1 2
3 4
5 6
[2 1 5 6]
2 3
0 0 1
2 0
[5]
Matrices vary in size. The size, or dimension, of the matrix is described by specifying the
number of rows (horizontal lines) and columns (vertical lines) that occur in the matrix.
The dimensions of the above matrices are, in order:
3 2, 1 4, 3 3, 1 1.
The rst number represents the number of rows and the second, the number of columns.
1
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2 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 1
Write down the dimensions of the following matrices.
a
1 1 2
2 1 0
1
2
3
4
c
2 2 3
Solution
a 2 3 b 4 1 c 1 3
The use of matrices to store information is demonstrated by the following two examples.
Four exporters A, B, C and D sell televisions (t), CD players (c), refrigerators (r) and
washing machines (w). The sales in a particular month can be represented by a 4 4 array of
numbers. This array of numbers is called a matrix.
r c w t
A
B
C
D
row 1
row 2
row 3
row 4
column 1 column 2 column 3 column 4
From the matrix it can be seen:
Exporter A sold 120 refrigerators, 95 CD players, 370 washing machines and 250 televisions.
Exporter B sold 430 refrigerators, 380 CD players, 1000 washing machines and 900 televisions.
The entries for the sales of refrigerators are made in column 1.
The entries for the sales of exporter A are made in row 1.
The diagram on the right represents a section of a road map.
The number of direct connecting roads between towns can be
represented in matrix form.
A B C D
A
B
C
D
0 2 1 1
2 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
B
A
C
D
If A is a matrix, a
ij
will be used to denote the entry that occurs in row i and column j of A.
Thus a 3 4 matrix may be written
A =
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
b
11
b
12
. . . . . b
1n
b
21
b
22
. . . . . b
2n
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
b
m1
b
m2
. . . . . b
mn
Matrices provide a format for the storage of data. In this form the data is easily operated on.
Some graphics calculators have a builtin facility to operate on matrices and there are
computer packages which allow the manipulation of data in matrix form.
A car dealer sells three models of a certain make and his business operates through two
showrooms. Each month he summarises the number of each model sold by a sales
matrix S:
S =
s
11
s
12
s
13
s
21
s
22
s
23
, where s
i j
is the number of cars of model j sold by showroomi.
So, for example, s
12
is the number of sales made by showroom 1, of model 2.
If in January, showroom 1 sold three, six and two cars of models 1, 2 and 3 respectively, and
showroom 2 sold four, two and one car(s) of models 1, 2 and 3 (in that order), the sales matrix
for January would be:
S =
3 6 2
4 2 1
A matrix is, then, a way of recording a set of numbers, arranged in a particular way. As in
Cartesian coordinates, the order of the numbers is signicant, so that although the matrices
1 2
3 4
3 4
1 2
have the same numbers and the same number of elements, they are different matrices (just as
(2, 1), (1, 2) are coordinates of different points).
Two matrices A, B, are equal, and can be written as A = B when
each has the same number of rows and the same number of columns
they have the same number or element at corresponding positions.
e.g.
2 1 1
0 1 3
1 +1 1 1
1 1 1
6
2
2 1
x 4
B =
2 1
3 y
Solution
x = 3 and y = 4
Although a matrix is made from a set of numbers, it is important to think of a matrix as a
single entity, somewhat like a super number.
Example 3
There are four rows of seats of three seats each in a minibus. If 0 is used to indicate a seat is
vacant and 1 is used to indicate a seat is occupied, write down a matrix that represents
a the 1st and 3rd rows are occupied but the 2nd and 4th rows are vacant
b only the seat on the front left corner of the bus is occupied.
Solution
a
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
Example 4
There are four clubs in a local football league.
Team A has 2 senior teams and 3 junior teams
Team B has 2 senior teams and 4 junior teams
Team C has 1 senior team and 2 junior teams
Team D has 3 senior teams and 3 junior teams
Represent this information in a matrix.
Solution
2 3
2 4
1 2
3 3
1 2
3 4
2 1 1
0 1 3
c
[a b c d ]
d
p
q
r
s
2 There are 25 seats arranged in ve rows and ve columns. If 0, 1 respectively are used to
Example 3
indicate whether a seat is vacant or occupied, write down a matrix which represents the
situation when
a only seats on the two diagonals are occupied
b all seats are occupied.
3 If seating arrangements (as in 2) are represented by matrices, consider the matrix in which
the i, j element is 1 if i = j , but 0 if i = j . What seating arrangement does this matrix
represent?
4 At a certain school there are 200 girls and 110 boys in Year 7, 180 girls and 117 boys in
Example 4
Year 8, 135 and 98 respectively in Year 9, 110 and 89 in Year 10, 56 and 53 in Year 11 and
28 and 33 in Year 12. Summarise this information in matrix form.
5 From the following, select those pairs of matrices which could be equal, and write down
Example 2
the values of x, y which would make them equal.
a
3
2
0
x
, [0 x ], [0 4 ]
b
4 7
1 2
1 2
4 x
x 7
1 2
, [4 x 1 2]
c
2 x 4
1 10 3
y 0 4
1 10 3
2 0 4
1 10 3
6 In each of the following nd the values of the pronumerals so that matrices A and B are
equal.
a A =
2 1 1
0 1 3
B =
x 1 1
0 1 y
b A =
x
2
B =
3
y
c A = [3 x] B = [y 4] d A =
1 y
4 3
B =
1 2
4 x
1 0
0 2
0 3
4 1
1 3
4 3
and
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
a
31
a
32
b
11
b
12
b
21
b
22
b
31
b
32
a
11
+b
11
a
12
+b
12
a
21
+b
21
a
22
+b
22
a
31
+b
31
a
32
+b
32
Subtraction is dened in a similar way. When the two matrices have the same number of rows
and the same number of columns the difference is found by subtracting corresponding
elements.
Example 5
Find
a
1 0
2 0
2 1
4 1
2 3
1 4
2 3
1 4
Solution
a
1 0
2 0
2 1
4 1
1 1
6 1
2 3
1 4
2 3
1 4
0 0
0 0
2 2
0 1
6 6
0 3
These denitions have the helpful consequence that if a matrix is added to itself, the result is
twice the matrix, i.e. A +A = 2A. Similarly the sum of n matrices each equal to A is n A
(where n is a natural number).
The m n matrix with all elements equal to zero is called the zero matrix.
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Chapter 1 Matrices 7
Example 6
Let X =
2
4
, Y =
3
6
, A =
2 0
1 2
, B =
5 0
2 4
2
4
3
6
5
10
2X = 2
2
4
4
8
4Y +X = 4
3
6
2
4
12
24
2
4
14
28
X Y =
2
4
3
6
1
2
3A = 3
2 0
1 2
6 0
3 6
3A +B =
6 0
3 6
5 0
2 4
1 0
1 2
Example 7
If A =
3 2
1 1
and B =
0 4
2 8
0 4
2 8
3 2
1 1
0 2 3 4 2 2
2 2 1 8 2 1
6 8
0 6
3 6
6 7
, use the
NavPad to move between the entries of the
2by2 matrix template and store (/ )
the matrix as a.
Dene the matrix B=
3 6
5 6.5
in a
similar way.
Entering matrices directly
To enter matrix A without using the
template, enter the matrix row by row as
[[3,6][6,7]] and store (/ ) the matrix
as a.
Alternatively, enter the matrix by typing
[3,6;6,7]. Semicolon (;) can be obtained by
typing / .
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Chapter 1 Matrices 9
Addition, multiplication and multiplication by a scalar
Once A and B are dened as above, A + B,
AB and KA can easily be determined.
Using the Casio ClassPad
Matrices are entered using the
2D CALC menu on the
k. Tap , enter the
numbers required then store
this as a variable (using VAR).
Calculations can be
performed as shown in the
screen at the far right.
Exercise 1B
1 Let X =
1
2
, Y =
3
0
, A =
1 1
2 3
, B =
4 0
1 2
3 6 2
4 2 1
1 0 0
4 2 3
and
2 1 0
6 1 4
respectively, nd the
sales matrix for the rst quarter of the year.
c Find a matrix to represent the average monthly sales for the rst three months.
3 Let A =
1 1
0 2
3 2
2 2
and B =
0 3
4 1
Calculate
a 2A b 3B c 2A + 3B d 3B 2A
6 P =
1 0
0 3
, Q =
1 1
2 0
, R =
0 4
1 1
Calculate
a P +Q b P +3Q c 2P Q+R
7 If A =
3 1
1 4
and B =
0 10
2 17
150 90 100 50
100 0 75 0
Y =
P
Q
a b c d
160 90 120 40
100 0 50 0
week 1 week 2
Find X + Y and write what this sum represents.
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Chapter 1 Matrices 11
1.3 Multiplication of matrices
Multiplication of a matrix by a real number has been discussed in the previous section. The
denition for multiplication of matrices is less natural. The procedure for multiplying two
2 2 matrices is shown rst.
Let A =
1 3
4 2
and B =
5 1
6 3
Then AB =
1 3
4 2
5 1
6 3
1 5 +3 6 1 1 +3 3
4 5 +2 6 4 1 +2 3
23 10
32 10
and BA =
5 1
6 3
1 3
4 2
5 1 +1 4 5 3 +1 2
6 1 +3 4 6 3 +3 2
9 17
18 24
2 4
3 6
and B =
5
3
nd AB.
Solution
A is a 2 2 matrix and B is a 2 1 matrix. Therefore AB is dened.
The matrix AB is a 2 1 matrix.
AB =
2 4
3 6
5
3
2 5 +4 3
3 5 +6 3
22
33
3 1
2 2
1 4
1 1
Y =
26 000
32 000
a
b
Solution
a b
XY =
A
B
C
D
3 1
2 2
1 4
1 1
26 000
32 000
a
b
4 2 2 1
The matrix XY is a 4 1 matrix
XY =
3 26 000 +1 32 000
2 26 000 +2 32 000
1 26 000 +4 32 000
1 26 000 +1 32 000
110 000
116 000
154 000
58 000
The matrix XY shows dealer A spent $110 000, dealer B spent $116 000, dealer C
spent $154 000 and dealer D spent $58 000.
Example 10
For A =
2 3 4
5 6 7
and B =
4 0
1 2
0 3
nd AB.
Solution
A is a 2 3 matrix and B is a 3 2 matrix. Therefore AB is a 2 2 matrix.
AB =
2 3 4
5 6 7
4 0
1 2
0 3
2 4 +3 1 +4 0 2 0 +3 2 +4 3
5 4 +6 1 +7 0 5 0 +6 2 +7 3
11 18
26 33
2
1
, Y =
1
3
, A =
1 2
1 3
, B =
3 2
1 1
, C =
2 1
1 1
, I =
1 0
0 1
,
Examples 8,10
nd the products AX, BX, AY, IX, AC, CA, (AC)X, C(BX), AI, IB, AB, BA,
A
2
, B
2
, A(CA) and A
2
C.
2 a Are the following products, of matrices given in 1, dened?
AY, YA, XY, X
2
, CI, XI
b If A =
2 0
0 0
and B =
0 0
3 2
, nd AB.
3 The matrices A and B are 2 2 matrices, and O is the zero 2 2 matrix. Is the following
argument correct?
If AB = O, and A = O, then B = O.
4 If L = [2 1], X =
2
3
, nd LX and XL.
5 A and B are both m n matrices. Are AB and BA dened and, if so, how many rows and
columns do they have?
6 Suppose
a b
c d
d b
c a
1 0
0 1
.
Show that ad bc = 1. What is the product matrix if the order of multiplication on the
lefthand side is reversed?
7 Using the result of 6, write down a pair of matrices A, B such that AB = BA = I where
I =
1 0
0 1
.
8 Select any three 2 2 matrices A, B and C.
Calculate A(B +C), AB +AC and (B +C) A.
9 It takes John ve minutes to drink a milk shake which costs $2.50, and twelve minutes to
Example 9
eat a banana split which costs $3.00.
Calculate the product
5 12
2.50 3.00
1
2
5 12
2.50 3.00
1 2 0
2 1 1
0 0 1 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1
p
q
r
s
2.00
3.00
2.50
3.50
11 Let S =
s
11
s
12
s
13
s
21
s
22
s
23
c
1
c
2
c
3
c
1
u
1
c
2
u
2
c
3
u
3
0.3 0
0 0.25
1 0
0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
2 3
1 4
, AI = IA = A, and this result holds for any square matrix multiplied by the
appropriate multiplicative identity.
Inverses
Given a 2 2 matrix A, is there a matrix B such that AB = BA = I?
Let B =
x y
u v
and A =
2 3
1 4
Then AB = I implies
2 3
1 4
x y
u v
1 0
0 1
i.e.
