad miiCnia da kvlav daadastura oregonis saqmeSi dakavebuli pozicia.448 zogad kanonebTan dakavSirebiT religiis gamoxatvis `adaptaciis~ kritika amerikaSi saxelmwifosa da eklesiis konstituciuri gamijvnis uzrunvelyofaze zrunvidan gamomdinareobs, romelic arc ise mniSvnelovani sakiTxia evropul konteqstSi. Tumca arsebobs sxva sakiTxebi, romlebic relevanturia maSinac, roca aqtualuri ar aris eklesiisa da saxelmwifos samarTlebrivi gamijvna. amis mizezi politikuri tipis SeSfoTeba ufroa im potenciuri safrTxiT, rac individebis mier zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebisadmi winaaRmdegobis gawevidan gamomdinareobs, vidre samarTlebrivi argumenti. am Tvalsazrisis mowinaaRmdegeebis mixedviT arsebobs zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetis ori gza, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes, rom es kanonebi represiuli ar iyos religiis Tavisuflebis mimarT. pirveli kanonebidan gamonaklisebis daSvebaSi mdgomareobs (magaliTad, ufleba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze savaldebulo samxedro samsaxuris sistemaSi), meore ki religiis Tavisuflebis mimarT kanonebis naklebad SemzRudveli wesiT SemuSavebas gulisxmobs.449 vinaidan komisia da sasamarTlo zogadad uaryofdnen im momCivanTa saCivrebs, romlebic me-9 muxlis safuZvelze iTxovdnen gaTavisuflebas zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis moqmedebisagan, aucilebelia amgvari poziciis mizezebis mimoxilva. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis minimaluri SezRudva, rogorc saxelmwifos valdebuleba maTi mtkicebiT, vinc religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis minimalurad SemzRudveli wesiT kanonebis SemuSavebis arguments ewinaaRmdegeba, es moTxovna sakmaod mZime tvirTis dakisreba iqneboda saxelmwifoze.450 es marTalia, vinaidan evropuli

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sazogadoebebi religiurad pluralistur organizmebad Camoyalibdnen da Zalian bevrs ganuviTarda individualisturi rwmenebi.451 am konteqstSi, molodini saxelmwifoTa mxridan (Tavi rom davaneboT kanonebidan gamonaklisebis daSvebas) uamravi jgufis rwmenaTa sistemebis codnisa, romelTac esa Tu is kanoni SeexebaT, ararealuria. mTavrobebs sazogadoebis keTildReobis interesebidan gamomdinare unda hqondeT marTvis SesaZlebloba da maTze `naklebad SemzRudvelobis~ moTxovnis dakisreba am SesaZleblobis xelyofas moaxdenda.452 ra Tqma unda, arsebobs simarTlis elementebi am argumentebSi. udavoa, rom saxelmwifoebis mimarT moTxovna kanonebis iseTi formiT miRebaze, romelic religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mimarT pativiscemiT iqneboda ganmsWvaluli, garkveul zegavlenas moaxdenda maT SesaZleblobaze, droulad da efeqturad ganexorcielebinaT umravlesobis miznebi. Tumca swored es aris is sazRauri, romlis gaRebac unda moxdes im sazogadoebebSi, romlebic pativs scemen adamianis uflebebs. profesor dvorkinis Tanaxmad, `umravlesoba ver SeZlebs ise swrafad an ise win wasvlas, rogorc surs, Tuki aRiarebs individis uflebas, gaakeTos is, rac umravlesobisaTvis cud saqcielad iTvleba~. garda amisa, igi aRniSnavs, rom Tuki Cven namdvilad Zvirad gviRirs uflebebi, es sakmaod misaRebi sazRauria. umravlesobisaTvis xelsayreli mdgomareoba fundamenturi uflebis mimarT gulgrili damokidebulebis gamoCenisaTvis sakmarisi argumenti ar aris. sasamarTlom gaiziara es Sexeduleba da ganacxada, rom `Tumca individis interesebi zog SemTxvevaSi unda daeqvemdebaros jgufis interesebs, demokratia imas ar niSnavs, rom umravlesobis mosazrebebi yovelTvis unda dominirebdes: unda iqnes miRweuli balansi, romliTac uzrunvelyofili iqneba umciresobaTa samarTliani da saTanado mopyroba da Tavidan agvacilebs dominanturi poziciis borotad gamoyenebas~.453 am winadadebis mowinaaRmdegeTa mtkicebiT, ararealisturia molodini saxelmwifos mxridan im gzis codnisa, romliTac ama Tu im kanons SeuZlia zegavlenis moxdena religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliwinebuli religiis Tavisuflebis dacvis konteqstSi, stiven karteri ayalibebs analogias deliqturi kanonmdeblobis mimarT im mosazrebis sasargeblod, romlis Tanaxmadac uzrunelyofili unda iqnes, rom kanoniT usamarTlod ar SeizRudos religiis Tavisufleba. faqtobrivad, nebismier momCivans deliqturi samarTalwarmoebisa aqvs Tavisufleba, daeyrdnos keTilgonier saerTo samarTlebriv doqtrinas, romlis mixedviTac prezumirebulia, rom individebs mxedvelobaSi unda hqondeT miRebuli TavianTi qmedebebis gonivrulad ganWvretadi Sedegebi. pirovnebis davaldebuleba, rom miyenebuli zianis kompensireba moaxdinos, kerZo pirebs waaxalisebs, mxedvelobaSi miiRon ziani, romelic maT qmedebas mohyveba. vinaidan racionalurad moazrovne adamiani mxolod im SemTxvevaSi imoqmedebs, rodesac mosalodneli Sedegi gadawonis savaraudo xarjebs, izrdeba saerTo socialuri keTildReoba. Tumca samoqalaqo uflebaTa, am SemTxvevaSi aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis, mosarCeleebi Caflulni arian uCveulo iurisprudenciaSi, romlis mixedviTac xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebs SeuZliaT imoqmedon im xarjebis (konstituciuri danakargis saxiT) mxedvelobaSi miuReblad, rac SesaZloa mohyves maT

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qmedebebs, sanam maTi moqmedeba indiferentulobidan gamomdinareobs da ar aris mtruli xasiaTisa. es wesi erT dros deliqturi samarTaldarRvevebis SemTxvevaSic moqmedebda, Tumca sasamarTloebma didi xnis win Tqves masze uari. karteris mtkicebiT, mTavrobisaTvis nebis darTva, nebismier sferoSi ganaxorcielos sakanonmdeblo qmedebebi, sanam religia kanonis Segnebul samizned ar gadaiqceva, waaxalisebs saxelmwifoebs, religiis Tavisuflebis sakiTxebis ignorireba moaxdinon sakanonmdeblo procesSi, maSin, roca wesi, romelic maT daavaldebulebda, gaemarTlebinaT kanonmdeblobis sazRvrebi, Tuki igi religiasa da rwmenaSi ereoda, uzrunvelyofda mTavrobaTa windaxedulebas morwumuneTa uflebebis dasacavad. miuxedavad imisa, rom `minimalurad SemzRudveli~ midgomis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifoebs aSkara praqtikuli sirTuleebis daZleva mouwevT, am problemebis gadalaxva arc ise warmoudgenelia, rogorc zogierTs miaCnia. uamrav saxelmwifoSi arsebobs sakanonmdeblo komitetebi Tu sxva organoebi, romelTac evalebaT SemoTavazebuli kanonproeqtebis mimoxilva adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebiT aRebul valdebulebebTan Sesabamisobis Semowmebis mizniT. Tuki sasamarTlo airCevda im mimarTulebas, romlis mixedviTac kanonebi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebisadmi rac SeiZleba naklebad SemzRudveli wesiT unda SeemuSavebinaT, maSin is zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebi, romelTac potenciuri zegavlenis moxdena SeeZloT religiaze an rwmenaze, am komitetebis kompetenciis farglebSi moeqceodnen. miuxedavad imisa, rom SeuZlebelia, komitets moeTxovos saxelmwifoSi arsebul yvela religiaTa da rwmenaTa srulyofili codna, mis wevrebs konsultaciis uamravi meqanizmis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba eqnebodaT, dawyebuli sazogadoebrivi Sekrebebis organizebiTa da sxvadasxva religiebis warmomadgenlebisgan Semdgari sakonsultacio jgufebis SeqmniT, damTavrebuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebs Soris warmodgenili kanonmdeblobis Sesaxeb informaciis farTo gavrcelebis uzrunvelyofiT. garda amisa, religiur an rwmenaze dafuZnebul jgufebs xSirad gacnobierebuli aqvT kanonproeqtebis potenciurad uaryofiTi zegavlena maT sazogadoebebze, Tumca ar gaaCniaT saTanado saSualebani, romelTa meSveobiT SeZlebdnen TavianTi winadadebebis mTavrobisaTvis wardgenas.454 minimaluri SezRudvebis wesi mianiWebda maT amgvar SesaZleblobas da waaxalisebda saxelmwifoebs, gamoenaxaT aseT jgufebTan komunikaciis saSualebani. mokled rom vTqvaT, religiis Tavisuflebis seriozulad dacvis nebis realurad arsebobis pirobebSi saxelmwifo xelisuflebas uamravi saSualeba aqvs, uzrunvelyos sakuTari Tavis informireba Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobis gziT am uflebaze potenciurad uaryofiTi zegavlenis moxdenis Sesaxeb.455 socialuri anarqiis argumenti gansazRvruli SexedulebiT zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebidan gamonaklisis daSvebam an minimalurad SemzRudveli midgomis gamoyenebam religiis Tavisuflebis mimarT SesaZloa kanonmdeblobis fragmentacia da sazogadoebrivi erTianobis rRveva gamoiwvios. aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlo iyenebda termins `mmarTveli anarqia~ im saCivrebis uarsayofad, romelTa mixedviTac yvela kanoni dabalansebuli unda iyos urTierTsawinaaRmdego religiuri moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebiT.456 es argumenti gonivruli interesis anareklia, raTa adamianebi ar gadaiqcnen

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TavianTi Tavis kanonmdeblebad, TviTon ar gadawyviton, Tu ra aris maT sindisTan SesabamisobaSi da mxolod im kanonebs ar daemorCilon, romlebic, maTi azriT, jerovania.457 es problema Tavisi potencialiT gacilebiT didia evropaSi, vidre aSSSi, romlis konstituciac mxolod religiis Tavisuflebas icavs da ara gacilebiT farTo, adamianis uflebaTa evropuli konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebul religiasa da rwmenas. problema kidev ufro mwvavdeba TaRliTuri moTxovnebis gamo, rodesac adamianebi religiis Tavisuflebis argumentebs mZime da usiamovno socialuri valdebulebebis Sesrulebisagan Tavis daRwevis mizniT iyeneben. SesaZlebelia isic, rom kanonis Sesrulebisagan gaTavisuflebis SesaZleblobam gamoiwvios individebis Cavardna paTologiuri TviTgamocdis procesSi samarTlebrivi valdebulebisagan Tavis daRwevis survilis gamo da waaxalisos isini, raTa moiTxovon gamonaklisis maTze gavrceleba, maSin roca sxva pirobebSi arc ki ifiqrebdnen kanonis moTxovnebisadmi daumorCileblobaze.458 es argumentebi gacilebiT damajerebelia gamonaklisebis, vidre kanonebis minimalurad SemzRudveli wesiT SemuSavebis moTxovnis konteqstSi. zogad principad imis aRiareba, rom TiToeuli piri uflebamosilia isargeblos gamonaklisiT nebismieri kanonidan, romliTac izRudeba misi SesaZlebloba religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze, potenciurad mZime socialuri Sedegebis momtani iqneboda, imis miuxedavad, rom amgvari principi mainc daeqvemdebareboda saxelmwifos uflebas gamonaklisiT sargeblobaze uaris Tqmisa demokratiul sazogadoebaSi aucileblobis niadagze. Tumca ramdenime sferoSi, magaliTad, samxedro samsaxurisadmi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis SemTxvevaSi, erTaderT saSualebad saxelmwifo interesebisa da mowinaaRmdegeTa moTxovnebis dabalansebisa SesaZloa, swored gansazRvruli formis gamonaklisebis daSveba warmoadgendes. miuxedavad amisa, am Sedegis momtani zogadi principi Zalze mZime tvirTs daakisrebda saxelmwifos, kerZod, gamoevlina is SemTxvevebi, rodesac moqalaqeebi ar imsaxurebdnen gamonaklisiT sargeblobas da amave dros usamarTlod ar Careuliyo maT forum internum-Si. amgvar SeSfoTebas ar iwvevs idea, romlis Tanaxmadac kanoni iseTi wesiT unda iqnes SemuSavebuli, rom religiis Tavisuflebis minimalurad SemzRudveli iyos (imis aRiarebiT, rom zog SemTxvevaSi amis miRwevis saukeTeso saSualebas zogadi daniSnulebis kanonis SemuSaveba warmoadgens, romelic garkveul gamonaklisebs gaiTvaliswinebs). profesor racis daskvniT, individis sindissa da saxelmwifo xelisuflebas Soris konfliqtis Tavidan acilebis saukeTeso saSualeba kanonebis gauqmeba iqneboda im sferoebSi, sadac konfliqti mosalodnelia. `sindisis Tavisufleba da saxelmwifos pluralisturi xasiaTi garantirebulia mgrZnobiare moraluri mrwamsis obieqtad cnobil sferoebSi qmedebaTa daregulirebisgan Tavis SekavebiTa da sxvadasxva religiuri da moraluri mrwamsis adamianebis moTxovnaTa Sesabamisi saSualebebisa da momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofiT~.459 da kvlav, aq ar igulisxmeba sakanonmdeblo SezRudva maSin, rodesac saqme dauSvebel qmedebebs exeba. im religiebisa da rwmenebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic aqtiur monawileobas iReben sxvebisaTvis zianis miyenebaSi, saxelmwifosaTvis safrTxis Seqmnasa da sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis riskis qveS dayenebaSi, maTi saqmianoba SeiZleba saTanadod SeizRudos me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Sesabamisad. es midgoma moiTxovs mxolod sakanonmdeblo SezRudvasa da xelovnebas, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacva ignorirebisagan sxva sazogadoeb-

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rivi miznebis ganxorcielebis procesSi. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis SezRudvis mizezebi sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi gansxvavdeba. TaRliTobis, diskriminaciis, forum internum-Si saxelmwifos Carevis da savaldebulo samxedro samsaxurSi monawileTa sindisis Selaxvis Tavidan acilebis saukeTeso saSualebas SesaZloa samxedro mosamsaxureTa gawvevis institutis profesiuli samxedro ZalebiT Canacvleba warmoadgendes.460 Tumca, SesaZlebelia, calkeul saxelmwifoebs erovnuli uSiSroebis interesebidan gamomdinare gulwrfeli SeSfoTebis gamo ar SeuZliaT amgvari cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba da mouwevT imis Cveneba, rom maT demokratiul sazogadoebaSi aucilebelia gawvevis SenarCuneba, Tumca, SesaZloa, am garemoebebis pirobebSi garTuldes aseve garkveuli gamonaklisebis ardaSvebis Zlieri interesis dadastureba. zogierTi kanoni marTlac ise unda SemuSavdes, rom garkveulwilad zRudavdes religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebas, rodesac saxezea me-9 muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebi. es aseve agvacilebs Tavidan samarTlebrivi sistemis sruli fragmentaciis wyarod me-9 muxlis gadaqcevas. magaliTad, fermerebma, romlebmac uari ganacxades mTeli qveynis masStabiT mimdinare msxvilfexa rqosani pirutyvis vaqcinaciis programaSi monawileobaze, safrTxis winaSe daayenes mTeli programis warmateba, vinaidan maTi saqonlis infeqcias SeeZlo xeli SeeSala niderlandebSi daavadebis aRmofxvrisaTvis.461 iZulebiTi dazRvevis sistemis moqmedeba aseve Zalze garTuldeboda xSiri gamonaklisebis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom niderlandebSi (sadac umciresobis eklesia arsebobs, romelic dazRvevis sastiki winaaRmdegia) daSvebuli iyo religiur niadagze gaTavisufleba iZulebiTi dazRvevisgan, ufro maRali sagadasaxado ganakveTebis sanacvlod.462 imaves Tqma SeiZleba savaldebulo sapensio sistemaze,463 Tumca mocemul SemTxvevaSi piris mxardaWeris tvirTi siberis wlebSi ekisreba ufro im individs, romelic programaSi monawileobas ar moisurvebs, vidre mTlianad sazogadoebas.464 Tumca sxva saqmeebSi gamonaklisebis daSveba an kanonebis minimalurad SemzRudveli wesiT SemuSaveba naklebad mniSvnelovan sirTuleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. gaerTianebuli samefos mTavrobam gadawyvita, rom gamonaklisebis daSveba siqebisTvis motocikletistTaTvis gankuTvnil usafrTxoebis muzaradTan dakavSirebuli kanonebidan arc kanonmdeblobas uqmnida realur safrTxes da arc mis obieqts xelyofda.465 amis msgavsad ramdenime qveyana Seecada dasvenebis dReebi daewesebina bevri religiis, da ara mxolod dominanti religiuri mimdinareobis, religiuri dResasawaulebis TariRebTan TanxvedriT. amas ki religiisa da rwmenis moTxovnebsa da saxelmwifo kanonebs Soris konfliqtebis Semcirebisken mivyavarT. aqedan gamomdinare, minimalurad SemzRudveli midgoma da zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebidan gamonaklisebis daSveba ar qmnis qaosis iseT safrTxes, rogorc amas bevri amtkicebs.466 es ar gulisxmobs, rom kanonma pativi unda sces TiToeuli adamianis uflebas, TviTon gadawyvitos, daemorCilos Tu ara kanons, aramed igi moiTxovs kanonmdeblisagan, gaiTvaliswinos, Tu ra zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia am Tu im kanons religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebaze, aseve winaswar moiTaTbiros religiur sazogadoebebTan kanonebis SemuSavebis iseT gzebze, romlebic uzrunvelyofen sazogadoebriv keTildReobas, religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebaSi gaumarTlebeli Carevis gareSe.

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me-9 muxlis meore nawilis Sesustebis argumenti doqtori stefanos stavrosi erT-erTi im mcirericxovan avtorTagania, romelsac zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis sakiTxebi konvenciasTan mimarTebiT aqvs ganxiluli. igi kidev erT potenciur problemaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, romelic SeiZleba me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi zogad da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi warmoiqmnas. stavrosi wuxils gamoTqvams imis gamo, rom, Tuki sasamarTlo aSkara dainteresebas gamoiCens, religia da rwmena zogadi da neitraluri kanonebisgan xelyofilad CaTvalos, amis kompensireba mas me-9 muxlis meore nawilis moTxovnaTa SesustebiT mouwevs, raTa saxelmwifos qmedebebi usamarTlod ar SeizRudos. amis mtkicebulebad stavross aSS-Si `sasicocxlo interesis~ testis Sesusteba mohyavs zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi, romelic konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis SezRudvis gamarTlebad gamoiyeneboda. misi mosazrebiT, konvenciis iurisprudenciis msgavs ganviTarebas SeuZlia riskis qveS daayenos komisiis da sasamarTlos mier garantirebuli dacva, rogorc igi uwodebs, `Zvelmoduri~ religiuri devnisagan. igi mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs imis uzrunvelyofas, rom religiur devnasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebi ar iqnes safrTxis winaSe dayenebuli zogadi da neitraluri kanonebiT dakisrebuli SedarebiT mcire SezRudvebis sakiTxebis gadawyvetisken ganviTarebuli iurisprudenciiT. am mizezidan gamomdinare, igi amarTlebs sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier zogadad gamoyenebul midgomas, romlis Tanaxmadac zogadi da neitraluri kanonebi ar wamoWrian me-9 muxlisaTvis relevantur sakiTxebs. aucilebelia sami ZiriTadi sakiTxis mimoxilva zemoT ganxiluli argumentis sapasuxod. pirveli aris is, rom, rogorc religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaTa SezRudvebisadmi miZRvnil qveTavSi aRiniSna, sasamarTlo da komisia yovelTvis didi pativiscemiT epyrobodnen saxelmwifoTa moTxovnebs me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT saxelmwifoTa argumentebis miuReblobis SemTxvevaSic, savaraudod, ar aris mosalodneli msgavsi damokidebulebis Secvla. meore, konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli sxva uflebebis mimarT komisia da sasamarTlo cvlian saxelmwifoTa diskrecias faqtobrivi garemoebebidan gamomdinare. gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos diskreciuli uflebamosileba politikur konteqstSi viwro xasiaTisaa,467 rac srulebiT ar iqna safrTxis winaSe dayenebuli gacilebiT farTo diskreciiT iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa pornografia.468 zogadi da neitraluri kanoni, savaraudod, gacilebiT iolad akmayofilebs me-9 muxlis meore nawilis moTxovnebs da, Sesabamisad, ufro farTo diskrecias aniWebs saxelmwifoebs, vidre kanoni, romelic specialurad religiuri qcevis SezRudviskenaa mimarTuli. sinamdvileSi komisia iyenebda amgvar tests me-9 muxlis konteqstSi saxelmwifos im saqmianobis detaluri SemowmebiT, romelic gamiznulad aris mimarTuli religiuri umciresobebis SezRudvisaken da amave dros saxelmwifos poziciis gaziarebiT zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebTan dakavSirebul mraval sakiTxSi. bolo problema, rac doqtor stavrosis analizTan aris dakavSirebuli, imaSi mdgomareobs, rom am avtoris Tanaxmad, SesaZlebelia religiuri devnis ZiriTadi SemTxvevebi aSkarad da iolad iqnes izolirebuli da, savaraudod, zogadi daniSnule-

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bisa da neitraluri kanonebis safuZvelze seriozul devnas ar eqneba adgili. religiuri devnis arsi damokidebulia imaze, Tu ras moviazrebT religiisa da rwmenis qveS. rogorc wesi, komisia da sasamarTlo gacilebiT mniSvnelovan dacvas aniWebdnen tradiciul qristianul religiur gamoxatvas, rogoricaa RvTismsaxureba469 da prozelitizmi,470 vidre araqristianuls, maT Soris Tavsaburavis tarebas,471 religiuri artefaqtebis flobasa472 da garkveuli qcevis Secvlisaken sxvebisaTvis sajarod mowodebas.473 es ar gulismobs, rom komisia da sasamarTlo Segnebulad arian araqristiani morwmune momCivnebis sawinaaRmdegod ganwyobilni, Tumca naTlad metyvelebs, Tu ra saxifaToa, vaRiaroT, TiTqos arsebobs saerTo gageba imisa, Tu ra aris arsebiTi religiisa da rwmenis dacvisaTvis. muslimani qalbatonisaTvis, romelsac mosTxoves fotosuraTis gadaReba Tavsaburavis gareSe, ieRovas mowme bavSvebisaTvis, romlebic daisajnen aRlumSi monawileobaze uaris gacxadebisaTvis, pacifistisTvis, romelsac ar mieca gansazRvruli samxedro valdebulebis winaaRmdeg gamosvlis SesaZlebloba, amgvari kanonebi religiisa da rwmenis iseTi SezRudvebia, romlebsac isini iseve mZafrad ganicdian, rogorc sxva ganicdida, misTvis sajaro RvTismsaxurebis neba rom ar daerToT. religiuri umciresobebis interesebis gaTvaliswineba erTi Zlieri mxare imis aRiarebisa, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia me-9 muxlis darRveva da religiis Tavisuflebis adekvaturi dacvisaTvis kanonidan gamonaklisebis daSveba, an minimalurad SemzRudveli wesiT kanonmdeblobis SemuSaveba SeiZleba saWiro gaxdes, mdgomareobs umciresobaTa religiebisa da rwmenebis mimdevarTa mdgomareobis gaumjobesebaSi. maSin, roca kanonebis SemuSavebisas faqtobrivad yovelTvis moxdeba msxvili religiuri jgufebis interesebis mxedvelobaSi miReba, SedarebiT mcire jgufebi SeiZleba TamaSgare situaciaSi aRmoCndnen, xSirad ignorirebis Sedegad da ara imis gamo, rom vinmes maTi Seviwroeba ganuzraxavs. aSS-Si amis magaliTs warmoadgens amkrZalavi kanonebidan gamonaklisis saxiT Rvinis daSveba ritualuri miznebisaTvis, vinaidan am SemTxvevaSi uari milionobiT adamians Seexeboda. amave dros aborigeni amerikelebis (indielebis) msjavrdeba peiotis (meqsikuri warmoSobis kaqtusisgan damzadebuli narkotikuli saSualebis) tradiciul ritualSi gamoyenebisaTvis ar CaiTvala pirveli Sesworebis darRvevad.474 am narkotikuli saSualebis sawinaaRmdego zogadi kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebda gamonakliss im SedarebiT mcire jgufisaTvis, romlisTvisac misi gamoyeneba religiuri ritualis ZiriTad nawils warmoadgenda. evropul konteqstSi, tradiciuli religiebi, axlad aRmocenebuli religiuri mimdinareobebisgan gansxvavebiT, istoriul sakuTrebasTan dakavSirebuli kanonebis safuZvelze saxelmwifoebisgan iReben dafinansebas sakuTari eklesiebis Sesanaxad.475 Tumca, ra Tqma unda, Znelia msxvili religiuri jgufebis ignorireba zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis SemuSavebisas, umciresobaTa interesebis gauTvaliswinebloba ki — sakmaod ioli. isini, vinc iziarebs pozicias, romlis Tanaxmadac zogadi da neitraluri kanonebi ar arRvevs me-9 muxls, aRiareben, rom es namdvilad umciresobaTa SesaZleblobebis Sekvecas niSnavs. maTi mosazrebiT, arsebobs gacilebiT ukeTesi gzebi amgvari jgufebis dasacavad, vidre me-9 muxlis farTo interpretireba. magaliTad, profesor malkolm evansis mixedviT, aucilebeli ar aris, religiis Tavisufleba gan-

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sazRvruli sazRauris gaRebis gareSe ganxorcieldes da im jgufebma, romlebic ukmayofiloni arian zogadi kanonis safuZvelze maTi religiis gamoxatvis SezRudviT, kompensaciisaTvis demokratiuli saSualebebi unda gamoiyenon. azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebam neba unda darTos umciresobebs TavianTi SeSfoTeba umravlesobas gauziaron, xolo demokratiuli saSualebebiT ki umciresobebis interesebi unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli gamonaklisis daSvebis an kanonis xelmeored SemuSavebis gziT. amgvari saxis dacvasTan dakavSirebuli problema imaSi mdgomareobs, rom yvelaze daucvel jgufebs, romelTa sakanonmdeblo procesis miRma datovebis SesaZlebloba sakmaod didia, Seadgenen savaraudod farTo sazogadoebisagan izolirebuli umniSvnelo politikuri gavlenis mqone mcire sazogadoebebi. es swored is jgufebia, romelTac yvelaze naklebad SeuZliaT sakuTari miznebis miRweva demokratiuli saSualebebis gamoyenebiT. mdgomareoba gansakuTrebiT uperspeqtivo xdeba calkeuli jgufebis SemTxvevaSi, romlebic antipaTiuri damokidebulebiT sargebloben farTo sazogadoebis da samarTlebrivi sistemis mxridanac ki,476 rac kargad Cans saberZneTis sasamarTloebis gadawyvetilebebidan ieRovas mowmeebis saqmeebSi, sadac maT gamudmebiT ixseniebdnen seqtad, imis miuxedavad, rom es mimdinareoba aRiarebuli religiaa saberZneTis kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze.477 sasamarTlos mxridan imis gacxadeba, rom amgvarma jgufebma mxardaWera sazogadoebis umravlesobisagan unda moipovon, gulisxmobs aRniSnuli organos mier im rolis Sesrulebaze uaris Tqmas, romelic man umciresobebis dacvis sferoSi unda Seasrulos.478 Tuki uflebebi marTlac Rirebul faseulobebad aris miCneuli, drodadro maT sazogadoebriv azrze unda moaxdinon prevalireba da dacva mianiWon maT, visac yvelaze metad sWirdeba is — farTo sazogadoebis mier ignorirebul da gariyul jgufebs. *** saqmeebSi, sadac saCivari zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebs Seexeboda, sasamarTlosa da komisiis gadawyvetilebebiT yovelTvis an religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi ar wamoiWreboda, an es kanonebi akmayofilebda me-9 muxlis meore nawilis moTxovnebs. rogorc Cans, sasamarTlom da komisiam aRiares uaryofiTi damokidebuleba religiisa da rwmenis im mimdevarTa mimarT, romlebic iTxovdnen uflebas, uari ganecxadebinaT mravalmxriv samarTlebriv sistemebSi monawileobaze da zogjer arc konkretuli saqmis detalebs aqcevdnen sakmaris yuradRebas. miuxedavad imisa, rom amgvari sistemebi mniSvnelovan sazogadoebriv miznebs emsaxureba da gamonaklisebis daSveba an kanonebis minimalurad SemzRudveli wesiT SemuSavebis midgoma garkveul tvirTs akisrebs saxelmwifoebs, Zalze mniSvnelovania imis gaTvaliswinebac, rom zogadi daniSnulebis kanonmdeblobas SeuZlia seriozuli SezRudvebi daawesos SedarebiT patara da daucveli jgufebis religiasa da rwmenaze. amgvar jgufebs ar SeuZliaT mxolod demokratiul procesebs daeyrdnon sakuTari moTxovnilebebis uzrunvelsayofad. zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitraluri kanonebis winaaRmdeg aRZruli mravali saCivridan naTelia, rom momCivnebi TavianTi religiisa da rwmenisaTvis safrTxis Semcvelad ganixilaven im kanonebs, romlebic prima facie mxolod mcirediT an saerTod ar Seexebian religias. maT umravlesobas Seadgenen umciresobaTa warmomadgen-

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lebi an individebi, romelTa rwmenac maT arsebul instituciur struqturasTan konfliqtisaken ubiZgebs. maT ver SeZles demokratiuli procesebis gamoyeneba kanonis Secvlis an misi moTxovnebisagan gaTavisuflebisaTvis. am jgufebisaTvis imis Tqma, rom kanoni, romelic maTi SexedulebiT seriozul negatiur gavlenas axdens maT religiasa da rwmenaze, faqtobrivad ar warmoadgens religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvas (an ar aris sakmarisi me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT sargeblobisaTvis), niSnavs konvenciis safuZvelze samarTlian dacvaze uars. amaSi ar igulisxmeba, rom jgufebs yovelTvis unda hqondeT gamonaklisebiT sargeblobis ufleba da kanonebis interpretireba da gamoyeneba aucileblad imgvarad unda ganxorcieledes, rom ar moxdes Careva maT religiasa da rwmenaSi. konvenciis SemzRudveli klauzulebi naTlad adastureben, rom individis uflebebs yovelTvis ar SeuZlia farTo sazogadoebrivi miznebis gadawona. amgvari saCivrebis, sul mcire, me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze ganxilva da ara maTi uaryofa amave muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze, moiTxovs saxelmwifosagan individis uflebebze dawesebuli SezRudvebis dasabuTebas da Sesabamisad uzrunvelyofs religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis maRal dones. saqmeSi Tlimenosi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg479 miRebuli gadawyvetileba metyvelebs mocemul sferoSi azrovnebis garkveul cvlilebaze. gadawyvetileba, romlis Tanaxmadac zogadi da neitraluri kanoni diskriminaciuli xasiaTisaa, Tu is ar iTvaliswinebs gamonaklisebs religiis niadagze, uprecedentoa me-9 muxlis precedentul samarTalSi. samxedro konteqstis farglebs gareT misi miReba revoluciur efeqts moaxdenda zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis mimarT sasamarTlos midgomaze. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, momCivnebs kvlav mouwevdaT sasamarTlos darwmuneba imaSi, rom maTi qmedebani religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas warmoadgens da saxelmwifoebsac farTo diskrecia miecemodaT. im SemTxvevaSi Tu diskriminaciis principis gamoyeneba regularulad moxdeba me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi, sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier warsulSi uaryofili saCivrebis umravlesoba savaraudod dakmayofilebuli iqneba.

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daskvna
religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba adamianis fundamenturi uflebaa. igi individis xelSeuxeblobisa da avtonomiis ZiriTadi aspeqtia. amis aRiarebis niSnad konvencia, adamianis uflebaTa sxva saerTaSoriso dokumentebis msgavsad, adgens religiisa da rwmenis qonis, aseve maTi gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. aSkaraa, rom konvenciis avtorebi naTlad acnobierebdnen religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobas da im garemoebaTa limitirebis aucileblobas, romelTa arsebobis pirobebSic aris SesaZlebeli adamianis uflebis SezRudva religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze. Sesabamisad, religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebas mniSvnelovani dacva mieniWa konvenciis safuZvelze. miuxedavad amisa, me-9 muxlis precedentul samarTals dRemde ar mouxdenia individebis cxovrebaSi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobis Sesabamisi gaazrebis demonstrireba da yovelTvis gadametebul pativiscemas iCenda saxelmwifo interesebis mimarT. evropuli sasamarTlos praqtikasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi naTlad metyvelebs religiis Tavisuflebis koncefciis viwro da xSirad uwesrigo xasiaTze. imis miuxedavad, rom termini `religia da rwmena~ farTod iqna interpretirebuli, es garegnulad liberaluri midgoma me-9 muxlisadmi im viwro sazRvrebiT SeizRuda, romlebic mieniWa religiisa da rwmenis, aseve maTi gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas. amgvari midgoma did sirTules warmoadgens momCivnebisTvis, romlebic religiuri gamoxatvis tradiciuli, evropuli modelis farglebs gareT moqmedeben. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu aseT

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pirobebSi myofi momCivnebi aRweven warmatebas me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze, amave muxlis meore nawilis interpretireba imgvarad xdeba, rom saxelmwifoebs moqmedebis Zalze didi Tavisufleba eniWebaT religiisa da rwmenisadmi mopyrobis TvalsazrisiT. is sirTuleebi, rasac momCivnebi gadaawydnen, cxadad miuTiTebs religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebiT komisiisa da sasamarTlos midgomidan gamomdinare problemebze. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvnelobis araRiareba arsebobs religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis uamravi, xSirad erTmaneTTan konfliqtSi myofi, koncefciebi. dRemde, garda kokinakisis saqmeSi moyvanili mokle abzacisa, romelSic aRniSnulia religiis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba pirovnebisaTvis da pluralisturi sazogadoebisaTvis, sasamarTlos ganxilvis sagani ar yofila am Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba. kokinakisis saqmeSi gamoyenebuli sityvebi yvela Semdgom saqmeSi gaimeores, Tumca maTi arsi TiTqmis yovelTvis ignorirebuli iyo. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba `uZvirfases sakuTrebad~ aris aRiarebuli, Tumca sasamarTlo mzad ar aRmoCnda misTvis dacvis mniSvnelovani sazRvrebi mieniWebina. me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mimarT arasakmarisad seriozuli damokidebulebis naTel magaliTs warmoadgens forum internum-sa da religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis uflebasTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebi. religiisa da rwmenis qonis ufleba me-9 muxlis safuZvelSi myofad iqna wodebuli kokinakisis saqmeSi. es gameorebulia konvenciis teqstiT, sadac forum internum ar eqvemdebareba SezRudvebs me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze. Tumca, miuxedavad aRiarebuli mniSvnelobisa, arc komisiasa da arc sasamarTlos dRemde ar warmoudgenia gonivruli axsna imisa, Tu ras icavs me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmenti da rogor aris misi darRveva SesaZlebeli saxelmwifoTa mxridan. bavSvebis ganaTlebis sferoSic ki, sadac yvelaze metad iCens Tavs forum internum-Si Carevis safrTxe, indoqtrinaciis sakiTxisadmi gamartivebuli midgomis SemuSavebam religiis gakveTilebze daswrebis mizniT, bavSvebze zewolis mniSvnelovani SesaZlebloba mianiWa skolebs. sxva sferoebSic sasamarTlom (SedarebiT naklebad) da komisiam uaryves is mosazreba, rom TviT rwmenaze iseTi seriozuli tvirTis dakisreba, rogoricaa samsaxuridan gaTavisufleba an uari saparlamento adgilebis dakavebaze, sakmarisia Sinagan rwmenaSi, iseve rogorc mis gamoxatvaSi, Carevis dasadgenad. saqmeebSi, sadac adgili hqonda religiur diskriminacias (mag., saxelmwifo samsaxurSi), religiis gamxelis moTxovnasa da siRrmiseuli rwmenis sawinaaRmdego qmedebis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas, mxolod gamoxatvasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi iqna ganxiluli. Tumca gansxvaveba rwmenasa da qmedebas Soris ar aris iseTi naTeli da martivi, rogorc amas sasamarTlo da komisia gvTavazoben. miuxedavad imisa, rom, erTi mxriv, realurad arsebobs forum internum-isaTvis Zalze farTo sazRvrebis miniWebis saSiSroeba (gansakuTrebiT imitom, rom igi ar eqvemdebareba SezRudvebs me-9 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze), meore mxriv, aucilebelia im zRvaris dadgena, romlis miRmac saxelmwifo qmedeba CaiTvleba Carevad religiis Tavisuflebis rogorc Sinagan, ise gare sferoSi. dResdReobiT ki konvenciis precedentuli samarTali uaryofs forum internum-is relevanturobas im saqmeebSic, sadac saxelmwifo mniSvnelovan tvirTs akisrebs rwmenas. urTierToba rwmenasa da qmedebas Soris kompleqsuri

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xasiaTisaa, Tumca precedentul samarTalSi es kompleqsuroba ar aris adekvaturad asaxuli. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmentis sazRvrebis msgavsi SeviwroebiT sasamarTlom da komisiam faqtobrivad trivialuri gaxades is ufleba, romelsac sasamarTlo udidesi mniSvnelobis mqoned uwodebs rogorc individebisaTvis, ise pluralisturi demokratiis TvalsazrisiT. religiisa da rwmenis fundamenturi mniSvneloba individebis uflebis TvalsazrisiT, moaxdinon TviTidentifikacia da icxovron avtonomiurad, aseve Selaxul iqna komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier im saCivrebis uaryofis gziT, romlebic morwmuneTa cxovrebaSi konkretuli qmedebebis mniSvnelobas Seexeboda. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba xazgasmulia nawilobriv misi rolis gamo tolerantuli da pluralisturi sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi. Tumca sasamarTlo da komisia nawilobriv momCivanTa moTxovnebis ucnauri da eqscentruli bunebis safuZvelze xSirad uaryofs iseT saCivrebs, romlebic zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan an saskolo marSTan aris dakavSirebuli. momCivnebi, romelTa koncefcia religiisa da rwmenis mimarT ar Tavsdeba sasamarTlosa da komisiis mier aRiarebuli Zalze SezRuduli modelis farglebSi, me-9 muxlis dacvis miRma rCebian. is, rac mniSvnelovania erTi religiisaTvis (mag. sajaro RvTismsaxureba an dieturi sakvebis miReba), SeiZleba sruliad umniSvnelo iyos meorisTvis. aratradiciuli religiebisa da rwmenebis mimarT `namdvili~ gamoxatvis Zalze viwro koncefciis gamoyenebiT sasamarTlom da komisiam ver SeZles im mravalferovani mimarTulebebisadmi pativiscemis demonstrireba, romlebSic SeiZleba esa Tu is religia an rwmena iqnes gamoxatuli. aqedan gamomdinare, religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mniSvneloba individebisa da mTlianad sazogadoebisaTvis ar aris adekvaturad aRiarebuli precedentuli samarTliT. Seusabamoba da sicxadis nakleboba TviT religiisa da rwmenis SezRuduli koncefciac, romelic SemuSavebul iqna saqmeebSi, ar yofila Tanmimdevrulad gamoyenebuli. amis magaliTia rogorc is konceptualuri dabneuloba, rac daculi manifestaciebis sazRvrebis SezRudvaSi erousmitis testis rolTan mimarTebaSi warmoiqmna, ise zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebTan dakavSirebiT gamoyenebuli Seusabamo midgoma. erousmitis testi SeimuSaves imis gansasazRvrad, esa Tu is qmedeba imsaxurebda Tu ara dacvas me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis meore segmentis safuZvelze. misi arsi imaSi mdgomareobda, konkretuli qmedeba aucilebeli iyo Tu ara ama Tu im religiisa da rwmenisaTvis. Tumca is ar aRmoCnda gamosadegi kompleqsuri sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad. pirvel yovlisa, gaugebaria es testi mxolod termin `wes-Cveulebebis dacvis~ SezRudvisaTvis gamoiyeneba, Tu igi aseve Seexeba RvTismsaxurebas, swavlebasa da ritualebis Sesrulebas. garda amisa, kvlav bundovania sakiTxi, testis mixedviT qmedebebi savaldebulo unda iyos religiisa da rwmenisaTvis, Tu sakmarisia mxolod mWidro kavSiris arseboba. imis miuxedavad, testis romeli versia iqneba gamoyenebuli, mniSvnelovani sirTuleebi warmoeqmnebaT im pirebs, romlebic araierarqiul religiebs miekuTvnebian an individualistur rwmenas aRiareben. dabolos, komisiam zogierT SemTxvevaSi ubralod ar gamoiyena erousmitis testi maSinac, roca, momCivnis mtkicebiT, esa Tu is qmedeba im saqmianobis nawili iyo, romelic aucilebeli iyo misi religiisa da rwmenisaTvis. es problema gansakuTrebiT mwvaved maSin iCens Tavs, roca saqmeSi warmodgenili kanoni zogadi da neitraluria.

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aqedan gamomdinare, tests, romelic me-9 muxlis interpretaciis siRrmeSi Zevs, axasiaTebs sazRvrebis bundovaneba da gamoyenebis aradamajerebloba da Seusabamoba. es ki qmnis potencials mosamarTleebis mxridan saqmeebis gadawyvetisa konkretuli qmedebebis mniSvnelobaze sakuTari warmodgenebis Sesabamisad. mtkicebuleba da obieqturoba subieqturi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis potenciali kidev ufro izrdeba imis gamo, rom gaugebaria, ra saxis mtkicebuleba unda iqnes momCivnis mier gamoyenebuli warmatebis misaRwevad. bundovani testebi mtkicebulebiT da konceptualur sirTuleebs qmnian. magaliTad, religiisa da rwmenis naTeli definiciis ararseboba arTulebs imis garkvevas, rogor unda dausabuTos momCivanma sasamarTlos sakuTari Tavis kuTvnileba gansazRvruli, farTo sazogadoebisaTvis ucnobi religiisadmi an garkveuli tipis individualisturi rwmenis arseboba. amis praqtikul mniSvnelobas adasturebs komisiis mier saCivrebis nawilis uaryofa im motiviT, rom momCivnebma ver SeZles sakuTari religiis an rwmenis arsebobis damtkiceba. es problema kombinirebulia gamoxatvasTan. erousmitis testis gamoyenebiT gamiznuli iyo obieqturobis elementis Setana imis gansazRvris procesSi, warmoadgens Tu ara esa Tu is qmedeba gamoxatvas, me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis miznebidan gamomdinare. miuxedavad amisa, mtkicebulebaTa obieqturi formebi Zalze iSviaTad iyo am procesSi gamoyenebuli. religiuri organizaciebis an liderebis mier warmodgenili mtkicebulebebis gamoyeneba araTanmimdevrul xasiaTs atarebda da xSirad ar iyo sakmarisi sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. rac Seexeba TviT momCivnebis mier warmodgenil mtkicebulebebs, isini aucileblobis gansasazRvrad, ZiriTadad, irelevantur faqtorebad ganixileboda. gamoyenebuli ar yofila gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis iseTi dokumentebi, rogoricaa deklaracia religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb an kriSnasvamis swavleba. aqedan gamomdinare, Tuki erousmitis tests obieqturad ganvixilavT, sasamarTlo da komisia sakuTar subieqtur Sexedulebebs ufro eyrdnobodnen aucileblobis gansazRvrisas, imis nacvlad, rom mtkicebulebaTa WeSmaritad obieqturi wyaroebi gamoeyenebinaT. gansxvavebuli saxis mtkicebulebiTi problema warmoiqmneba me-9 muxlis meore nawilTan dakavSirebiT. misi teqstis mixedviT saxelmwifoebma unda daakmayofilon maRali standarti da daamtkicon, rom maTi qmedebani `aucilebeli iyo demokratiul sazogadoebaSi~ legitimuri miznis Semadgeneli erT-erTi mizezis gamo. miuxedavad amisa, komisia da sasamarTlo sakmaris mtkicebulebad miiCnevdnen saxelmwifos martiv gancxadebas, rom kanons legitimuri mizani hqonda. ignorirebul iqna momCivnebis argumentebi kanonis borotad gamoyenebis an erTi SexedviT zogadi kanonebis diskriminaciuli implementaciis Taobaze. amis msgavsad, saxelmwifoTa diskreciuli uflebamosileba, romelic farTo xasiaTisaa me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeTa umravlesobaSi, aSkara mtkicebulebiT upiratesobas aniWebs mas, radganac Zalze mcire mtkicebulebac ki sakmarisia imis dasabuTebisaTvis, rom kanoni aucilebeli da proporciulia saxelmwifos mier dasaxuli miznebis misaRwevad. Tuki momCivani ver SeZlebs religiisa da rwmenis xelyofis mizniT saxelmwifos mxridan kanonis mizanmimarTulad mtruli wesiT gamoyenebis damtkicebas, sasamarTlo, savaraudod, saxelmwifos gadawyvetilebas daeyrdnoba religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvis ucileblobis Taobaze.

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saxelmwifo interesebis pativiscema saxelmwifoebisaTvis miniWebuli mtkicebulebiTi upiratesoba mxolod erTi magaliTia imisa, rom sasamarTlo da komisia ufro met simpaTias iCendnen saxelmwifoTa interesebis, vidre momCivanTa mosazrebebis mimarT. me-9 muxlis meore nawilisadmi gamoyenebul farTo midgomasTan kombinirebulma amave muxlis pirveli nawilis SezRudulma sazRvrebma im momCivanTa did nawils ganucxada uari dacvaze, romlebic religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis darRvevas amtkicebdnen. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilisadmi SemuSavebuli viwro midgoma gansakuTrebul sirTuleebs uqmnis momCivnebs, vinaidan igi faqtobrivad aTavisuflebs saxelmwifos Tavisi qmedebebis dasabuTebulobisa da proporciulobis damtkicebis valdebulebisagan. saxelmwifoebs xSirad seriozuli mizezebi aqvT imisaTvis, rom dainteresebulni iyvnen religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis SezRudviT. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia maTi interesi, rom efeqturad da damajereblad gaumklavdnen socialur problemebs morwmuneTa mcire, zogjer ugunuri jgufebis mxridan yovelgvari dabrkolebis gareSe. Tumca arsebobs gaumarTlebeli mizezebic, ris gamoc saxelmwifoebi mxars uWeren religiisa da rwmenis SezRudul koncefcias. adamianebs, romlebic irCeven, isargeblon sruli avtonomiiT religiis sakiTxebSi, SeuZliaT gamoiyenon es socialuri kontrolisadmi winaaRmdegobis safuZvlad. religiebi SesaZloa aseve warmoadgendnen arenas mTavrobaSi arsebuli korufciis an dominanti politikuri moralis kritikisa. es ki garkveul uxerxulobas uqmnis xelisuflebas, Tumca swored erT-erTi im mizezTagania, ris gamoc aucilebelia religiis Tavisuflebis dacva. me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilisadmi SemuSavebuli viwro midgoma ki amgvar saqmianobas faqtobrivad gamoricxavs konvenciis dacvis sferodan. bevri saxelmwifosaTvis religia da rwmena, ZiriTadad, eklesiiT, sinagogiT da meCeTiT da maTTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli saqmianobiT Semoifargleba, magram es ar asaxavs bevris religiuri gamocdilebis realobas. sasamarTlom da komisiam sakmaod iolad aRiares religiisa da rwmenis Taobaze is mosazreba, romelic asaxavs saxelmwifoTa interesebs, imis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe, Tu ra zegavlenas moaxdens momCivnebze maT mier dakavebuli pozicia. Seqmnilma viTarebam me-9 muxlis orive nawilis rekonceptualizaciisaken unda wagviyvanos. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis rekonceptualizacia me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili imisaTvis, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba gacilebiT efeqturad iqnes daculi, sasamarTlom ufro seriozuli damokidebuleba unda gamoiCinos momCivanTa moTxovnebis mimarT, vidre dResdReobiT iCens. cxadia, sasamarTlo ver dauWers mxars momCivanTa yvela moTxovnas me-9 muxlis meore nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli interesebis an imis Taobaze, ra aris aucilebeli demokratiul sazogadoebaSi, Tumca mas SeuZlia ufro momCivanze fokusirebuli midgoma SeimuSavos. aseTi midgomis erTi mniSvnelovani aspeqti iqneboda forum internum-is sazRvrebisa da moqmedebis ukeT gansazRvra. dResdReobiT igi araviTar praqtikul rols ar asrulebs me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saqmeebSi da sakmaod rTulia imis garkveva, Tu rogor SeuZlia saxelmwifos Caerios forum internum-Si, ideologiuri damuSavebis xerxebis gamoyenebis garda. sasamarTlom forum internum-is ufro srulyofili defi-

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nicia unda SeimuSaos da ganmartos, rogor aris SesaZlebeli misi xelyofa. oficialurad unda iqnes aRiarebuli is zRvari, romlis miRmac saxelmwifos mxridan vinmes iZuleba konkretul qmedebaze CaiTvleba rwmenis, iseve, rogorc misi gamoxatvis, xelyofad. garda amisa, sasamarTlom gacilebiT mniSvnelovani yuradReba unda dauTmos im sferoebs, sadac yvelaze didia forum internum-Si rTulad SesamCnevi Carevis potenciuri SesaZlebloba, gansakuTrebiT ganaTlebisa da saxelmwifo eklesiebisadmi mopyrobis SemTxvevaSi. sasamarTlos aseve SeuZlia, ufro meti pativiscemiT moekidos momCivanTa subieqtur moTxovnebs imis Taobaze, xelyofs Tu ara gansazRvruli kanoni an regulacia maTi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas. sasamarTlosa da komisiis wevrebis garkveulma nawilma me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis safuZvelze Camoayaliba kriteriumebi manifestaciaTa formebisaTvis, romlebic did yuradRebas iCenen momCivanTa mosazrebebis mimarT da nakleb privilegiebs aniWeben religiis tradiciul gamoxatvis formebs. religiis Tavisuflebis im modelis pirobebSi, romlis mixedviTac rwmenas pativiscemiT movepyrobodiT, aRiarebuli iqneboda midgoma, romelic ufro seriozulad moekideboda momCivnebis moTxovnebs TavianTi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis formebis Taobaze. Tuki momCivani, romlis mtkicebiTac savaldebulo qmedeba misi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvas warmoadgenda, SeZlebda Tavisi moTxovnis damadasturebeli garkveuli mtkicebulebis warmodgenas, es sakmarisi unda yofiliyo, rom konkretuli manifestacia me-9 muxlis miznebisaTvis Sesabamisad ecnoT. am SemTxvevaSi momCivans aRar mouwevda imis Cveneba, rom esa Tu is qmedeba aucilebeli iyo misi religiis an rwmenisaTvis. es ufro subieqturi iqneboda, vidre is testi, romelsac zogadad mimarTavdnen sasamarTlo da komisia. Tumca TaRliTuri miznebisaTvis mis borotad gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli mRelvarebis SemcirebisaTvis sakmaod sasargeblo iqneboda gaeros dokumentebis an romelime sayovelTaod aRiarebuli mecnieruli swavlebis gamoyeneba, sadac mimoxilulia religiuri gamoxatva msoflio masStabiT, qmedebaTa im tipebis ilustrirebis mizniT, romlebic mniSvnelovan manifestaciebs warmoadgenen. es ki daexmareboda sasamarTlos, Tavi daeRwia religiaze tradiciuli qristianuli warmodgenebis zegavlenisagan. precedentul samarTalTan dakavSirebuli kidev erTi problema Seexeba erousmitis testis imgvar gamoyenebas, ris Sedegadac faqtobrivad SeuZlebelia zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis mxridan me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis darRvevis damtkiceba. religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis ufro srulfasovani modeliT aRiarebuli iqneboda, rom kanoni SeiZleba arapirdapir da winaswari ganzraxvis gareSe iyos diskriminaciuli an SemzRudveli religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis mimarT. arsebobs mravali samarTlebrivi da politikuri mizezi imis aRiarebisaTvis, rom zogadi daniSnulebisa da neitralur kanonebs SeuZliaT daarRvion me-9 muxlis pirveli nawili. sasamarTlos mxridan Seusabamo iqneba iseTi wesis formulireba, romliTac saxelmwifos moeTxoveba religiuri jgufebis gaTavisufleba nebismieri kanonisagan, romelic maT religiaSi an rwmenaSi ereva. Tumca imis aRiarebiT, rom zogad da neitralur kanonebsac SeuZliaT religiis Tavisuflebis darRveva, sasamarTlo waaqezebda saxelmwifoebs iseTi sistemis SemuSavebisaken, romelic SesaZlebels gaxdida kanonebis mxridan aRniSnuli Tavisuflebis gaumarTleblad SezRudvis Tavidan acilebas. aRniSnulma gzebma SesaZloa moicvas rogorc gamonaklisebi calkeuli kanonebidan,

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ise warmodgenil kanonproeqtebze ufro xSiri konsultaciebi religiur sazogadoebebTan an regulaciebis SedarebiT SezRuduli wesiT SemuSaveba. msgavsi midgoma gansakuTrebiT sasargeblo iqneboda umciresobebisTvis, romelTa interesebi TiTqmis ar aris gaTvaliswinebuli sakanonmdeblo procesSi. me-9 muxlis meore nawili imis miuxedavad, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba mniSvnelovani uflebaa, zogjer misi Tavisufali gamoxatva gansazRvrul SezRudvebs unda daeqvemdebaros. im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca morwmunis mtkicebiT ama Tu im tipis qmedeba absolutur da wminda valdebulebas warmoadgens, aRniSnuli srulebiT ar gulisxmobs, rom saxelmwifom an adamianis uflebebis damcvelebma aucileblad mxari unda dauWiron mis moTxovnas. religiebi an morwmuneTa jgufebi SesaZloa monawileobdnen SuRlis gaRvivebaSi im pirTa winaaRmdeg, romlebic ar iziareben maT Sexedulebebs da SeiZleba TviT religiis Tavisuflebis ideis winaaRmdegac ki gamodiodnen. garda amisa, calkeul religiebSi istoriulad arsebobs tendencia qalTa mimarT diskriminaciuli damokidebulebisa, zogierTi maTgani ki aqtiurad aris CarTuli rasobrivi uTanasworobisa da homoseqsualistebis mimarT devnis ganxorcielebis waqezebaSi. me-9 muxlis meore nawili saxelmwifoebisagan moiTxovs damajerebeli mizezebis demonstrirebas religiasa da rwmenaSi Carevis gamarTlebisaTvis; da xSirad aseTi mizezebi realurad arsebobs. Tumca aseve xSirad saxelmwifoebi, msgavsi safuZvlebis arsebobisas, Tavs arideben religiebis (gansakuTrebiT dawesebuli, umravlesobis religiebis) saqmianobaSi Carevisagan. aseve sasamarTloc da komisiac arCeven, ar CaerTon iseTi konfliqturi interesebis ganxilvaSi, rogoricaa, magaliTad, qalTa Tanasworoba da religiis Tavisufleba. amis sanacvlod ZiriTad mizezebs, romlebic religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis SezRudvis gamarTlebad gamoiyeneba, sazogadoebrivi wesrigis farTo koncefciebi da administraciuli sargebeli warmoadgens. saqmeSi karadumani TurqeTis winaaRmdeg480 komisia mxolod gakvriT Seexo im Temas, saxelmwifo universitetSi Tavsaburavis tarebis nebis darTva zewolas moaxdenda Tu ara sxvebze (Sesabamisad, SezRudavda maT religiis Tavisuflebas) da xels Seuwyobda Tu ara genderul uTanasworobas. amis sanacvlod voluntarizmis saeWvo meTodi iqna gamoyenebuli mniSvnelovani sakiTxebisaTvis Tavis aridebisa da saqmeSi iseTi gadawyvetilebis miRebisaTvis, romelic ar aRiarebda religiuri samosis tarebis mniSvnelobas muslimebisaTvis. sasamarTlo swored am konfliqtebs unda gamklaveboda da ganeviTarebina principebi sapirispiro interesebs Soris davis gadasawyvetad. msgavsi principebis SemuSaveba ar aris ioli da yoveli moTxovnis Sefaseba misi Rirsebebis safuZvelze unda ganxorcieldes. me-9 muxlis meore nawilis precedentuli samarTliT Tu vimsjelebT, sasamarTlo da komisia TviT sakmaod trivialur mizezebsac ki aRiarebdnen religiis TavisuflebaSi Carevis safuZvlad da did mniSvnelobas aniWebdnen saxelmwifoTa im moTxovnebs, romlebic sazogadoebriv wesrigsa da administraciul sargebels Seexeboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom religiis Tavisuflebas ar SeiZleba absoluturi prioriteti mieniWos, igi imdnad unda iqnes aRiarebuli, rom SedarebiT banalur interesebze moaxdinos prevalireba.

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sasamarTlo tendenciebi am TavSi mocemuli analizi naTlad metyvelebs imaze, rom sasamarTlosa da komisiis damokidebuleba religiis Tavisuflebisadmi warsulSi mniSvnelovan problemebTan iyo dakavSirebuli, Tumca arsebobs optimizmis garkveuli safuZveli me11 oqmiT Seqmnili sasamarTlos mier me-9 muxlis gamoyenebis saxiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom sasamarTlo arcTu damajerebel midgomas iyenebda me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis (gansakuTrebiT forum internum-is) sazRvrebisadmi, saqmeSi buskarini da sxvebi sanmarinos winaaRmdeg481 man erTxmad miiCnia, rom irRveoda me-9 muxli da uaryo sanmarinos argumenti religiuri tradiciis mniSvnelobis Taobaze sazogadoebrivi wesrigisaTvis. garda amisa, saqmeSi cavaxidisi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg482 axlad dafuZnebuli sasamarTlos ramdenime wevris gancxadebiT, zedamxedvelobis ganxorcieleba umciresobis religiur jgufze, rodesac ar arsebobda varaudis safuZveli, rom igi kriminalur an antisazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi iyo CarTuli, forum internum-is darRvevas warmoadgenda. Tumca umravlesoba ar aRmoCnda mzad, mxari daeWira aseTi SexedulebisaTvis, naTlad gamoCnda, rom sasamarTlos, sul mcire, ramdenime wevri eTanxmeba me-9 muxlis pirveli nawilis pirveli segmentis farTo interpretacias, gansxvavebiT arsebuli precedentuli samarTlisagan. sasamarTlos rom ganevrco Tavisi gadawyvetileba saqmeSi Tlimenosi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg483 da daevaldebulebina saxelmwifoebi, daedginaT gamonaklisebi zogadi da neitraluri kanonebidan religiisa da rwmenis niadagze, erTbaSad gafarTovdeboda konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli dacvis sazRvrebi, gansakuTrebiT, umciresobebis dacvis kuTxiT. dabolos, saqmeSi serifi saberZneTis winaaRmdeg484 miRebuli gadawyvetileba, romelSic sasamarTlom xazi gausva religiuri pluralizmis mniSvnelobas da saxelmwifos rols SemwynareblobisaTvis xelis SewyobaSi, SesaZloa, warmoadgendes niSans misi mowiwebuli damokidebulebis cvlilebisa saxelmwifos araseriozuli argumentebis mimarT garkveuli daZabulobis savaraudo warmoqmnis Taobaze, Tu ar SeizRudeba religiis Tavisufleba. saqmeTa raodenoba mas Semdeg, rac me-11 oqmi Sevida ZalaSi, Zalze SezRudulia myari daskvnebis gamosatanad, Tumca, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, arsebobs safuZveli frTxili optimizmisaTvis. *** religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba yovelTvis iqneba sadavo ufleba, nawilobriv imitom, rom misi mniSvneloba mravali adamianisaTvis qmnis sazogadoebrivi konfliqtis potenciur safrTxes. religiis Tavisuflebis arc erTma samarTlebrivma modelma ar unda mianiWos absoluturi upiratesoba adamianis uflebas religiisa da rwmenis qonasa da gamoxatvaze. arsebobs sxva mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi miznebi, romlebsac xelyofda msgavsi midgoma da avtonomiis sxva mniSvnelovani aspeqtebi, romlebic SeizRudeboda, religiis Tavisuflebas rom hqonoda upiratesoba yvela sxva uflebasTan SedarebiT. miuxedavad amisa, moqmedi precedentuli samarTali araadekvatur sazRvrebs aniWebs religiis Tavisuflebas da saTanado pativiscemiT ar epyroba momCivanTa yvelaze siRrmiseul rwmenebs. me-9 muxliT daculi religiisa da rwmenis tipis Taobaze kompleqsuri sakiTxebis damaxinjebulad gadmocemis nacvlad, religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvaze adamianis uflebis mimoxilvisas sasamarTlom

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ufro zustad unda gansazRvros terminebi religia da rwmena. garda amisa, aucilebelia momCivnebis interesebze orientirebuli midgomis SemuSaveba imis gansasazRvrad, Tu ras gulisxmobs religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatva, maTi subieqturi Sexedulebebisa da religiis gamoxatvaze gaeros swavlebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. msgavsi midgoma uzrunvelyofda religiebisa da rwmenebis ufro did pativiscemas da, Sesabamisad, saxelmwifos mxridan religiisa da rwmenis mniSvnelovan aspeqtebSi Carevis ufro met SemTxvevas gamoavlenda, gansxvavebiT moqmedi precedentuli samarTlisagan. Sedegad, sxva sazogadoebrivi sikeTeebis mimarT religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis mniSvnelobis dabalansebis roli swored me-9 muxlis meore nawils darCeboda. religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvis mravali mizezi arsebobs, Tumca midgoma, romelic aqcentirebas ufro me-9 muxlis meore nawilze moaxdenda, rogorc xsenebuli Tavisuflebis SezRudvis gzaze, vidre amave muxlis pirveli nawilis sazRvrebis SezRudvaze, sul mcire, saxelmwifoebs aRniSnuli mizezebis arsebobis demonstrirebas aiZulebda da individebs SesaZleblobas miscemda, TavianTi religiuri gamoxatvis mniSvneloba daemtkicebinaT. Zalze xSirad religiisa da rwmenis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis uaryofa komisiisa da sasamarTlos mier erTbaSad xdeboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom religiisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba evropaSi iseT saxifaTo mdgomareobaSi ar aris, rogorc msoflios sxva wertilebSi, erTi SexedviT misma mciredma xelyofamac ki SeiZleba mniSvnelovani tkivili miayenos im pirebs, romelTa Tavisuflebac SeizRuda. religia da rwmena yovelTvis warmoadgenda STagonebis mniSvnelovan wyaroebs moraluri da politikuri ganviTarebis, saxelovnebo da literaturuli miswrafebisa da, rac mTavaria, im individebisaTvis, romlebic cdiloben, azrianad da patiosnad icxovron. religiis Tavisufleba udavod gansazRvruli sazogadoebrivi sazRauris gaRebas moiTxovs da konfliqtis warmoqmnis potencialic aqvs, magram miuxedavad amisa, igi gacilebiT did dacvas imsaxurebs, vidre mas konvenciis precedentuli samarTliT aqvs miniWebuli. religiuri Semwynareblobis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi evropuli demokratia da pluralizmic safrTxis winaSe dadgebian. rogorc aristotele ambobda, Cven ar unda davugdoT yuri mas, vinc gvafrTxilebs, rom `adamianma unda gansajos sxvisi azrebi~ an `mokvdavi azrebi mokvdav gonebas ergeba~; aramed, ramdenadac xelgvewifeba, unda vemsgavsoT ukvdavT da yvelaferi viRonoT imisaTvis, raTa vicxovroT SesabamisobaSi im umaRlesTan, rac CvenSia. maSinac, roca igi moculobiT mcirea, Tavisi ZaliTa da RirebulebiT yvelafer danarCens aRemateba.

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Arcot Krishnaswami (diskriminaciis aRkveTisa da umciresobaTa dacvis qvekomitetis specialuri momxsenebeli), Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices (1960). saqme dakavSirebulia genocidis Taobaze arsebuli konvenciis gamoyenebasTan (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia). religiur niadagze bosnieli xalxis winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis CamonaTvali. mosamzadebeli sxdomebi. mag. Platform "Arzte Für Das Leben" v. Austria, 44 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 65 (1985). Rai, Allmond and "Negotiate Now" v. the United Kingdom, 81-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 146 (1995). mag. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993); Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5 (1978). mag. me-3 muxli, romelic krZalavs wamebas, araadamianur mopyrobasa da damamcirebel sasjels. Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5 (1978). kanonis specialuri norma. Rai, Allmond and "Negotiate Now" v. the United Kingdom, 81-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 146 (1995) (lex specialis iyo me-11 muxli); Handyside v. the United Kingdom, 24 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1976) (me-10 muxli); Johnston v. Ireland, 112 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1986) (me-12 muxli). Riera Blume and others v. Spain, Eur. Ct. H. R., 9 marti, 1999. me-19 muxlis pirveli nawili. me-19 mexlis meore nawili. me-19 muxli. adamianis uflebTa da fundamentur TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropis konvenciis me-11 oqmi, miRebuli 1994 wlis 11 maiss. ZalaSi Sevida 1998 wlis pirvel noembers. 25-e muxli. 26-e muxli. 27-e muxli.

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28 (b)-e da 30-e muxlebi. mag. Pentidis and Others v. Greece, 39 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1997); Hazar, Hazar and Acik v. Turkey, 73 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 111 (1991). 31-e muxli. 32-e muxli. 48-e muxli (sawyisi teqsti). 48-e muxli (me-9 oqmis Sesworebis mixedviT). 52-e muxli. 50-e muxli. 52-e muxli. evropis sabWo, adamianis uflebaTa evropis konvenciis centraluri sistemis reforma. 21-e muxli (Sesworebis Semdeg). 28-e muxli (Sesworebis Semdeg). 29-e muxli (Sesworebis Semdeg). 30-e muxli (Sesworebis Semdeg). 43-e muxli (Sesworebis Semdeg). mocemul TavSi ganvixilavT ramdenime msgavsi tipis saqmes, vinaidan isini Seexeba mtkicebulebiT wesebTan dakavSirebul ramdenime mniSvnelovan sakiTxs me-9 muxlTan mimarTebaSi. D. S and E. S v. the United Kingdom, 65 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 245 (1990). X v. the United Kingdom, 28 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. (1982). X v. the United Kingdom, 15 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 8 (1976). Shields v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 4 dekemberi, 1984. Ahmet Sadik v. Greece, 20 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1638, 1660 (1996). mosamarTle martensis gansxvavebuli azri, romelsac SeuerTda mosamarTle foigeli. am ukanasknelis gancxadebiT, `ar aris gasakviri, rom swavluli avtorebis mtkicebiT aseTi gadawyvetilebis realuri mizezebi ... sadme sxvagan unda veZeboT, kerZod sasamarTlos survilSi, Tavi aaridos saqmis arsebiT ganxilvas~. Church of X v. the United Kingdom, 13 Y. B. Eur. Conv. on H. R. 306 (1968). individualuri wevrebi aseve dazaraldnen mTavrobis moqmedebaTa Sedegad, Tumca nebismieri maTganis mxridan saCivris Setana mxolod eklesiis warmomadgenlobiTi uflebamosilebis ganxorcieleba iqneboda. Karnell and Hardt v. Sweden, 14 YB Convention on HR (Eur. Comm’n on H. R.) (1971). X and the church of scientology v. Sweden, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 68 (1979). Holy Monasteries v. Greece, 301 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1995); Finska Forsamlingen I Stockholm and Hautaniemi v. Sweden, 85-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 94, 96 (1996). X and the church of scientology v. Sweden, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 68, 70 (1979). Omkarananda and the Divine Light Zentrum v. Switzerland, 25 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 105, 117 (1981). Kontakt-Information-Therapie and Hagen v. Austria, 57 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 81, 88 (1988). am saqmeSi iuridiul pirs warmoadgenda narkotikuli saSualebebisagan reabilitaciis centri da ara eklesia, Tumca komisiam es mosazreba faqtobrivad zogad wesad aRiara da specialurad axsena eklesiebis ufleba religiis Tavisuflebaze. Company X v. Switzerland, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 85 (1979). Kustannus Oy Vapaa Ajattelija AB and Others v. Finland, 85-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 29, 43 (1996). Tumca saqmeSi Church of X v. the United Kingdom, 29 Collection 70, 77-8 (1968) komisiam ganacxada, rom individebis mxridan saCivris warmodgenis SemTxvevaSic igi ganwiruli iyo warumateblobisaTvis, vinaidan garTianebuli samefos mier gadagmuli arc erTi nabiji ar utoldeboda konvenciiT uzrunvelyofili uflebis darRvevas.

