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One Straw Rich Man

Japanese (Folk) Tales

Russian translation and commentary by Yulia Koltysheva

English translation by Oleg Svistunov

Ilya Frank's reading method


The Mouse's Marriage
The Old Man and His Lump
Raccoon Forest near Shojoji Temple
One-Straw-Rich Man
The Nobleman, the Onion, and the Raddish
The Cat and the Twelve Symbols of Horoscope
The Mouse Sutra
Why the Shrimp's Back Is Bent

The Screen Tiger

The Who Dat Old Man
The Pillow on the Loincloth
The Sweet Sake
Why the Jellyfish Has No Bones
The Wife from the Painting
The Carrot, the Burdock Root and the Raddish
The Rolling Yam

(Momotarou; momo peach, tarou a male name popular in Japan or a male name

mukashi (a very long time ago), aru tokoro ni (in some place), jiisama to baasama ga
orimashita (lived an old man and an old woman: were; oru).
Jiisama wa yama e takigi wo tori ni (the old man would go to the
mountains to pick firewood: take; toru), baasama wa kawa e sentaku ni ikimashita

(the old woman would go to the river to do laundry: go; iku). ()

()Baasama ga kawa de sentaku wo shiteiru to
(when the old woman was doing the laundry on the river; suru do + iru be
/auxiliary verb/ continuous aspect), kawakami kara (from upstream), ookina momo
ga (a big peach) domburako, domburako to (wiggly-waggly: emerging and
submerging) nagarete kimashita (appeared; nagareru float + kuru come
/auxiliary verb denoting approach in space or time/).
Umai momo nara (if [you are] a tasty
peach), kotchi e koi (float over here: come /imperative mood/; kuru). ()
Nigai momo nara, atchi e ike (if you're not a tasty peach:
bitter float over there: go /imperative mood/; iku). (
)()to iu to (she had no sooner
said the words: when said), umasouna (appetizing: delicious-looking; umai
tasty) ookina momo ga (big peach) baasama no hou ni nagarete kimashita (to the old
womans side floated).

wa, momo wo hirotte (the old woman, having picked up the peach; hirou) ie ni
kaerimashita (returned home; kaeru). ()(
)Yuugata ni natte ([when] the evening came: when it
became the evening), jiisama ga yama kara modotte kimashita (the old man returned
home from the mountains; modoru). ()
Futari de (the two) tabeyou to (were about to eat /subjunctive mood denoting
decision/; taberu), momo wo manaita no ue ni (the peach on [top of] the cutting board)
nosete (put; noseru /participle denoting precedence/), kirou to suru to (when [they]
decided to cut [it]; kiru /subjunctive mood/ + to suru decide to do something), momo
wa patto warete (the peach broke in half; wareru), naka kara kawaii otoko no ko ga (and
from the inside a cute boy), hougyaa, hougyaa to umaremashita (was born [shouting]

aah aah). ()
()()()Jiisama to
baasama wa bikkuri shimashita ga (the old man and the old woman were surprised but),
ooyorokobi de (very happy), Momotarou to iu namae wo tsukete ([after] giving [him] a
name called/known as Momotarou; namae wo tsukeru name somebody, give
somebody a name), sodatemashita ([they] raised [him]: bring up; sodateru).

Momotarou wa, ippai tabereba (if Momotarou ate one bowl [of rice] /subjunctive mood
form/; taberu) ippaibun dake (by one part only), nihai tabereba (if [he] ate two bowls /of
rice/), nihaibun dake (by two parts only) ookiku narimashita ([he] grew big(ger) = the
more he ate the bigger he became /derivative /medial/ form of the adjective ookii big
+ naru become/). ()()()

()()Hitotsu oshiereba (if [he was] taught

one thing; oshieru) juu made oboe (he remembered up to ten /link-participle/; oboeru),
juu oshiereba hyaku made oboemashita (if taught ten [things], he would
remember/understand up to a hundred).
)()()Koushite (in this way)
Momotarou wa, dondon ookiku natte (Momotarou has gradually grown up),
chikaramochi de (being vigorous /de derivative /medial/ form of the link-verb desu
be/), tsuyoi, kashikoi ko ni narimashita (strong and clever child [he] became).
()Sonokoro (at that time/in that age),
mura ni warui oni domo ga (in the village evil demons: bad; domo suffix of
plurality) detekite (appeared: came; detekuru), mura no hito ni rambou shitari ([they]
abused/violently mistreated the villagers; rambou suru do violence to/commit an
outrage to/knock smb. around), mono wo tottari (took [their] belongings /repeated
action/; toru take), musume wo sarattari shite (kidnapped girls; sarau), hitobito wa
(people), taihen komatte imashita (suffered very much; komaru experience

Aru hi (once upon a time: on a certain day) Momotarou wa jiisama to baasama
no mae e kite (Momotarou came to/appeared before the old man and the old woman;
mae in front of, front), kichinto suwatte (sat in a polite position: neatly/properly)
ryoute wo tsuki (folded both hands), Okagesama de (thanks to you), konnani
ookikunarimashita kara (I've grown up so big), oni ga shima e (to the island of the
demons) oni taiji ni ittemairimasu (I am going to get rid of/wipe out/vanquish the
demons; iku + mairu go /humble verb form/). Douka (please) nippon ichi no
kibidango wo (the best: number one in Japan kibidango /millet dumplings/) tsukutte

kudasai (make; tsukuru cook, do + kudasaru do smb. a favor/do something for

somebody /polite verb form/). to iimashita ([he] said).
()Jiisama to
baasma wa, bikkuri shite (the old man and the old woman were surprised) tomemashita
(would try to stop [him]; tomeru) ga (but), Momotarou wa doushitemo kikimasen
(Momotarou would not listen to them at all: no matter what they said; kiku).
)()()()Jiisama to
baasama wa shikatanaku (the old man and the old woman against their will/had no
choice but), nippon ichi kibidango wo, takusan koshiraete (lots of the best millet
dumplings in Japan: large quantity made; koshiraeru), koshi ni sagesase (made him
carry /the dumplings/ on his belt; sagesaseru /imperative mood/; sageru), atarashii
hachimaki wo sase (made him tie a new band/towel /around his head/; suru do),
atarashii hakama wo hakase (made him put on new /traditional Japanese skirt-like/
trousers hakama; haku put on [trousers]), katana wo sasase (made him carry a
sword/made him tuck a sword under his belt; katana wo sasu wear [a sword at ones
side]), Nippon ichi no Momotarou ([that had] The Best/Strongest in Japan
Momotarou) to kaita (written [on it]) hata wo motasete (made him take a flag; motsu
have), okuri dashimashita (sent him on his way; okuru + dasu /auxiliary verb
denoting the beginning of an action/).

Mura hazure made kuru to (just as [he] reached the border of the village), inu ga
wan wan hoenagara (a dog was barking bow-wow participle of simultaneity/; hoeru)
yattekimashita (came: showed up; yattekuru).
Momotarou san, Momotarou san. Doko e iku no desu ka? (Momotarou-san = Mr.
Momotarou, Momotarou-san, where are you going? /no substantive particle; desu
link-verb be in present tense; neutrally polite form; ka interrogative particle/)

()()Oni ga shima e (to the island

of the demons) oni taiji ni iku (to kill/get rid of the demons).
)Watashi wo (me too) kerai ni shite
kudasai (make a vassal). Okoshi ni tsuketa ([the ones that you have] on your belt)
nippon ichi no kibidango wo (best in Japan kibidango /millet dumpling/), hitotsu
kudasai ([give me] one please).
Yoshi yoshi (All right, all right: good), kibidango wo tabereba (if you eat/if one eats
one kibidango) juuninriki ni naru (you [they] will become as strong as ten people).
()to itte (having said so), Momotarou wa inu ni kibidango wo
hitotsu yari (Momotarou, gave the dog one kibidango /link-participle/; yaru), kerai ni
shimashita (made it a vassal).()()
()Dondon susunde ((as they were)
gradually moving forward) yama no hou ni iku to (in the direction of the mountains),
kiji ga kenken to naite yattekimashita (a pheasant, crying ken-ken, appeared).
Momotarou san, Momotarou san. Doko e iku no desu ka? (Momotarou-san,
Momotarou-san, where are you going?)


()()Oni ga shima e oni taiji ni (to the

demons' island to get rid of the demons).
Watashi mo (me too) tsurete itte kudasai
(take with you please). ()
Okoshi ni tsuketa (on your belt) nippon ichi no kibidango wo, hitotsu
kudasai (the best in Japan kibidango, give me one please).
Yoshi yoshi (all right, all right).
to itte (having said so), kibidango
wo hitotsu yarimashita (gave one kibidango).()Kiji
mo kerai ni narimashita (the pheasant also became a vassal).


Momotarou ga inu to kiji
wo tsurete (having taken with him the dog and the pheasant, Momotarou), dondon
susunde iku to (was gradually moving forward when), saru ga kyaa kyaa sakebi nagara
yattekimashita (a monkey, screaming kyaa-kyaa, appeared). ()
()Saru mo (the monkey also) inu ya kiji no youni
(like the dog and the pheasant) kerai ni narimashita (became a vassal). (
()Momotarou wa, sannin no taishou ni natte (after
becoming the general of the three), oni ga shima e isande (courageously to the island of
the demons; isamu cheer up, get emboldened) susunde ikimashita (advancing
forward, went).


Oni ga shima e tsuku to (when one arrives on the island of the demons),
ookina kuroi mon ga tatteimashita ([there is] a big black gate: standing).
Saru ga mon wo dondon tataku to (when the monkey knocked on the gate
knock-knock), naka kara (from inside), Doure. to akaoni ga detekimashita (Who
[is it]? [asking] a red demon/devil appeared).
() ()(
)Momotarou wa (Momotarou), Ware koso Nippon ichi no Momotarou da
(it is I /underscoring particle/ the best/strongest in Japan Momotarou /da link-berb,
present tense, neutral/). ()
()()Oni domo wo taiji ni kita (I came to kill
the demons). Kakugoshiro! (Get ready!) to itte katana wo nuite (he said, took his
sword out /of the sheath/) kiri kakemashita (and took a slash; kirikakeru assault with
arme blanche; kiru cut + kakeru begin /auxiliary verb/).


Sokora ni ita chiisana oni wa (little devils [who were] somewhere near),
oosawagi shite (made a big noise) oku no hou e nigete ikimasu (ran [further] inside
/nigeru run away, escape + iku here: auxiliary verb denoting withdrawal/retreat
in time and space/). ()
Oku de wa (in the inner part), oni domo wa sakamori no saichuu de shita ga (devils
were in the middle of a feast, and),
()()Nani (What?),
Momotarou (Momotarou?), nanda (What's that?), kodomo ka (a child?).
to baka ni shite (with contempt), kakatte
kimashita (came attacking). ()
()()Kochira wa (over
here/in this land: on this side) Nippon ichi no kibidango wo tabeteiru node (because
[people] eat the best kibidango in Japan), senninriki ni mo natteimasu ([they] become as
strong as a thousand men). ()()()


()Momotarou wa
katana wo furui (Momotaro is swinging his sword), inu wa kamitsuki (the dog is biting),
saru wa hikkaki (the monkey is scratching), kiji wa sora kara tsuttsukimasu (the
pheasant is pecking from the sky). ()()Sono (that)
tsuyoi (strong, powerful) koto (business, circumstance) tsuyoi koto (= force).
()Toutou (finally) oni domo wa (the
demons), minna (all) makete shimaimashita (lost: surrendered /complete aspect of the

()Oni no taishou wa (the general of the


demons), Momotarou no mae ni (in front of Momotarou) te wo tsuite (folded his hands),
namida wo (tears) poro poro to (drop by drop [making the poro-poro sound])
nagashite (streamed),
()()Inochi bakari wa (only life)
o-tasuke kudasai (spare me please; tasukeru help, save, rescue /polite form/).
()()Kore kara wa (from now on)
kesshite (never: not for anything) warui koto wa itashimasen (will [I] not do bad
things). ()()Takara
mono wa (the treasure) minna sashiagemasu (will [I] give away to everyone: present
/polite form/). to wabimashita ([he] apologized). ()
Momotarou wa (Momotarou),
Kore kara warui koto wo shinakereba (from now on if you don't
do bad things), inochi wa tasukete yaru (I shall spare your life; tasukeru + yaru give,
present /familiarly/ action direction indicator usually from the 1st person to the
2nd or 3d person, here: from the superior to the inferior). to iimashita (said [he]).
()()Momotarou wa takara mono wo kuruma
ni tsunde (Momotaro, having loaded the treasure on a cart) inu,saru, kiji ni (the dog, the


monkey, and the pheasant) enyara, enyara to (with a shout enyara enyara
/exclamation one makes when lifting something heavy/) hikase (made pull [the cart]
/link-participle of the imperative mood/), jiisama to baasama no miyage ni shite (made it
a present to the old man and the old woman), mura e kaette kimashita (returned to the
village). ()()
()()Jiisama to baasama
mo (the old man and the old woman) murabito mo (as well as the villagers) minna
(everybody) ooyorokobi de (very happily), Momotarou no yuuki to chikara wo
(Momotarou's courage and strength) hometataemashita (praised).


Issumboushi (teeny tiny boy; issun one sun /ancient Japanese measure of length
3.03 cm/; boushi Buddhist monk)
Mukashi (a long time ago/in ancient times), aru tokoro ni (in some place), jii-sama to
baa-sama ga (an old man and an old woman) sundeimashita (were living /continuous
aspect of the verb/; sumu). ()
Kodomo ga inai node (because they had no children; iru be, exist /denotes people
and animals/), sabishikute (sad: wailful /medial form of the adjective/; sabishii)
shikata arimasen (it cant be helped: there is no way; aru be, be located /denotes
inanimate objects/; shikata way /of doing something/).
Douka (please), yubisaki hodo no (as little as a fingertip = to that degree of
smallness) chiisai ko demo (a little child) ii kara ([would be] ok: its good because
/reverse word order typical of Japanese sentences/), hitori (one) sazukete kudasare
(grant /imperative mood/; sazukeru bestow + kudasaru give, gift). to ([saying
so]), mainichi (every day) kamisama ni (from gods) onegai wo shiteimashita (were
asking: making a request; suru).


()()()Suruto (then: after that), dou deshou
(how, not clear; dou how, in what way; deshou subjunctive mood of the link-verb
desu), hontouni (indeed) yubisaki hodo no (as little as a fingertip) chiisai (small) otoko
no ko ga (boy) umaremashita (was born; umareru).
()Sorede (that's why), jii-sama to baa-sama wa (the old man
and the old woman), kono ko ni (to this child) Issumboushi to namae wo tsukete
(Issumboushi gave the name: having named /participle denoting precedence/;
tsukeru attach, affix), taisou kawaigatte (loving very much; kawaigaru)
sodatemashita (were raising [him]: bring up; sodateru).
()Sorekara (since then) nannen ka (some/several
years) tachimashita (passed; tatsu) ga (but), Issumboushi wa chittomo (Issumboushi not
at all: not even a little bit) ookiku narimasen ([didn't] become bigger; naru). (
)()Yubisaki hodo no (as little as a fingertip)
ookisa no mama deshita (he was/remained; mama the same as, in the same
way/condition; deshita past tense of the link-verb desu).


()Aru hi no koto (one day this thing [happened] = once upon a time),
Issumboushi wa, jii-sama to baa-sama no mae ni (Isshumboushi to the old man and the
old woman; mae before/in front of) kite (came; kuru),
Watashi wa (I) miyako e (to the capital) ikitai no desu
(want to go; iku; no substantive particle). Douka (please) o-wan to (a bowl and /
respectful prefix/also used to refer to common domestic objects/; to copulative
conjunction and/), hashi to (a chopstick and), hari wo (a needle) kudasai (give) to,


iimashita (said [he]). ()

()Soshite (then: after that, so), hari wo (the
needle) katana no kawari ni (instead of a sword: instead) koshi ni sashi (put on his
belt; sasu), o-wan wo fune ni shite (made the bowl his boat; suru) kawa ni ukabe
(launched it on the river; ukaberu launch [of a boat]), hashi wo kai ni shite (made the
chopstick his paddles), genki yoku (friskily) miyako e mukete (headed for the capital)
dekakete ikimashita (set off; dekakeru depart + iku go /auxiliary verb denoting
withdrawal/retreat in time and space/).
)()()()Dombura, dombura to
(wiggling and waggling [on the waves] /adverb/), o-wan no fune ni notte (got on the
bowl-boat; noru get on /a means of transportation/), nan nichi mo (many days; nan
what, how (much/many /question-word/) kawa wo kudatte (going down the river;
kudaru), youyaku (finally: at last) miyako e tsukimashita (arrived in the capital;
Issumboushi wa fune wo ori (Issumboushi got off the boat; oru get off /a means of
transportation/), machi no naka wo (the middle of the town) achira kochira (here and
there) minagara (looking at/viewing: examining/surveying /participle denoting
simultaneity/; miru look, see, watch) aruite iku to (walked: go on foot, wander,


roam when; aruku + iku), rippana (beautiful) ikken no (detached: separate) o-yashiki
(mansion) no mae ni (to the front of) demashita (came out; deru).
()Issumboushi wa, o-yashiki no genkan ni tatte
(Issumboushi at the entrance to the mansion: porch stood; tatsu),
tanomou (invite me in, invite me in; tanomu ask, request) to, oogoe de (in a loud
voice) yobawarimashita (called; yobawaru = yobu).


Sono (that) o-yashiki

wa (mansion), erai (prominent: great) tono-sama no (master: feudal lord) o-yashiki
deshita (belonged to: mansion was of). ()()
()()Kerai ga (the vassal[s]) genkan ni (to the
entrance) dete miru to (when came to see /attemptive aspect of the verb denotes an
attempt to perform an action/; deru + miru), koe ga shita ([the one who] spoke: made
voice) noni (although) hito ga imasen (that person wasn't there; iru be).
Hen da na (strange) to, fushigi ni omotte (thought [the vassals] in amazement;
omou think) yoku yoku miru to (when [they] looked more closely: looked very very
well), hakimono no tonari ni (next to [their] footgear), chiisana chiisana otoko no ko ga
(a teeny tiny boy) tatte imasu (was/is standing /continuous aspect/; tatsu + iru).
Soshite (then)
Watashi wa, Issumboushi to iu mono desu (I am
a person called Issumboushi). Tono-sama ni o-me ni kakaritai (I want to see the master:
meet; o-me ni kakaru meet /polite speech/). to, iimashita (said [he]; iu).
Kerai wa (the vassals) bikkuri shite (were surprised), tono-sama no (the master's) tokoro


e (place to) tsurete ikimashita (took/accompanied him: having taken with them, went;
tsureru + iku). ()
Issumboushi wa (Issumboushi) tono-sama no (the master's) te no
hira ni notte (palm climbed on: got on; noru), kichinto suwatte (sat properly; suwaru)
aisatsu wo shimashita (greeted: introduced himself).
Tono-sama wa yorokonde (the master became happy; yorokobu),
()Kore wa
(this) omoshiroi (is interesting). to ([saying so]), kerai ni shite kudasaimashita (made
[him] a vassal; kudasaru give /indicates that the action is performed by the 1st
person toward the 2nd or 3d person, by the superior toward the inferior/).


)()O-yashiki ni (to the mansion) o-kyaku-sama ga
(visitors/guests) kuru to (when came: if), Issumboushi wa (Issumboushi) tono-sama
no (the master's) te no hira no ue de (palm on top of), odottari utattari (would dance and
sing, /repeated action/; odoru; utau), hari wo nuite (took out the needle: made bare;
nuku), tsurugi no mai wo (the dance of the sword) shitari shimashita (would perform:
did). ()(
)()()Issumboushi no
uwasa wa (rumors about Issumboushi), o-yashiki no naka (inside the mansion) bakari
denaku (not only [but]), tachimachi (at once: immediately) machi juu ni (in town
[too]) hirogatte (spread; hirogaru), ninkimono ni ([and he] a popular personality)
narimashita (became).
Tono-sama wa (the master),
hitori no (one: an only) musume ga imashita (daughter had: was; iru).
O-hime-sama wa (the princess), Issumboushi ga ki ni itte (came to like Issumboushi; ki
ni iru), kata toki mo (not for a minute) soba kara (from herself: from her side)
hanashimasen (wouldn't/didn't let [him] go = didn't release; hanasu).


O-hime-sama ga hon wo yomu toki wa (when the princess was reading a book:
at the time of reading), Issumboushi wa tsukue no ue ni ite (Issumboushi was on the
table: being) peeji wo mekurimasu (turned the pages; mekuru). ()
()Asobi ni iku toki mo (when /she/ went out as
well: to play, for entertainment), itsumo (always) o-tomo wo shimashita
(accompanied [her]; tomo wo suru).



Sono koro (at that time) miyako de wa (in the capital), warui oni ga
(bad demons) dete kite wa (appeared), hitobito ni ranbou wo shitari (mistreated/abused
people), wakai musume wo (young girls) sarattari shite iku (kidnapped) no de (because
[they did so]), minna (everybody) komari hatete imashita (suffered very much: were in
an extremely difficult situation).
Aru hi no koto (this thing /happened/ one day = once upon a time),
o-hime-sama wa (the princess) kannon-sama ni (to Kannon goddess) o-mairi ni iku koto
ni narimashita (went to bow/visit: it so happened that /she/ went).
()()()Tono-sama wa
(the master), tsuyoi kerai wo (strong vassals) oozei (many) o-tomo ni tsukete
yarimashita (appointed to accompany her: attached to her).
()()Issumboushi mo
(Issumboushi also), o-hime-sama no kimono no (the princess's kimono) tamoto ni haitte
(having gotten into: entered), tsuite ikimashita (joined; tsuku join + iku go).
)Kannon-sama e no (to the Kannon goddess) o-mairi mo (even the visit)
buji ni sunde (went well = with no accidents), sono (that) kaeri michi no (way back
home of) koto desu (the thing is = what happened, happened on the way home).


