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Paul Christian P.

Santos U-Pang PEN BSN IV-P18/07-2409/2010 Lesson 1 Management – it is the process of working with people to achieve a common goal Nursing Management = Is the process of working through staff members to be able to provide comprehensive care to the patient. Leader vs. Manager Leader May or may not have official appointment to the position ž Vested with power and authority by the group ž Influence others towards goal setting ž Interested in risk taking and exploring new ideas ž Relates to people personally ž Feels rewarded by personal achievement ž May or may not be as successful managers Manager ž

Notes in NCM 104 Nursing Management and Leadership Prelims

a. Entrepreneur – innovator, designer,
prob solver b. Disturbance Handler/ Troubleshooter – attend to unexpected problem c. Negotiator – Mediator b/w 2 opposing groups

Katz ‘s 3 mgt skills 1. Technical Skills – Knowledge, proficiency -doing right procedure 2. Human/ interpersonal Skills- dealing with people, deal with motivation, trust; lead, inspire; rapport establishment 3. Conceptual Skills – ability to see individual matters as they relate to the picture ; abstract thinking ; foreseeing Summer’s KSA Factors =these are abilities to develop managerial abilities 1. Knowledge Factor- ideas, concepts, principles ; the “what” 2. Skills/Ability – art of judgment, “the how” 3. Attitude Factor – values ,feelings, Beliefs, dispositions Lesson 2 4 Management Process 1. Planning- estimating the future by setting-up objectives ; developing and scheduling programs, establishing policies

 Officially appointed

 Vested with power and authority by the organization  Implements predetermined goals, policies, rules and regulations  Measures the risks to be taken in line with the expected results  Relates to people accdg to their roles  Feels rewarded when accomplishing organizational missions or goals  Managers as long as the appointment holds Leadership – Is a social influence or a person’s ability to move other people to act Peter Drucker – “mgt is a practice” No precise sol’n for every organizational problem *success is dependent on the achievement of goal, objective and performance of managers and also with the subordinates. Mintsberg’s Role of a Manager 1. Interpersonal Role – they direct and supervise a. Figure head – illustrates power and authority, ceremonial duties (signing, decision making) b. Leader – hire, train, fine, remuneration c. Liason - communicator b/w the internal and external world Communication, coordination, alliances 2. Informational Role – obtain, transmit info a. Monitor- seek into internal env’t b. Disseminate – attend seminar c. Spokesperson , Representative 3. Decisional Role

2. Organizing- establishes formal authority;

organizational structuring ; assigning groups, defining each roles, and realationship. *Job Description – defines the qualification and scope of duties and responsibilities * Staffing – determining the staff needed >recruiting >selecting >orienting >developing >Scheduling- done to meet the pt’s needs guidance and leadership; Continuing Education of staffs performance of workers ; done to ensure the attainment of objectives ; keeping on the right tract; any deviations require prompt correction.

3. Directing/Leading- supervising workers ;

4. Controlling – reassessment and regulation of

Lesson 3 Tools for Management (7 Ms) 1. Man 2. Machine 3. Money 4. Methods 5. Materials 6. Moment of Time 7. Manager Lesson 4 Qualities and roles of managers and levels of management

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Paul Christian P. Santos U-Pang PEN BSN IV-P18/07-2409/2010 Levels of Management

Notes in NCM 104 Nursing Management and Leadership Prelims Focus: Time Frame: Methods: Question: Outcomes: Focus on: Human Relationship: purposes Future strategies why Journey potentials trust

1. First Line – Charge Nurse* (*different entity,

limited authority a subordinate of headnurse) Unit Manager, client care coordinator, team leader, Headnurse Roles: >managing and supervise a particular unit. > connecting link b/w staff nurses and the higher management > mgt fxn closely identified with the actual delivery of client care > they also plan daily activities of the staff nurses head, dep’t manaer Roles: > Manage Nursing Care nad services with 2 or more units > Manging the staff > prepare budget >working schedules > write and IMPLEMENT policies >carry out goals set by the management

Manager 1. Appointed 2. Power and authority vested by org. 3. Relates with people accdg. to their roles 4. Ability to influence based in formal authority 5. Implements predetermined goals * apply standards in order to do things right to be able to achieve goal Leader 1. May or may not be appointed by choice * stand up without telling 2. power vested by group 3. Relates with people personally 4. 5. Inspire Leader – a process of influencing others in achieving organizational roles - art of getting someone else doing something you want to be done -it ‘s about letting the members know what to do, not telling them of what to do These must be present: Efficiency [do things right] - ability to make the best use (maximize) available resources in the process of achieving goal Effectiveness [Do right things ] – ability to chose appropriate goals and achievement. L- love, learn, lead E- enthusiastic, energetic A- acitive, assertive, achiver D- dedicated, d E – efficient effective R – resourceful, responsible

2. Middle Level- Supervisor, Department

3. Top Level Management- Top Manager, nurse executive level, chief nurse, medical director Roles: > concerned at overall planning > setting up of objectives >Scheduling programs >ESTABLISHMENT of Policies >Budget PROPOSAL Management vs. Leadership Motto: Challenge: Focus: Time Frame: Methods: Question: Outcomes: Focus on: Human Relationship: Management Doing things right Continuity Structures & Procedures Present (here & now) schedules who,what,when,where,how Destination (goal ) Performance Control Leadership Doing the right things Change

7 tools GOALS Leaders hip Theories and
Goals must be: S- specific M-measurable A-attainable R-relevant T-time bound E-efficient R-rewarding

Manageme nt Process

Lesson 5 Theories of Management

Motto: Challenge:

I. Scientific Management 1. Frederick W. Taylor Man as a Mechanism in the Factory

Developed theory called “Scientific Management”