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Scientology Kirche Deutschland e. V v. Germany, 89-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 163 (1997). evropis sabWo, saqmianobisa da statistikis kvleva (1996). evropis sabWo, saqmianobisa da statistikis kvleva (1999). Wemhoff v. Germany, 7 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1968). Artico v. Italy, 37 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1980); Airey v. Ireland, 32 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979-1980). Cf. Peter W. Edge, Current Problems in Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights. piter eji mocemul naSromSi amtkicebs, rom gansxvaveba azrsa Tu sindissa da rwmenas Soris ararelevanturia. am interpretaciiT, ufleba religiisa da rwmenis manifestaciaze moicavs zogad uflebas sindisis gamoxatvaze. mravali avtoris mixedviT, ar arsebobs msgavsi zogadi ufleba. Kent Greenawalt, Religion as a Concept in Constitutional law; Richard O’Frame, Belief in a Non-Material Reality – A Proposed First Amendment Definition of Religion; Wojciech Sadurski, On Legal Definitions of "Religion". X v. Germany, 24 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 137 (1981). Campbell and Cossans v. the United Kingdom, 48 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1982). Campbell and Cossans v. the United Kingdom, 48 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1982). X, Y and Z v. the United Kingdom, 31 Eur. Coom’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 50 53 (1982). saientologiis eklesia pirveli organizebuli eklesia iyo, romelmac sargebeli naxa komisiis mier eklesiebis mxridan religiis Tavisuflebis darRvevis Taobaze wardgenili saCivrebis ganuxilvelad datovebis Sesaxeb miRebuli adrindeli gadawyvetilebebis Secvlis safuZvelze. saqmeSi X and Church of Scientology v. Sweden, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 68, 70 (1978) komisiam daadgina, rom saientologiis eklesias hqonda ufleba, Tavad waredgina saCivari. Sedegad, Seicvala komisiis adrindeli pozicia saqmeSi Church of X v. the United Kingdom, 13 Y. B. Eur. Conv. on H. R. 306 (1968). rasakvirvelia, ukanaskneli saCivris ganxilvisas sasamarTlom saientologiis eklesia mxolod `asociaciad~ moixsenia, SesaZloa, imitom, rom saqmeSi gansaxilvel erT-erT sakiTxs saientologiis religiad aRiarebaze germaniis uari warmoadgenda. Tumca es srulebiT ar niSnavda imas, rom asociaciis wevrebs ar gaaCndaT, sul mcire, rwmena mainc me-9 muxlis safuZvelze: Scientology Kirche Deutschland e. V v. Germany, 89-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 163 (1997). Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5, 19 (1978); Le Cour Grandmaison and Fritz v. France, 53 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 150 (1987). Knudsen v. Norway, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep 247 (1985). Ahmed v. the United Kingdom, 22 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 27 (1981); Karaduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1993). ISKCON v. Unired Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 41 (1994). X v. the United Kingdom, 1 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 41 (1974). D v. France, 35 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 199 (1983). Angeleni v. Sweden, 51 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 41 (1986). A. R. M. Chappell v. the United Kingdom, 53 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 241, 246 (1987). Omkarananda and the Divine Light Zentrum v. Switzerland, 25 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 105 (1981). X v. Austria, 13 Collections 42 (1963). X v. Italy, 5 Eur. Coom’n H. R. Dec & REp. 83 (1976). X v. Austria, 13 Collections 42, 53-4 (1963). Hazar, Hazar and Acik v. Turkey, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 200, 212 (1991). Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5, 19 (1978). X v. the Federal Republic of Germany, 37 Collectio 119, 122 (1970).

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77 komisiis gancxadebiT, momCivans `ar ganumartavs, ra gziT surda Tavisi religiuri rwmenis gamoxatva da rogor uaryofda cixis administracia mis uflebas~. 78 X v. the United Kingdom, 11 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 55 (1977). 79 Malcolm Evans. 80 Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). 81 SesaZloa, msgavsi tipis varaudiT iyo komisiis gadawyvetileba motivirebuli `sindisis patimarTa~ saqmeSi: McFeely and Others v. the United Kingdom, 20 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 44 (1980). 82 Theriault v. Silber, 453 F. Supp. 254 (CWD Tex, 1978). 83 X v. the Federal Republic of Germany, 24 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 137 (1981). 84 Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. arkot kriSnasvamis Tanaxmad, dakrZalvis ceremonials udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs mravali religiisa Tu rwmenisaTvis da, sadac SesaZlebelia, individebis arCevani (maT Soris im adgilebSi dakrZalvis arCevani, romelebic Tavisufalia sxva religiaTa simboloebisagan, Tuki es aucilebelia) aRiarebuli unda iqnes. 85 Donna Sullivan, Advancing the Freedom og Religion or Belief Through the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Religious Intolerance and Diskriminacion. aSS-Si zogierTi miiCnevs, rom uzenaesma sasamarTlom sifrTxile unda gamoiCinos pirveli Sesworebis safuZvelze termin `religiis~ gansazRvrisas, vinaidan gadametebulad SemzRudvelma an nebis damrTvelma definiciam SeiZleba saxelmwifo organos mxridan religiis TavisuflebaSi dauSvebeli Careva gamoiwvios. uzenaesma sasamarTlom, Tavis mxriv, religiis gansazRvras `delikaturi sakiTxi uwoda~, romlis Tavidan acilebac savsebiT SesaZlebelia: Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203, 215 (1972). 86 miuxedavad imisa, rom dona salivani ar miiCnevs sasargeblod saTanado definiciis qonas religiis Tavisuflebaze arsebul saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebSi, igi aRiarebs konvenciis gamoyenebisas sakiTxis gavrcobis aucileblobas konkretul saqmeebTan mimarTebaSi. 87 mosamzadebeli sxdomebi. 88 gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetis zogadi komentari me-18 muxlze, azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba. 89 M.A.B., W.A.T. and J.A.Y.T v. Canada, gadawyvetileba miRebuli iqna 1994 wlis 8 aprils. 90 mocemuli tipis religiis magaliTs warmoadgens amerikeli indielebis religiebi, romlebic tradiciulad iyenebdnen peiots TavianTi religiuri ceremoniebis dros. 91 Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203, 215-16 (1972). 92 ix. U.S. v. Seeger, 380 U. S. 163 (1965), sadac ufleba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze gavrcelda adamianze, romlis opozicia samxedro samsaxurisadmi efuZneboda `rwmenasa da erTgulebas uflisa da saTnoebisadmi da religiur mrwamss mxolod eTikur msoflmxedvelobaSi~. 93 Thomas v. Revie Board of the Indiana Employment Security Division, 450 U. S. 707, 714 (1981). 94 U.S. v. Seeger, 380 U. S. 163, 180-1 (1965). 95 Paul Tillich, The Dynamics of Faith. 96 misi CamonaTvali moicavs `uflis rwmenas; msoflmxedvelobas samyarosa da adamianur miznebze; rwmenas gansazRvruli formis sicocxlisa sikvdilis Semdgom; kavSirs ufalTan RvTismsaxurebis ritualuri aqtebis da jgufuri an individualuri locvebis gziT; moraluri valdebulebis gansazRvrul xedvas~. 97 avstraliuri kavSiris konstitucia (1901). 166-e muxlis Tanaxmad, kavSiri arasodes miiRebs kanons nebismieri eklesiis dawesebis, nebismieri religiuri ceremoniis dakisrebis, an aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SezRudvisaTvis da aranairi religiuri testi ar iqneba kavSiris mxridan gamoyenebuli nebismieri Tanamdebobis dakavebisa Tu sazogadoebrivi ndobisaTvis.

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Wilson and Deane JJ, in Church of the New Faith v. Commissioner for Pay - Roll Tax (Vic.), 154 C. L. R. 120, 173 (1983). K. J. Partsch, Freedom of Conscience and Expression and Political Freedom. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Travauxs Preparatoires, iuridiul da administraciul sakiTxTa komitetis moxseneba, 1949 wlis 5 seqtemberi. Travaux Preparatories, sakonsultacio asambleis meore sesia, maqsvel-faivis (gaerTianebuli samefo) gamosvla. erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis CarCo-konvenciis preambula. Church of scientology and 128 of its members v. Sweden. Otto-Preminger-Institut v. Austria, 295 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1994). Dubowska v. Poland, aseve, Skup v. Poland. Wingrove v. the United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1937 (1996-V). 1954 wels sasamarTlom daadgina, rom sityvis Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebas Tan axlavs piris valdebuleba, Tavi aaridos azris gamoxatvas, romelic Tayvaniscemis obieqtebs Seexeba da usafuZvlod Seuracxmyofelia sxvebisTvis. rogoricaa britaneTis kanonebi mkrexelobis Sesaxeb, romlebic Seexeba mkrexelobas mxolod qristianobis da ara sxva religiuri jgufebis mimarT. ix. Choudhury v. the United Kingdom, 12 Hum. Rts. L.J. 172 (1991). saientologebis mtkicebiT, aseTi situacia arsebobda saqmeSi Scientology Kirche von Deutchsland e. V. v. Germany. 89-A, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 163 (1997). saCivari dauSveblad iqna miCneuli, radganac saqmis gadawyvetis erovnuli resursebi ar iqna bolomde gamoyenebuli, Tumca sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom saientologebis mier xazgasmuli sakiTxebi, SeiZleboda religiisa da rwmenis Tavisuflebis dacvis pozitiuri valdebulebis saxelmwifosaTvis dakisrebis moTxovnis safuZveli gamxdariyo. C v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 142 (1983); Valsamis v. Greece, 2 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1996). Malcolm Evans, Religious Liberty and International Law in Europe, paragrafi 1 (1997). Darby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990) danarTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. Buscarini and others v. San Marino. Eur. Ct. H. R. 18 Tebervali, 1999 weli. Buscani and others v. San Marino. sasamarTlom miiRo gadawayvetileba, rom ficis dadeba ar warmoadgenda aucileblobas demokratiul sazogadoebaSi. Gabriel Moens, The Action-Belief Dichotomy and Freedom of Religion (1989); Donna Sullivan, Advancing the Freedom of Religion or Belief Through the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Religious Intolerance and Diskrimination. (1988). zogi mwerali aRniSnul sferoSi aseve emxroba religiaSi rwmenis upiratesi xasiaTis princips. Brice Dickson, The United Nations and Freedom of Religion, 44 Int’l & Comp. L. Q. 327 (1995) brais diqsoni amtkicebs, rom `religia _ es rwmenaTa erTobliobaa~. Reynolds v. U. S.—is saqmidan dawyebuli (1998). am ganxriT yvelaze xSirad moixsenieben saqmes Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940), sadac uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom `SesworebaSi aRiarebulia ori koncefcia — rwmenis Tavisufleba da qmedebis Tavisufleba. pirveli absoluturia, xolo meore Tavisi arsiT SeuZleblia aseTi iyos~. Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203, 220 (1972). Philip Kurland, Religion and the Law: Of Church State and the Suprime Court (1961). H. A. Freeman, A Remonstrance for Conscience (1998). Wilfred Cantwell Smith, The Meaning and End of Religion. Tavebi me-2 da me-3 (1962). uilfred kantuel smitis swavlebaSi termin `religiis~ warmoSobisa da gamoyenebis Sesaxeb avtori aRwers, Tu rogor Seicvala droTa ganmavlobaSi terminebis gamoyeneba da mxolod ukanasknel xanebSi daukavSirda ideas gansazRvruli rwmenebis erTobliobis Sesaxeb. Tavdapirveli gamoyeneba am cnebisa ZiriTadad RvTisnieri cxovrebisa da adamianebis religiur qcevaze aqcentis gakeTebisken ixreboda. maTi Tanamedrove kavSiri gansazRvrul moZRvrebasTan Tavisi arsiT postreformaciuli produqtia.

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Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203 (1972). Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203 (1972). Valsamis v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2312 (1996); Efstratiou v. Greece, 27 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2347 (1996). kanonis Tanaxmad, SvedeTis saxelmwifo eklesiisTvis gadasaxadebis gadaxda savaldebulo xasiaTs atarebda. SvedeTis mcxovrebT, romlebic ar iyvnen saxelmwifo eklesiis wevrebi, hqondaT ufleba, ar gadaexadaT gadasaxadebis nawili mainc. Tumca derbis msgavsi gadasaxadebis gadamxdelebs, romlebic, marTalia, bizness eweodnen SvedeTSi, magram ar cxovrobdnen am qveyanaSi, ar hqondaT gadasaxadebis gadaxdisgan gaTavisuflebis ufleba. Derby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990) sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis danarTi. Kalac v. Turkey, 41 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1199 (1997). Kalac v. Turkey, 41 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A). komisiis Sexeduleba, danarTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom komisiam ar ganixila forum internum-is sakiTxi, Tavisi gadawyvetileba daasabuTa im niadagze, rom mosamarTlis gaTavisuflebis safuZveli gaxda mis mier rwmenaTa manifestacia (gamoxatva), rac ar iyo `kanoniT gansazRvruli~ sakmarisi sicxadiT. Tsavachidis v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 4 marti, 1997. Tsavachidis v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 21 ianvari, 1999. Riera Blume and others v. Spain, Eur. Ct. H. R., 21 seqtemberi, 1999. msoflio masStabiT saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris arsebul urTierTobaTa saxeebis mimoxilvisaTvis ix. Subrata Roy Chowdhury, Rule of Law in a State of Emergency: The Paris Minimum Standarts of Human Rights Norms in a State of Emergency (1989). Myres S. McDougal, Lasswell, and Chen, The Right to Religious Freedom and World Public Order (1976). makdugali, losveli da Ceni aRweren mas, rogorc `warumatebel gadaxras tradiciuli sibrZnidan~, romlis Tanaxmadac, oficialuri religiis dawesebam an aRiarebam SesaZloa xeli Seuwyos aratolerantul damokidebulebas sxva rwmenis mimdevrebis mimarT. D. J. Harris, M. O’Boyle, and C. Warbrick, The Law of the European Convention on Human Rights (1995). Darby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990) sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis danarTi. Buscarini and others v. San Marino, Eur. Ct. H. R. 18 Tebervali, 1999. Choudhury v. United Kingdom, 12 Hum. Rts L. J. 172 (1991); Wingrove v. the Unired Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1996). TumcaRa am ukanasknel saqmeSi sasamarTlom erTi religiis damcvel kanons `anomalia~ uwoda. Darby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990), danarTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. X v. Austria, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. (1984). Gottesmann v. Switzerland, 40 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 284 (1984). Darby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990), danarTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. E G. R. v. Austria, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 42 (1984). Schubert v. Germany, Eur. Comm’n H. R. 5 oqtomberi, 1981. P. van Dijk and G. J. H. van Hoof, The Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights (1997). saqmeSi Kustannus Oy Vapaa Ajattelija AB and others v. Finland, 85-A Eur. Comm’n. H. R. Dec. & Rep. 29 (1996) komisiam daadgina, rom organizacia, romlis umTavres mizans aTeizmisa Tu Tavisufali azrovnebis waxaliseba an xelSewyoba warmoadgenda da romelic ewinaaRmdegeboda saxelmwifos Carevas religiaSi, valdebuli iyo, gadaexada saeklesio gadasaxadebi. Schubert v. Germany, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 5 oqtomberi, 1981.

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X v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n, H. R. Dec. & Rep. 27, 33 (1981). ISKCON v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 90 (1994). induistur taZarze dawesebuli SezRudvebi dagegmarebis kanonis safuZvelze, dasaSvebad iqna miCneuli, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi warmoadgenda Carevas sxvebTan erTad, sajaro wesiT RvTismsaxurebis Tavisuflebaze, radganac taZarSi mimavali xalxis Zalze didi raodenoba mniSvnelovnad ereoda axlomdebare soflis mosaxleobis cxovrebaSi. rac Seexeba kerZo RvTismsaxurebas, naklebad savaraudoa, msgavsi wesiT dairRves sxvaTa uflebani. Kevin Boyle, Freedom of Conscience in International Law (1993). X v. Austria, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 89 (1981). Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia and Others v. Moldova, Eur. Ct. H. R. 13 dekemberi 2001 weli. Patrick Thornberry, International Law and the Rights of Minorities 195 (1991). Yoram Dinstein, Freedom of Religion and Religious Minorities (1992). deklaracia religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb, muxli me-6. Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 123, 127 (1977). Ben Vermeulen, Comment in Freedom of Conscience. ben vermeuleni precedentuli samarTlis safuZvelze amtkicebs, rom `gamoxatvis formebi me-9 muxliT daculia mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca obieqturi Sexedulebidan gamomdinare, isini SeiZleba ganxilul iqnes, rogorc RvTismsaxurebis aqtebi~. Tumca es mosazreba mravali avtoris Sexedulebas ar emTxveva. Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 123, 127 (1977). Church of X v. the United Kingdom, Collection 70, 77 (1968), Khan v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 253, 255 (1986). komisiam daadgina, rom qorwineba ar aris religiisa da rwmenis manifestacia. C v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. r. Dec. & Rep. 142, 147 (1983). X v. Federal Republic of Germany, 23 Collection 1, 8 (1966). komisiam ar miiRo saCivari warmoebaSi im mtkicebulebaTa ararsebobis gamo, romlebic daadasturebda, rom cixeSi ar yofila protestanti pastori da RvTismsaxurebis ritualebi ar Catarebula. Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Holly Monasteries v. Greece, 301 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1994). Holly Monasteries v. Greece, 301 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1994). saCivari Seexeboda kanons, romelic mTavrobas gadascemda kontrols monastrebis sasoflo-sameurneo da satyeo sakuTrebaze. sasamarTlom ar miiRo saCivari warmoebaSi da miuTiTa, rom saberZneTis kanoni `arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar Seexeboda obieqtebs, romlebic gamiznuli iyo RvTismsaxurebis CatarebisaTvis da, Sedegad, ar Careula religiis Tavisuflebis ganxorcielebaSi~. Tumca sasamarTlom aRmoaCina pirveli oqmis pirveli muxlis darRveva monasterTa sakuTrebasTan mimarTebaSi. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). umravlesobis mosazrebiT, me-9 muxli moicavs vinmes gansazRvrul religiaze moqcevis mcdelobis uflebas, magaliTad, `swavlebis~ gziT. am teqstidan naTlad Cans, rom sasamarTlo swavlebas prozelitizmis erT-erT formad aRiarebs. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Larissis and the others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 363 (1998). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993) mosamarTle valtoqsis gansxvavebuli azri. leqsikonebSi: Larousse Grand (French-English) da Harraps Standard French and English `wes-Cveulebebis~ sxvadasxva ganmartebaa mocemuli, romelTagan pirvels warmoadgens is, romelic `TeoriaSi unda iqnes gamoyenebuli~. orive maTgani mocemuli terminis aRsaniSnavad iyeneben termins Pratiques Religieuses.

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Arrowsmith v. the United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Per. 5 (1978). Arrowsmith v. the United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Per. 5 (1978). Incitement of Disaffection Act 1934, (UK), section 1 (1). Incitement of Disaffection Act 1934, (UK), section 1 (2). Arrowsmith v. the United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Per. 5 (1978). Arrowsmith v. the United Kingdom (misaReboba). definicia Camoyalibebul iqna momCivnis mier. mas mxari dauWira rogorc gaerTianebulma samefom, ise komisiam. Tumca TviT saqmeSi ar ikveTeba, momCivanma aucilebloba unda aCvenos Tu mxolod mtkice, pirdapiri kavSiri qmedebasa da rwmenas Soris. X v. Austria, 26 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 253 (1986). X v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 41 (1974). D v. France, 35 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 199 (1983). X v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 27 (1981). Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 14 (1993). T. Jeremy Gunn, Adjudicating Rights of Conscience under the European Convention on Human Rights. Karaduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1993). X and the Church of Scientology v. Sweden, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 68, 72 (1979). komisiis gadawyvetilebiT, erTmaneTisgan unda ganvasxvaoT `reklamebi, romlebic Tavisi arsiT mxolod `informaciuli~ an `aRwerilobiTi~ xasiaTisaa da komerciuli reklamebi. vinaidan saqmeSi arsebuli reklama am ukanasknel sferos miekuTvneba, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi SesaZloa religiur obieqtebs Seexebodes, an religiuri Sinaarsis gancxadebebi iyos reklamirebis procesSi gamoyenebuli, komisiis mosazrebiT, saqme sargeblis miRebis mizniT gansazRvruli obieqtebiT vaWrobis survilis manifestaciasTan ufro gvaqvs, vidre rwmenis gamoxatvasTan, am terminis gonivrul farglebSi. Yanasik v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 14 (1993). Johnston v. Ireland, 112 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1986). van hufisa da van dijkis mixedviT, obieqturi midgomis gamoyeneba `SesaZloa zogadad gardauvalic iyos~, Tumca es savaraudod didi safrTxis winaSe daayenebs umciresobebs, romlebic ver SeZleben sakmarisi msgavsebis Cvenebas TavianT religias an rwmenasa da tradiciul/dominant religiasa Tu rwmenas Soris. Peter W. Edge, The European Court of Human Rights and Religious Rights. piter ejis mosazrebiT, `diskreciuli uflebamosileba nawilobriv im faqts efuZneba, rom saxelmwifo ufro axlosaa gansaxilvel situaciasTan da, savaraudod, ukeT aris garkveuli garemoebebis Sesaxeb informirebuli, vidre saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo~. Valsamis v. Greece, 2 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A): Efstratiou v. Greece, 27 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A). Valsamis v. Greece, 2 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A): Efstratiou v. Greece, 27 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A). D v. France, 35 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 199, 202 (1983). komisiam daadgina, rom ebraelis uari Tavisi meuRlisTvis ganqorwinebis xelwerilis gadacemaze samoqalaqo wesiT ganqorwinebis Semdeg ewinaaRmdegeboda `im religiuri liderebis Sexedulebebs, romelTa mier miniWebuli uflebamosilebiTac, momCivnis mtkicebiT, igi moqmedebda~. es daskvna ufro safrangeTis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze dayrdnobiT gamoitanes, vidre komisiis mier pirdapiri gziT miRebuli eqspertuli mtkicebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. X v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 27 (1981). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993).

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swored momCivania is mxare, romelmac unda daamtkicos, rom misi qmedebani misive religiiT an rwmeniT iyo savaldebulo. Tumca komisiam gzamkvlevis funqcia ikisra da miuTiTa, Tu rogor unda iqnes es mizani miRweuli. magaliTad, saqmeSi X v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 5, 27 (1982) saCivari uaryves, radgan momCivanma ver SeZlo sakuTari moTxovnis dasabuTeba, romlis Tanaxmadac, siqTa liderebi krZalavdnen patimris tanisamosis tarebas religiuri mizezebis gamo. komisias ar miuTiTebia, ra mtkicebuleba iqneboda misaRebi am SemTxvevaSi. Antonio Perotti, Freedom of Conscience and Religion and Immigrants. antonio peroti aRniSnavs, rom erT-erTi problema, romelsac zogierTi emigrantebisgan Semdgari religiuri jgufi awydeba, aris naTlad gamokveTili ierarqiuli xelmZRvanelobis ararseboba, romelic saxelmwifo organoebTan urTierTobaSi religiuri jgufis warmomadgenlis funqciebs iTavebda. piter eji akritikebs ideas, TiTqos sasamarTlom unda gansazRvros im kriteriumis buneba, romelic momCivnebma unda gamoiyenon imis gadasawyvetad, miadga Tu ara ziani maT religiur interesebs. `amis Sedegi iqneba ara marto is, rom sasamarTlo xelisufalis pozicias daikavebs, rac TavisTavad araswori da Seusabamoa, aramed isic, rom Seiqmneba meqanizmi, romelic orTodoqsul mimdinareobebs miscems SesaZleblobas, gacilebiT iolad uzrunvelyon sakuTari interesebis ganxorcieleba~. X v. the United Kingdom, 5 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 8 (1976). komisiam mtkicebulebad miiRo rabinis ganmarteba, rom cixis kveba iudaizmiT dasaSvebi iyo da momCivans SeeZlo misi miReba, miuxedavad am ukanasknelis mier sapirispiros mtkicebisa. Thomas v. Review Board of the Indiana Employment Security Division, 450 U. S. 707, 714 (1981). Knudsen v. Norway, 42 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1985); X and the church of scientology v. Sweden, 16 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 68 (1980). Valsamis v. Greece, 2 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2312 (1996), Efstratiou v. Greece, 27 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2347 (1996). Kjeldsen, Busk Madsen and Pedersen, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1976). mosamarTle vedrosis damoukidebeli azri. U. S. v. Lee (1982). Peter Cumper, The Rights of Religious Minorities: The Legal Regulattion of New Religious Movements. rogoricaa wveris moSveba, X v. the United Kingdom, 16 Collection 20 (1965). Arrowsmith v. the United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 5, 27 (1978), opsalis damoukidebeli azri. Karel Rimanque, Freedom of Conscience and Minority Groups. karel romaniki amtkicebs, rom `me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli dacviT sargeblobisaTvis qmedeba an uari samarTlebrivi valdebulebis Sesrulebaze sulieri da religiuri mrwamsis pirdapiri gamoxatva unda iyos. es did safrTxes Seicavs religiuri umciresobebis, gansakuTrebiT, sazogadoebisaTvis naklebad cnobili jgufebisTvis, vinaidan maTi qceva mxolod maSin CaiTvleba religuri rwmenis gamoxatvad, Tu seriozuli msgavseba iqneba naCvenebi cnobili mimdinareobebis maxasiaTebel niSnebTan~. deklaracia religiuri Seuwynareblobisa da diskriminaciis aRmofxvris Sesaxeb, muxli me-6. es gacilebiT SezRuduli CamonaTvalia, vidre kriSnasvamis swavlebaSia mocemuli an deklaraciis sawyis proeqtebSi Camoyalibebuli, Tumca, amave dros, moicavs manifestaciaTa im saxeebs, romlebsac ar Seicavs aRniSnuli dokumentebi, magaliTad, rogoricaa ufleba religiur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT sazogadoebebTan komunikaciaze rogorc saerTaSoriso, ise erovnul doneze. Jacques Robert, Freedom of Conscience, Pluralizm and Tolerance. Jak robertis mtkicebiT, Tavsaburavebis tarebam safrangeTis skolebSi, SesaZloa xeli Seuwyos `provokaciis, zewolis, prozelitizmis da propagandis~ formebis warmoqmnas. Kraduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1993); Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 U. S. 503 (1986).

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Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. kriSnasvami Tavis swavlebaSi miuTiTebs, rom SesaZloa arsebobdes mizezebi religiuri samosis tarebis aRkveTisaTvis, Tumca `sazogadod, sasurvelia, rom pirs, romelsac sakuTari rwmena avaldebulebs amgvari samosis tarebas, dausabuTeblad ar SeezRudos amis gakeTeba~. malkolm evansis mtkicebiT, gansazRvruli donis personaluri msxverplis gaReba religiis TavisuflebiT sargeblobis sanacvlod ar aris Seusabamo me-9 muxlTan. Derby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990) danarTi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebaze. adamianebs, romlebic SvedeTSi cxovrobdnen, SeeZloT saeklesio gadasaxadebis gadaxdisgan gaTavisufleba, maSin roca individebs, romlebic sxva qveynebSi cxovrobdnen, magram SvedeTSi muSaobdnen, rogorc, magaliTad, derbi, amgvari uflebamosileba ar gaaCndaT. erT-erTi argumenti, romelic gamoiyeneba `jgufis~ umciresobaTa uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod, is aris, rom isini erevian jgufis wevrebis SesaZleblobaSi, zustad am tipis avtonomiuri arCevani gaakeTon. Francesco Caportorti, Are Minorities Entitled to Collective International Rights? Knudsen v. Norway, 42 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 247, 257 (1985); Karlson v. Sweden, 57 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 172, 175 (1988). Knudsen v. Norway, 42 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 247, 257 (1985). Fabian v. Switzerland, Eur. Comm’n H. R. 16 maisi, 1977. komisiam daadgina, rom, dacvis saSualebebis naklebobis miuxedavad, romelTa gamoyenebac momCivnebs SeeZloT eklesiis darajis winaaRmdeg, romelic maT Seuracxmyofelad ekideboda, sakiTxi me-9 muxlis qvemdebare ar iyo, vinaidan Tavisuflad SeeZloT eklesiaSi siaruli da amave dros hqondaT SesaZlebloba, `aerCiaT sxva eklesia~. EGR v. Austria, 37 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 42 (1984). Paul Hayden, Religiously Motivated "Outrageous" Conduct: Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress as a Weapon Against "Other People’s Faiths". X v. the United Kingdom, 22 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 27 (1981). Stedman v. the United Kingdom, 89-A, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 104, 107-8 (1997). SesaZlebelia, mocemul saqmeSi momCivnis keTilsindisiereba garkveulwilad kiTxvis niSnis qveS idga, vinaidan igi adre muSaobda kviraobiT da ar arsebobda mizezi, ris gamoc misma religiurma moTxovnilebam cvlileba ganicada. Karaduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93, 108 (1993). Klac v. Turkey, 41 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1997). Yanakis v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 14, 22 (1993). Tumca ara yvela SezRudva iyo legitimuri. komisiam ganacxada, rom samxedro akademiaSi SesvliT momCivani daTanxmda SezRudvebs, romlebic Seexeboda drosa da adgils, sadac religiis gamoxatva iyo SesaZlebeli, misi `sruli uaryofis~ gareSe. kerZod, locvisa da religiuri valdebulebebis Sesrulebis dro iqna gadatanili. umciresobis statusi maT mimarT damqiravebelTa zewolis mastimulirebel faqtors warmoadgens. Gerard Quinn, Conscientious Objection in Labour Relations. ra Tqma unda, islami umravlesobis religiaa TurqeTSi, Tumca konstituciuri da politikuri struqturis saero xasiaTi umciresobaSi aqcevs yvelas, vinc muslimuri religiuri tradiciebis ganxorcielebas Seecdeba. Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. Myres S. McDougal, Harold D. Lawsswell, Lung-chu Chen, The Rights to Religious Freedom and World Public Order: Emerging Norm of Non-Discrimination. avtorebi adastureben, rom `Tundac iseTi fundamenturi Tavisufleba, rogoricaa religiuri mrwamsisa da komunikaciis Tavisufleba, daculi da ganxorcielebuli unda iqnes erTad Tavmoyril sazogadoebriv interesTan SesabamisobaSi, adamianis sxva ZiriTadi uflebebis dacvis mizniT~. Brice Dickson, The United Nations and Freedom of Religion (1995); Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices.

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Chappell v. the United Kingdom, 53 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 241 (1987). X v. the United Kingdom, 14 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 134 (1978). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Haknsson v. Sweden, 5 Eur. H. R. Rep. 297 (1983). X v. Austria, (1963); am saqmis msgavsia X v. Italy 5 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 83, 85 (1976), sadac adamianis msjavrdeba Zalze msgavsi safuZvliT gamarTlebul iqna mxolod sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis da sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis miznebidan gamomdinare. Klass v. Germany, 28 Eur. Ct. H. R. Dec & Rep (1978); Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979). Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979). Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979). Kokkinaki v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Kokkinaki v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). saberZneTis kanonmdeblobiT prozelitizmi gansazRvruli iyo, rogorc `nebismieri pirdapiri Tu arapirdapiri mcdeloba sxva religiuri mimdinareobis pirovnebis religiur rwmenebze zemoqmedebisa maTi xelyofis ganzraxviT, rogorc moraluri da materialuri mxardaWeriT an misi dapirebiT, ise TaRliTuri meTodebiT, an dazaralebulis gamoucdelobis, ndobis, saWiroebis, dabali inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis an gulubryvilobis gamoyenebiT~. umravlesobis Tanaxmad ki, me-7 muxlis ZiriTadi mizani iyo sisxlissamarTlebrivi kanonebisaTvis ukuZalis miniWebis akrZalva, romlebic amZimebdnen braldebulis mdgomareobas da imis uzrunvelyofa, rom individs SeeZlos, winaswar ganWvritos, misi qmedeba daisjeba Tu ara. Larissis and others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Handyside v. the United Kingdom, 24 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1976). hendisaidis saqme pirvel rigSi gamoxatvis TavisuflebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli, vinaidan igi seqsualur sakiTxebze saganmanaTleblo masalis Semcveli `patara wiTeli lifletebis~ gavrcelebas Seexeboda, rac akrZaluli iyo 1959 wels miRebuli `uxamsi publikaciebis~ aqtiT. am saqmeSi SemuSavebuli principebiT safuZveli daedo sasamarTlos zogad midgomas `aucileblobis~ sakiTxisadmi. Handyside v. the United Kingdom, 24 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1976). Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979). sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom `sasamarTlos xelisufleba gacilebiT obieqturi cneba iyo~, romelzedac ufro didi evropuli konsesusi arsebobda (Sesabamisad, gacilebiT viwro diskrecia), vidre sazogadoebrivi moralis sferoze. Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979); Klass v. Germany, 28 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1978). P. Van Dijk and G. J. H. van Hoof, Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights. Otto-Preminger-Institut v. Austria, 295 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1994). saqme, Tavis mxriv, me-10 muxlidan gamomdinare sakiTxebs Seexeboda, vinaidan avstria Seecada, filmis Cvenebis akrZalvis Taobaze Tavisi gadawyvetileba daesabuTebina im motiviT, rom igi sxvaTa religiur grZnobebs Seuracxyofda. Wingrove v. the United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1996). Peter W. Edge, The European Court of Human Rights and Religious Rights, piter ejis mtkicebiT, igi Zalze farTo da bundovnad gansazRvrulia me-9 muxlis konteqstSi. Stephanos Stavros, Freedom of Religion and Claims for Exemption from Generally Applicable, Natural Laws: Lessons from Across the Pond?.

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Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993); Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996); Larissis and others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 363 (1998); Tsavanidis v. Greece, Eur. Comm’n H. R. 4 marti, 1997 weli. National Union of Belgian Police v. Belgium, 1 Eur. H. R. 578, 595 (1979-80). Larissis and others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 363 (1998). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). mosamarTle martensis nawilobriv gansxvavebuli azri. mosamarTle petitis nawilobriv Tanmxvedri azri. Yoram Dinstein, Freedom of Religion and Religious Minorities. saerTaSoriso paqti samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb ar miiCnevs dasaSvebad SezRudvebs erovnuli uSiSroebis safuZvelze. Manoussakis v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). saberZneTis mTavrobis mtkicebiT, kanons, romelic zRudavda araorTodoqsuli taZrebis mSeneblobas, hqonda legitimuri mizani, nawilobriv marTlmadidebeli eklesiis rolidan gamomdinare, `erovnuli TviTSegnebis da berZnuli patriotizmis SenarCunebaSi ucxouri okupaciis periodSi~. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). mosamarTle martensis nawilobriv Tanmxvedri azri. es monacemebi momCivanma moiyvana da saberZneTis mTavrobam amis mimarT protesti ar gamoTqva. man mxolod miuTiTa, rom sisxlissamarTlebriv devnaTa raodenoba mniSvnelovnad Semcirda bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi. Wingrove v. the United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A)1937 (1996). mkrexelobis Taobaze arsebul britanul kanonebsac ki, romlebic mxolod qristianul religias icavda, legitimuri mizani hqonda, miuxedavad imisa, rom sxva religiebze ar vrceldeboda. gansxvavebuli poziciis mqone mosamarTle lomusis SexedulebiT, `mkrexelobis kanoni icavs mxolod qristianul religias, ufro konkretulad ki dawesebul anglikanur eklesias... aqedan gamomdinare, Carevis mizans qristianuli rwmenis da ara sxva rwmenaTa dacva warmoadgens. es ki badebs kiTxvas, aucilebelia Tu ara amgvari Careva demokratiul sazogadoebaSi~. Chappell v. the United Kingdom, 534 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep, 241, 247 (1987). Omkaranda and the Divine Light Zentrum v. Switzerland, 25 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 105 (1981) aris saqme, romelic naTlad amtkicebs sazogadoebrivi wesrigisa da janmrTelobis xelyofis potencials religiuri jgufis qmedebaTa Sedegad. aq religiuri jgufis lideri dapatimrebul iqna sisxlissamarTlebrivad dasjadi Zaladobis aqtebis organizebis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis. ix. aseve X v. the United Kingdom, 3 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 62 (1975), sadac komisiam daadgina, rom rwmenis Tavisufali gamoxatva ar gulisxmobs dezertirobis, oficerTa mkvlelobisa da irlandiis respublikuri armiisaTvis iaraRis miwodebis waqezebas. CrdiloeT irlandiaSi protestantuli msvlelobani kaTolikur raionebSi amgvari problemis naTeli magaliTia. ix. Theo van Boven, Advances and Obstacles in Building Understanding and Respect Between People of Diverse Religionsand Beliefs. Seuwynarebloba da antagonizmi SesaZloa aseve warmoiSvas religiur jgufsa da arareligiur dajgufebas Soris, ix. Plattform Artze v. Austria, 44 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 65 (1985). es saqme Seexeboda Setakebebs abortis mowinaaRmdege kaTolikur jgufsa da abortze adamianis uflebis momxre socialur dajgufebas Soris. Luis Fernando Martinez-Ruiz, Comment in Freedom of Conscience 66 (evropis sabWo, 1993). saqmeSi Hakansson v. Sweden, 5 Eur. H. R. Rep. 297 (1983) piris gasamarTleba, romelic alkoholis miRebas xmamaRla acxadebda codvad, aucileblad cnes sazogadoebrivi wesrigis dacvisaTvis, miuxedavad imisa, rom rogorc Sveduri kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, ise komisiis mixedviT, misi qmedebani mxolod `sazogadoebriv aRSfoTebas~ iwvevda.

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X v. Austria, 16 Collection 20 (1965); Childs v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 1 Mar. 1983. Engels v. the Netherlands, 22 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1977). sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom sazogadoebrivi wesrigi `moicavs aseve wesrigs, romelic unda arsebobdes specialuri socialuri jgufis farglebSi~. saqme samxedro disciplinas Seexeboda, Tumca es principi patimarTa sazogadoebebzec vrceldeba. gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komiteti, zogadi komentari me-18 muxlze; evropis sabWos ministrTa komitetis rezolucia, patimrebTan mopyrobis minimaluri standartuli wesebi. Childs v. the United Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 1 Mar. 1983. komisia daeyrdno ueikfildis episkoposis cnobas, romlis Tanaxmadac mRvdeli sistematurad naxulobda patimars. X v. Belgium, 34 Collection 20, 22 (1970). X v. Austria, 16 Collection 20 (1965). X v. the United Kingdom, 1 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 41, 42 (1974). ISKCON and Others v. the United Kingdom, 76-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 90, 91 (1994). Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). saqmeSi Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996) mosamarTle martensma Tavis Tanmxvedr azrSi miuTiTa, rom RvTismsaxurebis adgilisaTvis gankuTvnili Senoba-nagebobis mSeneblobis sanqcirebis moTxovna Sesabamisia gansazRvruli garemoebebis arsebobisas, magram, aseve SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnes religiuri Seuwynareblobis SesaniRbad. rodesac nebarTva aucilebelia RvTismsaxurebis adgilebis mSeneblobisas, absoluturad naTeli unda iyos, rom misi miReba ar aris damokidebuli konkretuli religiis doqtrinaze. uari nebarTvis miRebaze dasaSvebia mxolod `sazogadoebriv wesrigTan dakavSirebuli Zalze gamonaklisi, obieqturi da dauZlevadi mizezebis arsebobisas~. Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices kriSnasvamis swavlebis Tanaxmad, miuxedavad imisa, rom socialuri erTianobis SenarCuneba SesaZloa legitimuri miswrafeba iyos, Zalze xSirad misi gamoyeneba uSualod saxelmwifos an mis SigniT garkveuli dominanturi jgufis mier tiraniisa da devnis gamarTlebad iqceoda. Buscaruni and others v. San Marino, Eur. Ct. H. R., 18 Tebervali, 1999 weli. Serif v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 14 dekemberi, 1999 weli. Childs v. the United Kingdom, 5 Eur. Comm’n H. R. 1 marti, 1983 weli. X v. the United Kingdom, 5 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 100 (1976). imis miuxedavad, rom komisiam am saqmeSi miiRo argumenti, romlis Tanaxmadac, wignis akrZalva aucilebeli iyo sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dasacavad, savaraudod, es uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi ZiriTadad fizikuri zianisgan TavisuflebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. X v. the United Kingdom, 14 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 234 (1978). Jozeph Raz, The Authority of Law 283 (1979). aSS-Si zrdasruli individebis mier mkurnalobaze uaris TqmasTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis ganxilvisas mxedvelobaSi iqna miRebuli iseTi faqtorebi, rogoricaa pirovnebis fexmZimoba an pasuxismgebloba bavSvebze. Childs v. the United Kingdom, 5 Eur. Comm’n H. R. 1 marti, 1983 weli. X v. Austria, 16 Collection 20 (1965). Laskey v. the United Kingdom, 29 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 120 (1997). Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. arkot kriSnasvamis swavlebis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, daicvas individi, romelic uars acxadebs `mecnierul samedicino mkurnalobaze~ da, Sesabamisad, safrTxes uqmnis sakuTar janmrTelobas, iseve rogorc aRkveTos TviTmkvleloba.

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aseTi uaris Sedegebma SesaZloa bavSvis sikvdilic gamoiwvios. Jennifer Trahan, Parental Denial of a Childs Medical Needs for Religious Reasons. am SemTxvevaSic erT-erTi savaraudo Sedegi bavSvis sikvdilia. Wayne F. Malecha, Faith Healing Exemptions to Child Protection Laws, Keeping the Faith v. Medical Care for Children. Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U. S. 158, 170 (1944) sasamarTlom saqme bavSvebis dacvis mizniT religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvis sasargeblod gadawyvita. misi gancxadebiT, `mSoblebs SeuZliaT gaxdnen mowameebi, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom maT aqvT ufleba, amgvari garemoebebis arsebobisas, TavianTi Svilebi aqcion mowameebad~. Seven Individuals v. Sweden, 29 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 104 (1982). igi Seexeboda saCivars me-8 muxlis safuZvelze, Tumca komisiam aRniSna, rom amgvari argumentaciis gamoyeneba SesaZlebeli iyo me-9 muxlidan gamomdinare moTxovnasTan mimarTebaSic. bavSvebs damoukidebeli ufleba aqvT azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisuflebaze (bavSvTa uflebebis konvencia, me-14 muxli, 20 noemberi, 1989 weli), Tumca bavSvs aseve aqvs ufleba mzrunvelobasa da dacvaze saxelmwifos mxridan, gansakuTrebiT usafrTxoebisa da janmrTelobis sferoebSi (me-3 muxli), aseve ufleba sicocxleze, gadarCenasa da ganviTarebaze (me-7 muxli). me-6 muxli avaldebulebs saxelmwifoebs, daicvan bavSvis sicocxle da uzrunvelyon misi ganviTareba. 24-e muxlis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifom unda miiRos yvela efeqturi da Sesabamisi zoma bavSvis janmrTelobisaTvis zianis momtani tradiciuli saqmianobis aRmosafxvrelad. Jonston v. Ireland, 112 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1986). gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komiteti, zogadi komentari me-18 muxlze. profesor dona salivanis gancxadebiT, `deklaraciiT gaTvaliswinebuli normebi Seicavs sxvadasxva uflebebs Soris konfliqtis potenciur SesaZleblobas. Sedegad, deklaraciis gamoyenebis amocana yovel konkretul situaciaSi adamianis uflebaTa damcvelebs aiZulebs, SeimuSaon ganmartebiTi midgomebi yvela gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis maqsimaluri dacvis mizniT~. arsebobs Zalze didi potenciali konfliqtisa qalTa uflebebsa da religiis gamoxatvis uflebas Soris, ramac SesaZloa moicvas saqmianoba, romelic qalis daqvemdebarebul statuss usvams xazs. Donna Sullivan, Gender Equality and Religious Freedom: Towards a Framework for Conflict Resolution. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). kriSnasvami Tavis swavlebaSi eTanxmeba am mosazrebas, Tumca iZleva gafrTxilebas, rom `amgvari SezRudvebi iseTi ar unda iyos, rom umciresobani umravlesobis samsxverploze miitanos, aramed unda uzrunvelyofdes udidesi donis Tavisuflebas sazogadoebis, rogorc erTi mTlianisaTvis. erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani saqmisa Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993) aris is, rom sasamarTlo daeyrdno dabalansebas `sxvaTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebisa momCivnis im qcevasTan mimarTebaSi, romlis CadenaSic igi iyo braldebuli~ da ara momCivnis uflebebis sapirispirod. ISKCON v. Unired Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 90 (1994). piter ejis mixedviT, `sasamarTlo mowodebulia, ufro farTod moaxdinos me-9 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli uflebis interpretireba, rodesac saqme individis SezRudvas exeba, vidre saxelmwifo Zalauflebisagan~ dacvas. Otto-Preminger-Institut v. Austria, 295 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1994). Wingrove v. the United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (SER. a) 1937 (1996-v).

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gansakuTrebuli azri mosamarTle petits ekuTvnoda, romelic umravlesobasTan Tanmxvedr pozicias warmoadgenda. misi gancxadebiT, me-9 muxli ar aris kavSirSi am saqmesTan da misi gamoyeneba ar SeiZleba. ra Tqma unda, sasamarTlom sworad daafuZna Tavisi analizi sxvaTa uflebebze da oto-premingeris saqmeSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebisgan gansxvavebiT, ar gaaerTiana me-9 da me-10 muxlebi, morali da sxvaTa uflebebi. Tumca sakiTxavia, ramdenad srulad asaxavs igi umravlesobis pozicias, vinaidan 1955 wels umravlesobam miuTiTa, rom religiis Seuracxyofis aRkveTis mizani legitimuria me-10 muxlis meore nawilis safuZvelze, magram, amave dros, `srul SesabamisobaSia me-9 muxliT religiis TavisuflebisaTvis miniWebul dacvasTan~. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. Tumca es avtori, sxvebisgan gansxvavebiT, gacilebiT specifikur mosazrebas ayalibebs arakeTilsindisieri gadmobirebis bunebis Sesaxeb da im safrTxeebsac iTvaliswinebs, rac prozelitizmis amkrZalavi farTo kanonebidan SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-a Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Peter Cumper, The Rights of Religious Minorities: The Legal Regulation of New Religious Movements. piter kamperi amtkicebs, rom saxelmwifo dawesebulebebs SeuZliaT usaSvelod gaazviadon `ideologiuri damuSavebis~ problema, Tuki arsebobs mcire mtkicebulebac ki imisa, rom aRniSnul faqts aqvs adgili, axali religiebisa Tu `kultebis~ mimarT represiebis ganxorcielebis mizniT. Larissis and the others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 363 (1998). mosamarTle van dijkis nawilobriv gansxvavebuli azri. saerTaSoriso paqti samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb. SezRudvebi religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebaze SesaZlebelia dawesebul iqnes mxolod me-18 muxlis me-3 nawilis safuZvelze. Lawless v. Ireland, 3 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1961). Ireland v. Uniited Kingdom, 25 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979). Tumca sasamarTlom gaimeora, rom saxelmwifoebs ar gaaCniaT `SeuzRudavi diskreciuli uflebamosileba~... magaliTad, saxelmwifo valdebulia daemorCilos me-15 muxlis mesame nawilis moTxovnas, romlis Tanaxmadac igi valdebulia saqmis kursSi amyofos evropis sabWos generaluri mdivani miRebuli zomebis, maTi mizezebisa da xangrZlivobis Taobaze. magaliTad, aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier ganxilul erT-erT saqmeSi Church of lukumi v. City of Hialeah, 113 S. Ct. 2217 (1993) regulaciebi, erTi SexedviT, cxovelTa mokvlis standartebis Taobaze realurad lukumis eklesiis cxovelTa ritualuri msxverplSewirvis mimarT gamosayeneblad iqna Segnebulad SemuSavebuli. ix. L. Carter, The Ressuraction of Religious Freedom. Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). mocemul saqmeSi dagegmarebis kanonebis gamoyeneba xdeboda diskriminaciuli gziT mcire, aratradiciuli religiuri jgufebis mimarT. ix. aseve Tsavachidis v. Greece, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 4 marti, 1999 weli. aq saxelmwifo zogadi xasiaTis erovnuli uSiSroebis zedamxedvelobis kanonebs iyenebda msgavsi jgufebis sawinaaRmdegod. miuxedavad imisa, rom rogorc adamianis uflebaTa evropuli sasamarTlos, ise aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier ramdenjerme gamoyenebul iqna termini `zogadi da neitraluri~, arc erT maTgans ar dauzustebia misi sazRvrebi. Stephanos Stavros, Freedom of Religion and Claims for Exemption from Generally Applicable, Neutral Laws. stefanos stavrosi askvnis, rom `neitraluri da zogadi daniSnulebisaa kanonebi, romlebsac legitimuri samoqalaqo sazogadoebrivi interesis xelSewyobis procesSi gaaCniaT garkveuli Tanmdevi Sedegi gansazRvrul pirovnebaTa religiur rwmenaze zemoqmedebis saxiT~. es zogadi da neitraluri kanonebis swored is definiciaa, rac am qveTavSia gamoyenebuli. X v. the Netherlands, 5 Y. B. Eur. Conv. On H. r. 278 (1962).

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X v. the Netherlands, 23 Collection 137 (1967). V v. the Netherlands, 39 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 267 (1984); X v. the Netherlands, 8 Y. B. Eur. Cov. On H. R. 266 (1965); Reformed Church of X v. the Netherlands, 5 Y. B. Eur. Conv. On H. R. 286 (1962). Aiglesia Bautista "El Salvador" and Ortega Moratilla v. Spain, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 256 (1992); C v. the United Kingdom, 37 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 142 (1983) magaliTad, saberZneTSi mxolod 1997 wels SemoiRes alternatiuli samxedro samsaxuri. manamde ki aTasobiT keTilsindisieri pacifistis winaaRmdeg sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna ganxorcielda. mravali evropuli saxelmwifos iZulebiT samxedro samsaxurTan dakavSirebuli konstituciuri debulebebis zogadi mimoxilvisaTvis ix. Stefano Rodota, Conscientious Objection to Military Service. miuxedavad imisa, rom termini `keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba~ SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnes bevr kanonTan mimarTebaSi, keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba mxolod samxedro samsaxurisadmi aris gamoyenebuli am paragrafSi mis Sinaarsad. Grandrath v. Federal Republic of Germany, 10 Y. B. Eur. Conv. On H. R. 626 (1966). Grandrath v. Federal Republic of Germany, 10 Y. B. Eur. Conv. On H. R. 626 (1966). gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komitetma identuri pozicia daikava, roca amgvari argumentaciiT ixelmZRvanela saqmeSi L. T. K. v. Finland, H. R. C. Rep., Pt 1, U. N. magaliTisTvis ix. Johansen v. Norway, 44 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 155, 165 (1985); Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 145, 149 (1990). Conscientious Objector v. Denmark, 9 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 117, 118 (1977); Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 145, 149 (1990). Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 145, 149 (1990). saqmeSi Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 145, 149 (1990) miCneul iqna, rom moxaliseebs, romlebic uiaraRo samxedro samsaxurs airCevdnen, 120 dRiT, xolo maT, vinc Semcvlel samsaxurs mianiWebda upiratesobas, 180 dRiT meti unda emsaxuraT, vidre samxedro mosamsaxureebs. Rainen v. Finland, 84-A, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 17 (1996). am saqmeSi momCivani xelmeored daapatimres uarisaTvis samxedro an misi Semcvleli samsaxuris Sesrulebaze. misi saCivari aSkarad dausabuTeblad miiCnies. Johansen v. Norway, 44 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 155, 165 (1985). is garemoeba, rom dakavebas ufro iZulebiTi xasiaTi hqonda, vidre dasjadi, SeiZleboda danaxuli yofiliyo im faqtiT, rom SesaZlebeli iyo momCivnis gaTavisufleba mis mier mzadyofnis gamoTqmis SemTxvevaSi, Seesrulebina Tavisi samarTlebrivi valdebulebani. Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 245, 250 (1990). samxedrovaldebulTa evropuli sabWo, iZulebiTi samxedro samsaxuri centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi: zogadi kvleva (1996). Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. N v. Sweden, 40 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 203, 207 (1984); Autio v. Finland, 72 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 245, 250 (1990); Rainen v. Finland, 84-A, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 17, 31 (1996). N v. Sweden, 40 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 203, (1984). Brinkhof v. the Netherlands, 2 ivlisi, 1993, U. N. rezolucia 337 (1976), evropis sabWo, me-18 sesia (mesame nawili); saparlamento asambleis rezolucia 816 (1977), 7 oqtomberi 1977. evropis sabWos ministrTa komitetis rekomendacia.

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gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komiteti, zogadi komentari me-18 muxlze, romlis Tanaxmadac, miuxedavad imisa, rom samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso paqtSi ar aris moxseniebuli ufleba keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze, rogorc aseTi, `es ufleba SeiZleba gamomdinareobdes me-18 muxlidan, vinaidan sasikvdilo Zalis gamoyenebis iZuleba SesaZloa seriozul konfliqtSi movides religiisa da rwmenis gamoxatvis TavisuflebasTan. iq, sadac aRiarebulia keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba, dauSvebelia ganxorcieldes diferenciacia individebs Soris gansazRvruli rwmenebis niadagze, aseve diskriminacia samxedro samsaxurze uaris ganmcxadeblis mimarT~. gaeros adamianis uflebaTa komisiis rezolucia, 22 aprili, 1998. igi Seexeboda adamianis uflebaTa komitetis komentars me-18 muxlze, romelic mouwodebda saxelmwifoebs, daeSvaT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba da gamoeCinaT saTanado damokidebuleba samxedro samsaxurze uaris ganmcxadebelTa mimarT. Tsirlsi and Kouloumpas v. Greece, 35 Eur. Ct. H. R. (Ser. A) (1997). danarTi sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaze. mosamarTle lidis nawilobriv gansxvavebuli azri. Thlimmenos v. Greece, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 4 dekemberi, 1998 weli. vinaidan ramdenime weli iyo gasuli Tavisuflebis aRkveTis dRidan, sawyisi msjavrdebis yovelgvari pirdapiri gasaCivreba xandazmulad CaiTvleboda. komisiis wevrebis _ rozakis, lidis, marqseris, novidis, konfortis da bracas nawilobriv gansxvavebuli mosazrebebi. SeniSvna: dResdReobiT rozaki, konforti da braca sasamarTlos wevrebi arian. Thlimmenos v. Greece, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 6 aprili, 2000 weli. Jozeph Raz, The Authority of Law 277 (1979), amtkicebs, rom `dResdReobiT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganxilva ZiriTadad samxedro samsaxurTan mimarTebaSi xorcieldeba. SesaZloa arsebobdes garkveuli praqtikuli problemebi keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze adamianis uflebis samarTlis sxva sferoebze gavrcelebisaTvis, magram misi aRiareba samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis SemTxvevaSi, miuxedavad principebisa Tu moraluri mizezebisa, romlebic amas daedo safuZvlad, aseve gavrceldeba samarTlis moqmedebis sxva sferoebzec~. Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5, 20 (1978); Le Cour Grandmaison and Fritz v. France, 53 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 150, 160 (1987); McFeeley and others v. United Kingdom, 20 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 44, 77 (1980); Stedman v. United Kingdom, 89-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 104 (1997); V v. the Netherlands, 39 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 267, 268 (1984). X v. the Netherlands, 5 Y. B. Eur. Conv. On H. R. 278 (1962). mag. C v. the United Kingdom, 37 Eur. Coom’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 142, (1983). Derby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990). C v. The United Kingdom, 37 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 142 (1983). ix. Arrowsmith v. United Kingdom, 19 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 5 (1978). C v. The United Kingdom, 37 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 142, 147 (1983). pirveli oqmis pirveli muxli `icavs yvela fizikuri Tu iuridiuli piris uflebas Tavisi sakuTrebiT daubrkoleblad sargeblobaze~, Tumca amave dros saxelmwifos unarCunebs sakuTrebis kontrolis uflebas `gadasaxadebis akrefis uzrunvelyofisTvis~. mTavrobis argumentacia moicavda moTxovnas, romlis mixedviTac `mas unda hqonoda ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoeyenebina gadasaxadebi im miznebisaTvis, romlebsac SesaZloa individTa protesti gamoewviaT~. C v. The United Kingdom, 37 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 142, 147 (1983). Derby v. Sweden, 187 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1990).

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mag. Revert and Legallais v. France, 62 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 309, 318 (1989). saCivari uaryofil iqna nawilobriv imis safuZvelze, rom kanoni, romelic savaldebulos xdida arqiteqtorTa asociaciis wevrobas, Sexeboda yvela arqiteqtors neitralurad, personaluri rwmenis mxedvelobaSi miuReblad. Valsamis v. Greece, 2 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2312 (1996); Efstratiou v. Greece, 27 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 2347 (1996). neitralur da zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis uaryofa komisiis mier ZiriTadad dasaSvebobis stadiaze xdeboda. Chappell v. the United Kingdom, 53 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 241 (1987). Chester v. the Unired Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 6 oqtomberi, 1982 weli; Pelle v. France, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 1 oqtomberi, 1986. ISKCON v. Unired Kingdom, Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec. & Rep. 90, 106 (1994). komisiis gancxadebiT, `igi ar miiCnevda, rom konvenciis me-9 muxlis gamoyeneba unda momxdariyo dagegmarebis kanonmdeblobisaTvis gverdis avlisaTvis, Tu am kanonmdeblobiT religiis Tavisuflebas adekvaturi mniSvneloba hqonda miniWebuli~. winadadebis pirveli nawilis mixedviT, zogadi da neitraluri kanoni ar SeiZleba warmoadgendes safuZvels me-9 muxlis qvemdebare saCivrisaTvis, Tumca meore naxevari miuTiTebs, rom am debulebas garkveuli sazRvrebi aqvs. Casimiro and Fereira v. Luxemburg, Eur. Ct. H. R., 27 aprili, 1999. Hakansson v. Sweden, 5 Eur. H. R. Rep. 297 (1983). Van Den Dungen v. the Netherlands, 80-A Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 147, 150 (1995). stefanos stavrosis mixedviT, am saqmeebs Soris gansxvaveba aris is, rom religiuri gamoxatvis saqmeebSi momCivnebs unda warmoadgendnen individebi, `romlebic pirvel rigSi religiur miznebs misdeven da romelTa azrebi Riad gamoxatuli religiuri Sinaarsisaa~. Tumca es Zalze umniSvnelo gansxvavebaa, vinaidan religiuri winaaRmdegobis identifikaciis done am saqmeebSi sakmaod msgavsia. John Edwards, Preferential Treatment and Rights to Equal Consideration (1999). Arcot Krishnaswami, Study of Discrimination in the Matter of Religious Rights and Practices. Yoram Dinstein, Religious Freedom and Religious Minorities. ritualuri sadili. An Act to Prohibite Intoxicating Beverages 1999, (U.S.A.) (intoqsikaciuri sasmelebis amkrZalavi aqti). Employment Division, Department of Human Resourses of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U. S. 872, 893-4 (1990). uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle o'konoris Tanmxvedri azriT, `Zalze Znelia imis uaryofa, rom kanoni, romelic religiiT motivirebul qmedebas krZalavs, im SemTxvevaSic, Tu is zogadi daniSnulebisaa, sul mcire, ar iwvevs pirveli Sesworebidan gamomdinare SeSfoTebas~. stefanos stavrosis mixedviT, `Tuki detaluri gamokvlevis Sedegad aRmoCndeba, rom kanoni namdvilad zogadi da neitraluria, unda gamoiricxos me-9 muxlis safuZvelze misi gasaCivrebis SesaZlebloba~. Reynolds v. U. S., 98 U. S. 244, 250 (1878); Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U. S. 296 (1940). saqmeSi Reynolds v. U. S., 98 U. S. 244, 250 (1878) dadgenil iqna, rom poligamiis sawinaaRmdego kanonebi ar arRvevda pirvel Sesworebas, vinaidan isini ara mormonTa rwmenaSi, aramed mxolod maT religiur gamoxatvaSi ereodnen. Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U. S. 203 (1972). Employment Division, Department of Human Resourses of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U. S. 872, 893-4 (1990). Michael McConnell, Free Exercise and the Smith Decision (1990). Religious Freedom Restoration Act, 1993 (U. S. A) (religiuri Tavisuflebis aRdgenis aqti). City of Boerne v. Flores, 117 S. Ct. 2157 (1997).

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mag. saqmeSi Scherbert v. Verner, 374 U. S. 398, 400 (1963) sasamarTlom daadgina, rom im SemTxvevaSic, Tu arsebobda TaRliTobis problema adamianebisaTvis religiis niadagze gamonaklisiT sargeblobis uflebis miniWebisas, saxelmwifos unda eCvenebina `regulaciis sxva alternatiuli formebis ararseboba, romlebic aRmofxvridnen kanonis amgvarad borotad gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas, pirveli Sesworebidan gamomdinare uflebebis Seulaxavad~. mag. saqmeSi Lyng v. Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Associacions, 485 U. S. 439, 451 - 552 (1988) sasamarTlom daadgina, rom `mTavroba ubralod ver SeZlebda moqmedebas, Tuki misTvis savaldebulo iqneboda nebismieri moqalaqis religiuri moTxovnilebebisa da survilebis dakmayofileba~. stefanos stavrosis mtkicebiT, gansakuTrebuli religiuri pluralizmis dros `sasamarTloebs ar SeuZliaT uzrunvelyon balansi TiToeuli religiis moTxovnebsa da zogadi daniSnulebis, neitraluri kanonebiT gamiznul sazogadoebriv interess Soris~. City of Boerne v. Flores, 117 S. Ct. 2157 (1997). am saqmeSi aSS-s uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom religiis Tavisuflebis aRdgenis aqti (1993) `mniSvnelovani Careva iyo Statebis tradiciul prerogativasa da ZiriTad uflebamosilebaSi, ganexorcielebina marTva Tavisi moqalaqeebis janmrTelobisa da keTildReobis uzrunvelsayofad~. Young, James and Webster v. the United Kingdom, 44 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1981). Steven Wheatley, Minority Rights, Power Sharing and the Modern State. stiven uiTlis mtkicebiT, `umciresobebTan dakavSirebuli mravali problemuri sakiTxi warmoiqmna am jgufebis wevrebis sruli uuflebobisagan, Careuliyvnen politikur procesebSi, an, sul mcire, uuflebobis gancdisgan~. evropis sabWos ganmartebiTi moxseneba erovnul umciresobaTa CarCo-konvenciaze. Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U. S. 872 (1990). Reynolds v. U. S., 98 U. S. 244, 267 (1878). am saqmeSi uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom religiuri rwmenis safuZvelze pirisaTvis kanonis sawinaaRmdegod religiis gamoxatvis nebis darTva `gacxadebul religiur doqtrinebs uzenaesad aqcevs kanonTan mimarTebaSi, rac faqtobrivad TiToeul moqalaqes SesaZleblobas miscems, gadaiqces sakuTari Tavis kanonad~. jozef raci CamoTvlis sam ZiriTad mizezs imisa, ratom ar unda arsebobdes erTiani, zogadi wesi, romliTac sanqcirebuli iqneboda keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba nebismieri kanonisadmi. pirveli mdgomareobs TaRliTobis safrTxeSi, meore aris vinmes TviTgamocdis procesis waxalisebis SesaZlebloba gamonaklisiT sargeblobis motiviT, mesame mizezis mixedviT ki, sanam ufleba morwmunis mier mis ubralo deklarirebas efuZneba, aris saSiSroeba saxelmwifos CarTvisa individis piradi moraluri moTxovnebis SefasebaSi. Jozeph Raz. evropul saxelmwifoTa umravlesobaSi kvlavac agrZeleben samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis garkveuli formis gamoyenebas, miuxedavad am institutis gauqmebisa da mis sanacvlod profesiuli samxedro Zalebis Camoyalibebis sasargeblod arsebuli ekonomikuri da samxedro argumentebisa. X v. the Netherlands, 5 Y. B. Eur. Conv. on H. R. 278 (1962). X v. the Netherlands, 8 Y. B. Eur. Conv. on H. R. 266 (1965); X v. the Netherlands, 23 Collection 137 (1967). am saqmeebSi momCivnebi acxadebdnen, rom gadasaxadis saxiT sadazRvevo Senatanis gadaxdis valdebuleba moCvenebiTi gamonaklisi iyo da kvlav avaldebulebda maT iZulebiT sadazRvevo sistemaSi monawileobis miRebas. komisiam orive saCivari aSkarad dausabuTeblad cno imis safuZvelze, rom momCivnebma ver SeZles me-9 muxlis darRvevis demonstrireba. X v. the Neterlands, 8 Y. B. Eur. Conv. on H. R. 266, 270 (1965).

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mizezi, ris gamoc momCivans am kontribuciis gadaxdisgan gaTavisufleba surda, nawilobriv imaSic mdgomareobda, rom igi uars acxadebda siberis asakSi saxelmwifos mxridan daxmarebis miRebaze. aqedan gamomdinare, vinaidan ar surda sargeblis miReba, cdilobda dakisrebuli valdebulebisganac gaTavisuflebuliyo. X v. the United Kingdom, 14 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 234 (1978). ix. sagzao moZraobis aqti 1988, me-16 muxli: `am muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebi ar gavrceldeba siqizmis arc erT mimdevarze, sanam is Calmas atarebs~. ufro metic, bevri avtoris mixedviT, pluralistur sazogadoebaSi kanonis safuZvelze religiis moTxovnebis gaTvaliswineba amcirebs socialuri uwesrigobis saSiSroebas. Frederick M. Gedicks, Public Life and Hostility to Religion. frederik gediqsis TqmiT, `gamonaklisebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi zogierTi religiuri jgufi ubralod ganadgurdeboda umravlesobis kanonisa da kulturis zewolis pirobebSi. umravles SemTxvevaSi amgvari jgufebi ar uqmnian safrTxes sazogadoebriv wesrigs. amis miuxedavad, umravlesobis dominirebam SesaZloa zogierT morwmunes ubiZgos radikaluri, destabilizaciis momtani, antisazogadoebrivi saqmianobisaken (Zaladobis CaTvliT)~. Sunday Times v. the United Kingdom, 30 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1979); Observer and Guardian v. the United Kingdom, 126 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1937. Wingrove v. the United Kingdom, 23 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1937 (1996). Otto-Preminger-Institut v. Austria, 295 Eur. Ct. H. R. (se. A) (1994). Manoussakis and others v. Greece, 17 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 1347 (1996). Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993); Larissis and the others v. Greece, 65 Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) 363 (1998). Karaduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1993); X v. the United Kingdom, 14 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep 234 (1978). X v. Austria, 16 Collection 20 (1965). Hakansson v. Sweden, 5 Eur. H. R. Rep. 297 (1983); Van Den Dungen v. the Netherlands, 80-A Eur. Coom’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 147 (1995). Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U. S. 872 (1990). Antonio Perotti, Freedom of Conscience and Immigrants. Employment Division, Department of Human Resourses of Oregon v. Smith, 494 U. S. 872, 902 (1990). mosamarTle o’konorma, Tavis Tanmxvedr azrSi aRniSna, rom pirveli Sesworeba swored im pirTa uflebebis dasacavad iqna miRebuli, romelTa religiis gamoxatvac ar aris gaziarebuli umravlesobis mier da, SesaZloa, mtrul damokidebulebasac iwvevdes. aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis doqtrinis istoria naTlad aCvenebs im sastik zemoqmedebas, romelsac umravlesobis mier dadgenili wesebis safuZvelze ganicdidnen iseTi arapopularuli religiuri jgufebi, rogorebicaa ieRovas mowmeebi an amiSebi. Kokkinakis v. Greece, 260-A Eur. Ct. H. R. (ser. A) (1993). Steven Wheately, Minority Rights, Power Sharing and the Modern Democratic State. Thlimmennos v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 6 aprili, 2000. Karaduman v. Turkey, 74 Eur. Comm’n H. R. Dec & Rep. 93 (1993). Buscarini and others v. San Marino, Eur. Ct. H. R, 18 Tebervali, 1999. Tsavachidis v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 4 marti, 1997. Thlimmenos v. Greece, Eur. Comm’n H. R., 4 dekemberi, 1998. Serif v. Greece, Eur. Ct. H. R., 14 dekemberi, 1999.

