Chapter 17 Electric Utility Applications

• These applications are growing rapidly

17-1

HVDC Transmission

• There are many such systems all over the world
17-2

HVDC Poles

• Each pole consists of 12-pulse converters
17-3

HVDC Transmission: 12-Pulse Waveforms

• Idealized waveforms
17-4

HVDC Transmission: Converters

• Inverter mode of operation

17-5

Control of HVDC Transmission System

• Inverter is operated at the minimum extinction angle and the rectifier in the current-control mode
17-6

HVDC Transmission: DC-Side Filters

Tuned for the lowest (12th harmonic) frequency

17-7

HVDC Transmission: AC-Side Filters

Tuned for the lowest (11th and the 13th harmonic) frequencies

17-8

Effect of Reactive Power on Voltage Magnitude

• Illustration of the basic principle
17-9

Thyristor-Controlled Inductor (TCI)

• Increasing the delay angle reduces the reactive power drawn by the TCI
17-10

Thyristor-Switched Capacitors (TSCs)

• Transient current at switching must be minimized
17-11

Instantaneous VAR Controller (SATCOM)

• Can be considered as a reactive current source
17-12

Characteristics of Solar Cells

• The maximum power point is at the knee of the characteristics
17-13

Photovoltaic Interface

• This scheme uses a thyristor inverter

17-14

Harnessing of Wing Energy

• A switch-mode inverter may be needed on the wind generator side also
17-15

Interface with 3-Phase Utility Grid

• Uses a thyristor inverter
17-16

Interface of SMES

• Can be used for utility load leveling

17-17

Active Filters for Harmonic Elimination

• Active filters inject a nullifying current so that the current drawn from the utility is nearly sinusoidal
17-18