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Paul Christian P. Santos U-Pang PEN BSN IV-P18/07-2409/2010
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Measured precisely the rate at which certain tasks were performed, or the precise shovel blade size to shove most effectively Instituted “rest periods” to maximize endurance Worked to maximize efficiency Changed piece-work rates so workers got more per piece if they were more productive Break down work into discrete parts Only one “best way” to do a job Motivated by money to accept the “best way” Complaints Against Taylorism His most famous studies (shoveling) were not groundbreaking Much of his data were not coherent, suggesting it had been falsified His “rest periods” were when the men walked back empty Taylorism is only useful for managing “children,” “morons,” and the “mentally retarded.” (Argyris) Called “the main cause of the main causes of our ills and troubles in industry and management today” (Pollard)

Notes in NCM 104 Nursing Management and Leadership Prelims HLG’s concept provides: Job Security Staff Development II. Classic Organization More deductive, less inductive Whole org. doesn’t focus on pdxn nor profit


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1. Henri Fayol “Father of Mgt Process sch.
Identified 4 management functions a. Planning b. Organizing c. Command d. Coordination e. Control

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-accdg to him mgt is universal postulated 14 principles of mgt 2. Max Weber’s Bureaucratic Mode
>Stressed the need for a strictly defined hierarchy governed by clearly defined regulations and lines of authority. Dimensions of Bureaucracy  Division of labor based on functional specialization  A well-defined hierarchy of authority  A system of rules covering the rights and duties of position  A system of procedures for dealing with work situations  An impersonality in interpersonal relations  A system of promotion and selection for employment based on technical competence. Limitations of Bureaucracy  Appropriate for the past where environment was relatively stable and predictable  Today’s environments are more turbulent and unpredictable.  Too general for today’s highly complex organization and specialization.

most efficient means of production

1.1 Reduced waste effort -time & motion studies -can increase productivity 1.2 Set standards -select and train workers 1.3 Encourage specialization -workers are paid accdg. to rate of pdxn 1.4 selection of qualified workers -most qualified and capable *people have no right to chose job, manager do *Profit Oriented

2. Henry L. Gantt
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Gantt was originally a protégé of Taylor at Bethlehem Steel Modified Scientific Management to make it less rigid Insisted on a minimum day wage Demanded management buy-in Developed the Gantt chart to help schedule subtasks and processes required for project completion Promoted “backcasting,” a forerunner to MBO


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PERT Chart – evaluation tool Program Evaluation Review Technique Task and bonus remuneration Plan =Service Humanitarian Approach: More on the Service that you give the profit that you contribute. *Scientific worker selection *Their should be efficiency *Efficiency will take place when the previous practice/ work are refined/mastered rather than introducing new concepts. *Workers must be happy to increase pdxn.

Bureaucracy- bound by rules Competence –the factor that made you as a manager Exercise of control on the basis of knowledge and rules. 3 Bases of Authority 1. Traditional Authority 2. Charisma-based on sacred or outstanding characteristics of an individual 3. Rational (based on KSA) & Legal Authority (based on codes, rules) III. Human Relations Concern on individuals, Social env’t , leadership and communication. -develop potential of workers by giving recognition to their accomplishment and belonging.

1. Mary Parker Follet
○ ○ had considered workers as human Management must consider the human side

Disclaimer The author cannot accept any responsibility for any error or omission and disclaims any liability, loss, or damage as a consequence, directly or indirectly, to the use and application of any of the contents of this work.

Paul Christian P. Santos U-Pang PEN BSN IV-P18/07-2409/2010
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Employees should be involved in job analysis Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects Participative management Espoused that managers should have authority with, rather than over, employees

Notes in NCM 104 Nursing Management and Leadership Prelims

2. Douglas Mc Gregor
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Taught in Psychology and Industrial Management in MIT Introduced Theory X and Theory Y Bridging the gap between the management and labor

– psychological and sociological aspect Motivation Collaboration and cooperation Working together

Theory X (classical)

 workers are lazy and want to be told
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1. Elton Mayo’ s Behavioral Theory
Studied relationship between level of lighting in the work-place and workers productivity Hawthorne effect- momentarily change in behavior when there is a change in the physical and social env’t *The possibility that workers who

what to do and have decisions made for them Average employee is lazy, dislikes work, and will try to do as little as possible Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment

Negativistic view of mgr Pessimistic approach Mgr view their workers as Lazy Few ambitions Mga inutil!!! :‘( Tatanga-tanga
Theory Y (based on developments in social sciences) employees want autonomy, job satisfaction, responsibility, and will work hard when they are appreciated Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed Manager’s task is to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative Theory Y required a change in management, not a change in the worker or the workplace Formalized ideas many good managers already practiced but could not define Also credited with inadvertently fathering the Human Potential Movement

receive special attention will perform better simply because they received that attention

Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered

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Hawthorne effect(2) Factors influencing behavior:  Attention from researchers  Manager’s leadership approach  Work group norms Physical-workers are more productive when the workplace is conducive Social- wokers tend to be more productive when they know that they are being watch by their employer

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IV. Behavioral Science Approach
Understanding of individual motivation, group behavior interpersonal relationship at work and the importance of work to human beings  Continue to contribute new insights in important areas as leadership, conflict, power, organizational change and communication Limitations of behavioral science  Its potential not fully realized  managers resist suggestion  Model, theories and jargon are too complicated and abstract to practicing manager  Difficult to interpret by practicing managers

Optimistic view of mgr towards workers Workers have ambition and potential

-maintaining positive attitude towards other people -Leaders are made, not born 1. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Disclaimer The author cannot accept any responsibility for any error or omission and disclaims any liability, loss, or damage as a consequence, directly or indirectly, to the use and application of any of the contents of this work.