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1988 wels Jurnalistebma prezidentobis kandidats, jorj buSs hkiTxes axalgazrdobaSi gamovlili mZime gansacdelis Seaxeb: meore msoflio omis dros buSis sabrZolo TviTmfrinavi wynar okeaneSi Camoagdes da igi ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi Ria zRvaSi Tavis gadasarCenad ibrZoda. buSma upasuxa, rom igi Tavs imxnevebda „WeSmariti Rirebulebis mqone sagnebze, anu RmerTsa da rwmenaze, fiqriT~ — da maSinve dasZina: „eklesiisa da saxelmwifos gamijvnaze fiqriTac~. Jurnalistebs gaeRimaT buSis pasuxze, romelic eklesiisa da saxelmwifos Sesaxeb uzenaesi sasamarTlos Sexedulebebis mxardaWeris demonstrirebas isaxavda miznad. rogori kuriozulic ar unda yofiliyo es gancxadeba, prezidentma buSma instinqturad gamoxata religiasa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobisadmi amerikelebis udidesi nawilis damokidebuleba. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis mosaxleobis did umravlesobas surs, rom xelisufleba da sajaro moxeleebi TavianT saqmianobaSi garkveulwilad religiuri rwmeniTa da principebiT xelmZRvanelobdnen (erT-erTi sociologiuri kvleviTi centris, Gallup Poll, uaxlesi gamokvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT, gamokiTxulTa 65%-ze metma ganacxada, rom prezidentobis aTeist kandidats xmas ar miscemda). amave dros, amerikelTa umravlesobas surs, rom saxelmwifo zedmetad ar Caerios religiur saqmeebSi — es midgoma zogjer eklesiisa da saxelmwifos gamijvnis ideaSi gamoixateba, zogjer ki — ubralod, religiis Tavisuflebis ideaSi. zogierTi mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom arsebobs daZabuloba, erTi mxriv, xelisuflebis saqmianobaze religiuri Rirebulebebis zegavlenis survilsa da, meore mxriv, saxelmwifos mxridan religiur saqmeebSi Caurevlobis moTxovnas Soris. sxva mkvlevarebi ki fiqroben, rom es ori idea savsebiT Tavsebadia. Tumca

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ukanaskneli SemTxveva warmoSobs uTanxmoebas religiis mimarT xelisuflebis dasaSveb da dauSvebel qmedebebs Soris zRvaris gavlebasa da mis safuZvelTan dakavSirebiT. kiTxva, Tu rogori damokidebuleba unda hqondes saxelmwifos religiuri mrwamsebisa da maTi gamoxatvisadmi, uZveles droSi iRebs saTaves. kacobriobis istoriis udidesi nawilis manZilze sazogadoebebi miiCnevdnen, rom yvela moqalaqe erTi sarwmunoebisa unda yofiliyo — saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi iZulebis wesiTac ki — rogorc sazogadoebrivi erTianobis SenarCunebis, ise WeSmariti religiis dacvis mizniT. ukanaskneli 400 wlis ganmavlobaSi dasavleT evropasa da SeerTebul StatebSi SeiniSneba neli moZraoba ara mxolod qristianuli umravlesobis, aramed religiaTa farTo wrisaTvis mniSvnelovani Tavisuflebis miniWebis mimarTulebiT. am process mravalma faqtorma daudo saTave, maT Soris, mzardma religiurma mravalferovnebam, mravali qristianuli dogmis mimarT skeptikuri damokidebulebiT gamorCeuli ganmanaTleblobis gavlenam da mravali qristianis rwmenam, rom iZulebiT SeuZlebelia wrfeli da cxoveli sarwmunoebis miReba. dResac ki aSS-Si arsebobs uTanxmoeba religiisadmi saxelmwifos damokidebulebis sakiTxis Taobaze, Tumca es iSviaTad Tu gadaizrdeba xolme iZulebasa da ZaladobaSi. da mainc, arsebuli uTanxmoebebi sakmaod Rrma da mniSvnelovania. xelisufleba yovelTvis dgeba religiis Tavisuflebis sferoSi wamoWrili sakiTxebis gadaWris winaSe, rodesac religiuri praqtika konfliqtSi Sedis socialur valdebulebebTan an sxvaTa uflebebTan. kidev ufro Rrmaa sakiTxi imis Taobaze, rom yvela religiuri mrwamsisa da jgufisaTvis farTo Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofa SesaZlebelia sazogadoebrivi cxovrebidan religiis sruli CamoSorebis xarjze. zogierTi kritikosis azriT, swored es xdeboda bolo wlebSi, rodesac „eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciis~ amerikuli tradicia religiuri normebisa da Rirebulebebisagan xelisuflebis gamijvnaSi gadaizarda. kritikosTa azriT, es tendencia Zalze saSiSia, radgan religia zneobrivi principebisa da wesrigis Seucvleli wyaroa, gansakuTrebiT iseT naciaSi, rogoricaa amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, romelic mosaxleobis religiurobis Zalze maRali doniT gamoirCeva (sociologiuri gamokvlevebi cxadyofs, rom amerikelebis 90%-ze mets swams RmerTi). bolo aTwleulebSi xsenebul sakiTxTa umravlesoba konstituciuri samarTlis sagnad iqca, romelsac aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlo da sxva sasamarTloebi ixilaven. konstituciis pirveli Sesworeba iqca ZiriTad samarTlebriv instrumentad sasamarTlo instanciaTa xelSi. es Sesworeba xelisuflebis nebismier doneze iseTi kanonis miRebis amkrZalav debulebad ganimarteba, romelic `daawesebs religias an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas~. am sferoSi uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebma sasamarTlo Semowmebis uflebamosilebis gamoyenebis zogierTi yvelaze ufro sadavo precedenti warmoqmna (igulisxmeba sasamarTlos uflebamosileba, Zaladakargulad cnos kanonebi, romlebic, misi azriT, konstituciasTan winaaRmdegobaSi modis). sasamarTlom antikonstituciurad cno saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris xangrZlivi drois manZilze arsebuli zogierTi urTierToba, magaliTad, locva sajaro skolaSi, rac, mkvlevarTa garkveuli nawilis mosazrebiT, pirveli Sesworebis sawyisi miznebis ugulebelyofis tolfasia da sazogadoebriv saqmeebSi religiis rolis dakninebas warmoadgens. magram

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sasamarTlom amave dros mxari dauWira xelisuflebis mier religiis mimarT ganxorcielebul sxvadasxva qmedebebs, gansakuTrebiT, ukanasknel wlebSi, rac xSir SemTxvevaSi winaaRmdegobaSi modis adrindel gadawyvetilebebTan da gancxadebebTan. yvela kritikosi Tanxmdeba, rom precedentuli samarTali Sinaganad Seusabamo xasiaTisaa, zogierTis mtkicebiT ki — araTanmimdevrulic. am TavSi warmodgenilia amerikul sazogadoebasa da samarTlebriv sistemaSi religiasTan dakavSirebuli ZiriTadi Temebi; Sejamebulia konstituciuri debulebebi, warmodgenilia saxelmwifosa da religiasTan dakavSirebiT gasaanalizebeli sakiTxebis struqtura da mokled aris aRwerili ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi standartebi precedentuli samarTlis aRiarebuli saqmeebis mimoxilvis gziT, romlebsac misdevda uzenaesi sasamarTlo religiis ori konstituciuri klauzulis (aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebisa da ardawesebis) safuZvelze.

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konstituciis pirveli Sesworeba da sxva samarTlebrivi debulebebi
religiuri testis klauzula aSS-s konstitucia Sesworebebis Setanamde religiasTan dakavSirebul mxolod erT debulebas Seicavda. me-3 Tavis meoTxe muxlis Tanaxmad, `religiuri testis gamoyeneba arasodes ar moxdeba SeerTebul StatebSi nebismieri Tanamdebobis dakavebis an sazogadoebrivi ndobis pirobad~. es klauzula axal federalur xelisuflebas ukrZalavda praqtikas, romelsac dResac misdeven mraval StatSi Tanamdebobis pirisgan RmerTis an gansazRvruli religiuri doqtrinis rwmenaze ficis dadebis moTxovnis saxiT. Tanamedrove precedentuli samarTlis mixedviT, religiuri testis klauzula sruliad zedmetia, vinaidan uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT religiuri testebis gamoyeneba saxelisuflebo TanamdebobebisaTvis pirveli Sesworebis akrZalvis sferoSi eqceva. saqmeSi torkaso uotkinsis winaaRmdeg1 arakonstituciurad iqna cnobili Statis moTxovna, Tanamdebobis pirebs religiuri rwmenis deklarireba moexdinaT. sasamarTlo daeyrdno pirvel Sesworebas, radgan saqmeSi Statis samarTali iyo CarTuli. es Sesworeba ki miRebul iqna rogorc federaluri, ise adgilobrivi samarTlis dafarvis mizniT me-14 SesworebasTan inkorporaciis safuZvelze. SedarebisTvis, Zalze rTulia religiuri testis klauzulis ganmarteba federaluri xelisuflebis Tanamdebobebis farglebs gareT iurisdiqciis mqoned, rogorc misi istoriis ise, ise teqstis gaTvaliswinebiT. pirveli Sesworeba religiis Sesaxeb pirveli Sesworebis debuleba e. w. „uflebebis bilis~, anu konstituciis pirveli aTi Ses-

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worebis, nawilia. es Sesworebebi federalurma xelisuflebam 1791 wels miiRo, raTa garantirebuli yofiliyo Statebis xelisuflebaTa prerogativebsa da maTi moqalaqeebis TavisuflebebSi Carevis aRkveTa. religiis Sesaxeb debulebaSi vkiTxulobT: „kongresi ar miiRebs kanons, romelic daawesebs religias an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas~. sasamarTloebi da konstituciis interpretatorebi xSirad am debulebas or sxvadasxva religiur klauzulad yofen: ardawesebisa da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis da saqmeebis analizs erTis an meoris mixedviT axdenen. Tumca sxva interpretatorebis mtkicebiT, am ori klauzulis wakiTxva urTierTmimarTebaSi unda moxdes da ara izolirebulad, maTi harmonizaciisa da ara dapirispirebis mizniT; bolos da bolos, klauzulebi erTdroulad miiRes eklesiebisa da saxelmwifos mimarT erTiani gancxadebis formiT. religiis gamoxatva sxvadasxva formiT xorcieldeba: qadagebiT, evangelisturi msvlelobiT sazogadoebriv parkSi, doqtrinuli wigniT an sxva naSromiT. aseTi SemTxvevebi pirveli Sesworebis sxva nawilsac ukavSirdeba, romelic krZalavs „presis, Sekrebis an sityvis Tavisuflebis~ xelmyofi kanonis miRebas. Sedegad, religiis Tavisuflebis damcavi mravali Tanamedrove gadawyvetileba sityvis Tavisuflebis klauzulis interpretaciis safuZvelze iqna miRebuli. pirveli Sesworebis inkorporacia `uflebaTa bilis~ danarCeni nawilis msgavsad, pirveli Sesworeba Tavdapirvelad mxolod federaluri xelisuflebis mimarT gamoiyeneboda. baroni baltimoris merisa da saqalaqo sabWos winaaRmdeg.2 bunebrivad ibadeba kiTxva, ris safuZvelze ganixilavs Tanamedrove uzenaesi sasamarTlo adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis iseT qmedebebs, rogoricaa saskolo sabWos mier saklaso locvis SemoReba? pasuxi Semdegia: me-20 saukunis Sua wlebidan moyolebuli uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom religiisa da sityvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb konstituciis klauzulebi inkorporirebulia me-14 SesworebaSi, im debulebis nawilad, romelic Statis mTavrobas ukrZalavs, uaryos pirovnebis ufleba `jerovan samarTlebriv proceduraze~. ix. gitlou niu-iorkis winaaRmdeg3 (sityvis Tavisufleba); qenTveli koneqtikutis winaaRmdeg4 (aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba); eversoni ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg5 (ardaweseba). ar arsebobs araviTari perspeqtiva, rom sasamarTlo uars ganacxadebs inkorporaciis doqtrinaze religiis an sxva nebismier sferoSi. religiis Tavisufleba Cvens droSi im fundamentur uflebaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, romlebsac, amerikelTa umravlesobis azriT, xelisuflebam yvela doneze unda sces pativi. zogi mkvlevari kvlav ganagrZobs mtkicebas, rom 1868 wels, samoqalaqo omis dasrulebisTanave miRebuli me-14 Sesworeba gamiznuli iyo Savkaniani amerikelebisaTvis qorwinebis, xelSekrulebaTa dadebisa da sakuTrebis flobis uflebebis uzrunvelsayofad. sxvebi `jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris~ klauzulas ufro farTod ganmartaven, Tumca kvlav mxars uWeren Sexedulebas, rom is mxolod gansazRvruli tipis fundamentur uflebebs icavs religiis Tavisuflebis ZiriTadi, magram ara aucileblad pirveli Sesworebidan gamomdinare yvela niSnis CaTvliT. kritikosebis mcire nawili gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT akritikebs religiuri klauzulebis inkorporacias. zogierTi maTgani miuTiTebs 1875 wels SemoTavazebul „bleinis Sesworebaze~, romlis miRebazec kongresma uari ganacxada. igi konstitu-

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cias mniSvnelovnad cvlida swored Statebis mTavrobebze ardawesebisa da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulebis aSkara gavrcelebiT. kritikosebi svamen kiTxvas: ratom unda ganexila kongress aseTi SemoTavazeba, Tu man ramdenime wliT adre igulisxma pirveli Sesworebis gamoyeneba Statebis mTavrobaTa mimarT? inkorporaciis damcvelebi pasuxoben, rom „bleinis Sesworeba~, SesaZloa, moiazreboda, rogorc aucilebeli im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu religiuri klauzulebis inkorporacia me-14 SesworebaSi Tavidanve gamiznuli iyo, radgan am droisTvis uzenaesma sasamarTlom slauter-hauzis6 saqmeebSi faqtobrivad originaluri Sinaarsi gamoacala xsenebul Sesworebas. inkorporaciis momxreebi aseve amtkiceben, rom SesaZloa arsebobda sxva faqtorebi, rac, savaraudod, axsnida `bleinis Sesworebis~ SemoTavazebasa da kongresis mier mis armiRebas. inkorporaciis zogierTi damcvelis gancxadebiT, nebismier SemTxvevaSi „me-14 Sesworebis~ Sinaarsi ar aris SeboWili mis avtorTa specifikuri miznebiT. sxva kritikosebi amtkiceben, rom religiuri klauzulebis, gansakuTrebiT ardawesebis klauzulis, pirveladi mizani mxolod Statebis religiur politikaSi (maT nawilSi 1791 wlisTvis kvlav SemorCenili iyo dawesebuli eklesiebi) federaluri xelisuflebis mxridan Carevis aRkveTaSi mdgomareobda (aRsaniSnavia, rom ardawesebis klauzula krZalavs religiis damwesebel nebismier kanons, romelmac SeiZleba moicvas Statebis dawesebul eklesiebSi Carevis mcdelobebi). „Statis uflebebis~ amgvari politika logikurad SeuZlebelia gamoiyenebodes Statebis xelisuflebaTa SesazRudad. inkorporaciis momxreebi pasuxoben, rom religiuri klauzulebi gamiznuli iyo aseve pirovnebis uflebebis dasacavad da am mizniT debulebis gavrceleba Statebze maTi mTavrobebis mxridan darRvevebis SezRudvisaTvis namdvilad ar aris azrs moklebuli. abingtonis skola Sempis winaaRmdeg7 (mosamarTle brenanis Tanmxvedri azri). garda amisa, religiis Tavisuflebis zogierTi forma, savaraudod, im rekonstruirebuli kongresis wevrTa gonebaSic aqtiurad trialebda, romelmac me-14 Sesworeba miiRo: samxreTis monaTmflobeluri reJimis kritikis amosavali wertili monebisa da mqadagebeli misionerebis religiuri saqmianobis SezRudva iyo. sxva debulebebi federaluri konstitucia ar aris erTaderTi relevanturi kanoni mocemul sferoSi. Statebsac aqvT religiasTan dakavSirebuli sakuTari konstituciuri debulebebi. zogierTi maTgani federalur konstituciur klauzulebze gacilebiT mkacrad zRudavs xelisuflebis saqmianobas. ufro metic, religiasTan dakavSirebuli debulebebis moZieba aseve SesaZlebelia kanonebisa da maregulirebeli kodeqsebis farTo speqtrSi, rogorc federalur, ise Statebis doneze. kanonebi da sxva regulaciebi SeiZleba eklesiebs aTavisuflebdes gadasaxadebis gadaxdisgan an gansazRvruli kanonismieri wesebis Sesrulebisgan, an krZalavdes mTavrobisagan finansuri daxmarebis miRebas. amgvari debulebebi aseve asaxavs saxelmwifo politikas religiis mimarT.

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religiuri klauzulebis interpretacia
uzenaesi sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTali Tavisi istoriis manZilze cvalebadi da xSirad Seusabamo xasiaTiT gamoirCeoda, amitom students an am sferoSi moRvawe praqtikoss garkveuli sistema esaWiroeba sasamarTlos uamravi gadawyvetilebis kategoriebad dayofisa da analizisaTvis. msgavsi sistemiT yvelafris axsna SeuZlebelia, Tumca igi mkiTxvels bevris gagebaSi Seuwyobs xels. wignis mocemuli Tavi aseTi sistemis uzrunvelyofas isaxavs miznad. gansxvavebuli midgomebi religiuri klauzulebis interpretaciisadmi mosamarTleebi kanonmdeblobis Semowmebisas iyeneben konstituciis teqsts, rogorc xalxis mier miRebul uzenaes kanons. aseTi avtoritetis gareSe federaluri sasamarTlo Semowmeba ewinaaRmdegeba amerikis konstituciuri sistemis or ZiriTad safuZvels. pirveli saxalxoobis principi, anu demokratiaa, vinaidan federalur sasamarTlo SemowmebaSi monawileoben daniSnuli mosamarTleebi, romlebic aRWurvilni arian uflebamosilebiT, Zaladakargulad gamoacxadon arCeuli Tanamdebobis pirebis mier miRebuli kanonebi. meore federalizmia: SeerTebuli Statebis sistema Statebs aniWebs moqmedebis mniSvnelovan uflebamosilebas im sferoebis garda, sadac konstitucia an sxva federaluri kanoni ar uSvebs maT mTavrobebs. problema, ra Tqma unda, mdgomareobs konstituciis mniSvnelobis gansazRvraSi misi gamoyenebisas konkretuli sadavo sakiTxis mimarT. iseTi farTod Camoyalibebuli debulebebis teqstis, rogoricaa religiuri klauzulebi, sityvasityviT gageba ar gamodgeba saxelmZRvanelod zogierTi Zalze mniSvnelovani SemTxvevis

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gadasawyvetad. sxva romel wyaros (wyaroebs) unda mimarTos mosamarTlem teqstis interpretirebisaTvis? es Zalze rTuli kiTxvaa da masze pasuxis gacemisas konstituciis kritikosebi gansxvavebul poziciebs aniWeben upiratesobas. Tanamedrove miznebisaTvis SegviZlia ori ZiriTadi midgoma ganvasxvavoT konstituciuri debulebebis, Cvens SemTxvevaSi religiuri klauzulebis, mniSvnelobis gansazRvrisaTvis. am ori mimarTulebis identificirebis mizans warmoadgens ara maT Soris saukeTesos gamovlena, aramed TiToeuli maTganis sasargeblod an sawinaaRmdegod moyvanili ZiriTadi argumentebis CamoTvla. erTi midgomiT aqcentirebulia debulebis istoriuli mniSvnelobis gansazRvra, kerZod, misi mimRebi Taobis mier, an ufro specifikurad _ konkretuli normis avtorTa mier misi gagebis gamorkveva. am pirveladi gagebis midgomis damcvelebis mtkicebiT, mxolod Tavdapirvel mniSvnelobas aqvs sakmarisi avtoriteti umravlesobis yvela Semdgom qmedebaze dominirebisaTvis, vinaidan mxolod igi miiRo udidesma umravlesobam saTanado samarTlebrivi procedurebis gavlis gziT (rogoricaa konstituciaSi cvlilebebis Setanis Taobaze me-5 muxliT gaTvaliswinebuli procedurebi). am Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdegod, im midgomis damcvelebi, romelsac SeiZleba konstituciis „zneobrivi gageba~ ewodos, daJinebiT amtkiceben, rom dokumenti asaxavs politikuri moralis gansazRvrul zogad principebs — pirveli Sesworebis SemTxvevaSi aseTad miCneulia religiis, sindisisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba. maTi mtkicebiT, es principebi arsebuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT unda ganimartos, maT avtorTa Tu mimRebTa naazrevis miuxedavad. mxolod am gziT aris SesaZlebeli konstituciis adaptacia aTwleulebisa da saukuneebis manZilze amerikul naciaSi mimdinare cvlilebebisadmi. am ori gansxvavebuli midgomidan gamomdinare, garkveuli sakiTxebis ilustrireba naTlad aris SesaZlebeli religiur klauzulebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gamokvleviT. „pirveladi gagebis~ kritikosebis gancxadebiT, Tu is zRudavs konstituciur doqtrinas konstituciis avtorTa specifikuri SexedulebebiT, maSin is warmoudgenels xdis dokumentis Rirebulebebis adaptacias arsebiTad gansxvavebul garemoebebSi. meore mxriv, maTi mtkicebiT, Tu debulebis sawyisi gageba ise unda ganimartos, rogorc avtorTa mosazrebebis ukan mdgomi abstraqtuli principi, maSin originalizmi kargavs dapirebul damajereblobas: momaval Taobebs arCevanis gakeTeba zogad principebs Soris abstraqciis mraval doneze mouwevT, rac, savaraudod, specifikur sakiTxebze avtorTa mosazrebebis ignorirebas gamoiwvevs. magaliTad, pirveli Sesworebis avtorebi, rogorc Cans, did problemas ver xedavdnen sazogadoebrivi TavSeyris adgilebSi locvaSi. savaraudod, amis mizezi SesaZlo protestis gamomTqmeli araqristianebis nakleboba iyo. magram avtorebs surdaT, uzrunveleyoT mTavrobis CamoSoreba raime poziciis dakavebisagan religiis im Sida sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic pirveli Sesworebis SemuSavebisas protestantebs Soris kamaTis sagani iyo. Cvens droSi, rodesac mravali amerikelia araqristiani, am zogadi principis dacvam SeiZleba qristianuli locvebisadmi pirveli Sesworebis avtorebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri tolerantobis uaryofa moiTxovos. meore mxriv, moraluri gagebis kritikosebi acxadeben, rom debulebis mimRebTa Sexedulebebze fokusirebis gareSe SeuZlebeli iqneba masSi raime obieqturi Sina-

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arsis danaxva. nebismier mniSvnelovan SemTxvevaSi romelime poziciis sasargeblo an sawinaaRmdego zneobrivi argumenti sakmaod bevria, arasaimedo xasiaTisaa da damokidebulia konkretuli pirovnebis individualur xedvaze. amitom gardauvalia, rom mosamarTleebi, romlebic „saukeTeso~ zneobriv gagebas misdeven, sabolood sasamarTlo procesze sakuTari moraluri Rirebulebebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas Seecdebian. am SemTxvevaSi daniSnuli mosamarTleebi Zirs gamouTxrian rogorc demokratias, aseve federalizms: xalxis uflebas, miiRos gadawyvetilebebi arCeuli warmomadgenlebis meSveobiT da adgilobriv doneze. magaliTad, disputebi saxelmwifosa da religiis urTierTkavSiris Sesaxeb — an sajaro skolebSi oficialuri locvis msgavsi konkretuli sakiTxebis irgvliv — Zalian did siRrmeebSi iWreba da msjelobis sagnad aqcevs WeSmaritebisa da religiis, an gansazRvruli religiuri mrwamsis mniSvnelovnebis Sesaxeb gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs. is, rac mosamarTlis azriT, religiis Tavisuflebis saukeTeso gagebas warmoadgens, savaraudod, mosamarTlis Zalze pirovnuli Sexedulebis nayofia. zogierTi kritikosi amtkicebs, rom Tanamedrove sasamarTlos mier religiis klauzulebis mixedviT miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi im sekularizebuli elitis (mosamarTleebisa da sasamarTlo moxeleebis) midrekilebebs asaxavs, romlisTvisac religia, Cveulebriv, ar aris mniSvnelovani da cxovrebaSi saxelmZRvanelo Zala. es ori Sexeduleba ar aris urTierTgamomricxavi. pirveladi gageba, Cveulebriv, garkveul zneobriv principebs asaxavs da originalistebi (pirveladi gagebis momxreebi) Tanxmdebian, rom Tanamedrove garemoebebTan am principebis misadagebisaTvis saWiroa gansakuTrebuli moqniloba. meore mxriv, konstituciisadmi zneobrivi midgomis damcvelebi aRiareben, rom istoria naTels mohfens debulebis safuZvelSi myof da masSi asaxul princips, agreTve dRevandelobaSi misi saukeTeso implementaciis gzas. ufro metic, maTi kombinirebis, an maT Soris kompromisis misaRwevi mravali gza iqna SemoTavazebuli. magaliTad, zogierTi mosazrebiT, mosamarTleebi amerikul tradiciebs unda daeyrdnon, raTa konstituciur doqtrinas araangariSvaldebuli mosamarTleebis subieqturi mosazrebebis zegavlenis gareSe ganviTarebis saSualeba miscen. religiuri klauzulebis fuZemdebluri principebi religiuri klauzulebisa da maT ganmartebaze gamiznuli gadawyvetilebebis ukeT gasagebad aucilebelia is ZiriTadi principebi da Rirebulebebi gaviazroT, romlebsac es klauzulebi da gadawyvetilebebi unda emsaxurebodes (originalistisTvis metad saWirboroto sakiTxia imis gansazRvra, Tu ra Rirebulebebs emsaxureboda klauzulebi istoriulad; konstituciis sxva TeoretikosebisTvis ZiriTadi kiTxva isaa, Tu ra Rirebulebebs unda emsaxuros klauzulebi dRes). ra Tqma unda, religiis Sesaxeb debulebis daniSnuleba aris is, rom „xeli Seuwyos religiis Tavisuflebas yoveli pirovnebisaTvis, uzrunvelyos, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, yvelaze sruli xedva da dasaxos is pirobebi, romlebic saukeTeso saSualebad gamodgeba aRniSnuli miznis misaRwevad“ (abingtonis saskolo olqi Sempis winaaRmdeg, mosamarTle goldbergis Tanmxvedri azri8 ). magram religiis Tavisufleba ar aris TavisTavad cxadi idea da precedentuli samarTlis uwesrigoba asaxavs mosamarTleebis uTanxmoebas religiis Tavisuflebis raobis gansazRvraSi.

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Zireulma principebma, anu Rirebulebebma, unda ganmartos orive klauzula: ardaweseba da aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, es ori klauzula erTi debulebis ori nawilia. es, ra Tqma unda, niSnavs, rom isini erTmaneTTan harmoniulad unda iyos Sewyobili da ara dapirispirebuli, radgan maTma erTmaneTisagan izolirebulad interpretaciam SeiZleba mniSvnelovani sirTuleebi gamoiwvios. rogor unda moxdes am ori klauzulis ganmarteba, rom mTavrobam isini religiis mimarT gamoiyenos? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad sami principi, anu Rirebuleba, epaeqreboda erTmaneTs: separacia, Tanasworoba da religiis Tavisufleba, anu arCevani. ix. uolzi sagadasaxado komisiis winaaRmdeg9 (mosamarTle harleni, Tanmxvedri azri) (ganxilulia „voluntarizmis“, anu Tavisuflebis, „neitralobis“, anu Tanasworobisa da „Caurevlobis“, anu separaciis Rirebulebebi). TiToeuli maTgani orazrovnebiT gamoirCeva da SeiZleba ganmartebul iqnes rogorc viwro, ise farTo gagebiT. uzenaes sasamarTlos Tanmimdevrulad arc erTi am RirebulebisaTvis ar dauWeria mxari. swored am mizeziT misi gadawyvetilebebi xSirad Seusabamo xasiaTisa iyo. Rirebulebebis dadgena ver gadaWris yvela sakiTxs, magram, sul mcire, SeZlebs dagvexmaros sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebaTa ukeT gaazrebaSi. eklesiisa da saxelmwifos gamijvna (separacia). erT SesaZlo Rirebulebas, romlis uzrunvelsayofadaa mimarTuli religiis ori klauzula, warmoadgens eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separacia. sul mcire, es niSnavs ara mxolod imas, rom saxelmwifo da eklesia ori gansxvavebuli institutia (iranis msgavsi Teokratiis sapirispirod), aramed imasac, rom arc saxelmwifos da arc eklesias ar unda hqondes erTmaneTis Sida marTvaSi monawileobis oficialuri ufleba. SeerTebuli Statebis mier uaryofil iqna, magaliTad, dawesebuli eklesiebis mqone im erebis praqtika, rogoricaa didi britaneTi, sadac mTavroba eklesiis liderebis arCevaSi oficialurad (Tumca Cvens droSi TiTqmis sruliad simbolurad) iRebs monawileobas da episkoposebs aseve oficialurad ukaviaT saparlamento adgilebi lordTa palataSi. Tanamedrove amerikaSi zogadad aRiarebulia eklesiisa da saxelmwifos „institucionaluri separacia“. amis miuxedavad, religiisagan xelisuflebis ufro ambiciuri gamijvna aisaxa Tanamedrove sasamarTlos zogierT gadawyvetilebaSi, ramac didi kamaTi gamoiwvia. 1947 wlis dasawyisSi, eversoni ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg10 sasamarTlo saqmis dros, sasamarTlom tomas jefersonis frazis citirebiT ganacxada, rom pirveli Sesworeba „separaciis kedels“ aRmarTavda. „kedlis“ metafora ara mxolod imas gulisxmobda, rom religia da xelisufleba ar unda Caerios erTmaneTis saqmeebSi, aramed imasac, rom maT Soris Sexeba mcire unda iyos an saerTod ar unda arsebobdes. praqtikulad sasamarTlo mTavrobaSi iseTi religiuri praqtikis akrZalvis ideis implementacias axdenda, rogoricaa saxelmwifos mier dafinansebul skolebSi locva, mTavrobis mier kerZo religiuri skolebis dafinanseba. am sakamaTo gadawyvetilebebSi separacia niSnavda xelisuflebis samoqmedo sferodan religiuri saqmianobisa da gavlenis gamoricxvas, pirvel rigSi religiuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebis an arareligiuri moqalaqeebis dacvisaTvis. xelisuflebis mxridan ucxo da arapopularuli sarwmunoebis devnis istoriam mravali adamiani miiyvana im daskvnamde, rom religiuri umciresobebis dacva mxolod sekularul xelisuflebas SeuZlia. zog SemTxvevaSi es pozicia emyareboda mosazrebas,

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rom religia gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiarea, anu Zalze rTulia religiuri uTanxmoebebis mogvareba empiriulad an racionalurad. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, arsebobs Sexeduleba, rom sazRvari unda daedos religiuri sakiTxebisa da gansxvavebebis Setanas politikur sistemaSi. aseve gavrcelebulia azri, rom arc religia unda SeiWras Rrmad politikur sakiTxebSi, radgan xelisuflebis roli marTebuladaa SezRuduli saero miznebiTa da politikiT. Tumca separacionizmis sxva tradicia, romelic saTaves baptisti lideris, rojer uiliamsisagan iRebs, aqcentirebas axdens ufro religiis, vidre sazogadoebis an politikuri sistemis dacvaze. am tradiciis mixedviT, eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris „megobruli“ urTierTobebic ki xelyofs religiis xelSeuxeblobas da asustebs mas. sasamarTlom ramdenjerme mimarTa am tradicias xelisuflebis mxridan religiuri organizaciebis marTvis, zogjer ki religiuri institutebisaTvis, maT Soris skolebisTvis, damxarebis aRmoCenis mcdelobaTa aRsakveTad. religiasa da saxelmwifos Soris kontaqtis sruli ararsebobis miRweva yovelTvis SeuZlebeli iyo, ramdenadac orive maTganis zrunvis sagania sazogadoebrivi moralis sakiTxebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom amerikis istoriaSi eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris TiTqmis yovelTvis iyo arsebiTi institucionaluri gamijvna, mTavroba sxvadasxva gzebiT xels uwyobda dominantur qristianul eklesias. magram religiasa da saxelmwifos Soris kontaqtebis rRveva kidev ufro Zneli gaxda bolo 50 wlis ganmavlobaSi, radgan xelisuflebis aqtiuroba Zalze gaizarda da ganviTarda ganaTlebisa da komerciuli saqmianobis regulirebis, sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis uzrunvelyofis mimarTulebiT. mravali kritikosi acxadebs, rom ramdenadac xelisuflebis samoqmedo areali Zalze gafarTovda, misgan mkacrad sekularuli rolis moTxovna gamoiwvevs religiis gandevnas sazogadoebrivi cxovrebidan. Tanabari reJimi. religiis klauzulis meore SesaZlo Rirebuleba aris Tanabari reJimi, anu diskriminaciis ararseboba. am TvalsazrisiT, mTavari boroteba, romlis winaaRmdegac mimarTulia klauzulebi, aris xelisuflebis mier religiis sakiTxebSi erTi poziciisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba meoresTan SedarebiT. rodesac xelisufleba erT pozicias aniWebs upiratesobas, igi sxva mosazrebis mimdevrebs epyroba, rogorc meorexarisxovan moqalaqeebs, ramac SesaZloa upiratesobis mqone jgufs saxifaTo kondiciamde gauzardos Zalaufleba. amgvari tipis religiuri uTanxmoebani im ganxeTqilebebis rigs ganekuTvneboda, romelTa gamoc jeims medisoni federalistis dokumentebSi gamoxatavda SiSs, rom isini socialur da politikur dapirispirebebs gamoiwvevda. Tanabari reJimis versia, romelic kamaTs ar iwvevs, gulisxmobs, rom erT religiur denominacias ar unda mieniWos upiratesoba meoresTan SedarebiT. sasamarTlom amas uwoda religiis klauzulebis „yvelaze mkafio brZaneba“ (larsoni valentis winaaRmdeg).11 ufro met kamaTs iwvevs winadadeba, romlis mixedviTac arareligiurobasTan SedarebiT arc zogadad religias unda mieniWos upiratesoba. sasamarTlo xSirad iyenebs Tanasworobis princips, rogorc religiebs Soris an religiasa da arareligiurobas Soris „neitralitetis~ dacvis erT-erT princips. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle harlenma ganmarta, rom neitraluri midgoma ZiriTadad gulisxmobs „analizis Tanabari dacvis meTods~ (uolzi sagadasaxado komisiis winaaRmdeg).12 Tanasworobis idealis mixedviT, moqalaqeebisa da jgufebis

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mimarT gansxvavebuli mopyroba religiur niadagze, rodesac orive mxare Tanazomieria, SesaZlebelia gamarTlebul iqnes mxolod Zalian konkretuli garemoebebis pirobebSi. moqalaqeTa religiuri rwmena an misi uqonloba ar unda aisaxebodes xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebebze, iseve rogorc vinmes rasa an sqesi ar unda iyos misTvis mniSvnelovani. bolo wlebSi uzenaesma sasamarTlom eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciidan yuradReba Tanabari reJimis Rirebulebaze gadaitana. cvlileba yvelaze SesamCnevi gaxda or sferoSi: (1) sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, rom religiuri saqmianoba SeiZleba konstituciurad daeqvemdebaros imave kanonebs, romlebsac eqvemdebareba sazogadoebis danarCeni nawili, religiaze dakisrebuli tvirTis miuxedavad; da (2) sasamarTlos mier xelisuflebis mxridan religiuri organizaciebisadmi daxmarebis gawevis ufro da ufro meti formebis mowoneba sxva organizaciebTan Tanabar pirobebSi CayenebiT. es gadawyvetlebani upirispirdeba sasamarTlos wina gadawyvetilebebs, romlebic, erTi mxriv, religiur saqmianobas icavda zogierTi zogadi xasiaTis mqone kanonisagan, xolo meore mxriv, krZalavda xelisuflebis mxridan religiis daxmarebis mraval formas, eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris mkveTri separaciis miRwevis mizniT. gadawyvetilebebis cvlileba aCvenebs, rom aqtiuri xelisuflebis dros SeiZleba erTmaneTs dauprispirdes separaciisa (religiis saxelmwifo xelisuflebisgan gamijvna) da Tanasworobis (religiis sxva rwmenebTan an saqmianobis sxva saxeebTan msgavs pirobebSi Cayeneba) Rirebulebebi. araiZuleba da religiuri arCevani. Rirebulebebis bolo nakrebi, romelic SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos religiis Sesaxeb debulebebs, aris religiis Tavisufleba, araiZuleba da religiuri arCevani. am TvalTaxedviT, religiis klauzulebis upirvelesi mizani religiis Tavisuflebis dacvaa. saxelmwifo am mizans yovelgvari gamonaklisis gareSe unda misdevdes, maSinac ki, roca es dakavSirebulia garkveul kontaqtTan eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris (separaciis darRvevisas), an religiisadmi sxva ideebisa da saqmianobebisagan gansxvavebul mopyrobasTan (Tanabari reJimis darRvevisas). religiis Tavisuflebis Rirebulebis damcvelebi xSirad amtkiceben, rom diskriminaciis uaryofas da eklesiisa da saxelmwifos gamijvnas mniSvneloba mxolod religiis Tavisuflebis fundamenturi Rirebulebis dacvisTvis aqvs, da rom am ubralo instrumentuli mniSvnelobis mqone Rirebulebebs ar unda mivdevdeT, Tu isini raime gansakuTrebul SemTxvevaSi upirispirdebian Tavisuflebas. am poziciis mravali damcveli amtkicebs, rom religiuri saqmianoba pozitiuri adamianuri da sazogadoebrivi sikeTea, amitom xelisuflebam gansakuTrebuli nabijebi unda gadadgas imisaTvis, raTa xeli Seuwyos an, sul mcire, pativi sces mas. zogierTi yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, rom religiuri praqtika daculi unda iyos xelyofisgan, vinaidan igi saxelmwifoze maRla mdgomi Zalis — RvTis an RvTiuri moralis avtoritetis winaSe valdebulebebs Seicavs. magram religiis Tavisuflebis damcvelebi zogadad aRniSnaven, rom xelisuflebam ar unda scados urwmunoebze zewola maT mier religiuri `WeSmaritebis~ misaRebad, radgan aseTi Zalisxmeva ver Caunergavs adamians gulwrfel rwmenas da saxels utexs religias. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, religiis Tavisuflebis ideali, sul mcire, imas niSnavs, rom xelisuflebam aravis ar unda aiZulos, iyos religiuri an arareligiuri (li vaismanis winaaRmdeg13 — am saqmeSi es aRwerilia, rogorc ardawesebis klauzulis

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„minimaluri“ moTxovna). magram es SezRuduli „araiZulebis“ principi uTavsdeba im debulebas, rom xelisuflebam SeiZleba moiwonos an TviTon gauwios daxmareba religias im saSualebebiT, romlebic gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs ar zRudavs. Tumca religiis Tavisufleba ufro farTo gagebiT niSnavs, rom xelisuflebam ar unda scados religiur arCevanze gavlenis moxdena im gzebiTac ki, romlebic ar moiTxovs pirdapir iZulebas (magaliTad, jeims medisoni aqcentirebas axdens imaze, rom „Semwynarebloba“ ar aris sruli religiuri Tavisuflebis adekvaturi alternativa). sasamarTlo xSirad ikavebda am pozicias, magaliTad, miiCnevda, rom saxelmwifo dafinansebaze myof skolebSi locvis praqtika zewolaa sxvagvarad moazrovne moswavleebze, maSinac ki, Tu maT oficialurad ar sTxoven locvebSi monawileobis miRebas. profesorma duglas leikokma es pozicia aRwera, rogorc religiis mimarT ufro „arsebiTi“, vidre „formaluri“ neitraliteti: neitraluri ara religiisadmi, rogorc nebismieri sxva ideisadmi, mopyrobis (Tanabari reJimi), aramed religiur arCevanze gavlenis moxdenisagan Tavis aridebis mcdelobis mniSvnelobiT (mizani, romelsac zogjer religiisadmi gansakuTrebul mopyrobas uwodeben). *** 1791 wels amerikaSi, SezRuduli xelisuflebisa da SedarebiT homogenuri, umeteswilad protestantuli, mosaxleobis pirobebSi separaciis, Tanasworobisa da Tavisuflebis Rirebulebebi xSirad urTierTqmedebdnen. xelisuflebis mxridan religiuri saqmianobisa da institutebis mimarT „xelebi Sors“ mdgomareobis SenarCuneba xels Seuwyobda ara mxolod eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris separaciasa da religiis Tavisuflebas, aramed agreTve religiuri da sxva tipis qmedebebisadmi gonivrulad Tanabar mopyrobas, vinaidan xelisuflebis maregulirebeli roli zogadad SezRuduli iyo. ufro metic, gamokveTilad protestantuli suliskveTebis mqone sazogadoebis arsebobis pirobebSi xelisuflebas SeeZlo, nebismieri konkretuli eklesiisagan gancalkevebulad darCeniliyo, magram samoqalaqo sazogadoebis religiuri Rirebulebebi mainc Seuwyobda xels sazogadoebriv cxovrebas. es, ra Tqma unda, ar gulisxmobs, rom am sam Rirebulebas yovelTvis scemdnen pativs amerikis istoriis adreul periodSi. arapopularuli sarwmunoebebi qmeduunarobisaTvis iyo ganwiruli an maTze aqtiuri zewola xdeboda: kvakerebsa da baptistebze kolonializmis periodSi, kaTolikeebze sxvadasxva dros, mormonebze me19 saukunis meore naxevarSi. aq mxolod imis Tqma SeiZleba, rom Teoriulad xelisuflebisaTvis Zvel droSi ufro advili iyo samive Rirebulebis erTdrouli uzrunvelyofa. magram axla, garemoebaTa cvlilebis gamo, zemoT CamoTvlili sami Rirebuleba xSirad erTmaneTs upirispirdeba. amis erT-erTi mizezi is aris, rom Cvens droSi aqtiuri, ayvavebuli saxelmwifos xelisufleba aregulirebs da gavlenas axdens cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoze, skolis marTvidan da komerciuli saqmianobis regulirebidan dawyebuli sxvadasxva socialuri saqmianobis subsidirebiT damTavrebuli. amas Sedegad moaqvs is, rom, magaliTad, eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciam da religiis Tavisuflebis ganmtkicebam regulirebis TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba religiisadmi sxva saqmianobisagan sruliad gansxvavebuli midgoma moiTxovos. ramdena-

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dac izrdeba da farTovdeba xelisuflebis samoqmedo sfero, sul ufro rTuldeba religiasTan kavSiris Tavidan acileba (mkveTri separaciis Rirebuleba), Tuki religia ar ganixileba, rogorc sruliad privatuli sagani; religiis privatuli sferoTi Semofargvlam ki SeiZleba religiis diskriminacia da mTlianad religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudva gamoiwvios. sakiTxs kidev ufro arTulebs amerikaSi arsebuli mzardi religiuri pluralizmi. bevri dRes Segnebulad acxadebs, rom araTeisturi religiis mimdevaria an saerTod ar aris religiuri. imisaTvis, rom amerikaSi arsebul yvela religiuri pozicia srulfasovnad Tanabar reJimSi moeqces, xelisuflebas SeiZleba sxva arCevani ar darCes, garda imisa, rom saerTod araferi Tqvas religiis Sesaxeb. mravali kritikosi ganagrZobs imis mtkicebas, rom movlenebis aseTi ganviTareba religias naklebad privilegirebul poziciaSi ayenebs, vidre sxva ideebs, romelTa mxardaWeris ufleba eZleva xelisuflebas; es zRudavs religiuri moqalaqeebis Tavisuflebas, scadon sakuTar xelisuflebaze gavlenis moxdena da aSkarad ewinaaRmdegeba amerikis istoriul tradicias. gansxvavebul principebs Soris konfliqtma dramatulad iCina Tavi dawesebis klauzulis pirvel, Tanamedrove sasamarTlo saqmeSi, eversoni ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg.14 sajaro skolis sabWom gadasaxadebiT mxardaWerili fondebis gamoyenebiT Svilebis skolaSi gamgzavrebis xarjebi aunazRaura mSoblebs da samrevlo skolis moswavleTa mSoblebic CarTo programaSi. uzenaesma sasamarTlom saqmis ganxilva „separaciis kedlis“ metaforis gamoyenebiT daiwyo da daJinebiT moiTxovda, rom eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris kedeli „maRali da miudgomeli“ yofiliyo. Sedegad, sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom „dauSvebeli iyo nebismieri odenobis gadasaxadis amoReba nebismieri religiuri saqmianobisa da dawesebulebis mxardasaWerad, saxelwodebis miuxedavad~. aRmoCnda, TiTqos sasamarTlo Semadgenlobis umravlesoba religiuri ganaTlebisaTvis gaweuli nebismieri daxmarebis aRsakveTad mkacri separaciis principis gamoyenebas gegmavda. Tumca SemdgomSi umravlesobam mainc mxari dauWira avtobusiT mgzavrobis xarjebis anazRaurebas. radgan saxelmwifo aseve ixdida sajaro skolis moswavleebis mgzavrobis safasurs, samrevlo skolebis ojaxebisaTvis gaweuli xarjebis anazRaureba ubralod „zogadi programis“ nawili iyo, romelic iTvaliswinebda moswavleTa daxmarebas skolisken mgzavrobasa da ukan dabrunebaSi, „miuxedavad maTi religiisa“. religiis klauzula saxelmwifos ar aZlev uflebas, gamoricxos moswavleebi „maTi rwmenis gamo... sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli daxmarebis miRebisgan“. dawesebis klauzula ise ar unda iqnes ganmartebuli, rom „xeli SeuSalos moqalaqeebs TavianTi religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaSi“. skolaSi transportireba sxva iseTi „zogadi saxelmwifo momsaxurebis“ msgavsi iyo, rogoricaa policia an saxanZro dacva; eklesiebisaTvis am saxis momsaxurebaze uaris Tqma saxelmwifos ufro maT „mowinaaRmdeged“ gaxdida, vidre „neitralurad“. „saxelmwifos Zalaufleba metad aRar unda iqnes gamoyenebuli rogorc religiisaTvis xelisSemSlelad, ise xelisSemwyobad“. gansxvavebuli azris mqone mosamarTleebi skeptikurad uyurebdnen umravlesobis mier daxmarebis gawevaze nebis darTvas mkacri separaciis Taobaze gamarTuli msjelobis Semdgom. eversonis15 saqmem cxadyo, rom sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis

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uzrunvelyofisaTvis gamiznuli dafinansebis Tanamedrove praqtikam SesaZloa warmoSvas konfliqti, erTi mxriv, separaciis Rirebulebebsa da, meore mxriv, Tanasworobasa da Tavisufal arCevans Soris. eversonis saqmeSi umravlesobam ver SeZlo, naTeli gaexada, Tu romeli Rirebuleba iyo upiratesi. sabolood man Tanasworoba airCia, magram eklesiisa da saxelmwifos mkacr separaciaze miuTiTa. Sedegad, sasamarTlom ganagrZo sxvadasxva Rirebulebebs Soris meryeoba. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi igi separacias aniWebda upiratesobas, magram am bolo dros ufro xSirad Tanasworobasa da arCevanze akeTebs aqcents.

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aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebisa da dawesebis klauzulebis standartebis mimoxilva
vidre davis sagnad qceul calkeul sferoebze daviwyebdeT msjelobas, saWiroa mokle Sesavlis gakeTeba im standartebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac sasamarTlo iyenebda pirveli Sesworebis religiis Sesaxeb debulebebis, aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebisa da dawesebis, safuZvelze. Cven vecdebiT, es zogadi standartebi wina qveTavSi ganxilul sam ZiriTad Rirebulebas davukavSiroT. aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis standartebi sasamarTlo xelisufleba yovelTvis gansakuTrebiT iyo dainteresebuli, daecva religiuri rwmena, msaxureba da gamoxatva. religiuri rwmena, rogorc aseTi, romelic sxvebis mimarT raime qmedebaSi ar vlindeba, absoluturad daculia xelisuflebis mxridan dasjisa Tu regulirebisagan. religiuri sityva aseve mkacrad aris daculi, gansakuTrebiT mis mimarT religiur niadagze SezRudvebis gamoyenebisagan. religiuri sityvis dacva aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis konstituciuri debulebis safuZvelze mxardaWerilia sityvis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT, romelic zogadad xelisuflebas ukrZalavs sityvis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas Sinaarsisa da msoflmxedvelobis safuZvelze, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac saxelmwifos sasicocxlo interesi aqvs, Tavad SezRudva ki viwro CarCoebSia moqceuli. bolo wlebSi sasamarTlo xSirad iyenebda amgvar analizs iseTi gadawyvetilebebis misaRebad, romelTa mixedviTac ar yofila aucilebeli, zogjer ki dauSvebelic iyo religiuri sityvis gandevna sajaro institutebidan (sajaro skolebi, sazogadoebrivi moednebi da a. S.). zemoxsenebul kategoriebSi separaciis, Tanabari reJimisa da religiis Tavisuflebis Rirebulebebi mTli-

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anobaSi harmoniulad muSaobs. religiuri rwmenis an gamoxatvis dacva sxva rwmenebis msgavsi pirobebiT aseve uzrunvelyofs maT Tavisuflebas da xelisuflebis mxridan Caurevlobas. religiuri rwmeniT motivirebuli qceva ufro met sirTules qmnis, vidre TavisTavad rwmena an sityva. qceva SesaZloa sxvisTvis bevrad ufro didi zianis momtani gaxdes, vidre ubralo rwmena (magaliTad, zogierTi religiuri kulti adamianis msxverplSewirvas moiTxovs), amitom zog SemTxvevaSi igi unda SeizRudos. garda amisa, religiuri rwmena, Cveulebriv, ufro mets gulisxmobs, vidre mxolod rwmenis qona da gamoxatvaa; is morwmuneebs akisrebs valdebulebas, Seasrulon garkveuli moqmedebebi an, piriqiT, Tavi Seikavon maTgan. ras viRebT Sedegad, rodesac es valdebulebebi xelisuflebis mier dadgenil wesebs upirispirdeba? uzenaesma sasamarTlom erTmniSvnelovnad ganacxada, rom saxelmwifo uflebamosilia, SezRudos qceva, magram ara mxolod misi religiuri xasiaTis gamo. religiuri gamoxatvis sawinaaRmdego aseTi diskriminaciuli qmedeba arRvevs rogorc Tanasworobis, ise religiis Tavisuflebis principebs. Tumca rodesac religiuri xasiaTis qceva ar iyo akrZaluli, magram upirispirdeboda yvela moqalaqeze dakisrebuli qcevis zogad standartebs, sasamarTlos midgoma naklebad mtkice iyo. Serberti verneris winaaRmdeg16 saqmidan moyolebuli mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi sasamarTlos (Teoriulad mainc) aseTi pozicia ekava: rodesac religiuri valdebulebebi ewinaaRmdegeba zogadi daniSnulebis kanonmdeblobas, xelisufleba konstituciurad valdebulia, angariSi gauwios (moaxdinos adaptacia) morwmunis sindiss da gaaTavisuflos igi kanonis moTxovnebisagan, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac morwmunis Tavisuflebis SezRudva aucilebelia sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesebis dasacavad. aseTi adaptacia aucilebelia im SemTxvevebSi mainc, rodesac religiis Tavisufleba moiTxovs dacvas xelisuflebis mxridan Warbi regulirebisgan, rac, unda iTqvas, aseve eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciis mizans emsaxureba. religiuri adaptaciebi xsenebul miznebs religiuri qmedebebisadmi gansxvavebuli mopyrobis fasad aRwevs. mravali mkvlevari, Tanabari reJimis principidan gamomdinare, akritikebs religiuri da sxva tipis qmedebebis gamijvnas. zogierTis mtkicebiT, es ewinaaRmdegeba dawesebis klauzulas religiisadmi upiratesobis miniWebiT; sxvebis gancxadebiT ki aseTi favoritizmi, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, imas niSnavs, rom kanonisagan gaTavisufleba konstituciurad ar unda moiTxovebodes. dasaqmebis samsaxuri smitis winaaRmdeg17 saqmeSi sasamarTlom gadauxvia pirvandel kurss da daadgina, rom aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula TiTqmis arasodes moiTxovs adaptacias neitraluri da zogadi daniSnulebis kanonmdeblobis winaSe, saxelmwifo interesTa moculobis miuxedavad. standartis aseT cvlilebas mniSvnelovani Sedegebi mohyveba: sakanonmdeblo dawesebulebebi iSviaTad krZalaven religiur qmedebas, magram religiuri pirebi an jgufebi xSirad awydebian winaaRmdegobas TavianT religiur valdebulebebsa da zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebiT dakisrebul valdebulebebs Soris. smitis standarti ar gulisxmobs, rom sakanonmdeblo dawesebulebebs ekrZalebaT religiuri sindisis adaptacia, is mxolod amtkicebs, rom konstituciurad maT ar moeTxovebaT aseTi gamonaklisebis daSveba. amrigad, axalma wesma fokusireba ufro Tanasworobaze moaxdina, vidre religiis Tavisuflebaze, Tumca igi nebas rTavs

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sakanonmdeblo dawesebulebebs, gamorCeulad daicvan religiis Tavisufleba sakuTari diskreciis safuZvelze. dawesebis klauzulis standartebi dawesebis klauzulis saanalizo standartebis Semdgomi ganviTareba sasamarTlosTvis ufro metad gaZnelda. marTlac, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi ar arsebobda erTi standarti, romelic misaRebi iqneboda mosamarTleTa umravlesobisaTvis, rogorc zRvaris samarTlianad damwesebeli principi religiisadmi xelisuflebis dasaSveb mxardaWerasa da religiis dauSvebel dawesebas Soris. lemonis testi mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi uzenaesi sasamarTlo iyenebda dawesebis klauzulis samelementian tests, romelic rekomendebul iqna lemoni kurcmanis winaaRmdeg18 saqmeSi. lemonis testis safuZvelze dawesebis klauzulis moTxovnebis SesrulebisaTvis kanons unda hqonoda (1) saero mizani, (2) religiis arc mxardaWeris da arc dabrkolebis ZiriTadi an pirdapiri Sedegi, (3) ar unda gamoewvia zedmetad mWidro urTierTkavSiris damyareba eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris. am testis Sesabamisad sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad cno saxelmwifos mier dafinansebul sajaro skolebSi locvebis Catareba, bibliis kiTxvis mowyoba, sxva religiuri gamoxatva da simboloebi. am safuZvelze agreTve aikrZala religiuri skolebisaTvis sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis ara yvela, magram mravali forma. lemonis testi ori mTavari mizezis gamo iTxovda xelisuflebisgan religiis mimarT „neitralitetis~ SenarCunebas, misTvis arc daxmarebis gawevas da arc xelis SeSlas. pirveli, rodesac xelisufleba ereva religiaSi an religiur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT garkveul pozicias iWers, igi gamoarCevs im moqalaqeebs (metwilad umciresobebs), „romlebic ar misdeven privilegirebul sarwmunoebebs~. vaismani19 (mosamarTle blekmuni, lemonis testis damcveli Tanmxvedri azri). meore, rogorc rojer uiliamsisgan momdinare tradicia amtkicebs, „religia xelisuflebis daxmarebis gareSe ufro meti siwmindiT yvavis, vidre misi daxmarebiT~. magram zogierTma mosamarTlem da konstituciis interpretatorma lemonis testis gamo ukmayofileba gamoTqva aseve ori mTavari mizeziT. pirveli, advilia testiT manipulacia, kerZod, standartma — „religiisaTvis arc xelSewyobis da arc xelis SeSlis ZiriTadi Sedegi~ — dakarga mniSvnelobis is sicxade, rac mas Tavdapirvelad hqonda. magaliTad, sasamarTlom daadgina, rom gadasaxadebiT uzrunvelyofili im programebis ZiriTadi Sedegi, romlebic uSualod religiasTan asocirebul skolebs uweven daxmarebas, religiis xelSewyobaa; Tumca aseTi dauSvebeli Sedegi sasamarTlos ar daunaxavs ojaxebis dafinansebisas, romlebsac TviTon SeeZloT gadaewyvitaT damxarebis gamoyeneba religiuri skolebisaTvis. aq marTlac SesaZlebelia ori viTarebis erTmaneTisgan gansxvaveba saRi azris safuZvelze, magram, rogorc Cans, „ZiriTadi Sedegis~ standarti analizis procesSi niSnulad ufro iqna gamoyenebuli, vidre saSualebad an xelmZRvanel principad. meore, lemonis testis kritikosebi amtkicebdnen, rom testi mtrulad iyo ganwyobili religiuri gamoxatvisa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi religiis monawileobis istoriuli tradiciisadmi. kanonis safuZvelze religiisaTvis arc xelSewyobis

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da arc xelis SeSlis moTxovniT testi miznad isaxavs religiis mimarT xelisuflebis `neitralitetis~ uzrunvelyofas. Tumca zogierTi kritikosi acxadebs, rom xelisufleba religiis mimarT neitraluri ar unda iyos: ramdenadac religiuri ideebi zneobisa da samarTlianobis mniSvnelovan da farTo perspeqtivas gvTavazobs, saxelmwifosaTvis am ideebis xelSewyobisagan Tavis Sekavebis moTxovnis wayeneba religiur ideebs sxvebTan SedarebiT nakleb misaRebad warmoaCens. igi aseve ewinaaRmdegeba religiuri rwmenisadmi saxelmwifos keTilganwyobis mraval specifikur istoriul tradicias. marTlac, amerikaSi religiis Tavisuflebis sabaziso dokumentebi Tavad eyrdnoba religiur wanamZRvrebs. lemonis testis kritikosebi gansakuTrebiT am sababiT uteven uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebs, romlebic sajaro skolebs ukrZalavs religiur gamoxatvas an religiuri simboloebis warmoCenas im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac sxvagvarad moazrovne studentebsa da moswavleebs msgavs saqmianobaSi monawileobisagan aTavisufleben. garda amisa, kritikosTa nawili aRniSnavs, rom sxvadasxva dros lemonis testi religiis mimarT araneitraluri wesiT gamoiyenes. magaliTad, religiasTan asocirebuli skolebisaTvis daxmarebis gawevasTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebSi lemonis testis „ZiriTadi Sedegis~ nawili ganimarta, rogorc religiuri miznebisaTvis nebismieri daxmarebis gamoyenebis amkrZalavi elementi. amiT ki gza gadaeRoba religiuri skolebisaTvis daxmarebis mraval saxeobas. Tumca kritikosebi amtkiceben, rom ramdenadac xelisufleba ukve uwevs daxmarebas religiuri skolebis konkurentebs — sajaro skolebs, zogjer ki kerZo saero skolebs subsidirebiT, — religiuri skolebis aseTi daxmarebiT uzrunvelyofa religias „xels ar Seuwyobda~ im TvalsazrsiT, rom upiratesoba mieniWebina misTvis arCevanis sxva saxeebTan SedarebiT. kritikosebi aseve acxadeben, rom saganmanaTleblo daxmarebaze uaris Tqma mxolod imitom, rom skolebi religiuria, „xelyofs~ religias da abrkolebs im ojaxebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas, romlebsac surT religiuri ganaTlebis miReba. sasamarTlos oficialurad ar uaruyvia lemonis testi, magram igi sul ufro metad mimarTavda sxva alternativebs. ramdenime ZiriTadi alternativa sasamarTlos mier SemoTavazebul iqna bolodroindel gadawyvetilebebSi. upiratesobis miniWebis dauSvebloba zogierTma mkvlevarma uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle renkvistis msgavsad ivarauda, rom dawesebis klauzula krZalavs mxolod romelime religiuri denominaciis gamorCeul mxardaWeras da zogadad uSvebs religiisaTvis meti daxmarebis aRmoCenas sxva ideebTan da qmedebebTan SedarebiT. ix. magaliTad, uolasi jefris winaaRmdeg20 (mosamarTle renkvisti, gansxvavebuli azri). es pozicia zRudavs dawesebis klauzulas Tanasworobis yvelaze ufro arasakamaTo versiamde, rac gulisxmobs Tanasworobis dacvas religiur denominaciebsa da seqtebs Soris. momxreebi am „seqtis upiratesobis dauSveblobis~ tests, upirveles yovlisa, istoriul safuZvelze dayrdnobiT icaven da adreuli federaluri xelisuflebis mier aradenominaciuri qristianobisadmi gaweul daxmarebasa da mxardaWeraze miuTiTeben. mowinaaRmdegeTa pasuxi aseve istorias efuZneba, kerZod fuZemdebeli Taobis mravalgzis uars eklesiebisaTvis finansuri daxmarebis gawevis nebis darTvaze maSinac ki, rodesac is yvela denominaciisaTvis iyo xelmisawvdomi. ix. vaismani21 (mo-

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samarTle souteri, Tanmxvedri azri). Tanamedrove uzenaes sasamarTloSi umravlesobas arasodes uxelmZRvanelia upiratesobis miniWebis dauSveblobis testiT. aramxardaWera meore mTavari alternativis, „aramxardaWeris~ safuZvelze ikrZaleba xelisuflebis nebismieri `mesiji~, romelic miuTiTebs misi mxridan ama Tu im religiis mxardaWeraze an mowonebaze. ix. linCi donelis winaaRmdeg22 (mosamarTle o’konoris, testis avtoris Tanmxvedri azri). am midgomam gadamwyveti gavlena iqonia umravlesobis erT-erT ukanasknel gadawyvetilebaze (alegenis olqi amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis winaaRmdeg23 ), Tumca igi ar dafiqsirda, rogorc ZiriTadi standarti. aramxardaWeris testi didad ar gansxvavdeba lemonis testisagan. am ukanasknelis msgavsad igi yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, rom xelisuflebis mier religiuri rwmenisTvis xelis Sewyoba diskriminaciulia im moqalaqeebis mimarT, romlebsac ar swamT. magram rogorc mosamarTle o’konori amtkicebda linCis saqmeSi, aramxardaWeris testi SeiZleba ufro naTeli iyos, vidre lemonis testi, radgan igi ufro zustad miuTiTebs, Tu ra saxiT unda aekrZalos xelisuflebas religiis xelSewyoba an SezRudva. meore mxriv, zogierTi kritikosis gancxadebiT, aramxardaWeris testi Zalian subieqturia, radgan igi fokusirebas axdens xelisuflebis „mesijebze~, romlebic sxvadasxva adamianebma SesaZloa sxvadasxvagvarad ganmarton. araiZuleba lemonis testidan ufro arsebiTi gadaxveva iqneboda „araiZulebis~ testi, romlis mixedviTac xelisufleba SeZlebda religiis xelSewyobas, sanam misi qmedeba ar gadaizrdeboda religiis aRiarebaze an religiur ceremoniaSi monawileobaze vinmes iZulebaSi. ix. magaliTad, alegeni24 (mosamarTle kenedi, Tanmxvedri azri) (msgavsi testis avtori). am testiT araiZulebis elementi moyvanilia religiis klauzulis erTaderTi gamokveTili Rirebulebis _ separaciis sapirispirod. misi mtkiced gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi im gadawyvetilebebis uaryofa moxdeboda, romlebic krZalavs sajaro skolebSi araiZulebiT locvebsa da religiis sxva saxis gamoxatvebs. araiZulebis tests upiratesobas isini aniWeben, visac swams, rom separaciaze dafuZnebuli lemonis midgoma ewinaaRmdegeba istoriul tradiciebs da akninebs religiis rols sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. gasakviri araa, rom isini, vinc araiZulebis tests ewinaaRmdegeba, eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciis xelSewyobis princips eyrdnoba. isini agreTve amtkiceben, rom dawesebis klauzulis SemosazRvra iZulebis SemTxvevebiT mas ararelevanturs gaxdida, maSin, roca aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula isedac ukrZalavs xelisuflebas vinmes iZulebas, miiRos an ar miiRos religia. amis miuxedavad, zogierTi mosamarTle emxroboda ardawesebis klauzulis SemosazRvras mxolod iZulebis SemTxvevebiT, magram umravlesobas arasodes gauziarebia es pozicia. neitraloba bolo dros miRebulma gadawyvetilebebma gazarda yuradReba „neitralobis~ testis mimarT, romelic lemonisgan gansxvavebulad iqna interpretirebuli: ara ro-

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gorc xelisuflebis mxridan religiis daxmarebis akrZalva, aramed rogorc moTxovna saxelmwifos mier religiuri ideebis an moqalaqeebis, aseve yovelive arareligiuris mimarT identuri damokidebulebis gamoCenisa. am midgomis gamoyeneba — romelsac profesori leikoki „formalurad~ neitralurs uwodebs — gansakuTrebiT SeiniSneba bolodroindeli gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas, romlebic mxars uWers yvela sxva organizaciisaTvis Tanabrad xelmisawvdomi saxelmwifo daxmarebis gavrcelebas religiur organizaciebze. es TvalSi sacemia im gadawyvetilebebSic, romlebic exeba zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebSi religiuri valdebulebebis adaptacias. uzenaesma sasamarTlom uaryo aseTi adaptaciis moTxovna aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis safuZvelze (dasaqmebis samsaxuri smitis winaaRmdeg25 ) da ramdenjerme akrZala igi dawesebis klauzulaze dayrdnobiT, rogorc favoritizmis gamovlineba. aqedan gamomdinare, es neitraluri midgoma, rogorc Cans, Seesabameba religiisa da arareligiisadmi Tanabari mopyrobis ZiriTad Rirebulebas.

