ME 1402 – MECHATRONICS (UNIT – II) ACTUATORS ACTUATION SYSTEM: The actuation systems are the elements of the control system

and they are responsible for transforming the output of a microprocessor into a controlling action on a machine or device. Actuators produce physical changes such as linear and angular displacement. There are four types of actuators. 1. Mechanical actuators. 2. Electrical actuators. 3. Hydraulic actuators. 4. Pneumatic actuators. Example: In a CNC milling machine, there may be an electrical signal output from the CNC controller to move the milling table in the x direction for a certain length. There you need an actuation system. PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS: Power from one point to another point can also be transmitted using air as medium called pneumatic transmission or liquid as medium called hydraulic transmission. In case of hydraulic system, liquid, which may be water or hydraulic oil is pressurized to 20 to 250 atm pressures and transmitted through pipe line. The pressurized liquid is made to actuate rotary or linear actuator through control valves to get required function. Hydraulic system of power transmission is preferred over mechanical or electrical system on the following grounds.

1. Compact size. 2. Less moving parts. 3. Less wear and tear & self lubricating. 4. Controlled motion. 5. Adaptability for automatic control. However, the initial cost of hydraulic transmission will be high. Improperly filled hydraulic system will give maintenance problem and cost of spares will be high. Some of the applications of hydraulic system are hydraulic presses, fork lifts, hydraulic jacks and hydraulic shaper etc. In hydraulic actuation system, the hydraulic signals are used to control device but are more expensive than pneumatic system. Oil leak is another problem in hydraulic system. Basic components of hydraulic system are
1. Reservoir to hold oil, 2. Hydraulic pump normally positive displacement type, 3. Electric motor to drive the pump, 4. Actuator, which may be rotary or linear, 5. Control valves for controlling flow, direction and pressure, and

6. Pipe lines and fittings to transmit oil power. In pneumatic control system, the moister should be separated, to avoid presence of free moisture during expansion. Besides, this moisture will pose problems in line especially in pilot operator solenoid valves. Pneumatic system is fast comparable to hydraulic system. But positioning and speed control is difficult because of compressibility of air. In the pneumatic actuation system pneumatic signals are used to control the system. The pneumatic signals can be used to actuate

large valves and other high power control device and so it can be used to move heavy loads. Pneumatic system consists of a compressor, control valves and actuators. Since air is used as medium, reservoir is not required. Power supplies: Hydraulic power supply: Hydraulic systems are design to move large loads by controlling a high pressure fluid in distribution lines and piston with mechanical or electromechanical valves. The basic components of a hydraulic system are, • In a hydraulic system, pressurized oil is provided by a hydraulic pump driven by an electric motor. • The hydraulic pump pumps the oil from a sump through a nonreturn valve and an accumulator to the system. • A pressure relief valve is circulated to release the pressure when it rises above the safe level. • The non return valve is to prevent the oil returning back to the pump. • The accumulator is a reservoir in which the oil is held under pressure. • The accumulator is used to store the oil and provides a smooth drive during any short term fluctuation in the output oil pressure.


Fig. Hydraulic Power Supply Pneumatic System: The basic components of a pneumatic system are, • In a pneumatic power supply an electric motor drives an air compressor. • Before the air enters the compressor, it passes through a filter and a silencer. • In the filter all the dust particles present in the inlet air is removed.

Fig. Pneumatic power supply

• In the silencer the noise level is reduced. • A pressure relief valve is provided to protect the system in case of pressure rises above the safe level. • Since the air compressor increases the temperature of the air, a cooler is provided to reduce the temperature of air. • In the filter and water trap, the water from the air and other unwanted particles in air are removed. • An air receiver increases the volume of air in the system and smoothens out any short term pressure fluctuation. DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES: The direction control valves are used in the pneumatic and hydraulic system to direct the flow of liquid through a system. They are used for varying the rate of flow of liquid. They are either completely open or closed. There are two types of direction control valves. They are. 1. Spool valve. 2. Poppet valve. Spool Valve: • A spool moves horizontally within the valve body to control the flow. In fig a, the air supply is connected to port 1. The port 3 is closed.


• The device is connected to port 2, and device is pressurized. • In fig. b when the spool is moved to the left, the air supply is cut off. • Port 2 and port 3 are connected. • So the air in the system connected to port 2 is allowed to go out to the atmosphere through port 3. In fig. a air is allowed to flow into the system. In fig. the air is allowed to flow out of the system. Poppet Valve: • This valve is normally in the closed condition. • The port 1 is connected to pressure supply. • The Port 2 is connected to the system. • Initially there is no connection between port 1 and port 2.

Here balls, discs, or cones are used as a valve to be seated in the valve seat to control the flow.

• Here a ball is used as shown in fig. • When the push button is depressed, the ball is pushed out of its seat. • This allows the flow from port 1 connected to port 2. • When the button is released, the spring forces the ball back to its seat and so closes off the flow.

Valve Symbols

• The symbol used for control valves consists of a square for each of its switching positions. • A two position valve will have two squares; a three position valve will have three squares. • The arrow headed lines are used to indicate the direction of flow in each of the position. • The blocked-off lines indicate the flow is closed. • In the fig the valve has four ports. • The ports are labeled by a number or a letter according to their function. • The ports are labeled 1 (or P) for pressure supply.

The ports are labeled 3 (or T) for hydraulic return port, 3 or 5 (or R or S) for pneumatic exhaust port and 2 or 5 (or B or A) for output ports.


Example The following are some of the illustrations of how these various symbols can be combined to describe how a valve operates. The Fig. is a 2/2 valve, because it has 2 ports and 2 positions. The first number (numerator) indicates the number of ports. The second number (denominator) indicates the number of .positions. The valve symbol in Fig. is 2/2, solenoid operated, push button valve.

Fig. 2/2 Valve The valve symbol in Fig. , is 3/2 because it has 3 ports and 2 positions.

Fig. 3/2 Valve The valve symbol in Fig. is 4/2 valve because it has 4 port and 2 positions.

Fig. 4/2 Valve

The following is an example for the application of valves in a pneumatic lift system.

The push button 2/2 valves are used. When the up valve is pressed the load is lifted. When the bottom valve is pressed the load is lowered. An open arrow is used to indicate a vent to the atmosphere. Pilot Operated Valve: The force required to move the ball or shuttle in a valve can often be too large for manual or solenoid operation. To overcome this problem a pilot operated system is used. Where one valve is used to control second valve. Figure illustrates this. The pilot valve is small capacity and can be operated manually or by a solenoid. It is used to allow the main valve to be operated by the system pressure. The pilot pressure line is indicated by dashes. The pilot and main valve can be operated by two separate valves but they are often combined in a single housing.


Direction Valves

Figure shows a simple direction control valve and its symbol. Free flow can occur in one direction through the valve, that which results in the ball being pressed against the spring. Flow in the other direction is blocked by the spring forcing the ball against its seat. PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE: There are three types of pressure control valve. 1. Pressure regulating valves. 2. Pressure limiting valves. 3. Pressure sequence valves. 1. Pressure regulating valves: This is used to control the operating pressure in a circuit and maintain it at a constant value. The compressed air produced by the compressor may fluctuate. Changes in the pressure may affect. The switching characteristics of the cylinder the running times of the cylinders. The timing characteristics of flow control valve. Thus the constant pressure level is required for the trouble free operation of a pneumatic control. A pressure regulator is fitted downstream of the compressed air filter. It provides a constant set pressure at the outlet of the regulator. The pressure regulator is also called as pressure reducing valve or pressure regulating valve. There are two types of pressure regulators. They are

1. Diaphragm type pressure regulator (with or without vent holes). 2. Piston spool type pressure regulator. 1. Diaphragm type pressure regulator: Two types of pressure regulators with diaphragm are available. (a)With vent holes and (b) Without vent holes. (a)Diaphragm type pressure regulator (with vent holes): A diaphragm type pressure regulator is shown in figure (a) & (b).In this type pressure is regulated by a diaphragm. The output pressure acts on one side of the diaphragm. On the other side of the diaphragm, a spring (set spring) force acts. The spring force can be adjusted by an adjusting screw provided at the bottom of the regulator. When the pressure output increases: The diaphragm moves against the spring force. Due to this, the outlet area of cross-section at the valve seat reduces or closes entirely. Thus the quantity of air flowing is regulated. When the air drawn off on the outlet side: The operation pressure drops. The spring force opens the valve. Thus, the continual opening and closing of the valve seat regulates the preset output pressure. a damper spring is provided above the valve disc to avoid fluttering. A pressure gauge is fitted to the outlet of the regulator for monitoring and setting of the circuit pressure.