Totsuzen (all of a sudden: unexpectedly) osoroshii (scary) ookina (big) oni ga

(demons) nihiki (two; hiki counter for small animals) arawarete (appeared;
arawareru), osoi kakatte kimashita (assaulted: attacked; osou attack + kakaru
assail + kuru come). ()()
O-tomo no (the accompanying) kerai tachi wa
(vassals; tachi suffix of plurality) katana wo nuite (having unsheathed the swords)
tatakaimashita (fought; tatakau) ga (but: however), totemo kanaimasen (very unequal;
kanau be equal). Chirijiri ni (all over the place:
helter-scelter) nigete shimaimashita (ran away = scattered; nigeru + shimau /complete
aspect/). Oni wa
(the demons), o-hime-sama wo (the princess) tsukamaete (grabbed; tsukamaeru), saratte
ikou to shimashita ([and] decided to kidnap; sarau kidnap + iku to suru decide to
do something).


Issumboushi wa, oni no mae ni tachi hadakatte (Issumboushi stood in front of the
demons; tachihadakaru = tachifusagaru get in the way, be an obstacle),
Ware koso wa
Issumboushi da (I am Issumboushi; koso namely, exactly). Kono katana de (with this
sword) hitotsuki ni shite kureru ([I will] strike once: this sword will strike once for
me; kureru indicates that the performed action usually benefits the speaker). to,
koshi ni sashite ita (hanging on his waist/belt) katana wo nuite (the sword [he]
unsheathed), oni ni mukatte ikimashita (faced the demons and went [toward them] =
started approaching the demons).
()Oni tachi wa (the demons),
aite ga (the enemy) amari chiisai node (pretty small was because = because the
adversary was rather small),


Wahhahha (ha-ha-ha), namaikina chibime ([what a]
self-confident/arrogant little boy: runt). to, oowarai shite (laughed outloud: made a
big laugh) Issumboushi wo tsumamu to (took Issumboushi with a finger; tsumamu),
()Omae (you) nan ka (actually /often not translated/),
hito nomi da (are [just] one swallow/sip/mouthful). to, kuchi wo akete (opened the
mouth; akeru) pakutto (at once), nomikonde shimaimashita (swallowed; nomu + komu).
()Tokoro ga
(however) Issumboushi wa (Issumboushi) oni no o-naka no (in the demon's stomach)
naka de (inside), ooabare (made a big mess; abareru rough-house, whoop it up).
()()Hari no katana
wo (his needle sword) furi mawashite (swinging; mawasu), onaka juu (all over the
stomach) tsuttsuki (poking; tsuttsuku) mawarimasu (is rolling/twirling; mawaru).
Itetetete (it huuuurts; itai painful).
()Oni wa
kurushigatte (the demon, writhing; kurushigaru), Issumboushi wo haki dashite
shimaimashita (spat Issumboushi out; haku + dasu + shimau).


Mou ippiki no oni ga (one more demon), Issumboushi wo
tsukamae you to shita node (because [he] decided to catch Issumboushi), sono oni no
(that demon's) me no (eyes) naka e (inside) tobikonde ([Issumboushi] jumped in: flew
in; tobikomu), me wo (the eye) hari no katana de (with the needle sword) tsuki
sashimashita (poked; tsukisasu). Oni wa (the demon),


Kou san, kou san (I surrender, I surrender). Issumboushi ni wa
kanawanai (Issumboushi has no match). to itte (said so; iu), awatete (in a hurry) nigete
ikimashita (ran away; nigeru + iku). ()
Issumboushi wa o-hime-sama wo tasuke okosu to (when Issumboshi helped the princess
to her feet),
mou daijoubu desu yo (princess, it's all right now). to, iimashita (said).
Omae no okagede (thanks to you) tasukarimashita (I am saved; tasukaru). Hontou
ni (indeed) arigatou (thank you).
Oni ga ooawatede (the demons in a big hurry) nigete itta (ran away) ato
ni (after), chiisana mono (a small thing) ga ochite imashita (remained lying = was left
behind /resultative aspect/; ochiru drop, fall).


Ittai, nan darou (what is that?).

O-hime-sama wa (the princess), sore wo toru to
(when [she] took it),
Kore wa (this), oni ga otoshite itta ([the one that] the
demons dropped; otosu + iku) mono (thing is) ni chigainai (without a doubt: for
certain). Uchide n kozuchi (the magic hammer) to iite (called), nandemo negai ga (any
wish) kanau (making come true) takaramono (treasure is) kamoshirenai (probably). to,
osshaimashita (said; ossharu say /polite verb/).
()Soredewa (then: so), watakushi
no se ga takaku naru you ni (my height to be taller = in order for me to become taller)
futte mite kudasaimasen ka (would you wave/shake [it]?; furu + miru /attemptive
aspect/ + kudasaru). to, Issumboushi wa o-negai shimashita (Issumboushi made a
request). O-hime-sama ga (the princess),



Issumboushi no, se ga takaku naare (Issumboushi, become taller). to, kozuchi wo furu
to (when waved the hammer), miru miru uchi ni (very quickly), Issumboushi wa ookiku
natte (Issumboushi grew bigger [and]), rippana (a wonderful) wakamono (young man:
youth) ni narimashita (became).

Yagate (soon
[after that]) Issumboushi wa (Issumboushi), o-hime-sama no o-muko-san ni nari
(became the princess's bridegroom), rippana tono-sama ni natte (became a great master),
jii-sama to baa-sama wo yonde (called the old man and the old woman; yobu), shiawase
ni kurashita (and lived happily ever after; kurasu) to sa (they say).


Nezumi no yomeiri (A Mouse's Marriage)

Mukashi (a long time time ago/in ancient times), aru tokoro ni (in some place), taihen
kireina (a very beautiful) nezumi no musume ga (girl-mouse) imashita (lived: was;
iru). Nezumi
no (the mouse's) o-tou-san to o-kaa-san wa (father and mother), musume no jiman
bakari shimasu (were so proud of their daughter = the only thing they did was be proud
of her; jiman suru be proud).
Kono ko wa (this child), sekai de ichiban erai hito no (the
greatest man in the world) tokoro denakereba (if not the place), yome ni yarenai ([we
won't] offer her as a bride = we won't marry her off to anybody but the greatest man in
the world; yome ni yaru) ne (right?/isnt it so? /often not translated/).


Sou desu (that's right) tomo (certainly). Demo (but), sekai de ichiban
erai hito (the greatest man in the world) tte ([the one who is] called that), dare deshou ne
(who /might that be/ /deshou suppositional mood of the link-verb desu be).
Sorya (that) yappari (after
all), o-tentou-sama jarou (is Mr. Sun, [probably]).

Nezumi no o-tou-san to o-kaa-san wa (the mouse's father and

mother), musume wo tsurete (having taken the daughter with them; tsureru),
o-tentou-sama no (to Mr. Suns) tokoro e ikimashita (place went; iku).


Anata wa (you are), sekai de ichiban erai (the greatest in
the world) o-kata ja (man/person /polite speech/). Musume wo ([our] daughter) yome ni
moratte kudasai (take as your wife please = marry our daughter; morau take,

Washi ga (I am) sekai de ichiban erai (the greatest in

the world) tte (you're saying)? Iya iya (no-no), washi mo kanawanai (an incomparable
to me; kanau) mono ga sekai ni wa oru zo (man in the world exists).

Ee (eh?)? Sore wa

ittai, donata degozaimasu ka (who is that /polite speech/)?

Nezumi no o-tou-san ga (the mouse's
father) tazunemashita (asked; tazuneru).
Kumo-dono ja (Mr. Cloud). Kumo-dono ni wa (by Mr. Cloud), washi
no hikari mo (even my light) saegirarete shimau (is blocked; saegiru /passive voice/)
kara nou (because /nou emphasizing particle/).
()Sore wo kite (having heard that; kiku), nezumi
no o-tou-san to o-kaasan wa (the mouse's father and mother), musume wo tsurete (took


their daughter with them), kumo-dono no ([and] to Mr. Clouds) tokoro e ikimashita
(place went).

Sekai de ichiban erai (the greatest in the world) kumo-dono (Mr.
Cloud), douka (please) musume wo yome ni moratte kudasai (marry our daughter).
Iya iya (no-no), washi mo (even I) kaze-san ni wa
kanawanai (can't compare to Mr. Wind). Kaze ga fukeba (if the wind blows; fuku


/subjunctive mood/), washi wa tobasarete shimau (I fly away, I get blown away; tobu
/passive voice/) kara ne (because/since/as).
Soko de (then: afterwards,
therefore) nezumi no o-tou-san to o-kaa-san wa (the mouse's father and mother), kaze
no (the wind's) tokoro e itte (place went to), musume wo yome ni moratte kureru you ni
(and so that /he would/ marry their daughter; morau + kureru indicates that the
performed action benefits the speaker), tanomimashita (asked; tanomu). (
)Suru to kaze wa (then the wind),

Sekkaku da ga (I am very grateful but), washi yori (compared to me) erai mono ni
(a great man) kabe-san ga oru (Mr. Wall is). Kabe ga aru to (when there is a wall: if),
washi wa soko kara (I from here) saki e wa (over there) ikarenai (cannot go; iku /passive
voice/). Kabe-san ga ichiban erai n da yo (Mr. Wall is the greatest).


Soko de (then) nezumi tachi wa (the mice), kabe no (the

wall's) tokoro e itte (place went to; iku), musume wo yome ni moratte kudasai (please
marry our daughter), to tanomimashita (asked). Suru to (then), kabe
wa (the wall),

()Nan da tte (what are you
saying)? Washi yori (compared to me) erai no wa (great) nezumi-san (Mr. Mouse) janai
ka (is, isn't he). Washi mo (even in me) nezumi-san ni wa (by Mr. Mouse) ana wo
(holes) akerarete shimau (are opened; akeru open + shimau /passive voice, complete
aspect/) mono (/substantive particle/).
()Sore wo kiite (having heard that;
kiku), nezumi no o-tou-san wa (the mouse's father),


Nan da (what's that), sekai de ichiban erai no wa (the greatest in the
world), nezumi janai ka (arent the mice?). to, iimashita (said; iu).
Soko de nezumi no musume wa (then the daughter-mouse), nezumi
no wakamono to (a youth-mouse) kekkon suru koto ni natta (married: it so happened
that she married him) sou desu (they say).
Medetashi. Medetashi. (merry, merry: happily
/traditional ending in Japanese fairy tales/)


Kobutori jiisan (the old man who was getting rid of the lump; toru take,

Mukashi (a long time ago/in ancient times), aru tokoro ni (in some place), hoppeta ni
(on a cheek) kobu no aru (having a lump; aru be, exist /denoted inanimate objects/)
ojiisan ga imashita (an old man lived: was; iru). ()
Sono kobu no ookii koto to ittara (if [you]
call that lump a big [one]; iu), nigiri kobushi hodo mo aru (it's as big as a clenched fist =
to describe how big it was, its size could be compared to a clenched fist; hodo
degree) no desu (the thing is; no substantive particle /may remain untranslated/).
Ojiisan wa (the old man),
(()) (
)()Nantoka shite (somehow), kobu wo toru (to
remove the lump) houhou wa nai darou ka (isn't there a way; houhou way, method,
solution; ka question-particle). to, mainichi (every day) omotte (thinking


/participle/; omou) kurashite imashita (kept on living /continuous aspect/; kurasu + iru
be /here: auxiliary verb/).
()()Aru hi
(one day = once upon a time), ojiisan wa yama e (the old man to the mountains) takigi
wo tori ni ikimashita (went to pick firewood; toru take, gather; iku go). (
)()Yuugata ni natta
node (as it was evening time: became), kaerou to suru to (when /he was/ about to
return home), goro goro (rumble), pikari (flash)! Kaminari desu (it's
thunder). ()Ame mo (the rain also) zan zan
(hard) futte kimashita (came down/started falling; furu + kuru /auxiliary verb denoting
the beginning of an action/).


()()Dokoka ni (somewhere) ame yadori
suru (to hide from the rain) tokoro wa nai kana (a place, isn't there). to, sagashite iru to
(when /he/ looked for [it]; sagasu + iru), chikaku ni (close: nearby) horaana ga (a
cave) mitsukarimashita ([he] found). ()()
()()Ojiisan wa (the old man) sono naka ni
haitte (having entered inside; hairu /participle denoting precedence/), ame no yamu no
wo matsu koto ni shimashita (decided to wait for the rain to end; ame rain; no of;
yamu stop). Sono uchi
ni (in the meantime), tsui utouto (unwittingly dozing off), nemutte shimaimashita ([he]
fell asleep /complete aspect/ nemuru + shimau).
()Nandaka (out of the blue), fue ya taiko
no (the flutes' and drums') oto ga shita youna (sounds could be heard as if) ki ga shite
([he] felt), ojiisan ga me wo samasu to (when the old man woke up; me eye /fixed
expression/), bikkuri gyouten (got astonished). ()(
Mou yonaka no you ni (it already seemed like late at night) makkura


de (in complete darkness), horaana no (the cave) naka de (in the middle of: inside),
takibi ga (a bonfire) aka aka to (bright red) moe (burning), sono mawari de (around it),
akai kao ya aoi kao no (red-faced and blue-faced) osoroshii oni tachi ga (scary devils')
sakamori no (feast/junket/drinking party) saichuu desu (in full swing was/is; saichuu
in the middle of [an event, process, action]).
()Fue wo fuitari (playing the flutes:
blowing /repeated action/; fuku), taiko wo tataitari (beating the drums; tataku), uta wo
utattari shite iru (singing songs; utau + suru) oni mo imasu (devils also were/are [there];


()Ojiisan wa (the old man), osoroshikute
(frightened), kakureru you ni shite (decided to hide), mite imashita ga (was looking but;
miru + iru), fue ya taiko no oto wo kiitari (listening to the sound of the flutes and
drums), oni tachi no odori wo mite iru uchi ni (while watching the devils dance),
nandaka (out of the blue/for no reason) tanoshiku natte kimashita (gleesome: merry
became = cheered up; tanoshii + naru + kuru).
Sokode ojiisan wa (then the old man), tsuini (finally), utai dashimashita
(started singing; utau + dasu /auxiliary verb denoting the beginning of an action/).

suttokoton no suttenten

kekkerokee no paakapaka

peppekepee no hyaarahyara (composition

of sounds imitating a melody of a song)

()Anna tokoro ni
(in that place = over there) ningen no jiisan ga iru (there is a human old man) zo
(/emphasizing particle/).
()Oni tachi wa osoroshii kao de (the
devils, with scary faces,) ojiisan wo niramimashita ga (looked at the old man with


hostility/leered, but; niramu), ojiisan no uta ga (the old man's song) totemo
omoshirokatta node (because [it] was very interesting: funny; omoshiroi /past tense
form of the adjective/),
Omoshiroi jiisan jawai (funny old man).
Kotchi de (here /colloquial form of the pronoun kochira this side,
here), isshoni sakamori wo shinai ka (won't you feast together /with us/; suru do; ka
question-particle). to, kuchi guchi ni ii dashimashita (all together = in unison said;
iu + dasu).
Ojiisan wa (the old man), onaka ga
suite ita node (as he was hungry: stomach was empty; suku be empty + iru),
Hei hei (yeah, yeah), konnichiwa (hello). to, dete itte (came out; deru +
iku), sakamori ni kuwawarimashita (joined the feast; kuwawaru).


()()Jiisan mo (old man

also), nanika (something) odotte kure (dance /familiar form of the imperative mood/
odoru + kureru give, gift /indicates that the action is performed for the benefit of the
speaker/). to, oni ga iu no de (as the devils said), ojiisan wa (the old man) miburi teburi
mo omoshiroku (with funny gestures and moves), odori dashimashita (began dancing;
odoru + dasu).

tottokoton no tetteketen

puppukupaa no puukapuka


reroreroree no keerakera

()Oni tachi wa
omoshirogatte (the devils [are] rejoicing,: deriving pleasure; omoshirogaru), te wo
tataite (clapping their hands; tataku) waraimasu (laughing; warau).
()()Ojiisan mo tanoshikute (the old
man, also having fun), toki ga tatsu no wo ([the fact that] the time is passing)
wasuremashita (forgot; wasureru).
()Sono uchi ni (in the
meantime) dokoka de (somewhere) niwatori ga nakimashita (a rooster crowed; naku
cry /refers to birds/).


soro (soon: little by little), yo ga akeru (it dawns). Kyou wa mou (today already),
oshimai ni shiyou (finish [let's]; suru /imperative mood form implying invitation or call
to action/).
Oni no hitori ga (one devil) kou
iu to (when said so), hoka no oni ga (another devil),
Jiisan (old man), uta mo odori mo (both the song and the dance),
jouzu de omoshirokatta yo (were skillful: proficient and interesting). Mata ashita
(tomorrow as well), kite okure (come; kuru + okuru gift).
Hai hai (yes, yes), mairimasu ([I'll] come; mairu).
Ojiisan wa, sou iimashita ga (the
old man said so but; iu), oni wa (the devil),

Shikashi (however), moshimo konai to (if you don't

come; kuru) ikenai kara (since it's bad: won't do), nanika azukatte oku bee (something
[from you] we'll take [and keep] /objective aspect/ azukaru + oku put, leave/here:
auxiliary verb/). Sou da (it is so), sono hoppeta no (of that cheek) kobu wo azukarou
(the lump, lets take; azukaru). to itte (said), sutto (quickly: easily), ojiisan no kobu


wo (the old man's lump) totte shimaimashita (took away /complete aspect/; toru take
+ shimau).

()()Ojiisan wa (the
old man), karuku natta (became lighter; karui + naru) hoppeta wo (cheek) nade nade
(stroking) ie ni kaeri (returned home; kaeru), yuube no koto wo (the last evenings
event: business), tonari no ojiisan ni (to an old man in the neighborhood)
hanashimashita (told; hanasu).


Tonari no ojiisan wa
(the old man from the neighborhood), urayamashikute narimasen (can't help but envy;
naru here: bear, tolerate).
()To iu no wa (that is), tonari no ojiisan ni mo (the old
man from the neighborhood also), hoppeta ni (on the cheek) ookina kobu ga atta (had a
big lump; aru) no desu (the thing is).
()Ii koto
wo kiita ([I] heard good news /thing/; kiku). Washi mo (me too), oni ni kobu wo totte
moraou (let the devils take the lump from /suppositional mood indicating decision/ toru
+ morau receive /indicates that the action is performed for the benefit of the subject
of the sentence/).
()Sou itte
(having said so), tonari no ojiisan wa (the old man from the neighborhood), dekakete
ikimashita (set off: departed; dekakeru + iku go /here: auxiliary verb denoting
withdrawal/retreat in space and time/). ()()
()()Ojiisan wa (the old man), hanashi
ni kiita toori ni (according to [what he] heard in the story), yama no hora ana de matte
imashita (was waiting in the mountain cave; matsu + iru /continuous aspect/).
()()Soshite yoru (then at night), oni ga
kite (the devils came; kuru) sakamori wo hajimeru to (when started the feast),

doddekedendara doddekeden


buubukugaagaa buudarabii
deroderodeedo geedageda

()to, utaimashita (sang;

utau). Ga (but), sono uta no hetana koto (that song [was] strange [badly performed];
koto business/work/affair/deed /act/deal/exclamation often not translated).


()Mazui uta da nou (bad song; da link-verb be;

nou = naa /exclamatory particle/).
()Oni tachi wa (the devils) shibui kao wo
shite (made gloomy faces = sulked),
Jaa (well), odotte miro (let's
watch you dance). to, iimashita (said).
Ojiisan wa (the old man), odori dashimashita ga (started
dancing, but; odoru + dasu /auxiliary verb indicating the beginning of an action/), sono
odori no, hetana koto (the dance was strange/unskillful).
()()Nanda, chittomo omoshirokunee (not
interesting at all /nee familiar form of the particle nai denoting negation). Mou
(already), kore wo (this) kaesu kara ([we are] returning because), sassato (quickly:
pronto) ie e kaere (go home: return [to where you belong]; /imperative mood/
kaeru). Hora (look: here).
Sou itte (having said so), oni wa (the devils), yuube azukatta (the yesterday taken) kobu
wo nagetsukemashita (lump threw [at him]; nagetsukeru).
Suru to kobu
wa (then the lump), ojiisan no mou katahou no (from one more side) hoppeta ni (on the
cheek), petari to (firmly), kuttsuite shimaimashita (stuck; kuttsuku + shimau).