2x +3u 2y +3v
x +4u y +4v
1 0
0 1
0.8 0.6
0.2 0.4
a b
c d
and let B =
x y
u v
ax +bu ay +bv
cx +du cy +dv
1 0
0 1
d
ad bc
b
ad bc
c
ad bc
a
ad bc
a b
c d
, det(A) = ad bc
A 2 2 matrix has an inverse only if det(A) = 0
A square matrix is said to be regular if its inverse exists. Those square matrices which do
not have an inverse are called singular matrices; i.e. for a singular matrix det(A) = 0.
Using the TINspire
The operation of matrix inverse is obtained
by raising the matrix to the power of 1.
The Determinant command is found in
the Matrix and Vector menu (b72)
and used as shown.
(a is the matrix A =
3 6
6 7
, dened
on page 8.)
Using the Casio ClassPad
The operation of matrix inverse is obtained
by entering A
5 2
3 1
nd
a det(A) b A
1
Solution
a det(A) = 5 1 2 3 = 1 b A
1
=
1
1
1 2
3 5
1 2
3 5
Example 12
For the matrix A =
3 2
1 6
nd
a det(A) b A
1
c X if AX =
5 6
7 2
d Y if YA =
5 6
7 2
Solution
a det(A) = 3 6 2 = 16 b A
1
=
1
16
6 2
1 3
c AX =
5 6
7 2
5 6
7 2
IX = X =
1
16
6 2
1 3
5 6
7 2
=
1
16
16 30
16 0
1 2
1 0
d YA =
5 6
7 2
5 6
7 2
6 2
1 3
YI = Y =
1
16
24 8
40 8
Y =
3
2
1
2
5
2
1
2
Exercise 1D
1 For the matrices A =
2 1
3 2
and B =
2 2
3 2
nd
Example 11
a det(A) b A
1
c det(B) d B
1
2 Find the inverse of the following regular matrices ( is any real number, k is any nonzero
real number).
a
3 1
4 1
3 1
2 4
1 0
0 k
cos sin
sin cos
2 1
0 1
, B =
1 0
3 1
, nd A
1
, B
1
.
Also nd AB and hence nd, if possible, (AB)
1
.
Also nd from A
1
, B
1
, the products A
1
B
1
and B
1
A
1
. What do you notice?
4 For the matrix A =
4 3
2 1
Example 12
a nd A
1
b if AX =
3 4
1 6
, nd X c if YA =
3 4
1 6
, nd Y.
5 If A =
3 2
1 6
, B =
4 1
2 2
and C =
3 4
2 6
, nd
a X such that AX +B = C b Y such that YA +B = C
6 If A is a 2 2 matrix, a
12
= a
21
= 0, a
11
= 0, a
22
= 0, then show that A is regular and
nd A
1
.
7 Let A be a regular 2 2 matrix, B a 2 2 matrix and AB = 0. Show that B = 0.
8 Find all 2 2 matrices such that A
1
= A.
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Chapter 1 Matrices 19
1.5 Solution of simultaneous equations
using matrices
Inverse matrices can be used to solve certain sets of simultaneous linear equations. Consider
the equations
3x 2y = 5
5x 3y = 9
This can be written as
3 2
5 3
x
y
5
9
If A =
3 2
5 3
3 2
5 3
3 2
5 3
x
y
5
9
x
y
= A
1
5
9
x
y
= A
1
5
9
x
y
3
2
since A
1
5
9
3
2
1 2
2 4
x
y
3
6
1 2
2 4
= 1 4 (2 2) = 0.
There is no unique solution to the system of equations.
Example 13
If A =
2 1
1 2
and K =
1
2
x
y
.
Solution
If AX = K, then X = A
1
K
A
1
K =
1
5
2 1
1 2
1
2
0
1
X =
0
1
Example 14
Solve the following simultaneous equations.
3x 2y = 6
7x +4y = 7
Solution
The matrix equation is
3 2
7 4
x
y
6
7
Let A =
3 2
7 4
Then A
1
=
1
26
4 2
7 3
and
x
y
=
1
26
4 2
7 3
6
7
=
1
26
38
21
x
1
x
2
.
.
x
n
and K =
k
1
k
2
.
.
k
n
,
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Chapter 1 Matrices 21
this method can be applied more generally when A is regular. In fact, as shown, an expression
for the solution can be written at once. Multiply AX, and K, on the left by A
1
, and
A
1
(AX) = A
1
K and A
1
(AX) = (A
1
A)X = IX = X.
Hence X = A
1
K, which is a formula for the solution of the system. Of course it depends
on the inverse A
1
existing, but once A
1
is found then equations of the form AX = K can be
solved for all possible n 1 matrices K.
Again this process can be completed using a calculator as long as matrices A and K have
been entered onto the calculator.
Example 15
Consider the system of ve equations in ve unknowns.
2a +3b c +d +2e = 9
a +b c = 4
a +2d 3e = 4
b +2c d +e = 6
a b +d 2e = 0
Use a graphics calculator to solve for a, b, c, d and e.
Solution
Enter 5 5 matrix A and 5 1 matrix B into the graphics calculator.
A =
2 3 1 1 2
1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 2 3
0 1 2 1 1
1 1 0 1 2
B =
9
4
4
6
0
Then A
1
B =
4
9
23
9
1
7
9
2
3
a =
4
9
, b =
23
9
, c = 1, d =
7
9
and e =
2
3
It should be noted that just as for two equations in two unknowns, there is a geometric
interpretation for three equations in three unknowns. There is only a unique solution if the
equations represent three planes intersecting at a point.
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22 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 1E
1 If A =
3 1
4 1
x
y
, and
Example 13
a K =
1
2
b K =
2
3
2 If A =
3 1
2 4
0
1
b K =
2
0
a b
c d
e f
g h
a +e b + f
c + g d +h
a b
c d
ka kb
kc kd
a b
c d
then A
1
=
d
ad bc
b
ad bc
c
ad bc
a
ad bc
a b
d e
x
y
c
f
and
x
y
a b
d e
c
f
1 0
2 1
2 3
3 0
has dimension
A 8 B 4 2 C 2 4 D 1 4 E 3 4
2 If A =
2 0
1 3
and B =
1 3 4
1 3 1
then A +B =
A
3 3
2 0
3 4
2 2
1 2
2 3
2 1
1 3
E Cannot be determined
3 If C =
2 3 1
1 0 2
and D =
1 3 1
2 3 1
then D C =
A
1 0 0
1 3 1
2 6 4
2 0 4
1 0 0
1 3 1
1 6 0
1 3 1
E Cannot be determined
4 If M=
4 0
2 6
then M=
A
4 0
2 6
0 4
6 2
4 0
2 6
0 4
6 2
4 0
2 6
5 If M=
0 2
3 1
and N =
0 4
3 0
then 2M 2N =
A
0 0
9 2
0 2
6 1
0 4
12 2
0 4
12 2
0 2
6 1
2 2
1 1
is
A 4 B 0 C 4 D 1 E 2
9 The inverse of matrix A =
1 1
1 2
is
A 1
B
2 1
1 1
1 1
1 2
1 1
1 2
2 1
1 1
0 2
3 1
and N =
0 2
3 1
then NM=
A
0 4
9 1
4 2
2 8
0 4
9 1
6 2
3 5
6 2
3 5
1 0
2 3
and B =
1 0
0 1
, nd
a (A +B)(A B)
b A
2
B
2
2 Find all possible matrices A which satisfy the equation
3 4
6 8
A =
8
16
.
3 Let A =
1 2
3 1
, B = [3 1 2], C =
6
1
, D =
2 4
and E =
5
0
2
.
a State whether or not each of the following products exist: AB, AC, CD, BE
b Evaluate DA and A
1
.
4 If A =
1 2 1
5 1 2
, B =
1 4
1 6
3 8
and C =
1 2
3 4
, evaluate AB and C
1
.
5 Find the 2 2 matrix A such that A
1 2
3 4
5 6
12 14
6 If A =
2 0 0
0 0 2
0 2 0
, nd A
2
and hence A
1
.
7 If
1 2
4 x
2 1
1 3
, nd the value of
i MM= M
2
ii MMM= M
3
iii M
1
b Find x and y given that M
x
y
3
5
3 1
1 4
, B =
2 1
5 2
a Find
i A +B ii A B iii 2A +3B iv C such that 3A +2C = B
b Find
i AB ii A
1
iii X such that AX = B iv Y such that YA = B
2 If A =
1 2 2
2 0 1
1 3 4
, B =
2 0 1
4 2 2
1 3 3
and C
2 0 2
3 0 1
1 3 1
, nd
a AB b AC c BC
d X such that AX = C e Y such that YA = B
f X such that AXC = CB g Y such that CYA = BA
3 a Consider the system of equations
2x 3y = 3
4x + y = 5
i Write this system in matrix form, as AX = K.
ii Find detA and A
1
.
iii Solve the system of equations.
iv Interpret your solution geometrically.
b Consider the system of equations
2x + y = 3
4x +2y = 8
i Write this system in matrix form, as AX = K.
ii Find detA and explain why A
1
does not exist.
c Interpret your ndings in part b geometrically.
4 The nal grades for Physics and Chemistry are made up of three components, tests,
practical work and exams. Marks out of 100 are awarded in each component each
semester.
Wendy scored the following marks in each of the three components for Physics.
Semester 1: tests 79, practical work 78, exam 80
Semester 2: tests 80, practical work 78, exam 82
a Represent this information in a 2 3 matrix.
To calculate the nal grade for each semester the three components are
weighted so that tests are worth 20%. Practical work is worth 30% and the exam is worth
50%.
(contd)
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R
e
v
i
e
w
Chapter 1 Matrices 27
b Represent this information in a 3 1 matrix.
c Calculate Wendys nal grade for Physics in each semester.
Wendy also scored the following marks in each of the three components for Chemistry.
Semester 1: tests 86, practical work 82, exam 84
Semester 2: tests 81, practical work 80, exam 70
d Calculate Wendys nal grade for Chemistry in each semester.
Students who gain an aggregate score for Physics and Chemistry of 320 or more over
the two semesters are awarded a Certicate of Merit in Science.
e Will Wendy be awarded a Certicate of Merit in Science?
She asks her teacher to remark her Semester 2 Chemistry Exam hoping that she will
gain the necessary marks to be awarded a Certicate of Merit.
f How many extra marks does she need?
5 A company runs Computing classes and employs fulltime and parttime teaching staff as
well as technical support staff, cleaners and catering staff. The number of staff employed
depends on demand from term to term.
In one year they employed the following teaching staff:
Term 1: fulltime 10, parttime 2
Term 2: fulltime 8, parttime 4
Term 3: fulltime 8, parttime 8
Term 4: fulltime 6, parttime 10
a Represent this information in a 4 2 matrix.
Fulltime teachers are paid $70 per hour and parttime teachers are paid $60 per hour.
b Represent this information in a 2 1 matrix.
c Calculate the cost per hour to the company for teaching staff for each term.
In the same year they also employed the following support staff
Term 1: technical staff 2, catering staff 2, cleaning staff 1.
Term 2: technical staff 2, catering staff 2, cleaning staff 1.
Term 3: technical staff 3, catering staff 4, cleaning staff 2.
Term 4: technical staff 3, catering staff 4, cleaning staff 2.
d Represent this information in a 4 3 matrix.
Technical staff are paid $60 per hour, catering staff $55 per hour and cleaners are paid
$40 per hour.
e Represent this information in a 3 1 matrix.
f Calculate the cost per hour to the company for support staff for each term.
g Calculate the total cost per hour to the company for teaching and support staff for each
term.
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C H A P T E R
2
Algebra I
Objectives
To express a number in standard form
To solve linear equations
To solve problems with linear equations and simultaneous linear equations
To use substitution and transposition with formulas
To add and multiply algebraic fractions
To solve literal equations
To solve simultaneous literal equations
2.1 Indices
In this section a review of indices is undertaken.
Review of index laws
a
m
a
n
= a
m+n
a
m
a
n
= a
mn
(a
m
)
n
= a
mn
a
n
=
1
a
n
n
a = a
1
n
(ab)
n
= a
n
b
n
a
0
= 1
Example 1
Simplify each of the following.
a x
2
x
3
b
x
4
x
2
c x
1
2
x
4
5
d (x
3
)
1
2
Solution
a x
2
x
3
= x
2+3
= x
5
b
x
4
x
2
= x
42
= x
2
c x
1
2
x
4
5
= x
1
2
4
5
= x
3
10
d (x
3
)
1
2
= x
3
2
28
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 29
Example 2
Evaluate
a 125
2
3
b
1000
27
2
3
Solution
a 125
2
3
=
(125)
1
3
2
= 5
2
= 25
b
1000
27
2
3
=
1000
27
1
3
2
=
10
3
2
=
100
9
Example 3
Simplify
4
x
2
y
3
x
1
2
y
2
3
.
