Tankers

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• The new design provides
safe, reliable & economical
transport of chemical &
petroleum products.


• It incorporates propulsive
redundancy (the ability of the
system to remain in operation)
from the simplest single
screw propulsion (jednovijačni
pogon), to the most
comprehensive systems with
two totally independent
propulsion lines including
twin screw ( dvovijačni) or
twin propulsion.

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Basic characteristics of a crude oil tanker

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Chemical tanker, Product tanker, Oil tanker

1. Balanced rudder ( balasno kormilo) with
conventional propeller
2. Auxiliary unit (pomoćni uređaj)
3. Lifeboat in gravity davits (grav. soha)
4. Hydraulic prime mover (pokr. snaga)
5. Cargo control room
6. Tank heating / tank wash room
7. Cofferdam, empty space between two tanks
8. Vent pipes with pressure-vacuum valves (ventil)
9. Hydraulic high pressure oil lines for anchor and
mooring gear,
10. Crane
11. Manifold (gl. ventil za ukrcaj / iskrcaj nafte)
12. Wing tank in double hull (bočni tank u dvodnu)
13. Double bottom tank
14. Tanktop (pokrov dvodna)
15. Longitudinal vertically corrugated bulkhead
16. Transverse horizontally corrugated bulkhead
17. Cargo pump
18. Catwalk (prijelazni most kod tankera)
19. Railing
20. Deck longitudinals (uzdužno ojačanja)
21. Deck transverses (okvirna sponja)
22. Cargo heater
23. Forecastle deck with anchor-and mooring gear
24. Bow thruster (pramčani propeler / vijak)
25. Bulbous bow (bulbasti pramac)

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Tankers are designed to carry liquid cargoes
(not just oil)

Oil tankers come in two basic types:
• the crude carrier, which carries crude oil, and
• the clean products tanker, which carries the refined products, such as
petrol, gasoline, aviation fuel, kerosene and paraffin.

Tankers range in all sizes:
• the small bunkering tanker (used for refuelling larger vessels) of 1000
D W T tons,
• the VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier) of between 2-300,000 D W T , and
• the ULCC (Ultra Large Crude Carrier) of over 300,000 D W T .


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• The cargo space is generally divided into three sections athwartships
(popriječno) by means of two longitudinal bulkheads and into
individual tanks by transverse bulkheads.

• The maximum length of an oil tank is 20% L (L = length of vessel) and
there is at least one wash bulkhead (pljuskača) if the length of the tank
exceeds 10%L or 15 m.

• Tanks are generally numbered from forward, each number having port
(L), centre and starboard (R) compartments.

• Pump rooms ( pumpna stanica) are often located aft so that power may
easily be supplied to the pumps from the engine room, but ships
designed to carry many kinds of oil at once may be fitted with two
pump rooms placed so as to divide the cargo space into three sections.

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• Machinery spaces is positioned aft of cargo tanks and slop
tanks (tank za otpadnu vodu) .

• Any machinery space must be isolated from cargo tanks and
slop tanks by cofferdams, cargo pump rooms, oil fuel bunker
tanks or ballast tanks (balasni tank).

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Classes of Crude Oil Tankers

• Panamax - The largest size crude
oil tanker that can travel through
the Panama Canal (up to 70,000
DWT).

• Aframax - This is a size of crude oil
tanker which uses the Average
Freight Rate Assessment method to
calculate the cost of transportation
(70,000 to 120,000 DWT).

• Suezmax - The largest size crude oil
tanker that can travel through the
Suez Canal while Loaded (120,000 –
200,000 DWT).

• Very Large Crude Carrier (VLCC) -
This is the size of a large crude oil
carrier (200,000-325,000DWT).
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• Panamax (60,000-70,000 DWT)
• Aframax (70,000-120,000 DWT)

Minimum Average Maximum
Length,
feet
726 761 797
Beam, feet 106 107 118
Draft, feet 38 44 45
DWT 61,938 67,009 69,999
Capacity,
Barrels
419,000 455,709 527,285
Minimum Average Maximum
Length,
feet
700 797 840
Beam, feet 106 137 150
Draft, feet 38 43 57
DWT 70,000 101,603 116,283
Capacity,
Barrels
293,000 705,917 817,000
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Minimum Average Maximum
Length,
feet
817 896 952
Beam, feet 136 154 174
Draft, feet 48 55 61
DWT 121,000 152,765 169,204
Capacity,
Barrels
808,000 1,023,882 1,142,000

• VLCCs (200,000-325,000 DWT)

Minimum Average Maximum
Length,
feet
1037 1091 1092
Beam, feet 184 193 196
Draft, feet 62 71 74
DWT 258,096 300,118 319,430
Capacity,
Barrels
1,920,000 2,089,087 2,221,000
•Suezmax (120,000-200,000 DWT)
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• Accommodation spaces, main cargo control stations,
control stations and service spaces (excluding isolated
cargo handling gear lockers) must be positioned aft of all
cargo tanks, slop tanks, and spaces which isolate cargo or
slop tanks from machinery spaces.

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IMO Construction Requirements for Oil
Tankers
• Double hulls

• In 1992 MARPOL was amended to make it mandatory for tankers of 5,000
DWT and more ordered after 6 July 1993 to be fitted with double hulls, or an
alternative design approved by IMO (regulation 19 in Annex I of MARPOL).

The requirement for double hulls that applies to new tankers has also been
applied to existing ships under a programme that began in 1995 (under old
regulation 13G (now regulation 20 in Annex I of MARPOL)).

• All tankers would have to be converted (or taken out of service) when they
reached a certain age (up to 30 years old).


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• Following the Erika incident off the coast of France in December 1999, IMO
Member States discussed proposals for accelerating the phase-out of single
hull tankers.

• As a result, in April 2001, IMO adopted a revised phase-out schedule for single
hull tankers, which entered into force on 1 September 2003 (the 2001
amendments to MARPOL). The revised requirements set out a stricter
timetable for the phasing-out of single-hull tankers.

• In December 2003, further revisions to the requirements were made,
accelerating further the phase-out schedule.

• These amendments entered into force on 5 April 2005.
• A new regulation on the prevention of oil pollution from oil tankers when
carrying heavy grade oil (HGO)/heavy fuel oil (HFO) (teška nafta) banned the
carriage of HGO in single-hull tankers of 5,000 tons dwt and above after the
date of entry into force of the regulation (5 April 2005), and in single-hull oil
tankers of 600 tons dwt and above but less than 5,000 tons DWT, not later than
2008.
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