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2003 1

Lost Circulation

Measurable loss of whole mud (liquid
phase and solid phase) to the formation.
Lost circulation can occur at any depth
during any operation
2003 2
Lost Circulation
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON DRILLING OPERATIONS
SURFACE HOLE

LOSS OF DRIVE PIPE OR CONDUCTOR SHOE
HOLE CLEANING PROBLEMS
HOLE BRIDGE OR COLLAPSE
STUCK-PIPE
WELL CONTROL PROBLEMS
LOSS OF THE WELL
2003 3
Lost Circulation
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON DRILLING OPERATIONS
INTERMEDIATE HOLE

LOSS OF FLUID LEVEL MONITORING
LOSS OF FORMATION EVALUATION
HOLE CLEANING PROBLEMS
HOLE BRIDGE OR COLLAPSE
EXTENDED WELLBORE EXPOSURE TIME
STUCK-PIPE
WELL CONTROL PROBLEMS
UNDER GROUND BLOWOUT
ADDITIONAL CASING STRINGS

2003 4
Lost Circulation
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON DRILLING OPERATIONS

PRODUCTION HOLE

LOSS OF FLUID LEVEL MONITORING
LOSS OF FORMATION EVALUATION
HOLE CLEANING PROBLEMS
HOLE BRIDGE OR COLLAPSE
EXTENDED WELLBORE EXPOSURE TIME
2003 5
Lost Circulation
ADVERSE EFFECTS ON DRILLING OPERATIONS

PRODUCTION HOLE

STUCK-PIPE
WELL CONTROL PROBLEMS
UNDER GROUND BLOWOUT
ADDITIONAL CASING STRINGS
PRODUCTION ZONE DAMAGE

2003 6
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION MECHANISIMS

PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

WELLBORE PRESSURE EXCEED THE FRACTURE
PRESSURE OF THE FORMATION CAUSING THE ROCK
TO CRACK OPEN (FRACTURE)
2003 7
Lost Circulation


PRESSURE
INDUCED
FRACTURE

2003 8
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION MECHANISIMS

NATUARLLAY EXISTING FRACTURES/ HIGH
PERMEABILITY

OVER BALANCED WELLBORE PRESSURE IS EXPOSED
TO A FORMATION WITH UNSEALED FRACTURES OR
HIGH PERMEABILITY

2003 9
Lost Circulation

NATUARLLAY
EXISTING
FRACTURES/
HIGH
PERMEABILIY
2003 10
Lost Circulation
CAUSES OF LOST CIRCULATION

PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

EXCESSIVE MUD WEIGHT
ANNULAR FRICTION LOSS
WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES
IMPOSED OR TRAPPED PRESSURES
SHUT-IN PRESSURES
LOW FORMATION PRESSURE

2003 11
Lost Circulation
CAUSES OF LOST CIRCULATION

NATURAL FRACTURES/PERMEABILITY

UNCONSOLIDATED FORMATIONS
FISSURES/FRACTURES
UNSEALED FAULT BOUNDARY
VULGAR/CAVERNOUS FORMATION
2003 12
Lost Circulation
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

CAUSE

WELLBORE PRESSURES ARE GREATER THAN
FORMATION FRACTURE PRESSURE

THE FORMATION FRACTURES ALLOWING MUD LOSS
2003 13
Lost Circulation
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

WARNING

PROGNOSED LOSS ZONE
EXCESSIVE MUD WEIGHT
LOW FRACTURE STRENGTH
POOR HOLE CLEANING
WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES

2003 14
Lost Circulation
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

INDICATORS

MAY BEGIN WITH SEEPAGE LOSS OR POSSIBLY
TOTAL LOSS
PIT VOLUME LOSS
EXCESSIVE HOLE FILL
IF SHUT-IN A SUDDEN LOSS OF PRESSURE