Solution
4
x
2
y
3
x
1
2
y
2
3
=
(x
2
y
3
)
1
4
x
1
2
y
2
3
=
x
2
4
y
3
4
x
1
2
y
2
3
= x
2
4
1
2
y
3
4
2
3
= x
0
y
1
12
= y
1
12
Exercise 2A
1 Simplify each of the following using the appropriate index laws.
a x
3
x
4
Example 1a
b a
5
a
3
c x
2
x
1
x
2
d
y
3
y
7
Example 1b
e
x
8
x
4
f
p
5
p
2
g a
1
2
a
2
3
Example 1c
h (a
2
)
4
i (y
2
)
7
j (x
5
)
3
k (a
20
)
3
5
l
x
1
2
4
m (n
10
)
1
5
n 2x
1
2
4x
3
o (a
2
)
5
2
a
4
p
1
x
4
q
2n
2
5
5
(4
3
n
4
)
r x
3
2x
1
2
4x
3
2
s (ab
3
)
2
a
2
b
4
1
a
2
b
3
t (2
2
p
3
4
3
p
5
(6p
3
))
0
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30 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
2 Evaluate each of the following.
Example 2
a 25
1
2
b 64
1
3 c
16
9
1
2
d 16
1
2
e
49
36
1
2
f 27
1
3
g 144
1
2
h 64
2
3
i 9
3
2 j
81
16
1
4
k
23
5
0
l 128
3
7
3 Use your calculator to evaluate each of the following, correct to two decimal places.
a 4.35
2
b 2.4
5
c
34.6921 d (0.02)
3
e
3
0.729 f
4
2.3045 g (345.64)
1
3
h (4.568)
2
5
i
1
(0.064)
1
3
4 Simplify each of the following, giving your answer with positive index.
a
a
2
b
3
a
2
b
4
b
2a
2
(2b)
3
(2a)
2
b
4
c
a
2
b
3
a
2
b
4
d
a
2
b
3
a
2
b
4
ab
a
1
b
1
e
(2a)
2
8b
3
16a
2
b
4
f
2a
2
b
3
8a
2
b
4
16ab
(2a)
1
b
1
5 Write
2
n
8
n
2
2n
16
in the form 2
an+b
.
6 Write 2
x
3
x
6
2x
3
2x
2
2x
as a power of 6.
7 Simplify each of the following.
a 2
1
3
2
1
6
2
2
3
b a
1
4
a
2
5
a
1
10
c 2
2
3
2
5
6
2
2
3
d
2
1
3
2
1
2
5
e
2
1
3
2
2
1
3
2
2
5
8 Simplify each of the following.
Example 3
a
3
a
3
b
2
a
2
b
1
b
a
3
b
2
a
2
b
1
c
5
a
3
b
2
a
2
b
1
d
a
4
b
2
a
3
b
1
e
a
3
b
2
c
3
a
2
b
1
c
5
f
5
a
3
b
2
a
2
b
1
g
a
3
b
2
a
2
b
1
c
5
a
4
b
2
a
3
b
1
a
3
b
1
2.2 Standard form
Often when dealing with real world problems, the numbers involved may be very small or
very large. For example, the distance from the Earth to the Sun is approximately
150 000 000 kilometres, and the mass of an oxygen atom is approximately
0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 026 grams. In order to deal with such numbers, a more
convenient way to express them can be used. This involves expressing the number as a product
of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of ten and is called standard form or scientic
notation.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 31
These examples written in standard form would read
1.5 10
8
kilometres and 2.6 10
23
grams respectively.
Performing multiplication and division with very small or very large numbers can often be
simplied by rst converting the numbers into standard form. When simplifying algebraic
expressions or manipulating numbers in standard form, a sound knowledge of the index laws is
essential.
Example 4
Write each of the following in standard form.
a 3 453 000 b 0.00675
Solution
a 3 453 000 = 3.453 10
6
b 0.00675 = 6.75 10
3
Example 5
Find the value of
32 000 000 0.000 004
16 000
.
Solution
32 000 000 0.000 004
16 000
=
3.2 10
7
4 10
6
1.6 10
4
=
12.8 10
1
1.6 10
4
= 8 10
3
= 0.008
Example 6
Evaluate
5
a
b
2
if a = 1.34 10
10
and b = 2.7 10
8
.
Solution
5
a
b
2
=
5
1.34 10
10
(2.7 10
8
)
2
=
(1.34 10
10
)
1
5
2.7
2
(10
8
)
2
= 1.454 43 10
13
= 1.45 10
13
to three signicant gures.
Many calculators have scientic notation. The actual display will vary from calculator to
calculator.
For example, in standard form 3 245 000 = 3.245 10
6
may appear as 3.245E6 or 3.245
06
.
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32 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire
The TINspire can be set to express answers in standard form by selecting Document
Settings or System Settings from 8: Systems Info. The number 3 245 000 will then
appear as 3.245E6.
The number of signicant gures can also be set through these menus. For example,
if two signicant places are selected (Float 2), 3 245 000 will appear as 3.2 E6.
Using the Casio ClassPad
The Classpad calculator can be set to express decimal answers in various forms. To
select a xed number of decimal places, including specifying scientic notation with
xed decimal accuracy, tap and in Basic format tap the arrow to select from the
various Number formats available.
Exercise 2B
1 Express each of the following numbers in standard form.
Example 4
a 47.8 b 6728 c 79.23 d 43 580
e 0.0023 f 0.000 000 56 g 12.000 34 h 50 million
i 23 000 000 000 j 0.000 000 0013 k 165 thousand l 0.000 014 567
2 Express each of the following in scientic notation.
a Xrays have a wavelength of 0.000 000 01 cm.
b The mass of a hydrogen atom is 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 0166 g.
c Visible light has wavelength 0.000 05 cm. d One nautical mile is 1853.18 m.
e A light year is 9 463 000 000 000 km.
f The speed of light is 29 980 000 000 cm/s.
3 Express each of the following as an ordinary number.
a The star Sirius is approximately 7.5684 10
13
km from Earth.
b A single blood cell contains 2.7 10
8
molecules of haemoglobin.
c The radius of an electron is 1.9 10
13
cm.
4 Find the value of
Example 5
a
324 000 0.000 0007
4000
b
5 240 000 0.8
42 000 000
5 Evaluate the following correct to three signicant gures.
Example 6
a
3
a
b
4
if a = 2 10
9
and b = 3.215 b
4
a
4b
4
if a = 2 10
12
and b = 0.05
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 33
2.3 Solving linear equations and linear
simultaneous equations
The solution to many problems may be found by translating them into a mathematical equation
which may then be solved using algebraic techniques. An equation is solved by nding the
value or values of the unknowns that would make the statement true.
Linear equations are simple equations that can be written in the form ax +b = 0. There are
a number of standard techniques that can be used for solving linear equations.
Example 7
Solve
x
5
2 =
x
3
Solution
x
5
2 =
x
3
x
5
15 2 15 =
x
3
15
Multiply both sides of the equation by the lowest common multiple of 3 and 5.
3x 30 = 5x
3x 5x = 30
2x = 30
x =
30
2
x = 15
Example 8
Solve
x 3
2
2x 4
3
= 5
Solution
x 3
2
6
2x 4
3
6 = 5 6
3(x 3) 2(2x 4) = 5 6
3x 9 4x +8 = 30
3x 4x = 30 +9 8
x = 31
x =
31
1
= 31
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34 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Simultaneous linear equations
Finding the intersection of two straight lines can be
done graphically, however the accuracy of the solution
will depend on the accuracy of the graphs.
(1, 2)
x
+
2
y
=
3
x
2
x
y
=
4
0
1
1 2 3
1
1 2 3
2
3
4
2
3
4
y
Alternatively this point of intersection may be found
algebraically by solving the pair of simultaneous equations.
Three techniques for solving simultaneous equations will be
considered.
Example 9
Solve the equations 2x y = 4 and x +2y = 3.
Solution
1: By substitution
2x y = 4 (1)
x +2y = 3 (2)
First express one unknown from either equation in terms of the other unknown.
From equation (2) we get x = 3 2y.
Then substitute this expression into the other equation.
Equation (1) then becomes 2(3 2y) y = 4 reducing it to one equation
in one unknown.
Solving (1) 6 4y y = 4
5y = 10
y = 2
Substituting the value of y into (2) x +2(2) = 3
x = 1
Check in (1) LHS = 2(1) (2) = 4
RHS = 4
N.B. This means that the point (1, 2) is the point of intersection of the graphs of the
two linear relations.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 35
2: By elimination
2x y = 4 (1)
x +2y = 3 (2)
If the coefcient of one of the unknowns is the same in both equations, we can
eliminate that unknown by subtracting one equation from the other. It may be
necessary to multiply one of the equations by a constant to make the coefcients of x
or y the same for the two equations.
To eliminate x multiply equation (2) by 2 and subtract the result from equation (1).
Equation (2) becomes 2x +4y = 6 (2
)
Then 2x y = 4 (1)
2x +4y = 6 (2
)
Subtracting (1) (2
) 5y = 10
y = 2
Now substitute for y in (1) to nd x, and check as in substitution method.
Using the TINspire
The simultaneous equations can be solved in
a Calculator application. Solve( ) from the
Algebra menu (b31) can be used
with either the simultaneous equations
template (/ ) or with and as shown.
The and can either be typed or found in the
catalog ( 1 ).
The simultaneous equations can also be
solved graphically in a Graphs & Geometry
application. The equations are rearranged to
make y the subject. The equations in this
form are y = 2x 4 and y =
3 x
2
. Enter
these as shown.
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36 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The intersection point is found by selecting
Intersection Point(s) from the Points and
Lines menu (b63). Use the NavPad
to move the hand to select each of the two
graphs as shown.
The coordinates of the intersection point
will appear on the screen.
Press to exit the Intersection Point(s)
menu.
Using the Casio ClassPad
The simultaneous equations can also be solved
graphically. First, the equations need to be
rearranged to make y the subject. In this form
the equations are y = 2x 4 and
y =
1
2
x
3
2
. Enter these in area as
shown. Select both equations by ticking the box
at the left then press to produce the graph.
To nd the solution, click into the graph
screen to select it and then click Analysis,
GSolve, Intersect.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 37
Exercise 2C
1 Solve the following linear equations.
a 3x +7 = 15 b 8
x
2
= 16 c 42 +3x = 22
d
2x
3
15 = 27 e 5(2x +4) = 13 f 3(4 5x) = 24
g 3x +5 = 8 7x h 2 +3(x 4) = 4(2x +5) i
2x
5
3
4
= 5x
Example 7
j 6x +4 =
x
3
3
2 Solve the following linear equations.
a
x
2
+
2x
5
= 16
Example 8
b
3x
4
x
3
= 8 c
3x 2
2
+
x
4
= 18
d
5x
4
4
3
=
2x
5
e
x 4
2
+
2x +5
4
= 6 f
3 3x
10
2(x +5)
6
=
1
20
g
3 x
4
2(x +1)
5
= 24 h
2(5 x)
8
+
6
7
=
4(x 2)
3
3 Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations.
Example 9
a 3x +2y = 2
2x 3y = 6
b 5x +2y = 4
3x y = 6
c 2x y = 7
3x 2y = 2
d x +2y = 12
x 3y = 2
e 7x 3y = 6
x +5y = 10
f 15x +2y = 27
3x +7y = 45
2.4 Solving problems with linear equations
Many problems can be solved by translating them into mathematical language and using an
appropriate mathematical technique to nd the solution. By representing the unknown quantity
in a problem with a symbol (called a pronumeral) and constructing an equation from the
information, the value of the unknown can be found by solving the equation.
Before constructing the equation, state what the pronumeral is and what it stands for
(including the unit). It is essential to remember that all elements of the same type in the
equation must be in the same units.
Example 10
For each of the following, form the relevant linear equation and solve it for x.
a The length of the side of a square is (x 6) cm. Its perimeter is 52 cm.
b The perimeter of a square is (2x +8) cm. Its area is 100 cm
2
.
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38 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
a The perimeter = 4 length of a side
4(x 6) = 52
Therefore x 6 = 13
and x = 19
b The perimeter of the square is 2x +8
The length of one side =
2x +8
4
=
x +4
2
Therefore
x +4
2
2
= 100
In this case
x +4
2
= 10 as side length must be a positive number.