If the pressure on the outlet side increases considerably: The diaphragm is pushed down against the spring force. atmosphere through the vent holes in the housing. (b) Diaphragm type pressure regulator (without vent holes): A diaphragm pressure gauge without vent holes is shown in the fig. With these valves, it is not possible to exhaust the compressed air. The spring is pre-stressed by means of adjusting screw. Thus the diaphragm is also pre-stressed. The plunger is raised with the diaphragm to a greater or lesser extent from the seat. Therefore, the flow from the primary to the secondary side increases or decreases


center piece of the diaphragm opens. The compressed air flows to the

depending on the setting of the spring. If no air is drawn off on the outlet side, the diaphragm moves down against the compression spring. The damper spring moves the plunger downward to its seat. Thus the flow of air is closed off at the sealing seat. The compressed air can continue to flow only when the air is drawn off on the outlet side. Piston - spool type pressure regulator: A piston type pressure regulator is shown in fig.

The valve is of piston type. It is kept on its seat by a spring force. The spring force can be adjusted screw provided at the bottom. In the normal piston, the valve is open and the compressed. Air freely flows from inlet A and outlet B. The valve spool is kept in equilibrium by the spring force on one side and air pressure on the other side through secondary circuit. When the pressure in the secondary side rises, the pressure on the spool face increases. The spool moves and partly closes the outlet side. This reduces the volume of air going to the secondary side and hence pressure is reduced. If the pressure in the

secondary side increases considerably, the outlet port is completely closed. The flow is completely closed.


2. Pressure limiting valves: These are used as safety devices to limit the pressure in a circuit to below some safe value. The valve opens and vents to the atmosphere or back to the sump, if the pressure rises above the set safe value. A simple pressure relief valve is shown in the fig. it consists of conical poppet valve, spring, adjusting screw. The force exerted by the spring on the poppet can be varied by the pressure adjusting screw. Under normal conditions: The spring presses the conical poppet valve in its seat. The oil flow path is closed. When the system pressure exceeds the set value: The increased pressure presses the poppet against the spring force. Oil flow through the exhaust port T to the reservoir. Thus the excessive pressure is released. When the pressure drops below the set value, the poppet again closes.


3. Pressure Sequence Valves: The sequence valve helps two or more cylinders to work in a particular sequence. It makes sure that the operation of one cylinder is completed before the start of the operation of another cylinder. For example, consider two hydraulic cylinders which operate in sequence. The sequences of operations to be performed are (i) Lifting the weight up to the floor level by the first cylinder (ii) Pushing the weight into the floor by the Second Cylinder The sequence valve is connected in the hydraulic circuit as shown in the fig.

DCV is shifted in one extreme position The fluid from the pump enters into the inlet of the sequence valve and comes out and enters into the first cylinder through a check valve and causes the piston to rise up. Now the load is lifted up to the floor level. During this operation fluid on its top is going back to the reservoir. After lifting the load, the piston comes to rest. Thus the first operation is over. As soon as the piston has come to rest, the oil does not find any passage for its flow.

Thus the pressure in the sequence valve increases. The increase in pressure lifts the valve piston and the oil is now entering to the second cylinder. The piston of the second cylinder pushes the load into the floor. During this operation the fluid on the left side is discharged to the reservoir. Thus the secondary operation is completed. DCV is shifted in another extreme position Now the outlet port in sequence valve is closed as the piston of the sequence valve move down. The fluid now entering into the second cylinder causes the piston to move from the left to right while the fluid on the other side is connected to the reservoir through the check valve After the second cylinder piston has come to rest, the pump supply enters into the top of the first cylinder. The piston in the first cylinder lower down while fluid at its bottom is flowing to the reservoir through the check valve and sequence valve. The pressure setting of the sequence valve is adjusted by adjustment screw. CYLINDERS The hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder is an example of a linear actuator. The principles for both hydraulic and pneumatic versions are the same. Only difference is big size cylinder are used in hydraulic due to high pressure. Construction A cylinder consists of a cylindrical type along which a piston/ ram can slide. There are two types of cylinder. They are. 1. Single acting cylinder. 2. Double acting cylinder.


1. Single acting cylinder: The simple level of control for the single acting cylinder involves direct control signals. Direct control is used when. The flow rate required to operate the cylinder is relatively small. The size of the control valve is small with low actuating forces. The circuit for the direct control of single acting cylinder is shown in the fig.

A 3/2 directional control valve is used. The cylinder is of small capacity and the air consumption is low. Hence the operation can be directly controlled by a push button 3/2 direction control valve with spring return. When the push button is pressed, the air passes through the valve from pressure port (P) the cylinder port (A). The piston rod extends against the force of the cylinder return spring. Thus the work piece is clamped. When the push button is released, the valve spring returns the 3/2 D.C.V. to its initial position. The cylinder retracts by the return spring force. The air form the cylinder returns through the exhaust port (R).Cylinder is the only working element or actuator.


2. Double acting cylinder: They are used when the control pressures are applied to each side of the piston.

A difference in pressure between the two sides, result in motion of the piston. The circuit includes a double acting cylinder with 5/2 D.C.V. When the spool of the DCV is at extreme left: Air flows from pressure port (P) to the working port (B).Then air is allowed to enter the right end of the cylinder. The piston moves from right to left. At the same time air in the left end of the cylinder flows into the valve through port 'A' and exhausted through exhaust port 'R'. The other exhaust port 'S' is blocked. When the spool of DCV is at extreme right: Air flows from inlet pressure port (P) to the working port (A). Air is allowed to enter the left end of the cylinder. The piston moves from left to right .At the same time the air in the right end of the cylinder flows into the valve through the exhaust port 'S'. The other exhaust port 'R' is blocked. This is the principle of working of the double acting cylinder.


CYLINDER SEQUENCING: Many control system employ pneumatic (or) hydraulic cylinders as actually elements and require a sequence of extensions and retraction of the cylinder to occur. For example, There are two cylinders A & B. When the start button is pressed, the piston of cylinder A extends. When it is fully extended, the piston of cylinder B extends. The sequence of operation of these two cylinders is explained.

Each cylinder is given a reference letter A & B. To indicate the extension of the piston in cylinder. A, a+ sign is used. To indicate the retraction of the piston in cylinder A a - sign is used. Similarly for cylinder B, b+ (for extension) and b - (for retraction) are used.