2003 15
Lost Circulation
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

FIRST ACTION (TOTAL LOSS)
REDUCE PUMP SPEED TO APPROXIMATELY SPEED
PICK-UP OFF BOTTOM AND STOP THE PUMPS
ZERO THE STROKE COUNTER AND FILL THE
ANNULUS WITH WATER OR LIGHT MUD
RECORD THE STROKES IF/WHEN THE ANNULUS
BEGINS TO FILL UP
MONITOR THE WELL FOR FLOW
2003 16
Lost Circulation
PRESSURE INDUCED FRACTURE

PREVENTITIVE ACTION

MINIMISE MUD WEIGHT AND MAXIMISE SOLIDS
REMOVAL
CONTROL RATE OF PENETRATION
MINIMSE WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES
AVOID IMPOSED OR TRAPPED PRESSURE
2003 17
Lost Circulation
NATURAL FRACTURES/HIGH PERMEABILIY

CAUSE

WELLBORE PRESSURE IS OVERBALANCED TO THE
FORMATION PRESSURE
MUD LOST TO NATURAL FRACTURESAND/OR HIGH
PERMEABILITY
2003 18
Lost Circulation
NATURAL FRACTURES/HIGH PERMEABILIY

WARNING

PROGNOSED LOSS ZONE

LOST CIRCULATION CAN OCCUR AT ANY TIME
DURING ANY OPEN HOLE OPERATION


2003 19
Lost Circulation
NATURAL FRACTURES/HIGH PERMEABILIY

INDICATORS

MAY BEGIN WITH SEEPAGE LOSS OR POSSIBLY
TOTAL LOSS
PIT VOLUME LOSS
STATIC LOSSES DURING CONNECTIONS OR
SURVEYS

2003 20
Lost Circulation
NATURAL FRACTURES/HIGH PERMEABILIY

FIRST ACTION (TOTAL LOSS)
REDUCE PUMP SPEED TO APPROXIMATELY SPEED
PICK-UP OFF BOTTOM AND STOP THE PUMPS
ZERO THE STROKE COUNTER AND FILL THE
ANNULUS WITH WATER OR LIGHT MUD
RECORD THE STROKES IF/WHEN THE ANNULUS
BEGINS TO FILL UP
MONITOR THE WELL FOR FLOW

2003 21
Lost Circulation
NATURAL FRACTURES/HIGH PERMEABILIY

PREVENTIVE ACTION

MINIMISE MUD WEIGHT
CONTROL RATE OF PENETRATION
MINIMSE WELLBORE PRESSURE SURGES
PRE-TREAT WITH LCM

2003 22
Lost Circulation
LOSS SEVERITY CLASSIFICATIONS
SEEPAGE LOSS
(< 20 BBLS/HOUR)
PARTIAL LOSS
(> 20 BBLS/HOUR)
TOTAL LOSS
(NO RETURNS)
1. GRADUAL LOSSES
2. OPERATION NOT
INTERUPTED
3. POSSIBLE WARNING
OF INCREASED LOSS
SEVERITY
1. IMMEDIATE DROP IN
FLUID LEVEL WHEN
PUMPING IS
STOPPED
2. SLOW TO REGAIN
RETURNS WHEN
STARTING
CIRCULATION
3. OPERATIONS
USUALLY
INTERUPTED
4. REMEDIAL ACTION
REQUIRED
1. RETURN FLOW
STOPS
IMMEDIATELY
2. PUMP PRESSURE
DECREASE
3. STRING WEIGHT
INCREASE
4. OPERATIONS
SUSPENDED
5. REMEDIAL ACTION
REQUIRED
2003 23
Lost Circulation
METHODS FOR LOCATING LOSS DEPTH