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eklesiebsa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobebis mokle istoria aSS-Si
amerikaSi gadasaxlebul evropelebs surdaT, religiis Tavisuflad aRmsarebloba yovelgvari devnisa da imis gareSe, rasac Zveli samyaros znedacemuli eklesiebis mankier tradicias uwodebdnen. yovelive amis gamo religiam Zalze didi roli Seasrula amerikis istoriaSi. am istorias didi mniSvneloba eniWeba religiur-saxelmwifoebriv sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli konstituciuri principebis gasaazreblad. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle raTlijis gancxadebiT, „konstituciis arc erTi debuleba araa ise mWidrod dakavSirebuli mis warmomSob istoriasTan, rogorc „pirveli Sesworebis~ debuleba religiis Sesaxeb~26 (mosamarTle raTliji, gansxvavebuli azri). zogierTi kritikosis azriT, religiasTan dakavSirebiT miRebuli uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebebi ver gamodgeba istoriaze yuradRebis gasamaxvileblad an mis zustad gasagebad. yovel SemTxvevaSi, didi mniSvneloba eniWeba imas, rom gaviazroT SeerTebul StatebSi xelisuflebis religiisadmi mimarTebis aspeqtebi. gansxvavebuli koloniuri sistemebi: dawesebuli eklesiebi religiis Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg Crdiloamerikeli kolonistebi axal samyaroSi axali cxovrebis dawyebas eswrafodnen. maT Tan evropuli Cveulebebi Camoitanes. evropis istoria ki, SeiZleba iTqvas, „qristianuli samyaros~ istoriaa. evropuli foni, romelic win uZRoda religiis Tavisuflebis istorias ameri-

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kis miwaze, mokled SeiZleba Semdegnairad davaxasiaToT: dawesebuli eklesiebi, gansxvavebuli religiuri Sexedulebebis akrZalvebi, gamudmebuli religiuri omebi. 13 inglisur koloniaSi religiis mimarT saxelmwifo politikis warmoebis sami sxvadasxva modeli Camoyalibda. yvelaze gavrcelebuli iyo dawesebuli eklesiis modeli, rodesac gansxvavebuli religiuri Sexeduleba an saerTod ikrZaleboda, an mniSvnelovnad izRudeboda. aseT politikas atarebdnen masaCusetsSi dasaxlebuli puritanebi. maTTvis miuRebeli iyo sxva mimdinareobebisTvis religiis Tavisuflebis miniWeba. maTi kongregaciuli eklesia dawesebuli eklesiis yvela Tvisebas atarebda. xelisufleba devnida iseT eretikosebs, rogorebic iyvnen: ana hatkinsoni, kvakerebi, baptistebi. CamoaxrCes oTxi kvakeri, romlebmac 1650-ian wlebSi gaZevebis Semdeg koloniaSi dabruneba scades. samxreTis koloniebs iTvisebdnen ara puritanuli jgufebi, aramed komerciuli sawarmoebi. vaWrebs inglisis dawesebuli eklesiac Semohyva. erTi mxriv, es ganapiroba eklesiis Semwynareblurma politikam, meore mxriv ki, misma siSorem londonis zedamxedvelobisgan. anglikanobis daweseba samxreTSi ufro susti da aramyari aRmoCnda, vidre puritanizmisa axal inglisSi. magram igi dawesebuli eklesiisTvis damaxasiaTebel politikas atarebda da gansxvavebuli religiuri Sexedulebis mqoneT religiis Tavisuflebas ar aniWebda. magaliTad, gandgomilT ekrZalebodaT qadageba. 1774 wels virjiniaSi baptisti mqadageblebi daapatimres imis gamo, rom araanglikanur msaxurebas asrulebdnen. mozardma jeims medisonma amas „jojoxeTSi ganWvretili devnis satanuri principi~ uwoda. meore modeli yvelaze metad niu-iorkisa da niu-jersis centralur koloniebSi gavrcelda. es iyo religiuri Semwynareblobis erT-erTi praqtikuli saxe, romelic religiur mravalferovnebas efuZneboda. niu-jersiSi oficialurad dawesebuli eklesia ar arsebobda. niu-iorkSi anglikanuri eklesia ramdenime olqSi dawesda. mcire gamonaklisis garda, gandgomil protestantebs qadagebisa da RvTismsaxurebis ufleba miecaT. xelSeuxebloba gavrcelda TviT kvakerebsa da ebraelebzec ki. religiis SedarebiT meti Tavisufleba damkvidrda or koloniaSi: rod ailendsa da pensilvaniaSi. pirveli 1630-ian wlebSi rojer uiliamsma daaarsa. igi RvTismosavi adamiani iyo, romelic masaCusetsis dawesebul eklesias SeebrZola da Sedegad gaaZeves am koloniidan. pensilvania daarsda, rogorc inglisis mier devnili kvakerebis TavSesafari. rod ailendis qartia sindisis srul Tavisuflebas aniWebda yvela moqalaqes, Tu isini „samoqalaqo mSvidobas~ ar arRvevdnen. msgavsi debuleba miiRo pensilvaniamac. religiis Tavisuflebis am or koloniur models ori damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba gamoarCevs: 1) marTalia, isini pirdapir ar zRudavdnen RvTismsaxurebas da ar awesebdnen religiur gadasaxadebs, magram dRevandeli gadasaxedidan Sokismomgvrel kanonebs iRebdnen: rod ailendSi aikrZala kaTolikeebis sajaro samsaxurSi miReba da koloniaSi ebraelebis cxovreba. pensilvaniaSi araqristianebs CamoarTves sajaro samsaxurSi muSaobis ufleba, xolo maT, visac ar swamda `erTi yovladZlieri RmerTi~, SeuzRudes religiis Tavisufleba. 2) orive koloniaSi gamocxadebuli religiis Tavisufleba religiuri TeoriiT iyo gamyarebuli. rojer uiliamsi Tavis mraval naSromSi, romelTa Soris aRsaniSnavia „devnis sisxliani dogmati~ (1644), acxadebs, rom WeSmariti qristianoba Tavisufal nebas moiTxovs (misi TqmiT, Tavsmoxveuli sarw-

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munoeba „RvTis nestoebSi yars~). misi azriT, saxelmwifos mxridan religiur saqmeebSi Careva amaxinjebs eklesias (misi saxe iyo „udabno~, romelic „walkots~ mieltvis). uiliamsisTvis saxelmwifo pasuxismgebelia cxovrebaSi aTi mcnebis meore (samoqalaqo movaleobebi mkvlelobis, qurdobis, mruSobis da a. S. winaaRmdeg) da ara pirveli naxevris (religiuri movaleobebi RvTis Semecnebisa, RvTismsaxurebis aRsrulebisa da a. S.) gatarebaze. ganmanaTleblobis dromde, da garkveuli periodis manZilze mis Semdegac, amerikaSi religiis Tavisuflebis ZiriTadi Teoria orTodoqsul qristianobas emyareboda. Tavidan Zalze mcire iyo maTi ricxvi, vinc, rojer uiliamsis msgavsad, dawesebul eklesiebs qristianuli principebis safuZvelze CamoSorda (kongregacionalizmi axal inglisSi, anglikanoba samxreTSi). cvlileba 1700-iani wlebis Sua periodSi daiwyo, roca „diadma gamoRviZebam~ (religiuri gamococxlebis periodi, xSirad wodebuli revoluciad amerikis religiur azrovnebaSi) axali inglisis, centraluri koloniebisa da virjiniis sazRvrebi moicva. gamoRviZeba religiis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebas xels uwyobda baptistur da presbiterianul seqtebSi axali wevrebis momravlebiT. isini koloniaTa dawesebuli eklesiebis mier maTTvis dadgenili samarTlebrivi SezRudvebis winaaRmdeg ibrZodnen. `diadma gamoRviZebam~ amerikis politikaze religiis gavlenis adreuli magaliTebi gamokveTa. saxalxo gamoRviZebam saTave daudo politikur moZraobas, romelic britanul mmarTvelobas daupirispirda da amerikuli revoluciis safuZveli Seiqna. gamoRviZebam didi roli Seasrula monobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli moZraobis aRmocenebaSi. damfuZnebeli Taoba: religiis Tavisuflebis ganmtkiceba Statebis konstituciaTa doneze, religiuri gadasaxadis gauqmeba da pirveli Sesworebis miReba droTa ganmavlobaSi koloniebma religiis Tavisuflebaze dawesebuli zogierTi SezRudva Seamsubuqes da dawesebuli eklesiebis zogierTi Tviseba Seasustes. aseTi cvlilebebi mTeli me-19 saukunis manZilze mimdinareobda da es procesi revoluciam da misi dasrulebis Semdeg koloniebis Statebad gardaqmnam gansakuTrebiT daaCqara. pirveli aRsaniSnavi cvlileba iyo ardawesebuli seqtebis RvTismsaxurebisa da saqmianobis SezRudvis TandaTanobiTi Semsubuqeba. 1770-80-iani wlebisTvis im Statebma, romlebsac damoukidebloba axali mopovebuli hqondaT, miiRes konstituciebi, romelTa debulebebic icavda religiur RvTismsaxurebas da saqmianobas manam, sanam is „Statis mSvidobasa da usafrTxoebas~ ar daemuqreboda. Tumca or StatSi es mfarveloba gavrcelda mxolod qristianebze, xuT sxva StatSi — RvTis morwmuneebze, danarCenma Statebma uari Tqves gamonaklisebze da yvelas mianiWes religiis Tavisufleba. amis miuxedavad, religiuri disidentebis uflebebis darRvevis erTi forma, sajaro samsaxurSi miRebisaTvis religiuri kriteriumebis dadgena, mTeli am periodis manZilze gagrZelda. es praqtika 1789 wlis federaluri konstituciiT aikrZala, Tumca TerTmet StatSi sajaro samsaxuri araqristianebisTvis mainc miuwvdomeli iyo, oTxSi — kaTolikeebisTvis (virjiniis StatSi religiuri kriteriumebi tomas jefersonis 1786 wlis religiuri Tavisuflebis statutiT aikrZala). msgavsi akrZalvebi bevr StatSi me-20 saukuneSic moqmedebda, Tumca isini mxolod aTeistebze

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vrceldeboda. es ki ebraelebs sajaro samsaxurSi Tanamdebobis dakavebis saSualebas aZlevda. sabolood, religiuri kriteriumebis daweseba sajaro samsaxurSi misaRebad uzenaesma sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad cno torkaso uotkinsis winaaRmdeg saqmeSi.27 meore didi cvlileba 1700-iani wlebis miwuruls moxda. Statebma TandaTan gaauqmes gadasaxadebis akrefa eklesiebisa da RvTismsaxurTa sasargeblod. es procesi etapebad ganviTarda, rasac ramdenime aTwleuli dasWirda. Tavidan ramdenime koloniaSi gandgomili seqtantebi, umTavresad, baptistebi da kvakerebi gaTavisufldnen gadasaxadebisgan. SemoiRes arapreferencirebuli, anu „sazogado~, begara. moqalaqeebs SeeZloT, TavianTi gadasaxadebi survilisamebr waremarTaT romelime denominaciis da ara dawesebuli eklesiis sasargeblod. magaliTad, masaCusetsSi 1780 wels SemoRebul iqna saerTo begara. es RonisZieba mimarTuli iyo dawesebuli eklesiis mxardamWeri politikis liberalizaciisken. Tumca sistema mxolod Teoriul doneze iyo arapreferencirebuli. es baptistebisa da sxva seqtantebis gauTavebeli saCivrebis sababad iqca. maT uwevdaT sxvadasxva biurokratiuli safexurebis gavla serTifikatis mosapoveblad, romelic maT saSualebas miscemda, gadasaxadebi TavianTi eklesiebisken waremarTaT (Zaldatanebis SemTxvevaSi isini begaris sakuTari eklesiis sasargeblod gadaxdazec ambobdnen uars). es da sxva msgavsi sistemebi koneqtikutsa da niu-hempSirSi „pirveli Sesworebis~ miRebidan ramdenime aTwleulis gasvlis Semdegac ar gauqmebula (1833 wels masaCusetsSi, 1818 wels koneqtikutSi, 1817 wels niu-hempSirSi). yvelaze mniSvnelovani debatebi virjiniaSi gaimarTa. aq 1785 wels saerTo begaris Sesaxeb inicirebuli kanonproeqti ganixileboda, rogorc kompromisi. yovel gadamxdels TviTon unda ganesazRvra, romeli denominacia miiRebda gadasaxads. kvakerebi da menonitebi gaTavisufldnen begarisgan, radgan maT oficialuri samRvdeloeba ar hyavdaT. moqalaqes imis uflebac eniWeboda, rom saerTod arc erTi eklesiis sasargeblod ar gadaexada gadasaxadi. am SemTxvevaSi saxsrebi saskolo fondSi unda mimarTuliyo. Tumca baptistebi da presbiterianelebi kanonproeqts daupirispirdnen. sabolood, sakanonmdeblo organom gaauqma begara da mis nacvlad tomas jefersonis religiis Tavisuflebis statuti aamoqmeda. amiT damyarda religiis sruli Tavisufleba da gauqmda yvela religiuri gadasaxadi. medisonis „Memorial and Remonstrance~ (mogoneba da protesti) albaT yvelaze cnobili dokumentia amerikis eklesiur-saxelmwifoebriv urTierTobaSi „pirveli Sesworebis~ Semdeg. peticiaSi xatovnadaa erTmaneTTan Sexamebuli saxelmwifos mxridan religiis waxalisebis sawinaaRmdego sxvadasxva argumenti. amitom igi erTgvarad mimoixilavs mocemuli SemTxvevisTvis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs. medisonis mravali gancxadeba religiis Tavisuflebis saRvTismetyvelo argumentacias iZleoda. misi mtkicebiT, upirvelesi mniSvneloba eniWeba Semoqmedisa da „samyaros meufis~ winaSe movaleobebs. medisonis azriT, am movaleobebis Sesrulebis safuZveli unda gamxdariyo „Segoneba da ara iZuleba~; igi miiCnevda, rom saxelmwifos mier religiis gamoyeneba „cxonebis gzebis Seryvnas~ warmoadgenda; rom dawesebulma eklesiebma „religiis siwmindesa da sicocxlisunarianobas~ safuZveli gamoacales. am argumentebsa da evangelisti protestantebis poziciebs Soris garkveuli paralelebis gavlebaa SesaZlebeli. evangelisti protestantebis Sexedulebebis Tanax-

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mad, religiuri movaleobebi saxelmwifo valdebulebebze maRla dgas, WeSmariti qristianoba nebayoflobiT xasiaTs unda atarebdes da Tavisufali unda iyos saxelmwifos gamxrwneli gavlenisgan. SesaZloa, medisonze gavlena iqonia prinstonis kolejSi evangelist presbiterianelebTan, gansakuTrebiT, kolejis prezident, jon uiderspunTan urTierTobam. es ukanaskneli religiis Tavisuflebis zemoT CamoTvlili argumentebiT xelmZRvanelobda. igi damoukideblobis aqtis erT-erTi xelmomweria. medisonis SedevrSi arsebuli sxva argumentebi me-18 saukunis ganmanaTlebluri SexedulebebiTaa ganpirobebuli. mosazreba, rom religias „mxolod goneba da darwmuneba unda warmarTavdes~, tomas jefersonis da sxvaTa Sexedulebebs exmianeba. medisoni Tvlida, rom dawesebuli eklesiebi an „sulier tiranias aRmoacenebdnen samoqalaqo xelisuflebis nangrevebze~, an „mxars dauWerdnen politikur tiranias~. xelisuflebam religiur saqmeebSi CareviT „sisxlis gubeebi~ daayena evropaSi. ganmanaTlebelTa SexedulebiT, religiuri doqtrinis detalebis garSemo warmoebuli disputebi Zaladobas warmoSobs. amitom xelisuflebas sakuTari kanonieri miznebis misaRwevad es disputebi srulebiT ar sWirdeba. medisonis zogierTi argumenti Zalze maxvilgonivruli iyo. es argumentebi virjiniaSi arsebul religiur mravalferovnebas efuZneboda. misi azriT, begara seqtebs Soris „Tanasworobasa da harmonias~ daarRvevda. amasTan, religiuri erTgvarovnebis iZulebiTi miRwevis mcdelobebi yovelTvis warumateblad damTavrdeboda da warmoSobda Zaladobas, xolo kanonproeqtis gasvlis SemTxvevaSi mSvidobiani adgilebis maZiebeli Sromisunariani moqalaqeebi Stats datovebdnen. religiis mzardi Tavisuflebis erT-erTi niSansveti iyo is, rom StatebSi meti pluralizmi damkvidrda da moqalaqeebisaTvis miuRebeli gaxda romelime dawesebuli eklesia. yvela am argumentma — religiurma, ganmanaTleblurma da pragmatulma — garkveuli roli Seasrula StatebSi religiis Tavisuflebis gasaviTareblad (Tumca romeli maTgani iyo yvelaze mniSvnelovani, sadavo sakiTxia). maT garkveuli roli Seasrules „pirveli Sesworebis~ miRebis drosac (1789-1791 ww.). SemoTavazebuli federaluri konstitucia garantiebis ararsebobis gamo kritikas imsaxurebda. kerZod, aravin icoda, momZlavrebuli federaluri xelisufleba Caereoda Tu ara garkveul sakiTxebSi, romlebic adre Statebis gadasawyveti an individualuri Tavisuflebis sakiTxi iyo. saubari yvelaze xSirad religias exeboda (konstituciis Tavdapirvel versiaSi religiasTan dakavSirebuli erTaderTi debulebiT federalur xelisuflebas ekrZaleboda sajaro samsaxurSi pirovnebis miRebis dros religiuri ficis moTxovna). konstituciis damcvelTa mtkicebiT, „uflebaTa bili~ aucilebeli ar iyo, radgan religiasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi federaluri xelisuflebis kompetencias ar warmoadgenda. oponentebma ver SeZles `uflebaTa bilis~ ratificirebisaTvis xelis SeSla, samagierod bevri adamiani daarwmunes misi miRebis saWiroebaSi. im jgufebs Soris, romlebic religiis Tavisuflebis garantad iqcnen, masaCusetsisa da virjiniis baptistebic igulisxmebodnen. kongresis arCevnebze centralur virjiniaSi baptistebma da presbiterianelebma xmebis umetesoba jeims medisons misces. igi mxars uWerda axal konstitucias, Tumca axal seqtebs aseve dapirda, rom religiis da sxva sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT Sesworebebis momzadebaze imuSavebda. kongresSi arCevis Semdeg medisonma warmoadgina Sesworebebis paketi, romelSic ori debuleba religias Seexeboda. pirvel SesworebaSi naTqvami iyo, rom „arc erTi

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adamianis samoqalaqo uflebebi ar SeizRudeba religiuri mrwamsis an msaxurebis safuZvelze, arc romelime erovnuli religia dawesdeba, arc sindisis sruli da Tanabari uflebebi Seilaxeba nebismieri motiviT ~. meore Sesworeba acxadebda: „sindisis Tanaswori uflebebis princips arc erTi Stati ar daarRvevs~. medisonis pirveli winadadeba mokled ganixila da gadaamuSava warmomadgenelTa palatam da Semdegi saxiT Camoayaliba: „kongresi ar miiRebs kanons, romelic daawesebs religias, an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas, an sindisis Tavisuflebas Selaxavs~. senatma imsjela am debulebaze da ramdenjerme uyara kenWi. man uaryo winadadebebi debulebaSi cvlilebis Setanis Taobaze. aRniSnuli winadadebebiT kongress unda akrZalvoda „erTi romelime seqtis an gaerTianebis sxvebze“ gabatoneba, an „romelime denominaciisTvis upiratesobis miniWeba meoresTan SedarebiT~. senatma aseve uari Tqva debulebaSi im klauzulis Setanaze, romelic `sindisis uflebebs~ icavda Selaxvisgan. sabolood, warmomadgenelTa palata da senati Semdeg redaqciaze SeTanxmdnen: „kongresi ar miiRebs kanons, romelic daawesebs religias an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas~. konstituciaSi cvlilebebis SetanasTan dakavSirebiT gamarTuli debatebis Canawerebi gabneulia, ris gamoc zogierTs gauCnda eWvi, rom isini naklebad gamosadegia religiis Sesaxeb klauzulebSi Cadebuli azris gasagebad. Tumca komentatorebma TanamedroveobasTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime sakiTxi wamoWres da ganixiles. magaliTad, dRes zogierTi amtkicebs, rom „pirvel SeworebaSi~ arsebuli „religiis~ gansazRvreba erTob farTo mniSvnelobis mqonea da gamodgeba ara mxolod tradiciuli religiebis, aramed yvela keTilsindisieri sarwmunoebis dasacavad. Tumca zogierTi analitikosis azriT, kongresma am Sesworebis miRebiT uari ganacxada „sindisis uflebebis~ dacvaze da „religiis~ viwro kategorias dauWira mxari. meore mxriv, konstituciuri Sesworebebis avtorebma, SesaZloa, or termins Soris realuri gansxvaveba ver dainaxes. religia xom erTaderTi keTilsindisieri rwmeniTi sistema iyo, romelsac isini icnobdnen. am konstituciuri cvlilebebis miRebis istoria SeiZleba Tanamedroveobis meore mniSvnelovan sakiTxsac ukavSirdebodes: zogierTs ainteresebs, dawesebuli eklesiis Sesaxeb klauzula saxelmwifos erTi religiuri denominaciisTvis upiratesobis miniWebas ukrZalavs Tu nebas aZlevs mas sazogadod waaxalisos religia arareligiuri msoflmxedvelobis sapirispirod. ardawesebis klauzulis Sesaxeb ufro vrceli Teoriis momxreebi aRniSnaven, rom senatma uaryo sami winadadeba, romlebsac mxolod seqtebs Soris raime privilegiis arseboba unda gamoericxa. „arc erTi seqtis upiratesobis~ principis momxreebi ki amtkicebdnen, rom winadadebaTa teqsts gadamwyveti mniSvneloba ar eniWeboda. maTi azriT, pirveli kongresis qmedebebi yvela religiisTvis Tanabari mxardaWeris principis aRiarebas gulisxmobda. msgavsi qmedebebi araerTxel ganaxorcieles adrindelma kongresebma da prezidentebma. pirvelma kongresma yoveldRiuri sxdomebis win locvis aRsavlenad kapelanebi daniSna da gadasaxadebiT amoRebuli fuli qristiani misionerebis xelfasebisken warmarTa, raTa maT indielTa tomebi gaenaTlebinaT da moeqciaT qristianul sarwmunoebaze. ramdenime prezidentma (maT Soris vaSingtonma, adamsma, medisonma) oficialuri gancxadebiT mouwoda moqalaqeebs, rom RvTisadmi samadlobeli locva aRevlinaT. am praqtikis winaaRmdeg mxolod jefersoni gamovida (Tumca mogvianebiT medisonmac aRiara, rom misi moqmedeba arakonstituciuri iyo).

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rogorc ukve aRiniSna, uzenaesi sasamarTlos zogierTi mosamarTlisa da Tanamedrove komentatoris mtkicebiT, am qmedebebiT naTeli xdeba, rom „pirveli Sesworeba~ aRqmul iqna erTi romelime seqtis preferencirebuli da ara zogadad religiis mxardaWeris akrZalvad. magaliTad, ix. uolasi jefris winaaRmdeg28 (mosamarTle renkvisti, gansxvavebuli azri). magram dawesebuli eklesiis akrZalvis Sesaxeb klauzulis ufro vrceli interpretaciis momxreebi irwmunebodnen, rom es politikurad motivirebuli qmedebebi iyo da maTi konstituciuroba gamokvlevas ar eqvemdebareboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi, maTi mtkicebiT, SesaZloa, ZiriTadi qristianuli da iudaur-qristianuli ideebis mxardaWera srulebiT aradiskriminaciuli iyo 1700-ian wlebSi, magram dRes aseTi midgoma miuRebelia, radgan bevri moqalaqe iudaizmisa da qristianobis garda sxva religiasac aRiarebs, an saerTod arc erTi religiis mimdevari ar aris. magaliTad, ix. li vaismanis winaaRmdeg29 (mosamarTle souteri, Tanmxvedri azri). sxva komentatorebis azriT, es qmedebebi imaze miuTiTebs, rom religiur klauzulebSi religiis mxardaWeris mxolod Zaladobrivi saSualebebis akrZalvaa nagulisxmevi. am principiT aixsneba sakanonmdeblo locvebis praqtika, saprezidento gancxadebebi da religiuri gamoxatvis sxva formebi. Tumca, adre ganxorcielebulma zogierTma RonisZiebam gadasaxadebidan amoRebuli fulis xarjva gamoiwvia, rac SeiZleba Sefasdes, rogorc iZulebis aqti (jefersonis virjiniis religiuri statutis mixedviT, religiuri gadasaxadebi „aiZulebs (sxvagvarad moazrovnes) fuladi Semweoba im ideebis mxardasaWerad gaiRos, romlebisac mas ar swams da sZuls~). gulisxmobs Tu ara religiis Sesaxeb klauzulebi fuZemdeblur Teorias imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra pozicia unda daikavos saxelmwifom religiis mimarT? Tu gulisxmobs, maSin ra Sedegebs moitans is Tanamedrove etapze? zogierTi analitikosis azriT, yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo „religiuri~, anu „evangeluri~, pozicia. kerZod, amerikelebma religiis Tavisufleba umTavresad qristianuli principebis safuZvelze miiRes. am Sexedulebis zogierTi mxardamWerisTvis klauzulebis mxolod araZaladobrivi xedvaa misaRebi. es xedva ki efuZneba im princips, rom dauSvebelia religiuri rwmenis ZaladobiT Tavs moxveva. is Zvirfas saunjes warmoadgens da xelisuflebam araZaladobrivi gzebiT unda dauWiros mas mxari. meore mxriv, religiuri xedvis sxva momxreebi eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separaciis gacilebiT mkacr principebs qadageben im TvalsazrisiT, rom (imave rojer uiliamsis gavleniT) nebismieri kontaqti saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris am ukanasknelis gaxrwniTa da dasustebiT sruldeba. am adamianebs SeiZleba „religiuri separatistebic~ vuwodoT. sxva analitikosebi „ganmanaTleblur~ poziciaze amaxvileben yuradRebas da acxadeben, rom jefersons, medisons (am ukanasknels ufro naklebad) da fuZemdebelTa Taobis zogierT sxva liders racionalobis swamda, eWviT uyurebda tradiciul religiur dogmas, aRaSfoTebda religiuri fanatizmi da misi zemoqmedeba sazogadoebaze. am poziciis momxreebi eklesiisa da saxelmwifos separacias moiTxoven. es ki niSnavs, rom sazogadoebrivi sfero sekularulad darCeba da ar Seexeba is ukiduresobebi, romelTa provocirebac eklesias SeuZlia (isini, SeiZleba, „saero separatistebad~ movixsenioT). Tumca sxva analitikosTa mosazrebiT, religiis Sesaxeb klauzulebi ar asaxavs raime substanciur Teorias xelisuflebis religiasTan mimarTebis sakiTxSi. igi mxo-

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lod keTilgonier Tvalsazriss warmoadgens da acxadebs, rom axali federaluri xelisufleba ar unda Caerios msgavs sakiTxebSi. am poziciidan gamomdinare, religiis Sesaxeb konstituciuri debuleba federalizmis produqts warmoadgenda: religiis mimarT saxelisuflebo politika, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, Statebs unda ganesazRvraT. es kritikosebi aRniSnaven, rom 1789 wels StatebSi uTanxmoebam daisadgura religiisadmi xelisuflebis damokidebulebis gansazRvrisas. kongresis xanmokle debatebis dros „pirvel SesworebasTan~ dakavSirebiT arc erTi es disputi ar ganuxilavT dawvrilebiT da arc raime gadawyvetileba miuRiaT. amrigad, Sesworebis mimRebT isRa darCaT, es sakiTxebi StatebisTvis gadaelocaT. Tu es pozicia marTebulia, maSin unayofo aRmoCndeba „pirvel SesworebaSi~ religiis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebiT garkveuli Teoriuli formulirebis Zieba. sxva daskvna is aris, rom religiis Sesaxeb klauzulebis gamoyeneba Statebis xelisuflebaTa SesazRudad mouqneli an Tundac alogikuri gaxdeboda (me-14 SesworebaSi inkorporaciiT) Tu religiuri klauzulebis erTaderT mizans StatebisaTvis religiuri sakiTxebis regulirebis uflebamosilebis miniWeba iyo. magram am „federalizms~ kritikis qarcecxli daatyda Tavs. religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb substanciurma Sexedulebebma marTlac Seasrula garkveuli roli religiis Tavisuflebis ganviTarebaSi. amasTan, movlenebi SeiZleba dramatulad ganviTarebuliyo im droisTvis, roca 1868 wels me-14 Sesworeba amoqmedda. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, „pirveli Sesworebis~ miRebis momentisTvis axali inglisis sam StatSi (koneqtikutSi, masaCusetsSi da niu-hempSirSi) SenarCunebuli iyo „dawesebul eklesiebi~. am eklesiebis da maT mRvdelTmsaxurTa finansuri uzrunvelyofis mizniT xdeboda gadasaxadebis amoReba (federalizmis Teoretikosebis azriT, im dros dawesebuli eklesiebis arseboba erT-erTi mizezia imisa, ris gamoc fuZemdeblebi maTi mxardaWeris winaaRmdeg ver wavidodnen). magram droTa ganmavlobaSi religiuri gadasaxadebi liberaluri gaxda. Teoriulad, gadamxdeli an Tavisufldeboda begarisgan an TviTon wyvetda, Tu romeli denominacia miiRebda mis gadasaxads. 1800-iani wlebis adreul periodSi axal inglisSi jer kidev moqmedi religiuri dabegvris sistema gauqmda, radgan dominantur kongregaciul denominaciebSi didi ganxeTqileba moxda. masaCusetsSi sul ufro meti mRvdelmsaxuri da morwmune iRebda unitarul sarwmunoebas. es mimdinareoba uaryofda iesos RvTaebriobas. misma konservatorma oponentebma moinanies is, rom Statis xelisuflebam mxari dauWira aseT eretikul Sexedulebas. es epizodi imis karg magaliTs warmoadgens, Tu rogor akvecs frTebs mzardi religiuri pluralizmi dawesebul eklesias. am dros erTi romelime religiuri organizmi veRar axerxebs xelisuflebisken gzis gakvlevas sakuTari miznebis gansaxorcieleblad. religiuri begara masaCusetsSi 1833 wels sabolood gauqmda. me-19 saukune: protestantuli qristianobis de facto daweseba da me-14 Sesworebis miReba pirveli Sesworebis amoqmedeba da religiuri dabegvris gauqmeba jer kidev ar niSnavda imas, rom amerikaSi qristianuli religiis mxardaWera dasrulda. 1800-ian wlebSi xelisuflebam gaagrZela ZiriTadi, aradenominaciuri protestantizmis waxaliseba da gansxvavebuli religiuri Sexedulebebis ugulebelyofa an SezRudva. aseTma qmedebebma gamoiwvia protestantuli qristianobis de-facto daweseba.

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me-19 saukunis pirvel mesamedSi jer kidev moqmedebda mkrexelobis, anu RvTisa da qristianobis gmobis, amkrZalavi kanonebi Statis doneze. niu-iorkis kancleri kenti aseT samarTlebriv devnas mxars uWerda imis gamo, rom „Cven varT qristiani adamianebi da qveynis zneoba qristianobas efuZneba~. xalxi ruglzis winaaRmdeg.30 sasamarTloebi am kanons iwynarebdnen da miiCnevdnen, rom qristianoba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis „saerTo samarTlis nawilia~ (vidali jerardis aRmasruleblebis winaaRmdeg31 ). StatebSi jer kidev moqmedebda kanonebi, romlebic kviraobiT muSaobas an sxva saqmianobas krZalavda. saukunis miwuruls uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoaqveyna amerikis federaluri xelisuflebis mier religiasTan dakavSirebiT gakeTebuli gancxadebebis grZeli sia da daaskvna, rom „es aris qristiani eri~ (wminda samebis eklesia SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg32 ). ase rom, 1900-ian wlebSi jer kidev grZeldeboda araqristianebisa da araTeistebis sajaro samsaxuridan diskvalifikacia. bibliuri locvebi da sakiTxavebi oficialuri ceremoniebis nawilad rCeboda, gansakuTrebiT 1930-40-ian wlebSi daarsebul axal sajaro skolebSi. cxadia, sajaro skolebi mniSvnelovanwilad imisTvis iqmneboda, rom denominaciuri gansxvavebebis pirobebSi protestantul faseulobebze damyarebuli bavSvTa ganaTlebis sistema damkvidrebuliyo. msaxurebis aseTi forma — sakiTxavebi protestantuli (mefe jeimsis) bibliidan, locvebi da sakiTxavebi samRvdeloebis xelmZRvanelobis gareSe — miuRebeli iyo mravali kaTolikesaTvis, romelTa ricxvi imigraciis gamo swrafad izrdeboda urbanul dasaxlebebSi. zogjer kaTolike bavSvebi isjebodnen ritualebSi monawileobaze uaris gamo da ramdenime SemTxvevaSi aseTi disputebi antikaTolikur amboxSic ki gadaizarda (yvelaze seriozuli iyo filadelfiaSi 1844 wels). xelisuflebis saqmianobaSi upiratesoba qristianobas eniWeboda, radgan igi me19 saukunis kulturaSi sayovelTaod iyo gavrcelebuli. 1800-iani wlebis axlo periodSi religiuri gamoRviZebis Sedegad, rac meTodistebisa da baptistebis damsaxureba iyo, eklesiis mrevli sokosaviT mravldeboda. am denominaciebma uari ganacxades mTavrobisagan finansur mxardaWeraze. am wlebSi eklesiebis sicocxlisunarianoba umeteswilad ukavSirdeba imas, rom isini aRar eyrdnobodnen xelisuflebas (gamoCenilma sasuliero pirma, liman bicerma, romelic Seupovrad ibrZoda koneqtikutSi religiuri gadasaxadebis SesanarCuneblad, mogvianebiT ganacxada, rom gabatonebuli mdgomareobis gauqmeba eklesiisaTvis saukeTeso movlena iyo). magram baptistebi da meTodistebi uerTdebodnen sxva qristianul gaerTianebebs imis dasamtkiceblad, rom xelisuflebam Riad unda dauWiros mxari qristianobas da daeyrdnos ZiriTad qristianul swavlebebs. dRes konstituciis komentatorebi gansxvavebul daskvnebs akeTeben 1800-ian wlebSi xelisuflebis mier qristianobis yovlismomcvel mxardaWerasTan dakavSirebiT. zogierTis azriT, es adasturebs, rom pirveli Sesworebis avtorebi gulisxmobdnen romelime erTi qristianuli denominaciisaTvis upiratesobis miniWebis akrZalvas da xelisuflebas utovebdnen uflebas, mxari daeWira ZiriTadi qristianuli an „iudaur-qristianuli~ tradiciisaTvis (mosamarTle jozef sTorma konstituciis komentarebSi gaiziara es Sexeduleba da dawera, rom religiis klauzulebis mizani iyo „ara mahmadianobis an iudaizmis xelSewyoba an dawinaureba, aramed qristianul seqtebs Soris yovelgvari dapirispirebis gamoricxva~). amgvari msjelobis oponen-

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tebi aRniSnaven, rom religiis klauzulebi im dros jer kidev mxolod federalur xelisuflebas exeboda (rogorc es uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaxada cxadi permoli axali orleanis pirveli municipalitetis winaaRmdeg33 saqmeSi). Statebs konstituciurad jer isev hqondaT religiasTan dakavSirebiT sakuTari politikis gatarebis ufleba. qristianobam, rogorc yovlismomcvelma Zalam amerikul kulturaSi, aseve didi gavlena moaxdina politikur da socialur debatebze. religiurma gamoRviZebam qristianuli reformatoruli moZraoba mravali mizezis gamo gamoiwvia, maT Soris iyo spirtiani sasmelebisagan TavSekaveba, ganaTleba da Semweoba RaribebisaTvis, azartuli TamaSebis akrZalva da monobis gauqmeba. monobis damcvelebi, iseve rogorc maTi mowinaaRmdegeebi, biblias mimarTavdnen, da abraam linkolns Tavis meore sainauguracio mimarTvaSi SeeZlo aReniSna, rom orive mxare samoqalaqo omSi „kiTxulobda biblias da loculobda erTi da imave RmerTis mimarT~. linkolnis gamosvlebi, bevri dRevandeli sajaro diskusiis msgavsad, bibliuri warmodgenebiT iyo gamsWvaluli. me-19 saukuneSi protestantuli eklesiis de facto dawesebam aseve warmoSva amerikis istoriaSi erT-erTi yvelaze xangrZlivi da warmatebuli mcdelobebi religiuri praqtikis aRsakveTad. aseTi iyo federaluri xelisuflebis kampania mormonebis eklesiis mier poligamiis, anu mravalcolianobis, aRmofxvris mizniT. praqtika, romelsac axorcielebda bevri lideri, magram ara mormoni mamakacebis umravlesoba, nawilobriv am eklesiis mier Zveli aRTqmis interpretacias efuZneboda. niuiorkis CrdiloeT nawilSi daarsebuli mormonebis moZraoba ganrisxebul brbos Sua dasavleTis StatebSi gaeqca. sabolood, 1847 wels, mormonebi gadasaxldnen dasavleTSi im miwaze dasamkvidreblad, romelic SeerTebul Statebs male unda Seesyida da iutas teritoriad eqcia. ramdenime wlis Semdeg kongresma upasuxa sazogadoebriv azrs da poligamia kriminalad gamoacxada. uzenaesma sasamarTlom mxari dauWira mormonebisadmi kanoniT dadgenil moTxovnebs. reinoldsi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg34 . magram mormonebis eklesiam maSinve rodi uaryo poligamia, amitom xelisuflebam gaaZliera zewola. igi iutaSi amomrCevlebisagan moiTxovda ficis dadebas, rom ar ekuTvnodnen poligamiis damcvel organizacias. bolos man mormonTa eklesiis daxurvisa da misi qonebis didi nawilis, maT Soris solt leik sitiSi axali taZris konfiskaciis brZaneba gasca. uzenaesma sasamarTlom orive moqmedebas mxari dauWira imis safuZvelze, rom poligamia warmoadgenda safrTxes „qristianobisa da im civilizaciis sulisaTvis, romelic qristianobam warmoSva dasavlur samyaroSi~. ukanaskneli dRis wmindanebis gaerTianeba SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg35 (konfiskaciis mxardaWera); ix. devisi bensonis winaRmdeg36 (ficis moTxovnis mxardaWera). amis Semdeg, sul male eklesiis prezidentma ganacxada axali gamocxadebis Sesaxeb, romelic eklesiis wevrebs aTavisuflebda poligamiis valdebulebisagan. eklesias daubrunda qoneba, iuta kavSirSi miiRes im pirobiT, rom akrZalavda poligamias. mormonebi socialurad warmmarTvel Zalad da ekonomikurad warmatebul jgufad Camoyalibebis gzas daadgnen. me-19 saukune samoqalaqo omis damTavrebisTanave ramdenime konstituciuri Sesworebis miRebiT aRiniSna. maTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovania me-14 Sesworeba (1868), romelmac Statebs aukrZala SeerTebuli Statebis moqalaqeebis Rirsebisa da xelSe-

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uxeblobis xelyofa an nebismieri pirovnebisTvis jerovan samarTlebriv proceduraze an kanoniT dacvis Tanabar uflebaze uaris Tqma. am SesworebiT, kerZod jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris Sesaxeb debulebiT 1940-iani wlebis Semdeg sasamarTlom Statebi da adgilobrivi mmarTveloba uflebaTa bilis SezRudvebs dauqvemdebara, religiuri klauzulebis CaTvliT. Tumca jer isev grZeldeba debatebi imis Taobaze, apirebdnen Tu ara Sesworebis avtorebi da ratifikatorebi uflebaTa romelime an yvela bilis inkorporirebas me-14 SesworebaSi. religiis Tavisuflebis pativiscemasTan erTad inkorporaciis Sesaxeb debatebi rTuldeba bleinis konstituciuri Sesworebis epizodiT. am Sesworebas Statebis mimarT religiis klauzulebi unda aemoqmedebina, magram 1875 wels kongresma Sesworeba ar miiRo, radgan xmaTa aucilebeli ori mesamedi daaklda senatSi. inkorporaciis kritikosebi amtkiceben, rom kongresi ar ganixilavda aseT SemoTavazebas, ramdenime wlis win rom gadaewyvita religiis klauzulebis Statebis mimarT gamoyeneba. inkorporaciis damcvelebi pasuxoben, rom bleinis konstituciuri Sesworebis miRebis mcdeloba SesaZlebelia, aucileblobiT yofiliyo gamowveuli, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu me-14 Sesworeba iTvaliswinebda inkorporacias, radgan mas uzenaesma sasamarTlom am droisaTvis slauter hauzis37 saqmeSi umarTebulod gamoacala Sinaarsi. inkorporaciis sxva damcvelebis mtkicebiT, bleinis Sesworeba Cavarda ara imitom, rom mas religiis Sesaxeb federaluri konstituciis debulebebi Statebze unda gaevrcelebina, aramed imitom, rom man aSkarad dauSva protestantuli bibliis kiTxva sajaro skolebSi, maSin roca „seqtantur~ (an kaTolikur) skolebs yovelgvari daxmareba aukrZala. religiuri pluralizmi, saxelmwifosa da eklesiebs Soris Tanamedrove urTierTobebi me-19 saukunis meore naxevarma didi cvlilebebi moitana, ramac amerikul kulturasa da sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi protestantizmis dominireba gaaqarwyla. centraluri, samxreT da aRmosavleT evropidan xangrZlivma imigraciam Zalze gazarda kaTolikeebis procentuli wili mosaxleobaSi da, agreTve, warmoSva mniSvnelovani iudauri gaerTianebebi, gansakuTrebiT did qalaqebSi. TviTon qalaqebi swrafad izrdeboda da xalxs soflebidan iseTi cxovrebisaken izidavda, romelzec, mcire qalaqebisgan gansxavebiT, eklesias TiTqmis aranairi gavlena ar hqonda. tradiciul religias utevda mZlavri axali mecnieruli da politikuri ideebi — gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia darvinis evolucionisturi Teoria, romelic kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebda Sesaqmis bibliur swavlebas, aseve marqsistuli socializmi, romelic religias opiums uwodebda da miiCnevda, rom is muSaTa klass CagvrasTan Seguebas aiZulebda. am faqtorebis gavleniT SeerTebuli Statebi 1900-iani wlebis adreul xanaSi religiur sakiTxebSi sul ufro pluralisturi da sekularizebuli xdeboda, yovel SemTxvevaSi, gavlenian profesiul da akademiur wreebSi. protestantizmis erT-erTi frTa cdilobda axal garemoSi adaptacias bibliis e.w. istoriuli kritikis miRebiT, zogierTi orTodoqsuli doqtrinis pirdapiris nacvlad simboluri gagebiT. isini Tanamedrove industriuli pirobebis dagmobisaTvis qristianuli `mesijis~ ganmartebas (`socialuri saxareba~) iyenebdnen. konservatoruli frTa ewinaaRmdegeboda yvela am cvlilebas qristianuli „safuZvlebis~ (`fundamenturi principebis~) saxeliT. Tumca fundamentalistebis mcdelobam, Ta-

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vianTi denominaciebidan meti liberaluri elementi gaeZevebinaT, marcxi ganicada. garda amisa, tenesiSi 1925 wlis skoupsis sasamarTlo procesis Semdeg, romlis drosac biologiis maswavlebeli darvinis evoluciis swavlebis gamo idevneboda, fundamentalistebi sayovelTaod aRiqves, rogorc CamorCenilebi da antiinteleqtualebi. bevrma fundamentalistma uari ganacxada sazogadoebriv cxovrebasa da politikaSi monawileobaze da koncentrireba moaxdina sakuTari skolebisa da media gamocemebis Seqmnaze. isini ar unda gamoCeniliyvnen politikaSi TiTqmis 50 wlis manZilze, magram rodesac gamoCndebodnen, es SurisZiebis mizniT unda momxdariyo. am droisaTvis uzenaesma sasamarTlom daiwyo iseTi gadawyvetilebebis miReba, romliTac naTeli gaxda, rom religiis Tavisufleba konstituciurad iyo daculi rogorc Statis, ise federaluri xelisuflebis doneze, Sesabamisad konstituciuri SezRudvebi xelisuflebis qmedebebis gacilebiT farTo speqtrze gavrcelda. ZiriTadi nabiji 1920-ian wlebSi gadaidga, rodesac sasamarTlom arakonstituciurad cno nebraskis Statis kanoni, romelic yvela skolas ukrZalavda ucxo enebis swavlebas (radgan es exeboda religiur da sxva kerZo skolebs); aseve gaauqma oregonis kanoni, romelic mSoblebs ukrZalavda bavSvebis gagzavnas sajaro skolis garda sxva skolebSi. meieri nebraskis winaaaRmdeg38 ; pirsi debis sazogadoebis winaaRmdeg39 . orive kanoni kaTolike imigrantebis winaaRmdeg amoqmedda. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom kanonebi arRvevda me-14 Sesworebas, radgan mSoblebs arTmevda Tavisuflebas jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris gareSe. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, es Tavisufleba gulisxmobda Statis mxridan aragonivruli Carevis gareSe RvTismsaxurebisa da bavSvis aRzrdis uflebas. saqmeebi meieri da pirsi dafuZnebul iqna jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris klauzulis imave interpretaciaze, romelsac sasamarTlo ekonomikuri regulirebis garkveuli formebis arakonstituciurad gamocxadebisaTvis iyenebda „axali kursis~ (prezident ruzveltis iniciativiT ganxorcielebuli ekonomikuri reformebi, rac `didi depresiis~ saxelwodebiT cnobil ekonomikur vardnas mohyva) winmswreb wlebSi. Tumca aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis safuZvelze miRebulma gadawyvetilebebma sasamarTlos gza gauxsna, rom srulad moexdina pirveli Sesworebis religiis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb garantiebis inkorporireba me-14 SesworebaSi. uzenaesma sasamarTlom 1940-ian wlebSi moaxdina ori religiuri klauzulis or gadawyvetilebad inkorporireba. qenTveli koneqtikutis winaaRmdeg40 (aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula); eversoni ganaTlebis sabWos winaaRmdeg41 (dawesebis klauzula). qenTvelis saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetileba mravali wina gadawyvetilebis msgavsad, romlebic religiur saqmianobas federaluri da Statebis adgilobrivi kanonebisagan icavda, ieRovas mowmeebs Seexeboda. am agresiulma seqtam farTod gauxsna gza qadagebas da kardakar siaruls 1930-40-ian wlebSi. isini sityvieridan esxmodnen Tavs SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobas da organizebul religias, gansakuTrebiT kaTolikur eklesias. Statebisa da qalaqebis mcdelobebi, SeezRudaT mowmeTa saqmianoba 1938-53 wlebSi, uzenaesi sasamarTlos 18 gadawyvetilebis safuZveli gaxda. sasamarTlom TandaTan daiwyo imis aRiareba, rom arsebulma regulaciebma gza unda gauxsnas „ieRovas mowmeebis~ uflebebs rogorc sityvis Tavisuflebis, ise religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis TvalsazrisiT. mas Semdeg, rac „axali kursis~ sasamarTlom xelisuflebis ekonomikuri regulaciebis gaTvaliswineba daiwyo, am gadawyve-

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tilebebma gamoxatva da religia im „upiratesobis mqone Tavisuflebebs Soris~ daaweses, romelTa SesazRudad kargad argumentirebuli gamarTleba iyo saWiro. 1950-ian wlebSi moxda tradiciuli religiuri TviTSegnebis gamoRviZeba, iseve rogorc mSoblebma daiwyes „demografiuli bumis~ (Sobadobis mkveTri zrda, 19461964) Taobis aRzrda da eri sabWoTa komunizmTan da aTeistur filosofiasTan brZolaSi ibrZmedeboda. magram religiasTan dakavSirebuli kursi, romlis mxardaWerasac xelisufleba eswrafoda, eris gazrdil pluralizms asaxavda: protestantizmidan warmoiSva is azri, rom kaTolicizmi da iudaizmi CarTuliyo saerTo „iudaur-qristianul~ tradiciaSi, rogorc aRiniSna vil herbergis wignSi „Protestant Catholic Jew~ (1955). kongresma Secvala erTgulebis fici 1954 wels da sityvebi „erTi eri, ganuyofeli~ Secvala sityvebiT „erTi eri, RvTis winaSe ganuyofeli~. albaT, swored erovnuli xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoTqva azri: „Cven varT religiuri xalxi, romlis institutebi moicaven uzenaesi arsebis rwmenas~. zoraxi klausonis winaaRmdeg.42 Tumca 1960-70-ian wlebSi, erl uorenisa da uoren burgeris uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomareebad yofnis dros, sasamarTlom miiRo gadawyvetilebebi, romlebmac dramatuli gavlena iqonia saxelmwifo xelisuflebasa da religias Soris urTierTqmedebis sistemaze. sasamarTlom SeaCera saxelmwifos mier dafinansebul sajaro skolebSi locva da bibliis kiTxva _ praqtika, romelic farTod gavrcelda sajaro skolebis Seqmnis Semdeg. enjeli vitales winaaRmdeg;43 abingtonis saskolo olqi Sempis winaaRmdeg.44 mogvianebiT man arakonstituciurad cno religiur dawyebiT da saSualo skolebSi maswavleblebis saxelmwifo daxmarebis programa. lemoni kurcmanis winaaRmdeg45 . am gadawyvetilebebma gamoiwvia mZlavri, mkveTrad dapirispirebuli reaqciebi sazogadoebaSi da konstituciis komentatorTa Soris. zogierTma igi aRiqva, rogorc gardauvali pasuxebi amerikis mzard religiur pluralizmze, romelmac calkeuli religiuri wes-Cveulebebis nebismieri saxelisuflebo mxardaWera metad mikerZoebuli gaxada da am mxardaWeridan bevri moqalaqe gamoricxa. am TvalsazrisiT, sasamarTlo ubralod misdevda religiis klauzulebis logikas im msaxurebaTa aRsakveTad, romlebmac adre Tavi daaRwies guldasmiT Semowmebas, radgan isini mravali qristianisaTvis uvneblad miiCneoda. sazogadoebaSi bevri am gadawyvetilebebs ise aRiqvamda, TiTqos isini asaxavda da aZlierebda sazogadoebaSi sekularul mimarTulebas, xelisuflebisagan moiTxovda religiuri zegavlenisagan srulad gaTavisuflebas da religiis SezRudvas adamianebis piradi cxovrebiT. gansakuTrebiT arapopularuli iyo skolaSi locvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebi. oponentebma ramdenjerme scades gadawyvetilebebis gauqmeba konstituciuri Sesworebebis inicirebiT 1960-ian wlebSi, magram maTi mcdelobebi warumatebeli aRmoCnda. skolaSi locvis Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebma sxva samarTlebriv da kulturul garemoebebTan erTad, rogoric iyo abortis uflebis aRiareba (ro uedis winaaRmdeg46 ), gamoacocxla konservatori protestantebis didi nawili, romlebic 1920iani wlebis Semdeg politikur arenaze SedarebiT naklebad aqtiurobdnen. 1970-iani wlebis dasawyisSi iseTma jgufebma, rogorebic iyvnen „zneobrivi umravlesoba~ da, mogvianebiT, „qristianuli koalicia~, amomrCevlebis mobilizacia moaxdines kon-

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servatiuli socialuri politikis mxardasaWerad: abortis SezRudva, homoseqsualistTa uflebebis winaaRmdeg brZola, sajaro skolebSi organizebuli locvis aRdgena da a. S. am „religiurma uflebam~, romelsac mravali konservatori kaTolike da konservator ebraelTa mcire nawili SeuerTda, garkveuli roli Seasrula prezidentebis — reiganisa da buSis arCevaSi. religiuri uflebebis win wamowevam safuZveli Cauyara axal debatebs amerikul politikaSi religiis saTanado rolis Taobaze. moZraobis wevrebs „sakuTari religiuri Sexedulebebis~ sxvebisTvis Tavs moxvevis mcdelobaSi dasdes brali. maT upasuxes, rom politikis gziT TavianTi religiuri Sexedulebebis gamoTqmisas isini mxolod imas akeTebdnen, rac sxva amerikelebma, gansakuTrebiT politikurma liberalebma didi xniT adre gaakeTes iseTi kampaniebiT, rogoricaa moZraoba samoqalaqo uflebebisaTvis. konservatiuli religiuri aqtivizmis gaZlierebam warmoSva agreTve axali debatebi religiis klauzulebis mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT. saprezidento arCevnebSi respublikel kandidatTa dapirebebs Soris iyo im federaluri mosamarTleebis daniSvna, romlebic xelisuflebasa da religiasTan dakavSirebiT umravlesobis Sexedulebebis amsaxvel `sasamarTlo SezRudvebs daawesebdnen~. respublikelebis mier uzenaesi sasamarTlos ramdenime mosamarTlis daniSvnam sasamarTlo calkeul sferoebSi saxelmwifosa da eklesiis gamijvnis mkacri formebis Semsubuqebamde miiyvana, rac gansakuTrebiT religiuri organizaciebisaTvis SedarebiT farTo samTavrobo daxmarebis daSvebaSi gamoixata. Tumca rogorc vnaxavT, Tanamedrove sasamarTlom aseve xelaxla daamtkica 1960-70-iani wlebis memkvidreobis mniSvnelovani nawili, maT Soris sajaro skolebSi saxelmwifos mier dafinansebuli locvis akrZalva (li vaismanis winaaRmdeg47 ). miuxedavad imisa, rom religiis Tavisuflebis fuZemdebluri principebi msgavsia amerikis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi, warmoebulma debatebma warmodgenebi Secvala im gagebiT, rom amerikaSi mzardi religiuri pluralizmi da, Sesabamisad, religiur umciresobebze valdebulebebis dakisrebis potenciuri SesaZleblobis codnis saWiroeba gamoaaSkarava. pirveli Sesworebis miRebis droisaTvis RvTisadmi an Tundac iesosadmi oficialuri locva amerikelTa umravlesobisaTvis sadavo ar iyo. Tumca dRes aseTi locva konstituciurad sakamaTo xasiaTs atarebs. maSin, roca radikali rojer uiliamsi `aTi mcnebis~ bolo xuTi Tezisze dafuZnebul kanonmdeblobas uWerda mxars, dRes mecnierebi seriozulad ganixilaven sakiTxs, SeiZleba Tu ara, rom kanonebi mniSvnelovanwilad religiur Rirebulebebs daefuZnos. mosamarTleebi da konstituciis komentatorebi davoben, es cvlilebebi saxelmwifosa da religiisadmi istoriuli midgomis uaryofas asaxavs, Tu isini ubralod religiis Tavisuflebis damkvidrebuli principebis gamoyenebas gulisxmobs amerikeli eris mzardi religiuri pluralizmiT Seqmnil axal garemoebebTan SeTavsebiT.

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religiuri valdebulebebi
kardakar qadageba da religiuri literaturis gavrceleba xolo TerTmeti mowafe wavida galileas, im mTaze, romelic iesom dauTqva maT. naxes igi da Tayvani sces, zogs ki eWvi epareboda. movida ieso maTTan da uTxra: `mocemuli maqvs me mTeli xelmwifeba caSi da dedamiwaze. amitom wadiT da moimowafeT yvela xalxi, monaTleT isini mamisa da Zisa da suliwmidis saxeliT. aswavleT maT yovelives dacva, rac me gamcneT. aha, me TqvenTana var yoveldRe wuTisoflis aRsasrulamde.~ maTes saxareba 28: 16-20 mravali qristianuli sazogadoeba eyrdnoba zemoT mocemul teqsts (romelic aseve `wminda misiis~ saxeliTaa cnobili), rogorc maTi religiuri rwmenis sxvebisaTvis gaziarebis ZiriTad bibliur safuZvels. magram erT-erTi religiuri jgufis, ieRovas mowmeebis mier religiis saxelmwifo regulirebisadmi konstituciurma gamowvevam im katalizatoris roli Seasrula, romelmac es sakiTxi da zogadad religiis Tavisuflebis interpretaciis problema amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlos winaSe daayena. es maSin moxda, rodesac sasamarTlo pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebul Tavisuflebebs me-14 SesworebaSi arsebuli `jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris~ garantiis konteqstSi ganixilavda. me-18 saukunis baptistebis msgavsad ieRovas mowmeebi ZiriTadi protestantuli eklesiis gareT arsebul evangelikur jgufs warmoadgendnen. me-

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19 saukunis mormonebis msgavsad mowmeebi erTmaneTTan mWidro kavSirSi iyvnen. meoce saukunis kaTolikeTa msgavsad maT uzenaesi xelisufali marTavda. da rogorc menonitebi, ieRovas mowmeebi samoqalaqo TavisuflebebisaTvis mebrZolnic iyvnen da imavdroulad gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevdnen sakuTar rigebSi orTodoqsiis SenarCunebas.48 paradoqsia, magram maT yvela `religionistis~ TvalTmaqcobas Seuties da im wesebisgan gaTavisufleba moiTxoves, romlebic maT sakuTari `religiis~ Tavisuflad aRmsareblobas uzRudavda. 1880 wels pitsburgSi Carlz Teiz raselma daiwyo sionis saguSago koSkisa da qristes arsebobis maxaroblis49 gamoqveyneba, romliTac aswavlida, rom qristes meored mosvla moaxloebuli iyo. religiuri wignebis gamyidvelebma — `kolporterebma~ (ase eZaxdnen ufro adre bibliis evangelist gamavrceleblebs) raselis naSromebi SeerTebuli Statebisa da britaneTis teritoriaze gayides. pirveli msoflio omis dawyebis win saguSago koSks 45 000 xelmomweri hyavda.50 1916 wels, raselis gardacvalebis Semdeg, jozef franklin ruTerfordi gaxda Watch Tower Bible-isa (bibliis saguSago koSki) da Tract Society-is (traqtatis sazogadoeba) prezidenti, niu-iorkSi arsebuli korporaciisa, romelic mTel saeklesio qonebaze inarCunebda sakuTrebis uflebas. ruTerfordi iyo advokati, erT dros ki mosamarTle misuris StatSi, ris Sedegadac mas, Cveulebriv, mosamarTle ruTerfords eZaxdnen. momdevno wels ruTerfords wauyenes braldeba 1917 wlis jaSuSobis aqtis safuZvelze, romlis Tanaxmadac mas samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis obstruqciasa da SeiaraRebul ZalebSi daumorCileblobis waqezebaSi adanaSaulebdnen. braldebis damadasturebeli mtkicebuleba iyo misi publikacia dasrulebuli misteria, wigni, romelic akritikebda `patriotizms~, rogorc satanis erT-erT `udides uwmindurobas~, mkvlelobis msgavsad gmobda oms da acxadebda, rom araferi SeiZleba iyos amqveynad erTi adamianis sicocxleze mniSvnelovani. sasamarTlo procesze xelisufleba amtkicebda, rom ruTerfordi `urCevda samxedrovaldebul pirebs, moeTxovaT gawvevisgan gaTavisufleba, xolo gawvevis SemTxvevaSi uari eTqvaT movaleobebis Sesrulebaze~.51 misi wignisa da rCevebis gamo ruTerfordsa da sxva eqvs braldebuls federalur cixeSi oci wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miusajes. gasaCivrebis Sedegad ruTerfords braldeba moexsna da xelisuflebam sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna Sewyvita. dasrulebuli misteriis gavrcelebisTvis sxva ieRovas mowmeebsac didi vadebiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miusajes52 (saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, gamavrceleblebs `boroti~ ganzraxva amoZravebdaT). am procesebis wyalobiT mosamarTle ruTerfordma amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis sasamarTloebis mier ganxorcielebuli marTlmsajulebiT dauviwyari da unikaluri gamocdileba miiRo. licenziis gareSe sakuTari literaturis gayidvisaTvis ieRovas mowmeebi sisxlissamarTlebriv devnas jer kidev 1928 wels ganicdidnen. am dromde mowmeebs sayovelTaod hqondaT aRiarebuli, rom rodesac pavle mociquli qadagebda, yoveli suli umaRles xelmwifebas unda daemorCiloso (romaelTa 13:1), am xelmwifebaSi samoqalaqo xelisuflebas gulisxmobda. 1929 wels ki mosamarTle ruTerfordma `xelmwifebis~ sxvagvari interpretacia moaxdina da masSi RmerTsa da qristes moiazrebda. 1930-ian wlebSi mowmeebsa da adgilobriv salicenzio struqturebs Soris arsebuli konfliqti gamwvavda da 1933 wels ruTerfordma gasca brZaneba, gaesaCivrebinaT yvela gamamtyunebeli sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba. 1935 wels man Camoayaliba iuridi-

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uli departamenti ieRovas mowmis, olin r. moilis xelmZRvanelobiT, raTa momxdariyo mowmeebis iuridiuli dacvis koordinireba.53 kviraobiT, maTi yoveldRiuri saqmianobisgan Tavisufal dRes, mowmeebi TemebSi da sazogadoebebSi avrcelebdnen sakuTar traqtatebs, riTac ignorirebas uwevdnen adgilobriv samarTlebriv SezRudvebs, romlebic, maTi mtkicebiT, xels uSlida maT saRvTo davalebebis ganxorcielebaSi. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ixelmZRvanela mormonTa Sesaxeb saqmeebiT da 1937 wels erTsulovnad uaryo moTxovna federalur iurisdiqciaze, riTac literaturis religiiT motivirebuli gamavrceleblebi dacvis gareSe datova (qoulmeni qalaq grifinis winaaRmdeg54 ). Tumca momdevno wels rva xmiT arc erTis winaaRmdeg uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaauqma q. grifinis gadawyvetileba im motiviT, rom is konstituciis darRveviT zRudavda mowmeTa sityvisa da presis Tavisuflebas. mosamarTle Carlz evans hiuzma es Tavisuflebebi daaxasiaTa, rogorc me-14 Sesworebis dacvis farglebSi moqceuli `fundamenturi personaluri uflebebi~. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom wminda religiuri ufleba isev dacvis gareSe datova. es gamarjveba metwilad amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis (im dros amerikis TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebis) mier iyo mopovebuli, romelmac mowmeebs daxmareba aRmouCina. 1939 wels sasamarTlom rva xmiT erTis winaaRmdeg gaauqma kidev oTxi municipaluri gadawyvetileba, rogorc sityvisa da presis Tavisuflebebis SezRudva (Snaideri irvingtonis winaaRmdeg55 ). miuxedavad yvelafrisa, uzenaes sasamarTlos religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis Sesaxeb dadebiTi gadawyvetileba 1940 wlamde ar gamoutania. am saqmeSi (qenTveli koneqtikutis Statis winaaRmdeg56 ) mowmeebs ukve heiden qovingToni warmoadgenda, axalgazrda ieRovas mowme texasis Statidan, romliTac ruTerfordma moili Secvala. man uzenaes sasamarTloSi warmoebuli davebiT SesaniSnav warmatebebs miaRwia da TxuTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi ocdaTeqvsmeti saqme moigo. qenTvelis saqme ki imiTac iyo aRsaniSnavi, rom sasamarTlom, romlis SemadgenlobaSic prezident ruzveltis mier daniSnuli mosamarTleebic Sediodnen (bleqi, ridi, frankfurteri, duglasi da merfi), erTsulovani gadawyvetileba miiRo.

qenTveli koneqtikutis Statis winaaRmdeg57 uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba niuton qenTveli da misi ori vaJi, jesi da raseli, egreT wodebuli ieRovas mowmeebis jgufis wevrebi, romlebic acxadebdnen, rom nakurTxi sasuliero pirebi iyvnen, niu-hevenSi, konektikutis Statis policiam daakava, da TiToeul maTgans xuT epizodiani braldeba wauyenes. niu-hevenis olqis saerTo sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT TiToeul maTgans Seefarda Tavisuflebis aRkveTa konektikutis Statis zogadi sakanonmdeblo aqtebis 6294-e muxlis darRvevisa da mSvidobis darRvevis waqezebisaTvis. uzenaes sasamarTloSi gasaCivrebis Sedegad samive braldebuls xelaxla daumtkicda 6294-e muxlis darRveva, xolo jesi qenTvels mSvidobis darRvevvis waqezebac. 6294-e muxlis darRvevaze sabraldebo daskvna Semdeg faqtebs emyareboda: maTi dakavebis dRes apelantebi cal-calke dadiodnen kardakar niu-hevenSi, kasiusis quCaze. TiToeul maTgans Tan hqonda CanTa, wignebiTa da pamfletebiT religiur sakiTxebze, portatuli fonografi da firfitebis kompleqti, romelic dakvrisas msmenels ama Tu im wigns acnobda da aRuwerda. TiToeuli apelanti sTxovda karis gamReb

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pirs nebarTvas, esa Tu is firfita CaerTo. nebarTvis SemTxvevaSi apelantebi sTxovdnen pirebs, aRwerili wignebi SeeZinaT, xolo uaris SemTxvevaSi isini moiTxovdnen Semowirulobebs pamfletebis dasabeWdad. Semowirulobis miRebis SemTxvevaSi pirebs gadascemdnen pamflets im pirobiT, rom isini mas waikiTxavdnen. kasiusis quCa mWidrod dasaxlebul raionSi mdebareobda, sadac mosaxleTa 90 procenti kaTolike iyo. erT-erTi firfita aRwerda wigns saTauriT `mtrebi~ da kaTolikur religias akritikebda. interviuCamorTmeuli pirebidan ieRovas mowmeTa rigebSi arc erTi ar yofila. im sakanonmdeblo aqtis Tanaxmad, romlis farglebSic apelantebs brali waeyenaT, `arc erT pirs ara aqvs ufleba, gamoiTxovos fuli, raime saxis momsaxureba, Zvirfasi nivTi, an moiTxovos gamocemis gamowera nebismieri religiuri, saqvelmoqmedo Tu filantropuli miznebisaTvis, Tu es ar xdeba im organizaciis wevrisgan, romlis sakeTildReodac gamoTxovas aqvs adgili, an, Tu es gamoTxova im olqSi ar xdeba, sadac es piri an organizacia mdebareobs manam, sanam gamoTxovis miznis sanqcirebas sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis sabWos mdivani ar moaxdens. nebismieri piris mier zemoT CamoTvlili qmedebebis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi mdivani gadawyvets, am qmedebebis mizani religiuri iyo Tu saqvelmoqmedo da filantropuli da darRvevebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi gascems pasuxismgebel pirze Sesabamis sertifikats. es sertifikati SesaZloa nebismier dros gauqmdes. am muxlis nebismieri debulebis darRvevis Sedegad piri dajarimdeba ara umetes asi aSS dolariT an moxdeba misi dapatimreba ara umetes ocdaaTi dRiT...~ uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, amgvarad ganmartebuli da apelantebis winaaRmdeg gamoyenebuli sakanonmdeblo aqti, zRudavs maT Tavisuflebas jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris gareSe, rac me-14 Sesworebis darRvevaa. am SesworebaSi formulirebuli Tavisuflebis fundamenturi koncefcia mWidro kavSirSia pirveli SesworebiT garantirebul TavisuflebebTan. pirveli Sesworebis Tanaxmad, kongresma ar unda miiRos kanoni, romelic daawesebs religias an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas. me-14 Sesworebis Tanaxmad, Statebis kanonmdebelni iseve ar arian uflebamosilni miiRon amgvari kanonebi, rogorc TviT kongresi. konstituciis mier religiur sakiTxTan dakavSirebul sakanonmdeblo SezRudvebs Tan ori aspeqti axlavs. erTi mxriv, is aTavisuflebs pirebs romelime religiuri mimdinareobis kanonis iZulebiT aRmsareblobisagan. sindisis Tavisufleba da individis ufleba, miemxros ama Tu im religiur organizacias Tu airCios RvTismsaxurebis esa Tu is forma, ar SeiZleba kanoniT SeizRudos. meore mxriv, is uzrunvelyofs religiis arCeuli formis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobas. amgvarad, Sesworeba or koncefcias moicavs: rwmenis Tavisuflebasa da moqmedebis Tavisuflebas. pirveli absoluturi Tavisuflebaa, meore ki, bunebrivia, ara. sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad qmedebebi religiis niadagze garkveul wesebs eqvemdebareba. moqmedebis Tavisuflebas saTanado ganmarteba unda mieces, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes sazogadoebis saTanado dacvis uzrunvelyofa. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, am miznis misaRwevad gamoyenebuli saxelisuflebo uflebamosilebiT usamarTlod ar unda SeizRudos konstituciiT daculi Tavisuflebebi. saxelmwifos ara aqvs absoluturi uflebamosileba, vinmes qadagebis an religiuri mosazrebebis gavrcelebis ufleba CamoarTvas. naTelia, rom aseTi absoluturi SezRudva konstituciur garantiebs daarRvevda. aseve