Sequence of operation: Initially both the cylinder has retracted pistons. Start push button on valve 1 is pressed. This applies pressure to valve 2 as the limit switch b – is activated. So the supply is given to valve 3, and from valve 3 the air enters the left side of the piston in cylinder A. As the pressure built up on the left side, the piston starts extending towards right side till the limit switch a+ operates. Once limit switch a+ is operated, it gives a supply to valve 5 and then causes pressure to valve 6. Then air enters in the left side the piston in the cylinder B through valve 6.So the piston moves towards right side, and then the piston actuates the limit switch b+. Once limit switch b+ is actuated, it gives a supply to valve 4 and then causes pressure to valve 3. So the air enters the cylinder A, through the left end of the piston. It moves in the piston from left to right through retraction and finally the switch a - is actuated. Once limit switch a - is actuated, it gives a supply to valve 7, then gives a pressure to valve 6. Now air enters the cylinder B, through the left end of the piston and the piston moves from left to right end then it will retract. This cycle can be started again by pushing the start button. If we want to run the system continuously, then the last movement in the sequence should be used to trigger the first movement. PROCESS CONTROL VALVES: Process control valves are used to control the rate of fluid flow. For example it can be used to control the rate of flow of a liquid into a tank. Principle: The basis of such valve is an actuator used to move a plug into the flow pipe and alter the cross section of the pipe. Therefore the liquid flow through. The cross section can be increased or decreased. A

common type of pneumatic actuator used with the process control valves is the diaphragm actuator. The diaphragm is made of rubber which is sand winched in its centre between two circular steel disc, as shown in the fig.

The effect of changes in the input pressure results in the movement of the central part of the diaphragm. This movement is communicated to the final control element by a shaft which is attached to the diaphragm. The force F acting on the shaft is the force that is acting on the diaphragm and it is equal to the gauge pressure P multiplied by the diagram area. F= PA 1 Restoring force is provided by the spring. Assume shaft moves through a distance x and the compression of the spring is proportional to the force F, (ie) F = kx. Where k is a constant. Therefore comparing equation (1) and (2) kx = PA Thus the displacement of the shaft is proportional to the gauge pressure.


The above fig. shows the cross-section of a valve for the control of rate of flow of a fluid. The pressure change in the actuator causes the diaphragm to move and results in the movement of the stem. When the stem moves, it results in the movement of the inner valve plug within the valve body. The plug restricts the fluid flow and the position of the plug determines the flow rate. Valve bodies There are many types of valve bodies. They are i) Single seated valve. ii) Double seated value.


through the valve and so just one plug is needed to control the flow. In double seated valve, the fluid after entering the valve splits into two streams and this needs two plugs. Valve plugs: The shape of the valve plug determines the relationship between the stem movement and the effect on the flow rate. There are three commonly used types: a) Quick opening type - A large change in flow rate occurs for a small movement of the valve stem. Such a plug is used where on/off control of flow rate is required. Linear - Contoured type - The change in flow rate is proportional to the change in displacement of the valve stem

Equal Percentage type - Equal percentage changes in flow rate occur for equal changes in the valve stem position.


ROTARY ACTUATORS: There are many methods to achieve the rotary motion. Three types of Rotary activators are discussed below. A linear cylinder to produce rotation.

As shown in the fig. 3.25 a linear cylinder with the help of suitable mechanical linkages can be used to produce rotary movement through angles less than 360°. Semi - Rotary Actuator

It has two ports clockwise port and anticlockwise Port, and also has a vane attached with rotor of the actuator. The pressure difference

between the two ports causes the vane to rotate. When the vane rotates, the shaft attached to the vane also rotates. Therefore the shaft rotation is a measure of the pressure difference between the two ports. Depending on the pressures, the vane can be rotated clockwise (or) anticlockwise. Vane motor: The vane motor is a pneumatic motor through which a rotation angle greater than 360° can be achieved. It has an eccentric rotor with slots in which vanes are forced outwards against the wall of the cylinder by the rotation. The vane divides the chamber

In to separate compartments which increase in size from the inlet port round to the outlet port. The air entering each compartment exerts a force and the vane and causes the rotor rotates. The motor can be made to rotate in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions.


MECHANICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS Mechanical systems Mechanisms are devices which can be considered to be motion converters in that they transform motion from one form to other form. They might, for example, transform linear motion in to rotational motion, or motion in one direction into a motion direction at right angles, or perhaps a linear to as in the internal combustion elements can include the use of belt drives; etc into rotary motion, the reciprocating motion of the gears, rack-and-pinion, chains,

pistons is cons of the crank and hence the drive shaft. Mechanical rack-and-pinion can be used to convert rotation through 90°. A toothed belt or chain and

motion. Parallel shaft gears might be used to re Bevel gears might be used for the transmission drive might form rotary motion about one axis to motion at vary in a particular manner. This chapter is of a range of such mechanisms. Many of the actions which previously were obtained by use of mechanisms are, however, often nowadays previously used for the use of microprocessor systems. For example rotating shafts were machines in order to give a timed m icroprocessorsequence. Let us opening a valve to water into the drum, switching a heater on/off, etc. Modern washing based system with the programmed to switch on outputs in the camera for adjusting the aperture for

linkages can be used to obtain motions which are prescribed to the basic characteristics

required Mechanisms still, however, have a role in me For example, the mechatronic system in us correct exposures involves a m echanism for adjusting the size of

the diaphragm. While electronics might now be used often for many functions that previously were fulfilled by mechanisms, mechanisms might still be used to provide such functions as: 1. Force amplification, e.g. that given by levers. 2 Change of speed, e.g. that given by gears. 3Transfer of rotation about one axis to rotation about another, e.g. a timing belt. 4. Particular types of motion, e.g. that given by a quick-return mechanism. The term kinematics is used for the study of motion without regard to forces. When we consider just the motions without any consideration of the forces or energy involved then we are carrying out a kinematics analysis of the mechanism. This chapter is an introduction to such a consideration. Types of motion A rigid body can have a very complex motion which might seem difficult to describe. However, the motion of any rigid body can be considered to be a combination of translational and rotational motions. By considering the three dimensions of space, a translation motion can be considered to be a movement which can be resolved into components along one or more of the three axes (Fig. (a)). A rotation can be considered as a rotation which has components rotating about one or more of the axes (Fig. (b)).


A complex motion may be a combination of translational and rotational motions. For example, think of the motion required for you to pick up a pencil from a table. This might involve your hand moving at a particular angle towards the table, rotation of the hand, and then all the movement associated with opening your fingers and moving them to the required positions to grasp the pencil. This is a sequence of quite complex motions. However, we can break down all, these motions into combinations of translational and rotational motions. Such an analysis is particularly relevant if we are not moving a human hand to pick up the pencil but instructing a robot to carry out the task. Then it really is necessary to break down the motion into combinations of translational and rotational motions so that we can design mechanisms to carry out each of these components of the motion. For example, among the sequence of control signals sent to a mechanism might be such groupings of signals as those to instruct joint I to rotate by 20° and link 2 to be extended by 4 mm translational motion.


Freedom and constraints

An important aspect in the design of mechanical elements is the orientation and arrangement of the elements and parts. Body that is free in space can move in three, independent, mutually perpendicular directions directions and rotate in three ways about those (Fig). It is said to have six degrees of freedom. The is of

number of degrees of freedom are the number of components of motion that are required in order to generate the motion. If a joint constrained to move along a line then its translational degrees freedom are reduced to one. Figure (a) shows a joint with degree of freedom. If a joint is plane then it has two translational just this one translational constrained to move on a degrees of freedom. translational freedom.

Fig. (b) Shows a joint which has one degree of freedom and one rotational degree of

The problem in design is often to reduce the number of degrees of freedom and this then requires an appropriate number and orientation of constraints. Without any constraints a body would have six degrees of freedom. A constraint is needed for each degree of freedom that is to be prevented from occurring. Provided we have no redundant constraints then the number of degrees of freedom would be 6 minus the number of constraints.

However, redundant constraints often occur and so for constraints on a single rigid body we have the basic rule: 6 - Number of constraints = number of degrees of freedom - number of redundancies Thus if a body is required to be fixed, i.e. have zero degrees of freedom, then if no redundant constraints are introduced the number of constraints required is 6. A concept that is used in design is that of the principle of least in fixing a body or guiding it to a minimum number of constraints constraint. This states that particular type of motion, the should be used, i.e. there should

be no redundancies. This is often referred to as kinematics design. For example, to have a shaft this only rotates about one axis with no translational motions. degrees of freedom to We have to reduce the number of 1. Thus the minimum number of

constraints to do this is 5. Any more constraints than this will give redundancies. The mounting that might be used to mount the shaft has a ball bearing at one end and a roller bearing at the other (Fig.).