Therefore x = 16
Example 11
An athlete trains for an event by gradually increasing the distance she runs each week over a
veweek period. If she runs an extra 5 km each successive week and over the ve weeks runs
a total of 175 km, how far did she run in the rst week?
Solution
Let the distance run in the rst week = x km.
Then the distance run in the second week = x +5 km.
The distance run in the third week = x +10 km.
So the total distance run = x + x +5 + x +10 + x +15 + x +20
5x +50 = 175
5x = 125
x = 25
The distance she ran in the rst week was 25 km.
Example 12
A man bought 14 CDs at a sale. Some cost him $15 each and the remainder cost $12.50 each.
In total he spent $190. How many $15 CDs and how many $12.50 CDs did he buy?
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 39
Solution
Let n equal the number of CDs costing $15.
Then 14 n = the number of CDs costing $12.50.
15n +12.5(14 n) = 190
15n +175 12.5n = 190
2.5n +175 = 190
2.5n = 15
n = 6
He bought 6 CDs costing $15 and 8 CDs costing $12.50.
Exercise 2D
1 For each of the cases below, write down a relevant equation involving the variables
dened and solve the equation for parts a, b and c.
Example 10
a The length of the side of a square is (x 2) cm. Its perimeter is 60 cm.
b The perimeter of a square is (2x +7) cm. Its area is 49 cm
2
.
c The length of a rectangle is (x 5) cm. Its width is (12 x) cm. The rectangle is
twice as long as it is wide.
d The length of a rectangle is (2x +1) cm. Its width is (x 3) cm. The perimeter of the
rectangle is y cm.
e n persons each has a meal costing $p. The total cost of the meal is $Q.
f S persons each has a meal costing $p. 10% service charge is added to the cost. The
total cost of the meal is $R.
g A machine working at a constant rate produces n bolts in 5 minutes. It produces 2400
bolts in 1 hour.
h The radius of a circle is (x +3) cm. A sector subtending an angle of 60
at the centre
is cut off. The arc length of the minor sector is a cm.
2 Bronwyn and Noel have a womens clothing shop in Summerland. Bronwyn manages the
shop and her sales are going up steadily over a particular period of time. They are going
up by $500 a week. If over a veweek period her sales total $17 500, how much did she
earn in the rst week?
Example 11
3 Bronwyn and Noel have a womens clothing shop in Summerland and Bronwyn manages
the shop. Sally, Adam and baby Lana came into the shop and Sally bought dresses and
handbags. The dresses cost $65 each and the handbags cost $26 each. The total number of
items was 11 and in total she spent $598. How many dresses and how many handbags did
she buy?
Example 12
4 A rectangular courtyard is three times as long as it is wide. If the perimeter of the
courtyard is 67 m, nd the dimensions of the courtyard.
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40 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 A wine merchant buys 50 cases of wine. He pays full price for half of them but gets a
40% discount on the remainder. If he paid a total of $2260, how much was the full price
of a single case?
6 A real estate agent sells 22 houses in six months. He makes a commission of $11 500
per house on some and $13 000 per house on the remainder. If his total commission
over the six months was $272 500, on how many houses did he make a commission
of $11 500?
7 Three boys compare their marble collections. The rst boy has 14 less than the second
boy, who has twice as many as the third. If between them they have 71 marbles, how many
does each boy have?
8 Three girls are playing Scrabble. At the end of the game, the total of their scores adds up
to 504. Annie scored 10% more than Belinda, while Cassie scored 60% of the combined
scores of the other two. What did each player score?
9 A biathlon event involves running and cycling. Kim can cycle 30 km/h faster than she can
run. If Kim spends 48 minutes running and a third as much time again cycling in an event
that covers a total distance of 60 km, how fast can she run?
10 The mass of a molecule of a certain chemical compound is 2.45 10
22
g. If each
molecule is made up of two carbon atoms and six oxygen atoms and the mass of one
oxygen atom is
1
3
that of a carbon atom, nd the mass of an oxygen atom.
2.5 Solving problems using simultaneous
linear equations
When the relationships between two quantities is linear then the constants which determine the
linear relationship can be determined if two sets of information satisfying the relationship are
given. Simultaneous linear equations enable this to be done. Another situation in which
simultaneous linear equations may be used is where it is required to nd the point of the
cartesian plane which satises two linear relations.
Example 13
There are two possible methods for paying gas bills:
Method A: A xed charge of $25 per quarter + 50c per unit of gas used
Method B: A xed charge of $50 per quarter + 25c per unit of gas used.
Determine the number of units that must be used before method B becomes cheaper than
method A.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 41
Solution
Let
C
1
= charge in $ using method A
C
2
= charge in $ using method B
x = number of units of gas used
Now C
1
= 25 +0.5x
C
2
= 50 +0.25x
It can be seen from the graph that if the number
of units exceeds 100 then method B is cheaper.
100
50
25
C
2
= 0.25x + 50
C
1
= 0.5x + 25
25 50 75 100125150
0
Units
D
o
l
l
a
r
s
C
x
The solution could also be obtained by solving simultaneous linear equations:
C
1
= C
2
25 +0.5x = 50 +0.25x
0.25x = 25
x = 100
Example 14
If 3 kg of jam and 2 kg of butter cost $29, and 6 kg of jam and 3 kg of butter cost $54, nd the
cost of 1 kg of jam and 1 kg of butter.
Solution
Let the cost of 1 kg of jam = x dollars and the cost of 1 kg of butter = y dollars.
Then
3x +2y = 29 1
and 6x +3y = 54 2
Multiply 1 by 2 :
6x +4y = 58 1
Subtract 1
from 2 :
y = 4
y = 4
Substituting in 2 gives:
6x +3(4) = 54
6x = 42
x = 7
The jam costs $7 per kilogram and the butter, $4 per kilogram.
Exercise 2E
1 A car hire rm offers the option of paying $108 per day with unlimited kilometres, or
$63 per day plus 32 cents per kilometre travelled. How many kilometres would you have to
travel in a given day to make the unlimited kilometre option more attractive?
Example 13
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42 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
2 Company A will cater for your party at a cost of $450 plus $40 per guest. Company B
offers the same service for $300 plus $43.00 per guest. How many guests are needed before
Company As charge is less than Company Bs?
3 A basketball nal is held in a stadium which can seat 15 000 people. All the tickets have
been sold, some to adults at $45 and the rest for children at $15. If the revenue from the
tickets was $525 000, nd the number of adults who bought tickets.
Example 14
4 A contractor employed eight men and three boys for one day and paid them a total of
$2240. Another day he employed six men and eighteen boys for $4200. What was the daily
rate he paid each man and each boy?
5 The sum of two numbers is 212 and their difference is 42. Find the two numbers.
6 A chemical manufacturer wishes to obtain 700 litres of a 24% acid solution by mixing a
40% solution with a 15% solution. How many litres of each solution should be used?
7 Two children had 220 marbles between them. After one child had lost half her marbles and
the other had lost 40 marbles they had an equal number of marbles. How many did each
child start with and how many did each child nish with?
8 An investor received $31 000 interest per annum from a sum of money, with part of it
invested at 10% and the remainder at 7% simple interest. She found that if she
interchanged the amounts she had invested she could increase her return by $1000 per
annum. Calculate the total amount she had invested.
9 Each adult paid $30 and each student paid $20 to attend a concert. A total of 1600 people
attended. The total paid was $37 000. How many adults and how many students attended
the concert?
2.6 Substitution and transposition of formulas
An equation that states a relationship between two or more quantities is called a formula,
e.g. the area of a circle A = r
2
. The value of A, the subject of the formula, may be found by
substituting a given value of r and the value of .
Example 15
Using the formula A = r
2
, nd the value of A correct to two decimal places, if r = 2.3,
= 3.142 (correct to two decimal places).
Solution
A = r
2
= 3.142(2.3)
2
= 16.621 18
A = 16.62, correct to two decimal places.
The formula can also be transposed to make r the subject. When transposing formulas
a similar procedure to solving linear equations is followed. Whatever has been done to
the pronumeral required is undone.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 43
Example 16
Transpose the formula A = r
2
to make r the subject and nd the value of r, correct to two
decimal places, if A = 24.58, = 3.142 (correct to three decimal places).
Solution
A = r
2
A
= r
2
= r
r =
24.58
3.142
= 2.79697
r = 2.80, correct to two decimal places
Exercise 2F
1 Substitute the specied values to evaluate each of the following, giving the answers correct
to two decimal places.
a v if v = u +at and u = 15, a = 2, t = 5
b I if I =
PrT
100
and P = 600, r = 5.5, T = 10
c V if V = r
2
h and r = 4.25, h = 6
Example 15
d S if S = 2r(r +h) and r = 10.2, h = 15.6
e V if V =
4
3
r
2
h and r = 3.58, h = 11.4
f s if s = ut +
1
2
at
2
and u = 25.6, t = 3.3, a = 1.2
g T if T = 2
l
g
and l = 1.45, g = 9.8
h f if
1
f
=
1
v
+
1
u
and v = 3, u = 7
i c if c
2
= a
2
+b
2
and a = 8.8, b = 3.4
j v if v
2
= u
2
+2as and u = 4.8, a = 2.5, s = 13.6
2 Transpose each of the following to make the symbol in brackets the subject.
a v = u +at (a) b S =
n
2
(a +l) (l)
c A =
1
2
bh (b)
d P = I
2
R (I )
Example 16
e s = ut +
1
2
at
2
(a)
f E =
1
2
mv
2
(v)
g Q =
.
4 The sum (S ) of the interior angles of a polygon with n sides is given by the formula
S = 180(n 2).
a Find the sum of the interior angles of an octagon.
b Transpose the formula to make n the subject and hence determine the number of sides
on a polygon whose interior angles add up to 1260
.
5 The volume (V) of a right cone is given by the formula V =
1
3
r
2
h where r is the radius
of the base and h is the height of the cone.
a Find the volume of a cone with radius 3.5 cm and height 9 cm.
b Transpose the formula to make h the subject and hence nd the height of a cone with
base radius 4 cm and volume 210 cm
3
.
c Transpose the formula to make r the subject and hence nd the radius of a cone with
height 10 cm and volume 262 cm
3
.
6 The sum (S) of a particular sequence of numbers is given by the formula S =
n
2
(a +l),
where n is the number of terms in the sequence, a is the rst term and l is the last term.
a Find the sum of the sequence of seven numbers whose rst term is 3 and whose last
term is 22.
b What is the rst term of a sequence containing thirteen terms, whose last term is 156
and whose sum is 1040?
c How many terms are there in the sequence 25 +22 +19 + +5 = 110?
2.7 Algebraic fractions
The principles involved in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of algebraic
fractions are the same as for simple numerical fractions.
To add or subtract, all fractions must be written with a common denominator. When
multiplying, rst try to simplify the fractions by cancelling down. This process will involve
factorisation of either the numerators or denominators or both.
Addition and subtraction
Example 17
Simplify
a
x
3
+
x
4
b
2
x
+
3a
4
c
5
x +2
4
x 1
d
4
x +2
7
(x +2)
2
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 45
Solution
a
x
3
+
x
4
=
4x +3x
12
=
7x
12
b
2
x
+
3a
4
=
8 +3ax
4x
c
5
x +2
4
x 1
=
5(x 1) 4(x +2)
(x +2)(x 1)
=
5x 5 4x 8
(x +2)(x 1)
=
x 13
(x +2)(x 1)
d
4
x +2
7
(x +2)
2
=
4(x +2) 7
(x +2)
2
=
4x +1
(x +2)
2
Multiplication and division
Before multiplying and dividing algebraic fractions, it is best to factorise numerators and
denominators where possible so that common factors can be readily identied.
Example 18
Simplify
a
3x
2
10y
2
5y
12x
b
2x 4
x 1
x
2
1
x 2
c
x
2
1
2x 2
4x
x
2
+4x +3
d
x
2
+3x 10
x
2
x 2
x
2
+6x +5
3x +3
Solution
a
3x
2
10y
2
5y
12x
=
x
8y
b
2x 4
x 1
x
2
1
x 2
=
2(x 2)
x 1
(x 1)(x +1)
x 2
= 2(x +1)
c
x
2
1
2x 2
4x
x
2
+4x +3
=
(x 1)(x +1)
2(x 1)
4x
(x +1)(x +3)
=
2x
x +3
d
x
2
+3x 10
x
2
x 2
x
2
+6x +5
3x +3
=
(x +5)(x 2)
(x 2)(x +1)
3(x +1)
(x +1)(x +5)
=
3
x +1
Example 19
Express
3x
3
4 x
+3x
2
4 x as a single fraction.