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naTelia, rom saxelmwifos zogadi daniSnulebisa da aradiskriminaciuli kanonmdeblobiT SeuZlia daareguliros dro, adgili da quCebSi qadagebisa da Sekrebis wesebi; agreTve uzrunvelyos mSvidoba, wesrigi da sazogadoebis keTildReoba me-14 SesworebiT daculi Tavisuflebebis darRvevebis gareSe. apelantebi marTebulad amtkiceben, rom gasaCivrebuli sakanonmdeblo aqti aseT wess ar warmoadgens. Tu sertifikati mopovebuli iqneba, qadageba da gamoTxova nebadarTuli iqneba yovelgvari SezRudvebis gareSe, xolo sertifikatis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi gamoTxova kategoriulad ikrZaleba. apelantebi amtkiceben, rom saqmianobis ganxorcielebisaTvis maTTvis sertifikatis mopovebis moTxovna konstituciis konteqstSi religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis darRvevas warmoadgens. Statis mtkicebiT ki, sakanonmdeblo aqti, ganmartebuli koneqtikutis Statis uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier, ar awesebs raime saxis SezRudvebs religiur swavlebaze an religiuri mosazrebebis gavrcelebaze, aramed uzrunvelyofs religiis safarvelis qveS raime danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Cadenis aRkveTas. Tu davuSvebT, rom es marTlac asea, gasarkvevi xdeba, ramdenad warmoadgens koneqtikutis Statis mier am mizniT gamoyenebuli meTodi konstituciiT garantirebuli Tavisuflebebis Selaxvas. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom aqtis moTxovnis Sesabamisad konkretuli uflebamosileba Statis sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis sabWos mdivnis xelSia. mas SeuZlia gadawyvitos, aris Tu ara qmedebis motivi religiuri da Sesabamisad, gasces Tu ara sertifikati. Tu igi daadgens, rom qmedebis motivi religiuri ar iyo, maSin es qmedeba danaSaulad iqceva. misi gadawyvetileba sertifikatis gacemisa Tu argacemis Taobaze moicavs faqtebis Sefasebas, Sesabamis msjelobas da gadawyvetilebis formulirebas. mas SeuZlia uari Tqvas sertifikatis gacemaze, Tu miiCnevs, rom qmedebis motivi arareligiuri iyo. Sesabamisad, uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT religiaze amgvari cenzuris daweseba konstituciis pirveli da me-14 SesworebebiT gaTvaliswinebul Tavisuflebebs laxavs. yovelive zemoTqmuli ar unda iyos ise aRqmuli, TiTqos religiis safarvelis qveS pirebs ufleba aqvT, dausjelad Caidinon sazogadoebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebi. amgvari qmedebebis dasasjelad sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdebloba arsebobs. eWvgareSea, rom saxelmwifos aqvs ufleba, daicvas sakuTari moqalaqeebi TaRliTobisgan: ama Tu im TemisTvis ucnobi pirisTvis raime mizniT Tanxebis gamoTxovis nebis darTvamde mosTxovos mas piradobis identifikacia da am miznebis ganxorcielebisaTvis mis xelT arsebuli kanonieri uflebamosileba. aseve, saxelmwifos SeuZlia Tavisuflad daareguliros gamoTxovis dro da zogadi wesebi sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebisa da mSvidobis gaTvaliswinebiT. magram religiuri mosazrebebis gasavrceleblad SemoRebuli aucilebeli licenzia, romlis gacemis wesebsa da safuZvlebs saxelmwifo organo gansazRvravs, konstituciiT daculi Tavisuflebis Selaxvas warmoadgens. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, mocemul garemoebebSi jesi qenTvelis mSvidobis darRvevaSi dadanaSauleba ar aris marTlzomieri. braldebis kanonierebis dasadgenad saWiroa ori konfliqturi interesis ganxilva. pirveli Sesworebis Tanaxmad gacxadebulia, rom amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis interesebSi Sedis religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudvisa da informaciisa da azris gadacemis Tavisuflebis xel-

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yofis dauSvebloba. koneqtikutis Stats aqvs calsaxa interesi, SeinarCunos da daicvas mSvidoba da wesrigi sakuTar sazRvrebSi. danaSauli, romelic mSvidobis darRvevis saxeliTaa cnobili, gulisxmobs qmedebebs, romlebic arRvevs an safrTxes uqmnis sazogadoebriv wesrigsa da simSvides. es ara mxolod Zalismier qmedebebs gulisxmobs, aramed iseT qmedebebs an mowodebebs, romelTac SeuZliaT sxvebs Zaladobisken ubiZgon. aravis eyofa gambedaoba, amtkicos, rom sityvis Tavisuflebis principi iZleva sanqcias amboxebis waqezebaze, an rom religiis Tavisufleba gulisxmobs sxva seqtebis mimdevarTa mimarT fizikuri Zaladobis ganxorcielebis privilegias. rodesac amboxebis, uwesrigobis, sazogadoebriv quCebSi moZraobisaTvis xelis SeSlis safrTxe an sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis, mSvidobisa da wesrigis winaaRmdeg muqara aSkara da realuria, Stati uflebamosilia, aRkveTos amgvari qmedebebi da miiRos sadamsjelo zomebi. aseve cxadia, rom Stats ara aqvs ufleba, usamarTlod SezRudos religiuri Tu sxva mosazrebebis Tavisuflad gadacema im motiviT, rom misTvis sasurveli pirobebi SeinarCunos. am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs aqtTan, romelic Tavisi zogadi xasiaTis wyalobiT qmedebaTa farTo speqtrs moicavs da romlis interpretaciisas xelisuflebis aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo Stoebi moqmedebis diskreciiT sargebloben. yovelive zemoxsenebulis gaTvaliswinebiT, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, 1938 wlis 26 aprils jesi qenTvels hqonda quCaSi gamosvlisa da sxvebisTvis sakuTari mosazrebebis mSvidobianad gaziarebis ufleba. ar arsebobs imis samxili, rom misi qceva xmauriani, mZvinvare, mbrZanebluri an Seuracxmyofeli iyo. man sTxova quCaSi or mosiarules, neba daerToT misTvis, fonografis Canaweri CaerTo, razec Tanxmoba miiRo. mas ar hqonda miznad Canaweris saSualebiT msmenelTa sajarod Seuracxyofa. aSkaraa, rom mas surda msmenelTa sakuTari propagandiT daintereseba. fonografis xmas quCis macxovreblebi ar Seuwuxebia, xalxs Tavi ar mouyria da moZraobas xeli ar SeSlia. am momentamde mas ar daurRvevia sazogadoebisa Tu im mosiaruleTa ufleba an kanonieri interesi, romelTac mimarTa. qenTvelis mier CarTuli Canaweri akritikebda yvela organizebul religiur sistemas, rogorc satanistur da adamianisaTvis zianis mimyenebel instruments. Semdeg is calke gamoyofda kaTolikur eklesias, romlis winaaRmdeg gamoyenebuli terminologiac ara marto kaTolikeebs, aramed yvela im adamiansac gaanawyenebda, vinc sxva religiis mimdevarTa gulmarTlobasac scems pativs. marTlac, msmenelebma Tavi sakmaod Seuracxyofilad igrZnes. erT-erTma maTganma Tqva, rom mzad iyo qenTvelisTvis daertya, meore ki mzad iyo, igi quCidan gaeZevebina. mas, romelic mzad iyo qenTvelisTvis daertya, hkiTxes: `moimoqmedeT raime an gqondaT Tu ara raime saxis reaqcia?~ man upasuxa: `ara, ser, radgan man ganacxada, rom waiRebda fonografs da igi marTlac wavida.~ meore mowmis gancxadebiT, man uTxra qenTvels, rom misTvis umjobesi iqneboda, quCa daetovebina, sanam raime moxdeboda, ris Sedegadac qenTvelma Tavisi wignebi akrifa da quCidan wavida. qenTvelis qcevas, am sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, ar SeiZleba mSvidobis darRvevis kvalifikacia mieces. Tumca pirs SesaZloa brali waeyenos, Tu mis mier ganxorcielebuli qmedebebi an mis mier gakeTebuli gancxadebebi gamoiwvevs Zaladobas da uwesrigobas im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu es piris TviTmizani ar yofila. amgvar saqmeebTan dakavSirebiT uamravi gadawyvetileba arsebobs, magram maTi mimoxilva cxadyofs,

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rom praqtikulad yvela situaciaSi gamoyenebuli gamomwvevi terminologia, rasac sabolood mSvidobis darRvevis kvalifikacia mieca, Seicavda uSver, uxams an Seuracxmyofel SeniSvnebs msmenelTa winaaRmdeg. naTelia, rom piradi Seuracxyofa ar warmoadgens konstituciiT daculi informaciisa Tu azris gadacemis Tavisuflebas, ase rom aseTi qmedebis, rogorc sisxlissamarTlebrivi danaSaulis, dasja araviTar winaaRmdegobebs ar gamoiwvevda. am konkretul SemTxvevaSi ki Cven ver vpoulobT fizikuri Seuracxyofis an misi safrTxis, mZvinvare qcevis, ganzraxi udierebisa Tu piradi lanZRvis niSnebs. piriqiT, Cven miviCnevT, rom xdeboda moxalise msmenelis darwmuneba, eyida wigni an gaeRo Semowiruloba imisaTvis, rasac qenTveli, SesaZloa, sxvebisgan gansxvavebiT, WeSmarit religiad miiCnevda. miuxedavad imisa, rom Canaweris Sinaarsi SeiZleba SuRlis aRmZvrelad miCneuliyo, sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, im pirobebSi, rodesac ar arsebobs viwrod mizanmimarTuli sakanonmdeblo aqti, romelic gansazRvravda Statis arsebiTi interesebisaTvis realuri safrTxis Semcveli qmedebis danaSaulebriobasa da dasjadobas, qenTvelis moqmedeba, konstituciuri garantiebis konteqstSi, ar uqmnida realur safrTxes sazogadoebriv wesrigsa da mSvidobas. Sesabamisad, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, gauqmda Statis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba qenTvelis braleulad cnobaze mSvidobis darRvevis waqezebaSi.

merdoki pensilvaniis Statis winaaRmdeg58 uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba bibliis Tavisebur interpretaciasa da sakuTar religiur Sexedulebebs momCivnebi, ZiriTadad, srul an naxevar ganakveTze momuSave adamianebis meSveobiT avrcelebdnen, romlebic literaturas xelze arigebdnen. momCivnebi acxadebdnen, rom pavle mociqulis magaliTs misdevdnen, rac `sajarod Tu saxlebSi~ swavlebas gulisxmobda (saqme mociqulTa 20:20). isini sityvasityviT aRiqvamdnen saRmrTo werilSi mocemul mowodebas: `gadiT mTel wuTisofelSi da yovel qmnilebas uqadageT saxareba~ (markozi 16:15). maT miaCndaT, rom amiT RvTis brZanebas emorCilebodnen. religiuri traqtatebis xelze darigeba misioneruli evangelizmis erT-erTi uZvelesi formaa — iseTive Zveli, rogoric TviT presis beWdva. wlebis ganmavlobaSi es meTodi sxvadasxva religiuri mimarTulebebis Zlevamosil Zalas warmoadgenda. evangelizmis es forma dResac farTod gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva religiuri seqtebis mier, romelTa mimdevrebi saxarebis saxlebSi mitaniTa da piradi stumrobiT cdiloben adamianTa sakuTar rwmenaze gadayvanas. es gacilebiT metia, vidre ubralod qadageba; da gacilebiT meti, vidre ubralod religiuri literaturis gavrceleba. es orives kombinaciaa. religiuri saqmianobis es forma iseTive adgils ikavebs pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebuli garantiebis rigebSi, rogorsac eklesiebSi RvTismsaxureba da kaTedridan qadageba. sxva, ufro orTodoqsuli religiuri gamoxatvis formebis msgavsad, masac aqvs ufleba, isargeblos sityvis Tavisuflebisa da presis Tavisuflebis garantiebiT. Tumca misi praqtikaSi gamoyenebis xerxebi zogjer specifikur problemebs warmoSobs, romelTa gadaWrac Statebis samarTaldamcavi organoebis kompetenciaa. magram es faqti mxolod imaze miuTiTebs, rom mocemul SemTxvevaSi warmodgenili uflebebi absoluturi xasiaTisa ar aris. am TvalsazrisiT, erTi speci-

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fikuri sakiTxi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas ipyrobs. saqme ar exeba ubralod dasjas maZieblobis procesSi Cadenili raime ukanono qmedebisaTvis. arc imazea saubari, Tu ramdenad kanonieria sxvadasxva tipis religiuri literaturis gamavrcelebelTa saregistracio sistemebi. saqme martiv sakiTxs exeba — Tu ramdenad konstituciuria brZaneba, romlis Tanaxmad religiuri maZieblebi sakuTari saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad valdebulni arian, salicenzio gadasaxadi gadaixadon. am salicenzio gadasaxadis amoRebis savaraudo gamarTleba is gaxlavT, rom religiuri literaturis gavrceleba fuladi Tanxis sanacvlod xdeba. saqmeSi jonsi opelikas winaaRmdeg59 gacxadebuli iyo, rom rodesac religiuri seqta `propagandisaTvis saWiro Tanxebis moZiebisaTvis nivTebis gayidvis Cveulebriv komerciul meTodebs~ iyenebs, saxelmwifosaTvis dasaSvebia `gonivruli raodenobis Senatanis~ gadaxdis dakisreba. arsebobs situaciebi, rodesac rTulia imis gansazRvra, religiuria Tu wminda komerciuli esa Tu is saqmianoba. gansxvavebis dadgenas drodadro sasicocxlo mniSvneloba eniWeba. rogorc saqmeSi jemisoni texasis Statis winaaRmdeg60 iyo miTiTebuli, `Statebs im SemTxvevaSic ki SeuZliaT wminda komerciuli lifletebis gavrcelebis mizniT quCebis gamoyenebis SezRudva, rodesac maT samoqalaqo Tu moraluri mowodebebi aqvs Tan darTuli. Tumca Statebs ar SeuZliaT akrZalon gamoxatulad religiuri saqmianobis mizniT sareklamo lifletebis gavrceleba mxolod imitom, rom isini wignis SeZenis mowodebas Seicavs religiuri codnis gaRrmavebisTvis, an imitom, rom isini kanonierebis farglebSi religiuri miznebisaTvis Tanxebis moZiebas emsaxureba~. magram ubralo faqti, rom religiuri literatura `iyideba~ mosiarule mqadageblebis mier da is ar aris `Sewiruli~, ar gardaqmnis evangelizms komerciul wamowyebad. ase rom iyos, maSin eklesiaSi SemowirulobaTa Tasis gadacema saeklesio msaxurebas komerciul proeqtad aqcevda. maTi konstituciuri uflebebi, vinc sakuTar religiur Sexedulebebs zepiri Tu beWdviTi formiT avrcelebs, ar SeiZleba imave standartebiT regulirdebodes, rogorc wignebiT sacalo Tu sabiTumo movaWre pirTa saqmianoba regulirdeba. mosamarTle duglasis gancxadebiT, romelmac gadmosca uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, ar unda daviviwyoT, rom tomas peinis pamfletebi ufasod ar vrceldeboda. naTelia, rom religiur organizacias arsebobisaTvis Tanxebis moZieba esaWiroeba. ase rom, mosiarule evangelisti, rogori SecdomaSi Sesuli Tu aratolerantulic ar unda iyos igi, ase ubralod ver gaxdeba wignis gamyidveli agenti imitom, rom biblias an religiur traqtatebs sakuTari xarjebis asanazRaureblad an saarsebo saSualebebis mosapoveblad hyidda. sityvis, presisa Tu religiis Tavisufleba yvelasaTvis xelmisawvdomia, miuxedavad imisa, vis SeuZlia sakuTari ZalebiT gadaxda da vis ara. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, wminda komerciul da religiur saqmianobebs Soris zRvaris gavleba xandaxan SeiZleba sakmaod rTulic iyos. mocemul SemTxvevaSic rTulia imis aSkarad dasabuTeba, rom maZieblebi ufro komerciul saqmianobaSi iyvnen Cabmulni, vidre religiurSi. amave dros faqtebis damaxinjeba iqneboda, maTi saqmianoba wignebisa da pamfletebis gayidvad rom dagvexasiaTebina. saqmeSi aiovas Stati midis winaaRmdeg61 aiovas uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom analogiuri seqtis wevrebis mier ganxorcielebul gayidvebze orientirebuli saqmianoba `niSandoblivi da damaxasiaTebeli iyo maTi mTavari miznisaTvis, rac sakuTari doqtrinis qadagebasa da popularizaciaSi gamoixateboda~.

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yovelive zemoTqmuli ar niSnavs, rom religiuri jgufebi da presa xelisuflebis winaSe yovelgvari finansuri tvirTisgan gaTavisuflebulia. magram aq saqme sakmaod gansxvavebul SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs. erTia mqadageblis Semosavlisa Tu qonebis dabegvra, da meore — misgan qadagebis privilegiiT sargeblobisaTvis gadasaxadis amoReba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier arakonstituciurad iqna cnobili salicenzio gadasaxadis daweseba religiur saqmianobaze. mosamarTle jeqsonis gansxvavebuli azri 1939 wels pensilvaniis Statis industriul qalaq JanetSi, sadac 16 000 mosaxle cxovrobda, ieRovas mowmeebis mier `Watch Tower~ (saguSago koSki) kampaniis ganxorcieleba daiwyo. sagulisxmoa, rom mocemuli momentisaTvis qalaqis mosaxleobis 50% kaTolike iyo. ieRovas mowmeebi TiToeul saxls stumrobdnen, zars rekdnen an karze akakunebdnen da maspinZels amcnobdnen, rom mowmeebs mniSvnelovani informaciis miwodeba SeeZloT. maspinZlis mxridan Tanxmobis SemTxvevaSi mowmeebi audio Canawers rTavdnen, saxelwodebiT `maxe da reketi~. misi Sinaarsis warmosadgenad Semdegi sityvebia moyvanili: `religia mcdaria da maxea, radgan mas SecdomaSi Sehyavs xalxi; Tumca es ar niSnavs imas, rom religiis mimdevari yvela adamiani nebayoflobiT aris SecdomaSi Sesuli. religia reketia, radgan igi didi xnis ganmavlobaSi gamoiyeneboda da dResac gamoiyeneba xalxisgan fulis amosaRebad im Teoriasa da dapirebaze dayrdnobiT, rom mRvdlisaTvis fulis gadaxda gadamxdel mxares sikvdilis Semdeg sasjelisgan gaaTavisuflebs da mis xsnas uzrunvelyofs.~ kritikis am pasaJs mowmeebi ZiriTadad yvela religiuri mimdinareobis, gansakuTrebiT ki kaTolikeebis winaaRmdeg iyenebdnen. Semdeg maspinZels, Semowirulobis fasad literaturis SeZenas sTxovdnen. wignebis fasi 25 centi iyo, xolo pamfletebisa — kidev ufro dabali. xSirad, rodesac maspinZeli literaturis SeZenaze uars ganacxadebda, wigns an pamflets mas mainc gadascemdnen. am kampaniis dawyebas mravali Seuracxyofili ojaxis saCivari mohyva da sami Tu oTxi mowme daakaves. amis Sedegad kampaniis msvlelobaze pasuxismgebeli `zonis msaxuri~ qalaqis mers daupirispirda. man qalaqis Tavs ganucxada, rom kampaniis Catareba maTi ufleba iyo da amis dasturad amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier miRebuli Sesabamisi gadawyvetileba warudgina. merma mas ganucxada, rom maT aravin SezRudavda, Tu isini sakuTar literaturas qalaqis quCebSi gaavrcelebdnen da rom igi ar SeewinaaRmdegeboda maT mier saxlebSi literaturis usasyidlod gavrcelebasac. magram xalxi swored maT mier literaturis ZaldatanebiT Sesyidvas ewinaaRmdegeboda, gansakuTrebiT ki kvira dRes. merma ikiTxa, SesaZlebeli iyo Tu ara romelime sxva dReebSi siaruli da literaturis usasyidlod gavrceleba. `zonis msaxurma~ ganacxada, rom es maTi `saqmis keTebis~ meTods ewinaaRmdegeboda da iuara. man mers aseve uTxra, rom qalaq JanetSi imden mowmes moiyvanda, ramdenic saqmis sisruleSi moyvanisTvis iyo saWiro. merma mas sTxova, dalodebodnen analogiur gasaCivrebul saqmeze saboloo gadawyvetilebas da es sakiTxic sasamarTlo gziT gadaewyvitaT. es winadadebac uaryofil iqna da muqara imaze meti xalxis moyvanis Taobaze, vidre amas qalaqis sapolicio SenaerTi gaumklavdeboda, kvlavac gaisma. 1939 wlis bzobas muqara sisruleSi moiyvanes. qalaqSi asze meti mowme gamoCnda. isini qalaqis mcxovrebTaTvis ucnobni iyvnen da ocdaxuTze meti avtomanqaniT Ca-

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movidnen. avtomobilebi qalaqis farglebs gareT daayenes da Stabi benzingasamarT sadgurze gamarTes, saidanac garTulebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeli iyo kampaniis direqtorTan satelefono kavSiri. mowmeebis mier moqmedebis dawyebisTanave, daaxloebiT dilis cxra saaTze, policiis sadgurSi zarebi gaisma da didi raodenobiT saCivrebi mTeli dRis manZilze Semodioda. mowmeebis raodenobam policielTa resursebs da SesaZleblobebs gadaaWarba, dasaxmareblad saxanZro departamentic ki gamoiZaxes. mowmeebi saxlebs marto da jgufurad stumrobdnen, zogierTi saxlidan ki saCivari policiaSi dRis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime stumrobis gamo Sevida. Sedegad 21 mowme iqna dakavebuli. daapatimres mxolod isini, vis winaaRmdegac arsebobda damamtkicebeli sabuTi, rom literaturis SeZenas garkveuli safasuris gadaxdis sanacvlod sTavazobdnen. mogvianebiT, arasakmarisi mtkicebulebebis gamo, sami adamiani gaaTavisufles, Tvrameti ki damnaSaved cnes. mocemul saqmeSi nawilobriv naTeli efineba ieRovas mowmeebis moZraobis erovnul struqturasac. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi moZraobis TavSi dgas Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, pensilvaniis Statis kanonebis farglebSi Seqmnili korporacia, romlis biznesis warmoebis ZiriTadi adgili bruklinSi, niu-iorkSia. es korporacia beWdavs yvela pamflets, uSvebs yvela wigns da mowmeebs fonografebiT, CanawerebiTa da sxva damatebiTi masalebiT amaragebs. korporaciis brunva sakmaod didia, Sesabamisad, didi unda iyos misi Semosavalic. misi administrirebis Sesaxeb naklebad aris cnobili. erT-erTma `zonis msaxurma~ Cvenebis micemisas ganacxada, rom saqmiani korespondencia mxolod korporaciis saxelze iwereba da sakuTari wevrebis anonimuroba korporaciis politikas warmoadgens. varaudi, rom es aris `arasamewarmeo saqvelmoqmedo~ korporacia, SesaZloa simarTles Seeferebodes, magram ubralo varaudis miRma amis mtkiceba Tundac imitom aris SeuZlebeli, rom iseTi elementaruli mtkicebulebebi, rogoric aris sabuRaltro balansi an saSemosavlo angariSi, ar arsebobs. elementarulad ucnobia, Tu rogoria korporaciis xarjebi da Semosavlebi, ra saxis xelfasebsa Tu premiebs gascems is, an ra saxis kontraqtebs debs mommarageblebTan. korporaciis publikaciebis distribucia, ZiriTadad, axalmoqceulTa saSualebiT xdeba, romelTa nawilic srul an naxevar ganakveTze momuSave sasuliero piria. adamianTa es kategoria organizebulia jgufebad, romelTac `zonis msaxuri~ xelmZRvanelobs. maTi konkretuli mizania sakuTari Temis farglebSi arsebuli yvela ojaxis weliwadSi samjer an oTxjer monaxuleba. isini wignebs 5 centad yiduloben da Semowirulobis saxiT 25 centis misaRebad avrceleben. zogierT SemTxvevaSi TviTRirebulebasa da gasayid fass Soris sxvaoba ufro naklebia. aris agreTve informacia, rom bevri mowme literaturis garkveul raodenobas maTac urigebs, vinc sakuTari jibidan aranair Semowirulobas ar iRebs. miuxedavad amisa, Semosavlis miRebis faqti TvalnaTelia da is distributorebs nawilobriv an mTlianad exmareba saarsebo saSualebebis moZiebaSi, Tumca absoluturad SeuZlebelia analogiuri kampaniebis Sedegebis gansazRvra finansuri TvalsazrisiT. imave merdokis62 saqmeSi, morig kviradRes qalaq JanetSi kvlavac gamoCndnen ororad da sam-samad mosiarule mowmeebi, romlebic Tan wignebsa da fonografebs atarebdnen. amJamad ukve rva piri daapatimres. straTeris63 saqmeSi figurirebs ieRovas mowme, romelic kviras, SuadRis 4 sa-

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aTze, vinme ucnobis kars miadga da daakakuna. kari ojaxis ufrosis 14 wlis Svilma gaaRo, romelmac mowmis TxovniT dedas dauZaxa. bavSvis dedas sakmaod cudi gamocdileba hqonda miRebuli karebSi pamfletebis darigebisa da propagandirebisgan, gansakuTrebiT ki maSin, rodesac erT-erTma pirma karebSi uTxra, rom `igi jojoxeTSi moxvdeboda, Tu sakuTar bavSvebs am literaturas ar waakiTxebda~. misi Cvenebis Tanaxmad, man mowmis mier mocemuli furceli misi TandaswrebiT daxia, radgan sjeroda, rom `ar aris aucilebeli pirTa kardakar siaruli da imis qadageba, Tu rogor unda emsaxuros adamiani RmerTs~. miuxedavad straTeris saqmeSi arsebuli SedarebiT mwiri monacemebisa, arsebobs ojaxis ufrosis kidev erTi Cveneba, romlis Tanaxmad, sareklamo lifletis gadacemisas mowmem mas uTxra, `daereka policiis ufrosTan da eTxova ramdenime dakavebuli ieRovas mowmis gaTavisufleba~. aseTi gaxlavT is saqmianoba, romlis regulireba Tu dabegvra saxelmwifo xelisuflebis arc erT organos ar SeuZlia. sasamarTlo arsebiTad mxars uWers aRniSnul mosazrebas.

jimi svogartis sazogadoeba kaliforniis Statis Tanasworobis dacvis sabWos winaaRmdeg64
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba es saqme exeba sakiTxs, ukrZalavs Tu ara saxelmwifos pirveli Sesworebis religiuri debulebebi zogadi daniSnulebis sarealizacio da samomxmareblo gadasaxadebis dawesebas religiuri organizaciis mier religiuri masalebis gavrcelebaze. kaliforniis Statis sarealizacio da samomxmareblo sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba sacalo movaWreebisagan `piradi xelSesaxebi qonebis sacalod gayidvis sanacvlod~ sarealizacio gadasaxadis gadaxdas moiTxovs. `gayidva~ pirad xelSesaxeb qonebaze sakuTrebisa Tu flobis uflebis gadacemas gulisxmobs. samomxmareblo gadasaxadi, rogorc sarealizacio gadasaxadis danamati, vrceldeba Statis rezidentebis mier Statis gareT ganxorcielebul Sesyidvebze. samomxmareblo gadasaxadis analogiuri tarifiT (6 procenti) is wesdeba `nebismieri sacalo movaWrisgan Sesyiduli piradi xelSesaxebi qonebis StatSi Senaxvaze, gamoyenebasa Tu raime sxva saxis moxmarebaze~. miuxedavad imisa, rom samomxmareblo gadasaxadi myidvelze wesdeba, is, rogorc wesi, TviT sacalo movaWris mier grovdeba Sesyidvis dros. arc Statis konstitucia da arc sarealizacio da samomxmareblo sagadasaxado kanonmdebloba ar aTavisuflebs religiur organizaciebs sarealizacio da samomxmareblo gadasaxadebis gadaxdisgan, garda erTi gamonaklisisa, rodesac religiuri organizaciebi mrevls sakvebiT emsaxurebian. saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis droisaTvis (1974-1981) apelanti jimi svogartis sazogadoeba luizianis arasamewarmeo korporaciaSi gaerTianebul religiur organizacias warmoadgenda, romlis statusi aRiarebuli iyo kaliforniis Statis sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. apelantis wesdebisa da Sinaganawesis Tanaxmad, `organizaciis mizania saxarebiseuli sityvis gavrceleba da SenarCuneba yovlisSemZle RmerTis sadideblad~. es `gavrceleba da SenarCuneba~ miiRweva `yvela arsebuli saSualebiT rogorc samSobloSi, ise ucxo miwebze~, da `konkretulad moicavs evangelikur kampaniebs; misionerul saqmianobas; radiomauwyeblobas (rogorc mesakuTre da mauwyebeli); satelevizio mauwyeblobas (rogorc mesakuTre da mauwye-

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beli); musikis audioproduqciasa da reproduqcias; qadagebis audioproduqciasa da reproduqcias; swavlebis audioproduqciasa da reproduqcias; weras, beWdvasa da gamocemas da nebismier sxva meTods, romlebic ieso qristes saxarebis gasavrceleblad gamoiyeneba~. 1974-1981 wlebSi adgilobriv eklesiebTan TanamSromlobiT apelantma qveynis masStabiT darbazebSi da arenebze mravali `evangelikuri kampania~ Caatara. am periodis ganmavlobaSi Catarebuli kampaniebis raodenobam ocdasams miaRwia. TiTo kampania erTidan sam dRemde grZeldeboda (erTi kampania eqvsi dRe gagrZelda, xolo saerTo jamSi sul — 52 dRe). kampaniebis Catarebisas apelanti religiur msaxurebas eweoda, rac qadagebasa da simReraSi gamoixateboda. zogierTi es msaxureba Cawerili iyo Semdgomi gayidvisa Tu mauwyeblobisaTvis. kampaniebis mimdinareobisas apelanti aseve hyidda religiur wignebs, kasetebs, Canawerebs da sxva religiur da arareligiur saqonels. apelanti aseve aqveynebda yovelTviur Jurnals `evangelisti~, romelic mTeli qveynis masStabiT gamoweris saSualebiT iyideboda. Jurnali religiuri xasiaTis statiebs moicavda da mosarCelis wignebis, kasetebisa da Canawerebis reklamirebas eweoda. JurnalSi ganTavsebuli iyo SekveTis forma, sadac CamoTvlili iyo gasayidi nivTebi da maTi Sesabamisi fasebi. myidvels agreTve SeeZlo mieTiTebina nivTis sasurveli raodenoba da mTliani Tanxa. mosarCele Tavis produqcias reklamirebas uwevda agreTve tele-radio mauwyeblobis meSveobiT, rac kaliforniis Statis adgilobriv samauwyeblo sadgurebsac moicavda. 1980 wels apelantma kaliforniis Statis Tanasworobis dacvis sabWom apelants amcno, rom religiuri masalebi ar Tavisufldeboda sarealizacio gadasaxadebisgan da sTxova mas, daregistrirebuliyo, rogorc gamyidveli, raTa gadasaxadebis angariSgebisa da gadaxdisaTvis Seewyo xeli. mosarCelem upasuxa, rom mas aseTi gadasaxadebisgan konstituciis pirveli Sesworeba aTavisuflebda. 1981 wels sabWom apelants auditi Cautara da kvlavac urCia, gamyidvelad daregistrirebuliyo da kaliforniaSi kampaniebis Catarebisas ganxorcielebul yvela gayidvaze sarealizacio gadasaxadi gadaexada. sabWos aseve miaCnda, rom apelantsa da kaliforniis Stats Soris sakmarisi kavSiri arsebobda, raTa misTvis safosto SekveTebiT ganxorcielebul Sesyidvebze gadasaxadebi daewesebinaT. apelantis dokumentaciis ganxilvis Sedegad sabWom daadgina, rom `apelanti1974 wlis 1 aprilidan 1981 wlis 31 dekembris CaTvliT kaliforniis StatSi hyidda pirad xelSesaxeb qonebas. gayidvebis Sedegad apelantma safosto SekveTebidan 1 702 942 aSS dolari, xolo kaliforniaSi kampaniebis mimdinareobisas gavrcelebuli saqonlidan 240 560 aSS dolari miiRo~. es cifrebi kaliforniis StatSi realizebul da moxmarebul religiuri Sinaarsis matarebel saqonels moicavda: bibliebsa da bibliebis saxelmZRvaneloebs, dabeWdil qadagebebsa da qadagebaTa krebulebs, audiokasetebze Caweril qadagebebs, religiur wignebs, pamfletebsa da religiur musikas. am cifrebze dayrdnobiT sabWom apelants acnoba, rom misi sagadasaxado davalianeba 166145,10 aSS dolars Seadgenda. es Tanxa sarealizacio da samomxmareblo gadasaxadebs, maTze daricxul procentsa da jarimas moicavda. apelants ar gauprotestebia sabWos mier gadasaxadebis iseT arareligiur saqonelze daweseba, rogoricaa samRvdeloebis emblemiani maisurebi, Wiqebi, TefSebi, jamebi, sanTlebi, bib-

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liis dasadebi stendebi, saweri kalmebi da fanqrebi, religiuri scenebis amsaxveli reproduqciebi, vazebi da a.S. apelantma gaasaCivra sabWos gadawyvetileba religiur masalebze gadasaxadebis dakisrebis nawilSi. igi imeorebda Tavis Sexedulebas, rom religiur masalebze gadasaxadebis daweseba konstituciis pirvel Sesworebas arRvevda. sabWom saCivris mosmenisas gadawyvita, jarima gaeuqmebina, magram gadasaxadebisa da maTze daricxuli procentis davalianebis gastumreba kvlavac moiTxova. Statis saproceso kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, apelantma moTxovnili Tanxa gadaixada da Semdeg saCivari Seitana sabWos mier am Tanxis anazRaurebis Taobaze. sabWom uaryo apelantis saCivari, amitom man sarCeli Statis sasamarTloSi Seitana. is ZiriTadad amtkicebda, rom Statis mier religiuri masalebis gayidvaze sarealizacio da samomxmareblo gadasaxadebis daweseba konstituciis pirvel Sesworebas ewinaaRmdegeboda, romlis Tanaxmad, dauSvebelia iseTi `kanonis miReba, romelic daawesebs religias an SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas~. sasamarTlom saqme sabWos sasargeblod gadawyvita da daadgina, rom apelants Tanxis anazRaureba ar ekuTvnoda. imave gadawyvetilebamde mivida kaliforniis Statis saapelacio sasamarTlo da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesi sasamarTloc, romelmac daadgina, rom zogadi daniSnulebis gadasaxadebis amoReba da gadaxda am SemTxvevaSi ar awesebda raime mniSvnelovan konstituciur SezRudvebs apelantis religiur saqmianobasa Tu Sexedulebebze. Sesabamisad, religiis Tavisuflebis konstituciuri debuleba ar avaldebulebs Stats, gaaTavisuflos apelanti zogadi daniSnulebis sarealizacio da samomxmareblo gadasaxadebisgan. qadageba sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi xolo Semdeg mRvdelmTavarma ... mociqulebi sajaro sapatimroSi Casxa. magram uflis angelozma RamiT gaaRo sapyrobilis kari, gamoiyvana isini da uTxra: `wadiT, dadeqiT taZarSi da uqadageT xalxs am sicocxlis yoveli sityva~. es rom moismines, ganTiadisas Sevidnen taZarSi da aswavlidnen. amasobaSi movidnen mRvdelmTavari da masTan myofni, moiwvies sinedrioni da israelianTa uxucesebis sabWo da gagzavnes sapatimroSi maT mosayvanad. magram msaxurni rom mividnen, ver naxes isini sapyrobileSi, ukan gamobrundnen da moaxsenes: `sapatimro saguldagulod daketili dagvixvda da mcvelebi karebTan mdgomni. magram, rom gavaReT, Sig veravin vnaxeT.~ Semdeg viRac mivida da ganacxada: `ager is kacebi, romlebic Tqven sapyrobileSi CaamwyvdieT, taZarSi dganan da xalxs aswavlian!~ maSin wavida meTauri msaxurebis TanxlebiT da moiyvana isini sinedrionis winaSe. mRvdelmTavarma uTxra maT: `sastikad agikrZaleT, rom ar geswavlebinaT am saxeliT. aha, Tqven ki ierusalimi moZRvrebiT aavseT.~ magram petrem da mociqulebma miuges: `RmerTs ufro metad unda vemorCilebodeT, vidre adamianebs. amis mowmeni varT Cven da suliwmida, romelic RmerTma uboZa mis morCilT.~ da yoveldRe daucxromlad aswavlidnen da axarebdnen taZarSi da saxlebSi ieso qristes. saqme mociqulTa 5: 17-23, 25-29, 32, 42

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zemoT citirebul nawyvetSi axlad warmoqmnili qristianuli mimarTulebis winamZRolebs nabrZanebi hqondaT, ar eqadagaT sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi. am brZanebis darRvevisaTvis dapatimrebis Semdeg isini cixidan idumal pirobebSi gaiqcnen da kvlav sajaro qadagebas Seudgnen. es teqsti garkveul gafrTxilebas warmoadgens religiis `privatizaciis~, anu religiis uklebliv saxlebSi mijaWvis mcdelobis winaaRmdeg. Teologi deivid treisi werda, rom religia aris `gancalkevebuli sagani, romlis Sesaxebac mraval inteleqtuals SeuZlia araferi icodes. rogorc wesi, eklesiebis mier waqezebulebs, maT SeuZliaT ar Seiswavlon religia, radgan ukve `yvelam~ icis, rom religia zogierTi adamianisaTvis saWiro kerZo samomxmareblo produqtia. religiis yofili socialuri roli sakmaod saziano iyo. misi amJamindeli privatizacia ki imdenad uvnebeli procesia, rom SeiZleba mas civilizebuli distanciidan keTildReobac ki usurvo. religia iseT rames gvagonebs, rac im SemTxvevaSi moswonT, Tu es sxvebis mowonebasac imsaxurebs.~65 `privatizaciis~ Tezisis Sesaxeb debatebma amerikul cxovrebaSi religiis Tanamedrove sociologiuri gamokvlevebis ZiriTadi mimarTulebac ki Camoayaliba. riCard jon nouhauzma SeTxza maxvilgonivruli fraza `SiSveli sajaro TavSeyris adgili~, riTac aRwera sekularizmis ideologiis iseTi zrda, romelic `gamoricxavda religias da religiur faseulobebs sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis sferoebidan~.66 nouhauzi iyenebda am metaforas, raTa gaekritikebina politikuri da sulieri WeSmaritebis vakuumi, romelic politikuri movlenebidan religiuri xmis gamoricxvis Sedegad Cndeba. qvemoT mocemulia magaliTebi, Tu rogor gamoiyeneba `sajaro TavSeyris adgilebis~ metafora amerikis religiuri Temebis pirdapiri mcdelobisas, iqadagon da gaavrcelon religiuri literatura sazogadoebriv quCebsa da parkebSi. aq aRsaniSnavia saxelisuflebo organoebis sistematuri Zalisxmeva, CamoaSoron religiuri Temebi sazogadoebis farTo fenebs. saqmeebSi niemotko merilendis Statis winaaRmdeg67 da pulosi niu-hemfSiris Statis winaaRmdeg68 sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom religiur jgufebs hqondaT ufleba qalaqis quCebiTa da parkebiT Sexvedrebisa da SekrebebisTvis esargeblaT. saqmeSi marSi alabamis Statis winaaRmdeg69 sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebiT dadginda, rom im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu kompania mTel qalaqs flobs, mas ar SeuZlia amtkicos, rom ilaxeba misi kerZo sakuTrebis interesebi da Sedegad SezRudos ieRovas mowmeebis `fundamenturi Tavisufleba~, isargeblon am qalaqis saqmiani ubnis trotuarebiT religiuri literaturis gasavrceleblad. alabamis Stati mopasuxes warmoadgenda xsenebul saqmeSi, radgan Serifis moadgilem, romelic qalaqis policielad msaxurobda, qalbatoni marSi kanonsawinaaRmdego moqmedebis gamo daapatimra. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom presisa da religiis Tavisufleba gacilebiT `sasurvel poziciaSi~ moiazreba da qalbaton marSis sisxlissamarTlebrivi msjavrdeba gaauqma. ieRovas mowmeebis msgavsad, romlebic kardakar dadian da qadageben, saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba (korporacia) aris religiuri sazogadoeba, romelic avrcelebs an yidis sazogadoebis religiur literaturas da moiZiebs Semowirulobebs kriSnas religiis mxardasaWerad. sazogadoeba Tavis wevrebs aswavlis sankirTans, religiur rituals, romelSic kriSnas mimdevrebi sazogadoebis wevrebs sajaro adgilebSi egebebian da yvavilebsa da amerikis patara droSebs Cuqnian. sazogadoebam da jozef

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bekam, sazogadoebis taZris winamZRvarma mineapolisis StatSi, gaasaCivres minesotis Statis sasoflo-sameurneo sazogadoebis wesi, romelic Statis bazrobis regulirebas exeboda. minesotis Statis bazrobis wesis Tanaxmad, `nebismieri saqonlis gayidva an gavrceleba, maT Soris beWdviTi an werilobiTi masalebisa, CaiTvleba dasjad qmedebad, Tu ar iqneba mopovebuli sazogadoebis da/an sxva uflebamosili organos licenzia.~ wesis Tanaxmad, yvela adamians da jgufs, romlebic literaturas yiddnen an avrcelebdnen, es nebarTva salicenzio kantoraSi unda aeRo. beri fiSeris warmomadgenlobiT kriSnas mimdevrebma warmatebas miaRwies minesotis Statis uzenaes sasamarTloSi, romelmac daadgina, rom mocemuli wesi sankirTanis rituals konstituciis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis darRveviT zRudavda. kriSnas mimdevrebi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaes sasamarTloSi profesorma lorens Tribma warmoadgina, romelic amtkicebda, rom saqme sityvis Tavisuflebasa da sajaro forumis Tanabar xelmisawvdomobas exeboda. saCivari Tanabari xelmisawvdomobis Sesaxeb ar dakmayofilda.

hefroni kriSnas saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis winaaRmdeg70
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba bazroba didi sazogadoebrivi RonisZiebaa da stumrebs minesotis mTeli Statidan da qveynis danarCeni adgilebidanac izidavs. gasuli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi TormetdRiani bazrobis damswreTa saSualo raodenoba 1 320 000 adamiani iyo. samuSao dReebSi yoveldRiuri saSualo daswreba 115 000 adamiani, uqme dReebSi 160 000 adamiani iyo... mosamarTle uaitis gancxadebiT, romelmac uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba gamoacxada, pirveli Sesworeba ar iZleva vinmes Sexedulebebis nebismier dros da adgilas sasurveli gziT gavrcelebis uflebis garantias... `Cven xSirad gagvicia sanqcia amgvar SezRudvebze im pirobiT, Tu es ar exeboda regulirebuli sityvis Sinaarss, emsaxureboda mniSvnelovan saxelmwifo interess da iZleoda informaciis gadacemis alternatiuli arxebis arsebobis saSualebas.~ am SemTxvevaSi ki dasadgenia, kanonieria Tu ara gasaCivrebuli wesiT dadgenili SezRudvebi kriSnas mimdevarTa Sexedulebebis gadacemis adgilsa da saSualebaze, ufro konkretulad ki, SeuZlia Tu ara minesotis Statis sasoflo-sameurneo sazogadoebas, mosTxovos kriSnas saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis wevrebs, romelTac surT sankirTanis ritualis Statis bazrobaze ganxorcieleba, SezRudon TavianTi savaWro da sagamavrceleblo qmedebebi konkretuli adgilmdebareobiT. saolqo sasamarTlom daadgina, rom, Statis interesebidan gamomdinare, dawesebuli SezRudvebi bazrobis mocemul teritoriaze gamarTlebuli iyo. minesotis Statis uzenaesma sasamarTlom ver dainaxa raime saSiSroeba kriSnas mimdevarTaTvis dadgenili wesidan gamonaklisis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi. magram aSS-s uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganmarta, rom kriSnas mimdevrebs ar gaaCndaT specialuri gamonaklisis moTxovnis ufleba. misive gancxadebiT, ar SeiZleba sxvadasxva religiuri mimdinareobebisa Tu jgufebis gansxvaveba da maTTvis gamonaklisis daSveba im niSnebiT, romlebiTac isini sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi garkveul qmedebebs axorcieleben, iqneba es Semowirulobebis moZieba Tu procesis ritualizacia. religiuri organizaciebi arc erT SemTxvevaSi ar sargebloben privilegirebuli uflebiT, gadascen da gaav-

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rcelon informacia bazrobis adgilebze im organizaciebTan SedarebiT, romelTac gansxvavebuli socialuri, politikuri Tu ideologiuri Sexedulebebis prozelitizmi surT. es arareligiuri organizaciebi, romlebic TavianTi saqmianobisTvis mxardaWeras eZieben, sargebloben im religiuri jgufebis Tanabari uflebebiT, romelTac SeuZliaT mividnen sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi da sakuTari Sexedulebebi gaavrcelon, iqneba es Semowirulobebis Segroveba Tu literaturis gavrceleba. mosamarTleebi brenani, blekmuni, marSali da stivensi ar daeTanxmnen sasmarTlo Semadgenlobis umravlesobas. mosamarTle brenani amtkicebda, rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba sankirTanis ritualTan dakavSirebiT `ar Seesabameboda ukve arsebul precedentebs... mTavrobis mier SemoRebuli wesebi, romlebic konfliqtSi Sedian religiuri rwmenis aRmsareblobasTan, gansakuTrebuli yuradRebiT unda ganixilebodes.~ *** los-anjelesis olqma miiRo gadawyvetileba, romelic krZalavda `pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebuli qmedebebis~ ganxorcielebas los-anjelesis saerTaSoriso aeroportSi. saqmeSi los-anjelesis warmomadgenlebi `ebraelebi iesosaTvis~ winaaRmdeg71 sasamarTlo did sirTuleebs waawyda imaze msjelobisas, warmoadgenda Tu ara saxelmwifo sakuTrebaSi arsebuli aeroporti sajaro TavSeyris adgils. saqmeSi kriSnas saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba lis winaaRmdeg72 sasamarTlom naTeli mohfina `ebraelebi iesosaTvis~ saqmeSi Riad darCenil sakiTxs. saqme exeboda kriSnas mimdevrebisTvis religiuri literaturis gavrcelebis akrZalvas im sam aeroportSi, romlebic qalaq niu-iorkis teritorias emsaxureboda. sasamarTlo daeyrdno sajaro TavSeyris adgilebis formalur dayofas, romlis Tanaxmad, arsebobs WeSmaritad sajaro adgilebi da naxevrad (kvazi) sajaro adgilebi, romlebic xelmiuwvdomelia sazogadoebisaTvis konkretuli miznebis gansaxorcieleblad. aq sirTules qmnida isic, rom kriSnas saqmeSi gamoyenebuli dayofis miuxedavad, aeroportis xelmZRvaneloba nebas rTavs aeroportebis gamoyenebas nebismieri saxis gamoxatvisTvis, iqneba es politikuri Tu komerciuli. ama Tu im sajaro Tanamdebobis politikosi kandidatebi xSirad sargebloben aeroportebiT preskonferenciebis gasamarTad. biznesgarigebebze molaparakebebi xSirad aeroportebSi mimdinareobs. sajaro gazeTebiTa da saqonliT vaWrobisTvis pirebs aeroportebSi specialuri farTic ki gamoeyofaT. saqmeSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi kokindas winaaRmdeg73 mosamarTleTa umravlesobam gadawyvita, rom safosto ganyofilebis winamdebare trotuari ar warmoadgens `tradiciul sajaro TavSeyris adgils~ gamoxatvisaTvis. saqmeSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi greisis74 winaaRmdeg sasamarTlom gaauqma braldeba erT-erTi muxlis safuZvelze, romelic krZalavda gamoxatvas `uzenaesi sasamarTlos SenobebSi an teritoriaze.~ sasamarTlom arakanonierad gamoacxada am muxlis gamoyeneba erTerTi qalbatonis mimarT, romelic sasamarTlos irgvliv mdebare trotuarebze pirveli Sesworebis teqstian trafarets daatarebda. ufro adreul gadawyvetilebaSi sasamarTlom daadgina, rom trotuarebi, `didi tradiciebisa da samTavrobo brZanebis Sesabamisad, SeiZleboda Sekrebebisa da debatebisTvis gamoyenebuliyo.~ TumcaRa greisis saqmeSi sasamarTlos ar daufiqsirebia trotuarebis es tradiciuli

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roli, rogorc gamomxatvelobiTi saqmianobis adgili. amis nacvlad sasamarTlom wamoayena saintereso mosazreba, rom sasamarTlos irgvliv mdebare trotuarebi arafriT gansxvavdeba sxva trotuarebisgan da arc raime niSniT xasiaTdeba, rac maT SezRudul gamoyenebaze miuTiTebda.

kerpis Tayvaniscema ar gaiCinoT Cems garda sxva RmerTebi. ar gaikeTo kerpebi, arc rame xati... da ar sce Tayvani maT da ar emsaxuro. gamosvlaTa 20: 3-5 rodesac ieRovas mowmeebi evangeluri SezRudvebis winaaRmdeg ibrZodnen, maT im kanonebsa da wesebTan brZolac uxdebodaT, romlebic maT Svilebs saxelmwifo droSis misalmebas avaldebulebda. sxva religiuri jgufebisgan gansxvavebiT, maT konkretul sferoebSi warmatebebs miaRwies. jer kidev 1918 wels ohaios StatSi mcxovrebi menoniti damnaSaved cnes imisTvis, rom droSis misalmebaze uaris gamo saxlSi gagzavnil Tavis cxra wlis qaliSvils skolaSi aRar atarebda. aseve, nebraskis Statis maswavlebeli, romelic `uflis eklesiis~ wevri iyo da romelmac misalmebaze uari ganacxada, samsaxuridan daiTxoves. 1925 wels vaSingtonis StatSi cxra wlis biWs mcirewlovanTa gamosasworebel saxlSi yofna miusajes imis gamo, rom `elias xmis sazogadoebis~ wevr mSoblebs daemorCila da skolaSi droSas aRar esalmeboda. 1928 wels delaveris StatSi droSis armisalmebis gamo 38 moswavle garicxes.75 ieRovas mowmeebs kategoriuli pozicia misalmebis mimarT 1935 wlamde ar hqoniaT. am wels mosamarTle ruTerfordma dagmo hitleris gandideba germaniaSi (sadac ieRovas mowmeebs devnidnen) da misalmeba `Heil Hitler~ kerpTmsaxurebad gamoacxada. 1935 wlis 6 oqtombers erovnuli radios gadacemaSi ruTerfordma xotba Seasxa karlton b. niqols juniors, mesame klasis moswavles linSi, masaCusetsis StatSi, romelmac uari ganacxada droSis misalmebaze da Tavi `ufali ieRovas da misi samefos~ msaxurad gamoacxada. sul cota, ocdaaT StatSi droSis misalmeba kanonis an Cveulebis moTxovna iyo. ruTerfordis sityvis Semdeg ieRovas mowmeebis Svilebma mTeli qveynis teritoriaze uari ganacxades, am wesebs damorCilebodnen. 1936 wlisTvis 120 aseTi bavSvi skolebidan gairicxa, 1939 wlisTvis ki maTma ricxvma orass gadaaWarba. Statebis sasamarTloebma erTsulovnad Tqves uari ieRovas mowmeebis konstituciuri uflebis aRiarebaze. tipuri iyo uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare arTur ragis mier gamocxadebuli gadawyvetileba karlton niqolsis garicxvis gamarTlebis Sesaxeb. igi werda: `erTgulebis ficis dadebas araferi aqvs saerTo religiasTan. droSis winaSe ficis dadebis procesi ar Seicavs kerpTayvaniscemis an raime sxva religiuri ritualis elementebs.~76 rodesac 12 wlis doroTi leolsi jorjiis Statis skolidan droSis armisalmebis gamo garicxes, uzenaesma sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila misi moTxovna federalur iuris-diqciaze.77 amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianeba ieRovas mowmeebs daexmara, saqmeebis umetesoba Tavis Tavze aiRo da niu-jersis StatSi sanimuSo procesic Caatara. miuxedavad amisa, niu-jersis Statmac mxari dauWira garicxvis gadawyvetilebas, xolo uzenaesma sasamarTlom saCivari uaryo.78

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aSS-s uzenaes sasamarTloSi am sakiTxis pirveli srulyofili ganxilva pensilvaniis Statis erT-erTi qalaqis, minersvilis ganaTlebis sabWos qmedebas ukavSirdeba. 1935 wlis oqtomberSi sabWom lilian da uiliam gobitisebi, 12 da 10 wlisa, skolidan droSis armisalmebis gamo garicxa. Semdgom bavSvebi ocdaaTi milis moSorebiT mdebare ieRovas mowmeebis mier gaxsnil `samefos skolaSi~ dadiodnen. maTma mamam, valterma Svilebis skolaSi aRdgenisaTvis iuridiul daxmarebas mimarTa da 1937 wels olin r. moilma da amerikis samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa gaerTianebam federaluri sarCeli Seitanes bavSvebis skolaSi aRdgenis moTxovniT. saolqo mosamarTlem albert b. marisma, TviTon kvakerma, 1938 wlis 18 ivniss daadgina, rom ganaTlebis sabWom konstituciis me-14 Sesworeba daarRvia. saapelacio sasamarTlom, presbiterianeli uiliam klarkis TavmjdomareobiT, mxari dauWira qveda instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas. uzenaes sasamarTloSi ruTerfordi gobitisebis sasargeblod amtkicebda, rom `es sakiTxi~ ukavSirdeboda `Statis TviTnebur da totalitarul wess, romelic safrTxes uqmnida ufali ieRovas samefos Teokratiuli xelisuflebisadmi morCilebas.~ gobitisebis saqmis gadawyvetamde ori kviriT adre sasamarTlom qenTvelis79 saqmeze ieRovas mowmeebis sasargeblod erTsulovani gadawyvetileba gamoitana. magram es ar iyo raimes momaswavebeli niSani. uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare hiuzi gansakuTrebiT aqtiurobda saqmis ganxilvisas da uaryofda, rom irRveoda religiis Tavisufleba. hiuzma sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gamocxadeba mosamarTle frankfurters daavala. gobitisis saqmis Semdeg frankfurteri sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb werda da ambobda, rom `istoriis manZilze yvelaze metad galanZRul da devnil umciresobas, ebraelebs~ ekuTvnoda. igi TviTon avstria-ungreTidan amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Camosuli imigranti iyo. 1942 wlis 5 dekembers igi werda: `radgan arc erT formalur religiasTan mWidro kavSiri ar maqvs, CemTvis religiuri grZnobebi albaT ufro amerikis moqalaqeobis gaZlierebul grZnobebTan asocirdeba.~ gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad, me-14 Sesworeba moicavda ara marto pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebul aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulas, aramed religiis damwesebeli kanonebis akrZalvasac. es mosazreba, romelic sasamarTlos wevrebma erTsulovnad aRiares, gobitisis saqmis Semdeg kidev did xans sargeblobda gavleniT.

minersvilis ganaTlebis sabWo gobitisis winaaRmdeg80
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ama Tu im dogmis eqskluziur Tu yovlismomcvel sarwmunoebad dawesebisTvis saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare brZolas `uflebaTa bilSi~ religiis Tavisuflebis ganmtkiceba mohyva. pirveli da me-14 Sesworebebi miznad isaxavda amgvari ganmeorebiTi brZolebis Tavidan acilebas saxelmwifo religiis dadgenis akrZalvisa da TiToeuli seqtisTvis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofis gziT. am sayovelTaod aRiarebuli da Zvirfasi uflebis irgvliv dava mxolod maSin aris gamarTlebuli, rodesac, am saqmis msgavsad, sakiTxi individualur pirTa sindissa da sazogadoebis saWiroebebs Soris arsebul konfliqts exeba. eWvs gareSea, rom pirTa Sexedulebebi samyaros saidumloebaTa da maTTan adamianis urTierTobis Sesaxeb kanonismieri regulirebis farglebs scildeba. saxel-

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mwifos ar SeuZlia Caerios rwmenis Tu urwmunoebis organizebul an individualur gamoxatvaSi. rwmenis gavrcelebis — an Tundac sjulis uqonlobis — ufleba eklesiasa Tu samrekloSi, meCeTsa Tu sinagogaSi Tanabrad aris daculi. amis msgavsad, konstituciac aniWebs pirebs uflebas, iyvnen daculni garkveuli sanqciebisgan sakuTari religiuri saqmianobis ganxorcielebisas, Tundac es saqmianoba sxvaTa religiur Sexedulebebs exebodes, iqnebian isini umciresoba Tu dominanturi mimdinareobis warmomadgenlebi. magram adamianTa Soris urTierTobebis mravalferovan bunebas SeuZlia adamianis mier religiuri valdebulebebis aRqmasa da mis TanamcxovrebTa saero interesebs Soris konfliqti warmoSvas. Cveni da uamravi sxva sasamarTlos amJamindeli movaleobaa azrTa SeTavsebis Zieba da aseTi konfliqtis aRmofxvra. Tumca, radgan sindisis Tavisuflebis dacvisas saqme gvaqvs pirad interesebTan, romlebic gansakuTrebiT Zvirfasia, religiuri rwmenidan gamomdinare moTxovnebs moqmedebis farTo areali unda mieniWos. Cven gvesmis, rom erovnuli droSa aris simbolo Cveni erovnuli erTianobisa, romelic konstituciis farglebSi yvela Sida dapirispirebis daZlevis saSualebaa. am sasamarTlos hqonda SesaZlebloba daedgina, rom `droSa warmoadgens simbolos eris siZlierisa, Tavisuflebis emblemas misi WeSmariti mniSvnelobiT... is mianiSnebs mTavrobaze, romelic marTulTa Tanxmobas emyareba; Tavisuflebaze, romelic mxolod kanoniT aris regulirebuli; sustTa dacvaze Zlierebisgan; garantiaze TviTneburad xelisuflebis gamoyenebisgan, da Tavisufali institutebis absolutur usafrTxoebasa da dacvaze sagareo agresiisagan.~ am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs moqalaqeobis cnebis ganviTarebisa da Camoyalibebis periodTan. Cven Soris arsebobs mravali fsiqologiuri da eTikuri Sexeduleba imaze, Tu rogor sjobs bavSvTa aRzrda ise, rom maT sakuTari adgili moipovon sazogadoebaSi. ... Cven ukve davadgineT, rom, Tumca sajaro ganaTleba Cveni erT-erTi yvelaze Zvirfasi demokratiuli faseulobaa, uflebaTa bili ukrZalavs saxelmwifos, aiZulos bavSvi, sajaro skolaSi iaros. saskolo administracia cdilobs daamtkicos, rom aqvs ufleba TiToeuli bavSvi daafiqros erovnuli droSis mniSvnelobaze imisda miuxedavad, Tu ra mosazrebebs unergaven mas mSoblebi. amgvari mcdelobisas saxelmwifo, rogorc wesi, araxelsayrel mdgomareobaSi vardeba mSobelTa prerogativebTan WidilSi, sanam — da es aris religiuri tolerantobis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis elementi — mSoblebs aqvT xelSeuvali ufleba eWvqveS daayenon saganmanaTleblo programis calkeuli aspeqti. droSis misalmeba rom skolis programis misaRebi nawilia maTTvis, vinc did yuradRebas ar aqcevs sindisis Tavisuflebis sakiTxebs, kamaTs ar unda iwvevdes. magram Cven rom ugulebelvyoT misalmebis ceremoniis savaldebulo xasiaTi da vamtkicoT, rom gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebis mqone moswavleebi am ceremoniisgan dacvis specialuri imunitetiT unda sargeblobdnen, es igive iqneboda, rom gvemtkicebina, TiTqosda analogiuri imunitetis miniWeba saskolo disciplinaSi sirTulis elementebs ar Seitanda da sxva moswavleebs ar daafiqrebda misalmebis ceremoniis mizanSewonilobasa da saWiroebaze. ojaxuri urTierTobebis siwminde, mSoblebis statusisaTvis Sesaferisi uflebamosileba da damoukidebloba, realurad ki sruli TavisuflebiT sargebloba im

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mowesrigebuli sazogadoebis winapirobaa, romelic Cveni erovnuli droSis qveS moiazreba. sazogadoebas, romelic mzad aris civilizaciis saukeTeso faseulobebis SesanarCuneblad da dasacavad, SeuZlia TviTdacvis mizniT gamoiyenos saganmanaTleblo procesi moswavleebSi im qvecnobieri grZnobebis Casanergad, romlebic adamianebs aerTianebs mcire dapirispirebebisa da azrTa sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad. uzenaesma sasamarTlom mxari dauWira minersvilis ganaTlebis sabWos. istoriuli anotacia. miuxedavad imisa, rom gobitisis81 saqmeze sasamarTlom TiTqmis erTsulovani gadawyvetileba miiRo, iuridiul literaturaSi gadawyvetileba mravaljer gaakritikes. axalma respublikam, romlis dafuZnebaSi frankfurtersac miuZRvoda wvlili, ganacxada, rom sasamarTlo `saxifaTod axlos~ mivida omis isteriis msxverplad gadaqcevasTan. liberalur-protestantulma Jurnalma, `qristianulma saukunem~ ganacxada, rom `sasamarTloebi, romlebic ieRovas mowmeebs ver daicaven, ver daicaven nebismier sxvasac.~ iezuitebis Jurnali, `amerika~ werda, rom sasamarTlom nebarTva gasca `federaluri da Statebis konstituciebiT gawerili yvelaze Zvirfasi uflebebis~ destruqciaze. harvardis saganmanaTleblo mimomxilveli ki werda, rom am gadawyvetilebis Sedegad umciresobaTa samoqalaqo Tavisuflebebi `umravlesobis~ neba-survils unda damorCileboda. ocdacxrametma samarTlebrivma mimoxilvam imsjela am gadawyvetilebaze, da aqedan 31 kritikuli aRmoCnda. cotaa sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, romelmac Tanamedrove amerikaSi aseTi masStabis kritika daimsaxura. ieRovas mowmeebi ukve sakmaod arapopularulebi iyvnen. 1940 wlis 3 ivniss gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde isini texasis StatSi araerTxel gaxdnen brbos Zaladobis msxverplni. gadawyvetilebis gamotanis Semdeg pirebze individualuri Tavdasxmebi ganxorcielda meinis (cema, kenebukSi `samefo darbazis~ dawva), dasavleT virjiniis, vaiomingis (kuprSi amovleba da bumbulis dayra), nebraskis (kastracia), arkanzasis (srola), ilinoisis, indianis, merilendis, misisipisa da oregonis StatebSi (brbos Tavdasxma). incidentebis ormoci procenti or StatSi, oklahomasa da texasSi moxda. rogorc wesi, incidentebi patara qalaqebis aratolerantul garemoSi xdeboda. kanonismierma zomebma ieRovas mowmeebis mdgomareoba kidev ufro daamZima. mravalma sazogadoebam da Temma droSis misalmebis axali valdebulebebi SemoiRo. indianis StatSi ori qalbatoni daapatimres (2-dan 10 wlamde Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT) `droSis wabilwvis~ motiviT, radgan isini misalmebis sawinaaRmdego literaturas avrcelebdnen. Tumca maT winaaRmdeg gamotanili ganaCenebi saboloo jamSi gauqmda. misisipis Statis kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, `sanam amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da misisipis Statis sicocxlesa da arsebobas safrTxe emuqreba germaniis, italiisa da iaponiis qmedebebis Sedegad, omis dasrulebamde iseTi swavleba da literaturis gavrceleba, romelic `mizanmimarTulad mouwodebs droSis armisalmebis, Seuracxyofisa Tu upativcemulobisken~, gaxdes sisxlis samarTlis danaSauli da iyos dasjadi Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT.~ ieRovas mowme r. e. teilori am aqtis Sesabamisad gaasamarTles. daamtkica ra misi braleuloba sami xmiT samis winaaRmdeg, misisipis uzenaesma sasamarTlom uaryo teiloris sarCeli religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis Sesaxeb. sul cota ocdaTerTmet StatSi miRebul iqna samarTlebrivi zomebi sajaro skolebidan im ieRovas mowme bavSvebis gasaricxad, romlebic droSas ar esalmebodnen. federaluri xelisufle-

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bisa da uzenaesi sasamarTlos gauazrebeli nabijebisa da meore msoflio omiT daCrdilvis Sedegad 1941-1943 wlebSi ganxorcielebuli ieRovas mowmeebis `kanonieri~ da ukanono devna meoce saukunis amerikaSi religiuri Seuwynareblobis udides talRas warmoadgenda. sami Statis (kanzasis, minesotisa da vaSingtonis) sasamarTloebma uari Tqves gobitisis saqmeSi arsebul dasabuTebaze da Seiwynares isini, vinc droSas ar esalmeboda. iusticiis departamentis samoqalaqo uflebebis ganyofileba 1942 wlis 4 maiss amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prokurorebs urCevda, adgilobriv oficialur pirebTan erTad iseTi zomebi mieRoT, romlebic `Tavidan aicilebda RvTismsaxurebis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas.~ TviT uzenaes sasamarTloSi mosamarTleebi bleqi, duglasi da merfi erT-erTi saqmis ganxilvisas werdnen: `radgan Cven aqamde viziarebdiT gobitisis saqmis gadawyvetilebas, vfiqrobT, upriani iqneboda am SemTxvevaSi ganvacxadoT, rom is gadawyvetileba arasworad iyo miRebuli...~ 1942 wlis agvistoSi ieRovas mowmeebma gaasaCivres dasavleT virjiniis Statis ganaTlebis sabWos mier gamocemuli gankargulebis konstituciuri safuZvlebi. gankarguleba gobitisebis saqmidan aRebul asls warmoadgenda da moswavleebs droSis misalmebas avaldebulebda. mowmeTa nawili ukve garicxuli iyo virjiniis Statis skolebidan.

dasavleT virjiniis ganaTlebis sabWo barnetis winaaRmdeg82
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba 1940 wlis 3 ivnisis sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis Sedegad saqmeze minersvilis ganaTlebis sabWo gobitisis winaaRmdeg83 dasavleT virjiniis Statis sakanonmdeblo organom Sesworebebi Seitana calkeul sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi da daavaldebula yvela skola, CaetarebinaT saxelmZRvanelo kursebi istoriaSi, samoqalaqo urTierTobebsa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da mocemuli Statis konstituciebSi `amerikanizmis idealebis, principebisa da suliskveTebis swavlebisa da gavrcelebis, agreTve saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organizaciisa da marTvis Sesaxeb codnis gaRrmavebis mizniT.~ Statis skolebis zedamxedvelis rCeviT, ganaTlebis sabWos daevala sajaro skolebisaTvis aRniSnul sagnebSi saxelmZRvanelo kursebis SemuSaveba. aqtma aseve daavaldebula kerZo, samrevlo da religiuri skolebi, SeemuSavebinaT `sajaro skolebSi savaldebulos analogiuri kursebi.~ 1942 wlis 9 ianvars ganaTlebis sabWom gamosca gankarguleba, romelic umeteswilad gobitisis saqmis gadawyvetilebis detalebs Seicavda da brZanebda, rom droSis misalmebis ceremonia `sajaro skolebis programuli RonisZiebebis regularuli nawili~ gamxdariyo, da rom yvela maswavlebelsa da moswavles `moeTxoveboda droSiT warmodgenili eris pativiscemaSi misalmebis gziT monawileoba; droSis misalmebaze uari unda ganxiluliyo, rogorc daumorCilebloba da miRebuli unda yofiliyo adekvaturi zomebi.~ gankarguleba Tavdapirveli saxiT moiTxovda `droSis zogadad aRiarebuli wesiT misalmebas~, xolo am wess SemdgomSi gansazRvravda. mSobelTa da maswavlebelTa asociaciam, biWebisa da gogonebis skauturma organizaciebma, wiTelma jvarma da qalTa klubebis federaciam protesti gamoTqves, rom misalmebis es saxe `Zalian hgavda hitleris gandidebas~. Sedegad misalmebis proceduram garkveuli modifika-