The pair of bearings together prevents motion at right angles to the shaft. The y-axis and

translational rotations z-axis. one there x-

about the z-axis and the Y-axis. The ball bearing prevents translational motion along the x-axis and along the Thus there is a total of five constraints. This leaves just degree of freedom, the required rotation about the x-axis. If bearings could have prevented translational motion along the axis and the z-axis and thus there would have been redundancy. Such redundancy might cause damage. If ball bearings are used at both ends of the shaft, then in order to prevent redundancy one of the bearings would have its outer race not fixed in its housing so that it could slide to some extent in an axial direction. Loading Mechanisms are structures and as such transmit and support loads . Analysis is thus necessary to determine the loads to be carried by individual elements. Then consideration can be given to the dimensions of the element so that it might, for example, have sufficient strength and perhaps stiffness under such loading. Kinematics chains When we consider the movements of a mechanism without any reference to the forces involved, we can treat the mechanism as being composed of a series of individual links. Each part of a other part is mechanism which has motion relative to some termed a link. A link need not necessarily be a rigid be a resistant body which is capable of

had been a roller bearing at each end of the shaft then both the

body but it must

transmitting the

required force with negligible deformation. For

this reason it is usually taken as being represented by a rigid body which has two or more points of attachment to other links, these being termed nodes. Each link is capable of moving relative to its neighboring links . Figure shows examples of links with two, three and four nodes .

A joint is a connection between two or more links at their nodes and which allows some motion between the connected links. Levers, cranks, connecting rods and pistons, sliders, pulleys, belts and shafts are all examples of links. A sequence of joints and links is known as a kinematics chain. For a kinematics chain to transmit motion, one link must be fixed. Movement of one link will then produce predictable relative movements of the others. It is possible to obtain from one kinematics chain a number of different mechanisms by having a different link as the fixed one.


As an illustration of a kinematics chain, consider a motor car engine where the reciprocating motion of a piston is (a)). We can represent this as transformed into rotational motion of a crankshaft on bearings mounted in a fixed frame (Fig. being four connected links (Fig. (b)). Link I is the crankshaft, link 2 the connecting rod, link 3 the fixed frame and link 4 the slider, i.e. piston, which moves

Relative to the fixed frame The designs of many mechanisms are based on two basic forms of kinematics chains, the four-bar chain and the slider-crank of the forms such chains The four-bar chain The four-bar chain consists of four links connected to give four joints about which turning can occur. Figure shows a number forms of the four-bar chain produced by altering the relative lengths of the links. If the sum of the length of the shortest link plus the length of the longest link is less than or equal to the sum of the lengths of the other two links then at least one link will be

chain. The following illustrates some can take.


capable of making a full revolution with respect to the fixed link. this condition is not met then no link is capable of a complete


revolution. This is known as the Grashof condition. in Fig. (a), link 3 is

fixed and the relative lengths of the links are such that and 4 can oscillate but not rotate. The result is a

links l double-

lever mechanism. By shortening link 4 relative to link 1, then link 4 can rotate (Fig. (b)) with link 1 oscillating and the result is termed a lever-crank mechanism. With links 1 and 4 the mechanism. By altering which link is fixed, other can be produced. same length and forms of mechanism both able to rotate (Fig. (c)), then the result is a double-crank


The above Figure illustrates how such a mechanism can be used to advance the film in a cine camera. As link 1 rotates so the end of link 2 locks into a sprocket of the film pulls it forward before releasing and moving up and back to lock into the next sprocket. Some linkages may have toggle positions. These are positions where the linkage will not react to any input from one of its links. Figure illustrates such a toggle,

being the linkage used to control tailgate of a truck so that when link 2 position no further load on link 2 will

the movement of the reaches the horizontal cause any further linkage and tailgate is

movement. There is another toggle position for the that is when links 3 and 4 are both vertical and the vertical. The slider-crank mechanism

This form of mechanism consists of a crank, a connecting rod and a slider and is the type of mechanism described in Fig. which

showed the simple engine mechanism. With that configuration, link 3 is fixed, i.e. there is no relative movement between the centre of rotation of the crank and the housing in which the piston slides. Link 1 is the crank that rotates, link 2 the connecting rod and link 4 the slider which moves relative to the fixed link. When the piston moves backwards and forwards, i.e. link 4 moves backwards and forwards, then the crank, link 1, is forced to rotate. Hence the mechanism transforms an input of backwards and forwards motion into rotational motion.

The above Figure. Shows another form of this type of mechanism, a quick -return mechanism. It consists of a rotating crank, link AB, which rotates round a fixed centre, an oscillating lever CD, which is caused to oscillate about C by the sliding of the block at B of a machine and along CD as AB rotates, and a link DE which have a cutting tool attached to it. The ram will be causes E to move backwards and forwards. E might be the ram at the extremes of its movement when the positions of the crank are AB, and AB2. Thus as the crank moves anti-clockwise from B, to B2 the ram makes a complete stroke, the cutting stroke. When the crank continues its movement from B2 anti-clockwise to B, then

the ram again makes a complete stroke in the opposite direction, the speed, then, return stroke. With the crank rotating at constant because the angle of crank rotation required for the

cutting stroke is greater than the angle for the return stroke, the cutting stroke takes more time than the return stroke. Hence the term, quick- return for the mechanism. Cam A cam is a body which rotates or oscillates and in doing so i mparts a reciprocating or oscillatory motion to a second body, called the follower, with which it is in contact (Fig.).

As the cam rotates so the follower is made to rise, dwell and fall, the is the part that lengths of times spent at each of these positions depending on the shape of the cam. The rise section of the cam drives the follower upwards, its profile determining how quickly the cam follower will be lifted. The fall section of the cam is the part that lowers the follower, its profile determining how quickly the cam follower will fall. The dwell section of the cam is the part that allows the follower to remain at the same level for a significant period of time. The dwell section of the cam is where is circular with a radius that does not change. The cam shape


required to produce a particular motion of the depend on the shape of the cam and the type of used.

follower will follower

The above Figure.

Shows the types of follower

displacement diagrams that can be produced with different shaped cams and either point or knife followers. The radial distance from the axis of rotation of the carp to the point of contact of the carp with the follower gives the displacement of the follower with reference to the axis of rotation of the cam. The figures show how these radial distances and hence follower displacements. Vary with the angle of rotation of the cams. The eccentric cam Fig. (a) is a circular cam with an offset centre of rotation. It produces an oscillation of the follower which is

simple harmonic motion and is often used with pumps. The heart-shaped cam Fig. (b) gives a follower displacement which increases at a constant rate with time before decreasing at a constant rate with time, hence a uniform speed for the follower. The pear-shaped cam Fig. (c)) gives a follower motion which is rises and revolutions. stationary for about half a revolution of the cam and falls symmetrically in each of the remaining quarter holds the valve open while the petrol/air the cylinder. The longer the dwell, i.e. the the cam surface with a constant radius, the for the cylinder completely charged

Such a pear-shaped cam is used for engine valve control. The dwell mixture passes into greater the length of more time is allowed

with flammable vapors.

The above Figure shows a number of examples of different types of cam followers. Roller followers are essentially ball or roller bearings. They have the advantage of lower friction than a sliding contact but can be more expensive. Flat-faced followers are often used because they are cheaper and can be made smaller than roller followers. Such followers are widely used with

engine valve cams. While cams can be run dry, they are often used with lubrication and may be immersed in an oil bath.