Kobu ga (the lumps), futatsu ni

natchimatta you (became two/familar form of natte shimatta/; naru + shimau).
Tonari no ojiisan wa (the old man from the neighborhood), naki
nagara (in tears/crying /participle of simultaneity/; naku) yama wo orite (went down the
mountain; oriru), kaette itta (returned [home]; kaeru + iku) to iu koto desu (they say;
koto substantive particle /not translated/).


shojoji no tanuki bayasi
(raccoon forest near Shojoji temple; tanuki raccoon-like dog, Japanese raccoon)

Mukashi (a long time ago/in ancient times), aru yama no oku ni (in the depth of
some mountains = somewhere in the mountains), shojoji to iu (Shojoji called) o-tera ga
arimashita (there was a /Buddhist/ temple: was located; aru be, exist /refers to
inanimate objects/).
Yama ni wa (in the mountains) tanuki ga takusan
sunde imashita (many raccoons were living; takusan many) ga (and), yoru ni naru to
(when the night came; naru become), bakete (turning into: taking another form
/participle of precedence/; bakeru take another shape, turn into) detari (would come
out /repeated action/; deru), haratsuzumi wo uttari (beating their bellies like the drums;
hara belly; tsuzumi drum; utsu beat), abaretari shite (making a fuss; abareru;


suru do), itazura no shihoudai wo shite imashita (were working mischief any way
they wanted = were capering however they liked /continuous aspect, past tense/; suru +
iru). ()O-tera no o-shou-san wa (the bonze of the
temple: monk; o respectful prefix),
Mou, konna tera ni wa irarenai ([I] can't stay in this temple
anymore /potential mood/; iru be /refers to animated beings/). to itte (said; iu),
toutou (in the end /adverb/) dete itte shimaimashita (left /complete aspect/; deru + iku
go /auxiliary verb denoting withdrawal/retreat in time and space/ + shimau finish
/auxiliary verb/).
()Sate (at last),
atarashii o-shou-san ga (a new bonze) yatte kimashita (arrived: appeared; yaru + kuru
come /approching in time and space/). ()
Yoru ni naru to (when the night came; naru become), sassoku
(immediately) tanuki-tachi no o-demukae desu (the meeting of the raccoons /there
was/is/; desu link-verb desu /neutral polite style/; tachi suffix of plurality).
()()Mazu wa (at first: first thing), o-bake taikai
desu ((it is/was) a meeting of ghosts).


Hyuudorodoro (hyu-doro-doro). ()
()to oto to tomo ni (together with /such/ sound), dete kita no wa (/what/
came out /was/ this; no substantive particle),
()Gyaa, hitotsu me kozou da (Gya,
one-eyed novice!; da link-verb be /neutral style/)!
O-shou-san wa (the bonze)
koshi wo nukashite shimaimashita (could barely stand on his feet /so frightened he was/
/complete aspect/; koshi wo nukasu + shimau; koshi back; hip; nukasu skip, go
without; koshi wo nukashite = paralyzed with shock).
Dorodoropyu (doro-doro-pyu). ()
()()to, tsugi ni arawareta no wa (what appeared next


was this; arawareru), onna no rokuro kubi (a long-necked woman; rokuro potter's
wheel; kubi neck; rokuro kubi long-necked fright/gorgon/monster).
Tasukete kuree (help
/imperative mood/; tasukeru + kureru give /familiar/ verb indicating an action
performed by the 2nd or 3d person for the benefit of the 1st person). to, o-shou-san wa
(the bonze) o-tera no ishidan wo (the temple's stone stairs) korogari oriru to (when
rolled down: went down), nigedashite shimaimashita (ran away; nigeru + dasu
/auxiliary verb denoting the beginning of an action/ + shimau).
()Mata (again), oidashite yatta zo (drove
[him] away; oidasu + yaru do, accomplish).
()Umaku itta (well done; iku).
Daiseikou (big success).


()Tanuki-tachi wa (the raccoons), tokui kao

desu ([have] conceited faces). ()()()
()Sono yoru wa (that night) o-tera no niwa de (in the temple's
garden), haratsuzumi (the belly-drums) taikai deshita (has a meeting /past tense form of
the link-verb desu/).
Konnawake de (that is why), atarashii o-shou-san ga (new
bonzes) nannin kite mo (no matter how many came /participle + mo particle denotes
concession/; kuru), minna (everyone) o-tera ni itsukimasen (doesnt move in the temple
= nobody ends up living there; itsuku).
()()Tokoro ga (however),
aru hi (once upon a time: on a certain day), usu yogoreta minari no (in slightly dirty
clothes; usui thin, weak, rare; yogoreru get dirty) o-shou-san ga (a bonze), tok
toko to (his footsteps audible toko-toko) yama dera no (up the mountain temple)
ishidan wo nobotte kimashita (stone stairs went; noboru + kuru /approach in time and


()Koko wa ([is]
here), shojoji ka (Shojoji?). Naka naka (fairly: rather) ii tokoro da wai (good place;
wai exclamatory particle).
()Mata (again), atarashii
o-shou-san ga kita (a new bonze came; kuru) no desu (the thing is /often not translated/;
no substantive particle).
Tanuki-tachi wa (the raccoons), niya niya
shimashita (grinned: smirked; suru do).
()Sugu ni (immediately) oidashite yaru yo
([we'll] chase him away; ou chase + dasu = oidasu).
()Tanoshimi ni shite
ina (looking forward to it). to, jishin tappuri desu (full of self-confidence; jishin


Sate, sono ban (finally, that evening).

Nammaida, nammaidaa (nammaida,
()O-shou-san ga (the bonze) o-kyou wo agete iru to (when he
was reading a sutra /continuous aspect/; kyou wo ageru + iru), patto (suddenly)
arawareta no ga (what appeared was this; arawareru), hitotsu me kozou desu (the
one-eyed novice). ()
Tokoro ga kono o-shou-san (but this bonze), sukoshi mo odorokimasen (didn't get
scared at all; odoroku).
Oo, naka naka kawaii hitotsu me kozou ja (oh, pretty
handsome one-eyed novice). Dore (come on), manjuu wo yarou (manjyu /pie with
filling/ I'll give you; yaru). to, iimashita (said; iu).


()Hitotsu me kozou wa (the one-eyed novice),

manjuu wo moratte (having received the pie; morau), kaette ikimashita (went back;
kaeru return + iku /withrawal/retreat in time and space/).

Nammaida, nammaidaa (nammaida,

()Mata o-kyou wo agete iru to (again when [he was] reading sutra), nyuutto
(suddenly: all at once) arawareta no ga (what appeared was this) rokuro kubi (the
long-necked monster). O-shou-san
wa odoroku dokoro ka (the bonze, far from getting frightened), yorokonde (rejoiced
/participle of precedence/; yorokobu),


()Oya, kireina hito da na (oh, what a beautiful person;
hito person). O-nee-san (young lady sister), ippai dou ka ne (how about a drink?).
to, o-sake wo susumemasu (offered sake; susumeru).
()Rokuro kubi wa (the long-necked monster), sukkari
yopparatte (having got completely drunk; yopparau) kaette ikimashita (went away).
tanuki-tachi wa (the puzzled raccoons; komaru experience difficulties), hiso hiso (in
whisper) soudan shimashita (consulted [each other]; soudan suru).
()Shou ga nai (there's
nothing we can do/it can't be helped; nai negative form of the link-verb da be).
Kou nattara (if it becomes this way = if so /conditional form/; naru), ano te da (that
method [will help]; te hand, method)!


()()Sono ban (that evening),
futon ni haitte (having got under the blanket; hairu enter) gussuri nete ita (sound
asleep; neru + iru) o-shou-san wa (bonze), nani yara souzoushii mono oto de (because
of some intrusive noise; yara particle indicating uncertainty; oto sound) me ga
samemashita (woke up; me ga samesu). ()()()
()To wo akete miru to (when [he] tried to open the door /attemptive
aspect/; akeru + miru open and see [what happens]), o-tera no niwa ni (in the
temple's garden) tanuki-tachi ga seizoroi shite (the raccoons all gathered together),
maruku wa ni natte (stood in a circle; naru), haratsuzumi wo utte imasu (were/are
beating on their belly-drums; utsu hit + iru).

Pon-poko-pon-pon pon-pon-pon

Pon-poko-pon-poko pon-poko-rin

Iyaa (wow), kore wa (this), tanoshisou da nou (seems like a joyous /occasion/;
tanoshii). Washi mo nakama ni irete kure (let me join: insert me; ireru + kureru).


()O-shou-san wa iyagaru dokoro ka (the
bonze, instead of feeling disgusted), niwa ni orite kite (came down to the garden; oriru +
kuru), isshoni natte (joined [them]; issho together, ni connecting particle; naru
become) haratsuzumi wo uchi hajimemashita (started beating on his belly drum; utsu +
hajimeru begin /auxiliary verb/). ()()
Demo (however) doumo sukoshi (really a little bit), oto ga hen desu (the sound is/was

Nanda (what's that), hen da naa,

wahhahhah (strange, ha-ha-ha).


()Tanuki-tachi wa oowarai desu (the

raccoons laughed a lot; oowarai big laugh).
Mokugyo wo tataku no wa umai n da ga (I can beat on the wooden
gong well but; umai skillful, efficient), haratsuzumi wa utta koto ga nai n de ne (I
have never beat on the belly-drum; koto substantive particle).
()Oshiete ageru yo (we'll
teach you; oshieru + ageru give /the doer of the action performs the action for the
sake of another person/). Kou yaru n da (this is the [right] way [to do it]; yaru do),
hora (here: look).

Pon-poko-pon-pon pon-pon-pon!

Naruhodo (I see: really /so/), sou yaru

no ka (is that the way?). Dore (let's see).

Pon-poko-pon-pon pon-pon-pon!

O-shou-san wa (the bonze), tanuki to onaji kurai (in about the same way with the
raccoons; kurai degree; approximately; onaji same) haratsuzumi ga umaku natte
(became skillfull at beating on his belly-drum; umai + naru), sore irai (since then),


mangetsu ni naru to (at: when it becomes full moon), shojoji no niwa dewa (in the
garden of Shojoji temple), o-shou-san to tanuki-tachi ga isshoni (the bonze and the
raccoons together), haratsuzumi taikai wo yatta (arranged belly drumming meetings;
yaru do) to iu koto desu (they say; koto business/affair, act, deed, circumstance
/substantive particle/).

Pon-poko-pon-pon no, pon!


Warashibe chouja (one straw rich man; warashibe a straw)

(a long time ago/in ancient times), aru tokoro ni (in a certain place), shinjin bukai (a
pious; deep faith) otoko ga imashita (man lived: was /past tense form of the
neutrally polite style/; iru be, exist /refers to animated beings/).
(very) bimbou de (poor being; de medial form of the link-verb da be), ikura
hataraite mo (no matter how much he worked; ikura how much/many; form of
hataraku (work) + particle mo make a pattern of speech with the meaning of no
matter how much [he] worked), kurashi wa (life) sukoshi mo (not at all; sukoshi a
little) raku ni (easy: simple) narimasen ([wouldn't] become /negative form/; naru).
()()Souda (once),
kannon-sama ni (to Kannon goddess) o-negai shite miyou (let's try making a request
/attemptive aspect; suppositional mood/; suru + miru do /and see what happens/
/auxiliary verb/).


Otoko wa (the man) nan nichi mo nan nichi mo
(many, many days; nan what, how /many/much /question-word/) o-tera ni komotte
(lived in the temple without quitting the place: locked up; komoru), asa kara ban
made (from dawn till dusk) kannon-sama ni inori tsuzukemashita (kept praying to
Kannon goddess; inoru + tsuzukeru).
()Douka (please), watashi
ni (on me) un wo (happiness; luck) o-sazuke kudasai (bestow please /polite request/
sazukeru; o suffux indicating politeness).
()Suru to (then), nan nichi me ka
no (in some [counted]; nichi day, me suffix of ordinal numbers) yoru (night),
kannon-sama ga (Kannon goddess) yume no naka ni (in /his/ dream) araware (appeared;
arawareru), kou iu dewa arimasen ka (and said so/the following, didn't she; dewa
arimasen negative form of the link-berb desu be in the neutrally polite style; ka
question particle).


()Kore kore (listen up: well), otoko ya (man; ya =

ja /interjection/). ()O-mae ni (upon you) un wo
sazukete yarou (I bestow happiness/luck; sazukeru + yaru give /auxiliary verb
indicating the direction of an action/). ()()
O-tera wo detara (if/when you exit the temple /conditional form/;
deru), mazu (to begin with) saisho ni (first) o-mae no te ni (your hand) fureta (touched;
fureru touch) mono (thing), sore wo (that) watashi kara no sazukari mono (is a gift
from me) to omotte (think /participle/; omou think) daiji ni suru you ni (value: take
care; you ni in order to = when you exit the temple, the first thing that touches your
hand will be a gift from me; thinking so I want you to take good care of it).
Otoko wa asa (in the morning the man), me ga sameru to (when
/he/ woke up), ureshiku natte (became happy; naru) o-tera no (the temple) soto e
(outside) tobidashite ikimashita (jumped out: dashed; tobidasu: tobu fly + dasu


/auxiliary verb denoting the beginning of an action/ + iku go /verb denoting

withdrawal/retreat in time and space/).
Tokoro ga (but), o-tera no mon wo
(the temple's gate) deta tokoro de (left as soon as; deru), ishi koro ni tsumazuite
(stumbled against a stone; tsumazuku), sutten kororin to koronde shimaimashita
(flopped: squashed /complete aspect/; korobu fall + shimau finish /auxiliary
verb/; sutten onomatopoeic word imitating the sound of slipping and falling; kororin
onomatopoeic word imitating the sound of rolling).
Itatatata (it huuuurt; itai /adjective/)!
()Sou ii nagara (talking in this way
/participle of simultaneity/; iu) oki agatte miru to (when he tried to get up; okiru get
up + agaru rise + miru), shiranai uchi ni (when /he was/ unaware /of it/; shiru
know /negative form/), te ni (in the hand) ippon no (one; hon root /counter for
cylindrical objects/) warashibe wo (straw) tsukande imashita (was holding: was
grasping /continuous aspect/; tsukamu + iru).


ga (this) kannon-sama kara no (from Kannon goddess) sazukari mono ka (the gift?;
mono thing). to, tsubuyaki nagara (when mumbling /participle of simultaneity/;
tsubuyaku) otoko wa warashibe wo daiji ni motte (the man, having carefully taken the
straw; motsu hold, have), aruite ikimashita (walked; aruku go on foot+ iku).
)Suru to (then), doko kara ka (from somewhere) abu ga (a godfly)
tonde kite (arrived; tobu fly + kuru), otoko no mawari wo (around the man) bun bun
tobi mawari hajimemashita (started flying about while buzzing; tobu + mawaru fly
around + hajimeru begin).


()()Otoko wa te de (the
man with his hand) oi haraou to shimashita ga (wanted to drive it away, but; ou
chase + harau fight off, drive away), abu wa (the godfly) otoko no kao yara mune
yara (sometimes near the man's face, sometimes near his chest), karada no mawari wo
(around his body) bun bun tobi mawarimasu (while buzzing, circles).
)Soko de (then) otoko wa yatto abu wo tsukamae (having
finally caught the godfly /connecting participle/; tsukamaeru), te ni motte ita (in the
hand holding; motsu) warashibe no (straw) saki ni (to the tip), shibari tsukemashita
(tied; shibaru + tsuku attach = having finally caught the godfly, the man tied it to the
end of the straw he was holding in his hand).
()Abu wa shibarareta mama (the godfly in this tied
condition /passive voice/), warashibe no (on the straws) sakippo de (very tip) bun bun
tobi mawatte imasu (is circling and buzzing).


Suru to (after that), chiisana otoko no ko to o-kaa-san ga (a little boy with his
mom) toori kakarimashita (were passing by; tooru + kakaru = toorikakaru).
()()Otoko no ko wa
(the boy), warashibe de shibatta (the tied to the straw) abu ga tobi mawatte iru no wo
(godfly's circling = the fact that the godfly is circling /continuous aspect/; no
substantive particle) mite (saw; miru),
Are ga hoshii you (I
want that), hoshii you (I do; you = yo /emotionally emphasizing particle/). to, iimasu
(says; iu).


Sonna ni hoshii nara (if you want it that
much), ageyou (I'll give it to you /suppositional mood/; ageru). to, otoko wa (the man),
abu wo musubi tsuketa warashibe wo (the godfly attached to the straw; musubu + tsuku),
chiisana otoko no ko ni yarimashita (gave to the little boy; yaru).
Otoko no ko no o-kaa-san wa (the boy's mother), yorokonde (having
rejoiced; yorokobu),
O-rei ni (as a token of gratitude), kore wo (this) douzo (here you are).
to, migotona (wonderful) mikan wo (tangerines) mittsu (three), otoko ni kuremashita (to
the man gave; kureru).
Warashibe ga mikan mittsu ni natta (the straw turned
into/became three tangerines; naru). Kannon-sama no o-kage da (thanks to Kannon
goddess). Arigatai, arigatai (thank you, thank you: /I/ want to thank).


Otoko wa (the man), mikan wo daiji ni (the tangerines carefully) futokoro ni irete (put
in his bosom; ireru) aruite ikimashita (and walked away; aruku + iku).
()Shibaraku iku to
(when he travelled for some time), michi ni (on the road), o-tomo wo tsureta
(accompanied by an escort; tsureru accompany) o-hime-sama ga taorete imashita
(there was a fallen princess /continuous aspect indicating the result of an action or a
continuing state/; taoreru + iru).
()Nodo ga kawaite (I'm
thirsty: throat got dry; kawaku), mou ippo mo arukemasen (I can't make another
step/potential aspect/; aruku). Mizu wo, mizu wo okure (water, give me water


/imperative mood/; kureru). to kabosoi koe de (in a weak voice) uttaete imasu ([she
was] complaining; uttaeru + iru).
()Sono atari no wa (in that area),
mizu nado (water and things like that) miatarimasen (were not to be seen; miru see +
ataru hit /the target, etc./). ()O-tomo
no hito-tachi mo (the accompanying persons also; tachi suffix of plurality) komatte
imashita (were in a fix; komaru + iru).
()Kore wo mite (having seen that; miru), ki-no doku ni omotta
otoko wa (the sympathizing: feeling empathy man; omou think), motte ita mikan
wo mittsu (with three tangerines) sashidashite (held [them] out; sasu reach out +
dasu put out = sashidasu),
Mizu no kawari ni (instead of water), kore wo meshi agare (eat this /imperative
mood/; meshi food; meshiagaru eat, drink /polite verb, used in conversations
referring to the 2nd and 3d persons/). to itte (said), watashite yarimashita (handed [the
tangerines] over; watasu + yaru give, present /indicates direction of an action/).


)O-hime-sama wa (the princess), mikan wo taberu to (when ate the
tangerines) sukkari genki ni nari (became completely healthy /connecting participle/;
naru), oo yorokobi de (with great joy),
()Arigatou (thank you). O-kage de tasukarimashita
(thanks to you I'm saved; tasukaru; o-kage de = with your support: respectful suffix
o + kage shadow). to, o-rei ni (as a token of gratitude), nuno wo (fabrics) san tan
(three tans /a measure of length for fabrics = 11 m/) kuremashita (gave as a present;


Ippon no warashibe ga (one straw), san tan no nuno ni natta zo (turned
into/became three tans of fabric). Arigata ya (thank you).
()Otoko ga, mata don don aruite iku to (when the man
was again gradually walking), mukou kara (towards him from over there) uma ni
notta (on a horse; noru get on, ride /a means of transportation, a horse/) hito ga yatte
kimashita (a man came; yattekuru).
Rippana uma da naa (wonderful horse).
()Sou omotte ([he] thought so; omou), tachi
tomatte (stopped; tatsu stand + tomaru stop) nagamete iru to (when looking /at it/;
nagameru + iru), doushita koto ka (for some reason), otoko no mae de (in front of the
man), uma ga kyuu ni (the horse suddenly) battari to taorete (fell down; taoreru), shinda
you ni (as if dead; shinu die) ugokanaku natte shimaimashita (and immobile became
/complete aspect/). ()()Uma no mochinushi wa (the master of
the horse),


Komatta, komatta (what to do, what to do; komaru

experience difficulties). Isogi no you na no ni (it's an urgent business). Hoka no uma wo
(another horse) sagasu yori shikata aru mai ([I need to] look for: there is no other way
out). Da ga (but), kono uma no shimatsu wo dou shitara ii mono darou (what would be
the best thing to do about this horse; suru do; darou suppositional mood form of
the link-verb da be). to, mayotte imashita ([he was] hesitating: undetermined;
mayou + iru).


()()Otoko wa
chikazuku to (when the man came closer), nuno wo ittan sashidashite (extended one tan
of the fabric),
Kono nuno to sono uma wo (this fabric and that horse), tori
kaemasen ka (shall we trade; toru take + kaeru exchange). Uma wa watashi ga
katazukete agemashou (I will put away the horse; katazukeru + ageru give, gift
/indicates the direction of an action; suppositional mood/).
Uma no mochinushi wa yorokonde (the master of the
horse rejoiced), nuno wo uke toru to (when he got the fabric; ukeru receive + toru
take), hoka no uma wo sagashi ni itte shimaimashita (and went to look for another
horse; iku + shimau).
Kono uma ga iki kaeru to ii n da ga naa (it
would be good if this horse resuscitated) to, otoko ga sou omotte iru to (when the man


was thinking that), doushita koto deshou (what happened?). ()()

Uma ga me wo hiraita dewa arimasen ka (didn't the horse open
its eyes?; hiraku; dewa arimasen negative form of the link-verb desu in the neutral
polite style; ka question particle).
()Uma wa kubi wo agete (the horse raised
its neck = raised its head; ageru) otoko wo mi (looked at the man [and] /connecting
participle/; miru), sore kara tachi agatte (then it got up; tatsu + agaru rise), hihiin! to
genki yoku, inanakimashita (hee-haw!, cheerfully neighed; inanaku).
()Ippon no warashibe ga (one straw), ichi
nichi de (within one day), konna rippana uma to (such as a wonderful horse and), nokori
ni tan no nuno ni natta no desu (the two remaining tans of fabric became).


()Otoko wa uma ni notte (the man got

on the horse; noru) kakete ikimashita (and rode away; kakeru + iku /withdrawal/retreat
in time and space/).
()Suru to (then), ikken no
rippana ie de (near one beautiful house), nimotsu wo hakobi dashitari (taking out the
baggage /repeated action/; hakobu carry + dasu take out), katazuketari (putting
away; katazukeru), oo sawagi wo shite imasu ([people were/are] making a lot of noise;
suru + iru). ()()()
Kiite miru
to (when asked [to see what was happening] /attempted aspect/; kiku + miru), tooi
tokoro e ([if] to a far-away place) hikkoshi wo suru koto ni nari (a move was scheduled),


sono shitaku wo shite iru saichuu da (in the middle/heat of the preparations: packing)
to iu koto deshita (it was said; koto substantive particle).
()Tooi tabi nara (if it's a journey /to a
place/ far-away), uma ga benri desu (a horse would be convenient). Kono uma wa
irimasen ka (don't you need this horse?; iru be necessary, be required). to otoko wa,
ie no shujin ni iimashita (the man said to the head of the house/household; iu).