SUCCESSFUL TREATING OF LOST
CIRCULATION DEPENDS GREATLY ON
LOCATING THE DEPTH OF THE LOSS ZONE
2003 24

Lost Circulation
METHODS FOR LOCATING LOSS DEPTH
SURVEY METHODS
TEMPERATURE SURVEY
ACOUSTIC LOG
RADIOACTIVE TRACER
SPINNER SURVEY
PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
HOT WIRE SURVEY
PRACTICAL METHODS
OFFSET DATA
GEOLOGISTIC/LOGGER
IDENIFIES POTENTIAL
LOSS ZONE
MONITORING FLUID
LEVEL TRENDS WHILS
DRILLING
2003 25
Lost Circulation
CONSIDERATIONS FOR SURVEY METHODS

SURVEY TOOLS ARE NOT ALWAYS AVAILABLE
CONSIDERABLE TIME REQUIRE TO RUN THE
SURVEY
SURVEYS REQUIRE LARGE VOLUMES OF MUD
RESULTS ARE OFTEN DIFFICULT TO INTERPRET
POSSIBILITY OF LOSING THE SURVEY TOOL IN THE
HOLE
2003 26
Lost Circulation

GUIDELINE FOR LOST CIRCULATION SOLUTIONS
ACTION RESULTS CONSIDERATIONS
MINIMISE MUD
WEIGHT
REDUCE WELLBORE
PRESSURES, (THE
DRIVING FORCE PUSHING
MUD INTO THE LOSS
ZONE)
1. MORE SUCCESSFUL WITH
PRESSURE INDUCED
FRACTURES
2. POSSIBLE WELL CONTROL
AND HOLE STABILITY
PROBLEMS
FORMATION
HEALING TIME
REACTIVE CLAYS SWELL
WITH WBM PRODUCING A
PLUGGING EFFECT
1. MORE SUCCESSFUL WITH
FRESH WATER MUD LOST TO
SHALE
2. BETTER RESULTS WITH LCM
3. NORMAL 6-8 HOURS
WAITING TIME WITH THE
STRING INSIDE THE CASING
2003 27
Lost Circulation
GUIDELINE FOR LOST CIRCULATION SOLUTIONS
ACTION RESULTS CONSIDERATIONS
LOSS CIRCULATION
MATERIAL (LCM)
EFEECTIVELY BRIDGES,
MATS AND SEALS SMALL TO
MEDIUM FRACTURES OR
PERMEABLITY
1. LESS EFFECTIVE WITH
LARGE FRACTURES OR
FAULTS
2. INEFFECTIVE WITH
CAVERNOUS ZONES
3. INCREASE THE LCM
LBS/BBL WITH LOSS
SEVERITY
SPECIAL TECHNIQUES
A PLUG BASE IS PUMPED
INTO THE LOSS ZONE
FOLLOWED BY A CHEMICAL
ACTIVATOR. THE TWO
MATERIALS FORM A SOFT
PLUG
1. CAN BE USED IN
PRODUCTION ZONES
2. INCREASED RISK OF
PLUGGING EQUIPMENT
3. PLUG BREAKS DOWN
WITH TIME
2003 28
Lost Circulation
GUIDELINE FOR LOST CIRCULATION SOLUTIONS
ACTION RESULTS CONSIDERATIONS
CEMENT
CEMENT SLURRY IS
SQUEEZED INTO THE LOSS
ZONE UNDER INJECTION
PRESSURE
1. PROVIDES A FIT TO
FORMSOLID PLUG AT
OR NEAR THE STRESS
OF THE SURRONDING
FORMATION
DRILLING BLIND
IN SOME CASES THE ONLY
PRACTICAL SOLUTION IS TO
DRILL WITHOUT RETURNS
1. NOT A CONSIDERATION
WHERE WELL
CONTROL PROBLEMS
POTENTIALLY EXIST
2. SET CASING IN THE
FIRST COMPETENT
FORMATION
2003 29
Lost Circulation
GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL LCM RESULTS

LOCATING THE LOSS ZONE AND ACCURATE PILL
DISPLACEMENT IS VITAL. POSITION THE STRING +/-
100 FEET ABOVE THE LOSS ZONE, DO NOT STOP
PUMPING UNTIL THE PILL CLEARS THE BIT.

