You are on page 1of 18

Chapter 17

Electric Utility Applications

• These applications are growing rapidly

17-1
HVDC Transmission

• There are many such systems all over the world

17-2
HVDC Poles

• Each pole consists of 12-pulse converters

17-3
HVDC Transmission: 12-Pulse Waveforms

• Idealized waveforms
17-4
HVDC Transmission: Converters

• Inverter mode of operation

17-5
Control of HVDC Transmission System

• Inverter is operated at the minimum extinction


angle and the rectifier in the current-control mode

17-6
HVDC Transmission: DC-Side Filters

Tuned for the lowest (12th


harmonic) frequency

17-7
HVDC Transmission: AC-Side Filters

Tuned for the lowest (11th


and the 13th harmonic)
frequencies

17-8
Effect of Reactive Power on Voltage
Magnitude

• Illustration of the basic principle

17-9
Thyristor-Controlled Inductor (TCI)

• Increasing the delay angle reduces the reactive


power drawn by the TCI
17-10
Thyristor-Switched Capacitors (TSCs)

• Transient current at switching must be minimized

17-11
Instantaneous VAR Controller (SATCOM)

• Can be considered as a reactive current source

17-12
Characteristics of Solar Cells

• The maximum power point is at the knee of the


characteristics
17-13
Photovoltaic Interface

• This scheme uses a thyristor inverter

17-14
Harnessing of Wing Energy

• A switch-mode inverter may be needed on the


wind generator side also

17-15
Interface with 3-Phase Utility Grid

• Uses a thyristor inverter


17-16
Interface of SMES

• Can be used for utility load leveling

17-17
Active Filters for Harmonic Elimination

• Active filters inject a nullifying current so that the


current drawn from the utility is nearly sinusoidal

17-18