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46 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
3x
3
4 x
+3x
2
4 x =
3x
3
+3x
2
4 x
4 x
4 x
=
3x
3
+3x
2
(4 x)
4 x
=
12x
2
4 x
Example 20
Express (x 4)
1
5
(x 4)
4
5
as a single fraction.
Solution
(x 4)
1
5
(x 4)
4
5
= (x 4)
1
5
1
(x 4)
4
5
=
(x 4)
1
5
(x 4)
4
5
1
(x 4)
4
5
=
x 5
(x 4)
4
5
Exercise 2G
1 Simplify each of the following.
Example 17
a
2x
3
+
3x
2
b
3a
2
a
4
c
3h
4
+
5h
8
3h
2
d
3x
4
y
6
x
3
e
3
x
+
2
y
f
5
x 1
+
2
x
g
3
x 2
+
2
x +1
h
2x
x +3
4x
x 3
3
2
i
4
x +1
+
3
(x +1)
2
j
a 2
a
+
a
4
+
3a
8
k 2x
6x
2
4
5x
l
2
x +4
3
x
2
+8x +16
m
3
(x 1)
+
2
(x 1)(x +4)
n
3
x 2
2
x +2
+
4
x
2
4
o
5
x 2
3
x
2
+5x +6
+
2
x +3
p x y
1
x y
q
3
x 1
4x
1 x
r
3
x 2
+
2x
2 x
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 47
2 Simplify each of the following.
Example 18
a
x
2
2y
4y
3
x
b
3x
2
4y
y
2
6x
c
4x
3
3
12
8x
4
d
x
2
2y
3xy
6
e
4 x
3a
a
2
4 x
f
2x +5
4x
2
+10x
g
(x 1)
2
x
2
+3x 4
h
x
2
x 6
x 3
i
x
2
5x +4
x
2
4x
j
5a
2
12b
2
10a
6b
k
x 2
x
x
2
4
2x
2
l
x +2
x(x 3)
4x +8
x
2
4x +3
m
2x
(x 1)
4x
2
x
2
1
n
x
2
9
x +2
3x +6
x 3
9
x
o
3x
9x 6
6x
2
x 2
2
x +5
3 Express each of the following as a single fraction.
a
1
x 3
+
2
x 3
b
2
x 4
+
2
x 3
c
3
x +4
+
2
x 3
d
2x
x 3
+
2
x +4
e
1
(x 5)
2
+
2
x 5
f
3x
(x 4)
2
+
2
x 4
g
1
x 3
2
x 3
h
2
x 3
5
x +4
i
2x
x 3
+
3x
x +3
j
1
(x 5)
2
2
x 5
k
2x
(x 6)
3
2
(x 6)
2
l
2x +3
x 4
2x 4
x 3
4 Express each of the following as a single fraction.
Example 19
a
1 x +
2
1 x
b
2
x 4
+
2
3
c
3
x +4
+
2
x +4
d
3
x +4
+
x +4
e
3x
3
x +4
3x
2
x +4
f
3x
3
2
x +3
+3x
2
x +3
5 Simplify each of the following.
Example 20
a (6x 3)
1
3
(6x 3)
2
3 b (2x +3)
1
3
2x(2x +3)
2
3
c (3 x)
1
3
2x (3 x)
2
3
2.8 Literal equations
A literal equation in x is an equation whose solution will be expressed in terms of pronumerals
rather than numbers. 2x +5 = 7 is an equation whose solution is the number 1. In the literal
equation ax +b = c, the solution is x =
c b
a
.
Literal equations are solved in the same way as solving numerical equations or transposing
formulas. Essentially, the literal equation is transposed to make x the subject.
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48 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 21
Solve the following for x.
a px q = r b ax +b = cx +d c
a
x
=
b
2x
+c
Solution
a
px q = r
px = r +q
x =
r +q
p
b
ax +b = cx +d
ax cx = d b
x(a c) = d b
x =
d b
a c
c
a
x
=
b
2x
+c
Multiply both sides
by lowest common
denominator (2x)
2a = b +2xc
2a b = 2xc
2a b
2c
= x
Simultaneous literal equations
Simultaneous literal equations are solved by the same methods that are used for solving
simultaneous equations, i.e. substitution and elimination.
Example 22
Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations for x and y.
a y = ax +c
y = bx +d
b ax y = c
x +by = d
Solution
a
ax +c = bx +d
ax bx = d c
x(a b) = d c
x =
d c
a b
and therefore
y = a
d c
a b
+c
=
ad bc
a b
b
ax y = c . . . 1
x +by = d . . . 2
Multiply 1 by b
abx by = cb . . . 1
Add 1
and 2
abx + x = cb +d
x(ab +1) = cb +d
x =
cb +d
ab +1
Substitute in 1
a
cb +d
ab +1
y = c
y = a
cb +d
ab +1
c
=
ad c
ab +1
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 49
Exercise 2H
1 Solve each of the following for x.
Example 21
a ax +n = m b ax +b = bx c
ax
b
+c = 0
d px = qx +5 e mx +n = nx m f
1
x +a
=
b
x
g
b
x a
=
2b
x +a
h
x
m
+n =
x
n
+m
i b(ax +b) = a(bx a)
j p
2
(1 x) 2pqx = q
2
(1 + x)
k
x
a
1 =
x
b
+2
l
x
a b
+
2x
a +b
=
1
a
2
b
2
m
p qx
t
+ p =
qx t
p
n
1
x +a
+
1
x +2a
=
2
x +3a
2 For the simultaneous equations ax + by = p and bx ay = q, show that x =
ap +bq
a
2
+b
2
and
y =
bp aq
a
2
+b
2
.
3 For the simultaneous equations
x
a
+
y
b
= 1 and
x
b
+
y
a
= 1, show that x = y =
ab
a +b
.
4 Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations for x and y.
Example 22
a ax + y = c
x +by = d
b ax by = a
2
bx ay = b
2
c ax +by = t
ax by = s
d ax +by = a
2
+2ab b
2
bx +ay = a
2
+b
2
e (a +b)x +cy = bc
(b +c)y +ax = ab
f 3(x a) 2( y +a) = 5 4a
2(x +a) +3( y a) = 4a 1
5 Write s in terms of a only in the following pairs of equations.
a s = ah
h = 2a +1
b s = ah
h = a(2 +h)
c as = a +h
h +ah = 1
d as = s +h
ah = a +h
e s = h
2
+ah
h = 3a
2
f as = a +2h
h = a s
g s = 2 +ah +h
2
h = a
1
a
h 3s ah = a
2
as +2h = 3a
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50 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire with algebra
In this section a demonstration of the basic algebra properties of the TINspire is
provided. To access these, open a Calculator application ( 1) and select the
Algebra menu (b3). The three main commands are solve, factor and expand.
Solve( )
This command is used to solve equations, simultaneous equations and some
inequalities. An approximate (decimal) answer can be obtained by pressing /
enter
or
by including a decimal number in the expression.
The following screens illustrate its use.
Factor( )
This command is used for factorisation.
Factorisation over the rational numbers is obtained by not specifying the variable,
whereas factorisation over the real numbers is obtained by specifying the variable.
The following screens illustrate its use.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 51
Expand( )
This command is used for expansion of expressions.
By specifying the variable, the expanded expression will be ordered in decreasing
powers of that variable. Symbolic expressions can only be expanded for an appropriate
domain.
The following screens illustrate its use.
Using the Casio ClassPad with algebra
Using the Main menu
In this section the Main menu is explored.
Work through it to become acquainted with
the menu.
There are two ways to operate in this
menu, but the Interactive menu is the
simplest when used in conjunction with the
stylus. In this section we shall demonstrate
some examples of how this is used.
Solve
This is used to solve equation and
inequalities. The variables x, y and z are
found on the hard keyboard. Other variables
may be entered using the kand
selecting VAR. Variables are shown in bold
italics. The keyboard allows you to type
sentences, etc; however, the letters are not
always recognised as variables.
If you choose to use the keyboard, you must type a x, for example, because
ax will be treated as text.
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52 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
For example:
Enter ax +b = 0, highlight it with the stylus,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequality, solve and
ensure the variable selected is x. Solution
returned is x =
b
a
Enter x
2
+ x 1 = 0 and follow the same
instructions as above. The answer is as shown.
Note: x
2
+ x 1 = 0 is entered, but the
calculator converts this to standard algebraic
notation when EXE is pressed. Also note in
this example that = 0 has been omitted. If
the righthand side of an equation is zero, it is
unnecessary to enter it.
Enter abt w +t = wt for w: follow the
instructions above and select w as the variable.
Solve x
3
x
2
x +1 = 0 for x.
Solve 2x +
2
x 1
+
1
(x 1)
2
+1
Factor (2x
4
x
2
) over the rationals
Factor (2x
4
x
2
) over the reals.
This command can also be used to give the
prime decomposition (factors) of integers.
Expand
To expand expressions, use Interactive,
Transformation, expand.
For example:
Expand (a +b)
3
Expand (a +b)
2
The expand command can also be used to
form partial fractions. In this case, enter and
highlight the expression, select Interactive,
transformation, expand, select the Partial
fraction option and set the variable as x.
For example:
Expand
1
x
2
1
Expand
x
3
+2x +1
x
2
1
Note: The top screen shows all the examples,
the bottom screen shows how to enter for
partial fractions.
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54 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Zeros
To nd the zeros of an expression in the
menu, use Interactive, Equation/inequality,
Solve and ensure you set the variable. The
calculator assumes you are solving an
equation for which one side is zero.
For example:
Zeros of x
2
1 for x
Zeros of x
2
y
2
for y
Zeros of x
2
y
2
for x
Zeros of x
2
y for y
Zeros of x
2
4x +8 for x. No solutions.
Zeros of x
2
4x +1 for x. Two solutions.
Zeros of x
2
4x +4 for x. One solution.
Approximate
Switch mode in the status bar to Decimal. If
an answer is given in Standard (Exact) mode,
it can be converted by highlighting the
answer and tapping in the toolbar.
Combining fractions
This command gives an expression with a
common denominator and ratio form. The
denominator is returned in factored form.
For example:
Enter and highlight 1/(x 1) +1/(x +1)
then select Interactive, Transformation,
combine.
Enter and highlight y/(x y) + y/(x + y)
then select Interactive, Transformation,
combine.
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 55
Solve numerically
There are several ways to nd numerical
solutions to equations. In each of these ways,
only one solution is given. You can vary the
guess (Value) or the bounds of the search
(Lower and Upper) to nd particular
solutions. If an expression such as
x
2
x 2.1 is entered without an equals
sign, the calculator will assume the
expression is equal to zero and solve the
equation.
For example:
Enter and highlight x
2
x 2.1 = 0, select
Interactive, Equation/inequality, Solve and tap
the solve numerically option. Note that the
lower and upper bounds are set to and a
guess of 1 has been entered to return the rst
solution 1.03297.
For the second solution shown, the rst line
has been copied and pasted (or dragged) to the
next entry line and the guess x = 2 has been
entered to return the solution x = 2.03297.
Alternatively, use from the Main menu
and enter Lower and Upper bounds. A guess
may also be entered, but is not necessary.
(Note that the bounds selected arise from a
quick sketch which indicated that the
quadratic equation had a solution in the
negative and one in the positive domain.)
A third method involves using the Graph
program and nding the solution using the
GSolve application.
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56 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 2I
This exercise is to provide practice in some of the skills associated with a CAS calculator.
Other exercises in this chapter can also be attempted with CAS but it is recommended that you
also use this chapter to develop your by hand skills.
1 Solve each of the following equations for x.
a
a(a x)
b
b(b + x)
a
= x
b 2(x 3) +(x 2)(x 4) = x(x +1) 33
c
x +a
x +b
= 1
x
x b
d
x +a
x c
+
x +c
x a
= 2
2 Factorise each of the following.
a x
2
y
2
x
2
y
2
+1 b x
3
2 x +2x
2
c a
4
8a
2
b 48b
2
d a
2
+2bc (c
2
+2ab)
3 Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations for x and y.
a axy +b = (a +c)y and bxy +a = (b +c)y
b x(b c) +by c = 0 and y(c a) ax +c = 0
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 57
Chapter summary
A number is expressed in standard form or scientic notation when written as a product
of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of ten; e.g. 1.5 10
8
Index laws
r
a
m
a
n
= a
m+n r
a
m
a
n
= a
mn r
(a
m
)
n
= a
mn
r
a
n
=
1
a
n
r n
a = a
1
n
r
(ab)
n
= a
n
b
n r
a
= 1
Linear equations
First identify the steps done to construct an equation; the equation is then solved by
undoing these steps.