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ciebi ganicada, magram ieRovas mowmeebisTvis es araviTar SeRavaTs ar warmoadgenda. axali moTxovnebis Sesabamisad mimsalmebels marjvena xeliT unda aeRo `gaWimuli saluti~ da Semdegi sityvebi gaemeorebina: `me viqnebi erTguli amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis droSisa da im respublikis, romelsac is warmoadgens; erTguli ganuyofeli erisa, sadac TavisuflebiTa da samarTlianobiT yvela Tanabrad sargeblobs.~ am wesis Seusabamo qmedeba ganisazRvra, rogorc `daumorCilebloba~, romelic garicxvis sanqciiT isjeboda. skolaSi xelaxla miReba, aqtis Tanaxmad, dauSvebeli iyo, Tu wesi ar Sesruldeboda. amasobaSi garicxul bavSvs `arasapatio gacdenebi~ eTvleboda da SesaZloa, es gacdenebi arasrulwlovnis mier samarTaldarRvevis Cadenad yofiliyo kvalificirebuli. moswavlis mSoblebi SesaZloa sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi miecaT, xolo braleulobis damtkicebis SemTxvevaSi maTTvis ara umetes 50 aSS dolaris odenobis jarima an ara umetes 30 dRiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa SeefardebinaT. mosarCeleebi, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da dasavleT virjiniis Statis moqalaqeebi, amerikis federalur saolqo sasamarTloSi Setanili sarCeliT moiTxovdnen sasamarTlo brZanebas, romelic SezRudavda am kanonebisa da wesebis gamoyenebas ieRovas mowmeebis mimarT. mowmeebi warmoadgenen garkveul jgufs, romelTa swavlebis mixedviT RmerTis mier dawesebuli valdebulebebi ufro maRla mdgomi WeSmaritebaa, vidre droebiTi xelisuflebis mier SemoRebuli kanonebi. maTi religiuri rwmena `gamosvlis~ meoce Tavis 4-5 (gamosvlaTa 20: 4-5) winadadebebs, romlis Tanaxmad: `ar gaikeTo kerpebi, arc raime xati imisa, rac aris maRla caSi, dabla miwaze da wyalSi miwis qveS; ar sce Tayvani maT, da arc emsaxuro~ sityvasityviT emTxveva. maT miaCniaT, rom droSa swored aseT `xats~ warmoadgens da am mizeziT isini uars amboben mis misalmebaze... `uflebebis bilis~ mTavari mizani swored zogierTi sakiTxis politikuri davebis sferosgan Camocileba da maTi im iuridiul principebad Camoyalibeba iyo, romlebiTac Tavad sasamarTloebi isargeblebdnen. sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da sakuTrebis ufleba, sityvisa da presis Tavisufleba, RvTismsaxurebisa da Sekrebis Tavisufleba da sxva fundamenturi uflebebi ar SeiZleba xmis micemis Sedegebs eqvemdebarebodes; isini ar SeiZleba emyarebodes aranairi arCevnebis Sedegebs. gobitisis saqmis84 dedaazris Tanaxmad, `erovnuli erToba erovnuli usafrTxoebis safuZvelia~ da xelisuflebas `aqvs ufleba, gamoiyenos Sesabamisi saSualebebi mis misaRwevad~. amis Sedegad gakeTda daskvna, rom `erovnuli erTobisken~ mimarTuli amgvari iZulebiTi zomebi absoluturad konstituciuria. am varaudis WeSmaritebazea damokidebuli mocemuli saqmis bedi. erovnuli erToba, rogorc xelisuflebis TviTmizani, am SemTxvevaSi davis sagans ar warmoadgens. problema ufro is aris, Cveni konstituciis farglebSi dasaSvebia Tu ara mis misaRwevad aseTi iZulebiTi zomebis gamoyeneba. Cven vqmniT Cvens mTavrobas marTulTa TanxmobiT da `uflebebis bili~ ar aZlevs xelisuflebis saTaveSi myofT uflebas, am Tanxmobaze raime saxis iZuleba moaxdinon. inteleqtualuri individualizmisa da kulturuli mravalferovnebis miRweva SesaZlebelia mxolod drodadro uCveulo da eqscentruli damokidebulebis uzrunvelyofis xarjze, rodesac isini iseTi zianis momtania sxvebisTvis an saxelmwifosTvis, rogorc mocemul SemTxvevaSi. safasuri Zalze didia, magram Tavisufleba,

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iyo gansxvavebuli ar aris SezRuduli umniSvnelo sakiTxebiT. es mxolod Tavisuflebis aCrdili iqneboda. Tavisuflebis arsi mdgomareobs uflebaSi, iyo gansxvavebuli warmodgenebis mqone arsebuli wesrigis fuZemdeblur sakiTxebze.swored amitom, arc erT maRal Tu dabal Tanamdebobis pirs ar SeuZlia daawesos an gansazRvros, ra iqneba orTodoqsuli politikis, nacionalizmis, religiisa Tu sxva sakiTxis mimarT da aiZulos moqalaqeebi, aqedan gamomdinare iwamon da imoqmedon. amJamad Cven ar gvafiqrdeba garemoeba, romelic aseT gamonakliss dauSvebda. miviCnevT, rom adgilobrivi xelisuflebis mxridan droSis misalmebisa da ficis dadebis iZuleba warmoadgens konstituciur farglebSi maTi uflebamosilebis gadametebas da rom es iZuleba iWreba inteleqtisa da sulierebis sferoSi, romlis oficialuri kontrolisgan dacvac swored amerikis konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis mizania. barnetis saqmis85 maswavlebelTa mimarT gavrcoba. 1977 wels masaCusetsis Statis sakanonmdeblo organom warmoadgina kanonproeqti, romlis Tanaxmad `saswavlo dRis pirveli gakveTilis dawyebisas yvela sajaro skolis TiToeul klasSi yovel maswavlebels moeTxoveboda~ klasisTvis droSis erTgulebis ficis deklamacia/sajarod wakiTxva. masaCusetsis Statis uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom am kanonmdeblobis damtkiceba pirveli Sesworebis darRveva iqneboda. dava droSis winaSe erTgulebis ficis dadebis sakiTxze amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis politikuri cxovrebis mniSvnelovan nawilad rCeba. magaliTisTvis, 1988 wlis saprezidento kampaniis dros maSindelma vice-prezidentma jorj buSma Tavisi oponenti, masaCusetsis Statis gubernatori maikl dukakisi swored imitom gaakritika, rom is uzenaesi sasamarTlos zemoT xsenebul dadgenilebas eTanxmeboda. licenzirebul nomerze teqstis iZulebiT datana. saqmeSi vuli meinardis winaaRmdeg86 ieRovas mowme aprotestebda niu-hempSiris Statis devizs `Tavisufalma icocxle an mokvdi~, romelic am Statis samanqano nomrebze iyo amotvifruli. mas bralad edeboda nomridan am sityvebis waSla. sasamarTlom daadgina, rom Stats ar SeuZlia Tavisi moqalaqeebi aiZulos, `gamoiyenon TavianTi sakuTreba, rogorc Statis ideologiis gamavrcelebeli mobiluri bilbordi.~ ufleba ar iyo fotografirebuli.87 frensis j. kvarings, qristians, sjeroda, rom `raime xatis argaCenis~ valdebuleba ukrZalavda mas arsebuli sagnebis msgavsi gamosaxulebis qonas. mas ar hqonda fotoebi, televizori, da ewinaaRmdegeboda saxlSi nebismieri saxis suraTis arsebobas. igi uars ambobda, Seesrulebina nebraskis Statis moTxovna da marTvis mowmobaze sakuTari fotosuraTi etarebina. saolqo sasamarTlom ori xmiT erTis winaaRmdeg daadgina, rom kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovna religiis Tavisuflebas zRudavda da rom nebraskam ver warmoadgina Statis sasicocxlo interesi misTvis fotosuraTis tarebis moTxovnaSi. mogvianebiT kvaringis saCivars mxari uzenaesma sasamarTlomac dauWira oTxi xmiT oTxis winaaRmdeg.88 uari mkvlelobaze, omis mxardaWerasa da masSi monawileobaze meore sjuli 5:17 `ara kac hkla~ fsalmuni 34: 14 `Seikave Seni ena borotebisgan da bageni Seni — cbieri sityvebisgan. eride borotebas da hqmen keTili; ezide mSvidoba da mihyevi mas~;

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fsalmuni 120: 6-7 `didxans mkvidrobda Cemi suli mSvidobis moZuleebTan. me mSvidoba msurs da, rom davilaparakeb, isini saomrad emzadebian.~ fsalmuni 122: 6-9 `iTxoveT mSvidoba ierusalimisTvis, damSviddnen moyvarulni Senni. iyos mSvidoba Sens zRudeebSi, simSvide Sens sasaxleebSi. CemTa ZmaTa da megobarTa gamo, vambob: mSvidoba Sen! Cveni ufali RmerTis saxlisTvis gisurveb sikeTes Sen.~ esaia 2: 3-4 `daiZreba uTvalavi xalxi da ityvis: modi, avideT uflis mTaze, iakobis saxlSi; gvaswavlos Tavisi gzebi da misi bilikiT viaroT, radgan rjuli sionidan gamova da uflis sityva — ierusalimidan. samarTals ganikiTxavs igi erebs Soris da amxilebs uTvalav xalxs; maxvilebisgan saxnisebs gamoWedaven da Subebisgan — namglebs, eri erze aRar aRmarTavs maxvils da aRaravin iswavlis oms.~ saxareba maTesi 5: 9 `netar arian mSvidobismyofelni, vinaidan isini RmrTis Zeebad iwodebian.~ saxareba maTesi 5: 21-25 `Tqven gsmeniaT winaparTa mimarT Tqmuli: ara kac-hkla; xolo vinc moklavs, samarTalSi unda mieces. me ki geubnebiT Tqven: vinc umizezod urisxdeba Tavis Zmas, samarTalSi unda mieces; xolo vinc etyvis Tavis Zmas: raka, sinedrions unda warudges; da vinc etyvis Tavis Zmas: Slego, cecxlis geenaSi unda Cavardes.~ saxareba maTesi 5: 38-41 `Tqven gsmeniaT, rom Tqmula: Tvali Tvalisa wil da kbili kbilisa wil. xolo me geubnebiT Tqven: nu aRudgebiT win borots; aramed vinc Semogkravs marjvena yvrimalSi, miuSvire mas meorec. da Tu vinmes surs giCivlos da wagarTvas Seni perangi, mieci mas mosasxamic. anda Tu vinme gaiZulebs, erTi milis manZilze gamomyevio, orze gahyevi mas.~ mahaTma gandi `Sen SegiZlia dartymas dartymiT upasuxo, Tu ar xar sakmarisad mamaci, rom mihyve araZaladobriv gzas.~ mahTma gandi `araZaladobrivi meTodebis gamoyeneba ar niSnavs „borotebis winaaRmdeg brZolaze uars~. piriqiT, araZaladobriobis Cemi koncefcia ufro aqtiuri da realuri brZolaa borotebis winaaRmdeg, vidre SurisZieba, romelic, Tavisi bunebidan gamomdinare, aZlierebs borotebas. me mwams gonebrivi da, Sesabamisad, moraluri winaaRmdegobis warmatebisa amoralobisa da uzneobis winaaRmdeg. me minda mTlianad davablagvo tiranis xmali ara ufro basri xmliT, aramed misi im molodinis gacruebiT, rom me mas fizikuri ZaliT davupirispirdebi. Cemma sulierma winaaRmdegobam is unda gaaognos. pirvelad aseTi winaaRmdegoba daabrmavebs mas, bolos ki aiZulebs, aRiaros damarcxeba, Tumca es damarcxeba ki ar Seuracxyofs mas, aramed sulierad ganaviTarebs. SeiZleba imis mtkiceba, rom es idealuri mdgomareobaa. da es asec aris.~

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keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis89 klasikuri wyaroebi. SeuZlia Tu ara sajaro moxeles, mosTxovos pirs samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis moTxovnis dasabuTeba? vTqvaT, samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebas pirovneba moiTxovs bibliaze dayrdnobiT. SeuZlia Tu ara am SemTxvevaSi saxelmwifos gamoscados piri imaSi, Tu ramdenad icis man zemoT aRniSnuli amonaridebi bibliidan? ris mixedviT unda ganisazRvros, ramdenad gulwrfelia samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis esa Tu is kandidati? moses zemoT moyvanili klasikuri mcnebebi krZalaven adamianis mkvlelobas. „ara kac hkla~ — aris ki es teqsti safuZveli imisa, rom piri gaTavisufldes samxedro samsaxurisgan? Zvel samyaroSi, manam, sanam sakraluri da sekularuli ar iyo erTmaneTisgan mkacrad gamijnuli, omi ara marto israelSi, aramed yvela mis axlo myof kulturaSi iTvleboda religiur saqmed. magaliTad, ieso naves wigni xazs usvams „wminda omis~ sakiTxs, romlis Tanaxmadac RmerTi TviTon exmareba israelis armias mtris rigebSi panikis TesviT. mowmobs ki aseTi teqstebi imas, rom morwmunes unda surdes omSi monawileobis miReba? meore mxriv, zemoT moyvanili fsalmunebi da amonaridi esaias winaswarmetyvelebidan miuTiTebs Zveli israelis miswrafebas mSvidobisken, rodesac saomari iaraRebi soflis meurneobis iaraRebad gadaiqceva da rodesac „eri ar aswevs laxvars sxva eris winaaRmdeg da aravin iswavlis oms~. ewinaaRmdegeba Tu ara es teqsti ieso naves monaTxrobs wminda omis Sesaxeb? niSnavs ki es imas, rom yvela morwmune pacifisti unda iyos? axali aRTqmis zemoT moyvanili pasaJebi iesos mier mSvidobis didebas da mis mier SurisZiebisa da borotebis dagmobas warmoadgens. SeuZlia Tu ara qristians an araqristians, romelic aRiarebs axali aRTqmis am nawils, daeyrdnos am teqstebs da daafuZnos maTze Tavisi keTilisindisieri winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT? gandis swavleba uaxles istoriaSi araZaladobrivi meTodebiT winaaRmdegobis albaT yvelaze efeqtur magaliTs gvTavazobs. misi moZRvrebis Sedegi, britanuli imperiis damxoba indoeTSi — imperiisa, romelic im dros yvelaze Zlieri iyo msoflioSi — namdvilad gasaocaria. gandis mrwamss induizmi warmoadgenda, Tumca is icnobda qristes moZRvrebas araZaladobriobaze. gandi aRwerda qristes, rogorc „ufliswuls pasiur mowinaaRmdgeTa Soris~. SeuZlia Tu ara keTilisindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadebels gandis moZRvrebaze dayrdnoba? pacifizmi da samarTliani omi. qristes moZRvrebis mimdevrebi eklesiis istoriis adreul periodSi seriozulad aRiqvamdnen mis swavlebas araZaladobriobaze da amis gamo uars acxadebdnen romaul jarSi msaxurze. sxvebi uars ambobdnen im motiviT, rom jariskacebi valdebulni iyvnen, daedoT erTgulebis fici imperatoris, rogorc RmerTis winaSe, es ki ewinaaRmdegeboda meore sjulis ZiriTad kanons, „nu geyoleba sxva RmerTebi Cem garda~90 da fundamentur qristianul rwmenas, rom ieso qriste aris RmerTi. mas Semdeg, rac qristianoba imperiis oficialur religiad iqca, qristianebma daiwyes fiqri ara marto imaze, dasaSvebi iyo Tu ara jarSi msaxuri, aramed imazec, SeeZlo Tu ara saxelmwifos ewarmoebina omi, da Tu SeeZlo, arsebobda Tu ara raime SezRudva, romelic qristianul religias omis mimarT unda daewesebina. samarTliani

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omis Teoriis ZiriTadi fuZemdebeli iyo avgustine avreliusi.91 Tanamedrove interpretatori mis Teorias mokled Semdegnairad ganmartavs: sami saxis omi SeiZleba yofiliyo moralurad gamarTlebadi: TavdacviTi omi agresiis winaaRmdeg; omi adre Cadenili usamarTlobis gamosasworeblad da omi moparuli da warTmeuli sakuTrebis dasabruneblad. magram mxolod istoriuli garemoebebi ar qmnis „samarTliani~ omis winapirobas. saTanado uflebamosilebiT aRWurvilma xelisuflebam unda gadawyvitos, rom omis warmarTva aucilebelia. mas Semdeg, rac aseTi gadawyvetileba iqneba miRebuli, jariskaci valdebulia daemorCilos brZanebas. ufro metic, omi unda warimarTos „marTlzomieri ganzraxviT~, anu ara SurisZiebis an didebisa da sargebelis mopovebis mizniT. omi aris marTalTa dasacavad aucilebeli sadamsjelo instrumenti, saWiro, raTa kanonis damrRvevebs ar mieces borotebis Cadenis saSualeba. marTlzomieri ganzraxva ara marto omis dawyebis gadawyvetilebaSi unda Candes, aramed mis samarTlianad warmarTvaSic. ar unda xdebodes umizezo Zaladoba, eklesiebis Seuracxyofa, morodioroba da genocidi. SurisZieba, sisastike da represiebi akrZaluli unda yofiliyo. avgustinem Seqmna samarTliani omis Teoriis ConCxi, romelsac safuZvlad mSvidobisken zneobrivi ltolva udevs. saukuneebis Semdeg saerTaSoriso samarTalSi miRweul iqna konsesusi imis Taobaze, Tu ra SemTxvevebSi SeiZleba iyos omi gamarTlebuli, kerZod: 1) Tu is gamocxadebulia da warmarTulia legitimuri xelisuflebis mier; 2) Tu amowurulia konfliqtebis gadaWris yvela mSvidobiani gza; 3) Tu is warmarTulia samarTliani safuZvliT (magaliTad mSvidobisa da samarTlianobis aRsadgenad) da warmatebis gonivruli imediT; 4) warmarTulia proporciulobis principis Sesabamisad, romlis Tanaxmadac, sikeTe, romelic omiT unda iqnes miRweuli, ufro didia, vidre boroteba, romelic Tan sdevs oms da 5) warmarTulia omis kanonis farglebSi. magaliTad, uzrunvelyofilia imuniteti mSvidobiani mosaxleobisTvis. SeuZlia Tu ara keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadebels, miuxedavad imisa, religiuria is Tu ara, daeyrdnos samarTliani omis am Teorias da moiTxovos samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisufleba? Tu keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ufleba mxolod pacifistebs unda hqondeT? Tu pasuxi dadebiTia, aZlevs Tu ara es daskvna saxelmwifos imis uflebas, rom mianiWos romelime religias upiratesoba sxvasTan SedarebiT? vTqvaT, saxelmwifom gadawyvita, rom esa Tu is piri samxedro samsaxurisgan samarTliani omis Teoriis Sesabamisad unda gaTavisufldes. maSin SeiZleba Tu ara, rom aseTi gaTavisufleba scildebodes moTxovnis farglebs? anu, sxva sityvebiT, Tu pirma, vTqvaT, keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba gamoxata konkretul omSi monawileobaze, SeiZleba Tu ara is gaTavisufldes omTan dakavSirebuli yovelgvari samsaxurisgan? `moTxovna, rom adamianma moklas sxva da Seswiros Tavisi sicocxle, yvelaze mkacri moTxovnaa, rac ki sazogadoebam SeiZleba daakisros Tavis moqalaqes. moTxovnis pirveli nawili _ sxvis mosaklavad mzadyofna _ ewinaaRmdegeba qristianul religiur tradiciebs, romlebmac safuZveli Cauyares amerikul kulturas. es ar niSnavs, TiTqos qristianebis umravlesobas qveynis istoriis manZilze swamda, rom adamianis mokvla zneobrivad gaumarTlebeli iyo, ubralod, saxarebiseuli eTika da eklesiis pacifisturi mimarTuleba TavisTavad svams kiTxvas: SeiZleba Tu ara saerTod aseTi mkvlelobis gamarTleba?~92

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rezolucia keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze, pirveli kontinenturi kongresi (1775) radganac arseboben adamianebi, romelTac ar SeuZliaT iaraRis tareba TavianTi religiuri principebis gamo, es kongresi ar avaldebulebs maT, aramed urCevs, nebayoflobiT Seitanon wvlili sayovelTao gasaWiris Jams TavianTi moZmeebis tanjvis SemsubuqebaSi da sakuTari religiuri principebis Sesabamisad emsaxuron TavianT qveyanas. aqti seleqciuri msaxurobis Sesaxeb (1917)93 aqti uzrunvelyofda samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebas mxolod „kargad organizebuli religiuri seqtis an moqmedi organizaciis wevrebisTvis, romelTa mrwamsi da principebi ukrZalaven mis wevrebs, monawileoba miiRon omSi nebismieri formiT.~ samxedro samsaxurisgan mxolod pacifisturi eklesiis wevrebis gaTavisuflebas is upiratesoba aqvs, rom saxelmwifosTvis ufro advilia gansazRvra, vin unda iyos gaTavisuflebuli da vin _ ara. magram aris ki administraciuli xelsayreloba konstituciuri standarti? aris ki tradiciuli pacifisturi eklesiis wevroba, rogoricaa, magaliTad, megobarTa sazogadoeba (Society of Friends), igive kvakerebi, imis winapiroba, rom mis wevrs aqvs pacifisturi mrwamsi? gamoricxavs ki pacifisturi jgufis arawevroba samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebas, miuxedavad imisa, rom pirs SeiZleba pacifisturi jgufis wevris identuri Sexedulebebi hqondes? rodesac amerika meore msoflio omisTvis emzadeboda, kongresma gaauqma tradiciuli eklesiis wevrobis moTxovna da miiRo Semdegnairad Sesworebuli aqti: aqti samxedro samsaxurSi seleqciuri gawvevis Sesaxeb (1940)94 „es aqti ar SeiZleba gagebul iqnes, rogorc moTxovna, rom adamianma, romelic religiuri ganaTlebisa da mrwamsis gamo keTilsindisierad winaaRmdegia omSi monawileobisa nebismieri formiT, monawileoba miiRos SeerTebuli Statebis saxmeleTo Tu sazRvao Zalebis sabrZolo momzadebasa da samsaxurSi. nebismier pirs, romelic iTxovs sabrZolo momzadebisa da samsaxurisagan gaTavisuflebas da adgilobrivi sabWo mas, misi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis gamo, daukmayofilebs moTxovnas, aqvs ufleba, sazRvao an saxmeleTo ZalebSi gawvevis SemTxvevaSi imsaxuros arasabrZolo samsaxurSi ise, rogorc es gansazRvrulia prezidentis mier; an Tu is keTilsindisierad winaaRmdegia aseT arasabrZolo samsaxurSi msaxurobisa, miuxedavad misi aseTi gawvevisa, mieces ufleba, imuSaos saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis samuSaoze samoqalaqo ganxriT~. 1940 wlis aqti samxedro samsaxurSi seleqciuri gawvevis Sesaxeb bevrad farTo iyo, vidre 1917 wlisa. am ukanasknelisagan gansxvavebiT, romelic samxedro samsaxurisgan mxolod „kargad organizebuli religiuri seqtis~ wevrebs aTavisuflebda, es aqti pirisgan mxolod „religiur ganaTlebasa da mrwamss moiTxovda~.

SeerTebuli Statebi zigeris winaaRmdeg95
zigeri niu-iorkis samxreT olqis sasamarTlom samxedro samsaxurSi msaxurze uaris gamo gaasamarTla. man pirvelad 1957 wels gamoxata keTilsindisieri winaaR-

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mdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT. man ganacxada, rom Tavisi religiuri mrwamsis gamo winaaRmdegi iyo, monawileoba mieRo omSi nebismieri formiT. seleqciuri samsaxuris sistemis formis Sevsebisas man Riad datova SekiTxva imis Taobaze, swamda Tu ara uzenaesi arsebis da ganacxada, rom misi „skepticizmi Tu RmerTis rwmenis arqona ar niSnavda imas, rom mas arafris ar swamda~. mas „swamda sikeTisa da saTnoebisa da hqonda religiuri rwmenis tolfasi wminda eTikuri mrwamsi~. zigers inteleqtualuri da zneobrivi patiosnebisadmi Tavisi eTikuri mrwamsis mxardasaWerad platonis, aristotelesa da spinozas sityvebi mohyavda. zigeris eTikuri mrwamsi iyo RvTis rwmena ara Cveulebrivi, tradiciuli gagebiT, aramed Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli datvirTviT. misi mrwamsi sasamarTlom cno, rogorc gulwrfeli, patiosani da keTilsindisierad gamoxatuli, xolo misi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba — individualur ganaTlebasa da mrwamsze dafuZnebuli. miuxedavad amisa, zigers uari eTqva samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebaze imis safuZvelze, rom misi mrwamsi ar efuZneboda uzenaesi arsebisadmi rwmenas, rogorc moiTxovda aqtis me-6 muxli.96 zigeris damcvelma aRiara, rom zigeris mrwamsi ar emyareboda uzenaesi arsebisadmi im rwmenas, romelic zogadad iyo aRiarebuli, magram mas mainc ekuTvnoda gaTavisufleba, radgan arsebuli kanoniT zigeris mrwamsi Seesabameboda religiis ganmartebas da akmayofilebda aqtSi moyvanili religiuri ganaTlebisa da mrwamsis ganmartebas. saapelacio sasamarTlom gaauqma pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. man ganacxada, rom aqtSi moyvanili uzenaesi arsebisadmi rwmenis moTxovna ganasxvavebda erTmaneTisgan „Sinagan da gare samyarosgan Tavs moxveul mrwamss~, rac dauSvebeli klasifikacia~ iyo mexuTe Sesworebis jerovani samarTlebrivi proceduris klauzulis mixedviT. jekobsoni aseve gasamarTlebul iqna niu-iorkis samxreT olqis sasamarTlos mier samxedro samsaxurSi msaxurze uaris gamo. saapelacio sasamarTlom gaauqma qvemdebare sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba: samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebaze uari emyareboda araswor faqtobriv informacias imis Taobaze, rom jekobsons ar swamda uzenaesi arsebisa. 1958 wels jekobsonma pirvelad moiTxova keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadeblis statusi. man ganacxada, rom swamda „adamianis Semoqmedi~ uzenaesi arsebis, romelic „uzenaesi WeSmaritebaa~ da romlis „Sedegicaa adamianTa arseboba~. misTvis yvelaze „mniSvnelovani religiuri wesi~ iyo is, rom „aravin Tavisi surviliT ar unda gawiros sxva adamianis sicocxle raime miznis misaRwevad~. 1958 wels man moiTxova samxedro samsaxurisgan sruli gaTavisufleba, ganacxada ra, rom raime formiT monawileoba samxedro samsaxurSi aiZulebda mas, CarTuliyo procesebSi, romlebic mZime tvirTad daawveboda mis sindiss. man vrceli memorandumi warmoadgina, sadac religia ganmarta, rogorc „adamianis arsebobis fundamenturi problemebisadmi adamianis damokidebulebis arsi~. man ganacxada, rom swamda RmerTis, rogorc samyaros arsebobis ZiriTadi mizezisa. misi azriT, arsebobda ori saxis kavSiri RmerTTan: vertikaluri, anu pirdapiri da horizontaluri kavSiri adamianebisa da samyaros meSveobiT. igi am ukanasknels aRiarebda. sabWom ar gaaTavisufla jekobsoni omSi yvelanairi formiT monawileobisgan. jekobsonma gadawyvetileba gaasaCivra. sakiTxis ganmxilvelma Tanamdebobis pirma gadawyvita, rom jekobsonis moTxovna, gaTavisuflebuliyo samxedro samsaxurisgan, pirad zneobriv kodeqss eyrdnoboda da rom misi

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moTxovna gulwrfeli ar iyo. Sesabamisad, saapelacio sabWom uaryo jekobsonis moTxovna. sabWom ar ganmarta, ras efuZneboda misi aseTi gadawyvetileba — aragulwrfelobas Tu imas, rom jekobsonis rwmena pirad zneobriv kodeqss eyrdnoboda. saapelacio sasamarTlom Secvala gadawyvetileba dausabuTeblobis motiviT, radgan ver gaarkvia, ras efuZneboda saapelacio sabWos gadawyvetileba da ganacxada, rom jekobsonis moTxovna srul SesabamisobaSi modioda aqtTan. forest brit peteri kaliforniis CrdiloeT olqis sasamarTlom gaasamarTla samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevaze uaris braldebiT. seleqciuri samsaxuris sistemis formaSi man miuTiTa, rom ar miekuTvneboda arc erT religiur seqtas an organizacias. man gaaprotesta SekiTxva, swamda Tu ara uzenaesi arsebis, da ganacxada, rom misi pasuxi damokidebuli iyo uzenaesi arsebis ganmartebaze. man aseve daamata, rom Tavisi zneobrivi kodeqsis darRvevad miiCnevda adamianis sicocxlis xelyofas, da rom aseTi rwmena ufro Rirebulad miaCnda, vidre saxelmwifos winaSe valdebuleba. Tavisi mrwamsis religiuri xasiaTis dasamowmeblad, man moiyvana religiis jon heines holmsiseuli ganmarteba, romlis mixedviT religia aris „gacnobiereba bunebaSi garkveuli Zalis manifestaciisa, romelic exmareba adamians, moawesrigos Tavisi cxovreba misi moTxovnebis Sesabamisad ... [es] aris swored adamianis bunebis uzenaesi gamoxatuleba.~ rac Seexeba mis rwmenas, peterma ganacxada: „[mas] SeiZleba daerqvas uzenaesi arsebis rwmena. ubralod, es ar aris is sityvebi, romlebsac me vxmarob~. 1959 wels ar iqna dakmayofilebuli misi keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobaze damyarebuli moTxovna, Tumca masalebSi aranairi mtkicebuleba ar moipoveba imisa, rom is gulwrfeli ar iyo Tavis rwmenaSi. misi gasamarTlebis Semdeg samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevaze uaris braldebiT saapelacio sasamarTlom aRiara, rom peteri gulwrfeli iyo Tavis mrwamsSi, Tumca daamtkica gadawyvetileba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, azrTa gacvlas iseT fundamentur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, rogoricaa adamianis sicocxle, sikvdili an misi saboloo gankiTxva, gamoyenebuli enis imgvari araadekvaturoba axasiaTebs, rogorc arc erT sxva sferos. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, es garemoeba arTulebs kongresis mier termin „uzenaes arsebaSi~ Cadebuli sazrisis gagebas. am situacias kidev ufro arTulebs individebis sulieri cxovrebis simdidre da mravalferovneba. SeerTebul StatebSi daaxloebiT 250 seqta arsebobs. zogierTs RmerTis swams, zogierTs — garkveuli zebunebrivi RvTaebis, sxvebs religia warmoudgeniaT, rogorc cxovrebis iseTi forma, romlis saboloo mizania adamianebis Tanaarseboba srulyofili urTierTgagebisa da mSvidobis pirobebSi. arian iseTebic, romelTac RmerTi adamianTa arsebobis sazrisad warmoudgeniaT. sxvebi, magaliTad budistebi, iseTi simSvidis mdgomareobisken miiswrafvian, romelic sakuTari Tavis uaryofiTa da sulieri ganwmendiT miiRweva. induizmis filosofiaSi uzenaesi arseba zebunebrivi realobaa, romelic aris WeSmariteba, codna da bedniereba. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, religiuri rwmenis aseTi mravalferovneba imaze miuTiTebs, Tu raoden rTulad gadasawyveti problemis winaSe idga kongresi, rodesac samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisufleba dauSva. es garemoeba imasac usvams xazs, raoden didi yuradReba dasWirda kongress imisTvis, rom sworad Camoeyalibebina sam-

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xedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis pirobebi, romlebic winaaRmdegobaSi ar unda mosuliyo religiuri rwmenisadmi gansxvavebuli midgomis dauSveblobis karga xnis win damkvidrebul politikasTan. Tumca, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, mainc arsebobda garkveuli saxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebze dayrdnobiTac SeiZleboda msjeloba konkretuli piris samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis sakiTxze. 1940 wlis aqtSi Sesworebis SetaniT kongresma mizanmimarTulad Secvala sityva „RmerTi~ uzenaesi arsebiT, raTa gaefarToebina kanonis moqmedebis sfero. kongresma aseve Tavi Seikava uzenaesi arsebis bunebis ganmartebisgan, miiRo ra mxedvelobaSi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomaris gafrTxileba, romlis mixedviTac TviT sityva „RmerTs~ morwmuneTaTvis sxvadasxvagvari mniSvneloba aqvs. garda amisa, samxedro samsaxurSi seleqciuri gawvevis Sesaxeb aqtis mixedviT, samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis ZiriTad saxelmZRvanelo principad aRiarebulia „religiuri ganaTleba da mrwamsi~. sabolood, uzenaesma sasamarTlom zemoTqmuli Semdegi testis saxiT Camoayaliba: gulwrfeli da gonivruli mrwamsi, romelic misi mflobelisTvis igivea, rac sxvebisaTvis, (vinc samxedro samsaxurisgan Tavisufldeba) _ RmerTi, Seesabameba sakanonmdeblo ganmartebas. daskvnis saxiT sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom zigers marTlac hqonda religiuri mrwamsi. am gulwrfeli mrwamsis fonze, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, sabWo aucileblad gaaTavisuflebda mas samxedro samsaxurisgan, zemoT moyvanili testi rom gamoeyenebina. sasamarTlos azriT, mrwamss, romelmac masSi winaaRmdegoba gamoiwvia, mis cxovrebaSi is adgili ekava, romelic tradiciul RvTaebas uWiravs misi megobrebis, kvakerebis cxovrebaSi. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom SeiZleboda, zigers naTlad ver moexdina imis demonstrireba, Tu ras warmoadgenda misi mrwamsi `uzenaesi arsebis~ ordinaluri gagebis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, es ar iyo mniSvnelovani, radganac, rogorc iTqva, kongress arc ufiqria aseTi testis SemoRebaze. jekobsonis saqmeSi saapelacio sasamarTlom daadgina, rom ganmcxadebelma SeZlo omisadmi misi winaaRmdegobis kavSiris demonstrireba uzenaes arsebasTan. uzenaesma sasamarTlom daamtkica es gadawyvetileba. rac Seexeba forest peteris saqmes, uzenaesma sasamarTlom moiyvana peteris sityvebi mis mrwamsTan dakavSirebiT: „[mas] SeiZleba daerqvas uzenaesi arsebisadmi rwmena. ubralod, es ar aris is sityvebi, romlebsac me vxmarob~. Sesabamisad, zemoT moyvanili principebidan gamomdinare, sasamarTlom daakmayofila peteris moTxovnac. zigeris saqmis Semdeg, 1967 wels, universaluri samxedro ganaTlebisa da samsaxuris Sesaxeb aqti Sesworda da amoRebul iqna termini „uzenaesi arseba~. Tumca isev SenarCunda formulireba, rom „religiuri ganaTleba da rwmena~ ar moicavda „ZiriTadad politikur, socialur an filosofiuri Sexedulebebs, an ubralod pirad zneobriv normebs~. Sesworebuli aqtis intepretirebis ilustrirebaa saqme uelSi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg.

uelSi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg97 mosarCele eliot eSton uelS I I SeerTebuli Statebis saolqo sasamarTlom braleulad cno samxedro ZalebSi msaxurze uaris safuZvelze da miusaja sami wliT

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Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. saapelacio sasamarTlom, mas Semdeg, rac daaskvna, rom momCivnis keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas aranairi religiuri safuZveli ar hqonda, daamtkica pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoiTxova es saqme qvemdgomi instanciis sasamarTlodan, raTa dava uelSis patimrobis gauqmebis Sesaxeb uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier zigeris saqmeSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis safuZvelze ganexila. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoyo is mizezebi, romlebze dayrdnobiTac saapelacio sasamarTlom gadawyvetileba miiRo da romelTa safuZvelzec mTavrobas surda zigerisa da uelSis saqmeebis erTmaneTisgan gansxvaveba. pirveli mizezi iyo is, rom uelSma, zigerisgan gansxvavebiT, uaryo misi Sexedulebebis religiuroba. magaliTad, keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis Sesaxeb gancxadebis formis Sevsebisas zigerma brWyalebSi Casva sityva „religia~, xolo uelSi mas pirdapir Seexo da mogvianebiT Tavisi mrwamsis wyarod „istoriisa da sociologiis~ sferoebSi miRebuli codna daasaxela. saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, uelSma „uaryo, rom misi winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris mimarT religiur mrwamsze~ iyo dafuZnebuli da daaskvna, rom „saapelacio sabWo valdebuli iyo daejerebina misi sityvebisTvis~. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, zigeris saqmis uelSis saqmisgan gansxvavebis aseTi mcdeloba arasworia im mizezis gamo, rom is gadametebul yuradRebas uTmobs ganmcxadeblis mier sakuTari rwmenis interpretacias. misi mosazrebiT, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadeba zigeris saqmeSi, rom ganmcxadeblis mier sakuTari rwmenis daxasiaTebas didi mniSvneloba unda mieniWos, ar niSnavda, rom am saqmeSic ganmcxadeblis mier Tavisi Sexedulebebis arareligiurad cnobas aseve didi mniSvneloba unda miniWeboda. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT, rodesac piri acxadebs, rom misi winaaRmdegoba omis mimarT religiur xasiaTs atarebs — es informacia sakmaod relevanturia im sakiTxis gasarkvevad, ra roli aqvs am mrwamss mis cxovrebaSi. magram, radganac cotam Tu icis sityva `religiis~ farTo buneba, amitom ganmcxadeblis gancxadeba imis Taobaze, rom misi rwmena arareligiuria, sakmaod arasando dasayrdenia maTTvis, vinc samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis administrirebas uzrunvelyofs. sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, uelSis saqme swored is SemTxvevaa, romelic zemoaRniSnul sakiTxs exeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom man Tavdapirvelad Tavisi rwmena daaxasiaTa, rogorc arareligiuri, mogvianebiT sakmaod damafiqrebeli werili miswera saapelacio sabWos, romelSic ganacxada, rom misi rwmena namdvilad religiuri iyo, magram „religiis eTikuri gagebiT~. man aseve ganmarta: „me vaxsene, rom adamianisTvis sicocxlis warTmeva ar mimaCnia religiur codvad. me megona, rom batoni bredi — iusticiis departamentis Tanamdebobis piri, romelic ixilavda uelSis saCivars _ religias misi tradiciuli gagebiT gulisxmobda, amitom, sruliad gulwrfeli rom vyofiliyavi, me ar damixasiaTebia Cemi rwmena, rogorc religiuri~. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, meore mizezi, romelze dayrdnobiTac mTavroba cdilobda am ori saqmis erTmaneTisgan gansxvavebas, iyo is, rom zigerisgan gansxvavebiT, uelSis Sexedulebebi, „ZiriTadad politikuri, sociologiuri an filosofiuri Sexedulebebi an ubralod piradi zneobrivi kodeqsi~ iyo. adgilobrivi sabWosadmi

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uelSis werilSi vkiTxulobT: „me SemiZlia mxolod vimoqmedo imis mixedviT, Tu vin var me da rogori Sexeduleba maqvs ama Tu im sakiTxze. me vfiqrob, rom samxedro sistema umiznod xarjavs adamianur da materialur resurss da aRvivebs indiferentulobas adamianuri saWiroebebisa da miznebis mimarT. me vfiqrob, rom saSualebebi, romlebiTac Cven vcdilobT „davicvaT~ Cveni cxovrebis wesi, radikalurad cvlis amave cxovrebis wess. me aseve vfiqrob, rom Tu ar vaRiarebT Cvens politikur, socialur da ekonomikur realobebs, Cven, rogorc eri, ver avasrulebT im pasuxismgeblobas, rac gvakisria.~ uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, piroba, rom keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba ar unda emyarebodes „politikur, sociologiur an filosofiur Sexedulebebs, an ubralod pirad zneobriv normebs~, ar gulisxmobs calsaxad imas, rom aseTi Sexedulebebis mqone pirebi ar SeiZleba gaTavisufldnen samxedro samsaxurisgan. Tu pirs marTlac myari Sexedulebebi aqvs qveynisaTvis mniSvnelovan saSinao da sagareo sakiTxebze, an, Tundac, omSi monawileobis winaaRmdeg misi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba, arsebiTad, emyareba Sexedulebebs saxelmwifo politikaze, is SeiZleba gaTavisufldes samxedro samsaxurisgan. magram, Tu piris Sexedulebebi ar aris myari, an misi winaaRmdegoba omis mimarT saerTod ar efuZneba zneobriv, eTikur an religiur principebs, aramed emyareba mTlianad politikas, pragmatizmsa da racionalobas, maSin is ar SeiZleba gaTavisufldes samxedro samsaxurisgan. uelSis gancxadebiT, mas „sjeroda, rom adamianisTvis sicocxlis warTmeva zneobrivi codva iyo~. Tavdapirvel gancxadebaSi man aseTi ram dawera: „me mjera, rom adamianis sicocxle TavisTavad Rirebuli ramaa. Sesabamisad, aravis mivayeneb zians, arc movklav. es mrwamsi (da Sesabamisi valdebuleba, Tavi Sevikavo sxvis mimarT Zaladobisgan) ar aris ufro aRmatebuli, vidre is, romelic adamianebs Soris urTierTobis Sedegad warmoiSoba. es aris mrwamsi, romelic gadamwyvet rols asrulebs adamianebs Soris urTierTobaSi. Sesabamisad, me ar SemiZlia davemorCilo saxelmwifos moTxovnas da vikisro is valdebulebebi, romlebic, Cemi azriT, amoraluri da winaaRmdegobrivia~. uelSis am mrwamsze da saapelacio sasamarTlos daskvnis safuZvelze, rom uelSs marTlac gaaCnda aseTi mrwamsi, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom is imsaxurebda samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebas. mosamarTle harlenis Tanmxvedri azri mosamarTlis azriT, konstituciuri sakiTxi, romelsac pasuxi unda gascemoda am saqmeSi, iyo is, hqonda Tu ara kongress ufleba, mieRo kanoni, romelic pirs samxedro samsaxurisgan mxolod maSin aTavisuflebda, Tu misi Sexedulebebi Teistur religiur mrwamss eyrdnoboda. mosamarTlis mixedviT, kongress, ra Tqma unda, SeeZlo konstituciis daurRvevlad ar gaeTavisuflebina keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadeblebi samxedro samsaxurisgan. aseTi kursi „neitraluri~ iqneboda da, misi azriT, ar daarRvevda aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulas. Tumca kongress, radganac arCia, rom daeSva samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisufleba, ar SeeZlo gaevlo zRvari Teistur da araTeistur religiur mrwamssa da sekularul mrwamss Soris. aseTi gansxvaveba, mosamarTlis azriT, ar Seesabameboda konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis religiis dawesebis princips. marqsistuli komunizmi, rogorc religia. komunizmis mkvlevrebi xSirad axasiaTeben mas, rogorc religias. komunizmi adamianuri urTierTobis farTo mimoxilvas

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moicavs da marqsistul morals da cxovrebis wess gvTavazobs. advilia paralelebis gavleba komunistur ierarqiasa da misionerebsa da qristianul ierarqiasa da misionerebs Soris. komunizmi gvTavazobs „socialur xsnas~ usamarTlobis aRmofxvris Semdeg, gansxvavebiT qristianuli religiisgan, romelic aseTi gadarCenis SesaZleblobas sikvdilis Semdeg xedavs, rodesac samarTlianoba izeimebs. komunisturi rwmena, rom klasobrivi brZola gardauvalia da rom es brZola proletariatis gamarjvebiT damTavrdeba, winaswarmetyvelebis garkveuli formaa. marTlac, marqsis bevri idea bibliidanaa gadmoRebuli. komunizmi ar iTvleba religiad konstituciis pirveli Sesworebis miznebidan gamomdinare. Tumca Tu sityva „RmerTi~ amoRebuli iqneba religiis ganmartebidan, ratom ar SeiZleba komunizmi religiad CavTvaloT? yvelaze martivi argumenti is aris, rom Tavad komunizmi ar aRiarebs sakuTar Tavs religiad. magram davuSvaT, komunisturma partiam ganacxada pretenzia imaze, rom misi moZRvreba aRiarebul iqnes religiad. SeuSlis ki politikuri xasiaTi mis religiad kvalificirebas? gana islami naklebad samarTlianad iTvleba religiad, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas didi politikuri mniSvneloba aqvs centraluri aziis mravali qveynisTvis? arCeviTi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba. roca vietnamis omis winaaRmdeg opozicia gaZlierda, gaCnda keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis axali saxe. vietnamis omis mowinaaRmdegeni ar iyvnen mxolod tradiciuli pacifistebi, romlebsac swamdaT, rom omi arasodes araa gamarTlebuli saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis gadasaWrelad. am omis mowinaaRmdegeebSi iyvnen iseTebic, romelTac swamdaT, rom omi garkveuli garemoebebisas zneobrivad dasaSvebi da aucilebelic kia, magram yovelnairad gaumarTlebelia sxva SemTxvevaSi. aseTi pozicia cnobilia „SerCeviTi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis~ saxeliT. uelSis saqmis Semdeg sasamarTlom ori msgavsi saqme ganixila. porter jiletis saqme uelSis saqmes ori garemoebiT waagavda: vietnamis omis winaaRmdeg misi protesti „myar religiur, eTikur da zneobriv Sexedulebebs~ emyareboda. aseve, uelSis msgavsad, manac uari ganacxada, damorCileboda samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis moTxovnas. luis negrma kaTolikuri seminaria daamTavra. man kargad icoda vatikanis meore msoflio saeklesio krebis gancxadeba usamarTlo omis dagmobis Sesaxeb: „saomari qmedeba, romelic mimarTulia nebismieri qalaqisa Tu vrceli adgilis gasanadgureblad iq mcxovreb mosaxleobasTan erTad, danaSaulia RmerTisa da Tavad adamianis winaaRmdeg. aseTi qmedeba erTmniSvnelovnad da dauyovnebliv imsaxurebs dagmobas.~ negrma es swavleba vietnamis omis mimarT gamoiyena da gadawyvita, rom es konkretuli omi ar SeiZleboda yofiliyo gamarTlebuli, TviTon mas ki ar SeeZlo emsaxura jarSi. negri uelSisgan Semdegi ori mizeziT gansxvavdeboda: mas ar gamouxatavs winaaRmdegoba samxedro samsaxuris, rogorc aseTis, mimarT da ukve iyo samxedro samsaxurSi, rodesac uari ganacxada ufrosis brZanebebis Sesrulebaze vietnamSi gamgzavrebis Taobaze. garda amisa, brZanebis Sesrulebaze negris uari ar emyareboda bundovan „yofierebis safuZvels~, aramed efuZneboda misi eklesiis swavlebas iseTi konfliqtebis zneobriobaze, rogoric vietnamis omi iyo. arsebobs kidev erTi gansxvaveba uelSisa da jiletis saqmeebs Soris. uelSis saqmeSi sasamarTlom farTo mniSvnelobiT ganmarta kanoni. jiletisa da negris saqmeebSi ki sasamarTlom sityvasityviT miiRo kanonis ena da gaTavisufleba mxolod

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maTTvis dauSva, „vinc keTilsindisierad ewinaaRmdegeboda omSi nebismieri formiT monawileobas~. es ori saqme daxasiaTebul iqna, rogorc „yvelaferi an araferi: arCeviTi keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis marcxi~. winamdebare saqmeebi warmoaCens sakiTxs imis Taobaze, aTavisuflebs Tu ara adamians samxedro samsaxurisgan konkretuli omis da ara zogadad omis mimarT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba. kerZod, sasamarTlos unda gadaewyvita, konkretuli omis mimarT winaaRmdegoba iyo Tu ara samxedro samsaxurisgan gaTavisuflebis safuZveli. orive aseve eyrdnoboda konstituciur principebs, romlebic krZalavs saxelmwifos mier religiis gamoxatvis regulirebas da moiTxovs saxelmwifos mier neitralobis dacvas religiis mimarT.

negri larsenis winaaRmdeg98
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba sasamarTlos mixedviT, imisTvis, rom ganisazRvros konkretuli omis mimarT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis samarTlebrivi statusi, yuradReba unda mieqces aqtis me-6 muxlis Semdeg frazas: „keTilsindisierad ewinaaRmdegeba omSi nebismieri formiT monawileobas~. es fraza, misi pirdapiri mniSvnelobiT, SeiZleba mxolod ise iqnes gagebuli, rom omTan da samxedro samsaxurTan dakavSirebuli sindisis qenjna keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobas unda warmoadgendes nebismier omSi monawileobaze. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, am saqmeSi didi mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, sityvebi — „nebismieri formiT~ omis modifikaciaa Tu omSi monawileobis. azris damaxinjeba iqneboda, rom fraza „omSi monawileoba~ gagebuli ar yofiliyo, rogorc „monawileoba yvela saxis omSi~, radgan sityva „omi~ isev zogadi mniSvnelobiT iqneba gamoyenebuli — omi, rogorc aseTi. am normis analizis Sedegad sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadebeli nebismieri formis oms unda ewinaaRmdgebodes. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT, momCivnis moTxovnis ZiriTadi sisuste is iyo, rom me-6 muxli ubralod, ar atarebs diskriminaciul xasiaTs religiuri seqtebisa da rwmenis mimarT, garda, ra Tqma unda, iseTi rwmenisa, romelic oms exeba. aRniSnuli muxli ambobs, rom is, vinc keTilsindisierad ewinaaRmdegeba oms, gaTavisufldeba samxedro samsaxurisgan. mTavari moTxovna, romelsac keTilsindisieri protestis ganmcxadebeli unda akmayofilebdes, aris is, rom misi rwmena unda emyarebodes „religiur ganaTlebasa da rwmenas~ da aranairi mniSvneloba ara aqvs, romel religiur mimdinareobas miekuTvneba igi. Sesabamisad, kongresis mier samxedro samsaxurisgan piris gaTavisuflebisTvis Seqmnili struqtura Seesabameba mis mier arCeul grZelvadian politikas sxvadasxva religiebisadmi gansxvavebuli midgomis dauSveblobis Sesaxeb. aqedan gamomdinare, sasamarTlos azriT, ar arsebobda sababi, ganxiluliyo moTxovna imis Sesaxeb, rom, Tu kongresi aTavisuflebs samxedro samsaxurisgan konkretuli religiis mimdevrebs, sasamarTlom an saerTod unda gaauqmos aseTi gaTavisufleba, an ise ganavrcos igi, rom yvela religia moicvas. mosarCele daobda imaze, rom, radgan kongresma aRiara erTi tipis keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba, maSin dawesebis klauzula avaldebulebda mas, daeSva da daecva sxva tipis keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobac.

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garda imisa, rom saxelmwifos sWirdeba adamianuri resursi omSi, sasamarTlos azriT, samxedro gawvevis administrirebaSi centraluri interesi mdgomareobs samarTlianobis dacvaSi imis gansazRvrisas, Tu „vin imsaxurebs, rodesac yvela ar msaxurobs~. mTavroba amtkicebda, rom samarTlianobas safrTxe daemuqreba, Tu me-6 muxli konkretuli omis mimarT keTilsindisier winaaRmdegobasac moicavs. aseTi winaaRmdegobis safuZvelze gaTavisuflebis moTxovna garkveulad ganusazRvreli ganzomilebis moTxovnaa da Teoriulad am safuZvelze gaTavisufleba diskriminaciuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebas gamoiwvevda praqtikaSi. aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula krZalavs religiuri mrwamsis saxelmwifo regulirebas an saxelmwifos Carevas religiuri ideebis gavrcelebaSi. is aseve krZalavs saxelmwifo programebis gamoyenebas religiuri gamoxatvisTvis xelis SeSlis an romelime religiuri mimdinareobis diskriminaciisaTvis maSinac ki, Tu SezRudva mxolod arapirdapiri xasiaTisaa. religiis imperativebis sawinaaRmdego, neitralurad maregulirebeli, saero miznis mqone kanonebis gamoyenebac ki SeiZleba daigmos aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT, Tu pirveli Sesworebis Rirebulebebze dakisrebuli tvirTi gaumarTlebelia saxelmwifos legitimuri miznebidan gamomdinare. Tumca konkretuli omis mimarT keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadeblebze samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis efeqti mTlad gaumarTlebeli ar aris. samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis kanonebi ar ereva arc erT religiur ritualSi da ar aniWebs upiratesobas arc erT Teologiur pozicias. xolo konkretuli tvirTi iseT pirebze, rogoricaa momCivani, sasamarTlos azriT, mkacrad gamarTlebadia saxelmwifos legitimuri interesiT, uzrunvelyos adamianuri resursi saWiro samxedro miznebisTvis. mosamarTle duglasis gansxvavebuli azri jiletis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT mosamarTle duglasma aRniSna, rom sasamarTlos arasdros gaucia pasuxi kiTxvaze, SeiZleba Tu ara keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegobis ganmcxadebels movTxovoT, moklas sxva adamiani, ganurCevlad imisa, misi winaaRmdegoba „religias~ emyareba Tu zneobriv Rirebulebebs. „me vfiqrobdi, rom TiToeuli adamianis keTildReoba warmoadgenda pirveli Sesworebis sicocxlisunarianobis gadamwyvet tests~. rac Seexeba saqmes negri larsenis winaaRmdeg, mosamarTlem ganacxada, rom momCivnis gancxadebis safuZvelze Semdegi daskvnis gakeTeba SeiZleboda: kaTolikuri religiis doqtrinebis mixedviT, pirs SeuZlia monawileoba miiRos misi saxelmwifos mier gamocxadebul omSi, Tu aseTi omi Seesabameba misi eklesiis Sexedulebas samarTlian omze. Sesabamisad, kaTolikes aqvs moraluri valdebuleba, ar miiRos monawileoba usamarTlo omSi. mosamarTlis azriT, mexuTe mcneba — „ara kac hkla~ warmoadgens samarTlian da usamarTlo oms Soris gansxvavebis safuZvels. me-16 saukuneSi fransisko viqtoriam, saerTaSoriso samarTlis erT-erTma pionerma da salamankis universitetis xelmZRvanelma es gansxvaveba Semdegnairad warmoadgina: „Tu qveSevrdomi darwmunebulia omis usamarTlobaSi, man ar unda miiRos monawileoba masSi, Tundac es mas princma ubrZanos. es dResaviT naTelia, radgan aravis SeuZlia daakanonos udanaSaulo adamianis mkvleloba~. mas esmoda, rom yvelas ar hqonda informacia omis mizezebis Sesaxeb, magram, misi azriT, maTi ucodinaroba ar iyo sapatio mizezi omSi monawileobis-

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Tvis. dRes, ukve 400 wlis Semdeg, baltimoris katexizmo uSvebs mexuTe mcnebis gamonakliss „jariskacisTvis, romelic samarTlian omSi ibrZvis~. mosamarTlis Tanaxmad, aravis SeuZlia uTxras kaTolikes, samarTliania Tu ara esa Tu is omi. aseTi gadawyvetileba TviTon individma unda miiRos Tavisi sindisis karnaxiTa da konkretuli garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. iseve, rogorc gansxvaveba samarTlian da usamarTlo oms Soris, valdebuleba, rom piri daemorCilos Tavis sindiss, ar aris axali doqtrina kaTolikur eklesiaSi. naTqvamia: „Cven unda davemorCiloT RmerTs da ara adamianebs~.

tomasi sameTvalyureo sabWos winaaRmdeg99 edi tomasi, ieRovas mowme, zogadad liTongadamamuSavebeli ganyofilebidan tankis gansazRvruli nawilis damuSavebis ganyofilebaSi gadaiyvanes. tomasma uari ganacxada aseT samuSaoze, radgan, misi TqmiT, rwmena ukrZalavda sabrZolo iaraRebis damuSavebaSi monawileobas. saxelmwifom argumentad moiyvana, rom, misgan gansxvavebiT, sxva ieRovas mowmeebi Tanaxma iyvnen emuSavaT iaraRis damuSavebis ganyofilebaSi. saqmeze uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare burgerma ganacxada, rom sasamarTlos kompetenciaSi ar Sedioda imis garkveva, vis hqonda ufro sworad gagebuli am seqtis moZRvreba, momCivans Tu sxva momuSave ieRovas mowmeebs. misive gancxadebiT, sasamarTlo ar warmoadgens sulieri interpretaciebis msajuls da am konkretul saqmeSi man unda gaarkvios, gulwrfelia Tu ara mosarCele imis gancxadebisas, rom rwmena ukrZalavs aseTi formiT muSaobas. am saqmeSi sasamarTlom uaryo qvemdgomi sasamarTlos Sexeduleba, rom religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis dakmayofileba yovelTvis religiis dauSvebel dawesebas warmoadgens. mxolod mosamarTle renkvisti ar daeTanxma sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas da yuradReba gaamaxvila religiis Sesaxeb konstituciur debulebaSi, religiis dawesebis dauSveblobisa da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis gamoxatvis principebs Soris winaaRmdegobaze.
mosamarTle renkvistis gansxvavebuli azri mosamarTlis azriT, religiis dawesebisa da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulebs Soris konfliqtis sami mizezi arsebobs. pirveli mizezia mzardi sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis kanonmdebloba, romelic sul ufro masStabur xasiaTs iZens. meore mizezia sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba imis Taobaze, rom pirveli Sesworeba inkorporirebulia me-14 SesworebaSi (strombergi kaliforniis winaaRmdeg100 ). mesame mizezad mosamarTlem daasaxela zogadad sasamarTloebis mier orive klauzulis zedmetad farTo interpretireba. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, sasamarTlo mudmivad aviwroebda im „gasasvlels~, romelic nebismier saxelmwifo qmedebas unda gaevlo, raTa konstituciuri Semowmebis msxverpli ar gamxdariyo. mosamarTlis azriT, verc erTi am mizezTa Soris ver iqneboda gaTvaliswinebuli maT mier, vinc miiRo pirveli Sesworeba. pirveli Sesworeba maSin iqna miRebuli, rodesac sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis kanonmdebloba ar iyo masStaburi xasiaTis da federalur xelisuflebasac sakmaod SezRuduli uflebamosileba hqonda. Sesabamisad, imis albaTobac mcire iyo, rom es ori klauzula erTmaneTTan winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda. daskvnis saxiT mosamarTlem ganacxada, rom, radganac isini, vinc miiRo pirveli Sesworeba, ver gaiTvaliswinebdnen sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis kanonmdeblobis

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masStabebis zrdas an pirveli Sesworebis inkorporirebas me-14 SesworebaSi, ar iyo cnobili, rogori mosazreba eqnebodaT maT dRes am ori klauzulis moqmedebis farglebis Taobaze. SabaTis wesis aRsruleba `daicavi SabaTi dRe, rom wmidad Seinaxo igi, rogorc ufals, Sens RmerTs, ubrZanebia. eqvs dRes imuSave da akeTe yvela Seni saqme. meSvide dRe uflis, Seni RmerTis SabaTia: araferi saqme ar akeTo arc Sen, arc Senma vaJma, arc Senma asulma, arc Senma ymawvilma, arc Senma xarma, arc Senma saxedarma, arc erTma Senma pirutyvma, da arc Senma mdgmurma, romelic Sens qalaqebSi cxovrobs, rom daisvenos Senma ymam da ymaqalma SenTan erTad. gaxsovdes, rom yma iyavi Senc egviptis qveyanaSi da gamogiyvana iqidan ufalma, Senma RmerTma, magari xeliT da SemarTuli mklaviT. amitom gibrZana ufalma, Senma RmerTma SabaTi dRis Senaxva.~ meore rjuli 5: 12-15 SabaTis msaxureba qvemoT ormagi efeqtis principiT ganixileba. aq warmodgenilia ori magaliTi, romlebic SabaTis msaxurebasTan aris dakavSirebuli Sromis kanonmdeblobis farglebSi. pirveli SabaTis wesis damcvelisaTvis umuSevrobis kompensaciis gacemas ukavSirdeba. meore ki Seexeba damqiraveblis valdebulebas, samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavis safuZvelze moaxdinos daqiravebuli piris religiuri msaxurebis, maT Soris SabaTis wesis dacvis Sesabamisi adaptacia.

Serberti verneris winaaRmdeg101
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba apelanti, meSvide dRis adventisti, samxreTkarolinelma damqiravebelma samsaxuridan daiTxova, radgan am qalbatons Tavisi sarwmunoeba SabaT dRes muSaobas ukrZalavda. axal samsaxurSi mowyoba imave sarwmunoebrivi mizeziT ver moxerxda. umuSevrad darCenilma qalbatonma samxreT karolinis umuSevrobis sakompensacio aqtis safuZvelze sakompensacio Tanxa moiTxova. kanonis Tanaxmad, imisaTvis, rom adamianma Semweoba miiRos, mas unda „SeeZlos Sroma... an samuSaos unda Seesabamebodes~. Semdgom ki naTqvamia, rom adamiani im SemTxvevaSi ver miiRebs Semweobas „Tu... man safuZvliani mizezis gareSe uari ganacxada damsaqmeblis mier SeTavazebul Sesabamis samuSaoze~. dasaqmebis komisiam es qalbatoni swored am debulebas dauqvemdebara, radgan man uari ganacxada „damsaqmeblis mier SeTavazebul Sesabamis samuSaoze~... am gadawyvetilebas mxari dauWira spartanburgis olqis sajaro saCivrebis sasamarTlom, Semdeg ki samxreT karolinis uzenaesma sasamarTlom. Statis uzenaesma sasamarTlom xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom momCivnis moTxovnis uaryofa kompensaciis miRebaze mis arc erT konstituciur uflebas ar arRvevda, radgan statutis aseTi ganmarteba „aranairad ar zRudavs apelantis religiis Tavisuflebas da mas arc religiuri mrwamsis sakuTari sindisis Sesabamisad gamoxatvaSi uSlis xels~. uzenaesma sasamarTlom es gadawyvetileba gaauqma. niSnavs Tu ara Semweobis gacemaze uaris Tqma apelantis religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis garkveuli saxiT SezRudvas? cxadia, religiuri principebisa da msa-

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xurebisTvis msgavsi SezRudvis Sedegebi SeiZleba mxolod Statis keTildReobis kanonmdeblobis arapirdapir Sedegs warmoadgendes. adgili ara aqvs kriminaluri sanqciis gziT apelantis iZulebas, kviraSi eqvsi dRe imuSaos. Tumca, „Tu kanonis mizans an Sedegs warmoadgens erTi an yvela religiis msaxurebis Seferxeba, an religiebs Soris usamarTlo gamorCeva, kanoni arakonstituciurad iTvleba arapirdapiri zemoqmedebis pirobebSic ki~ (braunfeldi braunis winaaRmdeg102 ). aq TvalnaTliv Cans, rom qalbatons Semweobis miRebaze uari ganucxades ara mxolod religiuri msaxurebis gamo, aramed zewolis mizniT, raTa mas uari eTqva am religiuri wesis Sesrulebaze. sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba mas, erTi mxriv, rwmenasa da Semweobas Soris arCevanis gakeTebas, meore mxriv ki sakuTari sarwmunoebis erT-erTi mcnebis uaryofas aiZulebda. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT, samxreT karolinis sasamarTlos mier statutis ganmarteba konstituciurad aramyaria. igi efuZneba Sexedulebas, rom dausaqmeblobis sakompensacio Semweoba warmoadgens apelantis ara „uflebas~, aramed mxolod „privilegias~. dRes eWvs aRar iwvevs, rom Semweobaze an privilegiaze uaris Tqma an maT misaRebad garkveuli pirobebis wayeneba religiisa da misi gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas arRvevs. am SemTxvevaSi daculi saxelmwifo interesi saerTod ar Seesabameba im interesebs, romlebic religiur msaxurebaze SedarebiT nakleb pirdapir zemoqmedebas amarTlebs. sasamarTlom aRiara, rom kvira dRes vaWrobisa da muSaobis amkrZalavi kanoni gamoiwvevda „(orTodoqsi ebraeli vaWrebis) ... religiur ritualTa aRsrulebis ufro gaZvirebas”. Tumca statuti mxardaWerili iqna gamawonasworebeli faqtoriT — yvela muSisTvis unificirebuli dasvenebis dRis dawesebis mZlavri saxelmwifo interesiT. SabaTis wesis damcvelisTvis kanonis moTxovnebisgan gaTavisufleba gamoiwvevda seriozul administraciul problemas, an gaTavisuflebul klass imdenad didi upiratesoba mieniWeboda, rom mTel sistemas araqmediTad aqcevda. mocemul SemTxvevaSi arc erTi aseTi gamamarTlebeli garemoeba ar SeiZleba iyos safuZveli Statis sasamarTlos gansazRvrebisTvis, romlis mixedviTac apelantis religia warmoadgens dabrkolebas Semweobis misaRebad. mosamarTle stiuartis Tanmxvedri azri samxreT karolinis StatisTvis moTxovnis wayeneba, moaxdinos kanonebis administrireba apelantisTvis kompensaciis gadasaxdelad, niSnavs, Stats ardawesebis klauzulis darRvevisaken vubiZgoT sasamarTlos mier dRes Camoyalibebuli formulirebis gaTvaliswinebiT. es garemoeba CemTvis problemas ar warmoadgens, radgan vfiqrob, rom dawesebis klauzulis sasamarTlo koncefcia istoriulad aramyari da konstituciurad mcdaria. vfiqrob, religiis Tavisuflebis garantia, romelic aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulaSia Cadebuli, xelisuflebas uyenebs mtkice moTxovnas, Seqmnas keTilganwyobisa da Tanxmobis atmosfero individualuri rwmenisa Tu urwmunoebisTvis. mokled, vfiqrob, rom konstitucia xelisuflebas avaldebulebs, daicvas ara mxolod umciresobis an umravlesobis, aramed yoveli Cvenganis religiis Tavisufleba. mosamarTle harlenis gansxvavebuli azri, romelsac SeurTda mosamarTle uaiti samxreT karolinis uzenaesma sasamarTlom es kanoni sakuTar ganzraxvas moargo.