Ie no shujin wa (the head of the house),

()Yaa, sore
wa arigatai (ah, thank you for that). Choudo (just) uma wo sagashite ita tokoro desu (I


was [just] looking for a horse; sagasu + iru; tokoro /after a verb/ just be about to do
something). Kawari ni (in exchange), kono ie to tambo wo (this house and field) anata
ni agemashou (shall I give you as a gift /suppositional mood/; ageru). Watashi wa mou
kaette kimasen kara (because I am not coming back home again; kaeru + kuru), douka
koko ni sunde kudasai (please, live here; sumu). to, iimashita (said [he]).
Sou iu wake de (in this/such a way), otoko wa sono ie ni sumi
tsuite (the man moved in that house; sumu + tsuku), sesse to hataraki (worked
diligently/hard; hataraku), tambo wo tagayashimashita (cultivated the field; tagayasu).
()()O-yome-san wo morai
(having got married: having taken a wife; morau), kodomo mo umaremashita
(children, too, were born; umareru).
()()Imaya otoko wa oo kanemochi (now:
at present he is a very rich man). ()()
()Itsu no ma ni ka (it's not
known when = insensibly; itsu when; no of; ma while/during; ni connecting
particle; ka question particle), atari no hito bito ni (by people in the area) warashibe
chouja to yobareru you ni narimashita (one straw rich man [he] began to be called =
it so happened that he was called /passive voice/; yobu call, name).


Tono-sama to negi to daikon

(nobleman, onion and /Japanese/ raddish; to and /connecting participle/)
()Mukashi (a long time ago/in ancient times), tono-sama ga
kerai-tachi to (a nobleman with [his] vassals; sama Mr. /suffix of politeness/), yama
no chiisana mura ni (to a small village in the mountains) tachi yorareta (came /passive
voice used in polite speech/; tachi yoru).
()()Tono-sama no youna (just as


/the nobleman/) erai kata ga ([as] prominent a man /as he/: person) kuru no wa
(coming; kuru come; no substantive particle) hajimete no koto datta node
(because it was the first time; koto thing/business; datta past tense form of the
link-verb da be in the neutral style), murabito-tachi wa (village dwellers = villagers;
tachi suffix of plurality), sore wa (because of that = for that reason; sore that),
mou oosawagi (are already very excited).
Machigai no nai you
ni (in order to avoid a mistake: trouble), o-mukae shinakereba na (need to meet
him/welcome him/pick him up; o prefix of politeness; /negative conditional form/;
suru do; na emotionally emphasizing particle).
Murabito-tachi ga (the villagers), kochi kochi ni
kinchou shite (very nervous: being highly tense; kinchou suru) matte iru tokoro e (to
the place where [they were] waiting /continuous aspect/; matsu wait + iru be,
exist), tono-sama to kerai-tachi ga touchaku shita (the nobleman and the vassals arrived;
touchaku suru).
()Choudo o-hirudoki datta node (as it
was precisely lunch time),
()()Mura no meibutsu
no soba wo (the village's famous soba; soba buckwheat noodles) sashi ageyou (let's
serve /suppositional mood/; sashi ageru). to ([saying that]), murabito-tachi ga (the


villagers), ude ni yori wo kakete (rolled up their sleeves) soba wo utte dasu to ([and] out
out/served soba when), tono-sama ga itta (the nobleman said; iu).

Umasou ja na (delicious). Da
ga (but), yakumi ga nai zo ([there arent any] spices: seasonings [in it]; zo
exclamatory particle).
()()()Murabito-tachi wa (the
villagers), kao wo miawaseta (exchanged glances; kao face; miawaseru).
Yakumi tte ([the things] called spices) nan da (what
/are they/)?


()Saa (well), oraa (I /from ore/), shiran (don't

know; shiru know).
()()Jaa (then), go-kerai ni kiite
miyou (let's try asking the vassals /attemptive aspect/; kiku + miru look).
Anou (sorry: listen), yakumi
tte (the things called spices), nan no koto desu ka (what kind of things are they?; desu
link-verb be in the neutral polite speech; ka question-word).
Nan da,
yakumi mo shiran no ka (what, you don't know what spices are?). Yakumi to wa na
(spices they are), negi no koto da (onions/leeks: have to do with onions).
Murabito-tachi wa, hotto mune wo nade oroshite (the villagers with relief stroked their
chests downward; naderu stroke + orosu lower; ho is a sigh of relief; to is a
connecting particle /when transliterated, it becomes tto to indicate the abruptness
with which the sigh is made/), unazuki atta (nodded [to each other]; unazuku + au get
()Negi-dono (kannushi-san)
no koto da to (its about Mr. Negi /Shinto priest/; dono, san suffixes of politeness
indicating mister/master; negi homonym of the word onion).
Dewa (then), negi-dono wo tsurete
koyou (let's bring Mr. Negi; tsureru accompany + kuru come /auxiliary verb


denoting withdrawal/retreat in space and time; suppositional mood indicating


()Ashi no hayai (a light-footed; ashi leg; hayai fast)
murabito ga hashitte itte (villager ran and; hashiru + iku), jinja kara (from the shrine)
negi-dono wo hippatte kita (brought Mr. Negi: dragged; hipparu + kuru).
Anou (excuse me), negi ga mairimashita
ga (negi came; mairu go, ride, come /polite speech/).


osoru (sheepishly: gingerly, timidly) moushideta ([the ones who] offered;
moushideru) murabito ni (villagers), kerai wa (the vassals), ibarikusatte itta (haughtily
)Tono-sama wa (the nobleman), soba wo tabete
shimawareta zo (has eaten all soba /complete aspect, passive voice/; taberu + shimau).
Negi nara (if /you're here about/ the onion) daidokoro no sumi de mo (in the kitchen
corner = at least in the corner of the kitchen) oite oke (put [it]; oku put + oku
/auxiliary verb indicating that an action is directed into the future/).
Hai (yes), wakarimashita (understood; wakaru).
Murabito wa (the villagers), iwareta toori (as [there were] told /passive voice/; iu; toori
in accordance with), negi-dono wo (Mr. Negi), daidokoro no sumi ni tatasete oita
(put in the corner of the kitchen: made [him] stand /causative mood/; tatsu + oku).


Hiru wa (at lunch time) soba datta kara (as it was soba [served]), yuushoku
wa (for dinner), mochi wo tabete itadakou (mochi = rice cakes [I'll] have; taberu
eat,+ itadaku receive /verb indicating direction of an action/).
()Mura no gochisou wa (the [real]
treat in: of the village), mochi dakara na (because it was mochi).

()Murabito wa (the villagers), pettarako,

pettarako to (very well = densely), mochi wo tsuite (made: impasted the mochi; tsuku
pound /the mochi dough/), tono-sama ni sashi ageta (and served the nobleman; sashi
Suru to (then), kerai ga itta (the vassals said).
Tono-sama wa (the
master/nobleman), karami ga ii to (a spicy/sharp taste would be good) iwarete iru


Karami (sharp taste?) Karami

to wa karashi no koto de ([if you want] the sharp taste that's mustard; koto
()Chigau, chigau (no,
no: ([you're] mistaken; chigau be different). Daikon oroshi no koto da (it's
ground/grated raddish).
Murabito-tachi wa, daikon wa yoku shitte iru ga (the villagers know (what) raddish (is)
very well but; shiru + iru), oroshi ga wakaranai (the ground/grated /raddish/ [they] don't
understand; orosu lower, throw out; grind/grate).
Sate (well: so), dou oroshitara ii
n darou (how are we supposed to throw it out).
Sou da (a-ha), ii koto ga aru zo (there is a
good way).


()Murabito-tachi wa, tenjou ura ni (the villagers to
the attic; tenjou ceiling; ura backside) agaru to (when [they] came up), tono-sama
no iru heya no (in the room where the nobleman was) tenjou ita wo hagashita (removed
a board: tore [it] off; hagasu). ()()
()Sore kara (after that), oogoe wo agete (raised their voices; ageru)
daikon wo nage oroshita (and threw down/dropped the raddish; nageru + orosu).
Tono-sama, houre (nobleman, look:
here), daikon oroshi (the drop of the raddish /sounds the same as ground/grated
Ko, kore wa (th-this), ittai nani goto
ja (what is this, exactly).


Tono-sama wa (the nobleman),

daikon zeme ni atte (having gone through the raddish ordeal; au be involved; seme
torture, attack) bikkuri (got stunned).
Sukoshi tatte (some time later: soon after), sawagi ga osamaru to (when
the noise died down), murabito-tachi wa, mata, osoru osoru tazuneta (the villagers again
sheepishly asked; tazuneru).
Tono-sama (nobleman), daidokoro no negi-dono ga (Mr.
Negi in the kitchen) yowatte orimasu (has grown [and is] weak /continuous aspect
indicating the result of an action/; yowaru + oru be /polite speech/). Doushitara
yoroshii deshou (what shall we do = what would be the good thing to do?).
()()()Yowatta negi
wa (the weakened negi = the withered onion), kubi wo dashite (up to the neck: take out
its neck = leave only the neck showing above the ground level; dasu take out, put
out) tsuchi ni umero (plant in the ground; umeru).


()()Kubi dake dashite (with his neck/head only put
out), hatake ni umerareta negi-dono wa (the dug in the ground Mr. Negi), kurushigatte
(is suffering: agonizing, ; kurushigaru), kao wa massao (his face completely blue:
ashen /became/; aoi blue). ()
Murabito-tachi wa (the villagers), awatete (in confusion; awateru be anxious,
be confused), tono-sama ni tazuneta (asked the nobleman).
Hatake no negi-dono ga
kurushigatte orimasu ga (the one in the field Mr. Negi is suffering).
Dewa (then),
koyashi no kawari ni (instead of fertilizers), shouben de mo kakete oke (sprinkle him
with urine or something; kakeru + oku /action directed into the future/).


Murabito-tachi ni shouben wo kakerareta (having been sprinkled with
urine by the villagers /passive voice/) negi-dono wa (Mr. Negi), oogoe wo agete (raised
his loud voice), sawagi tateta (became noisy; sawagitateru).
()Konna urusai mura ni wa
(in such a noisy village), mou oraren (I can't stay anymore; oru).
Tono-sama to kerai-tachi wa (the nobleman and his vassals), akire kaette (in deep
resentment/indignation), nigete itta (ran off) to iu koto da (they say).


Neko to juu ni shi
(the cat and the twelve signs of the eastern horoscope)

()Aru toki (once upon a time: in a certain time),
kami-sama ga (a god = deity) doubutsu-tachi wo yonde (called the animals /participle of
precedence/; yobu), enkai wo hiraku koto ni shimashita (a feast: banquet, junket
decided to arrange; hiraku open; verb + koto ni suru to decide to do something).
()()Enkai no hi (on the
day of the feast), hayaku kita ([the ones who] came early /participle/; kuru come)
mono no jun ni (beings in turn), juu ni hiki wo erande (chose twelve; erabu; hiki
little tail /counter for small animals/), ichi nenkan zutsu (one year for each), ningen
no sekai wo mamoraseru (to make protect the human world: guard /causative mood/;
mamoru) koto ni shitai (want to decide). to, ofure wo dashimashita (made an
announcement = announced; dasu let out, release = on the day of the feast the
twelve animals that come first will be in turn chosen and made to protect the human
world one year each; thats what Ive decided, an announcement was made).


()Soko de (that's why: therefore)
doubutsu-tachi wa (the animals; tachi suffix of plurality), jibun koso ([each] by
themselves; jibun oneself; koso emphasizing particle) ichiban saki ni ikou to (to
be the first to come [was intending to]; ichiban first; saki ahead), enkai no hi wo
matte imashita (and was waiting for the day of the feast /continuous aspect/; matsu + iru
Tokoro ga
(however), neko wa (the cat) enkai no hi wo (on the day of the feast), wasurete shimatta
no desu (had [completely] forgotten /complete aspect/; wasureru + shimau finish; no
substantive particle; desu the link-verb be in the neutrally polite form).
()Komatta naa (that's too bad:
I am in a difficult situation; komaru; naa emphasizing particle). Nezumi ni kiite
miyou (let's try asking the mouse /attemptive aspect/; kiku listen, ask + miru look
/auxiliary verb/).
)()()Neko ga nezumi no tokoro e (the cat to the
mouse's place) kiki ni iku to (when came to ask), nezumi wa waza to (the mouse on
purpose: deliberately) ichi nichi osoi hi wo ([the feast was going to be] one day later
[than scheduled]) oshiemashita (told /her/: taught; oshieru).


()()Sate (so), enkai no hi (on the day of the feast).

no ga osoi ushi wa (the slowly moving bull: cow; aruku walk), massaki ni (first:
earlier than all others) shuppatsu shimashita (was to arrive; shuppatsu suru).
Nezumi wa okurete wa taihen to (with the thought that it would be terrible to be late,
the mouse; okureru), ushi no senaka ni (on the bull's back) tobi notte (jumped; tobu
fly + noru get on /a means of transportation/, a horse, etc.), mon ni tsuku to (when
arrived at the gate) sugu ni tobi orite (immediately jumped off; tobu + oriru get off /a


means of transportation/), ichiban hayaku (the fastest: the earliest), kami-sama no

tokoro e (to the god: god's place) kake tsukemashita (ran up; kakeru run, skip +
tsukeru attach).
()Kami-sama wa (the god) tsuita jun ni (in the same
order as [they] arrived; tsuku), nezumi (the mouse), ushi (the bull), tora (the tiger), usagi
(the rabbit), tatsu (the turtle), hebi (the snake), uma (the horse), hitsuji (the sheep), saru
(the monkey), niwatori (the rooster), inu (the dog), inoshishi (the wild boar) no juu ni
hiki ni (to the twelve), sore zore ([to] each [of the twelve]) ichi nen kan zutsu (year by
year) ningen no sekai wo (the human world) mamoraseru koto ni shimashita (decided to
make [them] protect). ()()()
()Sonna koto to wa shiranai neko wa
(knowing nothing about that, the cat; shiru know), tsugi no hi (the next/following
day), isande (inspired: inspirited, willingly) kami-sama no tokoro e kake
tsukemashita (ran to the god's place).


()Tokoro ga (however), enkai nado

arimasen (there's nothing like a feast /going on/; aru be, exist /refers to inanimate
objects/). ()()()Fushigi ni omotte
([it's] strange, [she] thought; omou think) momban ni kiku to (when asked the

Enkai datte (the feast, was it)? Sore wa kinou da yo (that was yesterday; yo the
particle of emotional emphasis). to, warawarete shimaimashita ([the cat] was laughed
at /passive voice; complete aspect/; warau laugh + shimau).
()Sonna wake de (that's why: in that
sense/for that reason), juu ni shi ni (in the twelve signs /of the eastern horoscope/) irete
moraenakatta neko wa (the cat is not included; ireru admit somewhere, insert +
morau receive), nezumi wo urande (hating the mouse; uramu), ima de mo (even now


= up to date) nezumi wo miru to (upon seeing the mouse) kataki wo utou to ([thinking
of] taking revenge; kataki enemy; utsu hit), oikake mawashite iru no da (is
chasing it /continuous aspect/; oikakeru + mawasu circle around + iru) to iu koto
desu (they say; koto thing, business, affair, deal /substantive particle/).

Nezumi kyou (the mouses sutra; nezumi mouse)
Mukashi (in ancient times/a long time ago), aru tokoro ni (in some place), shinjin bukai
(deep faith = a pious/devout; fukai deep) o-baa-san ga (old woman; o prefix of
respect; san suffix of respect: [honorable] Mr., Mrs.) imashita (lived: was /past
tense form; neutrally polite form/; iru be, exist /refers to animated beings/).


Aru toki (once upon a ttime), tabi no o-bou-san ga (a wandering:
traveling bonze = monk; tabi trip), hito ban tomete hoshii to (for one night I want
you to let me stay [said: saying so] /optative mood/; tomeru + hoshii want to) yatte
kimashita (came: appeared; yattekuru).
()()O-baa-san wa
yorokonde (the old woman, having rejoiced /participle of precedence/; yorokobu)
tomete yari (to stay overnight: to stop by allowed: /permission/ granted /connecting
participle/; tomeru + yaru give, grant /denotes an action performed for the benefit of
another person/), arigatai o-kyou wo (a thanksgiving sutra) agete moraou to
omoimashita (would like to be read for her; kyou wo ageru recite a sutra + morau
receive /denotes an action performed for the benefit of the subject of the sentence;
suppositional mood indicating decision/ + omou think). ()
()()Tokoro ga (however),
kono o-bou-san wa (this bonze), o-kyou nado (the sutra and things like that) hitotsu mo
(not /a single/ one) shiranakatta no desu ([didn't] know; shiru). ()
Komatta ([I am] in trouble; komaru) to omoimashita ga (thought /he/,
but), o-kyou wo shiranai to mo (that I do not know sutra; shiru) iezu (I can't say
/potential mood; negative form/; iu), moji moji shinagara (fidgeting /participle of


simultaneity/; suru do) butsudan no mae ni (in front of the [Buddhist] altar
suwarimashita ([he] sat; suwaru).

()Suru to (then) soko e (over there), nezumi ga ippiki dete kita
node (since one mouse came out; deru come out + kuru come /auxiliary verb
denoting approach in space and time/; ippiki: ichi one + hiki counter for small
animals), o-bou-san wa (the bonze) o-kyou no you na (with a sutra-like) fushi de
(intonation: in a singsong),

On-choro-choro (on-choro-choro), dete korare sourou (coming out = came out

/over here, to me/ /passive voice, used in polite speech/; deru + kuru; souro
corresponds to the currently used ending of verbs -masu /present tense/ and mashita
/past tense/ in the neutrally polite style). to, tonaemashita (said/pronounced; tonaeru).


()Suru to kondo wa (then,

next time) sono nezumi ga (that mouse), ana wo nozoita node (as it looked into the hole:
den; nozoku),
(on-choro-choro), ana nozoki nasare sourou (pleased to look into the hole; nozoku +
nasu do; sourou obsolete verbial suffux be /polite speech/).
()Sore kara (then: after that) nezumi ga
naita node (since the mouse squeaked; naku),
nani yara sasayakare sourou (on-choro-choro, something: somehow pleased/was kind
enough to whisper; sasayaku).
Yagate (soon) nezumi ga itte shimatta
node (as the mouse left /complete aspect/; iku go + shimau finish),
()On-choro-choro, dete ikare
sourou (on-choro-choro, pleased to leave /here/; deru + iku /withdrawal/retreat in time
and space/).


mo shiranai o-baa-san wa (the unaware old woman; shiru), arigatai o-kyou da (it's a
thanksgiving sutra) to omotte (thought; omou) kiite (listened; kiku), o-bou-san wo teinei
ni motenashite (conversing with the bonze politely; motenasu) kaeshimashita (let [him]
go; kaesu).
Sore kara mai ban (since then every evening),
o-baa-san wa butsudan ni mukatte (the old woman with her face turned toward the altar:
facing; mukau) On-choro-choro no o-kyou wo tonaete imashita (the
on-choro-choro sutra was reciting = reading /continuous aspect/; tonaeru + iru).
()Aru ban
(one evening = once upon a time in the evening), dorobou ga (a thief) o-baa-san no ie ni


yatte kimashita (came to the old woman's house; yattekuru).

O-baa-san wa itsumo no you ni (the old woman, as usual),
On-choro-choro, dete korare sourou (on-choro-choro, come out [here]). to, itte
imashita (was saying; iu + iru).

()Dorobou wa
bikkuri shite (the thief got surprised; bikkuri suru), naka wo nozoite mimashita (tried to
look inside /attemptive aspect/; nozoku + miru). Suru to (then),

On-choro-choro, ana nozoki nasare sourou


(on-choro-choro, looked into the hole). to, itta node (because [the old woman] said),
dorobou wa masu masu odoroki (the thief got even more surprised /connecting
participle/; odoroku),

Doushite (why: in what way) ore ga nozoita koto ga (the fact that I
looked in; nozoku) wakaru n darou (did you understand/find out; n /short form of the
no substantive particle/; darou suppositional mood of the link-verb da be). to,
hitori goto wo iimashita (said just one word/thing; iu). Suru to (then),

On-choro-choro, naniyara sasayakare sourou (on-choro-choro, whispered

something). to, iimashita (said she). ()
()()Dorobou wa (the thief) nani kara
nani made (all over: everywhere; nani what /question-word/; kara from; made
to, until), mitoosarete iru (is visible: being watched /passive voice; continuous
aspect/; mitoosu) to omotte (thought; omou), kaeri kakeru to (upon leaving; kaeru
return [home] + kakeru /denotes the beginning of an action/),
()On-choro-choro, dete ikare
sourou (on-choro-choro, [he] left).
Dorobou wa, kondo koso (the thief this particular time /the
occasion/; koso emphasizing particle) kimo wo tsubushite (scared the living daylight


out of him; kimo liver; tsubusu pressure; kimo wo tsubusu get very scared),
inochi karagara ([had] a mirraculous escape /adverb/), nigete ikimashita ([and] ran
away; nigeru + iku) to sa (they say).

