You are on page 1of 24

Part 1: Identification of Learning Problem

General Audience

The audience will consist of high school students ages 17 to 18. They attend Lithia Springs
High School and are enrolled in my Senior Advanced Placement Microeconomics course. The
Economics course is required by the state of Georgia however the Advanced Placement portion
does not have standards set by the state yet. College Board sets the outline of the course.

Problem Identification

After teaching AP Microeconomics for a year I have noticed that students do not have the ability
to take basic concepts and apply them to answer a multiple-choice question successfully. To be
enrolled in Advanced Placement classes you are held to a higher standard because of the rigor
required by the College Board and should be able to critically think. After giving several
multiple-choice unit tests during my course I have identified this to be the problem because the
research population can prove to me they know the material using other assessments. The
students also come to realize what the answer was once we sit down and analyze each question
through its basic form.

Instruction on critically thinking is needed in Lithia Springs High School because we are held
accountable for test scores to the state. I, as an individual at my school, am also held accountable
for high Advanced Placement scores. The students will benefit from this instruction design
because they should be able to analyze a multiple-choice question rather than face a multiple-
choice test much like the AP test with a fear of not being able to process it.

Instructional Goal
Each student will
Receive a 80% or higher score on Unit Tests to come later on in the year
Achieve a score of a 3 or higher on the AP Microeconomics test
Feel more confident when taking on the task of a multiple choice test
Part II: Learner Analysis

Introduction

The targeted learning group consists of seniors at Lithia Springs High School in an
Advanced Placement Microeconomics class. These students range from ages 17 to 18.
The targeted group will consist of 53.8% females and 46.2% of males. This information
was taken from the Statewide Longitudinal Data System. I accessed this through my
rosters on Infinite Campus. The multiple-choice section of the 2013-2014 Unit Test over
consumer choice had an average score of 63.9%. The females scored an average of
62.9% and the males scored an average of 65.06%. Of all of the students, 59.5 % scored
below a 70, which is considered failing in the Douglas County School System.

Entry Skills
Students should be able to
Mastery of basic reading, writing and math skills
Basic computer skills including:
o Logging on
o Access internet and use search engines
o Navigate through websites

Prior Knowledge
Students should be able to
Understand weaknesses when taking a multiple-choice test
Microeconomic concepts

The consumer choice unit test was used to identify test-taking weaknesses. As I walked
around the classroom, I observed the students as they reviewed the test that they had
taken. One on one interviews with the learners showed that the students felt that they
could have done better on their test had they broken apart each question and applied the
concepts that theyve practiced on other assessments. A Microeconomic Pre-Assessment
was administered to assess their prior knowledge. This data showed that 2 students out of
94 total received a score considered to be proficient (70 or higher). The remaining
students fell below the 70% mark.

Attitudes Toward Content & Academic Motivation

Per my observations, most students enrolled in my course have a positive attitude toward
the content. Although this class is required for them to graduate in the state of Georgia,
they seem to enjoy the relevance of the material to their personal lives. Most students
seem to be motivated to do well in the course.

Different learners were interviewed and asked to describe their attitude towards the AP
Microeconomics content thus far. It was a general consensus that the material always
starts our difficult and becomes simple with practice. The real world examples help the
interviewees understand the subject at hand.

Educational Ability Levels

The learners sampled in this instructional plan have completed several tests over the
course of their high school career. The state of Georgia requires students to pass the
Georgia High School Graduation Test in 5 different subjects (Writing, English/Language
Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies & Science) in order to graduate. This particular
graduating class also has the opportunity to exempt the GHSGT through the Secondary
Transition Assessment Act if they pass the End of Course test, a test given at the end of
particular classes to assess their understanding of the Georgia Performance Standards, for
a given subject. The following are the results of the learners Georgia High School
Graduation Test:
82.97% meet graduation requirements
8.5% does not meet graduation requirements
6.3% have not had scores reported currently
2.1% have not completed all 5 tests
General Learning Preferences

A learning styles inventory activity was done in class. The majority of learners prefer
visuals to process content. This consists of pictures and graphs to represent the material.
The remainder of the students prefers a more hands on approach. Physically creating the
economical graphs and other concepts of economics will be beneficial to them. There are
very few students who prefer the auditory route but that learning preference does exist in
my target audience. They will be successful with lecture and videos.

Attitude Toward Teachers and Schools

Through my observations over the last 6 weeks, these students are very active in their
academics, extra curricular activities in school and out side of school, and seem to have
a good attitude towards their teachers.

Different learners were interviewed and asked what their attitude toward their teachers
and school was. The most common response was they respect their teachers and most are
pretty fair. All interviewees agreed that their attitude towards the school would be much
better if there was more school spirit.