INSURE THAT THE BASE MUD VISCOSITY WILL
SUPPORT THE LCM VOLUME ADDED. ADD FRESH
WATER GEL TO A PREMIXED LCM PILL
IMMEDIATELY BEFORE PUMPING, FRESH GEL
CONTINUES TO YIELD AFTER SPOTTING.
2003 30
Lost Circulation
GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL LCM RESULTS

AN EFFECTIVE LCM PILL BRIDGES, MATS AND THEN
SEALS OFF THE LOSS ZONE, PARTICLE SIZE
DISTRIBUTION AND PILL FORMULATION MUST
SATISFY THESE REQUIREMENTS. CONSULT THE LCM
PRODUCT GUIDE PRIOR TO APPLYING THE PILL.

USE LARGE NOZZLE SIZES IF THE LOSS POTENTIAL
IS HIGH. KEEP THE STRING MOVING DURING THE
PILL SPOTTING OPERATION TO AVOID STUCK-PIPE.
2003 31
Lost Circulation

LOSS CIRCULATION MATERIAL (LCM)
MATERIAL DEFINITION
GRADES
1. FINE (F) A PORTION OF THE MATERIAL WILL PASS THROUGH
THE SHAKER SCREENS
2. MEDIUN (M) MAJORITY OF MATERIAL WILL SCREEN-OUT AT
THE SHAKERS
3. COARSE (C) ALL MATERIAL WILL SCREEN OUT AT THE
SHAKER. WILL PLUG JETS AND DOWNHOLE TOOLS.
RECOMMENDED WITH OPEN-ENDED PIPE
FIBROUS &
FLAKED
1. NON-RIGID MATERIALS THAT FORM A MAT ON THE HOLE TO
PROVIDE A FOUNDATION FOR NORMAL FILTER CAKE
DEVELOPMENT
GRANULAR
1. RIGID MATERIAL THAT PLUG THE PERMEABLITY OF THE
LOSS ZONE
2003 32
Lost Circulation
LOSS CIRCULATION MATERIAL (LCM)
MATERIAL DEFINITION
LCM BLEND
1. A COMBINATION OF FIBROUS, FLAKED AND GRANULAR
MATERIALS IN ONE SACK
CELLULOSTIC
1. SIZED WOOD DERIVED MATERIALS USED TO PREVENT
SEEPAGE/PARTIAL LOSSES
CALCIUM
CARBONATE
1. SIZED LIMESTONE OR MARBLE (ACID SOLUBLE) USED FOR
SEEPAGE/PARTIAL LOSS IN PRODUCTION ZONES.
SIZED SALT
1. GRANULATED SALT (WATER SOLUBLE) DEVELOPED FOR
SEEPAGE/PARTIAL LOSS IN PRODUCTION ZONES IN SALT-
SATURATED SYSTEMS
2003 33
Lost Circulation