Ebi no koshi wa naze magatta ka (why is the shimp's back bent/stooped?; magaru
bend, turn /past tense form, neutral style/)


Mukashi, mukashi (a long time ago; mukashi ancient times), ookina kaeru
ga (a big frog) tambo no naka ni (in the middle of a [rice] field) sunde imashita (was
living /continuous aspect; neutrally polite style/; sumu + iru).
Kono yo ni (in this world) ore-sama hodo
ookikute (as big as I am /medial adjective form/; ookii), erai yatsu wa oran darou (great
being probably doesn't exist; yatsu subject, type; oru be, exist /here: negative
colloquial form/; darou suppossitional mood of the link verb da be). to itte
(having said so /participle of precedence/; iu), itsumo ibatte imashita (was always
boasting: brag, give oneself airs; ibaru +iru).
()Aru hi (on a certain day = once
upon a time), sono kaeru ga (that frog) sekai kembutsu ni (to look at the world = to do
sightseeing of the world) ikou to omoitara (when [it] wanted to go: was going to
/conditional form/; iku + omou think), nossori (drowsily: slowly) tambo kara
haidashimashita (crawled off the field; hau + dasu begin /auxiliary verb/).
Pyokotan pyokotan to hanete iku to (when it was leaping jump by jump;
haneru + iku /withdrawal/retreat in time and space/), ippon no nagai michi ni
deaimashita (it met a wide road/; deau). ()(


Kaeru wa ichi nichi juu (the frog all day long: during
one whole day) sono michi no ue wo (on that road = on that road; ue up) hanete
ikimashita ga (was leaping, but), yagate hi ga kureta node (since the day approached its
end = because it got dark; kureru), michi no ue de (on the road) guu guu nemutte
shimaimashita ([it] fell sound asleep /complete aspect/; nemuru + shimau finish,

()()Akuru asa (next/following morning), me ga

samete (having awoken /participle of precedence/; me ga sameru),
Aa, yoku neta (ah, I slept
well /past tense; neutral style/; neru) to, nobi wo shita totan (as soon as it stretched
itself; suru do; nobi wo suru stretch, stretch oneself),


() Koryaa (hey), washi no senaka no
ue de (on my back), moso moso suru (this wriggling; moso moso suru squirm,
wriggle) yatsu wa (thing), dare jaa (who [is it]). to, kaminari no youna (a stentorian
voice) koe ga shimasu (says/is heard; koe ga suru).
Kaeru wa bikkuri gyoten (the frog got frightened; gyoten scared, frightened,
astounded /two words with synonymous meanings are used in one place for greater
emotional emphasis/). ()()()
Michi da to omotta no wa (what it considered to be the road; think), jitsu wa
(actually/in reality) oohebi datta (was a big snake) no desu (the thing is/that's the thing
/not translated/; no substantive particle + desu link-verb be in the neutrally
polite style).
Ka, kamben shite kuree (ex-excuse me;
kamben suru + kureru give, gift /an action is performed for the benefit of the 1st
()Kaeru wa, ooawatede
nigedashimashita (the frog, very nervous, ran in full flight: ran away; nigeru + dasu).
()Kaeru me
(the /silly/ frog), washi no ookisa ni odoroita na (got scared of my size: surprised;
odoroku). muri mo nai (naturally). ()
Washi datte, jibun ga dono kuri ookii no ka (as far as I'm concerned,


how big am I; ka question particle; jibun oneself; dono kuri [to] which
degree), wakaran (I don't know /myself/; wakaru understand, know).
()()Nanse (after all:
somehow), mada (until now: still/not yet) jibun no shippo wo mita koto ga nai n ja
yo (I haven't seen my own tail: seeing has not happened; miru).

Kono oohebi mo (this big snake also), jitsu wa sekai kembutsu ni iku


tochuu datta no desu (actually, was on its way to see the world; iku go).
()Hebi wa (the snake), ookina
karada wo ([its] big body) zuri zuri to hikizutte ikimashita ga (was dragging, but;
hikizuru + iku /withdrawal/retreat in space and time/), o-hi-sama ga kan kan
teritsukete (Mr. Sun = sun /respectful/ is shining [too] brightly [and it's hot], and; kan
kan onomatopoeic word indicating the hotness of the sun), atsukute tamarimasen
(unbearably hot; atsui hot /medial form/; tamaranai can't stand, unbearable,
() Dokoka ni (somewhere) hikage wa
nai kanou (isn't there a shade; kanou possibly, maybe).
)Suru to to (then) sono toki (at that time), me no mae ni (before /its/
eyes) choudo yoi (the necessary: just the right one) hikage ga hirogarimasita (shade
appeared: spread; hirogaru).
)Chokkura (a little: not long), koko de (here),
hito yasumi (take a rest/have a break; hito one). to, oohebi ga hiru ne wo shite iru to


(when the big snake was taking the afternoon nap /continuous aspect/; suru + iru), kyuu
ni (unexpectedly: suddenly) goutto oto ga shite (a squishing sound was made
/participle of precedence/; oto ga suru), ookaze ga fuki (a strong wind blew /connecting
participle/; fuku), hebi wa sora e (the snake into the sky) fuki tobasarete shimaimashita
(was blown away /passive voice; complete aspect/; fuku blow + tobu fly =
fukitobasu blow off + shimau).

()()(Na, nani ga okottanjaa (wh-what happened;
okoru)? to, omotta totan (as soon as it thought; omou), dosun (with a thump: bang),
to jimen ni ochimashita (on the surface of the earth [it] fell; ochiru).


Soko de (there) hebi ga me ni shita no wa (seen by the snake; me ni suru

notice, see), sora ippai ni hane wo hirogeta (with wings as wide as the sky; sora
sky; ippai full; hirogeru broaden, widen, spread), washi no sugata deshita (was
the figure of an eagle /past tense form of the link-verb desu/). ()
Suzushii hikage wa (a cool/refreshing shadow), kono oowashi no hane no
okage de (was/occurred thanks to this big eagle's wings), kaze wa oowashi no
habataki datta no desu (and the wind was due to its wings flapping).
(terrible and), dekai yatsu da (huge being). Korya, totemo kanawan (hey, I'm not even
close: cannot be compared; kanau be equal to, rival with).
Hebi wa, zuri zuri to nigete ikimashita
(the snake quickly crawled away [making a rustling sound]; nigeru run, escape + iku
/withdrawal in time and space/).

Muffuffu. Suman (sorry; sumanai) ga (), ore hodo ookikute (as big as I am; ore
I /male speech/), rippana mono wa (wonderful [being/thing]; mono thing, man
/substantive particle/) inai wai (not: doesn't exist; iru).


Kono oowashi mo (this big

eagle also) sekai kembutsu ni iku tochuu deshita (was on his way to see the world).
()Tokui ni natte (having gotten proud; naru become) bata bata to
(flap-flap) habataku to (when started flapping his wings), attoiu ma ni umi no ue ni
demashita (at once: immediately, instantaneously over the sea: above the sea flew:
came out, departed; deru).


()()Umi no
ue wo tonde iku (flying over the sea; tobu + iku) uchi ni (while), hane ga tsukarete
kita node (since his wings got tired; tsukareru + kuru come /approach in time and
space/), shita wo miru to (when /he/ looked down), umi no naka kara (from the sea:
from inside the sea) chokon to (straight), bou ga tsuki dete imasu (a stick is/was
protruding above the surface: stand out, stick out; tsukideru + iru /continuous
aspect: result of an action or a continuing state/).
()Washi wa sassoku (the eagle immediately: at once)
sono bou ni tomatte (having landed on that stick /participle of precedence/; tomaru
stop, stay overnight, visit), hito yasumi (a break). Suru to (then),
Koryaa (hey). Soko ni tomatta no wa ([the one who] stopped over there /past
tense/; tomaru; no substantive participle), dare da (who [is it])! to, donaru koe ga
shimashita (a shouting voice was heard).
()()()Sekai ichi ookii (the
biggest in the world), oo washi da (big eagle /it is/).

Nani wo iu ka (what are you


saying?). Ore wa ebi da zo (I am a shrimp; zo exclamatory particle). O-mae wa (you),

ore no hige no ue ni tomatte iru n da (are sitting on my whisker: staying; tomaru +
iru). Sore de (that's why) sekai ichi to wa ([when you say] the biggest in the world),
warawaseru na (don't make me laugh /imperative mood/; na negative particle)!

Sou iu koe to tomo ni (with the voice /that was/ saying so), bou ga nami
no aida kara (the stick from the waves; aida between) dodoutto (suddenly) mochi
agarimashita (rose: appeared; motsu hold + agaru rise).
()Washi wa, sore wo mite (upon seeing that, the eagle;
miru), odoroita no nan no (got scared; odoroku).


()Sore wa
tohou mo naku (that unbelievably: extremely) ookii ebi de (big shrimp being; de
medial form of be), sono katahou no hige no ue ni (on one of its whiskers; kata
one [of the two]; hou side), washi wa tomatte ita no desu (the eagle was
staying; tomaru + iru). ()
Mou katahou no hige wa (the other whisker), haruka tooku ni (somewhere in
the distance: very far) kasunde imasu (can be barely seen; kasumu + iru).
Konna ni ookii yatsu ga umi ni ita to wa (such a big thing/being there was in the
sea /it turnes out/; iru). Osore irimashita (I beg your pardon; osoreiru be confused,
feel guilty)!
Washi wa, tobi tatsu to (when the
eagle took off; tobu fly + tatsu stand), nigete ikimashita (it got away; nigeru +
Kono ebi mo (this shrimp also),
sekai kembutsu ni iku tochuu deshita (was on its way to see the world).
()()Ore-sama wa (I am
king), sekai ichi ookii n ja (the biggest in the world; ichi one).


Ebi wa, jimange ni (the shrimp with pleasure) hige wo furi furi (shaking its
whiskers /adverb/), umi no naka wo (on the sea: in the middle of the sea) noshi aruite
ikimashita (started parading; noshiaruku + iku).

()Yagate yuugata ni
natta node (as the evening approached; naru), doko ka ni tomaru tokoro wa nai ka
(isn't there a place to stay somewhere; nai negative form of the verb aru be,


exist /for inanimate objects/) to sagashite iru to (while looking for [it]; sagasu + iru),
choudo yoi ookisa no (a suitable: just the right size), ana ga arimashita (hole there
was = was found; aru). ()
Sono naka e moguri komu to (when [it] dived in), ebi
wa, sugu ni gussuri to nemutte shimaimashita (the shrimp fell fast asleep /complete
aspect/; nemuru + shimau; gussuri indicates depth of sleep).
()()Akuru asa (the next/following morning), hayaku
()()Kusuguttai naa (it's
tickling). Washi no hana no ana no naka de (inside my nostril = in my nostril), goso
goso shiteiru no wa (moving: rustling; gosogoso suru), dare da (who /is it/)! to iu
koe de (from the voice saying so), ebi wa me ga samemashita (the shrimp woke up).
Urusai na (it's noisy). sekai ichi ookina ebi-sama ga mada o-yasumi n da
(the biggest in the world master shrimp is still resting). Shizuka ni shiro (quiet down)!
()Nani ittoru ka (what are you saying?
/continuous aspect/; iu + oru). Ore wa kujira da zo (I am a whale). O-mae wa, washi no


hana no naka ni haittoru n da (you are in my nostril: entered /resultative aspect/; hairu
+ oru). Namaikina yatsu me (you got the nerve! = you are the self-arrogant type)!

)()()Sou itte (having
said so /participle of precedence/; iu), kujira ga shio wo fuita no de (raised so much
water; shio wo fuku), ebi wa, atto iu ma ni (that the shrimp in an instant), tooi tooi
kuni made (to a far-far-away country) fuki tobasarete shimaimashita (was blown
/passive voice; complete aspect/; fukitobasu + shimau). ()


()()()Ebi ga ochita no wa (what the shrimp landed/fell

on; ochiru) ookina iwa no ue (was the top of a big rock = surface). ()
()()Sono toki (then: at
that time), iya to iu hodo (very much; iya unpleasant; hodo degree) iwa de
koshi wo utte shimaimashita (it hit its back/loin against the rock; utsu + shimau).

Itetetete (it huuurt)! Maitta, maitta

(I surrender, I surrender: lost/gave up; mairu lose, be defeated /past tense; neutral
Sore kara to iu mono (since then the rumor has it; mono thing /substantive particle/),
ebi no koshi wa (the shrimps back) magatte shimatta (is bent; magaru + shimau) to iu
koto desu (that's why they say; koto thing /substantive particle/).


Byoubu no tora
(the tiger on the dividing screen; byoubu dividing screen; tora tiger)

Mukashi mukashi (a long time ago; mukashi ancient times), Ikkyuu to iu (known
as Ikkyuu; iu say), erai bou-sama ga (prominent: great monk: priest) orimashita
(lived /past tense form of the neutrally polite style/; oru obsolete form of iru be
/refers to people and animals/).
()()Kore wa (this), rikou de (clever; de
medial form of the link-verb desu be, neutrally polite style) tonchi no umai (witty:
resourceful; tonchi wit; no of; umai good at, skillful) Ikkyuu-san no (Mr.
Ikkyuus; san, sama suffix of politeness Mr., Mrs), kobouzu no koro no (time as a
novice; kobouzu novice) o-hanashi desu (a story is /about/; o prefix indicating
Ikkyuu-san no tonchi no (about Ikkyuu-san's wit) uwasa wa
(rumors), shougun-sama ni mo (even by shogun-san [feudal lord]) kikoete imashita
(were heard /continuouss aspect, past tense of the neutrally polite form/; kikoeru + iru
be /here: auxiliary verb/).


Yoshi (all right: good), hitotsu (one [time]) Ikkyuu wo korasete
yarou (let Ikkyuu-san come /causative mood; the form indicates probability, invitation
and decision; neutral style/; kuru come + yaru give, gift /auxiliary verb, indicates
that an action is performed by the superior toward the inferior/). to (particle
connecting direct or reported speech with the rest of the sentence), aru hi (once upon a
time; aru a certain, one; hi day), Ikkyuu-san wo yobi yosemashita (Ikkyuu-san
was called = someone called him /in the original sentence the active voice of the verb
yobiyoseru is used/).

Nou Ikkyuu (respectable/honorable Ikkyuu), sochi ni (you) zehi tomo (definitely
= at any cost; zehi surely; tomo emphasizing particle), tanomitai (want to ask;
tanomu) koto ga aru no ja (I've got something I want to discuss with you; aru be,


exist /refers to inanimate objects/; no substantive particle; ja colloquial form of

Sou itte (having said so /participle of precedence/; iu), Ikkyuu-san wo, tora no byoubu
no mae ni (Ikkyuu-san to the dividing screen with a tiger /painted on it/; mae
before/in front of) tsurete ikimashita (took; tsureru accompany, take with oneself +
iku go /here: auxiliary verb denoting withdrawal/retreat in time and space/).
Kono tora ga (this tider), mai ban (every evening) nukedashite (running
away; nukedasu), itazura wo suru node (as it frolics; itazura caper, mischief; suru
do) komatte iru no ja ([I am] in trouble; komaru). ()
Sochi no chikara de (with your power = with the help
of your power), nantoka (somehow) kono tora wo shibatte moraitai ([I] want to get this
tiger tied to something; shibaru + morau receive /indicates that an action is
performed for the benefit of the subject of the sentence/).
E (eh?), kono byoubu no tora wo (this
tiger from the dividding screen)?
()Ikkyuu-san wa me wo maruku
shimashita (Ikkyuu-san made round eyes; marui; suru).


E ni kaita (a painted in the picture; kaku write, draw) tora wo shibaru
(tiger to tie) nante (or something like that /sometimes not translated/), dou kangaete mo
(no matter how /much he/ thought; kangaeru) dekiru wake wa arimasen (impossible;
dekiru can/be able to; wake sense, essence, reason /sometimes not translated/)
()Demo (however), Ikkyuu-san wa
ookiku unazuite (Ikkyuu-san deeply: strongly nodded; unazuku),
()Kashikomarimashita (I hear
you = with pleasure; kashikomaru obey). to, kotaemashita ((he) answered; kotaeru).
Ikkyuu-san wa kiri kiri to
(Ikkyuu-san promptly) nejiri hachimaki wo suru to (a band [made from a twisted towel]
on his head tied; suru do; nejiru twist; nejiri twisted; hachimaki towel,


Shougun-sama, isoide (shougun-sama, quickly: hurriedly;
isogu hurry) tora wo shibaru ([for the sake of] tying the tiger; shibaru tie) nawa
wo (a rope) kashite kudasai (lend me please; kasu). to, iimashita (said /he/; iu).
()()Sore kara (then), byoubu no mae
ni (in front of the dividing screen) tatsu to (when /he/ stood),
Shougun-sama, soko ni
imasu to (shougun-sama, if you stay over there; iru be, exist /refers to people and
animals/) abunou gozaimasu (it's dangerous /polite speech/; abunai dangerous;
gozaimasu link-verb be in the polite style).
()Tora ga abareru (the tiger may get
violent) kamoshiremasen kara (since it's possible), byoubu no ushiro ni (behind the
dividing screen) o-mawari kudasai (walk around/behind [it] = stand please; mawaru).
()Soshite (then), soko
kara (from there) tora wo oidashite kudasaimasen ka (could you please kindly drive the
tiger out; oidasu)


Na, nan ja to! (wh-what /are you saying/!)

()Shougun-sama wa bikkuri shite
(shougun-sama got amazed/stunned/puzzled; bikkuri suru),
Kora Ikkyuu (hey, Ikkyuu), sochi wa (you) e ni kaita tora wo (the tiger
painted in the picture), oidase ([want me to] drive out of there /imperative mood/) to iu
no ka ([is that what you're] saying)?
()Hai (yes), o-negai itashimasu (please [I
make a request]).
natta (turned green; aoi blue, green; naru become) shougun-sama ni


(shougun-sama to) Ikkyuu-san wa, sukasazu iimashita (Ikkyuu-san immediately replied;


Shougun-sama, e ni kaita tora ga (shougun-sama, the tiger painted

in the picture) oidasenai nara (if you don't drive [it] out; oidasu), sono tora wo (that
tiger) shibaru koto mo dekimasen (it is impossible to tie; koto business /substantive
particle; sometimes not translated/; dekiru can).
Uumu (/exlamation indicating dissatisfaction/), maitta
(I lost; mairu).
Sasuga ni (really: indeed!) Ikkyuu-san desu ne
(Ikkyuu-san, that's right, isn't it?).


Jissama no dandappe
(the old mans who-dat)

Mukashi (in ancient times), aru tokoro ni (in some place), jissama ga (an old man;
sama suffix indicating respect Mr., Mrs.), hitori de (by himself = alone; hitori
one person) mazushiku (poorly /adverb/; mazushii poor), kurashite otta (was living
/continuous aspect/; kurasu + oru = iru be).
()Kore to itte (special /fixed expression/; kore this; iu say) torie wa
(merits/virtues) nakatta (didn't have /past tense form of nai, negative form of aru be,
exist /refers to inanimate things/) ga (but), toki tama (sometimes: rarely; toki
Danda (who dat)! (Dare da (who [is that]; da
link-verb be in the neutral style)!) Danda (who dat)! to (particle connecting direct
or reported speech with the rest of the sentence), ookina onara wo suru node (because
he farted loudly; ookina big; onara gas; suru do), sokora de wa (in the area/in


the neighborhood), byouban deatta ([thats what his] fame was: popularity,
reputation; dearu be).
()()Aru toshi (one: in a certain year), tenkou ga
waruku (it was bad weather and /medial form of the adjective warui/), jissama mo mura
de wa (in the old man's village), kome ga (rice), tonto (completely) minoranakatta (there
was a bad harvest of [didn't bear/blossom out at all]; minoru bear fruit, ripen /past
tense; neutral style/).
()()Kono mama
de wa (as is = in this/current condition) kuu mon ga (food; kuu eat; mon = mono
thing) nakute (won't have /medial form of nai/), ikite iken (can't live/survive; ikiru; iken
= ikenai). Tabi ni de mo (at least for a trip), dete miru be (I'll try to go; deru go out +
miru auxiliary verb look /attemptive aspect/). to, jissama wa, furarito (the old
man, without a purpose), dekaketa (set off; dekakeru).


Iku hi mo (about several days [later]) aruki tsuzukete (kept walking; aruku +
tsuzukeru /participle of precedence/), jissama wa, aru machi ni (the old man to some
town), yatte kita (came; yattekuru).
Chouja-don no yashiki no (a rich man's mansion's) mon zen ni (gate in front of;
mon gate), hito dakari ga shite iru (there is/was a crowd; suru + iru /continuous
object/). ()()Nozoite miru to (when [he] tried
looking in; nozoku + miru /attemptive aspect/), hari gami ni (on a notice, an
announcement, a poster),

()()Kome dorobou wo (the rice thief)

toraeta mono ni (who/whoever can catch; toraeru) kin (golden) juu ryou (ten ryo
/ancient Japanese coin denomination/) sashi agetashi (will give /to that person/; sashi
ageru) Tou ke (this: given house: family) aruji (owner = head). to, kaite aru (was
written; kaku + aru /resultative aspect/).


()()()Jissama wa, mon no

naka e (the old man through the gate) haitte itte (entered; hairu + iru /continuous aspect;
participle of precedence/),
()()Kome gura no
(the rice warehouse) bannin sasete kure (let me guard /causative voice + imperative
mood/; suru do + kureru give, gift /indicates that an action is performed for the
benefit of the 1st person/). O-negai da ([I'm] requesting; negau).
()Sou itte (having said so; iu),
nesshin ni (earnestly: diligently), tanomi konda (asked; tanomu + komu /here:
auxiliary verb emphasizing the main action/).
()()Konna jissama ja (such
an old man), yaku ni tatsu ka ne (may come in handy; yaku use, usefulness; tatsu
stand, get up; ka question-particle; ne isn't it so /often untranslated/).