Group Characteristics

The targeted audience is compromised of 48.31% black, 35.96% white, 12.36% Hispanic,
and 3.37% Multi-Racial. Lithia Springs High School as a whole is made up of 52% black,
25% white, 17% Hispanic, and 6% multi-racial. Currently 70% of Lithia Springs High
School students are on the Free and Reduced Lunch program. In order for a household of
four to qualify for this program, receiving a free lunch means that the household brings
home $30, 615 or less and to receive a reduced priced lunch the household brings home
$43,568 or less. The current average income in Lithia Springs, GA is $42, 294.
Part III: Task Analysis
For this Instructional Design, I chose to use a Procedural Analysis. I chose this method
because it allowed me to break the multiple-choice test taking tasks into individual steps.
Some of the steps in this procedural analysis will be observable while others will be
unobservable.

I began generating a list of all the steps to being successful on a multiple choice test
question. Once my list was complete I went back through the list and added detail to each
step. I wanted to make sure that I had not missed any steps or that there any steps that
shouldnt be included so I took an actual multiple-choice test myself. I used my checklist
on every question and checked to be sure that they were all doable and helpful.

Task Analysis Outline

1. Read question in its entirety
2. Identify main concept of question
a. Underline key words
b. Eliminate any fluff from the question
3. Answer question prior to reading multiple choice options
a. Use keywords to identify vocabulary
b. Apply any concept needed to answer question
i. Draw graph
ii. Calculations required
iii. Compare and Contrast
c. Write answer down
4. Read all options in their entirety
a. Mark out all incorrect answers based on Step 3
5. Do not change answer



Subject Matter Expert (SME)

The Subject Matter Expert for this instructional plan is Brittney Bentley. I have a
Bachelors of Science in Economics and Secondary Education from the University of
West Georgia. I also received my Advanced Placement certification from College Board.
I am currently seeking a Masters in Instructional Technology from Georgia Southern
University. I currently teach at Lithia Springs High School for Douglas County School
Systems in Georgia. Ive been teaching for two and a half years. I teach two subject
areas, AP Microeconomics and Economics. I have been involved in test writing within
my Personal Learning Community for the county as well as for our schools Economics
department.

























Read question in its
entirety
Identify main concepts
Underline
Keywords
Eliminate
Fluff
Answer question without
multiple-choice options
Calculate
Compare/
Contrast
Graph
Read ALL options in its
entirety
Identify
Vocabulary

Apply
Concepts
Write down
answer

Mark out
ALL
incorrect
answers
Dont change original
answer
Part IV: Instructional Objectives

Terminal Objective 1: To answer multiple choice questions correctly
Enabling Objectives:
1a. Reading & identifying key concepts in question
1b. Answering questions as if it wasnt a multiple-choice question

Terminal Objective 2: To achieve a passing score on future Unit Tests and the AP
Microeconomics Test
Enabling Objectives:
2a. Following multiple choice test taking skill steps
2b. Understanding AP Microeconomic concepts


Content
Performance
Recall Application
Fact 1b
Concept 2b
Principles
Procedure 1,1a, 2, 2a
Interpersonal
Attitude


Instructional
Objectives
Georgia Performance Standards
College Board AP Topics
1
1a
1b
ELACC11-12RH7: Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of
information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually,
quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or
solve a problem.
2 ELACC11-12RH10: By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend
history/social studies texts in the grades 1112 text
complexity band independently and proficiently

2a ELACC11-12RH7: Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of
information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually,
quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or
solve a problem.
2b *Basic Economic Concepts, The Nature and Functions of Product
Markets, Factor Markets, Market Failure and the Role of Government
* Advanced Placements do not have state standards, only topics set by College Board
Part V: Assessments

Lesson 1: How to answer a multiple-choice question

Objective 1: To answer multiple choice questions correctly
1a. Reading & identifying key concepts in question
1b. Answering questions as if it wasnt a multiple-choice question

Assessment: Learners will take a quiz on the process of completing a multiple-choice test
successfully.

UDL Principles: While the instructional unit is to become successful at taking multiple-
choice tests, this particular quiz will be differentiated by product. The learners have the
option to take all multiple-choice, or they can take a short answer quiz.


Lesson 2: Being successful on a Unit Test

Objective 2: To achieve a passing score on future Unit Tests and the AP Microeconomic
test
2a. Following multiple choice test taking skill steps
2b. Understanding AP Microeconomic concepts

Assessment: Learners will take a multiple-choice Unit Test.

UDL Principles: The Unit Test will be given in many different forms. Learners have the
option to read the questions on their own. They also have the option to view a YouTube
video with the questions being read to them. The learners have the option to use a piece
of scrap paper. They can submit this scrap paper by scanning it in OR taking visible
pictures and submitting them for potential partial credit.

Assessment Examples

Objective 1 Assessment

Multiple-Choice Process Quiz
Directions: Answer the following questions using the Multiple-Choice Process.