SEEPAGE LOSS SOLUTIONS (< 20 BBL/HOUR)
FIRST ACTION RECOVERY
REDUCE ROP TO
LIMIT CUTTING LOAD
MINIMISE MUD
RHELOGY
MINIMISE GPM
MINIMISE
WELLBORE SURGES
MINIMISE MW
CONSIDER PULLING
INTO THE SHOE
AND WAITING 6 TO
8 HOURS
ADD LCM PILL IN 5-10 PPB INCREMENTS. EVALUATE RESULTS
OVER 2 CIRCULATIONS BEFORE INCREASING TO THE NEXT
LEVEL OF LCM CONCENTRATION. MIX 30 TO 50 BBL BATCHES AS
DICTATED BY THE HOLE SIZE. CONSIDER SPOTTING LCM PILL
BEFORE POOH.
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
WBM: OBM/SBM
LCM BLEND (F) 5-15 PPB CELLULOSIC (F/M) 2-25 PPB
LCM BLEND (M) 5-15 PPB
LCM BLEND (F/M) 10-20 PPB
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED
WBM: OBM/SBM
LIMESTONE (F/M) 5-30 PPB CELLULOSIC (F/M) 2-25 PPB
LIMESTONE (F/M) 5-15 PPB
2003 34
Lost Circulation
THE LCM MIXTURES SHOWN ARE
INTENDED AS A GUIDE WHERE NO
FIELD EXPERIENCE EXIST. SOME
SOLUTIONS MAY REQUIRE 2 6 PPB
CONCENTRATION IN THE TOTAL MUD
SYSTEM. CONSULT YOUR MUD
COMPANY FOR AVAILABLE PRODUCTS
AND PILL FORMULATIONS BEST
SUITED FOR THE AREA
2003 35
Lost Circulation
SEEPAGE LOSS SOLUTIONS (< 20 BBL/HOUR)
FIRST ACTION RECOVERY
REDUCE ROP TO
LIMIT CUTTING
LOAD
MIMINISE MUD
RHELOGY
REDUCE GPM
MINIMISE
WELLBORE
PRESSURE SURGES
MINIMISE MW
CONSIDER POOH
TO SHOE AND
WAITING 6-8
HOURS
ADD LCM PILL IN 5-10 PPB INCREMENTS. EVALUATE RESULTS
OVER 2 CIRCULATIONS BEFORE INCREASING TO THE NEXT
LEVEL OF LCM CONCENTRATION. MIX 30 TO 50 BBL BATCHES
AS DICTATED BY THE HOLE SIZE. CONSIDER SPOTTING LCM
PILL BEFORE POOH.
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
WBM: OBM/SBM
LCM BLEND (M) 15-25 PPB CELLULOSIC (F/M) 10-25 PPB
LCM BLEND (C) 15-25 PPB CELLULOSIC (C) 10-25 PPB
WALNUT (M/C) 10-20 PPB WALNUT (M) 5-15 PPB
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED
WBM: OBM/SBM
LCM BLEND (F) 15-25 PPB CELLULOSIC (F/M) 2-25 PPB
LCM BLEND (M) 5-15 PPB LIMESTONE (F/M) 5-15 PPB
CELLULOSIC (M) 5-15 PPB
2003 36
Lost Circulation
TOTAL LOSS SOLUTIONS
FIRST ACTION RECOVERY
PULL OFF BOTTOM
AND KEEP THE
STRING MOVING
FILL ANNULUS WITH
WATER OR LIGHT MUD
RECORD STROKES
IF/WHEN ANNULUS
FILLS UP
CONSIDER POOH TO
SHOE
MINIMISE WELLBORE
PRESSURE SURGES
FORMULATIONS FOR SPECIAL PILLS AND CEMENT ARE DICTATED
BY THE CONDITIONS OF EACH INCIDENT
NON-PRODUCTIVE INTERVALS
WBM: OBM/SBM
40 PPB LCM PILL 30-40 PPB LCM PILL
SPECIAL PILL SPECIAL PILL
CEMENT SQUEEZE CEMENT SQUEEZE
PRODUCTION ZONE EXPOSED
WBM: OBM/SBM
40 PPB LCM PILL 30-40 PPB LCM PILL
SPECIAL PILL SPECIAL PILL
CEMENT SQUEEZE CEMENT SQUEEZE
ADDRESS RESERVOIR NEEDS
2003 37
Lost Circulation
THE LCM MIXTURES SHOWN ARE
INTENDED AS A GUIDE WHERE NO
FIELD EXPERIENCE EXIST. SOME
SOLUTIONS MAY REQUIRE 2 6 PPB
CONCENTRATION IN THE TOTAL MUD
SYSTEM. CONSULT YOUR MUD
COMPANY FOR AVAILABLE PRODUCTS
AND PILL FORMULATIONS BEST
SUITED FOR THE AREA

2003 38
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR LOST
CIRCULATION MATERIAL (LCM)