Sore demo (still: nevertheless), sono ban (on that evening), jissama wa, kome no
meshi wo (with a rice meal), hara ippai tabesasete morai (having been fed till /he was/
full /causative mood; connecting participle/; taberu eat + morau receive /indicates
that an action is performed for the benefit of the subject of the sentence/), kome gura no
naka de (inside the rice warehouse), nezu no ban wo suru koto ni natta (became the
night guard/watchman: it so happened that he would guard; suru do; naru
become; koto business /substantive particle; sometimes not translated/).
Hajime no uchi (at first), jissama wa,
isshokemmei (the old man exerted all his effort) me wo akete ita ga (to keep his eyes
open = to stay awake, but; akeru + iru /continuous aspect/), sono uchi (soon), utouto
(half-asleep) nemuku natte kita (dozed off; nemui sleepy; naru + kuru come
/auxiliary verb denoting approach in time and space/).


Makkurayami ni (in complete darkness), nezumi no sawagu (mice's noise: noise
/made/ by mice) oto (sound) shika kikoenai (apart from can't hear = can't hear anything
but mice moving around; kikoeru; shika used with the negative form of the verb).
Jissama wa, tou tou (the
old man eventually), gussuri (sound), nemuri konde shimatta (asleep fell /complete
aspect/; nemurikomu + shimau finish /here: auxiliary verb/).
goro (at about midnight), shizuka ni (quietly), kura no tobira ga (the door of the
warehouse) hiraita (opened; hiraku).


()Sate (well: so), konya

mo (tonight as well), shikkari itadaku ka (can [I] eat well?).
wa (the thief), nareta yousu de (in a familiar way; nareru get accustomed to), kome
dawara ni (on a sack /made of straw/ of rice) te wo kaketa (put his hand; kakeru).
Sono totan (at that moment),


(who dat)! Danda (who dat)! to, yami no naka kara (from the dark), ookina koe (a
loud voice).
Bikkuri shita no nan no (got astonished).
()Dorobou wa (the thief),
toru mono mo torazu (what /he/ could take didn't even take = didn't take anything he
was going to take), ichimokusanni (rashly: headlong), nigete shimatta (ran away
/complete aspect/; nigeru + shimau).
()()Akuru asa (the next/following
morning), jissama wa me wo samashita (the old man woke up; me wo samasu /fixed
expression/; me eye, eyes).
()Hate (hm)? Tobira wa hiraitoru ga (the door is
open; hiraku + oru = iru /resultative aspect/), kome wa (but rice), toraretoran (hasn't
been taken; toru + oru /passive voice + resultative aspect; negative form/). Dou iu wake


jai (what does it mean? wake sense; jai colloquial form of the link-verb). to, kubi
wo kashigeta ([he] tilted his head; kubi head, neck; kashigeru).

wa, mou hito ban (the old man for one more night), kura no ban wo suru koto ni natta
(became the night watchman).
Tokoro ga
(however), jissama, matamoya (the old man again), gussuri nemutte shimatta (fell fast
asleep; nemuru + shimau /complete aspect/).
()Mayonaka ([it's] midnight). ()
()()Dorobou wa (the thief), konya koso


(precisely this night), to, kokoro wo kimete (decidedly; kokoro heart, soul; kimeru
decide), shinobi konde kita (stole into [the warehouse]; shinobikomu + kuru
/approach in space and time/).
Doumo, myouna nioi ga suru na (I
smell something strange).
omotta ga (he thought so, but), kamawazu (without paying attention; kamau worry,
take into consideration), kome dawara ni (on the sack of rice) te wo kaketa (put his
hand; kakeru). ()Sono toki da (at that time = then).

Danda (who dat)!! Danda (who dat)!!

()Jissama ga, nemuri

nagara (the old man in his sleep /participle of simultaneity/; nemuru), ookina onara wo
shita (loudly farted; onara wo suru).


Ammari ookina (rather loud) oto datta node (sound it was because), jissama wa, me
wo samashita (the old man woke up). ()()Mireba (when he
looked /conditional form/; miru), hito kage (a person's shadow [he saw]; hito
Do, dorobou daa (it's... it's a thief)!!
Nigeyou to suru (the intending to run; nigeru /form indicating probability/invitation/ +
to suru going to do something, want to do something) dorobou no ashi ni (thief's leg),
jissama wa, shigami tsuita (the old man grabbed; shigamitsuku). ()
Oogoe wo kiki tsukete (having heard the loud voice /participle of
precedence/; kiku hear + tsukeru attach = kikitsukeru hear, recognize),
kaketsuketa ([the ones that] came running; kakeru run + tsukeru attach) ie no
(household) mono ga (people) minna shite (all together), kome dorobou wo (the rice
thief) shibari ageta (tied up; shibaru + ageru rise/raise /here: auxiliary verb
indicating completeness of an action/).


Jissama wa (the old man), kin juu ryou (the ten golden ryo) to iu (known
as/called) koban (coins; koban ancient Japanese coin denominatio worth one ryo) no
hoka ni (besides/in addition to), go-houbi mo (rewards also; go suffix of respect)
takusan morai (got plenty of /connecting participle/; morau), mura e kaette (returned to
his village /participle of precedence/; kaeru), yutaka ni (in a rich way) nombiri
(carelessly: carefree) kurashita (lived; kurasu) sou ja (so they say; ja colloquial
version of da).


Fundoshi makura
(the pillow with the loincloth;
fundoshi loincloth; makura pillow, head of the bed)

()Mukashi (in ancient times), kanemochi no ie no ([in] a rich
persons house; kanemochi rich person), hitori musume no tokoro e ([living], only
daughter to: daughter; hitori one person; tokoro place) youshi ga kimashita (a
foster son = groom, son-in-law came /past tense form of the neutrally polite style/;
()Kono muko-san (this son-in-law;
san suffix of politeness Mr., Mrs., Ms.), yonaka ni (at night), futon wo haidari
(moving around on the futon/mattress = crawling /repeated action/; hau), makura wo
hazushitari (would slip off the pillow/repeated action/; hazusu), sono nezou no warusa
wa (the bad thing about that sleeping position), taihenna mono desu (terrible thing
is/was = his position while je slept was terrible; desu present/future form of the
link-verb be in the neutrally polite style).
Aru ban (one: on a certain evening),
nyoubou ga iimashita (the wife said; iu).


()Anta (you),
fundoshi de (with the loincloth), makura wo (the pillow), atama ni yuwae tsuketara (tie
to your head /conditional form/; yuwaeru tie to/around + tsukeru attach), dou
deshou (how /about that/; deshou suppositional mood of the link-verb be). Sou
sureba (if you do that /conditional form/; suru), anshin shite ([you would] calm down
/and/ /participle of precedence/; anshin suru), o-yasumi ni naremasu yo (rest/relax:
sleep would be able to /potential voice; polite verb form/; yasumu rest; naru
become; o prefix of politeness; yo exclamatory particle).

wa (the son-in-law), sassoku (immediately), iwareta toori ni (as he was told; iwareru
/passive voice form of iu say/) shite (did /participle of precedence/; suru),
yasumimashita (went to bed/sleep; yasumu).


()()Sate (so), tsugi no asa desu (next morning).

Muko-san wa (the son-in-law), atama
ni makura ga tsuite iru koto wo (thee fact that the pillow is attached to his head
/resultative type/; tsuku cling to, attach + iru be /here: auxiliary verb/), sukkari
wasure (totally: completely forgot /and/ /connecting participle/; wasureru), sono
kakkou de (looking like that), kotatsu ni (by the foot warmer /located under the table/)
atatte imashita (remained /continuous type/; ataru + iru).
Sono sugata wo mita (when his figure saw; miru), shuuto ga (the father-in-law),
bikkuri shite ([he] got surprised; bikkuri suru), musume ni iimashita (he said to his
daughter; iu).

Tondemonai (terribly), baka muko wo (stupid son-in-law) moratte

shimatta mono da (I got /complete aspect/; morau + shimau finish /auxiliary verb/).
O-mae ga (you), fubin de tamaran (I feel unbearable pity for = so much pity that I can't
stand it).
itte (having said so; iu) muko-san wo (the son-in-law), jikka ni (to his own parents's
house: his own family), kaeshite shimaimashita (returned/sent back; kaesu + shimau).


Musume wa (the daughter), kono muko-san ga suki datta node (because
she liked/loved this son-in-law /her husband/ very much), mainichi (every day), naite
(cried and; naku) kurashimashita (lived = lived crying; kurasu).
Soshite (then), nantoka shite (somehow), modotte kite morau (in order for him to come
back; modoru + kuru + morau receive /denotes that an action is performed in the
interest of the subject of the sentence/) houhou wa nai ka to (isn't there some way; ka
question-particle), are kore (this and that = this way and that way) kangaemashita
(thought; kangaeru).


()()Aru hi (once upon atime: on a certain day), ii koto
wo omoi tsuita node ([she] thought of a good thing/way; omoitsuku; omou think +
tsuku cling, attach), sassoku (immediately), muko-san no jikka ni (to the
groom's/husband's parents's house), demukimashita ([she] headed out for; demuku; deru
go out + muku turn).
Naa (well), anta (you), kinjo no hito-tachi ni tanonde (ask neighbors [first] /participle of
precedence/; tanomu; tachi suffix of plurality), makura wo atama ni (pillows to their
heads) yuwae tsukete morai (to tie, ; tsukeru + morau), kore ga (this /is/), kochira no
chihou no (this area's: province; kochira this side, here /indicatory pronoun of
direction/), kiji oi no (pheasant chasing/hunting; kiji pheasant) sugata da (looks:
appearance/image) to ittara (if you say /so/ /conditional form/; iu), kitto (definitely),
chichi mo (my father also), yurushite kureru (will forgive; yurusu + kureru give, gift
/auxiliary verb indicating that an action is performed in the interest of the 1st person/)
ni chigai arimasen (no doubt: unmistakably). (
)()()Sabishii kara (because /it is/I am/ sad:
lonely), douzo (please), ichi nichi mo hayaku (without delaying it for a single day;
hayai fast), kaette kite okure (come back; kaeru + kuru come /denotes approach
in time and space/ + okureru = kureru).


()Sore kara (after that), suu jitsu ga

tachimashita (several days passed; tatsu).
Kanemochi no ie de wa (in the rich man's house), shuuto ga (the
father-in-law), nombiri to (calmly: in a relaxed manner), niwa wo nagamete imashita
(was viewing the garden /continuous aspect/; nagameru + iru).
e (over there), doya doya to (loudly and offhandedly), wakai otoko-tachi ga (young
men) haitte kimashita (came in; hairu + kuru).


Kiji wa (the pheasant), doko da (where is), doko

da (where is).
Hora (look), atchi da (over there). Iya
(no), kotchi da (it's over here).
Dono otoko mo (all men: no matter what man /you take/), minna (everyone),
fundoshi de (with loincloths), makura wo atama ni ([had] pillows to their heads) kukuri
tsukete imashita (attached; kukuru + tsukeru + iru).
()Sore wo mite (having seen that
/participle of precedence/; miru), shuuto ga (the father-in-law), sakebimashita (shouted;

O-mae-tachi (you), sono kakkou wa (looking like that), ittai (so to speak
/sometimes not translated/), dou shita to iu no dai (what's that called = why).


Hei (hey: listen), watashi ra no chihou de wa (in our area; watashi I; ra
suffix of plurality; watashira we), kiji oi wo suru toki wa (when hunting pheasants;
ou chase; toki time), kono youna kakkou de (looking like this), suru no
degozaimasu (do; no substantive particle; degozaimasu the link-verb be in the
polite style). to, wakai shuu ga iimashita (the young men said; shuu crowd, group).
()Okashina fuushuu ga aru
mon ja (there are some strange customs; mon = mono substantive particle; ja = da
the link-verb be in the neutral style). ()
Uchi no muko ga (my son-in-law;
uchi house), onaji kakkou wo shite otta no wa (looked like that: took the same
appearance; suru + oru /= iru/ /continuous type/), kiji oi wo shiyou to shite ita no ka
(was he going to chase pheasants?). ()
Sou to wa shirazu (without knowing that; shiru),


oidashite shimatte (I threw him out; oidasu + shimau /complete aspect/), kawaisouna
koto wo shita wai (pitiful = I did a terrible thing).
Shuuto wa (the father-in-law), sugu ni (at once), muko-san wo mukae ni iku
youni (to go see the son-in-law; mukaeru meet, pick somebody up), musume ni
iimashita (told his daughter).



()()()Mukashi (in ancient times),
Ashigarayama no yama oku ni (deep in Asshigarayama mountains; oku inner part),
Kintarou to iu (known as Kintarou = [the one that goes] by the name of Kintarou; iu
say) genkina otoko no ko ga (a healthy: energetic boy; otoko man; ko child)
imashita (lived /past tense form in the neutrally polite style/; iru be, exist /refers to
people and animals/). ()()()
Akambou no toki kara (since he was a baby) chikaramochi de (being
strong/a hero; de medial form of the link-verb da be in the neutral style), haihai
shinagara (shouting hey-hey /participle of simultaneity/; suru do) ishi usu ni
musunda ([he] wrapped around a mortar; musubu) himo wo hippatte (a rope and pulled
on it; hipparu), ishi usu wo ugokashimashita (and dragged/moved the mortar; ugokasu).
()()Kintarou no
tomodachi wa (Kintarou's friends), yama no doubutsu-tachi desu (mountain animals
are/were; tachi suffix of plurality; desu link-verb be in the neutrally polite style).

Yama e iku to (when he went to the mountains), shika (the deer), usagi
(rabbits/hares), tanuki (Japanese raccoons/raccoon-like dogs), saru (monkeys), kitsune
(foxes), risu-tachi ga (squirrels) atsumatte kimasu (gathered; atsumaru + kuru come
/auxiliary verb denoting approach in space and time/). ()


()Kintarou wa, mainichi doubutsu-tachi to

(Kintarou every day together with the animals) asonde (played /participle/; asobu)
kurashimashita (lived = played and lived/lived playing; kurasu).

()Mukou no o-yama made (to

that mountain over there/the opposite mountain; made to/up to/until), kakekko
shiyou yo (let's have a running contest!; kakekko suru; yo exclamatory particle).
Youi, don (get ready, go! /colloquial forms/).
Essa, hoisa, essa, hoisa /interjections/).
Kakekko demo (even at running),
Kintarou ga ichiban desu (Kintarou is/was the best; ichi one/first, ban number).
()()Tsugi wa (and now; tsugi next),
nani shite (doing what = how; suru) asobou ka (shall we play? ka question-particle).


O-sumou (sumo; o prefix of respect) shiyou yo

(let's do /form denoting probability and invitation/; suru).
Yoshi kita (ok). Yarou yarou (let's do it; yaru
()()()Ki no eda
de (with a tree branch), jimen ni (on the ground) ookina maru wo kakimashita (drew a
big circle; kaku write, paint). ()Dohyou desu (it's a [sumo] ring).

Hakkeyoi, nokotta nokotta (/traditional

sumo cry/watchword used by the referee before the beginning of a match/; hakkeyoi


interjection the referee uses to holler the wrestlers; nokotta match not over;
nokoru remain).
Doubutsu-tachi to (with the animals) tanoshiku asonde iru to (when merrily palyed;
asobu + iru /continuous aspect/), totsuzen (abruptly: suddenly) Uoo to iu
(sounding like whoa; iu say), unari goe ga shite (roaring could be heard and
/participle of precedence/), rambou mono no kuma ga (a violent bear; mono man,
person) dete kimashita (appeared; deru come out + kuru come /denotes approach
in time and space/).
()()Kintarou, washi to (Kintarou, with
me) sumou wo torou (wrestle /form denoting invitation and probability/; toru take).
Sono kawari (in exchange: instead of that), o-mae ga maketara (if you lose
/conditional form/; makeru), washi no kerai ni naru n da zo (you will become my vassal;
n = no substantive particle; zo exclamatory particle).
Ii tomo (settled: good; ii good), saa koi (then,
come/let's do it; kuru)!
Doubutsu-tachi wa (the animals),
()Dotchi ga katsu ka na (who will win [are


Kintarou-san, gambatte ne (Kintarou-san, hold on: do your best; gambaru). to,
chotto shimpai gao desu ([the animals] are a little anxious: worried; kao face).

Iyo iyo (at last) o-sumou ga

hajimarimashita (the sumo /match/ started; hajimaru).
Hakkeyoi, nokotta nokotta.
()()Yama no (of mountain)
yokozuna doushi no (champions between; doushi each other) tatakai desu (a battle it


is = it is a battle between [two] mountain champions). ()

()Kintarou wa (Kintarou), kao wo makka ni shite (made a
bright-red face = his face turned bright red) gambarimasu (he is doing his best;
gambaru). Kuma mo (the bear also), fumbarimasu (won't give
in: standing firm; fumbaru).
()Ouryaa! to (orya!), kiai to tomoni (with a shout:
outcry) tou tou (finally) Kintarou ga, kuma wo (Kintarou the bear) nage tobashite
shimaimashita (threw far /complete aspect/; nageru throw + tobasu move far +
shimau). Kuma wa (the bear),

()Maitta, maitta (I lost, I lost; mairu).

Kousan shimasu (give up/surrender; kousan suru). Kore kara wa (from now on; kore
this) nan demo (everything/anything; nan = nani question-word what)
Kintarou-san no iu koto wo (Kintarou-san says; koto business /substantive particle/)
kikimasu (I will listen to = obey; kiku). to, iimashita (said [the bear]; iu).


Jaa (well),
minna ni (everyone) rambou shitari (abusing/being violent to and /repeated action/; suru
do), ijimetari shinai ka (flouting/teasing you wont do?; ijimeru; ka question
Shimasen (I won't; suru), shimasen (I won't).
Kou shite (so = in this way), kuma mo
(the bear also) nakama ni narimashita (became a friend; naru).
()Aru hi no koto (one day), risu ga (a squirrel),
Kintarou-san, mukou no yama e (Kintarou-san, to the mountain on the other side),
kuri hiroi ni ikou yo (let's go pick chestnuts; hirou pick, gather; iku go).
Yoshi, ikou (all right, let's go; iku)!


Doubutsu-tachi wa (the animals), minna genki yoku (everyone readily; yoi = ii good)
dekakete ikimashita (set off; dekakeru + iku /denotes withdrawal/retreat in time and

Tokoro ga (however), gake no tokoro made (the place where /there was/ a
precipice) iku to (when [they] reached), kawa ni kakatte ita (across the river; kakaru +
iru; kawa river) hashi ga arimasen (there was no bridge = the bridge disappeared; aru
be, exist /refers to inanimate objects/). ()
Arashi ni (by the windstorm) nagasarete shimatta no deshou (was blown away
probably /passive voice; complete aspect/; nagasu + shimau). (


)Kore de wa (that's why; kore this) mukou gishi ni (to the

opposite bank) wataremasen ([we] can't get/cross /potential aspect/; wataru).
Komatta naa (that's too
bad; komaru experience difficulties). to, minna ga tameiki wo tsuku to (when
everyone sighed /fixed expression/; tameiki breath),
()Youshi (ok), hashi wo tsukutte yarou
(let's make a bridge; tsukuru make, cook + yaru do).
()()()Kintarou wa kou
itte (Kintarou, having said so; iu), chikaku ni (a nearby) haete ita (growing; haeru + iru)
ookina ki wo (big tree) hikkonukou to (was about to tear up; hikkonuku tear up with
the root), ryou te de (with both hands) hippari hajimemashita (started pulling; hipparu +
Uun, uun.
Suru to yagate (soon after), mishi mishi, bari bari to oto ga shite
(making mishi-mishi, bari-bari sounds /participle of precedence/; oto ga suru), ki
no ne ga (the root of the tree) nuke hajimemasu (started to get pulled out; nukeru +


Eei, eei (hey, hey).

()Kintarou ga, chikara
ippai (Kintarouwith all his might; chikara power; ippai full, to the brim) ki wo
hipparu to (when pulled the tree up), dossuun to (with a thump), tou tou ookina ki ga
(finally the big tree) nemoto kara nukete shimaimashita (got separated from its root;
nukeru + shimau).
Kintarou-san te, sugoi naa (Kintarou-san, you
are amazing: cool; sugoi great).


Arigatou, Kintarou-san (thank you,

()Minna wa, kuchi guchi ni (everybody
in unison; kuchi mouth) homemashita (praised; homeru).
)Kintarou wa, sono ki wo (Kintarou that tree) kawa no mukou
gishi e watashite (on the other river bank put: handed over; watasu), maruki bashi wo
tsukurimashita (and made a bridge from the log; tsukuru).
Saa, kore de yoshi (well, that will do).
Watareru yo ([we] can cross over /potential aspect/; wataru)
()()Minna wa
hashi wo watatte (everyone used the bridge /to cross the river/; wataru), kuri hiroi ni
ikimashita (and went to gather chestnuts; iku).


Kono yousu wo (this spectacle/event), mono kage kara (from a hide-out) kossori mite
ita (surreptitiously watching /continuous aspect/; miru look, see + iru) hito ga
imashita (a man was; iru). ()
()()Miyako no (from the capital) erai o-samurai ga
(a prominent = high-ranking samurai), o-tomo wo tsurete (with his escort/suite; tsureru
accompany), yama e (to the mountains) kari ni (for hunting = to hunt) kite ita no
desu (the one who came being = he came /resultative aspect/).
()()Sugoi otoko no ko ga iru (there is an
amazing boy).
O-samurai wa bikkuri
shite (the samurai, in amazement), o-tomo ni iimashita (told his escort; iu).
tomo (certainly: definitely), ano otoko no ko wo (that boy), watashi no kerai ni (to
[join] my vassals) hoshii mono da (I want; mono thing /substantive particle/).