This is achieved by doing the opposite in reverse order.
e.g. Solve for x, 3x +4 = 16
x has been multiplied by 3 and then 4 has been added
Subtract 4 from both sides 3x = 12
Divide both sides by 3 x = 4
A formula is an equation that states a relationship between two or more quantities, e.g. the
area of a circle A = r
2
. The value of A, the subject of the formula, may be found by
substituting a given value of r and the value of . A formula can be transposed to make a
different pronumeral the subject using a similar procedure to solving linear equations, i.e.
whatever has been done to the pronumeral required is undone.
Literal equations
Literal equations are solved using the same techniques as for solving numerical equations
or transposing formulas, i.e. by transposing the literal equation to make the required
pronumeral the subject.
Multiplechoice questions
1 For nonzero values of x and y, if 5x + 2y = 0 then the ratio
y
x
is equal to
A
5
2
B
2
5
C
2
5
D 1 E
5
4
2 The solution of the simultaneous equations 3x +2y = 36 and 3x y = 12 is
A x =
20
3
y = 8 B x = 2 y = 0 C x = 1 y = 3
D x =
20
3
y = 6 E x =
3
2
y =
3
2
3 The solution of the equation t 9 = 3t 17 is
A t = 4
B t =
11
2
C t = 4 D t = 2 E t = 2
4 For m =
n p
n + p
, p =
A
n(1 m)
1 +m
B
n(m 1)
1 +m
C
n(1 +m)
1 m
D
n(1 +m)
m 1
E
m(n 1)
m +1
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58 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5
3
x 3
2
x +3
=
A 1 B
x +15
x
2
9
C
15
x 9
D
x +3
x
2
9
E
1
9
6 9x
2
y
3
(15(xy)
3
) is equal to
A
9x
15
B
18xy
5
C
3y
5x
D
3x
5
E
3
5x
7 For the formula V =
1
3
h(l +w)
A l =
hw
3V
B l =
3V
h
w C l =
3V 2w
h
D l =
3Vh
2
w E l =
1
3
h(V +w)
8
(3x
2
y
3
)
2
2x
2
y
=
A
9
2
x
2
y
7
B
9
2
x
2
y
5
C
9
2
x
6
y
7
D
9
2
x
6
y
6
E
9
2
x
6
y
7
9 If X is 50% greater than Y and Y is 20% less than Z, then
A X is 30% greater than Z B X is 20% greater than Z
C X is 20% less than Z D X is 10% less than Z E X is 10% greater than Z
10 The average of two numbers is 5x + 4. One of the numbers is x. The other number is
A 4x +4 B 9x +8 C 9x +4 D 10x +8 E 3x +1
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Simplify the following.
a (x
3
)
4
b ( y
12
)
3
4
c 3x
3
2
5x
4
d (x
3
)
4
3
x
5
2 Express the product 32 10
11
12 10
5
in standard form.
3 Simplify the following.
a
3x
5
+
y
10
2x
5
b
4
x
7
y
c
5
x +2
+
2
x 1
d
3
x +2
+
4
x +4
e
5x
x +4
+
4x
x 2
5
2
f
3
x 2
6
(x 2)
2
4 Simplify the following.
a
x +5
2x 6
x
2
+5x
4x 12
b
3x
x +4
12x
2
x
2
16
c
x
2
4
x 3
3x 9
x +2
9
x +2
d
4x +20
9x 6
6x
2
x +5
2
3x 2
5 The human body can produce 2.5 million blood cells per second. If a person donates
500 mL of blood, how long will it take to replace the red blood cells if a litre of blood
contains 5 10
12
red blood cells?
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 59
6 The Sun is approximately 1.5 10
8
km from Earth and a comet is approximately
3 10
6
km from Earth. How many times further from Earth than the comet is the Sun?
7 Swifts Creek Soccer Team has played 54 matches over the past three seasons. They have
drawn one third of their games and won twice as many games as they have lost. How many
games have they lost?
8 A music store specialises in three types of CDs: classical, blues and heavy metal. In one
week they sold a total of 420 CDs. They sold 10% more classical than blues while sales of
heavy metal constituted 50% more than the combined sales of classical and blues CDs.
How many of each type of CD did they sell?
9 The volume (V) of a cylinder is given by the formula V = r
2
h, where r is the radius of the
base and h is the height of the cylinder.
a Find the volume of a cylinder with base radius 5 cm and height 12 cm.
b Transpose the formula to make h the subject and hence nd the height of a cylinder with
a base radius 5 cm and a volume of 585 cm
3
.
c Transpose the formula to make r the subject and hence nd the radius of a cylinder with
a height of 6 cm and a volume of 768 cm
3
.
10 Solve for x.
a xy +ax = b b
a
x
+
b
x
= c
c
x
a
=
x
b
+2
d
a dx
d
+b =
ax +d
b
11 Simplify
a
p
p +q
+
q
p q
b
1
x
2y
xy y
2
c
x
2
+ x 6
x +1
2x
2
+ x 1
x +3
d
2a
2a +b
2ab +b
2
ba
2
12 A is three times as old as B. In three years time, B will be three times as old as C. In fteen
years time, A will be three times as old as C. What are their present ages?
13 a Solve the following simultaneous equations for a and b.
a 5 =
1
7
(b +3) b 12 =
1
5
(4a 2)
b Solve the following simultaneous equations for x and y.
( p q)x +( p +q)y = ( p +q)
2
qx py = q
2
pq
14 A man has to travel 50 km in 4 hours. He does it by walking the rst 7 km at x km/h,
cycling the next 7 km at 4x km/h and motoring the remainder at (6x + 3) km/h. Find x.
15 Simplify each of the following.
a 2n
2
6nk
2
(3n)
b
8c
2
x
3
y
6a
2
b
3
c
3
1
2
xy
15abc
2
16 Solve the equation
x +5
15
x 5
10
= 1 +
2x
15
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60 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Extendedresponse questions
1 Jack cycles home from work, a distance of 10x km. Benny leaves at the same time and
drives the 40x km to his home.
a Write an expression in terms of x for the time taken for Jack to reach home if he cycles
at 8 km/h on average.
b Write an expression in terms of x for the time taken for Benny to reach home if he
drives at an average speed of 70 km/h.
c In terms of x, nd the difference in times of the two journeys.
d If Jack and Benny arrive at their homes 30 minutes apart
i nd x, correct to three decimal places
ii nd the distance from work of each home, correct to the nearest kilometre.
2 Sams plastic dinghy has sprung a leak and water is pouring in the hole at a rate of
27 000 cm
3
per minute. He grabs a cup and frantically starts bailing the water out at a rate
of 9000 cm
3
per minute. The dinghy is shaped like a circular prism (cylinder) with a base
radius of 40 cm and a height of 30 cm.
a How fast is the dinghy lling with water?
b Write an equation showing the volume of water, V cm
3
, in the dinghy after t minutes.
c Find an expression for the depth of water, h cm, in the dinghy after t minutes.
d If Sam is rescued after nine minutes, is this before or after the dinghy has completely
lled with water?
3 Henry and Thomas Wong collect basketball cards. Henry has ve sixths the number of
cards that Thomas has. The Wright family also has a collection of cards. George Wright
has half as many cards again as Thomas, Sally Wright has 18 less than Thomas and Zeb
Wright has one third the number Thomas has.
a Write an expression for each childs number of cards in terms of the number Thomas
has.
b The Wright family owns six more cards than the Wong family. Write an equation
representing this information.
c Solve the above equation and use the result to nd the number of cards each child has
collected.
4 The gravitational force between two objects, F(N), is given by the formula
F =
6.67 10
11
m
1
m
2
r
2
where m
1
and m
2
are the mass (in kilograms) of each object and r (in metres) is the distance
between them.
a What would be the gravitational force between two objects each weighing 200 kg if
they are 12 m apart? Express the answer in standard form (to two signicant gures).
b Transpose the above formula to make m
1
the subject.
c The gravitational force between a planet and an object 6.4 10
6
m away from the
centre of the planet is found to be 2.4 10
4
N. If the object has a mass of 1500 kg,
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Chapter 2 Algebra I 61
calculate the approximate mass of the planet, giving the answer in standard form (two
signicant gures).
5 A water storage reservoir is 3 km wide, 6 km long and 30 m deep. (The water storage
reservoir is assumed to be a cuboid.)
a Write an equation to show the volume of water, V m
3
, in the reservoir when it is d
metres full.
b Calculate the volume of water in the reservoir when it is completely lled. The water
ows from the reservoir down a long pipe to a hydro electric power station in a valley
below. The amount of energy, E(J), that can be obtained from a full reservoir is given by
the formula
E = kVh
where k is a constant and h (m) is the length of the pipe.
c Find k given E = 1.06 10
15
when h = 200, expressing the answer in standard form
correct to three signicant gures.
d How much energy could be obtained from a full reservoir if the pipe was 250 m long?
e If the rate of water falling through the pipe is 5.2 m
3
/s, how many days without rain
could the station operate before emptying an initially full reservoir?
6 A new advertising symbol is to consist of three concentric
circles as shown, with the outer circle having a radius of 10 cm.
It is desired that the three coloured regions cover the same area.
Find the radius of the innermost circle in the gure shown. Yellow
Blue
Red
7 Temperatures of Fahrenheit (F) can be converted to
Celsius (C) by the formula
C =
5
9
(F 32)
Find the temperature which has the same numerical value in both scales.
8 A cyclist goes up a long slope at a constant speed of 15 km/h. He turns around and
comes down the slope at constant speed of 40 km/h. Find his average speed over a full
circuit.
9 A container has a cylindrical base and a hemispherical
top as shown in the gure at right. The height of the
container is 20 cm and its capacity is to be exactly
2 litres. Let r cm be the radius length of the base.
20 cm
r cm
a Express the height of the cylinder in terms of r.
b i Express the volume of the container in terms of r.
ii Find r and h if the volume is two litres.
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62 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
10 a Two bottles contain mixtures of wine and water. In bottle A there is two times as much
wine as water. In bottle B there is ve times as much water as wine. Bottle A and bottle
B are used to ll a third bottle which has a capacity of one litre. How much liquid must
be taken from each of bottle A and bottle B if the third bottle is to contain equal
amounts of wine and water?
b Repeat for the situation where the ratio of wine to water in bottle A is 1 : 2 and for bottle
B the ratio is to 3 : 1.
c Generalise the result for the ratio m : n for bottle A and p : q for bottle B.
11 A cylinder is placed so as to t into a cone as shown. The height of the cone is 20 cm and
the radius 10 cm.
The radius of the cylinder is r cm and the height h cm.
r cm
h cm
20 cm
a Use similar triangles to nd h in terms of r.
h cm
r cm
20 cm
10 cm
b The volume of the cylinder is given by the formula V = r
2
h. Find the volume of the
cylinder in terms of r.
c Use a graphics calculator to nd the values of r and h for which the volume of the
cylinder is 500 cm
3
.
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C H A P T E R
3
Number systems
and sets
Objectives
To understand and use the notation of sets including the symbols
, , , , ,
To be able to identify sets of numbers including natural numbers, integers, rational
numbers, irrational numbers, real numbers
To know and be able to apply the rules for:
r
simplification of surds
r
operations on surds
r
rationalisation of surds
To know the definition of factor, prime, highest common factor
To be able to solve problems with sets
Introduction
This chapter introduces set notation and discusses sets of numbers and their properties. Set
notation is used widely in mathematics and in this book it is employed where appropriate.
A set is a general name for any collection of things or numbers. There must be a way of
deciding whether any particular object is a member of the set or not. This may be done by
referring to a list of the members of the set or a statement describing them.
For example, A = {3, 3} = {x : x
2
= 9}
Note: {x: . . .} is read as the set of objects x such that . . ..
Number systems
Recall that the elements of {1, 2, 3, 4, . . .} are called natural numbers and the elements
{. . . , 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . .} are called integers.
The numbers of the form
p
q
with p and q integers, q = 0 , are called rational numbers.
63
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64 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The real numbers which are not rational are called irrational, e.g. and
2.
The set of real numbers will be denoted by R.
The set of rational numbers will be denoted by Q.
The set of integers will be denoted by Z.
The set of natural numbers will be denoted by N.
R
2
= {(x, y) : x, y R}
These sets of numbers will be discussed further in Sections 3.2 and 3.3.
3.1 Set notation
The symbol means is a member of or is an element of. For example, 3 {prime
numbers} is read 3 is a member of the set of prime numbers.
The symbol / means is not a member of or is not an element of. For example,
4 / {prime numbers} is read 4 is not a member of the set of prime numbers.
Two sets are equal if they contain exactly the same elements, not necessarily in the same
order. For example, if A = {prime numbers less than 10} and B = {2, 3, 5, 7} then A = B.