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man Tanmimdevrulad daasabuTa, rom adamiani „Seuferebelia samuSaosTvis~, Tu misi dausaqmebloba ganpirobebulia ara sawarmos uunarobiT uzrunvelyos samsaxuriT, aramed piradi motivebiT. mocemul SemTxvevaSi yovelive is, rac Statis sasamarTlom gaakeTa, aris aRiarebuli principebiT sargebloba. spartanburgis yvela fabrika eqvsdRian samuSao grafiks icavda. apelanti „samuSaosTvis Seuferebeli~ aRmoCnda da, amgvarad, Semweobac ar ekuTvnoda, radgan piradma Sexedulebam xeli SeuSala, dasaqmebuliyo sruli samuSao dRiT mrewvelobis im dargSi da im adgilze, sadac adre muSaobda. is, rom piradi Sexedulebebi mis religiur mrwamss efuZneboda, araarsebiTi aRmoCnda Statis sasamarTlos mier kanoniT sargeblobisas. amrigad, ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Statma diskriminacia ganaxorciela apelantis mimarT misi religiuri Sexedulebebis gamo, an rom mas Semweobis miRebaze imis gamo eTqva uari, rom igi meSvide dRis adventisti gaxldaT. am Semweobis miRebaze misi moTxovnis uaryofa imave mizeziT moxda, ra mizeziTac uaryofdnen sxvebis moTxovnebs, romlebic piradi mizezebiT aRmoCndnen „samsaxurisTvis Seuferebelni~. am fonze, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ufro naTeli xdeba. sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, Tu Stati irCevs, rom dausaqmeblobis kompensacia miakuTvnos pirs misi samsaxureobrivi vargisianobis gamo, aseTi midgoma ewinaaRmdegeba saqmeSi braunfildi braunis winaaRmdeg miRebul gadawyvetilebas, sadac sasamarTlom daadgina, rom aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula ar darRveula Statis mier SabaTis wesis damcvelTa moTxovnis uaryofiT, ewarmoebinaT biznesi kvira dRes. braunfildis saqmeSi kvira dRes muSaobisa da vaWrobis amkrZalavi kanonebidan gamonaklisebis daSveba SabaTis wesis damcvelTaTvis Seusabamo iqneboda kanonis saero mizanTan, uzrunveleyo sayovelTao dasvenebis dRe da sasamarTlos iZulebuls gaxdida religiuri rwmenebis Semowmeba moexdina TiToeul saqmeSi. aqac gamonaklisebis daSveba religiur niadagze Seqmnida maTi sasamarTlo Semowmebis saWiroebas da winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda kanonis SezRudul mizanTan, wesrigSi moeyvana ekonomika industriuli arastabilurobis periodSi. muSa-mosamsaxuris religiuri moqmedebisa da rwmenebis gonivruli adaptaciis valdebuleba. 1964 wlis samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavi ukanonod miiCnevs damqiraveblis mier muSaxelis diskriminacias religiur niadagze. religia gansazRvrulia rogorc „moqmedebis, ise rwmenis momcvelad, sanam damqiravebeli ver SeZlebs daamtkicos, rom mas ar SeuZlia gonivruli adaptacia moaxdinos ... misi biznesisaTvis zianis miyenebis gareSe~. lari g. hardisoni iyo axali wevri uflis msoflio eklesiisa, romlis mixedviTac, ar SeiZleba muSaoba paraskevis daisidan SabaTis daisamde. hardisoni muSaobda centralur saerTaSoriso msoflio aviaxazebSi, romelic dRe-RameSi 24 saaTs da kviraSi Svid dRes muSaobs. man uari ganacxada SabaTs muSaobaze. aviaxazebis wesebis mixedviT hardisons ar hqonda SabaTs muSaobaze uaris TqmisaTvis aucilebeli samuSao staJi. aviaxazebi uaryofda profkavSirebis daJinebul moTxovnas samuSao staJTan dakavSirebuli wesebis Secvlis Taobaze da Sesabamisad, hardisoni gaTavisuflebul iqna samuSaodan. saolqo sasamarTlom sma-s sasargeblod gamoitana gadawyvetileba. saapelacio sasamarTlom ki daadgina, rom darRveuli iyo V I I Tavi. saerTaSoriso msoflio aviaxazebi hardisonis winaaRmdeg103 saqmeSi uzenaesma sasamarTlom, romlis gadawyvetilebac mosamarTle uaitma gadmosca,

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miiCnia, rom sma-s mier hardisonis religiuri rwmenis adaptacia gaumarTlebel zians miayenebda mas. rogorc uaiti wers, mocemul SemTxvevaSi damqiraveblis valdebuleba gonivruli angariSgawevisa ar gulisxmobs minimalur danaxarjze mets, da rom damqiravebeli ar aris valdebuli moaxdinos muSaxelis Canacvleba, koleqtiuri xelSekrulebiT dadgenili samuSao staJis sistemis xelyofiT. sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom hardisonisTvis SabaTis dasvenebis dRed micema niSnavda imas, rom „SabaTs dasvenebis privilegia religiuri rwmenis mixedviT ganisazRvreboda~. sarwmunoebaze moqceva. ori wlisa da eqvsi Tvis muSaobis Semdeg paula hobim Tavis damqiravebels ganucxda, rom igi meSvide dRis adventistebis eklesiaSi unda moinaTluliyo da SabaTs muSaobas veRar SeZlebda religiuri mizezebiT. rodesac man uari ganacxda paraskev saRamos da SabaTs muSaobaze, damqiravebelma igi samuSaodan daiTxova. maSin hobim umuSevrobis kompensacia moiTxova, rac ar dakmayofilda. hobis da Serbertis saqmeebs Soris faqtobrivi gansxvaveba mxolod is iyo, rom hobi meSvide dRis adventistTa rwmenaze axali moqceuli iyo. Statis sasamarTloebma umuSevarTa saCivrebis komisiis sasargeblod gamoitanes gadawyvetileba. hobi floridis umuSevarTa saCivrebis komisiis winaaRmdeg saqmeSi104 uzenaesma sasamarTlom sapirispiro gadawyvetileba miiRo. Serbertis saqmeze miRebuli gadawyvetilebis avtorma, mosamarTle brenanma, romelmac gadmosca sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, aRniSna: „komisia Cvengan moiTxovs, rom religiaze axalmoqceuls gansxvavebulad, naklebi keTilganwyobiT mivudgeT, vidre misi sarwmunoebis sxva mimdevrebs. Cven uars vacxadebT aseT qmedebaze ... hobis moqcevis dro araarsebiTia Cveni azrisaTvis imis Sesaxeb, rom misi aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba dairRva~. religiis gamoxatva samuSao adgilze religiis gamoxatva federalur samuSao adgilze. 1997 wlis 14 agvistos prezidentma klintonma gamosca saprezidento direqtiva, romelic aregulirebda religiur RvTismsaxurebas da religiis gamoxatvas federalur samuSao adgilebze. direqtivis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo organoebs ar SeeZloT muSakis religiuri gamoxatvis regulireba misi Sinaarsis mixedviT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu saxelmwifos interesi ama Tu im organos efeqtianad muSaobis mimarT ufro Rirebuli iyo, vidre muSakis sityvis Tavisufleba, direqtiva miuTiTebda, rom saxelmwifo organos sityvis Tavisuflebis regulirebis uflebamosileba „samarTlianad da SezRudulad~ unda gamoeyenebina. direqtiva krZalavda raime formiT muSakis iZulebas, mieRo monawileoba an, piriqiT, ar mieRo monawileoba religiur saqmianobaSi. direqtiva icavda muSaks religiuri diskriminaciuli daSinebisgan, religiuri motiviT Seuracxyofis an abuCad agdebisgan, rogorc misi ufrosis, aseve sxva muSakebis mier. direqtivis Tanaxmad, muSakebs SeeZloT gamoexataT da gaeziarebinaT TavianTi religiuri Sexedulebebi sxva TanamSromlebisTvis, rac SeiZleba mxolod iseT regulirebas yofiliyo daqvemdebarebuli, romelic efuZneboda dawesebulebis efeqtianad funqcionirebisTvis xelis SeSlis gonivrul varauds. direqtiva, Seesabameboda ra samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavs, awesebda, rom aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis arc erT saxelmwifo organos ar SeeZlo daewinaurebina, an uari eTqva dawinaurebaze, daeqiravebina, an uari eTqva daqiravebaze, an

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sxvagvarad upiratesoba mieniWebina an, piriqiT, SeezRuda muSaki an potenciuri muSaki misi religiis, religiuri mrwamsisa Tu religiuri Sexedulebis gamo. direqtiva miuTiTebda, rom samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavi avaldebulebda yvela damqiravebels, maT Soris saxelmwifo organoebsac, gonivrul farglebSi daekmayofilebinaT konkretuli religiuri RvTismsaxurebis moTxovnebi. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo organos Tavisi samuSao ganrigi muSakTa religiuri msaxurebisTvis unda Seesabamebina, Tu muSakis mier samsaxuris gacdena ar warmoSobda zedmet sirTules dawesebulebis funqcionirebisTvis. muSaks SeeZlo etarebina religiuri samosi, Tu es xels ar uSlida organizaciis funqcionirebas. 1993 wlis religiis Tavisuflebis aRdgenis aqtis mixedviT, „im SemTxvevaSi, Tu organizaciis samuSao wesi arsebiTad zRudavs konkretuli muSakis religiur gamoxatvas, maSin organizaciam unda gaaTavisuflos muSaki aseTi wesisgan, Tu organizacias ara aqvs arsebiTi daintereseba aseT gaTavisuflebaze uaris saTqmelad da ar arsebobs sxva naklebad SemzRudavi saSualeba, romelic xels Seuwyobda organizaciis am interesis aRsrulebas.~ 1964 wels miRebuli samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavi krZalavs muSakis samuSaoze ayvanas diskriminaciuli safuZvliT. aqtis mixedviT, dauSvebelia „... individis daqiravebaze uaris Tqma an misi gaTavisufleba, an sxvagvarad misi diskriminacia kompensaciiT, samuSao pirobebiT an samuSao privilegiebiT, misi rasis, religiis, sqesisa Tu warmoSobis niadagze~. kerZo damqiraveblebis pozitiuri valdebuleba, daakmayofilon muSakTa religiuri mrwamsisa da RvTismsaxurebis moTxovnebi. garda imisa, rom samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavi krZalavda samuSaoze ayvanisas religiur niadagze diskriminacias, is aseve akisrebda damqiravebels pozitiur valdebulebas, daekmayofilebina muSakis religiuri moTxovnebi. gamonakliss am wesidan warmoadgenda is SemTxveva, rodesac damqiravebeli aCvenebda, rom mas ar SeeZlo gonivrul farglebSi daekmayofilebina muSakis an momavali muSakis religiuri ritualis moTxovnebi, an aCvenebda, rom aseTi moTxovnis dakmayofileba gamoiwvevda misi saqmianobis zedmet garTulebas. winamdebare saqmeSi damqiravebels surda religiis gavrceleba samuSao procesze. jeik da helen Tounlebi qristianebi iyvnen, romelTac ar SeeZloT religiisa da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis, maT Soris Tounlebis kompaniis saqmianobis gamijvna. 1963 wels, rodesac daaarses Tounlebis kompania, romelic maRaros aparaturas awarmoebda, maT dades fici, rom maTi biznesi qristianul mrwamsze orientirebuli iqneboda. damfuZneblebis mier dadebuli fici sxvadasxvagvarad aisaxeboda kompaniis saqmianobaze. magaliTad, yovel werils, romelic kompaniidan igzavneboda, Tan erTvoda saxareba; yovel komerciul dokumentze kompania bibliidan amonaridebs beWdavda; is finansurad exmareboda eklesiebsa da misionerebs; yovel kviras samuSao saaTebSi marTavda religiur rituals. Tounlebma mosTxoves yvela muSaks, daswrebodnen aRniSnul rituals, Tan RvTismsaxurebaze daxarjul dros unazRaurebdnen. ritualze ardaswreba samsaxuris gacdenad iTvleboda. erT-erTma muSakma, luis pelvasma, moiTxova aseTi ritualisgan gaTavisufleba imis safuZvelze, rom aTeisti iyo. kompaniis xelmZRvanelobam ganucxada pelvass, rom daswreba am ritualze savaldebulo iyo da rom mas daswrebas avaldebulebda muSakTa cnobari, romelzedac xeli hqonda mowerili. Tumca, xelmZRvanelobis gancxadebiT, pelvass SeeZlo aseTi ritualebis

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dros daeZina, an sulac gazeTi waekiTxa. pelvasma ganagrZo ritualebze daswreba, magram or TveSi dasaqmebis Tanabari SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofis komisiis daxmarebiT sarCeli Seitana sasamarTloSi religiuri diskriminaciis motiviT da datova kompania.

dasaqmebis Tanabari SesaZleblobis uzrunvelyofis komisia Tounlis sainJinro-samrewvelo kompaniis winaaRmdeg105
saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba Tounlebis kompaniis mtkicebiT samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavis gamoyeneba maT kompaniaSi arsebuli samuSao politikis (religiuri ritualis Catarebis) mimarT arRvevda pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulas. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom VI I Tavis moqmedeba vrceldeboda Tounlebis savaldebulo ritualze. V I I Tavis 701(i)-e da 703(a)-e muxlebi miuTiTebdnen imaze, rom muSakisTvis, misi protestis miuxedavad, religiur ritualze daswrebis moTxovna ewinaaRmdegeboda V I I Tavis mier religiuri diskriminaciis akrZalvas. ufro metic, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom 702-e muxliT V I I Tavis moqmedebisgan religiuri korporaciebis gaTavisuflebaSi kongresi ar gulisxmobda iseTi (samewarmeo) organizaciis dacvas, rogoric iyo Tounlebis kompania. Tumca sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom jeik da helen Tounlebs hqondaT aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT garantirebuli garkveuli uflebebi, romelTa xelyofa dauSvebeli iyo samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavis safuZvelze. sasamarTlos interpretaciiT, 703(a)-e da 702(i)-e muxlebi qmnida ornawilian struqturas, romelic gamoyenebuli unda yofiliyo religiasTan dakavSirebul sasamarTlo saqmeebSi. pirveli nawili gulisxmobda, rom mosarCeles unda daesabuTebina prima facie religiuri diskriminaciis SemTxveva.106 mas Semdeg, rac mosarCele daasabuTebda prima facie diskriminaciis arsebobis faqts, mtkicebis tvirTi gadainacvlebda damqiravebelze, romelsac unda daemtkicebina, rom man keTilsindisierad scada muSakis religiuri mrwamsis adaptacia. Tu es cda warumatebeli iyo, mas unda daemtkicebina, rom `SeuZlebeli iyo aseTi moTxovnis gonivrul farglebSi dakmayofileba zedmeti garTulebis gareSe.~ pelvasma SesTavaza Tounlis, daekmayofilebina misi religiuri moTxovna religiur ritualze daswrebisgan gaTavisuflebis Taobaze. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom pelvasis moTxovnis dakmayofileba ar gamoiwvevda Tounlis saqmianobis zedmet garTulebas. man ganacxada, rom pelvasis ritualze daswrebisgan gaTavisufleba ar gamoiwvevda aranair xarjs Tounlis komerciuli saqmianobisTvis da ar SeuSlida xels sxva muSakebis muSaobas. Tounli amtkicebda, rom pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos unda ganexla is sulieri tvirTi, rasac pelvasis moTxovnis dakmayofileba gamoiwvevda. saapelacio sasamarTlom aRiara, rom am SemTxvevaSi sulier danakliss marTlac eqneboda adgili. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, Tounli marTebulad acxadebda, rom „sazRauri ar SeiZleba yovelTvis gazomil iqnes dolarebSi. gasaTvaliswinebelia aseve sulieri „sazRauri~. Tumca sasamarTlom eWvis qveS daayena, rom aseT „sulier sazRaurs~ SeeZlo mogebaze orientirebuli damqiraveblisTvis sirTuleebis Seqmna. sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, moTxovnis dakmayofilebiT gamowveuli zedmeti sirTuleebis das-

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turad ar SeiZleboda hipoTezuri sirTulis arsebobis moyvana, aramed warmodgenili unda yofiliyo aseTi dakmayofilebiT muSakebze uSualo tvirTis dakisrebis an samuSao procesis darRvevis mtkicebuleba. sasamarTlom moiSvelia hardisonis sasamarTlo precedenti imis dasamtkiceblad, rom V I I Tavi ar moiTxovda muSakebis uflebebis xelyofas damqiraveblis religiuri gamoxatvis adaptaciisTvis. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom V I I Tavis 702-e muxli, romelic gamoricxavda religiuri organizaciebis, asociaciebisa da saganmanaTleblo institutebis mimarT V I I Tavis gavrcelebas, gamousadegari iyo iseTi sekularuli organizaciisTvis, rogoric iyo Tounlis kompania. mosamarTle nunanis gansxvavebuli azri mosamarTle nunanis gancxadebiT, aRniSnul saqmeSi ar dastudeba pelvasis iZuleba mrwamsis uaryofis an kompaniis mflobelTa religiis sasargeblod Secvlis Taobaze. Tavad pelvasisave gancxadebiT, mas SesTavazes, RvTismsaxurebis dros gaekeTebina yurTsacvami, waekiTxa an sulac daeZina. yurTsacvamiT is ver moismenda misi aTeizmis sawinaaRmdego religiur doqtrinas. wignis kiTxviTa da ZiliT is ar miiRebda monawileobas religiur ritualSi. mosamarTlem Tavisi mosazrebis sailustraciod moiyvana skolis bavSvebis Sekreba da maTze religiuri indoqtrinaciis ganxorcieleba. bavSvebis amgvari iZuleba, misi azriT, aSkarad arRvevda religiis Tavisuflebas. Tumca Sekreba, romelze daswrebazec pelvasma protesti gamoTqva, kompaniis teritoriaze gaimarTa da pelvasic ar iyo bavSvi. daswreba aseT ritualze, mosamarTlis azriT, ar warmoadgenda religiur aqts. is, risi gakeTebis uflebac pelvass hqonda aseTi ritualis dros, Tayvaniscemis sapirispiro aqti iyo. mas hqonda ufleba, sajarod gamohyofoda rituals. mas hqonda ufleba, ar moesmina `religiuri mesiji~. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is daisjeboda aseTi saqcielis gamo, profkavSirebs Civilis safuZveli eqnebodaT. mosamarTlis azriT, Tounlis kompaniam daakmayofila pelvasis keTilsindisieri winaaRmdegoba ritualze daswrebis mimarT. eklesia, rogorc damqiravebeli: gaerTianebis warmomadgenloba da koleqtiuri SeTanxmeba. SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWo Cikagos kaTolikuri saepiskoposos winaaRmdeg sasamarTlo saqmeSi erovnuli sabWo irwmuneboda, rom SromiTi urTierTobebis aqti mis iurisdiqciis qveS aqcevda samrevlo (religiur) skolebs. lemonis sasamarTlo precedentis moSveliebiT, uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom sabWos moTxovnis dakmayofilebis SemTxvevaSi religiur xelmZRvanelobasa da sabWos Soris damyarebul mWidro urTierTkavSirs SeiZleboda Sedegad mohyoloda religiis klauzuliT ganmtkicebuli uflebebis xelyofa. sabWos mieniWeboda ufleba, SeemuSavebina muSakis daqiravebis pirobebi da, Sesabamisad, SeerCia is savaldebulo sakiTxebi, romlebic koleqtiur SeTanxmebaSi unda asaxuliyo. sabolood, sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom dauSvebeli iyo religiuri skolebis SromiTi urTierTobebis erovnuli sabWos iurisdiqciisTvis daqvemdebareba. am saqmeSi Riad darCa sakiTxi, SeuZliaT Tu ara religiuri skolebis maswavleblebs Seqmnan gaerTianeba Statis Sromis kanonmdeblobis mixedviT, romelic cnobilia vagneris aqtebis saxelwodebiT. niu-iorkis episkoposis eparqiis kaTolikuri umaRlesi skola kulvertis winaaRmdeg saqmeSi107 sasamarTlom miuTiTa, rom niu-iorkis Statis kanonmdeblobaSi Sesuli Sesworebebi religiuri skolebis maswavleblebs Statis SromiTi

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urTierTobebis sabWos iurisdiqcias miakuTvnebda, da rom uzenaesi sasamarTlos uari erovnuli SromiTi urTierTobebis aqtis gamoyenebaze kaTolikuri saepiskoposos winaaRmdeg sasamarTlo saqmeSi miznad isaxavda, ar Sewyvetiliyo vagneris aqtebis moqmedeba religiuri skolebis mimarT. eklesia, rogorc damqiravebeli: diskriminacia samuSaoze ayvanisas. samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis V I I Tavi moicavs sam damoukidebel normas, romlebic sxvadasxva garemoebebisas aTavisuflebs religiur damqiravebels aqtis zogadi normebisgan. yvelze viwro normaa 703(e)-e muxli, romlis Tanaxmadac: „ar CaiTvleba samuSaoze ayvanis ukanono praqtikad damqiraveblis mier muSakebis daqiraveba religiis, sqesisa an warmoSobis niadagze im SemTxvevaSi, Tu religia, sqesi an warmomavloba aris bona fide is kvalifikaciebi, romlebic gonivrul farglebSi saWiroa ama Tu im biznesisa Tu korporaciis normalurad funqcionirebisaTvis.~ 703 (e) (2) muxli nebas rTavs: „skolas, kolejs, universitets an sxva saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebas, daiqiravos is muSakebi, romelTac aqvT konkretuli religiuri mrwamsi, Tu aseTi skola, koleji, universiteti an sxva saganmanaTleblo dawesebuleba mTlianad an arsebiTad sakuTrebaSia, dafinansebulia, marTulia an kontrolirdeba konkretuli religiisa Tu religiuri korporaciis, asociaciis an sazogadoebis mier, an Tu aseTi skolis, kolejis, universitetisa Tu sxva saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis saswavlo gegma mimarTulia konkretuli religiis gavrcelebisken.~ yvelaze mniSvnelovan SeRavaTs religiuri damqiraveblebisTvis awesebs 702-e muxli, romlis mixedviTac, „V I I Tavi ar unda iqnes gamoyenebuli ... religiuri korporaciis, asociaciis, saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis an sazogadoebis mimarT maT mier konkretuli religiis mimdevari piris samuSaoze ayvanasTan dakavSirebiT, romelmac unda Seasrulos korporaciis, asociaciis, saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis an sazogadoebis saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli da misi Sesabamisi samuSao~. aqtis 1964 wlis versiaSi 702-e Tavi religiuri motiviT samsaxurSi diskriminaciis sawinaaRmdego kanonismieri akrZalvisgan aTavisuflebda mxolod damqiraveblis religiur saqmianobas. 1972 wels kongresma miiRo aqtis Sesworeba, romlis mixedviTac 702-e muxli gavrcelda religiuri organizaciebis yvela tipis saqmianobis mimarT. winamdebare saqmeSi warmodgenilia samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis 702-e muxlis gamoyeneba religiuri organizaciis sekularuli arasamewarmeo saqmianobis mimarT.

`ukanaskneli dRis wmindanebis~ ieso qristes eklesiis arqiepiskoposis sazogadoeba da sxvebi amosis da sxvebis winaaRmdeg; SeerTebuli Statebi amosis da sxvebis winaaRmdeg108
samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis 702-e muxli aTavisuflebs religiur organizaciebs aqtis V I I Tavisgan, romelic krZalavs religiur niadagze diskriminacias samuSaoze ayvanisas. winamdebare saqmes pasuxi unda gaeca kiTxvaze, arRvevda Tu ara pirveli Sesworebis dawesebis klauzulas 702-e muxlis gamoyeneba religiuri organizaciis sekularuli arasamewarmeo saqmianobis mimarT. dezeretis gimnazia soltleik-sitiSi, iutas StatSi warmoadgens Ria sazogadoebriv arasamewarmeo dawesebulebas marTuls „ukanaskneli dRis wmindanebis~ ieso qristes eklesiis arqiepiskoposis sazogadoebisa da „ukanaskneli dRis wmindanebis~ ieso qristes eklesiis prezidentis sazogadoebis mier. orive maTgani „ukanaskneli

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dRis wmindanebis ieso qristes eklesiasTan~ asocirebuli religiuri warmonaqmnia, romelic arakorporatiul religiur gaerTianebas warmoadgens da romelsac xSirad mormonTa saxelwodebiT moixsenieben. meisoni muSaobda gimnaziaSi 16 wlis ganmavlobaSi Tavdapirvelad rogorc inJiner-mSeneblis asistenti da Semdeg rogorc inJiner-mSenebeli. 1981 wels is samsaxuridan gaaTavisufles, radgan ver SeZlo saeklesio rekomendaciis miReba109, romelic eklesiis wevrobis damadasturebel dokuments warmoadgenda. meisonma sxvebTan erTad Seitana sarCeli sasamarTloSi am organizaciebis winaaRmdeg religiuri diskriminaciis safuZvliT, riTac irRveoda samoqalaqo uflebebis aqtis 703-e muxli. mopasuxe mxare uaryofda braldebas im motiviT, rom aqtis 702-e muxli icavda mas pasuxismgeblobisgan. mosarCele amtkicebda, rom im SemTxvevaSi, Tu 702-e muxli aZlevda uflebas religiur damqiraveblebs, arareligiur samuSaoze ayvanisas moexdinaT religiur niadagze diskriminacia, maSin igi winaaRmdegobaSi modioda dawesebis klauzulasTan. saolqo sasamarTlom Tavdapirvelad ganixila sakiTxi imis Taobaze, iTxovda Tu ara aRniSnuli saqmis faqtebi mosarCelis konstituciur argumentze gadawyvetilebis miRebas. sasamarTlom imsjela 702-e muxlis safuZvelze V I I Tavis moqmedebisgan religiuri damqiraveblis religiuri saqmianobis gaTavisuflebaze da Sedegad SeimuSava samnawiliani testi imis gansasazRvrad, Tu rogori saqmianoba warmoadgenda religiurs.110 sasamarTlom es testi meisonis saqmeSi gamoiyena da gadawyvita, rom: 1) gimnazia rogorc finansurad, aseve mmarTvelobis sakiTxebSi mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli eklesiasTan; 2) ar arsebobda pirdapiri kavSiri gimnaziis saqmianobasa da mormonebis eklesiis an eklesiis administraciis religiur dogmebs Soris; 3) gimnaziaSi meisonze dakisrebuli arc erTi funqcia iribadac ki ar iyo dakavSirebuli mormonebis religiur mrwamsTan Tu ritualTan. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom meisonis saqme arareligiur saqmianobas exeboda. Semdeg sasamarTlom ganixila mosarCelis konstituciuri moTxovna aqtis 702-e muxlis mimarT. sasamarTlom gamoiyena lemonis saqmeSi SemuSavebuli samnawiliani testi da gadawyvita, rom 702-e muxls sekularuli mizani hqonda, rac uzrunvelyofda religiuri qcevisadmi saxelmwifos neitralobasa da masSi Carevis dauSveblobas. Tumca sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom 702-e muxli ar akmayofilebda lemonis testis meore nawils, radgan normis ZiriTad Sedegs religiis mxardaWera warmoadgenda. saolqo sasamarTlom saqmis gadawyvetisas aseve gaiTvaliswina, rom 702-e muxli privilegias aniWebda konkretul religiur erTeulebs, imis magivrad, rom mieca aseTi privilegia ufro farTo jgufisTvis, romlis mxolod erTi nawili iqneboda religiuri organizaciebi. garda amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom 702-e muxli ar emyareboda istoriul tradicias da zRudavda religiuri organizaciis arareligiur samuSaoze dasaqmebul muSakTa aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom 702-e muxli mxars uWerda religiur organizaciebs, aZlevda ra maT eqskluziur uflebas, CarTuliyvnen iseT saqmianobaSi, romelic pirdapir xels uwyobda konkretuli religiuri dogmebis gavrcelebas. sasamarTlom es norma arakonstituciurad gamoacxada sekularuli saqmianobis mimarT. saolqo sasamarTlom saqme meisonis sasargeblod gadawyvita. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, saxelmwifos SeeZlo daekmayofilebina religi-

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uri moTxovnebi dawesebis klauzulis daurRvevlad. sasamarTlos mtkicebiT, dawesebis klauzula farTo saSualebas iZleoda imisTvis, raTa daculi yofiliyo sasurveli neitraloba, romelic saSualebas miscemda religias, saxelmwifos mxridan misi saqmianobis dafinansebisa da masSi Carevis gareSe earseba. sasamarTlom aseve aRniSna, rom raRac momentSi udavod SesaZlebeli iyo religiis adaptaciis gadazrda religiis ukanono xelSewyobaSi, Tumca, misi azriT, winamdebare saqme ar warmoadgenda msgavs situacias. lemonis testis pirveli nawili moiTxovs, rom kanons sekularuli mizani hqondes. sekularuli mizani ar niSnavs imas, rom kanonis mizani aranairad ar unda exebodes religias, risi Sedegic iqneboda mTavrobis mxridan religiuri jgufebisadmi indiferentuloba. piriqiT, lemonis testis ZiriTadi mizani iyo, ar daeSva Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebis mimRebi samTavrobo organos, am SemTxvevaSi kongresis, neitralobis dakargva da religiur sakiTxebSi romelime konkretuli Sexedulebis mxardaWeris ganzraxviT misi qmedeba. lemonis analizidan gamomdinare, dasaSvebia iseTi sakanonmdeblo mizani, romelic uzrunvelyofs saxelmwifo Carevis Semsubuqebas religiuri organizaciebis mier TavianTi misiis gansazRvrasa da SesrulebaSi. apelanti amtkicebda, rom am saqmeSi aseTi mizani ar arsebobda, radgan 702-e muxli uzrunvelyofda adekvatur dacvas religiuri damqiraveblisTvis aqtis 1972 wlis Sesworebamde, rodesac is aTavisuflebda aseTi damqiraveblis mxolod religiur saqmianobas religiuri diskriminaciis sakanonmdeblo akrZalvisgan. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT 1972 wlis Sesworebamde mocemuli gaTavisufleba adekvaturi iyo im TvalsazrisiT, rom aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula mets ar moiTxovda. Tumca sasamarTlom aseve ganacxada, rom religiuri organizaciebisTvis aseTi moTxovnis wayeneba sakmaod didi tvirTi iyo, radgan es imas niSnavda, rom organizacias unda amoecno, mis romel saqmianobas CaTvlida sekularuli sasamarTlo religiurad. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, potenciuri pasuxismgeblobis SiSs SeiZleba gavlena moexdina organizaciis mier religiuri misiis Sesrulebaze. 1972 wlis Sesworebis sakanonmdeblo istoriis detaluri ganxilvis Semdeg saolqo sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom kongresis mizans warmoadgenda religiur sakiTxebze gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesSi saxelmwifo Carevis minimumamde dayvana. uzenaesi sasamarTlo daeTanxma saolqo sasamarTlos imaSi, rom aseTi mizani ar arRvevda dawesebis klauzulas. lemonis testis meore moTxovna mdgomareobs imaSi, rom kanonis ZiriTadi an pirdapiri Sedegi arc unda uwyobdes xels da arc zRudavdes religias. kanoni ar SeiZleba arakonstituciurad CaiTvalos imis gamo, rom is aZlevs saSualebas eklesias, gaavrcelos religia, rac misi mTavari funqciaa. imisTvis, rom kanoni, lemonis testis mixedviT, arakonstituciurad CaiTvalos, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, aucilebelia, rom saxelmwifo Tavisi qmedebebiTa da gavleniT TviTon uWerdes mxars religias. rogorc uzenaesma sasamarTlom CaTvala, saolqo sasamarTlo SiSobda, rom mis mier eklesiebisTvis SeRavaTis dawesebis mxardaWera uflebas miscemda finansuri resursebis mqone eklesiebs, TavianTi gavlena da rwmena komerciul, mogebaze orientirebul garemoSi SesvliT gaevrcelebinaT. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ar aRiara sa-

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olqo sasamarTlos aseTi SiSis safuZvlianoba, radgan, misi gancxadebiT, winamdebare saqme moicavda arakomerciul saqmianobas, romelic miznad ar isaxavda gavlenis zrdas. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlom CaTvala, rom religiis xelSewyoba gimnaziis mier ar SeiZleboda mikuTvneboda saxelmwifos da ara eklesias. uzenaesma sasamarTlom damajereblad ar miiCnia saolqo sasamarTlos argumentacia, rom 702-e muxli privilegias aniWebda calkeul religiur erTeulebs. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, kanonis mier konkretuli religiuri jgufisadmi gansxvavebuli mopyroba ar niSnavda kanonis TavisTavad arakonstituciurobas. aseTi mosazreba, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, winaaRmdegobaSi movidoda misive daskvnasTan, rom dawesebis klauzula uzrunvelyofda sakmaod did Tavisuflebas religiis moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad. maSin, rodesac, rogorc am SemTxvevaSi, saxelmwifo im ganzraxviT moqmedebda, rom gaeuqmebina regulacia, romelic zRudavda religiis gamoxatvas, sasamarTlo ver xedavda raime mizezs, rom sargebeli mxolod sekularul erTeulebze gavrcelebuliyo. uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, ar SeiZleboda imaze seriozulad dava, qmnida Tu ara 702-e muxli saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris dauSveblad mWidro urTierTkavSirs. es kanoni, sasamarTlos azriT, piriqiT, sakmaod mkacrad mijnavda saxelmwifosa da eklesias. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, kanoni aseve ar ewinaaRmdegeba lemonis testis mesame nawils. apelantebi amtkicebdnen, rom 702-e muxli garkveuli politikuri uTanxmoebis saSiSroebas qmnida. Tumca sasamarTlo daeyrdno mosazrebas, rom mxolod politikuri uTanxmoeba ar SeiZleboda yofiliyo mizezi sxvagvarad dasaSvebi qmedebis ukanonod aRiarebisa. Sesabamisad, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaauqma pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. mosamarTle brenanis Tanmxvedri azri, romelsac SeuerTda mosamarTle marSali mosamarTle brenanis azriT, arasamewarmeo saqmianobis buneba ararelevanturs xdida konkretuli saqmis mixedviT imis gansazRvras, religiuri iyo aseTi saqmianoba, Tu sekularuli. mosamarTle brenanis mixedviT, nebismieri gamonaklisi V I I Tavidan garkveulwilad zRudavda muSakTa religiis Tavisuflebas. gaTavisufleba gulisxmobda, rom piri arCevanis winaSe dgeboda: an unda mieRo garkveuli religiuri dogmebi, an daetovebina samsaxuri. aseTi normis safuZvelze iZulebis potenciuri SesaZlebloba, mosamarTlis azriT, qmnida seriozul daZabulobas religiur sakiTxebSi individis sindisis TavisuflebasTan. Tumca, meore mxriv, mosamarTle brenanis gancxadebiT, religiur organizaciebs surT sruli avtonomia iseTi Sida sakiTxebis mosagvareblad, rogoricaa liderebis arCeva, doqtrinebis SemuSaveba da, ubralod, dawesebulebis marTva. religiuri Temi axdens TviTgamorkvevas, adgens ra, rom konkretuli saqmianoba xels uwyobs organizaciis religiuri misiis Sesrulebas da es saqmianoba mxolod misiisTvis Tavdadebulma xalxma unda Seasrulos. eklesiis aseTi SesaZlebloba, mosamarTlis azriT, asaxavs im ideas, rom religiuri organizaciis avtonomiurobis dacva individebis religiis Tavisuflebis dacvasac emsaxureba. aseTi TviTgamorkvevis procesSi saxelmwifos Carevas, mosamarTlis azriT, aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis xelyofa hqvia,

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vinaidan religiur organizacias SeuZlia garkveul religiur dogmebze dayrdnobiT gansazRvros dasaqmebis pirobebi. es logika, brenanis azriT, gvTavazobda, rom idealur variantSi religiur organizaciebs hqonodaT ufleba, religiur safuZvelze diskriminacia mxolod religiur saqmianobaTa mimarT moexdinaT. es amave dros, gulisxmobda, rom ama Tu im saqmianobis religiuri xasiaTi konkretuli SemTxvevidan gamomdinare unda garkveuliyo. imis dadgena, saqmianoba religiuria Tu sekularuli, araa advili da yoveli kerZo SemTxvevis analizs moiTxovs, rac iwvevs saxelmwifos mudmiv Carevas religiur sakiTxebSi. garda amisa, maSin, rodesac eklesia SeiZleba Tvlides garkveul saqmianobas religiurad, sasamarTlom is SeiZleba sulac ar miiCnios aseTad. Sesabamisad, mosamarTle brenanis azriT, religiur organizacia iZulebuli iqneboda, mxolod iseTi saqmianoba CaeTvala religiurad, romelic ar iqneboda sadavo. amis Sedegad religiuri Temis TviTgamorkvevis procesi nawilobriv sasamarTlo saqmeebiT iqneboda marTuli. Sesabamisad, konkretuli saqmeebis analizi gamoiwvevda saxelmwifos zedmet CarTulobas religiis sakiTxebSi da Seqmnida religiuri saqmianobis daTrgunvis saSiSroebas. aseTi saSiSroeba, mosamarTlis azriT, gansakuTrebiT arasamewarmeo saqmianobas emuqreboda. is, rom garkveuli saqmianoba ar iyo mogebaze orientirebuli, qmnida angariSgasawev arguments, rom is wmindad sekularuli ar iyo. es, mosamarTlis azriT, iwvevda eklesiis erTi SexedviT samarTlian protests, rom garkveuli erTeuli ara marto imisTvis funqcionirebs, rom moutanos Semosavlebi eklesias, aramed religiuri mizniTac aris STagonebuli. amgvarad, raime riski, rom religiur organizacias ar miecema ufleba, moaxdinos iseTi saqmianobis klasificireba religiurad, romelsac is marTlac Tvlis religiurad, yvelaze maRalia arasamewarmeo saqmianobis SemTxvevaSi. aseTi arsebiTi saSiSroeba, mosamarTlis azriT, cxadyofda imas, rom dauSvebeli iyo konkretuli SemTxvevebis mixedviT arasamewarmeo organizaciis bunebis gansazRvra da amarTlebda arasamewarmeo saqmianobis calsaxa gaTavisuflebas V I I Tavis moqmedebisgan. bavSvTa ganaTleba ganaTlebis mimarT aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis damkvidrebis pirveli mcdeloba sakmaod mcirericxovan da Zvel religiur seqtas — amiSebis religiur mimdinareobas ekuTvnis. amiSebi warmoadgendnen menonitebis111 religiuri sazogadoebrivi jgufis erT-erT ganxras, romlis mimdevrebmac 1693 wels sakuTari eklesiuri Temi daaarses. 1720-1775 wlebSi isini amerikaSi gadasaxldnen da ZiriTadad pensilvaniis StatSi dasaxldnen. amiSebis Zveli ordeni warmoadgenda Tavdapirveli amiSuri sazogadoebis ganxras, romelic xasiaTdeboda ukiduresi simkacriT da bibliisadmi erTgulebiT. isini misdevdnen miwaTmoqmedebas, saubrobdnen germanulad, ecvaT yvelasgan gansxvavebuli me-18 saukunis tansacmeli da hqondaT pacifisturi Sexedulebebi. amiSebi fiqrobdnen, rom codna, romelic ar aris dakavSirebuli miwaTmoqmedebasTan, adamianSi ampartavnobis grZnobas iwvevs, rac damRupveli codvaa. sajaro ganaTleba, rogorc aseTi, ar ewinaaRmdegeboda amiSebis mrwamss. me-19 saukuneSi amiSebis bavSvebi Tavisuflad eswrebodnen gakveTilebs skolebSi. Tumca meoce saukuneSi amiSebs gauCndaT azri, rom savaldebulo saSualo da umaRlesi saswavleblebi

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maTi religiisTvis udides safrTxes warmoadgenda. Tanamedrove saSualo skola bavSvebs aZlevda kiTxvaze, werasa da ariTmetikaze met codnas, anu im sagnebze met codnas, romlebsac amiSebis sazogadoeba Cveulebriv iyenebda xolme. konsolidirebulma saskolo olqebma amiSebi da sxva religiis mimdevrebi erTad Seyara. amiSebi TandaTanobiT amCnevdnen, rom gardatexis asakSi myofi maTi bavSvebi, romelTac seqsualuri grZnobebi uyalibdebodaT, nel-nela amayebi xdebodnen, Seusabamod icvamdnen da msoflios sxva bavSvebis msgavsad sijiutiT xasiaTdebodnen. 1960-ian wlebSi, rodesac skolebSi aikrZala bibliis kiTxva da locva da evoluciuri Teoriis swavleba sayovelTao gaxda, amiSebis ukmayofileba sajaro skolebis mimarT kidev ufro gamZafrda. me-20 saukunis pirvel naxevarSi amiSebi konsolidirebul skolebSi TavianTi bavSvebis gaSvebaze uaris Tqmis braldebiT xSirad isjebodnen jarimebiTa da Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT. pirvelad mxolod 1955 wels iqna miRweuli garkveuli kompromisi pensilvaniis StatSi. kerZod, amiS axalgazrdebs miecaT ufleba, daswrebodnen gakveTilebs amiSTa profesiul saswavleblebSi da mSoblebis zedamxedvelobiT SeesrulebinaT saSinao davalebebi miwaTmoqmedebaSi. pensilvaniis Statisgan gansxvavebiT, aiovas StatSi adgilobrivi xelisuflebis organoebi aiZulebdnen amiS moswavleebs sajaro skolis gakveTilebze daswrebas. 1968 wlis Sobis wina Rames pastorma lindholma, romelic amiSebis religiuri Tavisuflebis nacionaluri komitetis damfuZnebeli iyo, sTxova pensilvaniel advokats, uiliam bols, daecva viskonsinis StatSi Svilis skolaSi gaSvebaze uaris braldebiT dakavebuli erT-erTi amiSi. bolma SesTavaza Statis xelisuflebas, pensilvaniis msgavsad, wasuliyo kompromisze, Tumca xelisufleba aseT daTmobaze ar daTanxmda. 1969 wels viskonsinis Statis pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilva gaimarTa. bolma sasamarTloSi warmoadgina mowmeebi, romlebmac calsaxad aRniSnes, rom amiSebis religiuri mrwamsi aSkarad ewinaaRmdegeboda Tanamedrove skolebs. bolis erT-erT mowmes prokurorma Semdegi kiTxviT mimarTa: „ra aris ganaTlebis mizani, Tu ara sazogadoebis winsvlis uzrunvelyofa?“. kiTxvaze pasuxi ki Semdegi iyo: „yvelaferi damokidebulia imaze, romel sazogadoebaze vmsjelobT~. bolma aseve warmoadgina olqis Serifis Cveneba, rom man ar icoda arc erTi amiSi axalgazrda, romelic raime kriminalur saqmianobaSi monawileobda. bolma waago sasamarTlo saqme rogorc pirveli, ise saapelacio instanciis sasamarTloebSi, Tumca igive saqme moigo viskonsinis uzenaes sasamarTloSi. viskonsinis Statma saCivariT mimarTa amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaes sasamarTlos. igi amtkicebda, rom „religia~, romlis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobac pirveli SesworebiT iyo daculi, warmoadgenda kults da araviTar SemTxvevaSi cxovrebis stils. miuxedavad imisa, rom imdroindeli precedentebiT Stati marTali iyo, bolma SeZlo sakiTxisadmi axali midgomis Camoyalibeba da uzenaesma sasamarTlom saqme mis sasargeblod gadawyvita.

viskonsinis Stati ioderis winaaRmdeg112
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba viskonsinis Statis saCivaris safuZvelze uzenaesma sasamarTlom ganixila viskonsinis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, romelmac ukanonod cno mopasuxeTa msjavrdeba Statis savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonis darRvevis braldebiT, pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulisa da me-14 Sesworebis safuZvel-

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ze. qvemoT moyvanili mizezebis gamo uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadastura viskonsinis Statis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis samarTlianoba. ionas ioderi da valas mileri, amiSuri religiis mimdevrebi iyvnen, xolo adin iutci konservatiuli amiSur-menonituri eklesiis wevri iyo. viskonsinis savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanoni moiTxovda maTgan Svilebis mibarebas sajaro an kerZo skolaSi. mSoblebi kategoriul uars acxadebdnen bavSvebisTvis skolaSi daswrebis nebarTvis micemaze, ris Sedegad bavSvebi ar iqnen CarTulni romelime kerZo Tu sajaro dawesebulebis saswavlo procesSi. Sesabamisad, isini viskonsinis savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonis subieqtebad cnes. isini savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonis darRvevis braldebiT gasamarTldnen da fuladi jarimac daekisraT. amiSebi irwmunebodnen, rom savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonis moTxovna arRvevda pirveli da me-14 SesworebebiT ganmtkicebul maT uflebebs. pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvisas mowmeebis Cvenebebma daadastura, rom mopasuxeebis mrwamsi marTlac Seesabameboda amiSuri religiis moTxovnebs da rom maTi Svilebis daswreba sajaro skolaSi marTlac ewinaaRmdegeboda amiSur mrwamss da cxovrebis wess. sasamarTloSi mowmeebad mowveuli eqspertebis Cvenebebis Tanaxmad, amiSebis sazogadoeba xasiaTdeba im fundamenturi mrwamsiT, rom xsna moiTxovs cxovrebas saeklesio sazogadoebaSi, romelic gamoyofilia msofliosgan da Tavisufalia misi gavlenisgan. samyarosgan gariyuli cxovreba da aseTi Rirebulebebi amiSuri mrwamsis ZiriTadi elementebia. garda amisa, amiSuri sazogadoebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa misi erTguleba harmoniuli cxovrebisadmi, rac, maTi azriT, bunebasTan da miwasTan axlo cxovrebas gulisxmobs. amiSuri mrwamsi misi mimdevrebisgan moiTxovs, rom maT sarCo mxolod fermerobiTa da sxva msgavsi saqmianobiT moipovon. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos azriT, SeiZleba daskvnis gamotana, rom amiSuri religia gansazRvravs misi mimdevrebis cxovrebis stils. formaluri ganaTlebis mimarT amiSebis protesti swored zemoT xsenebul ZiriTad religiur Rirebulebebs eyrdnoba. isini ewinaaRmdegebian umaRles ganaTlebas, radganac igi ar Seesabameba amiSebis Rirebulebebsa da cxovrebis wess. maTi SexedulebiT, saSualo ganaTleba dauSvebel gavlenas axdens maT bavSvebze, radgan is ewinaaRmdegeba amiSur mrwamss. skola did mniSvnelobas aniWebs inteleqtualur da mecnierul miRwevebs, konkurencias, warmatebas sazogadoebaSi da Tanacxovrebas sxva studentebTan. amiSuri sazogadoeba ki yuradRebas amaxvilebs araformalur praqtikul swavlebaze; sibrZneze da ara teqnikur codnaze: sazogadoebriv keTildReobaze da ara konkurenciaze; sazogadoebisgan gancalkevebul cxovrebaze da ara Tanamedrove sazogadoebasTan integrirebaze. formaluri ganaTleba amiSur mrwamss ara marto imitom ewinaaRmdegeba, rom is amiSebs iseT garemoSi aqcevs, romelic mtrulia maTi mrwamsis mimarT da did mniSvnelobas aniWebs konkurencias, aramed imitomac, rom aseTi ganaTleba gardatexis asakSi xels uwyobs maTi bavSvebis gaucxoebas sazogadoebis mimarT. am mniSvnelovan periodSi bavSvebma sxvadasxva xelobebi unda Seiswavlon, raTa SeZlon amiSi fermerisa Tu diasaxlisisTvis Cveuli cxovrebis warmatebiT gaZRola. es xelobebi im kategorias miekuTvneba, romelic magaliTiTa da praqtikuli saqmianobiT ukeT iswavleba, vidre saklaso oTaxSi. Sesabamisad, iseT skolaSi siaruli, sadac araamiSi da xSirad amiSebis mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili maswavleblebic ki arian, qmnis bariers

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bavSvis amiSur sazogadoebaSi integraciisTvis. amiSuri sazogadoebis erT-erTi eqspertis gancxadebiT, Tanamedrove skola ar aris saTanadod aRWurvili imisaTvis, raTa amiSuri sazogadoebis Rirebulebebi gaiziaros. amiSebi ar ewinaaRmdegebian dawyebiT ganaTlebas, radgan fiqroben, rom maT Svilebs sWirdebaT elementaruli unarebi, raTa waikiTxon biblia, iyvnen kargi fermerebi da moqalaqeebi da SeeZloT urTierToba araamiSuri mrwamsis warmomadgenlebTan. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom viskonsinis savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanoni winaaRmdegobaSi modioda mopasuxeTa TavisuflebasTan, emoqmedaT gulwrfeli mrwamsis Sesabamisad. magram man aseve daaskvna, rom skolaSi daswrebis moTxovna iyo saxelmwifo xelisuflebis „gonivruli da konstituciuri~ gamoyeneba, ris safuZvelzec amiSebis sarCeli ar unda dakmayofilebuliyo. viskonsinis Statis uzenaesma sasamarTlom gaauqma saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba da pirvel Sesworebaze dayrdnobiT daakmayofila amiSebis moTxovna. viskonsinis Statis uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTleTa umravlesobis SexedulebiT Statma ver aCvena, rom saganmanaTleblo sistemis efeqturoba ufro Rirebulia, vidre mopasuxis ufleba, religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, udavoa, rom Tavisi moqalaqeebisTvis ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofis pasuxismgeblobiT aRWurvil saxelmwifos unda hqondes sabazo ganaTlebis gonivruli regulirebis uflebamosileba. sajaro skolaSi ganaTlebis miRebis uzrunvelyofa saxelmwifos erT-erTi ZiriTadi da umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa. Tumca, miuxedavad aseTi pasuxismgeblobis didi mniSvnelobisa, uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, is mainc uTmobs adgils mSoblis uflebas, uzrunvelyos Tavisi SvilisTvis tolfasi ganaTleba kerZo dawesebulebaSi. Sesabamisad, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, mSoblis mier Tavisi SvilisTvis religiuri aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis mimarTulebis SerCevas didi Rirebuleba aqvs amerikul sazogadoebaSi. sasamarTlos azriT, saxelmwifos interesi sayovelTao ganaTlebis uzrunvelyofaSi, ra Rirebuladac ar unda CaiTvalos is, ar aris absoluturi maSin, rodesac xelyofs fundamentur uflebebs, romlebic daculia konstituciis pirveli SesworebiT. sasamarTlos azriT, imis gasarkvevad, ewinaaRmdegeboda Tu ara savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanoni amiSebis religiur mrwamss, upirveles yovlisa, saWiro iyo imis gansazRvra, iyo Tu ara amiSebis religiuri mrwamsi da maTi cxovrebis stili erTmaneTze ise damokidebuli, rogorc amas Tavad amiSebi amtkicebdnen. cxovrebis stili, Tu is mTlianad sekularul Sexedulebebs efuZneba, ar SeiZleba iyos saxelmwifos mier ganaTlebis gonivruli regulirebis damabrkolebeli faqtori. imisTvis, rom cxovrebis stili daculi iyos religiuri klauzulebiT, is ZiriTadad religiur mrwamss unda emyarebodes. Tumca, sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, Tavad imis ganmarteba, Tu ras niSnavs „religiuri~ mrwamsi, sakmaod delikaturi sakiTxia. regulirebuli Tavisuflebis koncefcia gamoricxavs nebismieri pirisTvis imis uflebis micemas, rom man Tavad Seqmnas adamianis qcevis standartebi, romlis mimarTac sazogadoebas, rogorc erT mTlians, mniSvnelovani interesi unda gaaCndes. Sesabamisad, Tu amiSebis moTxovna maT subieqtur Sefasebasa da umravlesobis mier aRiarebuli Tanamedrove sekularuli Rirebulebebis uaryofas efuZneboda, maSin, sasamarTlos azriT, maT moTxovnas ara aqvs religiuri safuZveli. saqmis masalebi imaze miuTiTebda, rom amiSebis tradiciuli cxovrebis stili ar

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iyo mxolod maTi piradi, individualuri arCevanis Sedegi, aramed gamomdinareobda myari religiuri mrwamsidan. amiSebis yoveldRiuri cxovreba da religiuri saqmianoba iRebs saTaves maTi mrwamsidan. amaze, sasamarTlos azriT, miuTiTebs amiSuri religiis erT-erTi fundamenturi mcneba, romelic mouwodebs amiSuri religiis mimdevrebs, ar daemorCilon qveynis kanonebs. ufro metic, amiSebisTvis religia ara marto rwmenis sakiTxia, aramed, rogorc mowmed mowveulma eqspertma ganacxada, is gansazRvravs amiSebis cxovrebis stils da aregulirebs maTi yoveldRiuri cxovrebis TiToeul detals. viskonsinis Statis argumenti ZiriTadad im mosazrebas eyrdnoboda, rom amiSi mSoblebis gaTavisufleba savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonis moTxovnebisgan uaryofiT Sedegs gamoiwvevda. kerZod, mSoblebi ar imoqmedebdnen bavSvis saukeTeso interesis Sesabamisad, radgan SeuzRudavdnen bavSvebs amiSur cxovrebasa da gare samyaros Soris gonivruli arCevanis gakeTebis SesaZleblobas. Tumca, sasamarTlos azriT, arc saqmis masalebi da arc individualuri gamocdileba ar miuTiTebs imaze, rom mSoblebi, Cveulebriv, ekiTxebodnen TavianT 14-16 wlis Svilebs, undaT Tu ara maT im saeklesio skolaSi swavla, romlis mimdevrebic maTi mSoblebi arian. sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, calsaxaa, rom Tu saxelmwifos, rogorc parens patriae aRWurvili iqneba uflebamosilebiT, „gadaarCinos~ bavSvi misi amiSi mSoblebisTvis savaldebulo ganaTlebis moTxovnis Sesrulebis iZulebiT, maSin saxelmwifo Tavisdauneburad mTlianad ganusazRvravs bavSvs religiur momavals. Sesabamisad, winamdebare saqmeSi erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba saxelmwifos, rogorc parens patriae, fundamenturi interesi da mSoblis aseve fundamenturi interesi, gansazRvros bavSvis religiuri momavali da ganaTleba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, istoria da dasavluri civilizaciis kultura asaxavs mSoblis mier bavSvis aRzrdasa da ganaTlebaze zrunvis sakmaod Zlier tradicias. mSoblis aseTi mniSvnelovani roli bavSvis aRzrdasa da ganaTlebaSi, sasamarTlos azriT, aseve damkvidrebulia, rogorc myari amerikuli tradicia. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, SeerTebuli Statebis uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadastura viskonsinis Statis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebis samarTlianoba. mosamarTle duglasis nawilobriv gansxvavebuli azri mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, bavSvebis Sexedulebebi, romelTac exebodaT es saqme, viskonsinis sasamarTloebma ganixila. amitom, duglasis azriT, saqme isev unda dabruneboda qveda instanciis sasamarTlos xelmeore ganxilvisTvis. mosamarTlis Tanaxmad, uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier amiSebis sazogadoebis wesrigsa da kanonmorCilebaze gakeTebuli aqcenti ar iyo relevanturi. religia iTvleba religiad, imis miuxedavad imisa, Tu ra tipis da ramdeni samarTaldarRveva aqvT Cadenili mis mimdevrebs. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, am saqmeSi, amiSebis mrwamsi yvela istoriuli standartiT akmayofilebs pirveli Sesworebis Sesabamis religiis ganmartebas. mosamarTlis Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo marTebulad uaryofs mosazrebas imis Sesaxeb, rom qmedeba, Tundac religiuri safuZvlis mqone, arasdros araa pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis dacvis obieqti. am gadawyvetilebiT sasamarTlo uaryofs reinoldsi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg113 saqmeSi aRiarebul

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princips, romelic gulisxmobs, rom kongresi moklebulia Sexedulebebis regulirebis sakanonmdeblo uflebamosilebas, Tumca sruliad Tavisuflad SeuZlia gamoiyenos igive uflebamosileba iseTi qmedebebis mimarT, romlebic ewinaaRmdegeba socialur valdebulebebs an sazogadoebriv wesrigs. reinoldsis saqmeSi aRiarebul iqna, rom poligamia mormonebis religiis nawils warmoadgenda. miuxedavad amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom es mxolod da mxolod rwmena iyo da sxva araferi. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, qmedeba, romelsac sasamarTlo antisazogadoebrivad CaTvlis, SeiZleba dasjadi iyos im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu safuZvlad udevs myari da gulwrfeli religiuri mrwamsi. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba iZleva saSualebas, religias bevrad farTo dasayrdeni mieces, vidre odesme hqonia. ufro metic, mosamarTlis Tanaxmad, aseTi gadawyvetileba qmnis winapirobas, reinoldsis saqmis precedentis gauqmebisaTvis. qristianuli skolebi. qristianuli skolebis SexedulebiT, biblia aCvenebs, rom RmerTma mianiWa mSoblebs ufleba da valdebuleba, aRzardon da miscen ganaTleba TavianT Svilebs; rom maT isargebles religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis uflebiT da daaarses religiuri skolebi da ara sekularuli skolebi religiuri ganaTlebis damatebiT; rom saxelmwifos ara aqvs ufleba, akontrolos aseTi skolebis kurikulumi an maswavleblebi; rom skola da eklesia erTni arian da radganac saxelmwifos ar SeuZlia SezRudos eklesia, mas aseve ar SeuZlia areguliros skolis saqmianoba. luisvilis baptisturi eklesia xelmZRvanelobda qristianul skolas, romlis kurikulumi mxolod bibliaze orientirebul saxelmZRvaneloebs aRiarebda. magaliTad, maTematikis saxelmZRvanelo bibliur citatebs Sekrebisa da gamoklebis amocanebTan akavSirebda. skolam uari ganacxada, miewodebina saxelmwifosTvis moswavleTa sia, romelic saWiro iyo kurikulumis dasamtkiceblad da akreditebuli maswavleblebis dasaqiraveblad. saqmeSi nebraskis Stati luisvilis baptisturi eklesiis winaaRmdeg sasamarTlom daakmayofila saxelmwifos moTxovna, SeCerebuliyo skolis funqcionireba. msgavsi gadawyvetileba iqna miRebuli aiovas StatSic.114 Statis sasamarTlom ar daakmayofila savaldebulo ganaTlebis kanonisgan gaTavisuflebis moTxovna. sasamarTlom Tavisi gadawyvetilebis dasabuTebisas ganacxada, rom mrwamsis gulwrfeloba iyo erTaderTi faqtori, riTac msgavsni iyvnen amiSebi da mosarCeleebi; rom mosarCeleebis mrwamsi gacilebiT naklebad iyo dakavSirebuli maT yoveldRiur cxovrebasTan, vidre amiSebisa. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, amiSebis kultura ufro metad aris izolirebuli amerikuli cxovrebis stilisgan, vidre mosarCeleebisa, romelTa Svilebi aucileblad Caebmebian yoveldRiur konkurenciaSi, icxovreben mravalferovan da rTul sazogadoebaSi. meore mxriv, saqmeSi Stati vaisneris winaaRmdeg115 pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi mSoblebi gasamarTlebul iqnen maTi Svilebis mier gakveTilebis gacdenis gamo. Stati iTxovda yvela mSoblisgan maTi Svilebis Statis minimaluri standartebis Sesabamis skolaSi daswrebas. saapelacio sasamarTlo daeyrdno ioderis sasamarTlo precedents da gadawyvita, rom saxelmwifos arasdros ucdia daesabuTebina Tavisi interesis samarTlianoba minimaluri standartis wesis religiuri skolebis mimarT gamoyenebisas. Sesabamisad, saapelacio sasamarTlom gaauqma pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba.

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religiuri samosis tareba simCa goldmani, orTodoqsi ebraeli da sahaero Zalebis kapitani, fsiqologad msaxurobda marCis sahaero Zalebis bazaze. is yovelTvis atarebda ermolkas _ Tavsaburavs, romelic RvTisadmi mis morCilebas gamoxatavda. sahaero Zalebs SemuSavebuli hqondaT regulaciebi Tavsaburavebis Sesaxeb, romlebic gansazRvravda, rogori Tavsaburavebis gamoyeneba iyo daSvebuli da rodis. rodesac goldmans Tavsaburavis moxda ubrZanes, man sarCeli Seitana sasamarTloSi da moiTxova Tavsaburavis amkrZalavi regulaciebis gauqmeba. saolqo sasamarTlom daakmayofila misi moTxovna. saapelacio sasamarTlom gaauqma pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba, radgan miiCnia, rom sahaero Zalebs ar gaaCndaT sxva interesi, garda xsenebuli wesebis mkacri aRsrulebis Sedegad miRebuli efeqtisa. saapelacio sasamarTlos mosamarTle abner mitkvam, romelic Tavad iyo ebraeli, ganucxada Tavis kolegebs, rom ermolkis tarebas yvela ebraeli ar emxroboda. ramdenad relevanturi iyo es informacia goldmanis saqmis gadawyvetaSi ar aris cnobili. mogvianebiT imave Semadgenlobis sasamarTlom ukanonod gamoacxada Tavdacvis departamentis regulacia, romelic krZalavda homoseqsualuri orientaciis mqone pirebis msaxurs samxedro ZalebSi (stefani aspinis winaaRmdeg116 ). mosamarTle mitkvam am saqmeSi goldmanis117 saqmis precedenti moiyvana da aRniSna, rom Zlieri da damoukidebeli samxedro Zalebi umniSvnelovanesi iyo saxelmwifo usafrTxoebisTvis da amitom sasamarTloebma ar unda Secvalon samxedro Zalebis gadawyvetilebebi. iyo Tu ara goldmanis mier ermolkis tareba mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo usafrTxoebisTvis? uzenaesma sasamarTlom 5 xmiT 4-is winaaRmdeg goldmanis sawinaaRmdego gadawyvetileba miiRo.

goldmani uainbergeris winaaRmdeg118
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba sahaero Zalebis wesdebis mixedviT, samxedro formebi aRvivebs ierarqiuli erTianobis grZnobas da gamoricxavs raime individualur gansxvavebas, garda wodebrivi gansxvavebisa. sahaero Zalebis sasicoxlo mniSvnelobas aniWeban formebs, rogorc mSvidobian dros, aseve saomari mdgomareobisas, radgan piradi Semadgenloba yovelTvis mzad unda iyos, efeqturi dacvis uzrunvelyofisTvis. disciplinis saWiro Cvevebi ki safrTxis dadgomamde unda Camoyalibdes. uzenaesi sasamarTlo daeTanxma sahaero Zalebis pozicias, rom samxedroebma brZanebaTa morCileba omis dros ar unda iswavlon da rom momentaluri damorCilebis Cveva omamde unda iyos gamomuSavebuli. aseTi Cvevebis SesaZenad sahaero Zalebs specialuri 190-gverdiani dokumenti hqondaT SemuSavebuli, romlis Tanaxmadac sahaero Zalebis wevrma samxedro valdebulebis Sesrulebisas samxedro forma unda ataros, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca nabrZanebi aqvs samoqalaqo tanisamosis tareba. dokumentis danarCeni nawili detalurad aRwers yvela nivTs, romelic samxedro formasTan erTad unda ataros samxedrom. nebadarTuli Tavsaburavis tareba mxolod bazis gareT SiZleba. am wesidan gamonaklisis saxiT, pirs mxolod ufrosis nebarTviT SeuZlia Tavsaburavis tareba religiur ceremoniebze, romlebic SenobaSi an sacxovrebel adgilas tardeba. nebadarTulia aseve religiuri nivTebis tareba samosis qveS. mosarCele goldmani amtkicebda, rom pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuf-

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lebis klauzula moiTxovda sahaero Zalebisgan religiuri Tavsaburavis tarebis nebarTvas, radgan es xilvadi, Tumca „mokrZalebuli~, samosi araviTar saSiSroebas samxedro disciplinas ar uqmnida. is amtkicebda, rom sahaero Zalebis mosazreba, TiTqos misi ermolka safrTxes uqmnida disciplinas, safuZvels iyo moklebuli, radgan arc konkretul gamocdilebas eyrdnoboda da arc mecnierul daskvnas. piriqiT, misi gancxadebiT, eqspertis Cvenebam aCvena, rom religiuri xasiaTis gamonaklisi regulaciebidan sasurvelic ki iyo, radgan sahaero Zalebs ufro humanur adgilad aqcevda. uzenaesma sasamarTlom araarsebiTad CaTvala eqspertis gancxadeba. samosis regulirebis mizanSewoniloba samxedro pirebis gadasawyveti iyo da maT konstitucia ar avaldebulebda, uari eTqvaT TavianT profesiul Sexedulebaze. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, pirveli Sesworeba ar moiTxovda sahaero Zalebisgan goldmanis moTxovnis dakmayofilebas, radgan es erTgvarovnebis darRvevas gamoiwvevda, rasac samosis regulaciebi ewinaaRmdegeboda. Sesabamisad, uzenaesma sasamarTlom ucvlelad datova saapelacio sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. mosamarTle stivensis Tanmxvedri azri, romelsac SeuerTdnen mosamarTle uaiti da mosamarTle paueli mosamarTle stivensis azriT, kapitani goldmani Tavis samsaxurebriv movaleobas iseT sistemaSi asrulebda, sadac samxedro formidan mcire gadaxveva ar Seuqmnida saSiSroebas sahaero Zalebis samxedro misias. ufro metic, mosamarTlis azriT, arsebobda sakmao safuZveli im daskvnisaTvis, rom goldmanis mimarT gatarebuli mkacri zomebi represiuli xasiaTis iyo. mas ar Seqmnia problema Tavsaburavis tarebasTan dakavSirebiT maSin, rodesac Cvenebas iZleoda samxedro sasamarTloSi. mosamarTle stivensis azriT, sasamarTlom unda ganixilos sahaero Zalebis wesebis gamoyenebis kanoniereba ara mxolod kapitan goldmanis, aramed mTeli personalis mimarT, romlis gulwrfeli religiuri rwmenac garkveul samxedro brZanebebs ewinaaRmdegeba. am saqmeSi gasaCivrebuli wesi efuZneba sruliad neitralur da obieqtur standarts _ xilvadobas. igi ar aris motivirebuli romelime religiuri rwmenisadmi SuRliT an gansakuTrebuli pativiscemiT. gamonaklisis daSveba ermolkis tarebisaTvis erTgvarovnebis WeSmariti principis ugulvebelyofa iqneboda, rasac emyareba aRniSnuli wesi. mosamarTle brenanis gansxvavebuli azri, romelsac SeuerTda mosamarTle marSali mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, samxedro dawesebuleba Tavisi mkacri moTxovnebiT, SesaZloa indiferentuli iyos umciresobebis saWiroebebisa da Rirebulebebis mimarT. magram religiis klauzulis umniSvnelovanesi funqciaa, daicvas umciresobebis uflebebi umravlesobis mxridan maTi arcodniT gamowveuli ugulebelyofisgan. mosamarTlis azriT, uzenaesi sasamarTlos konstituciuri funqcia iyo pirveli Sesworebis am miznis realizacia. mosamarTle o’konoris gansxvavebuli azri mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, ubralod imis aRiareba, rom samxedro ZalebSi disciplinis SenarCunebis interesi Zalian mniSvnelovania, ar aris sakmarisi imisTvis, rom saxelmwifos uari religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze konstituciurad CaiTva-

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los. pirma, romlis qmedebebi Tundac ukeTilSobilesi miznisken iyos mimarTuli, mainc kanonis farglebSi unda imoqmedos. Sesabamisad, mosamarTlis azriT, saxelmwifoc, romelic Tavisi umniSvnelovanesi interesis Sesrulebas cdilobs, SeiZleba daeqvemdebaros garkveul SezRudvebs. garda amisa, pasuxi unda gaeces kiTxvas imis Taobaze, miayenebs Tu ara arsebiT zians gansakuTrebul saxelmwifo interess mosarCelis moTxovnis dakmayofileba. im konkretul SemTxvevaSi, rodesac samxedro dawesebuleba ver amtkicebs damajereblad regulaciebis mkacri gatarebis saWiroebas da individi askvnis, rom misi gaTavisuflebiT Seqmnili saSiSroebis argumenti usafuZvloa, mosamarTle o’konori miiCnevs, rom saxelmwifos samxedro ZalebSi erTgvarovnebis politika naklebad Rirebulia, vidre individis religiis Tavisufleba. *** SeerTebuli Statebis konstituciis mixedviT, kongresi aRWurvilia uflebamosilebiT, akrifos gadasaxadebi, dafaros davalianebebi, uzrunvelyos sayovelTao usafrTxoeba da sazogadoebrivi keTildReoba, SeimuSaos wesebi mTavrobisaTvis da regulaciebi saxmeleTo da sazRvao samxedro ZalebisaTvis. mosamarTle brenanma, romelic ar daeTanxma sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas zemoT ganxilul saqmeSi, ganacxada, rom sasamarTlos gulubryvilo mxardaWera usafuZvlo samxedro saWiroebisadmi (rom samxedro disciplinis SenarCunebisTvis saWiroa religiis Tavisuflebis SezRudva) moiTxovda kongresisgan, gamoesworebina sasamarTlos mier daSvebuli Secdoma. sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis Semdeg ramdenime ebraulma organizaciam scada moepovebina kongresis mxardaWera. kongresma maSinve ubrZana Tavdacvis saministros, Camoeyalibebina jgufi, romelic Seiswavlida, Tu rogor unda momxdariyo samxedro Zalebis wevrebis mxridan religiis moTxovnaTa dacvis interessa da disciplinis SenarCunebis samxedro interess Soris potenciuri konfliqtis minimizacia. Semswavlelma jgufma daaskvna, rom formebi samxedro sistemaSi mniSvnelovnad uwyobda xels disciplinis SenarCunebas, saomari sulisa da erTianobis ganwyobis Seqmnas. Tumca jgufma aseve daaskvna, rom tanisamosis qveS religiuri nivTebis tareba daSvebuli unda yofiliyo, Tu es saSiSroebas ar uqmnida usafrTxoebasa da janmrTelobas. Tavdacvis departamentma 1985 wels gamoacxada, rom ermolkis tareba daSvebuli iyo, garda im SemTxvevisa, roca adgili hqonda „samxedro saWiroebas~. 1988 wels kongresma gadawyvita, rom samxedro Zalebis wevrs SeeZlo etarebina religiuri samosi samxedro formasTan erTad, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac Tavdacvis saministro gadawyvetda, rom religiuri samosis tareba xels SeuSlida samxedro movaleobis Sesrulebas an aseTi samosi sufTa da konservatiuli ar iyo. religiuri samosis tareba sasamarTloSi. niu-iorkis pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom ebrauli mrwamsis mimdevar maier uainbergers unda moexada Tavisi ermolka an daetovebina sasamarTlo darbazi („qlous-iT-enterpraizisi“ uainbergeris winaaRmdeg119 ). niu-iorkis uzenaesi sasamarTlos saapelacio palatam gaauqma es sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba, radgan miiCnia, rom sasamarTlos ar SeeZlo daeyenebina piri tribunalsa da religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobas Soris arCevanis winaSe. am saqmemde niu-iorkis saapelacio sasamarTlom mxari dauWira pirveli