Kou shite (in this way), Kintarou wa miyako e
(Kintarou to the capital) noboru koto ni nari (rose = moved: it so happened that he
moved ; koto business /substantive particle/; naru become /connecting
particle/), nochi ni wa (then: some time later), Sakata-no Kintoki to na wo aratamete
(having changed his name to Sakata-no Kintoki /participle of precedence/; aratameru),
taisou tsuyoi (extremely strong), rippana o-samurai ni natta (wonderful: luxurious
samurai became; naru) to iu koto desu (they say).


Ama zake (sweet sake;

amai sweet; sake Japanese rice wine)

Mukashi ni koto (in ancient times; koto business/thing

/sometimes not translated/). ()
Aru yama dera ni (in one temple in the mountains; yama mountain; tera
Buddhist temple), kechimbouna (a greedy) oshou-sama ga (bonze; sama = san suffix
of respect Mr., Mrs., Ms.) otta (lived: was /past tense form of the neutral style/; oru
= iru).
Oshou-sama wa (the bonze) nani ga sukikatte (no matter what he liked), ama zake
hodo (as much as the sweet sake; hodo degree) sukina mono wa nakatta to (he didn't
like anything = no other thing was dearer to him than sweet sake; nai negative form
of the verb aru be, exist /refers to inanimate objects/). ()
()()Ama zake wo (the sweet sake),
mainichi asa ni (every day; asa morning) ippai (one drink/portion), ban ni ippai (in
the evening one drink).. Sore demo
(nevertheless: in spite of that) mada (still/not yet) akinakatta (wouldnt get bored:
wouldnt get full of it; akiru) sou na (it seemed).
Konna umai mono (such a delicious
thing), dare ni mo yaren (I won't give to anyone; yaru).


Oshou-sama wa, kozou ni (the bonze with a novice) hito kuchi mo (not even one drink;
kuchi mouth) wakete yarou to shinakatta ([didn't] want to share; wakeru + yaru
give /form indicating probability and invitation/ + to suru to be going to do
something, to want to do something/; suru do). ()
()Keredo (but), sasugani (actually)
ki ga hikete (embarrassed: shy; ki ga hikeru be timid, bashful /fixed expression/),
yoku (frequently), hitori de (by himself; hitori one person), oshiire ni kakurete
(hiding in the closet; kakureru) nonda (drank; nomu).

Umai, umai (delicious, delicious). Aa,

umai (ah, delicious).


()Kozou wa chanto (the novice

properly = well), sore wo shitte ita (knew about it /continuous aspect/; siru + iru be).
Itsuka (someday), oira mo (me too), ama zake wo (sweet sake) hara ippai (to my
content: till [I] get full; hara belly; ippai full), nomitai mono da (I want to drink
/optative mood/; nomu; mono thing /substantive partice/; da present/future form
of the link-verb be in the netral style).
()Aru toki (once; toki
time), oshou-sama wa, kozou wo yonde (the bonze, after calling the novice /participle
of precedence/; yobu),
()Choito (a little)
soko made (over there: up to there), tsukai ni itte kite okure (run an errand; iku go
+ kuru come + okuru gift /auxiliary verb indicating that an action is performed in
the interest of the first person/).
Hai, oshou-sama (yes, master/superior/bonze).
()Kozou wa, totto to (the novice
without delay), dekakete itta (set off; dekakeru + iku go /auxiliary verb denoting
withdrawal/retreat in time and space/).


Oshou-sama wa, nimmari waratta (the

bonze smiled widely: happily; warau laugh, smile).
Yare, kore de (yes, now; kore this), kozou wa inai shi (there's no novice here
and; iru be, be located /refers to people and animals/), yukkuri (leisurely: slowly)
ama zake ga ajiwaeru wai (I can enjoy the taste of sweet sake /potential aspect/; ajiwau;
wai particle used in colloquial speech).
wa, atsu atsu no ama zake wo (the priest/bonze very hot sake; atsui hot) chawan ni
tsuida (poured into a cup; tsugu). ()()
Koko de omowazu (here by accident: not on purpose; omou think), itsumo no kuse
ga deta (his usual habit showed itself; deru come out; itsumo always).
()()()()Sotto (quietly) oshiire no to
wo akete (having opened the door of the closet; akeru), naka e haitta (entered inside;


hairu). Pishiri to (with a slam), to wo shimeta (closed the door;

Dokkari (heavily: squab) koshi wo orosu to (when he sat down; koshi back,
loin; orosu lower), ama zake wo fuu fuu fuki nagara (blowing at the sweet sake
foo-foo /participle of simultaneity/; fuku), yukkuri nonda (drank it slowly; nomu).
()Kyou no wa (today's [sake]; no
substantive particle), tobikiri (unusually) ii aji ja (good taste has/is; ja colloquial
form of the link-verb da).


()()Yagate (soon after), omote de

(outside: in the yard; omote surface, exterior) kozou no koe ga shita (the novice's
voice was heard; koe ga suru).
Tada ima, oshou-sama (here I am/Im back,
master; tada ima now, just now).
()Are (ah: oops!), mou kaette kita
no kai (returned already?; kaeru + kuru return /denotes approach in space and time/;
kai = ka question-particle).
()Oshou-sama wa, iki wo hisometa (the
bonze held his breath; hisomeru hold /ones breath/, keep something hidden).

Oya, oshou-sama (hello, master)?

O-rusu ka na (are you not here?; o prefix indicating respect; rusu absence).
wa, hondou yara (the novice both in the main building of the temple; yara both, and
/conjunction/), oku no heya yara (and in the rooms inside), achi kochi sagashita (here
and there searched; sagasu). ()()
Kozou ga kokubi wo kashigeru no wo (the novice tilting
his head; no substantive particle; kubi neck, head) mite ita (was watching
/continuous aspect/; miru + iru) nezumi ga (a mouse), kusuri to waratta ([and it]
giggled; kusuri to warau; kusuri [making a] giggling sound).


Shimeta (great!)!
()()Totsuzen (suddenly), kozou
wa pachin to (the novice loudly) te wo utta (clapped his hands; utsu hit).
()()Kou iu toki
koso (right now), ama zake wo nomeru janai ka (can't I drink sweet sake /potential
aspect/; nomu).
Kozou wa, iso iso to (thee novice anticipatingly) ama zake wo tsukutte (prepared sweet
sake; tsukuru cook, make), chawan ni sosoida (poured it into a cup; sosogu).
()Hootto ii kaori
ga tadayotte (an exceptionally good smell scent floated [in the air] and /participle of


precedence/; tadayou), kozou wa ikudo mo (the novice many times: often), shita
namezuri (licked/licks his lips; shita tongue).
Mitsukattara taihen da (if [he] found me, it would be tough/terrible;
mitsukaru be found /conditional form/). Oshou-sama no you ni (like the bonze),
oshiire de nomu to shiyou (in the closet let's drink).

()Oshiire wo
aketa ([the one who] opened the closet door; akeru) kozou wa (novice), hyaa (ah)!
Bikkuri gyouten (got surprised). ()()
Naka de wa (inside) oshou-sama ga, kuchi wo anguri aketa mama (the
bonze with his mouth open; kucchi wo anguri akeru open one's mouth in amazement;


akeru open; mama as is).

Kozou wa, nigedasu koto mo dekizu (the novice, not even able to get
away; dekiru can; nigedasu: nigeru run away + dasu start to), tossa ni
(instantly) chawan wo sashidashite (offered the cup; sashidasu),
Hai, oshou-sama, o-kawari (yes, master,
a refill; kawari exchange, one more portion)!
()Sakki no nezumi ga (the mouse
from before = the mouse that was recently mentioned), oowarai shita to (laughed
outloud [they say]).

Kurage no hone nashi

(the jellyfish's bonelessness= why the jellyfish has no bones;


kurage jellyfish; hone bone)

Mukashi mukashi (a long time ago; mukashi ancient times), umi ni (in the sea)
ryuu guu ga (a dragon's palace) atta koro no (when was, about that time; aru be, be
situated /refers to inanimate objects/) o-hanashi desu (the story is; o prefix indicating
respect; desu present/future form of the link-verb verb be; neutrally polite style).
Ryuu guu no ou-sama no (the dragon palace's king's; sama = san suffix indicating
respect Mr., Mrs., Ms.) hitori musume ga (one daughter; hitori one person),
byouki ni narimashita (became ill; byouki disease; naru become /past tense;
neutrally polite style/). ()
Soko de (that's why), uranai shi wo yonde (having called fortune tellers /participle
of precedence/; yobu), uranatte moraimashita (heard some predictions; uranau + morau
receive /auxiliary verb indicating that an action is performed in the interest of the
subject of the sentence/). Suru to (then), uranai shi wa (one
fortune teller),
Kono byouki wa (this disease), saru no kimo wo (with monkey liver)
tabesasenakereba (if [a person is] not fed /causative aspect; conditional form/; taberu),
naorimasen (won't be cured; naoru). to, iu no desu (said so; no= n substantive


Doumo (completely: very),

taihenna koto ni natta mono desu (terrible the state of affairs became; naru; mono
thing, something /substantive particle; often not translated/). ()()
Umi no naka desu kara (because
in the sea; naka in, inside), saru toka (a monkey or), usagi toka iu mono wa (a rabbit
[things called that]) imasen (aren't present; iru be, be located /refers to people and
animals/). ()()
()Shikashi (however), nantoka shite
(somehow) musume no byouki wo (the daughter's disease) naoshitai to omotta ([the one
who] wanted to cure; naosu /optative aspect/; omou think) ou-sama wa (king), kame
wo yonde (having called the turtle; yobu), iimashita (said so; iu).


O-mae wa (you) umi no naka ni mo (both in

the sea; mo also) sumeru shi (can live and /potential aspect/; sumu; shi both and
/copulative connecting clauses with similar content/), riku ni agatte mo (after coming up
to the land; agaru) ikirareru (can live /potential aspect/; ikiru). Ryou hou no sekai wo
(both worlds) shitte iru (knowing /continuous aspect/; shiru + iru) o-mae ni (you), zehi
tomo (definitely: certainly), saru no kimo wo (a monkeys liver) totte kite moraitai (I
want [you] to bring /optative mood/; toru take + kuru come /denotes approach in
space and time/ + morau).
Wakarimashita (I
understand; wakaru). Watashi ga (I) sagashite mairimashou (shall go search for it;
sagasu + mairu go /verb used in polite speech; suppositional mood/).

Kame wa (the turtle), nami no ue wo (on waves) oyogi watatte (having


crossed [the sea] /participle of precedence/; oyogu swim + wataru cross over), aru
shima e to (to some: to a certain island) yatte kimashita (arrived; yatte kuru).
()Soshite (then) saru wo mitsukeru to (when [it]
found a monkey),
Saru-san (Ms. Monkey), dou desu (how [are you)]?). Ryuuguu wo kembutsu
ni (a dragon's palace to look at) itte mimasen ka (wouldn't you [like to] go /attemptive
aspect/; iku + miru look /here: auxiliary verb/).
to iu no wa (what's called a monkey), totemo mono zuki de (being very curious), shiri
tagari ya na no desu (wanted to know everything). Saru wa
yorokonde (the monkey rejoiced; yorokobu),
()()Ichido (one time),
itte mitai to omotte ita n da (thought that it wanted to go and see it; omou think + iru
/continuous aspect/).
Sore jaa (well then), tsurete itte agemashou (I'll take you; tsureru + iku +
ageru give, grant /indicates that the subject of the sentence performs an action for
the sake of another person/). Watashi no senaka ni (on my back) o-nori nasai (get on,
please /polite request/; noru get on /a means of transportation, a horse, etc./).


()()()Saru ga kame no senaka ni notte (the
monkey got on the turtle's back and; noru), shikkari tsukamatte iru to (while holding on
tightly; tsukamaru + iru), atto iu ma ni (in a blink of an eye: momentarily) ryuu guu
ni tsukimashita (arrived in the dragon's palace; tsuku).
Kira kira to kagayaku (shining brightly), subarashii goten desu
(wonderful: beautiful palace it is). ()
Kame wa, sono goten no mon no tokoro ni (the turtle, by the gate of that
palace; tokoro place) saru wo orosu to (let the monkey off),


()()Saru-san, chotto (Ms. Monkey, a little),
koko de matte ite kudasai (wait here please; matsu + iru). to, saru wo oite (having left
the monkey; oku), naka e haitte ikimashita (entered inside; hairu + iku
/withdrawal/retreat in space and time/).
()Saru wa (the
monkey), kyoro kyoro to (goggling /adverb/), atari wo mimawashite imashita (was
looking around; mimawasu + iru). ()
()()Suru to (then), momban wo shite
iru (the serving as a guard; suru do) kurage ga (jellyfish), saru no kao wo mite wa
(looking at the monkey's face; miru), niya niya waraimasu (is/was smirking: smiling
slyly; warau laugh, smile).


Nande (why), ore no kao wo mite (looking at my
face) niya niya warau n da (are you smirking). Shitsurei ja nai ka (it's rude, isn't it; ka
question-particle). to, saru ga iimasu to (when the monkey said; iu),
()()Saru-san, kimi wa
(Ms. Monkey, you) nani mo shiranai no kai (don't you know anything; shiru know)?
Nani wo dai (what)?
()Ou-sama no hitori musume no
o-hime-sama ga (the princess king's only daughter), byouki de (being sick; de
medial form of the link-verb be), saru no kimo wo tabenakya (if [she does] not eat a
monkey's liver; taberu) naoranai n desu yo ([she] won't get healthy; naoru; yo
exclamatory particle). Sore de (that's
why), kimi ga koko e tsurete korareta n desu (you were brought here /passive voice/;
tsureru + kuru) ()() Kimi no inochi mo (and
your life), nagaku wa nai yo (isn't long = your days are numbered; nagai long).
Kurage ni kou iwarete
(having been told so by the jellyfish /passive voice/; iu say), saru wa odorokimashita
(the monkey got scared; odoroku). ()Soko e


(over there), kame ga mukae ni (the turtle to pick [the monkey] up; mukaeru) dete kite
(came out /participle of precedence/; deru + kuru),
Saa (so), saru-san (Ms. Monkey),
kochira e douzo (this way please).

()Saru wa (the
monkey), kame ni tsuite (following the turtle; tsuku) ikinagara (going /participle of
precedence/; iku), nani ge nai yousu de (nonchalantly),


(Ms. Turtle), chotto shimpaina koto ga aru n desu ga (there's one thing that worries me;
koto business).
Nan desu ka (what is it)?
(somehow) o-tenki ga yokunai you desu (it looks like the weather isn't so good; yoi = ii
good). Jitsu wa (actually) yama no ki ni (on a tree in the mountains), kimo wo
hoshita mama de (I left my liver to dry up; hosu dry; mama as is, in the same
condition) kite shimatta n desu ga (and came /complete aspect/; kuru + shimau finish
/auxiliary verb/), konna o-tenki nara (since its this kind of weather), kimo wo motte
kuru n datta ([I'd better] go bring my liver). Ame ni nureru to (if it gets wet in the rain),
kimo wa (the liver), tokechau n desu yo (will dissolve: melt; tokechau = tokeru +
shimau /complete aspect/).
()Kore wo kiku to (upon hearing that),
kame wa gakkari shite (the turtle got upset: disappointed; gakkari suru),
)Nan da (what (is the matter)?), kimo wo oite (having
left the liver; oku) kita tte (came, you're saying). Jaa, shikata ga nai (well, it can't be


helped: nothing to do; shikata way of doing). Mou ichido (one more time) tori ni
ikimashou (let's go to take it; toru; iku).

mata (then again), senaka ni saru wo nosete (having put the monkey on the back;
noseru), shima e modorimashita ([they] returned to the island; modoru).
Saa, saru-san (so, Ms. Monkey), tsukimashita yo (we have arrived;
tsuku). Ooisogi de (very quickly: immediately) kimo wo totte (take the liver and;
toru) kite kudasai (come, please).


Doumo, go-kurou-sama (thank you for taking the

trouble /fixed expression/; kurou difficulties, trouble, bother).
Saru wa sou iu to (when the monkey
said so), yama e nigete itte ([she] ran to the mountains; nigeru + iku), ichiban takai ki no
(the tallest tree) eda ni (branch) nobotte (climbed; noboru), niya niya shite imashita (and
was smirking; niya niya suru + iru /continuous aspect/).
Kame wa (the turtle), saru ga (the monkey) itsumademo (endlessly
= no way) modotte konai node (because isn't coming back; modoru + kuru),
Saru-san (Ms.
Monkey), ittai (actually speaking) dou shita n desu (what happened?). to, yobimashita
(called; yobu). Suru to saru wa (then the monkey),
Umi no naka ni wa (in the sea), yama wa nashi (there are no mountains). Karada
no soto ni (out of the body: outside), kimo wa nashi (there is no liver).


()()()Kore wo
kiku to (upon hearing this), kame wa (the turtle), kitto kurage ga (it must have been the
jellyfish) o-shaberi shita (that revealed it; shaberu) ni chigainai (without a doubt) to
omotte (thought so; omou), hara wo tatete (got angry; hara wo tateru /fixed expression/),
ryuu guu e kaerimashita (returned to the dragon's palace; kaeru).
shite (in such a way) kurage wa (the jellyfish), tsuge guchi shita (for revealing the
secret: for spilling the beans) batsu toshite (as a punishment; batsu punishment),
hone wo nukareta (had bones removed /passive voice/; nuku) tame ni (because of: as a
result, as a consequence of), ima no you ni (as in the present day), gunya gunya no
(soft: lax) karada ni natte shimaimashita (body became; naru + shimau) to sa (they


E sugata nyoubou
(the wife from the painting; e painting; sugata figure, looks, appearance)

()Mukashi (in ancient times), aru mura ni (in one village),
Yohei-san to iu (the one that was known as/the one that went by the name = a person
called Yohei-san; iu say; san, sama suffix indicating respect Mr., Mrs./Ms.)
wakamono ga (young man: youth) hitori de (by himself; hitori one person) sunde
imashita (was living /continuous aspect; past tense form; neutrally polite form/; sumu +
iru be /here: auxiliary verb/).
()()()()Aru yo (one
night = once upon a time at night), tonton to (knock-knock), to wo tataku oto ga suru


node (because there was a sound of knocking at the door) akete miru to (when [he] tried
to open it /attemptive aspect/; akeru + miru look /here: auxiliary verb/), utsukushii
onna no hito ga (a beautiful woman; hito person) tatte imashita (was standing
/continuous aspect/; tatsu + iru).
()()()Ichi ya no
yado wo (for one night to stay; ichi one), o-negai shitai no desu ga (I want to ask;
o-negai a request; o prefix indicating respect; negau to request; suru do; no
= n substantive particle /not translated/; desu link-verb be neutrally polite
style; present/future tense form; ga but/).
Kamaimasen (that's ok: no problem;
kamau worry). Saa (well: so), douzo (please = come on in).
Onna no hito wa (the woman), hito ban tomatte (after staying for one
night /participle/; tomaru), tsugi no hi ni natte mo (even though the next day came;
naru), mada (still/not yet) kaerou to shimasen (has no intention of leaving /form
indicating probability and invitation + to suru be going to do something, to want to
do something/; kaeru). ()()
Futsuka (two days), mikka to (three), hi
ga sugite (days passed; sugiru), tou tou (finally: at last) onna no hito wa (the woman),
Yohei-san no o-yome-san ni narimashita (became Yohei-san's bride = became his wife;



()Yohei-san wa (Yohei-san),
ureshikute tamarimasen (is/was awfully glad: so happy that he couldn't take it; ureshii
happy, merry). ()
Demo (but), komatta koto ni (the trouble was = unfortunately; komaru
experience difficulties; koto thing /sometimes not translated/) Yohei-san wa
(Yohei-san), o-yome-san ga utsukushi sugiru node (as the wife was too beautiful; sugiru
in excess, exceedingly), itsumademo (endlessly), kao ni mitorete ite (admiring her
face /continuous aspect/; mitoreru + iru), hatake e (to the field) ikou to shinai no desu
(doesn't want to go; iku). ()


O-yome-san no kao ga mienai to (when he can't see his wife's face; mieru
be visible), sabishikute tamaranai no desu ([he is] terribly: unbearably sad; sabishii).
Soko de (that's why), o-yome-san wa kangaete (the wife, having
thought [about it] /participle of precedence/; kangaeru), jibun no kao wo (her own face),
kami ni (on paper) kaite moraimashita (had painted = somebody painted it for her; kaku
write, draw + morau receive /indicates that an action is performed in the interest
of the subject of the sentence/).
()()Saa (so), kore wo
motte (take this = with this; motsu have, hold) hatake e o-iki nasai (go to the field;
Koryaa (this /colloquial form of kore wa/), sokkuri
da (an exact copy: carbon copy /adverb/).
Yohei-san wa (Yohei-san), yatto
(finally) unazukimashita (nodded; unazuku).


()()Sore kara (since then) mainichi (every day),
Yohei-san wa, o-yome-san no e wo (Yohei-san his wife's image = portrait) futokoro ni
irete (in his bosom; ireru), hatake ni ikimashita (went to the field; iku).

O-yome-san ga soba ni ite kureru (the wife is nearby; iku + kureru give, grant
/indicates that an action is performed by the 2nd or 3d person in the interest of the first
person/) you de (as if), harikitte (gladly: enthusiastically) hatarakimashita (worked;
hataraku). ()()()()
()Soshite toki doki (and
from time to time), shigoto no te wo yasumete wa (taking a break: letting his hands
relax; te hand; yasumeru; shigoto work), futokoro kara (from the bosom) e wo
dasu to (when [he] took out the painting), nagamete wa (looking: admiring;
nagameru), nikkori shite imashita (was smiling; nikkori suru + iru).