Gears Rotary motion can be transferred from one shaft to another by a pair of rolling cylinders (Fig.) however; there is a possibility slip. The transfer of the motion between the two cylinders depends on the frictional forces between the two surfaces in contact. Slip can be prevented by the addition of meshing teeth to the two cylinders and the result is then a pair of meshed gear wheels. Gears can be used for the transmission of rotary motion between parallel shafts Fig. (a) and of

for shafts which have axes (b). the term bevel gear is intersect, as illustrated in Fig. the larger gear wheel is and the smaller one the

inclined to one another Fig.

used when the lines of the shafts (b). When two gears are in mesh, often called the spur or crown wheel



Gears for use with parallel shafts may have axial teeth with the teeth cut along axial lines parallel to the axis of the shaft Fig. (a). Such gears are then termed spur gears. Alternatively they may have helical teeth with the teeth being cut on a helix Fig. (b) and are then termed helical gears. Helical gears have the advantage that there is a gradual engagement of any individual tooth and consequently there is a smoother drive and generally prolonged life of the gears. however, the inclination of the teeth to the axis of the shaft results in an axial force component on the shaft bearing. This can be overcome by using double helical teeth.(fig.) Gear trains The term gear train is used to describe a series of intermeshed gear wheels. The term simple gear train is used for a system where each shaft carries only one gear wheel, as in Fig. For such a gear train, the overall gear ratio is the ratio of the angular velocities at the input and output shafts and is thus Consider a simple gear train consisting of wheels A, B and C, as in Fig. with A having 9 teeth and C having 27 teeth. Then, the angular velocity of a wheel is inversely proportional to the number of teeth on the wheel, the gear ratio is 27/9 = 3. The effect of wheel B is purely to change the direction of rotation of output wheel compared with what it would have been with the just as


the two wheels A and C intermeshed. The intermediate B, is termed the idler wheel.


We can rewrite this equation for the overall gear ratio G as
ϖA ϖA ϖB = × ϖ B ϖB ϖC



ϖA is the gear ratio for the first pair of gears and ϖB

ϖB the ϖC

gear ratio for the second pair of gears. Thus the overall gear for a simple gear train is the product of the gear ratios for successive pair of gears. The term compound gear train is used to describe a gear train when two wheels are mounted on a common shaft. Figure (a) (b) shows two examples of such a compound gear train. The train in Fig. (b) Enables the input and output shafts to be in line.

ratio each

and gear


When two gear wheels arc mounted on the same shaft they have the same angular velocity. Thus, for both of the compound gear trains in Fig. ϖB =ϖC The overall gear ratio G is thus

ϖ A ϖ A ϖ B ϖC ϖ A ϖC = × × = × ϖ D ϖ B ϖC ϖ D ϖ B ϖ D

For the arrangement shown in Fig. gears:

(b), for the input and

output shafts to be in line we must also have for the radii of the
rA + rB = rD + rC

Consider a compound gear train of the form shown in Fig. (a). with A, the first driver, haying Since the angular overall gear ratio is
G= 30 36 × =4 15 18

1 5 teeth. B 10

teeth. C 18 teeth and D. the final driven wheel. 36 teeth. velocity of a wheel is inversely teeth on the wheel. The proportional to the number of


Thus, if the input to wheel A is an angular velocity of 160 rev/min, then the output angular velocity of wheel D is =40 rev/min. A simple gear train of spur, helical or bevel gears is usually limited to an overall gear ratio of about 10. This is because of the need to keep the gear train down to a manageable size if the number of teeth on the pinion is to be kept above a minimum number which is however, be the gear parallel usually about 10 to 20. Higher gear ratios can, obtained with compound gear trains. This is because ratio is the product of the individual gear ratios of gear sets. 160/4

Ratchet and Pawl

Ratchets can be used to lock a mechanism when it is holding a load. Figure shows a ratchet and pawl. The mechanism consists of a wheel, called a ratchet, with saw-shaped teeth which engage with an arm called a pawl. The arm is pivoted and can move back and forth to engage the wheel. The is such that rotation can occur in only one the ratchet wheel in a clockwise direction

shape of the teeth direction. Rotation of

is prevented by the lifted. The pawl is

pawl and can only take place when the pawl is normally spring loaded to ensure that it with the ratchet teeth. Thus a winch used ratchet and pawl to when the handle is

automatically engages

to wind up a cable on a drum may have a prevent the cable unwinding from the drum released. Belt drives

Belt drives are essentially just a pair of rolling cylinders, as described in Fig. with the motion of one transferred to the other by a belt. Belt develops between the pulleys attached around the arc of contact in order to the transfer relies on frictional forces The transmitted torque is due to the tight side and a slack side for the belt. If the side is Ti, and that on the slack with pulley A in Fig. as the driver: cylinder being drives use the friction that to the shafts and the belt transmit a torque. Since then slip can occur. differences in tension tension on the tight side T. then

that occur in the belt during operation. This difference results in a

Torque on A = (T Where r have:


– T 2)rA

is the radius of pulley A. For the driven pulley B we


Torque on B = (T


– T 2)rB

Where re is the radius of pulley B. Since the power transmitted is the product of the torque and the angular velocity, and since the angular velocity is v/r A for pulley A and v/re for pulley B, where v is the belt speed, then for either pulley we have: Power = (T1 - T2)v As a method of transmitting power between two shafts, belt drives have the advantage that the length of the belt can easily be adjusted to suit a wide range of shaft-to-shaft distances and the system is automatically protected against overload because slipping occurs if the loading exceeds the maximum tension that can be sustained by frictional forces. If the distance between shafts is large, a belt drive is more suitable than gears, but over small distances gears are to be preferred. Different size pulleys can be used to give a gearing effect. However, the gear ratio is limited to about 3 because of the need to maintain an adequate arc of contact between the belt and the pulleys.

The belt drive shown in Fig.

gives the driven wheel

rotating in the same direction as the driver wheel. Figure a & b

shows two types of reversing drives. With both forms of drive, both sides of the belt come into contact with the wheels and so V-belts or timing belts cannot be used. Types of belts The four main types of belts (Fig.) are: 1. Flat The belt has a rectangular cross-section. Such a drive has an efficiency of about 98% and produces little noise. They can transmit power over long distances between pulley centres crowned pulleys are used to keep the belts from running off pullets. the



The belt has a circular cross-section and is used with grooved pulleys. 3 V-belts wheel and

V-belts are used with grooved pulleys and are less efficient than flat belts but a number of them can be used on a single so give a multiple drive. 4. Timing Timing belts require toothed wheels, having teeth which fit grooves on the wheels. The timing belt, unlike the does not stretch or slip and consequently into he other belts, transmits power

at a constant angular velocity ratio. The for the belt to be run at slow or fast Chains

teeth make it possible


Slip can be prevented by the use of chains which lock into teeth on the rotating cylinders to give the equivalent of a pair of interm eshing gear w heels.A chain drive has the sam relationship for gear ratio as a simple gear train. The e drive mechanism used with a bicycle is an example of a chain drive. Chains enable a number of shafts to be driven by a single wheel and so give a multiple drive. They are not as quiet as timing belts but can be used for larger torques. Bearings Whenever there is relative motion of one surface in contact with another, either by rotating or sliding, the resulting frictional forces generate heat which wastes energy and results in wear. The function of a bearing is to guide with minimum friction and to another. Of particular importance is the need to give suitable support to rotating shafts, i.e. support radial loads. The term is used for bearings that are designed to the axis of a shaft when the relative The following sections outline the used forms of bearings. thrust bearing maximum accuracy the movement of one part relative

withstand forces along

motion is primarily rotation. characteristics of commonly Plain journal bearings


Journal bearings are used to support rotating shafts which are loaded in a radial direction. The term journal is used for a shaft.