1. What is the first and most important task you should do when first looking at the
test at hand?
a. Skim question for key words
b. Read question in its entirety
c. Skip question and move on
d. Answer question without the multiple-choice options

2. In AP Microeconomics, what step should you definitely use on every question
you are presented with?
a. Applying all concepts (graphs, formulas, etc) to the question given
b. Eliminate all answers that arent the correct ones
c. A & B
d. None of the above

3. The last step in the Multiple-Choice Process is to change your answer at least
once.
a. True
b. False

4. What step comes directly before reading all of the multiple-choice options?
a. Marking out all incorrect answers
b. Reading the entire question
c. Eliminating the fluff from the question
d. Answering the question without the answer options
5. In order to answer the questions without the answer options, what must you
identify?
a. Keywords & concepts
b. Answer to question
c. Multiple choice options
d. None of the above

Multiple-Choice Process Quiz Answer Key
1. B
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. A

Differentiated Short Answer Multiple-Choice Process Quiz
Directions: In 2-3 sentences, answer the following questions about the multiple-choice
process.

1. Why is it important to use the Multiple-Choice Process?
2. Describe the process and all of the steps necessary to be successful on a multiple-
choice test.
3. Of all the steps in the process, what is the most important in taking an AP
Microeconomics test?
4. The last step in the Multiple-Choice Process is to change your answer at least
once. Is the above statement true or false? Why or why not?
5. What is the purpose of identifying the key words and concepts prior to answering
the question?


Short Answer Multiple-Choice Process Quiz Answer Rubric

Objective 2 Assessment

Unit 3 AP Microeconomics Test
Directions: Answer the following questions using the Multiple-Choice Process.

1. The law of demand states that:
a. As price goes up quantity demanded goes down
b. As price goes down quantity demanded goes down
c. As price goes up quantity supplied goes down
d. As price goes down quantity supplied goes down




2. Suppose that goods A and B are complements and the price of good A increases.
We would then expect:
a. The quantity demanded for good B to increase and demand for good A to
increase
b. An increase in the demand for good A and a decrease in the quantity
demanded for good B
c. A decrease in the demand for good B and a decrease in the quantity
demanded for good A
d. An increase in the demand for goods A and B

3. The diagram below shows the demand and supply curves for a good. The
equilibrium price could rise from P1 to P2 if which of the following occurred?
a. Subsidies on the product increased
b. Consumers income increased
c. Costs of production were substantially lowered
d. Improvement in technology








4. What is the likely effect on the market for t-shirts of a simultaneous decrease in
both consumer income and government subsidies?
a. An increase in both price and quantity
b. An increase in price and a decrease in quantity
c. An indeterminate effect on price and an increase in quantity
d. An indeterminate effect on price and a decrease in quantity

5. Which of the following will not cause a change in the demand or supply curve for
any good?
a. A change in consumer taxes
b. A change in taxes
c. A change in the price
d. A change in income

6. Due to massive tornado wiping out crops across the state, the price of cereal rises
drastically. As a result, what will happen to the price and quantity of milk?
a. Price decreases and quantity decreases
b. Price increases and quantity decreases
c. Price increases and quantity increases
d. Price decreases and quantity increases

7. What determinant (shifter) caused the shift in question number 6?
a. Cost of inputs
b. Substitutes
c. Consumer taste
d. Complements












Use the demand supply schedule below to answer questions 8 & 9

8. Using the chart above, determine the equilibrium price?
a. $60
b. $50
c. $10
d. None of the above

9. An increase in the price from $30 per unit to $40 per unit shows which of the
following?
a. A decrease in quantity demanded of 500 units
b. A shift in the supply curve from 900 units per year to 1,200 units per year
c. A shift in the demand curve from 2,500 units per year to 2,000 units per
year
d. A decrease in quantity supplied of 300 units

10. Which of the following would definitely lead to an increase in the price of milk?
a. Wages of consumers decrease and dairy farms invest in new cow feed for
cows allowing them to produce milk faster
b. David Beckham sponsors Got Milk by doing an ad and mad cow disease
infects 60% of cows
c. Price of cereal increases and producer taxes on dairy farmers increases by
10%
d. Population of babies in Dairy Land decreases and subsidies for dairy
farmers were removed after the budget cuts were made.

Unit 3 AP Microeconomics Test Answer Key
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. A
10. B

Differentiated Unit 3 AP Microeconomics Test
Directions: Use the link below to access audio of the Unit 3 AP Microeconomics Test.
You may use a scrap piece of paper to do any work. Please submit your scrap work by
scanning in your work to gain credit for getting the question partially right.

http://youtu.be/VkmvmHVPWSU

Differentiated Unit 3 AP Microeconomics Test Answer Key & Rubric
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D
5. C
6. A
7. D
8. B
9. A
10. B



Part VI: Content Sequencing and Instructional Strategies

The sequence was generated based on the idea that practice makes perfect. The learner
will follow the sequence online as if a teacher was guiding them through it in a face-to-
face setting. This instruction will provide feedback as they work their way through the
module allowing the learner to correct anything or gain further understand of the concept
being practiced.