LOCATE THE LOSS ZONE
MIX 50 TO 100 BBLS OF MUD WITH 25 30 PPB
BENTONITE AND 30 40 PPB LCM
POSITION THE STRING +/- 100 FEET ABOVE LOSS
ZONE
IF OPEN-ENDED, PUMP OF THE PILL INTO THE
LOSS ZONE. STOP THE PUMP, WAIT 15 MINUTES AND
PUMP THE REMAINDER OF THE PILL
2003 39
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR LOST
CIRCULATION MATERIAL (LCM)

IF PUMPING THROUGH THE BIT, PUMP THE ENTIRE
PILL AND FOLLOW IT WITH 25 BBLS OF MUD
IF RETURNS ARE NOT REGAINED, REPEAT THE
PROCEDURE. IF RETURNS ARE NOT REGAINED
AFTER THIS, WAIT 2 HOURS AND REPEAT THE
PROCEDURE
IF RETURNS ARE NOT REGAINED AFTER PUMPING
THREE PILLS, CONSIDER OTHER OPTIONS TO
REGAIN CIRCULATION

2003 40
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL PILLS

IF POSSIBLE DRILL THROUGH THE LOSS INTERVAL.
THEN POOH AND RIH OPEN-ENDED DRILLPIPE
POSITION THE STRING +/- 100 FEET ABOVE LOSS
ZONE
CLEAN THE MIXING PIT THOROUGHLY. MIX 50 BBLS
OF DESIRED PILL
PUMP DOWN THE DRILLSTRING AND PLACE IN THE
SUSPECTED ZONE. IF ANNULUS IS NOT FULL, PUMP
MUD DOWN THE ANNULUS WHILE PUMPING THE
PILL DOWN THE DRILLSTRING
2003 41
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL PILLS

WHEN THE ANNULUS IS FULL, PREPARE TO
PERFORM SQUEEZE JOB. APPLY 150 TO 200 PSI ON
THE ANNULUS. THIS WILL SOFT SQUEEZE THE
MATERIAL INTO THE LOSS ZONE
2003 42
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR A GUNK PLUG

IF POSSIBLE DRILL THROUGH THE LOSS INTERVAL.
THEN POOH AND RIH OPEN-ENDED DRILLPIPE
POSITION THE STRING +/- 100 FEET ABOVE LOSS
ZONE
MIX 100 SX OF CEMENT AND 100 SX OF BENTONITE
WITH 50 BBLS OF DIESEL (SLURRY WEIGHT 11.5 PPG -
1.39 CUBIC FEET PER SACK)
PUMP DOWN STRING 15 BBLS OF WATER-FREE
DIESEL AHEAD AND BEHIND THE GUNK PLUG

2003 43
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR A GUNK PLUG

WHEN THE LEAD DIESEL SPACER REACHES THE BIT,
CLOSE THE BOP AND PUMP DOWN THE ANNULUS
PUMP AT 4 BBL/MIN DOWN THE STRING AND 2
BBL/MIN DOWN THE ANNULUS UNTIL THE TAIL
SPACER CLEARS THE BIT
RECIPROCATE THE STRING SLOWLY, DO NOT
REVERSE CIRCULATE
PULL THE STRING CLEAR OF THE SQUEEZE. PLACE
THE SQUEEZE WITH THE CEMENT UNIT.
2003 44
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR A GUNK PLUG

WAIT + 8 HOURS FOR THE GUNK PLUG TO CURE,
REPEAT THE PROCEDURE IF RETURNS ARE NOT
REGAINED.
IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO DRILL OUT THE GUNK
BEFORE REPEATING THE PROCEDURE.
2003 45
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR CEMENT