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instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebas, romelic ukrZalavda kaTolike iurist mRvdels, etarebina Tavisi yelsabami sasamarTloSi advokatad gamosvlisas (la roka leinis winaaRmdeg120 ). sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare braitelma ganacxada, rom advokati eqvemdebareboda mosamarTlis tanisamosTan dakavSirebul im regulaciebs, romlebic gonivrul kavSirSi iyo sasamarTloSi wesrigisa da etiketis SenarCunebasTan, mowmeebisa da mxareTa dacvasTan, da zogadad marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebasTan. braitelis azriT, mosamarTlem SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad aRiqvas samRvdeloebis warmomadgenlisa da sxvebis mier gakeTebuli gancxadeba. mosamarTlis mtkicebiT, riski imisa, rom samarTliani sasamarTlo ar Sedgeboda, ufro mniSvnelovani iyo, vidre advokatis religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis `SemTxveviTi SezRudva~, romelic aiZulebda mas moexsna Tavisi religiuri mrwamsis simbolo. kaTolikeebi icaven religiur rituals da ar miirTmeven xorcs paraskevobiT, Tumca kaTolikuri eklesia uSvebs gamonakliss aseTi ritualidan. niSnavs ki es imas, rom saxelmwifos SeuZlia mosTxovos kaTolikes miirTvas xorci paraskevs? uainbergeris saqme sasamarTlom ganasxvava la rokas saqmisgan. man ganacxada, rom mowinaaRmdge mxares ar gamouTqvams protesti ermolkis tarebaze, maSin, rodesac olqis prokurorma gaaprotesta mama la rokas mier kaTolikuri yelsabmis tareba. arsebiTia/gadamwyvetia ki es gansxvaveba? sami wlis Semdeg la rokas isev aukrZales yelsabamis tareba sasamarTloSi. rodesac la rokam isev gaikeTa yelsabami, olqis prokurorma isev protesti gamoxata, magram amjerad sasamarTlom sasuliero pirs dauWira mxari. la roka daeyrdno papis gancxadebas, romlis Tanaxmad, mRvdelma samosiT unda gamoxatos Tavisi gansakuTrebuli misia. religiuri samosi da saklaso oTaxi. janet kuperi, siqizmis mimdevari da eugenis sajaro skolis maswavlebeli, saswavlo procesis dros TeTr tanisamoss da TeTr Calmas atarebda. skolisadmi miweril werilSi is acxadebda, rom am samosis tarebiT icavda religiuri rwmenis moTxovnas. skolis direqtorma gaafrTxila kuperi, rom misi saqcieli arRvevda oregonis statuts, romlis Tanaxmad sajaro skolis arc erT maswavlebels ar hqonda ufleba etarebina religiuri samosi Tavisi samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas. sasamarTlo procesze uzenaesi sasamarTlos mosamarTle lindem ganacxada, rom oregonis statuti religiuri samosis saklaso oTaxSi tarebis winaaRmdeg dasaSvebi iyo, radgan gamoricxavda skolaSi religiuri gavlenis moxdenas. religiuri rituali cixeSi mRvdelmsaxureba cixeSi da religiiT motivirebuli cixis reforma. religiur teqstebSi warmodgenili moZRvrebebiT motivirebuli morwmuneebi didi xnis manZilze eweodnen sakuTari rwmenis socialuri Sedegebis analizs. aman ubiZga maT ara marto aqtiurad CarTuliyvnen cixis mRvdelmsaxurebaSi, aramed xeli SeewyoT zogadad penitenciur sistemaSi reformis ganxorcielebisaTvis. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mravali morwmune ganicdida patimrobis mZime pirobebs. am gamocdilebam Tavisi wvlili Seitana cixeSi mRvdelmsaxurebis damkvidrebasa da zogierT SemTxvevaSi reformistuli moZraobis wamowyebaSi, rasac mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi mohyva cixis pirobebis gaumjobesebis TvalsazrisiT. sxva SemTxvevebSi morwmuneebis patimrobam sakmaod Rirebuli literaturuli nawarmoebebis daweras misca stimuli. magaliTad,

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1963 wlis patimrobisas martin luTer kingma dawera cnobili „werili birmingemis cixidan~. misi ritorika, romelic rasobrivi niSniT dapatimrebulTa gaTavisuflebas moiTxovda, sakmaod efeqturi iyo, radgan dawerili iyo im sulieri winamZRvris mier, romelic Tavad gisosebs miRma imyofeboda rasobrivi usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg araZaladobrivi protestis gamo. aseve magaliTad SeiZleba moyvanil iqnes Carlz kolsonis patimroba. misma religiurma moZraobam cixeSi Sedegad gamoiRo cixis amxanagobis (Prison Fellowship) Camoyalibeba, romelic patimrebs emsaxureba da miznad isaxavs cixis pirobebis gaumjobesebas amerikaSi. garda imisa, rom religiuri jgufebi xSirad iyvnen cixis reformis iniciatorebi, religia aseve mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda cixis administraciis mier patimrebis moTxovnaTa dakmayofilebaSi.

o’lone `Sabazis sakuTrebis~ winaaRmdeg121 lisburgis cixeSi patimrebis jgufs davalebuli hqonda samuSaos Sesruleba cixis Senobis gareT. cixis administracias problemebi eqmneboda, rodesac patimrebi garkveuli mizezebis gamo (maT Soris religiur ritualze daswrebis mizeziT) moiTxovdnen ZiriTad SenobaSi dabrunebas samuSao dRis ganmavlobaSi. dRis ganmavlobaSi patimrebis ukan dabruneba risks uqmnida usafrTxoebas da warmoSobda administraciul sirTuleebs. patimrebis yovel jgufs mxolod erTi mcveli zedamxedvelobda, amitom mTliani jgufi iZulebuli iyo mTavar SesasvlelTan mobrunebuliyo, Tu erT patimars mainc moundeboda SenobaSi dabruneba. mTavar SesavlelTan cixeSi Semavali da iqidan gamomavali ZiriTadi transporti moZraobda, amitom cixis administracia Sesasvlels gansakuTrebiT sarisko zonad aRiqvamda. patimris ukan dabrunebisas SesasvlelTan moZraoba iketeboda manam, sanam patimrebs ar gaCxrekdnen. aseTi problemebis gamo cixis administraciam yvelaferi iRona, raTa gareT momuSave patimrebi iq dRis bolomde darCeniliyvnen. kerZod, cixis administraciam miiRo Sida administraciuli aqti, romelic krZalavda gareT momuSave patimrebisTvis dRis ganmavlobaSi cixeSi dabrunebas, garda gansakuTrebuli SemTxvevebisa. magaliTad, cixis administraciis mier miRebuli aqti Senobis gareT momuSave muslimebs uflebas ar aZlevda, daswrebodnen TavianT religiur rituals jumuas, romlis mkacrad dacvasac iTxovs yurani. patimrebma Seitanes sarCeli pirveli instanciis sasamarTloSi im motiviT, rom cixis aseTi politika xelyofda pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT ganmtkicebul maT uflebebs. pirveli instanciis sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom ukan dabrunebis akrZalva gonivrul farglebSi emsaxureboda wesrigis, usafrTxoebisa da patimarTa reabilitaciis mizans. sasamarTlom uaryo winadadeba patimrebis religiuri moTxovnis dakmayofilebis alternatiuli gzebis Sesaxeb. sasamarTlos ganacxadebiT, ar arsebobda sxva patimrebis uflebebis naklebad SemzRudavi alternativa, romelic safrTxis qveS ar daayenebda cixis legitimur instituciur mizans. saapelacio sasamarTlom ganacxada, rom cixis aseTi politika mxolod maSin iqneboda gamarTlebuli, Tu saxelmwifo aCvenebda, rom gasaCivrebuli regulaciebi xels uwyobda usafrTxoebis mniSvnelovan penologiur mizans. garda amisa, cixis politikis gasamarTleblad saxelmwifos unda eCvenebina, rom ar arsebobda alternatiuli gza patimrebis religiuri moTxovnis dakmayofilebisa usafrTxoebisTvis riskis gareSe. saapelacio sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, didi mniSvneloba unda miniWe-

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boda cixeSi momuSave eqspertebis Cvenebas, Tumca mxolod es Cvenebebi ar iyo obieqturi safuZveli alternatiuli gonivruli regulaciis ararsebobis Taobaze daskvnis gamosatanad. sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu SesaZlebeli iyo religiuri moTxovnebis dakmayofilebisaTvis alternatiuli gonivruli zomebis miReba, romlebic ar xelyofda arc usafrTxoebis interess da arc patimrebis uflebas religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze, maSin saxelmwifos mier religiur ritualSi monawileobis akrZalva dauSvebeli iyo da xelyofda patimarTa pirveli SesworebiT ganmtkicebul uflebebs. sasamarTlom aseve aRniSna is faqtorebi, romlebic gansazRvravda im meTodis gonivrulobas, romlis saSualebiTac unda dakmayofilebuliyo patimarTa religiur ritualSi monawileobis moTxovna. ama Tu im meTodis gonivrulobas gansazRvravda misi danergvis Sedegad gamowveuli xarjebi, Statis raodenoba da patimarTa midrekileba uwesrigo qcevisken. saapelacio sasamarTlom saqme pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos daubruna zemoT moyvanili msjelobis Sesabamisad ganxilvisTvis. uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoiTxova saqme pirveli instanciis sasamarTlodan, raTa SeemuSavebina saTanado standartebi, romlebic gamoyenebuli iqneboda patimarTa aRmsareblobis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli sarCelis gansaxilvelad. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, aRniSnuli saqmis ganxilvas ramdenime saxelmZRvanelo principi daedo safuZvlad. pirveli, patimrebi ar kargaven yvela konstituciur garantias maTi cixeSi moTavsebis gamo. patimrebi calsaxad inarCuneben pirveli SesworebiT ganmtkicebul uflebebs, maT Soris aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas. meore, kanonieri patimroba gulisxmobs mravali privilegiisa da uflebis SezRudvas. SezRudvebi konstituciiT garantirebuli uflebebiT sargeblobaze ara marto patimrobis Sedegia, aramed gamarTlebulia legitimuri penologiuri mizniTac, rac gulisxmobs danaSaulis aRkveTas, patimarTa reabilitaciasa da cixis instituciuri usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofas. zemoT CamoTvlili faqtorebis dabalansebisas sasamarTlom araerTxel aRniSna, rom penologiuri miznis Sefaseba cixis administracias unda miendos, romelic pasuxismgebelia cixis marTvaze. cixis administraciisadmi sasamarTloebis pativiscemis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, uzenaes sasamarTlos SemoRebuli hqonda cixis regulaciebis winaaRmdeg konstituciuri sarCelebis „gonivrulobis~ Sefasebis SedarebiT martivi testi. gonivrulobis testis mixedviT, rodesac cixis regulacia xelyofs patimrebis konstituciur uflebebs, regulacia dasaSvebad CaiTvleba, Tu is gonivrul farglebSi dakavSirebulia legitimur penologiur interesTan. aseTi midgoma, sasamarTlos azriT, uzrunvelyofs administraciis SesaZleblobas, winaswar gansazRvros usafrTxoebis problemebi da miiRos racionaluri gadawyvetilebebi. garda amisa, uzenaesi sasamarTlos mixedviT, aseTi midgoma gamoricxavs sasamarTlo sistemis uadgilo Carevas iseTi problemebis gadaWraSi, romlebic yvelaze naklebad eqvemdebareba sasamarTlo direqtivebiT regulirebas Sesabamisobis TvalsazrisiT. uzenaesma sasamarTlom ar gaamarTla saapelacio sasamarTlos mier cixis administraciisTvis imis mtkicebis tvirTis dakisreba, rom ar arsebobda sxva gonivruli meTodi, romlis saSualebiTac religiuri moTxovnebi usafrTxoebisTvis

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safrTxis Seqmnis gareSe dakmayofildeboda. uzenaesi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, cixis administraciisTvis aseTi mtkicebis tvirTis dakisreba ar asaxavs pativiscemas, romelsac SeerTebuli Statebis konstitucia gamoxatavs cixis administraciis mimarT. „gonivrulobis testis~ gamoyenebis Semdeg cixis politikis moTxovnebis mimarT uzenaesma sasamarTlom daaskvna, rom isini sruliad Seesabameboda mis mier SemuSavebul standarts. cixis politikis moTxovna, rom patimarTa garkveul jgufebs dakisrebodaT cixis gareT muSaoba, gamarTlebuli iyo instituciur wesrigsa da usafrTxoebaze mzrunvelobiT. rac Seexeba dRis ganmavlobaSi cixis mTavar SenobaSi dabrunebis akrZalvas, cixis administraciis wevrebis CvenebebiT, patimarTa ukan dabruneba aferxebda moZraobas cixis SesasvlelTan, adgilTan, romelic sarisko teritoriad iyo miCneuli. garda amisa, patimarTa ukan dabruneba sakmaod did tvirTs akisrebda mcvelebs, romlebsac yoveli konkretuli moTxovnis mixedviT unda gadaewyvitaT, daerToT Tu ara maTTvis ukan dabrunebis neba. damatebiT, cixis politika gamarTlebuli iyo patimarTa reabilitaciis interesiTac. uzenaesi sasamarTlos azriT, patimarTa ukan dabrunebis akrZalva yvela am kanonier mizanTan SesabamisobaSi iyo, amitom es moTxovnac Seesabameboda „gonivrulobis~ standarts. garda amisa, sasamarTlom aRniSna, rom Tumca patimrebs ar SeeZloT cixis amkrZalavi regulaciebis gamo jumuas ritualis dacva, maT ar ezRudebodaT SesaZlebloba, monawileoba mieRoT sxva religiur ceremoniebSi, rogoricaa ramadani, marxva da locva. am religiur ritualebSi monawileobis miRebis moTxovnebi sruliad dakmayofilebuli iyo cixis administraciis mier. Sesabamisad, zemoT aRniSnuli mizezebis gamo, uzenaesma sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom gasaCivrebuli regulaciebi gonivrulad iyo dakavSirebuli legitimur penologiur miznebTan, ris gamoc isini ar xelyofdnen pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT ganmtkicebul uflebebs. mosamarTle brenanis gansxvavebuli azri, romelsac SeuerTdnen mosamarTleebi marSali, blekmuni da stivensi mosamarTle brenanis azriT, am saqmeSi sasamarTlosTvis mTavari sirTule imis gansazRvra iyo, rogor unda yofiliyo saukeTesod daculi patimarTa konstituciuri uflebebi. Sesabamisad, mosamarTlis azriT, am saqmis gadasawyvetad SesamuSavebeli standartis mizani ar unda iyos is, rac sasamarTlom ganacxada, anu imis uzrunvelyofa, rom sasamarTloebi saTanado pativiscemiT moekidon cixis administraciis wevrebis gadawyvetilebebs. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, konstitucia ar aris Seqmnili imisTvis, rom gazardos sajaro moxeleTa qmedebebis efeqtianoba, an imisTvis, rom uzrunvelyos sakmarisi ndoba administraciuli eqspertebis mimarT. mosamarTle brenanis Tanaxmad, konstitucia warmoadgens adamianis uflebebis dacvas im xelyofisgan, romelic SeiZleba gamarTlebul iqnas, rogorc marTvisTvis aucilebeli saSualeba. brenanis mosazrebiT, „gonivrulobis~ sasamarTlo Semowmebis standartad aRiareba araadekvaturia nebismieri saxis konstituciuri sarCelis gansaxilvelad. aseTi standartis Setyobineba cixis administraciisTvis imis miniSnebaa, rom sakmarisia maT „gonivrulad~ imoqmedon da maTi yvela qmedeba gamarTlebuli iqneba. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, gonivrulad moqmedebis direqtiva sakmarisi rom iyos uflebamo-

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silebis yvelanairi gamoyenebis Sesamowmeblad, maSin konstitucia aRar iqneboda saWiro. Tu saqmianoba, romelSic patimrebs surT monawileoba, Seicavs risks usafrTxoebisTvis, an Tu regulacia ubralod krZalavs patimrebis mier religiis gamoxatvis adgils, drosa da formas, maSin cixis regulacia ukanonod mxolod maSin CaiTvleba, Tu ar arsebobs SezRudvis gonivruli gamarTleba. xolo mosamarTlis azriT, Tu patimris uflebis dakmayofileba ar Seicavs saSiSroebas da Tu cixem mTlianad waarTva mas es ufleba, maSin cixis administraciam unda aCvenos, rom aseTi akrZalva proporciuli xasiaTisaa da aucilebelia mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo interesis uzrunvelsayofad. mosamarTlis azriT, radgan cixem unda STaagonos patimrebs socialuri da samarTlebrivi normebis pativiscema, man aseve naTlad da dasabuTebulad unda warmoaCinos patimrebis uflebis absoluturi SezRudvis saWiroeba. ufro metic, brenanis gancxadebiT, cixis administracias aqvs SesaZlebloba, moipovos yvela is mtkicebuleba, romelic arsebiTia uflebebis aseTi SezRudvis upiratesobis dasadgenad sxva alternativebTan SedarebiT. brenanis gancxadebiT, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu am saqmeSi sasamarTlo Semowmebis standartad „gonivrulobis~ principia aRebuli, cixis moxeleebi mainc ver amtkiceben patimrebisTvis jumuaSi monawileobis akrZalvis gonivrulobas. mosamarTle aseve ar daeTanxma uzenaesi sasamarTlos msjelobas imis Taobaze, rom regulaciiT patimrebisTvis mxolod jumuas religiur ritualSi monawileobis SezRudva ar niSnavda patimrebis konstituciuri uflebebis SezRudvas, radgan maT SeeZloT sxva religiuri qmedebebis ganxorcieleba. brenanis azriT, aseTi msjeloba arasworia, radgan sasamarTlo ar iTvaliswinebs imas, rom jumua erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani religiuri ritualia muslimebisTvis, romlis Sesrulebasac upirobod moiTxovs yurani. mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, muslim patimrebs aqvT SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miiRon jumuas religiur ritualSi yvela federalur cixeSi, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom normaluri garemoebebis arsebobisas, aseTi praqtika Seesabameba cixis administraciis moTxovnebs. marTlac, lisburgis Statis cixe patimrebs xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi rTavda nebas, mieRoT monawileoba am religiur ritualSi da maT, brenanis gancxadebiT, amis Sedegad arasodes SeqmniaT wesrigis darRvevis problema. federaluri cixeebisa da lisburgis cixis gamocdilebis safuZvelze, mosamarTle brenani askvnis, rom gonivrulobis testi cixis administraciisgan moiTxovs imis damtkicebas, rom alternativebi, rac patimrebs jumuaSi monawileobis nebas darTavda, gaumarTlebeli iyo. patimroba, mosamarTlis gancxadebiT, gamoricxavs patimris monawileobas adamianTa farTo sazogadoebaSi. religiuri sazogadoebis saqmianobaSi monawileobis akrZalvam ki, mosamarTlis azriT, SeiZleba patimars Rirsebis grZnoba da codvebisgan gaTavisuflebis bolo imedic daukargos. aseTi akrZalva, brenanis azriT, ufro met gamarTlebas moiTxovs, vidre mxolod imis mtkiceba, rom sxvanairi moqmedebis kursi ararealuria.

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peiotis122 moxmareba amerikeli indielebis mier peiotis ritualuri moxmarebisaTvis daSvebuli gamonaklisebi kanonmdeblobaSi narkotikebis Sesaxeb federaluri xelisufleba da ramdenime Stati iTvaliswinebs gamonaklisebs peiotis religiuri moxmarebisaTvis. aSS-s federalur dadgenilebaTa kodeqsis Tanaxmad: „peiotis Setana kontrolirebadi nivTierebebis pirveli Tanrigis CamonaTvalSi ar Seexeba peiotis aranarkotikuli daniSnulebiT gamoyenebas amerikeli indielebis eklesiis keTilsindisier religiur ritualebSi da amerikeli indielebis eklesiis wevrebi gaTavisuflebulni arian registraciisgan. nebismieri pirovneba, romelic awarmoebs peiots da indiel amerikelTa eklesias amaragebs peiotiT, valdebulia gaiaros yovelwliuri registracia da Seasrulos kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli yvela moTxovna.~ qvemoT moyvanil saqmeSi alfred smiti da galen bleki, amerikeli indielebis eklesiis wevrebi, daiTxoves samuSaodan sakraluri miznebisaTvis TavianTi eklesiis ritualSi peiotis moxmarebisTvis. rodesac smitma da blekma moiTxoves umuSevarTaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli kompensacia, adamianuri resursebis departamentis dasaqmebis samsaxurma gadawyvita, rom isini ar imsaxurebdnen Semweobas, vinaidan samuSaosTan dakavSirebuli „gadacdomisTvis~ daiTxoves. sasamarTloSi samarTalwarmoebis mimdinareobisas oregonis Statis kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebda gamonaklisebs peiotis moxmarebisaTvis. samarTalwarmoebis pirvel etapze oregonis sasamarTloebma uari ganacxades, ganexilaT sakiTxi imis Taobaze, iyo Tu ara msgavsi gamonaklisis daSveba konstituciiT savaldebulo. Statis uzenaesma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom smitsa da bleks hqondaT kompensaciis miRebis ufleba, vinaidan „gadacdomis~ debulebis mizani diskvalifikaciis Sedegad maT religiur gamoxatvaze dakisrebul tvirTs ver amarTlebda. aSS-s uzenaesma sasamarTlom gamoiTxova saqme qveda instanciidan. im motiviT, rom oregonis uzenaes sasamarTlos ar gadauwyvetia, peiotis sakraluri gamoyeneba akrZaluli iyo Tu ara Statis kontrolirebadi nivTierebebis kanoniT (radganac swored es sakiTxi iyo mxareebs Soris davis sagani), man gaauqma gadawyvetileba da saqme Statis uzenaes sasamarTlos daubruna xelmeored gansaxilvelad. am ukanasknelma gadawyvita, rom peiotis religiuri gamoyeneba eqceoda oregonis kanonis akrZalvis farglebSi, romelic ar uSvebda gamonaklisebs narkotikuli nivTierebebis „sakraluri moxmarebisaTvis~. amis Semdgom Statis sasamarTlom ganixila, ramdenad konstituciuri iyo aseTi akrZalva aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis123 safuZvelze da uaryofiTi daaskvna gamoitana. sasamarTlom daamtkica Tavisi adrindeli gadawyvetileba, romlis Tanaxmadac, Stats ar hqonda momCivneebisTvis umuSevarTaTvis gaTvaliswinebul Semweobaze uaris Tqmis ufleba zemoT aRniSnuli praqtikis ganxorcielebis motiviT. aSS-s uzenaesma sasamarTlom kvlav gamoiTxova saqme qvemdgomi sasamarTlodan.

dasaqmebis samsaxuri smitis winaaRmdeg124
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, aRniSnuli saqme sasamarTlosgan moiTxovs, gadawyvitos, aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula rTavs Tu ara nebas oregonis Stats, narkotikebze zogadi sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalvis moqmedebis sferoSi

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moaqcios peiotis religiuri moxmareba da, Sesabamisad, umuSevrobis Semweobaze uari ganucxados im pirebs, romlebic amgvari qmedebisTvis samuSaodan daiTxoves. uzenaesi sasamarTlos SexedulebiT, religiis Tavisuflad aRmsarebloba, pirvel rigSi, niSnavs individis uflebas sakuTari survilisamebr iwamos an iqadagos esa Tu is religia. Sesabamisad, pirveli Sesworeba gamoricxavs „religiuri warmodgenebis saxelmwifo regulacias, rogorc aseTs”. saxelmwifos ufleba ara aqvs, aiZulos vinme, aRiaros gansazRvruli mrwamsi, dasajos religiuri doqtrinis gamoxatva, romelsac igi mcdarad miiCnevs, religiuri Sexedulebebis an religiuri statusis safuZvelze daawesos uflebaTa specialuri SezRudvebi, an Tavisi xelisufleba religiur doqtrinasa Tu dogmaze arsebuli davis erT-erTi mxaris sasargeblod gadasawyvetad gamoiyenos. Tumca „religiis aRmsarebloba~ xSirad rwmenasa da aRsarebasTan erTad fizikuri aqtebis ganxorcielebasac (an ganxorcielebisgan Tavis Sekavebas) moicavs: RvTismsaxurebis SesrulebisaTvis Sekrebas, purisa da Rvinis sakralur moxmarebaSi monawileobas, prozelitizms an gansazRvruli sakvebis mirTmevisgan Tavis Sekavebas. ra Tqma unda, CamoTvlili praqtikebis akrZalva „aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SezRudva~ iqneboda. Cvens SemTxvevaSi ki, sasamarTlos mosazrebiT, pirebi iTxoven „aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis SezRudvis~ mniSvnelobis aRiarebas ufro maRal doneze. maTi mtkicebiT, „[religiis] Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis SezRudvis~ moicavs individis davaldebulebas, daicvas zogadi daniSnulebis kanoni, romelic moiTxovs (an krZalavs) misi religiuri mrwamsiT akrZaluli (savaldebulo) qmedebis Sesrulebas. aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos precedentuli samarTali ar icnobs SemTxvevas, am sasamarTlos ganecxadebinos, rom individis religiuri rwmena aTavisuflebs mas im qmedebis amkrZalavi kanonis Sesrulebisgan, romlis regulirebis kanonieri uflebac saxelmwifos gaaCnia. rogorc mosamarTle frankfurterma aRniSna saqmeSi minersvilis saskolo olqi gobitisis winaaRmdeg125: „religiuri SemwynareblobisaTvis xangrZlivi brZolis mimdinareobisas sindisis patiosan qenjnas ar gauTavisuflebia individi im zogadi daniSnulebis kanonis Sesrulebis valdebulebisgan, romlis mizansac ar warmoadgenda religiuri mrwamsis xelSewyoba an SezRudva. im religiuri rwmenis qona, romelic politikuri sazogadoebis relevantur interesebs ewinaaRmdegeba, ar aTavisuflebs moqalaqes politikuri valdebulebis Sesrulebisgan~. am principis mxardaWera moxda saqmeSi reinoldsi SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg,126 sadac uzenaesma sasamarTlom uaryo moTxovna, romlis Tanaxmadac konstitucias ewinaaRmdegeboda poligamiis amkrZalavi sisxlis samarTlebrivi kanonebis gamoyeneba maT mimarT, visi religiac am praqtikas savaldebulod miiCnevda. garda amisa, saqmeSi braunfildi braunis winaaRmdeg127 uzenaesma sasamarTlom mxari dauWira kvira dRes muSaobisa da vaWrobis amkrZalav kanonebs, mosarCeleTa moTxovnebis sawinaaRmdegod, rom aseTi kanonebi mZime tvirTs akisrebdnen im pirTa religiur gamoxatvas, romelTa religiebic moiTxovdnen maTgan sxva dReebSi muSaobisgan Tavis Sekavebas. uzenaesi sasamarTlos mier ganxiluli ukanaskneli saqme, sadac individis religiiT akrZaluli qmedebis mavaldebulebeli neitraluri da zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebi iyo gasaCivrebuli, aris SeerTebuli Statebi lis winaaRmdeg.128 aq amiSi damqiravebeli sakuTari da Tavisi muSa-mosamsaxureebis saxeliT iTxovda socialuri uzrunvelyofis gadasaxadis gadaxdis valdebulebisgan gaTavisuflebas im motiviT, rom amiSebis mrwamsi krZalavda monawileobas saxelmwifo mxardaWeris programebSi. sasamarTlom uaryo

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moTxovna, romlis Tanaxmadac gamonaklisis daSveba konstituciurad savaldebulo iyo. „Tu, magaliTad, gansazRvruli religiis mimdevaris mrwamsiT omi codvas warmoadgens da Tuki federaluri sabiujeto saxsrebis garkveuli nawili SeiZleba omTan dakavSirebul saqmianobaze ixarjebodes, am individs, zemoT aRniSnuli principis gaziarebis SemTxvevaSi, sruliad kanonieri moTxovna eqneba, gaTavisufldes saSemosavlo gadasaxadis nawilisgan. sagadasaxado sistema ver ifunqcionirebda, Tuki denominaciebisTvis nebadarTuli iqneboda sagadasaxado sistemis gasaCivreba maTi religiuri mrwamsebis sawinaaRmdego miznebisaTvis akrefili Tanxis gamoyenebis safuZvelze...~ zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT uzenaesma sasamarTlom uaryo mopasuxeTa argumenti, romlis mixedviTac, rodesac sxvagvarad akrZalul qmedebas Tan axlavs religiuri warmodgenebi, saxelmwifo regulirebisgan Tavisufali unda iyos ara marto mrwamsi, aramed qmedebac. uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, is gamonaklisi gadawyvetilebani, romliTac man daadgina, rom pirveli Sesworeba krZalavs zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebis gamoyenebas religiurad motivirebuli qmedebisadmi, moicavda ara marto aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulas, aramed konstituciuri dacvis sxva saSualebebsac, rogoricaa sityvisa da presis Tavisufleba129 an mSoblebis uflebebi.130 mocemuli saqme ki, sasamarTlos SexedulebiT, ar warmoadgens amgvar hibridul situacias. smitisa da blekis mtkicebiT, im SemTxvevaSic, Tu zogadi daniSnulebis sisxlissamarTlebrivi kanonebisgan gaTavisufleba avtomaturad ar unda gavrceldes religiurad motivirebul individebze, moTxovna religiuri gamonaklisis daSvebaze unda Sefasdes Serbertis131 saqmeSi Camoyalibebuli dabalansebis testis safuZvelze. Serbertis testis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifo qmedebani, romlebic mniSvnelovan tvirTs akisreben religiur gamoxatvas, dasabuTebul unda iqnes sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesiT. Serbertis testis gamoyenebiT uzenaesma sasamarTlom mxolod sam saqmeSi132 gamoacxada Zaladakargulad umuSevrobis kompensaciis gacemis Sesaxeb Statis wesebi, romlebic sargeblis xelmisawvdomobas gansazRvravdnen ganmcxadeblebis mzadyofnis gaTvaliswinebiT, emuSavaT TavianTi religiiT akrZaluli pirobebis safuZvelze. am testis safuZvelze uzenaes sasamarTlos arasodes gamoucxadebia saxelmwifo qmedeba arakonstituciurad, garda umuSevrobisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli kompensaciis uaryofis saqmeebisa. saqmeSi bouveni rois winaaRmdeg133 uzenaesma sasamarTlom uari ganacxada Sebertis testis gamoyenebaze federaluri kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli daxmarebis programis mimarT, romelic sargeblis mimRebi ganmcxadeblebisgan socialuri uzrunvelyofis nomrebis wardgenas moiTxovda. aRniSnul saqmeSi, momCivanTa mtkicebiT, maTi ori wlis qaliSvilisTvis socialuri uzrunvelyofis nomris miReba daarRvevda maTive religiur mrwamss. am saqmeSi sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, umuSevrobis Semweobis programebis ganmasxvavebeli niSani mdgomareobda imaSi, rom maTSi monawileobis kriteriumebi axdenda ganmcxadeblis umuSevrobis ukan arsebuli gansazRvruli garemoebebis Semowmebis stimulirebas: „kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebis Tanaxmad, (Serbertis saqmeSi) pirs ar gaaCnda umuSevrobis Semweobis miRebis ufleba, Tuki „sakmarisi safuZvlis gareSe~ datova samuSao an uari ganacxada xelmisawvdom samuSaoze. „sakmarisi safuZvlis~ standartma Seqmna `individualuri gamonaklisebis daSvebis meqanizmi...~ uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebani, amave sasamarTlos gancxadebiT, emyareba princips, romlis mixed-

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viTac, rodesac saxelmwifos SemuSavebuli aqvs individualuri gamonaklisebis sistema, mas ar SeuZlia sasicocxlo mizezebis gareSe uari ganacxados am midgomis gamoyenebaze. uzenaesi sasamarTlos daskvniT, imis miuxedavad, izRudeba Tu ara saxelmwifos an Statis oficialuri struqturebis mier gadawyvetilebaTa miReba „religiuri saWiroebiT~, amas aranairi gavlenis moxdena ar SeuZlia gansazRvruli qmedebis sayovelTao sisxlissamarTlebriv akrZalvaze; Sesabamisad, aRniSnuli testi ar aris gamoyenebadi msgavsi saCivrebis ganxilvisas. saxelmwifos SesaZlebloba, cxovrebaSi gaataros socialurad zianis momtani qmedebebis akrZalvebi da saxelmwifos politikis sxva aspeqtebi ar SeiZleba „damokidebuli iyos saxelmwifos qmedebebiT protestis gamomxatveli religiuri individis sulier ganviTarebaze gamowveuli Sedegebis Sefasebaze~. msgavsi kanonis Sesrulebis valdebulebis gadaqceva imaze damokidebulad, individis religiuri mrwamsi Seesabameba Tu ara am kanons, ewinaaRmdegeba rogorc konstituciur tradicias, ise zogadad saR azrs. `sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis~ standartis gamoyeneba mocemul sferoSi naklebad efeqturia. am saqmeSi mopasuxeTa mier am standartis dakmayofilebis moTxovna sruliad araTanazomieria im SemTxvevebTan SedarebiT, rodesac wydeba saxelmwifos mxridan rasobriv niadagze gansxvavebuli damokidebulebis, an gamoxatvis Sinaarsis regulirebis legitimurobis sakiTxi. am sferoebSi sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis standarti uzrunvelyofs Tanabar mopyrobasa da sadavod qceuli gamoxatvis SeuzRudav dacvas, rac konstituciuri normebia. mocemul saqmeSi ki igi iwvevs kerZo uflebis safuZvelze zogadi daniSnulebis kanonis ignorirebas; rac sasamarTlos umravlesobis mosazrebiT, konstituciuri anomaliaa. garda amisa, aseve SeuZlebelia mopasuxeTa SemoTavazebis limitireba „sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis~ standartis gamoyenebiT mxolod im SemTxvevebSi, rodesac akrZalul qmedebas individis religiaSi centraluri adgili ukavia. aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis sferoSi mosamarTleebis mier religiuri rwmenebis „centralurobis~ gansazRvra „sasicocxlo interesis~ standartis gamoyenebamde ar aris imaze metad Sesabamisi, vidre maT mier sityvis Tavisuflebis sferoSi ideaTa „mniSvnelovnebis~ garkveva iqneboda amave testiT sargeblobamde. „sasicocxlo interesis~ testis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, igi yvela religiurad motivirebul qmedebaze unda gavrceldes. Sedegad, mravali kanoni ver daakmayofilebs tests, mis mniSvnelobasTan srul SesabamisobaSi gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi. uzenaesi sasamarTlos SexedulebiT nebismier sazogadoebas, romelic aseT sistemas aRiarebs, anarqia emuqreba. safrTxe izrdeba sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebuli religiuri mrwamsebis mravalferovnebisa da misi miswrafebis pirdapirproporciulad, ar Seaferxos an xelyos arc erTi maTgani. swored aSS-s kosmopolituri naciisa da mis mier religiur gansxvavebaTa dafasebisa da dacvis gamo aSS-s ar SeuZlia, ukanonod miiCnios qcevis nebismieri wesi, romelic „uzenaesi wesrigis~ interesebs ar Seesabameba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, aRniSnulis miuxedavad, `uflebaTa biliT~ saxelmwifos xelyofisgan daculi faseulobebi ar aris politikuri procesebidan gamoTiSuli. iseve, rogorc sazogadoebas, romelic Tvlis, rom pirveli Sesworeba presis arasaTanado dacvas uzrunvelyofs, SeuZlia miiRos beWdviTi sityvis gav-

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rcelebisaTvis xelis Semwyobi kanonebi, aseve sazogadoebas, romelic miiCnevs, rom religiuri mrwamsi arasaTanadod aris daculi, sruli SesaZlebloba, aqvs Tavisi mzrunveloba aRniSnuli faseulobisadmi kanonmdeblobis SemuSavebis gziT gamoavlinos. amis gaTvaliswinebiT, srulebiT ar aris gasakviri, rom ramdenime Statma dauSva gamonaklisebi Tavis kanonebSi peiotis sakralur gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT. sasamarTlos kargad moexseneba, rom religiuri rwmenis adaptaciis gadacema politikuri procesebis xelSi zians miayenebs im religiur praqtikas, romelic ar aris umravlesobis mier gaziarebuli. Tumca misi SexedulebiT, aucilebelia upiratesobis miniWeba demokratiuli saxelmwifos gardauvali SedegisaTvis, TiToeuli individis rwmenis kanonad gadaqcevis an mosamarTleebis mier religiuri rwmenis centralurobis xarisxis kanonis socialur mniSvnelobasTan Sepirispirebis sistemasTan SedarebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, radgan peiotis moxmareba akrZaluli iyo oregonis kanonmdeblobiT da es akrZalva konstituciur xasiaTs atarebda, oregons aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulasTan srul SesabamisobaSi SeeZlo uareyo mopasuxeTa moTxovna umuSevrobisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli Semweobis miRebaze. Sesabamisad gauqmda Statis uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. mosamarTle o’konoris Tanmxvedri azri, romelsac SeuerTdnen mosamarTleebi brenani, marSali da blekmuni mosamarTle o’konoris mosazrebiT, sasamarTlo gadawyvetileba ewinaaRmdegeba pirveli Sesworebis mtkiced Camoyalibebul iurisprudencias da Seusabamoa individis religiis Tavisuflebaze amerikeli eris fundamentur SexedulebebTan. sasamarTlos umravlesobis gadawyvetilebiT, rodesac saqme gvaqvs zogadi daniSnulebis sisxlissamarTlebriv akrZalvasTan aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis iurisprudencia ar gamoiyeneba. aseT daskvnamde misvlisaTvis, o’konoris azriT, sasamarTlom ara marto deformirebulad unda ganmartos pirveli Sesworeba, aramed religiuri qcevis SemzRudavi zogadi daniSnulebis regulaciebTan dakavSirebul saqmeebSi permanentulad gamoyenebuli aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis doqtrinis ugulebelyofac unda moaxdinos. pirveli Sesworebis aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulis Tanaxmad: „kongresi ar miiRebs kanons, romelic ... SezRudavs aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas~. o’konori, pirvel Sesworebaze dayrdnobiT, erTmaneTisgan ar ganasxvavebs mrwamssa da qmedebas: „gulwrfeli religiuri mrwamsiT motivirebuli religiuri qceva, TviT am mrwamsTan erTad, sul mcire, hipoTeturad unda iyos daculi aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzuliT~. klauzulis sasamarTlo interpretaciiT ki igi nebas rTavs saxelmwifos, yovelgvari gamarTlebis gareSe akrZalos individis religiiT savaldebulo qmedeba, sanam aRniSnuli akrZalva zogadi daniSnulebisaa. Tumca pirs, romelsac religiurad motivirebuli qmedebis ganxorcieleba ekrZaleba, aseve ekrZaleba Tavisi religiis Tavisuflad aRmsarebloba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanaxmad, zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebi specifikurad religiuri qcevisadmi mimarTul kanonebze maRla dgas. Tumca, o’konoris mosazrebiT, pirveli Sesworeba ar ganasxvavebs erTmaneTisgan zogadi daniSnulebisa da religiuri qcevisadmi specifikurad mimarTul kanonebs. imisaTvis, rom pirveli

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Sesworeba sicocxlisunariani iyos, igi mxolod im ukidures da hipoTezur situaciebs ar unda moicavdes, rodesac saxelmwifos pirdapir samiznes religiuri qceva warmoadgens. o’konoris SexedulebiT, Statebis mxolod Zalze mcire raodenoba Tu iqneba iseTi miamiti, rom religiuri qmedebis pirdapir amkrZalavi kanoni miiRos. o’konoris daskvnis Tanaxmad, yovelive zemoaRniSnuli srulebiT ar niSnavs imas, rom individs religiurad motivirebuli qmedebis ganxorcielebis absoluturi ufleba aqvs. sasamarTlos araerTxel aRuniSnavs, rom pirveli Sesworebis iurisprudenciis safuZvelze qmedebis Tavisufleba, rwmenis Tavisuflebisgan gansxvavebiT, SeuZlebelia absoluturi xasiaTis iyos. is yovelTvis pativs scemda rogorc pirveli Sesworebis miTiTebebs, ise saxelmwifo interesebs, misTvis religiurad motivirebuli qmedebis SezRudvis sasicocxlo interesiT gamarTlebis moTxovnis wayenebiT. sasicocxlo interesi pirveli Sesworebis im miTiTebis cxovrebaSi gatarebas uzrunvelyofs, romlis Tanaxmadac religiis Tavisufleba damoukidebeli Tavisuflebaa, igi privilegirebul mdgomareobaSia imyofeba da sasamarTlo ar dauSvebs mis xelyofas rogorc pirdapiri, ise arapirdapiri gziT, sanam msgavsi qmedeba aucilebeli ar gaxdeba maRali rangis sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesiT. sasamarTlo aRiarebs, rom ioderisa da qenTvelis saqmeebSi aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula faqtobrivad interpretirebuli iqna, rogorc zogadi daniSnulebis amkrZalavi kanonebis gamoyenebis akrZalva religiurad motivirebul qmedebasTan mimarTebaSi. Tumca igi cdilobs, gaeqces am saqmeebSi miRebul gadawyvetilebebs da maT hibriduls uwodebs. amave dros, o’konoris mosazrebiT, aSkaraa, rom orive maTgani aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulaze dayrdnobiT iqna gamotanili da yovelTvis aSS-s uzenaesi sasamarTlos aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis iurisprudenciis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis nawilad iyo gaazrebuli. ufro metic, yvela im saqmeSi, romelic sasamarTlom Tavisi kategoriuli wesis gasamarTleblad moiSvelia, konstituciuri sarCelebis uaryofa konfliqturi interesebis detaluri Sefasebis safuZvelze moxda. magaliTad, saqmeSi prinsi masaCusetsis winaaRmdeg134 sasamarTlom miiCnia, rom religiur niadagze bavSvTa Sromis kanonmdeblobisgan gaTavisuflebaze uari gamarTlebuli iyo bavSvebis Sromis regulirebis saxelmwifo interesiT; xolo saqmeSi jileti SeerTebuli Statebis winaaRmdeg135 sasamarTlom sakmarisad miiCnia samxedro saqmeebSi saxelmwifo interesi samxedro samsaxurSi gawvevis kanonebis Sesrulebisgan gaTavisuflebis moTxovnis uaryofisaTvis. dabolos, o’konoris daskvnis mixedviT, sasamarTlo Tavis gadawyvetilebaSi miuTiTebs, rom arakeTilganwyoba umciresobaTa religiebis mimarT aSS-Si arsebuli mmarTvelobiTi sistemis „gardauval Sedegs~ warmoadgens da aseTi religiebis adaptacia politikur procesebs unda mivandoT. o’konoris SexedulebiT ki, pirveli Sesworeba swored im individebis uflebaTa dasacavad iqna SemuSavebuli, romelTa religiuri qceva ar aris gaziarebuli umravlesobis mier da SeiZleba maT mtrul damokidebulebasac iwvevdes. aSS-s aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis doqtrina naTlad amtkicebs umravlesobis wesis sastik zegavlenas iseT arapopularul da axlad aRmocenebul religiur jgufebze, rogorebicaa ieRovas mowmeebi da amiSebi. „uflebaTa bilis mTavar mizans warmoadgenda gansazRvruli obieqtebis amoReba politikuri dacvis sferodan, maTi ganTavseba umravlesobisa da Tanamdebobis pirTa xelmisawvdomobis farglebs miRma da sasamarTlos mier gamosayenebel samarTlebriv

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principebad maTi daweseba. dauSvebelia, vinmes ufleba sicocxleze, Tavisuflebaze, sakuTrebaze, sityvisa da presis Tavisuflebaze, Sekrebisa da RvTismsaxurebis Tavisuflebaze da sxva fundamentur uflebebze damokidebuli iyos arCevnebis Sedegebze~. mosamarTle o’konoris Tanaxmad, sasamarTlo ara marto arasworad ganmartavs pirvel Sesworebas; es srulebiT ar aris aRniSnuli saqmisaTvis aucilebeli. o’konoris azriT, sasamarTlo imave Sedegs miiRebda aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis damkvidrebuli iurisprudenciis gamoyenebiT. udavoa, rom oregonis kriminaluri akrZalva peiotis moxmarebaze mZime tvirTad awveba mopasuxeTa SesaZleblobas religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze, vinaidan es narkotikuli nivTiereba indieli amerikelebis eklesiis sakraments warmoadgens. aseve udavoa is, rom oregonis Stats im kanonebis cxovrebaSi gatarebis udidesi interesi aqvs, romlebic Statis moqalaqeebis mier „kontrolirebadi nivTierebebis~ flobasa da gamoyenebas aregulirebs. narkotikebis borotad gamoyeneba „mosaxleobis janmrTelobasa da keTildReobaze cudi zegavlenis momxden, dRevandeli sazogadoebis erT-erT yvelaze mZime problemas warmoadgens~. federaluri kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad, peioti specialurad regulirebulia, rogorc pirveli Tanrigis kontrolirebadi nivTiereba. es ki gulisxmobs, rom, kongresis SexedulebiT, arsebobs peiotis borotad gamoyenebis maRali potenciuri SesaZlebloba da mas ara aqvs samedicino daniSnuleba. aqedan gamomdinare, mosamarTle o’konoris mosazrebiT, gadamwyvetia imis garkveva, mopasuxeTaTvis gamonaklisis daSveba Statis zogadi sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalvidan warmoadgens Tu ara „ukanono Carevas Statis sasicocxlo interesis ganxorcielebaSi~. oregonis sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalvis erTmniSvnelovani gamoyeneba aucilebelia misi ZiriTadi interesis ganxorcielebisaTvis, pirveli Tanrigis kontrolirebadi nivTierebis moxmarebiT gamowveuli fizikuri zianis Tavidan acilebis mizniT. vinaidan kontrolirebadi nivTierebiT janmrTelobisaTvis zianis miyeneba xdeba misi momxmareblis motivaciis miuxedavad, aseTi nivTierebebis moxmareba, maT Soris religiuri miznebisaTvis, arRvevs kanonis ZiriTad mizans. yovelive zemoTqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, o’konoris azriT, mocemul saqmeSi specialuri gamonaklisis daSveba seriozulad daazianebda moqalaqeebis mier narkotikuli saSualebebis flobisa da moxmarebis akrZalvaze oregonis Statis sasicocxlo interess. Sesabamisad, msgavsi garemoebebis arsebobisas pirveli Sesworeba ar moiTxovs Statisgan mopasuxeTa religiurad motivirebuli qmedebis adaptacias. mosamarTle blekmunis gansxvavebuli azri, romelsac SeuerTdnen mosamarTleebi brenani da marSali blekmunis mosazrebiT, sasamarTlom wlebis ganmavlobaSi SeimuSava Sesabamisi da mkacri standarti religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze tvirTis damakisrebeli Statis kanonis konstituciurobis sakiTxis gadasawyvetad. aseTi kanoni SeiZleba konstituciurad CaiTvalos mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu igi zogadi xasiaTisaa da Statis uari religiuri gamonaklisis daSvebaze gamarTlebulia sasicocxlo interesiT, romlis uzrunvelyofac SeuZlebelia naklebad SemzRudveli saSualebebiT. blekmunma gaiziara mosamarTle o’konoris Sexedulebebi aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis doqtrinis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb, Tumca, misi mosazrebiT, arasworia mopasuxeTa

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moTxovnebis Sepirispireba „narkotikebis winaaRmdeg brZolis~ Statis farTo interesTan. maTi moTxovnebi peiotis religiuri, ritualuri gamoyenebisaTvis gamonaklisis ardaSvebaze Statis viwro interesis Sesabamisad unda Sefasdes. blekmunis SexedulebiT, imisaTvis, rom Statis interesi Tavisi akrZalvis cxovrebaSi gatarebaze sasicocxlo xasiaTs atarebdes religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze moTxovnis gadasawonad, ar SeiZleba, igi mxolod abstraqtuli an simboluri iyos. dauSvebelia, Stati sarwmunod amtkicebdes, rom sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalvis gamoyeneba gadamwyvetia ama Tu im sasicocxlo interesis ganxorcielebisaTvis, Tuki mas faqtobrivad ar ucdia am akrZalvis cxovrebaSi gatareba. am saqmeSi Statma ver moaxdina verc erTi konkretuli interesis demonstrireba narkotikebis Taobaze arsebuli kanonmdeblobis gamoyenebaSi peiotis religiurad momxmarebelTa winaaRmdeg. Stats arc ki ufiqria mopasuxeTa pasuxisgebaSi micema da arc peiotis religiur momxmarebelTa winaaRmdeg sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalvis cxovrebaSi gatarebis mizniT gaweuli mniSvnelovani samuSaos Taobaze gaukeTebia gancxadeba. Sesabamisad, Statis mier mtkicebadi interesi mxolod cxovrebaSi argatarebuli akrZalvis simbolur SenarCunebas udris. gulmodgined SezRuduli ritualuri konteqsti, romelSic mopasuxeebi moixmardnen peiots, Zalze Sors dgas kanoniT akrZaluli narkotikebis garTobis mizniT upasuxismgeblo da zRvardaudebeli moxmarebisgan. amerikel indielTa eklesiis Sida SezRudvebi da zedamxedveloba Tavisi wevrebis mier peiotis moxmarebaze mniSvnelovnad aqarwylebs janmrTelobasa da usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebul Statis SeSfoTebas. aRniSnulis garda, blekmunis azriT, am saqmeSi religiuri gamonaklisis daSvebis momTxovnTa interesebi da Rirebulebebi mniSvnelovanwilad emTxveva im interesebsa da faseulobebs, romelTa xelSewyobasac Stati isaxavs miznad narkotikebis Taobaze kanonebis gziT. amerikel indielTa eklesiis doqtrina ara marto krZalavs peiotis arareligiur gamoyenebas; igi aseve zogadad propagandas uwevs ojaxur pasuxismgeblobasa da alkoholisgan Tavis Sekavebas. arsebobs mravali mtkicebuleba, rom eklesiis mier uzrunvelyofili sulieri da socialuri mxardaWera sakmaod efeqturi aRmoCnda amerikel indielebSi alkoholizmis uaryofiTi Sedegebis dasamarcxeblad. narkotikebis ukanono da upasuxismgeblo moxmarebis nacvlad amerikel indielTa eklesiis wevrebis sulieri kodeqsi swored im Rirebulebebis ilustrirebas axdens, romelTa mxardasaWeradac aris gamiznuli oregonis kanonebi narkotikebis Sesaxeb. mopasuxeTa mtkicebiT, peiotis mcenare maT RvTaebas ganasaxierebs da misi sakvebad miReba RvTismsaxurebisa da saidumloebis Sesrulebis aqts warmoadgens. peiotis gareSe isini ver Seasruleben TavianTi religiis ZiriTad rituals. Tuki oregoni konstituciurad uflebamosilia, pasuxisgebaSi misces amerikel indielTa eklesiis wevrebi RvTismsaxurebis aqtisaTvis, amiSebis msgavsad isinic „iZulebulni iqnebian, gadasaxldnen sxva, ufro Semwynareblur regionSi~. zemoT aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, mosamarTle blekmuni miiCnevs, rom oregonis interesi peiotis religiuri moxmarebis winaaRmdeg narkotikebis Sesaxeb kanonebis gamoyenebaze ar aris imdenad sasicocxli, rom religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobaze mopasuxeTa ufleba gadawonos. vinaidan Stats ar SeuZlia konstituciasTan Sesaba-

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misobaSi ganaxorcielos sisxlissamarTlebrivi akrZalva mopasuxeTa winaaRmdeg, narkotikebis Taobaze Statis kanonmdeblobis safuZvlad arsebuli interesiT SeuZlebelia gamarTlebuli iqnes uari umuSevrobis Semweobis miRebaze. Statis sakanonmdeblo organos gamoxmaureba smitis saqmeze: oregonis sisxlissamarTlebrivi kanonSi gamonaklisis daSveba peiotis ritualur gamoyenebaze. oregonis Statis mTavari prokurori deiv fronmeieri sasamarTlo procesze amtkicebda, rom „saxifaTo narkotikuli saSualebebis gamoyenebasa da xelmisawvdomobaze kontrolTan dakavSirebuli saxelmwifos interesi sasicocxlo xasiaTisaa~. Tumca uzenaes sasamarTloSi am Teoriaze dayrdnobiT warmatebis miRwevis Semdeg oregonis sakanonmdeblo organos komitetis winaSe prokurori amave Teoriis winaaRmdeg gamovida. igi arwmunebda kanonmdeblebs, daeSvaT gamonaklisi amerikel indielTa mier peiotis ritualur gamoyenebaze. Statis sakanonmdeblo organom gaiTvaliswina prokuroris rCeva da dauSva gamonaklisi. kongresis gamoxmaureba smitis saqmeze. TiTqmis yvela ZiriTadi religiuri sazogadoeba gaerTianda samoqalaqo TavisuflebaTa saxelganTqmul organizaciebTan religiis Tavisuflad aRmsareblobis koaliciis formirebisaTvis, raTa daerwmunebinaT kongresi, mieRo religiis Tavisuflebis ufro saimedod dacvis uzrunvelmyofi kanonmdebloba. kongresma mravali sxdoma miuZRvna am sakiTxis ganxilvas. dokumentirebul iqna zogadi daniSnulebis kanonebis gamoyenebis Sedegad momxdari religiis Tavisuflebis postsmitiseuli darRvevebi. Sedegad, kongresma farTo orpartiuli mxardaWeriT miiRo religiis Tavisuflebis aRdgenis aqti,136 romelsac prezidentma klintonma 1993 wlis 16 noembers moawera xeli. aqtis safuZvelze aikrZala arsebiTi tvirTis dakisreba pirovnebis religiur gamoxatvaze, Tundac zogadi daniSnulebis qcevis wesis safuZvelze. gamonaklisad iqna aRiarebuli SemTxveva, rodesac religiaze tvirTis dakisreba aucilebelia 1) sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis ganxorcielebisaTvis da 2) es ukanaskneli yvelaze naklebad SemzRudveli saSualebaa am interesis uzrunvelyofisaTvis. am aqtis miRebidan erTi wlis Semdeg kongresma miiRo amerikeli indielebis religiis Tavisuflebis aqti,137 romelic peiotis gamoyenebas Seexeboda. aqtis erTerTi muxlis Tanaxmad: „peiotis moxmareba, floba da transportireba nebismieri indielis mier keTilsindisierad tradiciuli ritualuri miznebisaTvis indielebis tradiciul religiur praqtikasTan kavSirSi kanonieria da ar aikrZaleba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis an nebismieri Statis mier. dauSvebelia nebismieri indielis dasja da diskriminacia aseTi moxmarebis, flobisa da transportirebis gamo, saxelmwifo mxardaWeris programebis safuZvelze sxvagvarad xelmisawvdomi sargeblis miRebaze uaris CaTvliT~. Tumca aqtiT ar aris akrZaluli im pirovnebaTa registracia, romlebic peiotis kultivirebasa da gavrcelebas axdenen. wminda miwisa da wminda adgilebis dacva bibliis mixedviT, qanaani „wminda miwad~ iTvleba, radgan is im aRTqmis nawilia, romelic abraamsa da mis STamomavlobas xvda wilad: „mogcem Sen da Sens STamomavlobas Seni mdgmurobis qveyanas, qanaanis mTel qveyanas, samaradiso sakuTrebad da Tqveni RmerTi viqnebi~, dabadeba 17:8.138 am religiuri Sexedulebis gamo israelSi, iordaniasa da palestinaSi dResac uTanxmoebaa abraamis erTmaneTTan moqiSpe STa-

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momavlebs Soris, romlebic saukuneebis manZilze upirispirdeboda erTmaneTs rogorc religiur, ise politikur niadagze. me-17 saukunis puritanebi amtkicebdnen, rom bibliis es adgilebi abraamis STamomavlebisTvis aRTqmuli miwis Sesaxeb exeboda amerikas, rogorc axal aRTqmul qveyanas, axal qanaans, RmerTisgan rCeuls. texasis aneqsiis Semdeg (1845 wlis 1 martis aqtiT) puritanebis es Sexeduleba kidev ufro ganmtkicda. evropel kolonistebs amis Semdeg aswavlidnen, rom am kontinentze batonoba maTi xvedria. sul raRac xuT weliwadSi ocneba realobad iqca. kalifornia kavSirSi 1850 wels gaerTianda. TeTrkanianebis kontinentze batonobis pretenziam, Tu mosamarTle o’konors davesesxebiT, „damangreveli zegavlena” moaxdina amerikeli indielebis kulturasa da arsebobaze. arsebobda sami winaaRmdegoba TeTrkanianebis moTxovnasa da aborigenebis warmodgenebs Soris am miwasTan dakavSirebiT. 1) TeTrkanianma kolonistebma CaTvales, rom maTi inglisuri samefo sigelebi da „Sesyidvebi~ sxva evropeli mmarTvelebisgan (magaliTad, md. misisipis miwebi, romelic napoleonma prezident tomas jefersons dauTmo) sakmarisi iyo axali qveynis dasapatroneblad. 2) Zalian didi gansxvaveba iyo sakuTrebis uflebasTan ingliselTa da indielTa damokidebulebas Soris. 3) TeTrkanianma axalmosaxleebma TiTqmis araferi icodnen da arc ainteresebdaT aborigenebis religiuri Sexedulebebi wminda miwasTan dakavSirebiT. es uTanxmoeba ver mogvarda, miuxedavad uamravi xelSekrulebisa, romlebic indielebis cxovrebis wesis pativiscemas uzrunvelyofda. kulturuli ganxeTqileba sabolood ZaladobaSi gadaizarda. mkvidri amerikelebis am miwidan gaZevebiT TeTrkanianebi ganuxrelad miiltvodnen kontinentze gabatonebisken. kulturulma konfliqtma uamravi adamianis sicocxle Seiwira da es movlena mogvianebiT genocidad Sefasda. qvemoT aRweril saqmeSi mosamarTle brenani Tavis gansxvavebul azrSi aRniSnavs, rom amerikeli indielebis rwmena pirdapiraa dakavSirebuli miwis gamoyenebasTan. indielebis religiis Taviseburi buneba ganpirobebulia indieli amerikelebis cnobierebiT, romelic miwas wminda, cocxal arsebad aRiqvams. ritualebi erTsa da imave adgilas sruldeba ara tradiciis gavleniT, aramed imitom, rom miwa, rogorc cocxali arseba, unikaluria, da yvela adgili gansakuTrebuli sulieri simdidrisa da mniSvnelobis matarebelia. indielebisTvis yvelaze wminda adgilad iTvleba e. w. „amaRlebuli adgilebi~, sadac adamianebamde arsebuli sulebi adamianebTan erTad dasaxldnen. imis gamo, rom es sulebi religiuri Zalis da „mkurnalobis~ wyarod iTvlebian, mravali tomis rituali am adgilebis xSir monaxulebas iTvaliswinebs. yvelaze mniSvnelovan saritualo adgilebad iTvleba Cimnis mTa, mkurnalis mTa da merve mwvervali. religiuri ceremoniebi gansakuTrebuli miznebis miRwevis erToblivi mcdelobaa da misi Sesrulebis wesebi Taobidan Taobas gadaecema. ritualebis axsnis mcdeloba ukve mis darRvevad iTvleba, radgan ritualis mTeli Zala mdgomareobas ara samyaros axsnis an TiToeuli morwmunis ganaTlebis SesaZleblobaSi, aramed mis qmediT unarSi, daicvas da xeli Seuwyos tomobriv yofas. radikalurad gansxvavebuli midgoma aqvs am sakiTxisadmi mosamarTle o’konors. is xazs usvams xelisuflebis uflebas, „isargeblos sakuTari miwiT~. SeerTebuli

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Statebis satyeo samsaxurma 49 milis sigrZis gza SeakeTa CrdiloeT kaliforniis eqvsi mdinaris erovnul tyeSi. samsaxurma wamoayena winadadeba, ori patara qalaqi gasketi da orleansi 75 milis magistraliT daekavSirebinaT. am saqmeSi ganxiluli konfliqti im eqvsmiliani segmentis gamo warmoiSva, romelic Cimnis mTis regionSi gaivlida. mosamarTle o’konoris daxasiaTebiT, am miwas „istoriulad religiuri daniSnulebiT iyenebdnen iurokis, karokis da tolovas tomis indielebi~. o’konorma agreTve aRniSna, rom SemoTavazebuli proeqti „gamanadgurebel gavlenas moaxdens indielTa tradiciul religiur moRvaweobaze~. is varaudobs, rom „ramdenime religiur wes-Cveulebas gansakuTrebiT didi safrTxe daemuqreba~.

lingi Crdilo-dasavlel indielTa sasaflaos dacvis asociaciis winaaRmdeg139
uzenaesi sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba am saqmeSi sasamarTlom imsjela imis Taobaze, ukrZalavs Tu ara pirveli SesworebiT gaTvaliswinebuli aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzula mTavrobas, gasces tyis gaCexvis an gzebis gayvanis nebarTva erovnuli tyis im nawilSi, romelsac Crdilo-dasavleT kaliforniis indielTa sami tomisTvis tradiciulad religiuri daniSnuleba hqonda. sasamarTlom gadawyvita, rom mTavrobas es ar ekrZaleba. 1977 wels satyeo samsaxurma gamoaqveyna moxseneba garemomcvel garemoze zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb, romelSic ganxiluli iyo Cimnis mTis zonaSi gamavali moukirwylavi gzis rekonstruqciis gegma. moxsenebasTan dakavSirebiT gamoTqmuli komentarebis sapasuxod satyeo samsaxurma Caatara am regionSi amerikeli indielebis kulturuli da religiuri msaxurebis adgilebis kvleva. kvleva 1979 wels dasrulda da daadgina, rom mTeli regioni gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis mqonea indielTa religiuri konceptualizaciisa da saqmianobisTvis. am adgilebs saritualo daniSnuleba aqvs da ceremoniebis Catareba mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli myudro da wynar garemoze. kvlevis daskvnis mixedviT, am midamoebSi gzis gayvana gamousworebel zians miayenebda wminda adgilebs, romlebic Crdilo-dasavleT kaliforniis indielebis religiuri cxovrebis ganuyofel nawils warmoadgenda. aqedan gamomdinare, gzis mSeneblobis gagrZeleba arasasurvelad iqna miCneuli. 1982 wels satyeo samsaxurma gadawyvita, ar gaeTvaliswinebina es rekomendacia da daiwyo daskvniTi angariSis momzadeba gzis gayvanasTan dakavSirebiT. regionalurma satyeo samsaxurma iseTi marSruti SearCia, romelic gverds uvlida arqeologiur adgilebs da im teritorias, sadac adgilobrivi indielebi spiritualur RonisZiebebs atarebdnen. arc es alternatiuli varianti iqna miRebuli, radgan am marSrutis gasayvanad kerZo miwebis SeZena iyo saWiro. garda amisa, is gaivlida aramdgradi niadagis monakveTze da yvela SemTxvevaSi gadakveTda indielebis saritualo adgilebs. satyeo samsaxurma imavdroulad miiRo samoqmedo gegma, romlis mixedviTac nebadarTuli iyo tyis garkveuli raodenobiT gaCexva. gegma agreTve uzrunvelyofda erTnaxevari milis manZilze damcavi zonis arsebobas angariSSi CamoTvlili yvela religiuri adgilis garSemo. administaciuli zomebis amowurvis Semdeg mopasuxeebma — indielTa organizaciebma, calkeulma indielebma, garemos damcavma organizaciebma, maTma wevrebma da kaliforniis Statma — gzis gayvanisa da tyis gaCexvis orive gadawyvetileba SeerTe-

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buli Statebis CrdiloeT kaliforniis saolqo sasamarTloSi gaasaCivres. mopasuxeebi amtkicebdnen, rom satyeo samsaxuris gadawyvetilebebi arRvevda aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis klauzulas, ramdenime federalur kanons da samTavrobo valdebulebas hupas rezervaciaSi mcxovreb indielTa mimarT. sasamarTlom saqmis ganxilvis Semdeg daadgina uvado sasamarTlo akrZalva Cimnis mTis regionSi gzis gayvanasa da tyis gaCexvis gegmis ZalaSi Sesvlaze. sasamarTlos daskvniT, orive proeqti ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi daarRvevda samTavrobo valdebulebas hupas indielebisTvis wyliT sargeblobisa da Tevzaobis uflebebis SenarCunebis Taobaze. saapelacio instanciaSi saqmis ganxilvis periodSi kongresma miiRo kaliforniis udabnos 1984 wlis aqti,140 romlis mixedviTac satyeo samsaxuris marTvis gegmiT gansazRvruli adgilebi ukacriel zonad cxaddeboda, rac am regionSi komerciul saqmianobas, maT Soris, tyis gaCexvas krZalavda. statutis farglebs gareT rCeboda miwis viwro monakveTi, sadac SesaZlebeli iyo proeqtiT gaTvaliswinebuli gasketorleansis gzis gayvana. sasamarTlo Semadgenlobam nawilobriv daamtkica qveda instanciis sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba. man erTxmad uaryo saolqo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba imis Taobaze, rom mTavrobis mier SemoTavazebuli RonisZiebebi arRvevda hupas rezervaciaSi mcxovreb indielTa winaSe aRebul valdebulebebs. man agreTve nawilobriv gaauqma saolqo sasamarTlos mier dawesebuli akrZalva imis safuZvelze, rom is ukve warmodgenili iyo kaliforniis udabnos aqtiT, romelic tyis gaCexvas krZalavs saolqo sasamarTlos mier miTiTebul teritoriaze. saolqo sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba sxva nawilebSi, romlebic kanonis moTxovnebs emyareboda erTxmad darCa ZalaSi. aseve ZalaSi darCa saolqo sasamarTlos konstituciuri gadawyvetileba, Tumca es verdiqti erTxmad ar yofila miRebuli. sakuTriv satyeo samsaxuris mier gamoqveynebul kvlevaze dayrdnobiT, umravlesobam miiCnia, rom sagzao magistralis Cimnis mTis regionSi gayvana mniSvnelovan, Tumca, ZiriTadad, arapirdapir uaryofiT zegavlenas moaxdenda indielebis religiur cxovrebaze. sasamarTlos Semadgenlobis umravlesobam aseve daaskvna, rom mTavrobam ver SeZlo gzis gayvanaSi sasicocxlo saxelmwifo interesis demonstrireba. uzenaesi sasamarTlos miTiTebiT, mas eWvi ar epareba indielTa rwmenis gulwrfelobaSi da imaSi, rom mTavrobis moqmedebebi sakmaod arasasurvel zemoqmedebas moaxdens maT religiur cxovrebaze. indieli amerikelebis azriT, maTi religiuri saqmianobisTvis sakamod bevri xelisSemSleli faqtori arsebobs imisTvis, rom SeizRudos maTi aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebac, miT umetes Tu xelisufleba ver amtkicebs, ro