Two sets A and B are equivalent if they have the same number of elements. For example,
{1, 2, 3} {a, b, c}.
A set which has no elements is called the empty or null set and is denoted by .
The universal set will be denoted by . The universal set is the set of all elements which are
being considered.
If all the elements of a set B are also members of a set A, then the set B is called a subset
of A. This is written B A. For example, {1, 2, 3} Z where Z is the set of integers, and
{3, 9, 27) {multiples of 3}. We note also A A and A.
Venn diagrams are used to illustrate sets. For example, let denote the set of all real
numbers less than 100, A denote the set of real numbers less than 50 and B the set of real
numbers between 90 and 100 (noninclusive).
This may be illustrated by a Venn diagram.
A
B
A and B have no elements in common.
Two such sets are called disjoint sets.
The union of two sets
The set of elements that are in either set A or set B (or both) is the union of sets A and B. The
union of A and B is written A B.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 65
Example 1
Let = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}, A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2, 9, 10}. Find A B and
illustrate on a Venn diagram.
4
3
9 1
2 10
5 6 7 8
B A
Solution
A B = {1, 2, 3, 9, 10}
The shaded area illustrates A B.
The intersection of two sets
The set of all the elements that are members both of set A and of set B is called the
intersection of A and B. The intersection of A and B is written A B.
Example 2
Let ={prime numbers less than 40}. If A = {3, 5, 7, 11} and B = {3, 7, 29, 37}, nd A B.
2 17 19 23 31 13
29
37 11
5
A B
3
7
Solution
A B = {3, 7}
Complement
If = {students at Highland Secondary College} and A = {students with blue eyes}, then the
complement of A is the set of all members of that are not members of A. In this case the
complement is the set of all students of Highland Secondary College that do not have blue
eyes. The complement of A is denoted by A
.
Similarly, if = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} and A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} then
A
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.
Finite and infinite sets
When all the elements of a set may be counted the set is called a nite set, e.g. A = {months of
the year}. The number of elements of a set A will be denoted n(A). In this example n(A) = 12.
For the set C = {letters of the alphabet}, n(C) = 26.
Sets which are not nite are innite sets. For example, R, the set of real numbers, and Z, the
set of integers, are innite sets.
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66 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 3
Given = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}
A = {odd numbers} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
B = {multiples of 3} = {3, 6, 9}
show these sets on a Venn diagram.
Use the diagram to list the following sets.
a A
b B
c A B
d the complement of A B i.e. (A B)
e A
2 4
5
7
6 1
8 10
A B
3
9
Solution
(Each of the numbers in the given
sets is placed in the correct position
on this Venn diagram.)
From the diagram: a A
= {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
b B
= {2, 4, 8, 10} e A
= {2, 4, 8, 10}
Exercise 3A
1 = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, A = {1, 2, 3, 5}, B = {2, 4}.
Example 1
Show these sets on a Venn diagram and use the diagram to nd
a A
b B
c A B d (A B)
e A
2 = {natural numbers less than 17}, P = {multiples of 3}, Q = {even numbers} Show
Example 2
these sets on a Venn diagram and use it to nd
a P
b Q
c P Q d (P Q)
e P
b B
c A B d (A B)
e A
b Q
c P Q d (P Q)
e P
b B
c A B d A B e (A B)
f A
b Y
c X
d X
e X Y f (X Y)
b Y
c X
d X
e X Y f (X Y)
a A
b B
c A
d A
e A B f (A B)
b B
c A B d (A B)
e A
f A
3,
2, , +2,
7 +
3,
1
7
= 0.
14285
7
Numbers of the form
m
n
, where m and n N have a terminating decimal representation if and
only if n = 2
1.00
Therefore
1
20
= 0.05
b
3
7
0.428571428 . . .
7
3.000000000 . . .
Therefore
3
7
= 0.
42857
1
The method to nd a rational number
m
n
from its decimal representation is demonstrated in the
following example.
Example 4
Write each of the following in the form
m
n
.
a 0.05 b 0.
42857
1
Solution
a 0.05 =
5
100
=
1
20
b 0.
42857
1 = 0.428571428571 . . . . . . 1
Multiply both sides by 10
6
0.
42857
1 10
6
= 428571.428571428571 . . . . . . 2
Subtract 1 from 2
0.
42857
1 (10
6
1) = 428571
0.
42857
1 =
428571
10
6
1
=
3
7
Irrational numbers
The set of irrational numbers has two important subsets, algebraic numbers and
transcendental numbers.
Algebraic numbers are those which are the solutions of an equation of the form
a
0
x
n
+a
1
x
n1
+ +a
n
= 0, where a
0
, a
1
, . . . . , a
n
are integers.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 69
For example,
2 =
a
b
, where a, b N
and
a
b
is a fraction in simplest form.
Then
a
2
b
2
= 2
a
2
=2b
2
which implies a
2
is even which implies a is even
a =2k for some k N
a
2
=4k
2
4k
2
=2b
2
b
2
=2k
2
which implies b
2
is even which implies b is even
But this contradicts the assumption that
a
b
is a fraction in simplest form, as a and b are both
divisible by 2.
Exercise 3B
1 Is the
a sum b product c quotient (if dened)
of two rational numbers rational?
2 Is the
a sum b product c quotient
of two irrational numbers irrational?
3 Write each of the following in the form
m
n
where m and n are integers.
Example 4
a 0.
7 b 0.12 c 0.
28571
4 d 0.
6 e 0.
2 f 0.45
4 Give the decimal representation of each of the following rational numbers.
a
2
7
b
5
11
c
7
20
d
4
13
e
1
17
5 Prove that
2,
7,
24,
9
7
,
1
2
are quadratic surds
9,
16,
9
4
are not surds
3
7,
3
100,
4
3
2
, sin 15
2
4
In Mathematical Methods Units 3 and 4 and Specialist Mathematics Units 3 and 4, exact
solutions are often required.
Lengths such as
2,
3 or
1
3
B
A
C
2
The length AB =
2 The length AB =
3
Any quadratic surd (of a natural number) may be constructed in this way. This makes it
possible to construct a line segment of the length determined by the solutions of many
quadratic equations.
For example, one solution of x
2
x 1 = 0 is x =
1
2
+
1
2
5.
The construction of a line segment of this length involves the right angled triangle XYZ.
5
2
1
X
Z
Y
1 Y X Z
5
The length is now achieved by bisecting the line segment.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 71
Properties of square roots
The following properties of square roots are often used.
ab =
a
b, e.g.
50 =
25
2 = 5
a
b
=
b
, e.g.
7
9
=
9
=
7
3
Properties of surds
Simplest form
If possible, a factor is taken out of a square root. When the number under the square root has
no factors which are squares of a rational number, then the surd is said to be in simplest form.
Example 5
Write each of the following in simplest form.
a
72 b
28 c
700
117
d
99
64
Solution
a
72 =
36
2 = 6
2 b
28 =
4 7 = 2
7
c
700
117
=
700
117
=
7 100
9 13
=
10
3
7
13
d
99
64
=
99
64
=
9 11
8
=
3
11
8
Surds which have the same irrational factor are called like surds.
For example, 3
7, 2
7 and
p +n
p = (m +n)
p and m
p n
p = (m n)
p
Example 6
Express each of the following as a single surd in simplest form.
a
147 +
108
363 b
3 +
5 +
20 +
27
45
48
c
1
8
1
18
5
1
72
d
50 +
2 2
18 +
8
Solution
a
147 +
108
363
=
7
2
3 +
6
2
3
11
2
3
= 7
3 +6
3 11
3
= 2
3
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72 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
b
3 +
5 +
20 +
27
45
48
=
3 +
5 +2
5 +3
3 3
5 4
3
= 0
3 +0
5
= 0
c
1
8
1
18
5
1
72
=
1
4 2
1
9 2
5
1
36 2
=
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
2
5
6
1
2
=
3
6
1
2
2
6
1
2
5
6
1
2
=
4
6
1
2
=
2
3
1
2
d
50 +
2 2
18 +
8
= 5
2 +
2 2 3
2 +2
2
= 8
2 6
2
= 2
2
Rationalising the denominator
In the past, a labour saving procedure with surds was to rationalise any surds in the
denominator of an expression. It is still considered to be a neat way of expressing nal answers.
For
5 a rationalising factor is
5 as
5 = 5
For
2 +1 a rationalising factor is 1
2 as (1 +
2)(1
2) = 1 2 = 1
For
3 +
6 a rationalising factor is
6 as (
3 +
6) (
6) = 3 6 = 3
Example 7
Rationalise the denominator of each of the following.
a
1
2
7
b
1
2
3
c
1
6
d
3 +
8
3
8
Solution
a
1
2
7
=
7
14
b
1
2
3
2 +
3
2 +
3
=
2 +
3
4 3
= 2 +
3
c
1
3 +
3 +
6
=
3 +
6
3 6
=
1
3
(
3 +
6)
d
3 +
8
3
8
=
3 +2
2
3 2
2
3 +2
2
3 +2
2
=
9 +12
2 +8
9 8
= 17 +12
2
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 73
Example 8
Expand the brackets in each of the following and collect like terms, expressing surds in
simplest form.
a (3
2)
2
b (3
2)(1 +
2)
Solution
a (3
2)
2
= (3
2)(3
2)
= 3(3
2)
2(3
2)
= 9 3
2 3
2 +2
= 11 6
2
b (3
2)(1 +
2)
= 3(1 +
2)
2(1 +
2)
= 3 +3
2 2
= 1 +2
2
Using the TINspire
A CAS calculator can be used to work with
irrational numbers.
Expressions can be reached and selected
using the up arrow ( ). This returns the
expression to the entry line and modications
can be made.
To illustrate this, evaluate
2
3
2
2
5
2
8
5
as
shown.
To nd the square root of this expression,
type / and move upwards by pressing
the up arrow ( ) so that the expression is
highlighted.
Press enter (
enter
) to paste this expression into
the square root sign and press enter once
more to evaluate the square root of this
expression.
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74 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 3C
1 Express each of the following in terms of the simplest possible surds.
Example 5
a
8 b
12 c
27 d
50 e
45 f
1210
g
98 h
108 i
25 j
75 k
512
2 Simplify each of the following.
Example 6
a
8 +
18 2
2 b
75 +2
12
27
c
28 +
175
63 d
1000
40
90
e
512 +
128 +
32 f
24 3
216 +
294
3 Simplify each of the following.
a
75 +
108 +
14 b
847
567 +
63
c
720
245
125 d
338
288 +
363
300
e
12 +
8 +
18 +
27 +
300 f 2
18 +3
50 +
20
80
4 Express each of the following with rational denominators.
Example 7
a
1
5
b
1
7
c
1
2
d
2
3
e
3
6
f
1
2
2
g
1
2 +1
h
1
2
3
i
1
4
10
j
2
6 +2
k
1
3
l
3
5
m
1
3 2
2
5 Express each of the following in the form a +b
c.
Example 8
a
2
3 2
2
b (
5 +2)
2
c (1 +
2)(3 2
2) d (
3 1)
2
e
1
3
1
27
f
3 +2
2
3 1
g
5 +1
5 1
h
8 +3
18 +2
6 Expand and simplify each of the following.
a (2
a 1)
2
b (
x +1 +
x +2)
2
7 For real numbers a and b, a > b if and only if a b > 0. Use this to state the larger of
a 5 3
2 and 6
2 8 b 2
6 3 or 7 2
6
3.4 Natural numbers
Factors and composites
The factors of 8 are 1, 2, 4 and 8.
The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24.
The factors of 5 are 1 and 5.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 75
A natural number, a, is a factor of a natural number, b, if there exists a natural number, k,
such that b = ak.
If a number greater than 1 has only factors 1 and itself, it is said to be prime.
Among the rst 100 numbers, the following are prime:
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97
A number, m, is called a composite if it can be written as a product, m = a b where a and
b are numbers greater than 1 and less than m.
Prime decomposition
3000 = 3 5
3
2
3
2294 = 2 31 37
This method of uniquely expressing a composite in terms of a product of powers of prime
numbers is called decomposition. It is useful for nding factors of numbers.
For example, the prime decomposition of 12 is given by 12 = 2
2
3
The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 2
2
, 3, 2 3, 2
2
3, i.e. 1, 2, 4, 3, 6, 12.
Example 9
Give the prime decomposition of 17 248 and hence list the factors of this number.
Solution
The prime decomposition can be determined by repeated division.
2 17248
2 8624
2 3112
2 2156
2 1078
7 539
7 77
11 11
1
The prime decomposition of 17248 is 17248 = 2
5
7
2
11
The factors can systematically be determined in the following way.