The bearing basically consists of an insert of some suitable material which is fitted between the shaft and the support (Fig. ). Rotation of the shaft results in its surface sliding over that of the bearing surface. The insert m be a white ay m etal, aluminum alloy, copper alloy, bronze or a polymer such as nylon or PTFE. The insert provides lower friction and less wear than if the shaft just rotated in a hole in the support. The bearing may be a dry rubbing bearing or lubricated. Plastics such as nylon and A widely PTFE are generally used without lubrication, the used bearing material is sintered bronze, This is porous structure which allows it to be impregnated The lubricant coefficient of friction with such materials being exceptionally low. Bronze with a may be: 1. Hydrodynamic The hydrodynamic journal bearing consists of the shaft rotating continuously in oil in such a way that it rides on oil and

with oil and so the bearing has a `built in' lubricant.


is not supported. by metal (Fig.). The load is carried pressure generated in the oil as a result of the shaft

by the rotating.

2. Hydrostatic A problem with hydrodynamic lubrication is that the shaft only rides on oil when it is rotating and when at rest there is to-metal contact. To avoid excessive wear at start-up there is only a low load, oil is pumped into the area at a high-enough pressure to lift the shaft at rest. 3. Solid-film This is a coating of a solid material such as graphite or molybdenum disulphide. 4. Boundary layer This is a thin layer of lubricant which adheres to the surface bearing. Ball and roller bearings With this type of bearing, the main load is transferred from the of the metaland when

load-bearing Off the metal when


rotating shaft to its support by rolling contact rather than sliding contact. A rolling element bearing consists of four main elements: an inner race, an outer race, the rolling element of either balls or rollers, and a cage to keep the rolling elements a part (Fig.). inner and outer races contain hardened tracks in which the rolling elements roll. There are a number of forms of ball bearings: 1. Deep-groove This is good at withstanding radial loads but is only moderately good for axial loads. It is a versatile bearing which can be used with a wide range of load and speed 2. Filling-slot This is able to withstand higher radial loads than the groove equivalent but cannot be used when there are 3. Angular contact This is good for both radial and axial loads and is better for loads than the deep-groove equivalent. 4.Double-row Double-row ball bearings are made in a number of types and able to withstand higher radial loads than their bearing, there being double-row versions of each row types. 5.Self-aligning Single-row bearings can withstand a small amount of shaft misalignment but where there can be severe misalignment a self52


deepaxial loads.



single-row of the above single-

equivalents. The figure shows a double-row deep-groove ball

aligning bearing is used. This is able to withstand only radial loads and is fairly poor for axial loads. 6. Thrust grooved race These are designed to withstand axial loads but are not suitable for radial loads. There are also a number of forms of roller bearing, the following being common examples: 1. Straight roller


This is better for radial loads than the equivalent ball bearing but is not generally suitable for axial loads. They will carry a than ball bearings of the same size because of contact area. However, they are not tolerant of 2. Taper rollers This is good for radial loads and good in one direction for loads. 3. Needle rollers This has a roller with a high length/diameter ratio and tends to be used in situations where there is insufficient space for equivalent ball or roller bearing. Selection of bearings In general, dry sliding bearings tend to be only used for small diameter shafts with low load and low speed situations, ball and roller bearings, i.e. bearings involving rolling, with a much wider range of diameter shafts and higher load and higher speed, and hydrodynamic bearings for the high loads with large diameter shafts. Figure shows a chart indicating the selection of

greater load

their greater misalignment.



bearings based on their load-shaft speed characteristics for a number of different diameter shafts. bearing for a 25 mm diameter shaft carrying a radial load of 10 000 N. This is sliding bearing and is a point on the bearings can be used. Failure of ball and roller bearings generally occurs as a result of fatigue. With fatigue failures there is always a scatter of values at which failure of an individual item occurs. The life of a bearing is defined as the number of millions of shaft revolutions that 90% of the bearings are expected to exceed before failing. This depends on the applied load F. For ball bearings the relationship is: life L10 thus Thus suppose we want a rotating at 10 rev/s and beyond the limit for a dry graph below the line for speed, hence rolling

rolling bearings for such a diameter and

C  L10 =   F 


where C is a constant for a particular form of bearing. For roller bearings:
L10 C  3 =  F 

Manufacturers often tabulate data for bearings in terms of the number of hours of life at a particular speed given in units of rev/min. The life in hours = 10 6/(3600 x n/60) x Lo in millions of revs = (16 667/n) x Lo in millions of revs; n is the number of revolutions per minute. For example, a particular ball bearing

may be rated as 3000 h at 500 rev/min for a radial loading of 10 kN. This gives L1, as 90 million revs and hence C as 44.8 kN. Thus with a load of, say, 20 kN at 400 rev/min then the life we can expect is 11.2 million revolutions or 468 h. If this is not long enough we need to select a ball bearing with a higher rating.


ELECTRICAL ACTUATION SYSTEMS Any discussion of electrical systems used as actuators for control. The discussion has to include: 1. Switching devices such as mechanical switches. e.g. relays, or solid-state switches, e.g. diodes, thyristors, and transistors, where the control signal switches on or off some electrical device, perhaps a heater or a motor. 2. Solenoid type devices where a current through a solenoid is used to actuate a soft iron core. as, for example, the solenoid operated hydraulic/pneumatic valve where a control current through a solenoid is used to actuate a hydraulic/pneumatic flow. 3. Drive systems, such as d.c. and a.c. motors, where a current through a motor is used to produce rotation. This chapter is an overview of such devices and their characteristics. Mechanical switches Mechanical switches are elements which are often used as sensors to give inputs to systems. e.g. keyboards. In this chapter we are concerned with their use as actuators to perhaps switch on electric motors or kiting elements, or switch on the current to actuate solenoid valves controlling hydraulic or pneumatic cylinders. The electrical relay is an example of a mechanical switch used in control systems as an actuator. Relays The electrical relay offers a simple on/off switching action in response to a control signal. Figure illustrates the principle. When a current flows through the coil of wire a magnetic field is produced. This pulls a movable arm, the armature that forces the contacts to open or

dose; usually there are two sets of contacts with one being opened and the other closed by the action. This action might then be used to supply a current to a motor or perhaps an electric heater in a temperature control system. As an illustration of the ways relays can be used in control systems, Fig. shows how two relays might be used to control the operation of pneumatic valves which in turn control the movement of pistons in three cylinders A, B and C. The sequence of operation is: 1. When the start switch is closed, current is applied to the A and B solenoids and results in both A and B extending, i.e. A+ and B+. 2.The limit switches a+ and b+ are then closed, the a+ closure results in a current flowing through relay coil 1 which then closes its contacts and so supplies current to the C solenoid and results in it extending, i.e. C+. 3. Its extension causes limit switch c+ to close and so current to switch the A and B control valves and hence retraction of cylinders A and B, i.e. A- and B-. 4. Closing limit switch a- passes a current through relay coil 2; its contacts close and allows a current to valve C and cylinder C to retract, i.e. C-. ,


The sequence thus given by this system is A+ and B+ concurrently, then C+, followed by A- and concurrently and finally C-.Time-delay relays are control relays that have a delayed switching action. The time delay is usually adjustable and can be initiated when a current flows through the relay coil or when it ceases to flow through the coil. SOLID STATE SWITCHES: Here are number of solid-state devices which can be used to electronically switch circuits. These include: 1. Diode. 2 .Thyistors and triacs. 3 .Bipolar transistors. 4. Power MOSFETs DIODES The diode has the characteristic shown in Fig. and so allows a significant current in one direction only. A diode can thus be regarded as a 'directional element', only passing a current with forward biased. i.e. with the anode being positive with respect to the cathode. If the diode is sufficiently reversed biased, i.e. a very high voltage, it will break down. If an alternating voltage- is applied across diode, it can be regarded as only switching on when the direction of the voltage is such as to forward biased it and being off in the reverse biased direction. The result is that the current through the diode is half –rectified to become just the current due to the positive halves of the input voltage (Fig.).


Thyristors and triacs The thyristor, or silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR), can be regarded as a diode which has a gate controlling the conditions under which the diode can be switched on. Fig shows the thyristor characteristic. With the gate current zero. The thyristor passes negligible current when reverse biased (unless sufficiently reverse biased, hundreds of volts, when it breaks down).