Lesson 1: How to answer a multiple-choice question

Objective 1: To answer multiple choice questions correctly
1a. Reading & identifying key concepts in question
1b. Answering questions as if it wasnt a multiple-choice question
Sequence Description Objective
1 Read simplified questions & Identify key words 1
2 Answer non-content related questions in short answer form 1
3 Identify correct answer from a list of multiple choice answers 1
4 Answer content related questions (Unit Test) 2
Introduction

Learner will identify differences in multiple-choice questions by creating 5 of their own
over a topic of their choice.
Differentiation: Different styles of multiple-choice questions will be shown. Students
will choose what product they want to create comparing and contrasting the different
styles.
Venn Diagram
Pro/Con List
Write a blog

Instructional Strategy

Objective 1a: Step 1:Read multiple-choice questions and identify keywords by
documenting anything of importance stated in the question.

Objective 1b: Step 2: Solve for the questions in step 1 using concept application.

Objective 1b: Step 3: Use the answers from step 2 to identify the correct and incorrect
answers in questions from step 1.
Differentiation Steps 1-3: Printable version is provided for ability to physically
underline key words or highlight main concepts. Hints can also be given to help
guide in the solving of the problems without the multiple-choice options.
(Opfermann, Gerjets & Gerjets)

Summarizing Strategy
Reflect on the importance of following a step-by-step process when answered a multiple-
choice question.



Lesson 2: Being successful on a Unit Test

Objective 2: To achieve a passing score on future Unit Tests and the AP Microeconomic
test
2a. Following multiple choice test taking skill steps
2b. Understanding AP Microeconomic concepts

Introduction

Review a Prezi Presentation on AP Microeconomic Consumer Choice concepts.
Differentiation: Presentation provides interactive videos, graphs, links and other
resources that meet the needs of all types of learners.

Instructional Strategy

Following the review of the AP Microeconomic content, the learner will complete a Unit
Multiple Choice test.
Differentiation: A video link to questions being read a loud for those who need the
questions read to them.
(Rittle-Johnson & Star, 2007)

Summarizing Strategy

Learner will reflect on the test taken, looking over the questions he missed and determine
if a test taking strategy could have been used to successfully answer the questions missed.







Reference List

Opfermann, M. O., Gerjets, P. G., & Gerjets, P. G. (n.d.). Proceedings of the 23rd annual
ascilite conference: whos learning? whose technology? . Retrieved from
http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/sydney06/proceeding/pdf_papers/p89.pdf

Rittle-Johnson, B. R., & Star, J. S. (2007). Does comparing solution methods facilitate
conceptual and procedural knowledge? an experimental study on learning to solve
equations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(3), 561-574. Retrieved from
http://itp.wceruw.org/Fall 09 seminar/Rittle-Johnson&Star-07.pdf
Part VII: Design of Instruction

The instruction is designed based on the different elements of an EATS lesson plan. This
type of lesson is used in the Learning Focused Schools plan. The idea behind this plan is
to activate, instruct, and summarize. You can see this laid out in Part 6. Each
section plays a different part in the learning process. The introduction portion or
activator as Learning Focused Schools would call it, is used to acknowledge any prior
knowledge the learner may already have. It is also used to get the learners mind focused
on the particular subject at hand. The instructional strategy portion is used to give new
material and have the learner practicing that new material. In the summarizer portion the
learner will re-group and identify the importance of the work or material they just dealt
with.

The Universal Design for Learning is incorporated into this plan by offering different
types of assessments and products. The learners obtain different representations of the
assessments. They also obtain different ways to express themselves through the material.
This allows for interest and engagement for all types of learners

Part VIII: Formative Evaluation Plan

After completing this instruction, the learners will complete a survey. This survey will be
used to evaluate the level of instruction. From the results I will modify the instruction,
adding or deducting instructional strategies based on the information provided in the
survey. Follow the link below to complete the survey.

Jessica Ainsworth was the subject matter expert reviewing this plan. Mrs. Ainsworth is
the test administrator at Lithia Springs High School. She also collects data and reports to
the school and the state. She received her Bachelors of Arts in Business Administration
from Georgia State University and her Masters of Education in Special Education from
the University of West Georgia. She also has several Educational Specialist degrees as
well as an Educational Leadership Degree. She is currently working on her Educational
Doctorate in School Improvement from the University of West Georgia.

After reviewing my instructional plan, Mrs. Ainsworth felt my instructional plan was
well thought out. She also thought the formative evaluation plan will give me the results I
need to improve my instruction in the future.

Multiple-Choice Processing Survey