IF POSSIBLE,DRILL THROUGH THE ENTIRE LOST
CIRCULATION INTERVAL
POOH AND RIH WITH OPEN-ENDED DP
POSITION THE OPEN-ENDED DP 100 FEET ABOVE THE
LOSS ZONE
MIX AND PUMP 50 TO 100 BBLS OF CEMENT SLURRY
FOLLOW THE SLURRY WITH ENOUGH VOLUME OF
MUD OR WATER TO BALANCE THE U TUBE
WAIT 6 TO 8 HOURS AND ATTEMPT TO FILL THE
ANNULUS


2003 46
Lost Circulation
SPOTTING PROCEDURES FOR CEMENT

REPEAT THIS PROCEDURE IF RETURNS ARE NOT
REGAINED
IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO DRILL OUT THE CEMENT
BEFORE REPEATING THE PROCEDURE.
NOTE
THE CEMENT FORMULATION MUST BE TESTED BY THE
CEMENT COMPANY TO DETERMINE THE CEMENT
THICKENING TIME
2003 47
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDELINES


THE PREVENTION OF LOST CIRCULATION MUST
ALWAYS BE CONSIDERED IN THE WELL PLANNING,
DRILLING AND POST ANALYSIS PHASES.



2003 48
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDELINES

DESIGN THE CASING PROGRAMME TO CASE-OFF
LOW PRESSURE OR SUSPECTED LOST CIRCULATION
ZONES
MAINTAIN THE MUD WEIGHT TO THE MINIMUM
REQUIRED TO CONTROL KNOWN FORMATION
PRESSURES. HIGH MUD WEIGHTS ARE ONE OF THE
MAJOR CAUSES OF LOST CIRCULATION
MAINTAIN LOW MUD RHEOLOGY VALUES THAT
ARE STILL SUFFICENT TO CLEAN THE HOLE.
2003 49
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDELINES

PRE-TREAT THE MUD SYSTEM WITH LCM WHEN
DRILLING THROUGH KNOWN LOST CIRCULATION
INTERVALS
ROTATING THE STRING WHEN STARTING TO
CIRCULATE HELPS TO BREAK THE GELS AND
MINIMISE PUMP PRESSURE SURGES
START CIRCULATION SLOWLY AFTER
CONNECTIONS AND PERIODS OF NON-CIRCULATION
MINIMISE ANNULAR RESTRICTIONS
2003 50
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDELINES

USE THE MINIMUM GPM FLOW RATE TO CLEAN THE
HOLE WHEN DRILLING THROUGH KNOWN LOST
CIRCULATION ZONES
CONTROL ROP WHEN DRILLING KNOWN LOST
CIRCULATION ZONES TO AVOID LOADING UP THE
ANNULUS WITH CUTTINGS
REDUCE TRIP SPEEDS TO MINIMISE SWAB AND
SURGE PRESSURES
PLAN TO BREAK CIRCULATION AT 2 OR 3 DEPTHS
WHILE TRIPPING INTO THE HOLE
2003 51
Lost Circulation
LOST CIRCULATION PREVENTION GUIDELINES

CONSIDER USING JET SIZES OR TFA THAT WILL
ALLOW THE USE OF LCM PILLS (+ 12/32 JETS)
BE PREPARED FOR MUD LOSSES DUE TO THE
SHAKER SCREENS PLUGGING
2003 52
Lost Circulation
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRILLING WITHOUT
RETURNS

INSURE AN ADEQUET WATER SUPPLY IS AVAILABLE
USE ONE PUMP TO DRILL AND THE SECOND TO ADD
WATER TO THE ANNULUS
ASSIGN A PERSON TO MONITOR THE FLOWLINE AT
ALL TIMES
CLOSELY MONITOR TORQUE AND DRAG TO
DETERMINE WHEN TO PUMP VISCOUS SWEEPS
2003 53
Lost Circulation
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRILLING WITHOUT
RETURNS

CLOSELY MONITOR PUMP PRESSURE WHILE
DRILLING FOR INDICATIONS OF PACKING-OFF
CONTROL ROP (IF POSSIBLE) AT ONE JOINT PER
HOUR
PICK UP OFF BOTTOM EVERY 15 FEET (3 METRES)
DRILLED TO ENSURE THE HOLE IS NOT PACKING-
OFF
KEEP THE PIPE MOVING AT ALL TIMES
2003 54
Lost Circulation
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRILLING WITHOUT
RETURNS