When forward biased the current is also negligible until the forward breakdown voltage is exceeded. When this occurs the voltage across the diode falls, to a low level, about 1 to 2 V, and the current is then

only limited by the external resistance in a circuit. Thus, for example, if the forward breakdown is at 300 V then. When this voltage is reached the thyristor switches on and the voltage across it drops to I or 2 V. If the thyristor is in series with a resistance of. say. 20 ohm (Fig.)

then before breakdown we have a very high resistance in series with the 20 and so virtually all the 300 V is across the thyristor and there is negligible current. When forward breakdown occurs, the voltage across the thyristor drops to, say, 2 V and so there is now 300 – 2 = 298 V across the 20 Ω resistor, hence the current rises to 298/20 = 14.9 A. When once switched on the thyristor remains on until the forward current is reduced to below a level of a few milliamps. The voltage at which forward breakdown occurs is determined by the current entering the gate, the higher the current the lower the breakdown voltage. The power-handling capability of a thyristor is high and thus it is widely used for switching high power applications.


Triac The triac is similar to the thyristor and is equivalent to a pair of thyristors connected in reverse parallel on the same chip. The triac can be turned on in either the forward or reverse direction. Figure shows the characteristic.

Bipolar transistors Bipolar transistors come in two forms, the npn and the pnp. Figure shows the symbol for each. For the npn transistor, the main current flows in at the collector and out at the emitter, a controlling signal being applied to the base. The pnp transistor has the main current flowing in at the emitter and out at the collector, a controlling signal being applied to the base.

npn Transistor

pnp Transistor

For an npn transistor connected as shown in Fig.(a) These so termed common-emitter circuit, the relationship between the collector current IC and the potential difference between the collector and emitter VCE is described by the series of graphs shown in Fig.(b)

When the base current Is is zero the transistor is cut off. In this state both the base emitter and the base collector junctions are reverse biased. When the base current is increased, the collector current increases and VCE decreases as a result of more of the voltage being dropped across Rc. When VCE reaches a value VC the base-collector junction becomes forward biased and the collector current can increase no further, even if the base current is further increased. This is termed saturation. By switching the base current between 0 and a value that drives the transistor into saturation, bipolar transistors can be used as switches. When there is no input voltage V, then virtually the entire VEC voltage appears at the output. When the input voltage is made sufficiently high the transistor switches so that very little of the VCC voltage appears at the output (Fig. (c)).


MOSFETs MOSFETs (metal-oxide field-effect transistors) come in two types the n-channel and the p-channel. Figure shows the symbols. The main difference between the use of a MOSFET for switching and a bipolar transistor is that no current flows into the gate to exercise the control. The gate voltage is the controlling signal. Thus drive circuitry can be simplified in that there is no need to be concerned about the size of the current.

n- Channel SOLENOID

p- channel

It is used to provide electrically operated actuator. Example:solenoid valves are used in hydraulic and pneumatic valves. A current passes through a coil. Due to this current, a soft iron core is pulled into

the coil. In doing so it can open or close the ports to allow the flow of a fluid. D.C Motor Electric motors are frequently used as the final control element in positional or speed-control systems. Motors can be classified into two main categories: d.c. motors and a.c. motors. Most motors used in modern control systems being d.c. motors Construction of d.c motor

* YOKE: 1. It is the outermost covering of the machine. 2. It provides mechanical support for the poles. 3. It is a stationary part. 4. It carries magnetic flux produced by the poles. 5. It is made of cast iron. * FIELD SYSTEM: (a) Pole core (b) Pole shoe (c) Field coil. (a) Pole core: 1. They are fabricated by laminations of steel. 2. They are laminated so as to avoid eddy current loss.

(b) Pole shoe: 1. They act as a mechanical support to the field coil. 2. They reduce the reluctance of the magnetic flux. 3. They spread out the flux in the air gap uniformly. (c) Field coil: 1. These coils are wound on the pole core. 2. When current is passed through this coil, they electromagnetic. * Inter poles: 1. They are fixed between the main poles. 2. They are in-line with the neutral axis. 3. They are smaller in size than main poles. 4. They are used for spark less commutation. * Armature: 1. It is the rotating part of the machine. 2. It is cylindrical in shape. 3. It is fabricated by means of steel laminations. 4. It is laminated to avoid the eddy current loss. 5. The periphery of the armature is cut into slots and teeth's. 6. The conductors are placed in the slots. 7. Due to loss, heat is developed in the armature. 8. Therefore to dissipate heat a fan is provided at one end of the armature. * Commutator: 1. It is made up of copper segments insulated from each other by mica sheets. 2. The armature conductors are soldered to Commutator. 3. It is used to convert bidirectional current to unidirectional current.

* Brushes: 1. These are made of carbon. It is rectangular in shape. 2. The brush holders are kept passed against the Commutator. 3. It collects current from the line to the Commutator. Principle of Working: The armature is made up of magnetic material with coils of core wound on it. The armature is mounted on bearings and is free to rotate. They are field coils wound and permanent magnet W electromagnets fixed to the carrying [w] starter. The ends of the armature coil are connected to Commutator. When the current is applied to the field coil it cuts the magnetic flux near to armature, and armature start rotating. The direction of rotation of the D.C motor can be changed by reversing either the armature current (or) the field current. Types of D.C. motor 1. Series wound motor (fig. a) With the series wound motor the armature and fields coils are in series. Such a motor exerts the highest starting toque and has the greatest no-load speed. With light loads there is a danger that a series wound motor might run at too high a speed. Reversing the polarity of the supply to the coils has no effect on the direction of rotation of the motor. It will continue rotating in the same direction since both the field and armature currents have been reversed.


2. Shunt wound motor (fig.b) With the shunt wound motor the armature and field coils are in parallel. It provides the lowest starling toque, a much lower no-load speed and has good speed regulation. Because of this almost constant speed regardless of load, shunt wound motors are very widely .used. To reversed the direction of rotation. either the armature or field supplied must be reversed. For this reason, the separately excited windings are preferable for such a situation. 3. Compound motor (fig. c) The compound motor has two field windings. One in series with the armature and one in parallel. Compound wound motors aim to get the best features of the series and shunt wound motors, namely a high starting torque and good sped regulation. 4. Separately excited motor (fig. d) The separately excited motor has separate control of the armature and field currents and can be considered to be a special case of the shunt bound motor.


Control of D.C. Motor: 1. The speed of the permanent magnet motor depends upon the current through the armature coil. 2. In a field coil D.C motor, the speed can be changed by varying the armature current or the field current. 3. Generally it is the armature current that is varied. 4. To obtain a variable voltage at the armature an electric circuit is used. 5. Usually the D.C motors are controlled by the signals coming from microprocessors. 6. In such cases the technique knows as pulse width modulation (PWM) is used, to obtain a variable voltage. 7. This PWM can be obtained by means of a basic transistor circuit. 8. This technique can be used to drive the motor in one direction only. 9. By involving four transistors which is know as H - circuit, the direction change in rotation of motor can be obtained In a closed loop control system, the feed back signals are used to modify the motor speed. There are three methods for doing it. Method - I



1. Here the feed back signal is provided by a tachometer. 2. The analogue signal from the tachometer is converted into digital signal by using ADC. 3. This digital signal is given as input to the microprocessor is converted into analogue by using DAC. 4. This signal is used to vary the voltage applied to the armature of the D.C. motor. Method – II

1. The feed back signal is coded using a encoder. 2. In the code converter, the digital output is obtained. 3. This digital signal is given as an input to the microprocessor. Method – III


1. The system is completely digital. 2. PWM is used to control the average voltage applied to the armature. A.C MOTOR Types of A.C motor: 1. Squirrel cage induction rotor. 2. Slip ring (or) wound rotor. Construction of A.C Motor STATOR: 1. It is the stationary part of the machine.

