You are on page 1of 29

ADVANTAGES OF CNC MACHINES

AND
ITS WORKING PRINCIPLE
CONVENTIONAL MILLING MACHINE
SAMPLE JOB
650mm
10mm
RAW MATERIAL
MATERIAL
TO BE
REMOVED
END PRODUCT
5mm
SAMPLE JOB TOP VIEW
650mm
650mm
650mm
650mm
Setting time is more.
Production is less.
Accuracy depends upon operator skill.
Special tools required.
Sequence of operation more.

DRAW BACKS IN CONVENTIONAL
MACHINES
SERVO MOTORS
DEGREE LEVEL ACCURACY CAN BE OBTAINED
DEGREE LEVEL ROTATION IS POSSIBLE
VERY HIGH PRECISION ROTATION CAN BE OBTAINED
BALL SCREW
FEEDBACK DEVICES

POSITION FEEDBACK VELOCITY FEEDBACK
Eg :
1. ROTATIONAL ENCODER
2.LINEAR ENCODER
Eg :
TACHOGENERATOR
PICTURE OF ENCODER
ROTATIONAL ENCODER
SHAFT
OUTPUT
CONNECTOR
5v 5v 5v 5v
0v 0v
0v 0v
ENCODER
O/P
OUTPUT FROM ENCODER
A
B
LINEAR ENCODER
LINEAR SCALE
SCANNER
POSITION FEEDBACK
ROTATIONAL ENCODER LINEAR ENCODER
TACHOGENERATOR
SHAFT
EXTERNAL
CONNECTOR
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL
PLC INPUT DEVICES
PROXIMITY SENSORS
PLC INPUT DEVICES
LIMIT SWITCHES
Solenoid valve
LADDER DIAGRAM
X1.0
Y3.4
X8.4
X6.7
X5.3 Y2.5
X8.2 Y1.4
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL
HOT NEUTRAL
INPUTS OUTPUTS
A B X
C D
E F
G
H
Y
Note: Power needs to flow through some combination of the inputs
(A,B,C,D,E,F ,G ,H) to turn on outputs (X,Y).
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL
ladder
power
supply
+24V
com.
inputs
outputs
push buttons
logic
PLC
AC power
115Vac
neut.
A B C
light
CRT
MONITOR
PC,LAPTOP,
DATA LOADER
SERVO
DRIVE
TG
EDR
SPINDLE
DRIVE
EDR
TG
SERVO
MOTOR
SERVO
MOTOR
OUTPUT
MODULE
PLC
NC-PC INTERFACE
SYSTEM
MEMORY
RS-232
DATA INTERFACE
I/O
VIDEO INTERFACE
SERVO
INTERFACE
SPINDLE
INTERFACE
POSITION
FEEDBACK
SERVO MECHANISM
SERVO MECHANISM
CNC MACHINE BLOCK DIAGRAM
SOLENOID1
HYDRALIC
MOTOR
SOLENOID3 SOLENOID2
HYDRALIC
PISTON
HYDRALIC
LOCK
INPUT
MODULE
PROXIMITY
SENSOR
LIMIT
SWITCHES
COMMAND
VOLTAGE
(0-10V)
COMMAND
VOLTAGE
(0-10V)
POSITION
FEEDBACK
VELOCITY
FEEDBACK
VELOCITY
FEEDBACK
POSITION
FEEDBACK
CNC PROGRAM
N01 M06 T16L
F

N02 G53 X750 Y425 L
F

N03 M08 M03 S500 L
F

N04 G01 X-650 Y-325 F10 L
F
N05 M09 M05 L
F
N05 M30 L
F


SAMPLE G - CODES
G00 - Rapid positioning
G01 - linear interpolation
G02 - CW circular interpolation
G03 - CCW circular interpolation
G53 Machine coordinates
G54 to 59 work coordinates
SAMPLE M - CODES
M03 SPINDLE ON (CW SPINDLE ROTATION)
M04 SPINDLE ON (CCW SPINDLE ROTATION)
M05 SPINDLE OFF
M06 TOOL CHANGE
M08 COOLANT ON
M09 COOLANT OFF
M12 PALLET CHANGE

CNC MACHINE CLASSIFICATION
CNC milling centers
CNC lathe centers
CNC EDM
CNC grinding machines
CNC cutting machines (laser, flame etc.,)
CNC fabrication machines (sheet metal
punch press, bending machine)
CNC welding machines
CNC coordinate measuring machines
DISADVANTAGES OF CNC
MACHINES
Relatively High initial cost of investment
Need and cost for programming and
computer time
Special maintenance with trained persons
High preventive maintenance is required
since break down is costly
CONCLUSION
CNC machines are asset for Indian ordnance
factories, they are very vital in quality, safe, time
effective production for the employees of
ordnance factories it is each and very ones
responsibility to know and understand the
working of these machines.

Thus the working advantages and disadvantages
of CNC machines are discussed to the best of
my knowledge
BY
RAMKUMAR