MAINTAIN 400 500 BBLS RESERVE OF VISCOUS
MUD READY TO PUMP
CONSIDER SPOTTING HI-VIS PILLS ON BOTTOM
PRIOR TO TRIPPING OR LOGGING
STOP DRILLING AND CONSIDER POOH TO THE SHOE
IF PUMP REPAIRS ARE REQUIRED
START AND STOP MOVING THE PIPE SLOWLY TO
MINIMISE PIPE SPEED
2003 55
Lost Circulation
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRILLING WITHOUT
RETURNS
CONSIDER SPOTTING A HI-VIS PILL ABOVE THE BHA
PRIOR TO EACH CONNECTION
PRIOR TO EACH CONNECTION, CIRCULATE AND
WIPE THE HOLE THOROUGHLY
DO NOT RUN SURVEYS WILL DRILLING BLIND
IF CIRCULATION RETURNS, STOP DRILLING. RAISE
THE STRING TO THE SHUT-IN POSITION. STOP THE
PUMPS AND CHECK FOR FLOW
2003 56
Lost Circulation
PRECAUTIONS WHILE DRILLING WITHOUT
RETURNS

IF FLOW IS OBSERVED, CLOSE THE BOP AND
OBSERVE THE SHUT-IN PRESSURES:
1. NO SHUT-IN PRESSURE - SLOWLY CIRCULATE
BOTTOMS-UP THROUGH TWO OPEN CHOKES

2. PRESSURE OBSERVED - SLOWLY CIRCULATE
THE KICK WITH THE DRILLERS METHOD. BE
PREPARED FOR AN UNDERGROUND BLOWOUT
2003 57
Lost Circulation

SEALING MATERIALS USED FOR LOST CIRCULATION
MATERIAL TYPE DESCRIPTION CONCENTRATION
LBS/BBL
LARGEST FRACTURE
SEALED (INCHES)
NUTSHELL GRANULAR
50% - +3/16 10 MESH
50% - +10 100 MESH
20
048121620
PLASTIC GRANULAR
50% - +3/16 10 MESH
50% - +10 100 MESH
20
LIMESTONE GRANULAR
50% - +3/16 10 MESH
50% - +10 100 MESH

40
SULPHUR GRANULAR
50% - +3/16 10 MESH
50% - +10 100 MESH
120
2003 58
Lost Circulation
SEALING MATERIALS USED FOR LOST CIRCULATION
MATERIAL TYPE DESCRIPTION CONCENTRATION
LBS/BBL
LARGEST FRACTURE
SEALED (INCHES)
NUTSHELL GRANULAR
50% - +10 16 MESH
50% - +30 100 MESH
20
048121620
EXPANDED
PERCITE
GRANULAR
50% - +3/16 10 MESH
50% - +10 100 MESH
60
CELLOPHANE LAMINATED
FLAKES
8
SAWDUST FIBROUS
PARTICLES
10
PRAIRIE HAY FIBROUS
PARTICLES
10
2003 59
Lost Circulation
SEALING MATERIALS USED FOR LOST CIRCULATION
MATERIAL TYPE DESCRIPTION CONCENTRATION
LBS/BBL
LARGEST
FRACTURE SEALED
(INCHES)
BARK FIBROUS
3/8 PARTICLIES
10
048121620
COTTONSEED
HULLS
GRANULAR
FINE
10
PRARIE HAY FIBROUS
3/8 PARTICLES
12
CELLOPHANE LAMINATED
1/2 FLAKES
8
SHREDDED
WOOD
FIBROUS
1/4 FIBERS
8
SAWDUST FIBROUS
1/16 PARTICLES
20
2003 60
Lost Circulation