Tokoro ga (however), aru hi no koto (once upon a time: it
happened one day), Yohei-san ga e wo nagamete iru to (when Yohei-san was admiring
the painting), tsuyoi kaze ga fuite kite (a strong wind blew and; fuku + kuru come
/here: auxiliary verb indicating approach in time and space/), atto iu ma ni (in one
instant), e wo (the painting), pyuutto (sound with which something gets blown away by
the wind), saratte itte shimaimashita (got blown away /complete aspect/; sarau + iku
go /indicates withdrawal/retreat in time and space/ + shimau finish).

E wa, kaze ni tobasarete (the painting taken away by the wind /passive


voice/; tobu fly /intransitive verb/; tobasu let fly, blow away /transitive verb/),
hira hira to (flying: fluttering /adverb/) o-shiro no niwa ni (to a castle's garden)
ochimashita (fell; ochiru). ()()()
()Sono e wo mita ([the one who] saw that painting; miru)
tono-sama wa (nobleman: master), onna no hito no kao ni (by the woman's face)
uttori shite (raptured),
utsukushii hito da (what a beauty: beautiful person). Sugu ni (immediately = at once)
koko e (here) tsurete maire (bring: take /imperative mood/; tsureru accompany +
mairu go, ride).
()()Kerai-tachi wa (the vassals;
tachi suffix of plurality), awatete (in a hurry; awateru be anxious, hustle), achi
kochi (here and there) sagashi ni (to search; sagasu) dekake (set off /connecting
participle/; dekakeru), tou tou (at last), Yohei-san no o-yome-san wo mitsukemashita
(Yohei-san's wife found; mitsukeru).
O-shiro kara (from the castle), o-yome-san
wo mukae ni (to meet the wife; mukaeru) kita node ([the vassals] came because; kuru),
Yohei-san mo o-yome-san mo (both Yohei-san and his wife; mo also), bikkuri desu
(got surprised = got scared).


Muri yari (by force) tsurete ikareru toki (when
[she was] taken away /passive voice/; tsureru + iku), o-yome-san wa (the wife), momo
no (a peach's) tane wo (stones) mittsu (three), Yohei-san ni watashite (handed to
Yohei-san /participle of precedence/; watasu) iimashita (and said this; iu):
Kono tane wo (these stones), maite kudasai (plant: garble please; maku).
Sannen tattara (when three years have passed /conditional form/; tatsu), mi ga narimasu
([they will] turn into fruits; naru) kara (after), sou shitara (if you do that; suru), sono mi
wo uri ni (to sell the fruit; uru) o-shiro ni kite kudasai ne (come to the castle; kuru).
Kitto desu yo (for sure: for certain; yo exclamatory particle).
San nen ga tachimashita (three years have passed; tatsu).


)()O-shiro de
wa (in the castle), Yohei-san no o-yome-san ga (Yohei-san's wife), sannen kan (in the
three years = during the three years; kan period), ichi do mo (not once; ichi one)
warawanai node (had [not] smiled; warau), tono-sama ga (the nobleman) totemo
shimpai shite imashita (was worrying very much = was very concerned /continuous
aspect/; shimpai suru + iru).

()()()Aru hi no koto (one day), o-shiro

no soto de (outside the castle; soto outside),
(peeeaches), momo wa iran ka nee (who wants peaches? iru require; ka


question-particle; nee = ne isn't it, don't you, etc. /sometimes not translated/). to,
koe ga shimashita (a voice was heard; koe ga suru). ()
()O-yome-san wa, momo uri ga (the wife the
peach seller) mitai to ([the fact that she] wanted to see /optative mood/; miru),
tono-sama ni tanomimashita (asked = told the nobleman; tanomu).
Momo uri ga haitte kuru to (when the peach seller entered; hairu +
kuru /approach in space and time/), o-yome-san wa, ureshi sou ni (the wife happily:
with an air of happiness), niko niko to waraimashita (smiled; warau laugh, smile;
niko niko /to/ with a smile, smiling).
()Suru to (then), tono-sama wa jibun mo
(the nobleman himself also), momo uri no mane wo sureba (if [he] does as the peach
seller does; mane imitation), o-yome-san ga waratte kureru (the wife will smile;
warau laugh, smile; kureru auxiliary verb indicating that the action is performed
for the benefit of the speaker) to kangaemashita (thought [he]; kangaeru).


Dou ja (how about it), momo uri (peach
seller). Kimono wo tori kaeyou (I'll go put on a different kimono = change; tori kaeru).
tono-sama wa sou itte (the nobleman said so; iu), momo uri no sugata ni naru to (when
he took the peach sellers appearance; naru become),
()Momoo (peeeaches), momo wa iran ka nee (who
wants peaches?). to, o-shiro no mon no (the castle's gates) soto made (outer side as far
as = outside the castle's gate) aruite ikimashita (went; aruku walk + iku
/withdrawal/retreat in space and time/).
Momban wa (the gate-keeper: guard), momo uri ga kaetta (the peach seller left; kaeru
return [home]) to omotte (thought /participle of precedence/; omou), mon wo shime
(closed the gate /connecting participle/), tono-sama ga modotte kite mo (even though


the nobleman returned; modoru + kuru), nido to naka ni (the second time inside)
iremasen deshita (couldn't enter /potential aspect/; iru = hairu).
Yohei-san to o-yome-san wa (Yohei-san and his wife), sono
mama (as they were: in the same condition) o-shiro no naka de (in the castle),
shiawase ni kurashita (lived happily ever after; kurasu) to iu koto desu (they say = so
people say; koto business /substantive particle; sometimes not translated/).



Ima kara ([counting] from now; ima now), sam byaku nen hodo mae
(about three hundred years ago; mae before), Edo no jouka machi ni (in Edo castle
city), Echigoya to iu (called Echigoya; iu say), ookina (big) go-fuku (kimono
fabric) mise ga (store: shop) arimashita (there was /past tense form; neutrally polite
form/; aru be, be located, exist /refers to inanimate objects/).
Nani shiro (no matter what [anyone says]), Nippon
ichi no (the best in Japan) Edo no machi no (Edo city), sono naka demo (even inside
(it); sono that /indicatory pronoun/) mata (plus: in addition) ichi ban rippana (the
most magnificent: superb; ichi ban number one) mise gamae (store facade:
appearance, front, structure = say whatever you like, Edo is the best city in Japan and
within that city it was the most superb store front = the best of the best). (
()Mainichi (every day), takusan no o-kyaku ga (many visitors =
buyers/clients; o prefix denoting respect) dehairi shite (stop by: come in and go
out /participle/; dehairi suru; deru go out; hairu come in), tammono ga
(fabrics/textiles) don don (gradually) urete ikimasu (get sold; ureru + iku go /here:


auxiliary verb donoting withdrawal/retreat in time and space/). ()

()()Ittan demo (for one
tan /measure of leangth for textiles = 11 m/ even), totemo takai (very high) nedan na no
desu kara (price is because; desu link-verb be), machi no hitobito wa (city
dwellers; hito person),
Echigoya-san no uri age wa (Echigoya's profit; uru sell; ageru rise, go
up; uriage sales /noun/), ittai (in a manner of speaking /sometimes not translated/),
dono kurai nan darou ne (how much = how big; darou link-verb be in
suppositional aspect; neutral style; ne = nee right? /sometimes not translated/).
O-kane ga tamaru tokoro ni wa (where money is
saved), tamaru mon da nee (there it stays; mon = mono thing, something /substantive
particle/ = much will have more). nado (and things like that) to hanashite (saying so;
hanasu), urayamashigarimashita ([people] envied; urayamashigaru).


)()Sono koro (at that time), Edo no
machi de wa (in Edo city), oshikomi goutou ga (burglars) kanemochi no ie wo (rich
men's houses) arashi mawatte imashita (robbed: ravaged /continuous aspect/;
arashimawaru + iru).
()Goutou dan no (burglars gang's) oyabun wa (ringleader), Echigoya
no hanjou buri ni (Echigoya's prosperous ways; buri manner, way of activity), me
wo tsukemashita (noticed: laid an eye on; tsukeru attach).
()()Oyabun wa (the ringleader),
teshita-domo wo ([his] subordibates = henchmen; domo suffix of plurality) atsumete
(having gathered /participle of precedence/; atsumeru),
()Asu no yoru (tomorrow night),
Echigoya ni oshiiru zo (we break into Echigoya; zo exlamatory particle adding
emotional emphasis). ()Ii ka (all right: good?; ka
question-particle), yoku kike (listen well = carefully /imperative mood/; kiku). (


)()Hito wo kiru na (no cutting people). ()(

)Nusumu shina wa (stolen goods; nusumu steal) tammono da (fabric; da
link-verb be in the present/future form; neutral style). ()(
)Chi de yogoshite wa (stained/dirtied with blood; yogosu), kane ni
naranee ([they] won't become money = can't be turned into money; naru become).
()Mise no yatsu wa (the store clerks;
yastu guy, type), katappashi kara (one after another) funjibare (tie up /imprerative
mood/; funjibaru). ()Sarugutsuwa
wo (with a gag) hamete ([the mouth] stop; hameru), hashira ni (to a post) kukuri tsukero
(tie; kukuru tie up + tsukeru attach).
()Minna shibattara (when you've tied everybody up /conditional form/;
shibaru), tammono wo (the fabrics) nokorazu mochi dasu n da (leaving nothing behind:
all [we will] carry out; nokoru remain). Nukaru na yo (stay alert;
nukaru not being attentive with the connotation to commit a blunder due to ones


Hee (yeah). Gatten desu (ok: all right)!

Teshita-domo wa (the henchmen's), me wo hikarasete (eyes flashing; hakarasu)
kotaemashita ([they] replied; kotaeru).
Soko de
(therefore: so), teshita-domo wa (the henchmen), hisoka ni (secretly) jumbi wo
totonoemashita (made preparations; totonoeru prepare).
Sate ippou (on the other hand), Echigoya de wa (in Echigoya) sonna koto to wa
shirimasen (nobody knows about it; shiru). ()()
Sono yo mo (on the same night), itsumo no you ni (as
usual) to jimari wo shite (having closed the door; shimaru shut; jimari the locking
of the door /noun derivative of shimaru/shimeru close, shut; suru do), shujin


kara (starting from the owner), bantou (the countermen), tedai (the store clerks), kozou
ni genan (the trainee servants), o-hariko-san (the sewers), o-tetsudai-san ni (the
assistants) itaru made (including), minna (everyone) gussuri nemutte imashita (was
sound asleep /continuous aspect/; nemuru + iru).

()()Yo mo fukete (the night came and; fukeru
advance, progress), henna mono oto ni (from a strange sound) me wo samashita (woke
up; me wo samasu) genan ga (a servant), mise e dete kita tokoro wo (and just came to
the store; deru + kuru come /approach in space and time/),
Sawagu na (don't make noise). Funjibare (tie
[him] up)!


()Oshiitte kita ([the one that] broke in; oshiiru + kuru)
goutou dan wa (gang of burglars), tachi machi (at once: immediately), genan wo
shibari age (tied up the servant; shibariageru), hashira ni kukuri tsukemashita (and tied
him to the post).
()Suru to mata (then again), betsu
no genan ga (another servant) dete kimashita (came out).
Sore (that = that one), funjibare
(tie up)! Sarugutsuwa da (gag; saru monkey; kutsuwa bit, rein; da link-verb
Soko e mata (again over there), mou hitori no
genan (one more servant).
()Te mukau na (no resistance)! Shizuka
ni shiro (quietly; shizuka ni suru; shizuka quiet)!


Goutou dan wa (the gang of burglars), tsugi kara
tsugi e (one by one; tsugi next), mise no mono wo (the store people) shibariagete itta
no desu ga (were tying up but,)
Ato kara, ato kara to (one after another: incessantly), dete kuru (the coming out) mise
no hito-tachi wo (store people) shibatte iru uchi ni (were tying up when), itsu no ma ni
ka (not sure when: insensibly), higashi no sora ga (the eastern sky) shirande kite
shimaimashita (got white = lightened /complete aspect/; shiramu + kuru + shimau
finish /auxiliary verb/).
()()Ike nee (too bad /colloquial form of
ikenai bad, don't [do]/)! Yo ga akechimau (it's dawning /contraction of akete
shimau/; akeru + shimau).
()Sasuga wa (really), Echigoya da naa
(Echigoya is so big = the store is so big that it took us all night to tie up its


()()Kanshin shite nee de

(don't admire = stop adoring; kanshin suru), hayaku nigero (run fast /imperative mood/;

Goutou dan wa (the gang of burglar), tou tou (after all) nani hitotsu torazu
ni (without taking a single [thing]; nani what; toru take), nigete itte shimatta (ran
off; nigeru + iku + shimau) to iu koto desu (they say; koto business /substantive


Ninjin to gobou to daikon
(carrot, burdock root and raddish; to copulative conjunction and; gobou
burdock; daikon Japanese raddish)

Mukashi mukashi (a very long time ago; mukashi ancient

Ninjin to (a carrot and), gobou to (a burdock root and), daikon ga (a raddish), naka yoku
(in a friendly fashion) kurashite imashita (were living /continuous aspect; past tense;
neutrally polite style/; kurasu + iru be).
hi (on a certain day = once upon a time), o-furo wo wakashite (having boiled [water in]
a bathtub /participle of precedence/; wakasu; prefix indicating respect) hairou to iu
koto ni narimashita (it so happened that they decided to get in = take a bath; hairu
enter; koto business; naru become).
()Ninjin wa sesse to (the carrot heartily:
assiduously) mizu wo kumi (scooped the water /connecting participle/; kumu), gobou
ga bou bou to (a strong; boubou dense, wild) hi wo taki (fire made; taku), daikon ga
yu kagen wo mimashita (the raddish measures the water temperature: watches; yu
hot water; miru).


O-furo ga waita totan (as soon as the bathtub water boiled), massaki ni (the first)
tobikonda no wa (to jump in was; tobikomu hop in, dive; no substantive particle),
ninjin desu (the carrot; desu link-verb be /present/future tense form; neutrally
polite style/).

Tokoro ga (however), atsukute

atsukute tamarimasen (unbearably hot; atsui hot). ()
Demo (but) gaman tsuyoi (the patient; tsuyoi strong) ninjin wa (carrot)
jiitto gaman wo shite imashita node (was enduring it because; suru do; jiitto
staying still, silently, without moving), karada ga (the body) makka ni natte
shimaimashita (became bright red /complete aspect/; naru + shimau finish /auxiliary


()()Tsugi ni (then: next), gobou ga

hairimashita (the burdock root went in = got it; hairu). ()
Gobou wa atsugari ya na node (since the burdock root can't stand the heat; atsugari
sensitive to heat; ya person),
Atchatcha (hot, hot). to itte (said and; iu), sugu ni (immediately) o-yu kara (out of
the hot water) tobidashite shimaimashita (jumped; tobidasu + shimau).
()Motto ([once] more) haitte inakucha (if
you don't get in /colloquial form of haitte inakutewa; hairu + iru), dame da yo (no good
will come of it: it's bad = have to try getting in more). to, ninjin to daikon ga itte mo
(although the carrot and the raddish said so; iu), gobou wa, roku ni (the burdock root
without properly) karada wo arai mo shinai de (washing its body; arau wash; suru),
yogore ga tsuita mama de (with dirt on it; yogore dirt; tsuku attach, cling; mama
as is) asobi ni (to play; asobu) itte shimaimashita (went; iku + shimau).


()()Saigo ni (the last) haitta no

wa (to get in), daikon desu (was the raddish). ()
Daikon wa o-furo ga (the raddish the bath) dai suki desu (very much likes).
()Ii kimochi da naa (feels good; ii good;
kimochi mood, health; da link-verb be neutral style; naa exclamatory
()Goshi goshi to (really well) teinei ni (with care)
karada wo arai (washing the body /connecting particle/; arau), nando mo nando mo
(many many times) o-yu ni tsukatte (using the hot water = pouring on himself; tsukau)
kirei ni narimashita (became clean; naru).
()Dakara (that's why) ima demo (even now), ninjin wa
akai shi (the carrot is red; shi and /conjunction connecting sentences with similar
meaning/), gobou wa kuroi shi (the burdock root is black), daikon wa masshiro nan desu


(and the raddish is completely white; shiroi white; nan = nano emphasizing

Imo gorogoro
(the rolling [sound of] the yam; imo batata, yam;
gorogoro onomatopoeic word: gorogoro naru rumble, rattle/)

()()Yama oku ni (in the mountains; yama

mountain; oku inner part) mura ga arimashita (there was a village /past tense form
of the neutrally polite style/ aru be, be located /refers to inanimate objects/).


no chouja-sama no tokoro ni (to a rich villager; sama = san suffix indicating
politeness Mr., Mrs., Ms.; tokoro place), o-yome-san ga (a bride/fiancee; o
prefix indicating respect) kuru koto ni natte (is to come: it so happened that she is
coming /participle of precedence/; naru; koto business /substantive particle;
sometimes not translated/), sono o-iwai ni (on that occasion; iwai celebration), mura
juu no (from all over the village) hito-tachi wo (people; tachi suffix of plurality)
yonde (having called /participle of precedence/; yobu), gochisou wo suru koto ni
narimashita ([the rich man] is going to treat them; gochisou treat; suru do).

()()Keredomo (but), mura no hito-tachi

wa (the villagers = village people), sou iu tokoro e (to such a place) yobarete itte mo
(are called although /passive voice; resultative aspect/; yobu call + iru be /here:
auxiliary verb/), rippana gochisou no (magnificent regale) tabe kata ga (how to eat =
eating method; taberu eat; kata way, method) wakarimasen (don't know:
understand; wakaru).
Soko de (that's why), o-tera no o-shou-san no tokoro e (to the temple's bonze; o-tera
Buddhist temple), kiki ni (to ask; kiku listen, ask) ikimashita (went; iku).


()O-shou-sama (the
bonze), yoso e (to another place) yobareta toki wa (when [one is] called), dou yatte
(how: doing how; yaru) gochisou wo tabetara ii ka ([is one] supposed to eat the treat
/conditional form/; taberu; ii good; ka question-particle), sono gyougi sahou wo
(those manners) oshiete kudasai (teach [us] please; oshieru).
wa komatta (that's difficult; komaru experience difficulties). Kyuu ni (quickly)
oshierareru mono dewanai (can't teach: it's not something that can be taught quickly
/potential voice/; oshieru; mono thing /substantive particle; sometimes not
translated/; dewanai negative form of the link-verb be in the neutral style). Dewa
(then: so), washi mo (I, too,) yobarete iru kara (was called since), washi ga taberu no


wo mite (watching me eat), mane wo shitara (imitating) yokarou (would probably be

()Sate (so), sono hi ni narimashita (that day
came; naru become). ()
()Iro iro to (different:
various) gochisou ga (treats) demashita ga (appeared, but), minna wa (everyone)
o-shou-san no hou wo mite (looking the bonze's way = looking at the bonze; hou
direction), tabetari nondari shite imashita (were eating and drinking).

()Sono uchi (in the meantime),
o-shou-san ga (the bonze), sato imo no (/one kind of dishes in Japanese cuisine in which


ingredients (including potato species /are boiled with sake and sugar/ /a sweet yam/;
sato village; imo batata) nimono wo (boiled), hashi de hasande (with chopsticks
took; hasamu squeeze, put between) tabeyou to shita tokoro ([and when he] was just
about it eat it; taberu), dou shita hazumi ka (by some accident), o-shou-san no hashi ga
(the bonze's chopsticks) subette (slipped, and; suberu), imo ga (the yam) goro goro to
(with the rattling sound goro goro) korogari ochimashita (dropped and rolled;
korogaru; ochiru).
O-shou-san wa awatete (the bonze in a hurry; awateru be
anxious, hurry), imo wo hasami ageyou to shimashita ga (wanted to pick up the yam,
but; hasamu + ageru raise), naka naka (readily) hasamemasen (couldn't/can't take it
/potential mood/; hasamu). ()Yatto (finally) hirotte
(having picked it up /participle of precedence/; hirou) tabemashita (ate).
Sore wo mite ita (the [ones who were] looking at that
/continuous aspect/; miru + iru) mura no hito-tachi wa (villagers), sore ga sahou ka to
omoi (that's the way, probably, thinking; omou; sahou manner, etiquette), minna wa
waza waza (everybody deliberately), imo wo hashi de (yams with chopsticks) hasande
(taking) otoshi (throwing; otosu), goro goro to korogashite (rolling them with the
goro-goro rattling sound; korogasu), hirotte (picking it up) tabemashita (ate).


()O-shou-san wa, kore wo mite (the bonze

upon seeing that),
wa ikan (that's bad = no way, it won't do /contraction of ikanai/). Sugu ni (at once:
immediately) yamesaseyou ([I'll] make them stop /causative voice; form demoting
probability, invitation and decision/; yameru stop).) to omotte (thought [he]; omou),
kuchi ni dasazu ni (silently; kuchi mouth; dasu take out, put out; kuchi ni dasu
start talking about something), tonari ni suwatte ita (the close-sitting; suwaru + itu)
mura no hito wo (villager), hiji de (with his elbow) tsutsukimashita (pushed; tsutsuku).
Sou shite (in that way) tsugi kara tsugi e to (one after
another; tsugi next) don don (gradually /onomatopoetic word/) hiji de tsutsuite itte


(pushing with their elbows; tsutsuku + iku go /here: auxiliary verb denoting
withdrawal/retreat in time and space/), ichiban hashikko no seki ni (on the farthest seat)
suwatte ita (sitting) hito ga (man),

Ora wa (I; ora I /local dialect/), hiji de tsutsuku mono ga (a man to push with an
elbow; mono person, somebody) inai (don't have; iru be, be located /refers to
people and animals/). to itte (said and; iu), naki dashimashita (began crying = burst
into tears; naku + dasu /denotes the beginning of an action/) to sa (they say).