It is made of high grade silicon steel laminations.

3. it is laminated so as to avoid eddy current loss.

4. The stator windings are placed in the slots on the inner surface of stator core. 5. The windings are wound for a particular number of poles. 6. The three phase stator windings are fed from three phase supply. 7. The stator windings are sometimes known as primary windings.

ROTOR: Squirrel cage rotor: 1. The construction is very simple.2. It is the rotating part of the machine. 3. It is cylindrical in shape with slots on its outer surface. 4. The rotor conductors are heavy bars of copper or aluminum. 5. All the ends of the bars are short circuited by means offend rings on both sides. 6. The slots are slightly angled to prevent hum noise and locking of stator and rotor.

Slip ring or wound rotor: 1. The rotor is wound for the same numbers of poles as that of the stator. 2. The rotor is made up of silicon steel laminations. 3. The open ends of the rotor windings are brought out and they are connected to three slip rings.


4. The three slip rings are mounted on the shaft. 5. The slip rings are insulated from each other. 6. The slip rings are made of phosphor bronze. Principle of Operation: 1. A three phase supply is given to the stator winding. 2. A rotating magnetic field is produced in the stator which rotates in synchronous speed. 3. Synchronous speed depends upon supply frequency and number of poles. 4. In rotor short circuited copper bars are provided. 5. The rotating magnetic field cuts the short circuited copper conductors, thereby inducing an emf in the rotor conductors. 6. Hence a magnetic field is setup in the rotor. 7. Due to the interaction between the stator and rotor magnetic flux, the rotor rotates. 8. The direction of rotation of rotor is same as that of rotating magnetic field but with the speed lesser than the synchronous speed.


Control of A.C Motor: 1. The speed control of A.C motor is more complex than the D.C motors. 2. The speed of the A.C motor is determined by the frequency of supply. N= 120 F/P Where, N = speed in rpm. F = frequency P = no. of poles. 3. Therefore the control of A.C motor is based on the variable frequency supply. 4. The change in the frequency can be achieved by two methods. A. using a converter and an inverter. B. using cyclo converter. Using a converter and an inverter:

1. The three phase A.C is rectified to D.C by a converter. 2. Then it is inverted back to A.C. again but at a frequency that can be

selected. Cyclo converter: 1. It is used to operate slow speed motors. 2. This converts A.C at one frequency directly to A.C at another frequency without the intermediate D.C conversion.


STEPPER MOTORS: 1. It is a device that produces rotation through equal angle called steps for each digital input. 2. for example :-Suppose say one phase input produces 6O of rotation, then60 phase of input produces 360° of rotation. Construction and working principle:

1. Stepper motor is a special type synchronous motor. 2. It converts electrical pulses applied to it into discrete rotor movements called steps.
3. A 30° per step motor will require 12 pulses to move through one

revolution. 4. From diagram, A, B and C are the three stator coils placed at 120° apart around the circumference of the stator. 5. A four pole rotor made of soft iron is placed in between stator coils so as to rotate. 6. When coil A is excited, the rotor teeth 1 & 3 are aligned along 'A' axis as shown in figure (i).
7. When excitation of coil A is removed and if coil B is excited, the

rotor teeth 2 is attracted by coil B and thus rotor teeth2 and 4 are aligned 'B' axis as shown in figure (ii).


8. Now when the coil C is excited after removing the excitation of coil B, the rotor teeth 3 gets aligned along 'C' axis as shown in figure (iii). 9. Hence a clockwise motion of the motor is produced when pulses are given in the order of A, B, c, A, B, C.... etc. 10. For each pulse, the rotor moves 30° per step. 11. If no coil is excited, then the rotor stands at any position. 12. When pulses are given for the coils in the order A, C, B, A, C, B.... etc., the rotor rotates in anticlockwise direction. Application: 1. Used in X - Y plotters. 2. Used in machine tools. 3. Used in robots. 4. Used in computer peripherals like floppy disc drives line printers etc. 5. Used in watches. Types of stepper motor:
1. Variable reluctance of stepper motor.

The rotor is made of soft steel and is cylindrical in the four poles. The rotor will rotate until rotor and stator poles line up. This is termed as position of minimum reluctance. This form of stepper gives step angle of 7.50(or) 150


2. Permanent magnet stepper motor:

1. The rotor is a permanent magnet. 2. The motor has a stator with four poles. 3. Each pole is wound with a field winding. 4. The coils in position pair of poles are connected in series. 5. When the current is supplied to the stator windings, the rotor which is a permanent magnet will move to line up with the stator poles.
6. From the figure shown, the rotor will move to the 450osition. 7. When the polarity is reversed for the current supply to stator coil,

thus the rotor will move on the reversed side to450positions.
8. Thus by switching through the coils the rotor rotates in 450teps. 9. The usual step angles are 1.80 7.50 150 30°, or 90°.

3. Hybrid stepper

1. It combines feature of both the variable reluctance and permanent magnet motor. 2. It has a permanent magnet encased in iron caps. 3. The iron caps are cut to have teeth.
4. The typical steps angles are 0.90to1.80

5. Used in high accuracy positioning application.









MECHATRONICS (Common to Mechanical and Production- VI Semester)

L T P M 3 0 0 100

OBJECTIVE • To understand the interdisciplinary applications of Electronics, Electrical, Mechanical and Computer Systems for the Control of Mechanical and Electronic Systems. 1. MECHATRONICS, SENSORS AND TRANSDUCERS 9 Introduction to Mechatronics Systems – Measurement Systems – Control Systems – Microprocessor based Controllers. Sensors and Transducers – Performance Terminology – Sensors for Displacement, Position and Proximity; Velocity, Motion, Force, Fluid Pressure, Liquid Flow, Liquid Level, Temperature, Light Sensors – Selection of Sensors 2. ACTUATION SYSTEMS 9

Pneumatic and Hydraulic Systems – Directional Control Valves – Rotary Actuators. Mechanical Actuation Systems – Cams – Gear Trains – Ratchet and pawl – Belt and Chain Drives – Bearings. Electrical Actuation Systems – Mechanical Switches – Solid State Switches – Solenoids – D.C Motors – A.C Motors – Stepper Motors. 3. SYSTEM MODELS AND CONTROLLERS 9

Building blocks of Mechanical, Electrical, Fluid and Thermal Systems, Rotational – Transnational Systems, Electromechanical Systems – Hydraulic – Mechanical Systems. Continuous and discrete process Controllers – Control Mode – Two – Step mode – Proportional Mode – Derivative Mode – Integral Mode – PID Controllers – Digital Controllers – Velocity Control – Adaptive Control – Digital Logic Control – Micro Processors Control. 4. PROGRAMMING LOGIC CONTROLLERS 9

Programmable Logic Controllers – Basic Structure – Input / Output Processing – Programming – Mnemonics – Timers, Internal relays and counters – Shift Registers – Master and Jump Controls – Data Handling – Analogs Input / Output – Selection of a PLC Problem.





Stages in designing Mechatronics Systems – Traditional and Mechatronic Design Possible Design Solutions Case Studies of Mechatronics Systems, Pick and place robot – automatic Car Park Systems – Engine Management Systems. TOTAL : 45 TEXT BOOKS 1. W. Bolton, “Mechatronics”, Pearson Education, Second Edition, 1999. REFERENCES 1. Michael B. Histand and David G. Alciatore, “ Introduction to Mechatronics and Measurement Systems”, McGraw-Hill International Editions, 2000. 2. Bradley D. A., Dawson D., Buru N.C. and. Loader A.J, “Mechatronics”, Chapman and Hall, 1993. 3. Dan Necsulesu, “Mechatronics”, Pearson Education Asia, 2002 (Indian Reprint). 4. Lawrence J. Kamm, “Understanding Electro – Mechanical Engineering”, An Introduction to Mechatronics, Prentice – Hall of India Pvt., Ltd., 2000.


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