2
5
, 2
4
, 2
3
, 2
2
, 2, 1
2
5
7, 2
4
7, 2
3
7, 2
2
7, 2 7, 7
2
5
7
2
, 2
4
7
2
, 2
3
7
2
, 2
2
7
2
, 2 7
2
, 7
2
2
5
11, 2
4
11, 2
3
11, 2
2
11, 2 11, 11
2
5
7 11, 2
4
7 11, 2
3
7 11, 2
2
7 11, 2 7 11, 7 11
2
5
7
2
11, 2
4
7
2
11, 2
3
7
2
11, 2
2
7
2
11, 2 7
2
11, 7
2
11
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76 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Highest common factor (greatest
common divisor)
The highest common factor of two natural numbers is the largest natural number which is a
factor of both the numbers. For example, the highest common factor of 15 and 24 is 3. The
prime decomposition can be used to nd the highest common factor of two numbers.
Consider the numbers 140 and 110. The prime factorisations of these numbers are
140 = 2
2
5 7 and 110 = 2 5 11.
The number which is a factor of 140 and 110 must have prime factors which occur in both
factorisations. The exponent (power) of each of these prime factors will be the smaller of
the two exponents occurring in the factorisation of 140 and 110. Thus the highest common
factor = 2 5 = 10.
Example 10
Find the highest common factor of 528 and 3168.
Solution
528 = 2
4
3 11 and 3168 = 2
5
3
2
11
highest common factor = 2
4
3 11 = 528
Example 11
Find the highest common factor of 3696 and 3744.
Solution
3696 = 2
4
3 7 11 and 3744 = 2
5
3
2
13
highest common factor = 2
4
3 = 48
Using the TINspire
The calculator can be used to factor Natural numbers
by using factor( ) from the Algebra menu (b3
2) as shown.
The highest common factor (also called greatest
common divisor) of two numbers can be found using
the command gcd( ) from the Number menu (b2
4) as shown.
Note how nested gcd( ) may be used to nd the
greatest common divisor of several numbers.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 77
Using the Casio ClassPad
To nd the highest common factor, tap
Interactive, Calculation, gcd and enter the
required numbers in the two lines provided.
Exercise 3D
1 Give the prime decomposition of each of the following numbers.
Example 9
a 68 640 b 96 096 c 32 032 d 544 544
2 Find the highest common factor of each of the following pairs of numbers.
Examples 10, 11
a 4361, 9281 b 999, 2160 c 5255, 716 845
d 1271, 3875 e 804, 2358
Note: Extendedanswer questions 5, 6 and 7 are concerned with natural numbers.
3.5 Problems involving sets
Sets can be used to help sort information, as each of the following examples demonstrates.
Example 12
Two hundred and eighty students either travel by train or tram or both to get to school. One
hundred and fty travel by train and 60 travel by both train and tram.
a Show this information on a Venn diagram.
b Hence nd the number of students who travel by
i tram ii train but not tram iii just one of these modes of transport.
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78 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
a
b i n(TRAM) = 130 +60 = 190 ii n(TRAIN (TRAM)
) = 90
iii n(TRAIN (TRAM)
) +n((TRAIN)
) =5, n(J
S) =5 and n(J H
) =7
a Draw a Venn diagram.
b Find
i n(H) ii n(S H J) iii n(S J) iv n(S J H
)
Solution
a
The information given above can be summarised as equations in terms of p, q, r,
w, x, y, z.
x + y + z +w = 11 as n(S) = 11 . . . 1
p +q + z +w = 10 as n(J) = 10 . . . 2
x + y + z +w + p +q +r = 18 as all members compete . . . 3
p = 5 as n(J H
) = 5 . . . 4
s = 5 as n(J
S) = 5 . . . 5
r = 0 as every hurdler either jumps or sprints . . . 6
w + p = 7 as n(J H
) = 7 . . . 7
From 4 and 7 , w = 2
Equation 3 becomes
5 + y + z +2 +5 +q = 18
i.e. y + z +q = 6 . . . 8
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 79
Equation 1 becomes
y + z = 4
Therefore from 8, q = 2
Equation 2 becomes
5 +2 + z +2 = 10
z = 1
and y = 3
The Venn diagram can be completed.
5 2 5
3
1
2
0
H
J S
b i n(H) = 6 ii n(S H J) = 1
iii n(S J) = 18 iv n(S J H
) = 2
Exercise 3E
1 There are 28 students in a class all of whom take History or Economics or both. Fourteen
Example 12
take History, ve of whom also take Economics.
a Show this information on a Venn diagram.
b Hence nd the number of students who take
i Economics ii History but not Economics
iii just one of these subjects.
2 a Draw a Venn diagram to show three sets, A, B and C in a universal set . Enter
numbers in the correct parts of the diagram using the following information.
n(A B C) = 2, n(A B) = 7, n(B C) = 6,
n(A C) = 8, n(A) = 16, n(B) = 20, n(C) = 19, n() = 50
b Use the diagram to nd
i n(A
) ii n(A B
) iii n(A
B C
)
3 In a border town in the Balkans, 60% of people speak Bulgarian, 40% speak Greek and
20% speak neither. What percentage of the town speak both Bulgarian and Greek?
4 A survey of a class of 40 students showed that 16 own at least one dog and 25 at least one
cat. Six students had neither. How many students own both?
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80 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 At an international conference there were 105 delegates. Seventy spoke English, 50 spoke
French and 50 spoke Japanese. Twenty ve spoke English and French, 15 spoke French
and Japanese and 30 spoke Japanese and English.
a How many delegates spoke all three languages?
b How many spoke Japanese only?
6 A restaurant serves 350 people lunches. It offers three desserts, proteroles, gelati and
fruit. It is found that 40 people have all three desserts, 70 have gelati only, 50 have
proteroles only and 60 have fruit only. Forty ve people have fruit and gelati only, 30
people have gelati and proteroles only and 10 people have fruit and proteroles only.
How many people do not have a dessert?
7 Forty travellers were questioned about the various methods of transport they had used the
Example 13
previous day. Every traveller questioned travelled by at least one of the following: car (C),
bus (B), train (T).
Of those questioned, eight had used all three methods of transport.
Four had travelled by bus and car only.
Two had travelled by car and train only.
The number (x) who had travelled by train only was equal to the number who had
travelled by bus and train only.
If 20 travellers had used a train and 33 had used a bus, nd
a the value of x b the number who travelled by bus only
c the number who travelled by car only.
8 is the set of integers and
X = {x : 21 < x < 37}
Y = {3y : 0 < y 13}
Z = {z
2
: 0 < z < 8}
a Draw a Venn diagram representing the information.
b Find
i X Y Z ii n(X Y)
9 A number of students bought red, green and black pens. Three bought one of each colour.
Of the students who bought two colours, three did not buy red, ve not green and two not
black. The same number of students bought red only as bought red with other colours.
The same number bought black only as bought green only. More students bought red and
black but not green than bought black only. More bought only green than bought green
and black but not red. How many students were there and how many pens of each colour
were sold?
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 81
10 For three subsets, B, M and F of a universal set
n(B M) = 12, n(M F B) = n(F
) = 5, n(M B
) = 5, n(F M
) = 5,
n() = 28
Find n(M F).
11 A group of 80 students were interviewed about which sport they played. It was found that
23 did athletics, 22 swim and 18 play football. If 10 people do athletics and swim only
and 11 people do athletics and play football only, six people both swim and play football
only and 46 people do none of these activities on a regular basis, how many people do all
three?
12 At a certain secondary college students have to be procient in at least one of the
languages Italian, French or German. In a particular group of 33 students, two are
procient in all three languages, three in Italian and French only, four in French and
German only and ve in German and Italian only. The number procient in Italian only is
x, in French only is x and in German only is x +1. Find x and the total number procient
in Italian.
13 Two hundred and one students at a certain school studied one or more of Mathematics,
Physics and Chemistry. 35 took Chemistry only, 50% more students studied Mathematics
only than studied Physics only, four studied all three subjects, 25 studied both
Mathematics and Physics but not Chemistry, seven studied both Mathematics and
Chemistry but not Physics and 20 studied both Physics and Chemistry but not
Mathematics. Find the number of students studying Mathematics.
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82 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
Set notation
is a member of
/ is not a member of
the empty set
the universal set
subset
The union of two sets
The set of elements that are in either set A or set B (or both) is the union of set A and B. The
union of A and B is written A B.
The intersection of two sets
The set of all the elements that are members both of set A and of set B is called the
intersection of A and B. The intersection of A and B is written A B.
The complement of A, written A
p +n
p = (m +n)
p and m
p n
p = (m n)
p
A natural number, a, is a factor of a natural number, b, if there exists a natural number, k,
such that b = ak.
If a natural number greater than 1 has only factors 1 and itself, it is said to be prime.
A natural number, m, is called a composite if it can be written as a product m = a b
where a and b are natural numbers greater than 1 and less than m.
The highest common factor of two natural numbers is the largest natural number which is
a factor of both numbers.
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 83
Multiplechoice questions
1
4
3 +2
2
expressed in the form a +b
2 is
A 12 8
2 B 3 +2
2 C
3
17
8
17
2 D
3
17
+
8
17
2 E 12 +8
2
2 The prime decomposition of 86400 is
A 2
5
3
2
5 B 2
6
3
3
5
2
C 2
7
3
3
5
D 2
7
3
3
5
2
E 2
6
3
3
5
3
3 (
6 +3)(
6 3) is equal to
A 3 12
6 B 3 6
6 C 3 +6
6 D 3 E 3
4 For the Venn diagram shown is the set of positive integers less than 20. A is the set of
positive integers less than 10 and B is the set of positive integers less than 20 divisible by 3.
The set B
A is
1
11 10 13 14 16 17 19
2
7
3
4 5 8
6
9
12
15 18
B
A
A {6, 3, 9}
B {12, 15, 18}
C {10,11,13,14,16,17,19}
D {1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8}
E {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 18}
5 (3,) (, 5] =
A (, 3) B (, 5] C (3, 5] D R E [3, 5]
6 A bell is rung every 6 minutes and a gong is sounded every 14 minutes. If these occur
together at a particular time then the smallest number of minutes until the bell and the gong
are again heard simultaneously is
A 10 B 20 C 72 D 42 E 84
7 If X is the set of multiples of 2, Y the set of multiples of 7 and Z the set of multiples of 5
then describe X Y Z =
A the set of multiples of 2 B the set of multiples of 70
C the set of multiples of 35 D the set of multiples of 14
E the set of multiples of 10
8 In a class of students, 50% play football, 40% play tennis and 30% play neither. The
percentage that plays both is
A 10 B 20 C 30 D 50 E 40
9
7 +
6
=
A 5 +2
7 B 13 +2
6 C 13 2
42 D 1 +2
42 E 13 2
13
10 There are 40 students in a class, all of whom take Literature or Economics or both. Twenty
take Literature and ve of these also take Economics. The number of students who only
take Economics is
A 20 B 5 C 10 D 15 E 25
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84 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Express the following as fractions in their simplest form.
a 0.0
7 b 0.
6 f 0.1
71428
5
2 Express 504 as a product of powers of prime numbers.
3 Express each of the following with a rational denominator.
a
2
3 1
2
b
5 +2
5 2
c
3 +
2
4 Express
3 +2
75
3
12
in the form a +b
3 where a, b R\{0}.
5 Express each of the following with a rational denominator.
a
6
2
3
2 2
3
b
a +b
a b
a +b +
a b
6 In a class of 100 students, 55 are girls, 45 have blue eyes, 40 are blond, 25 are blond girls,
15 are blueeyed blonds, 20 are blueeyed girls, and 5 are blueeyed blond girls. Find
a the number of blond boys
b the number of boys who are not blond or blueeyed.
7 A group of 30 students received prizes in at least one of the subjects of English,
Mathematics, and French. Two students received prizes in all three subjects. Fourteen
received prizes in English and Mathematics but not French. Two received prizes in English
alone, two in French alone and ve in Mathematics alone. Four received prizes in English
and French but not Mathematics.
a How many received prizes in Mathematics and French but not English?
b How many received prizes in Mathematics?
c How many received prizes in English?
8 Fifty people are interviewed. Twentythree say they like Brand X, 25 say they like Brand Y,
19 say they like Brand Z. Eleven say they like X and Z. Eight say they like Y and Z. Five say
they like X and Y. Two like all three. How many like none of them?
9 Three rectangles A, B and C overlap (intersect). Their areas are 20 cm
2
, 10 cm
2
and 16 cm
2
respectively. The area common to A and B is 3 cm
2
, that common to A and C is 6 cm
2
, that
common to B and C is 4 cm
2
. How much of the area is common to all three if the total area
covered is 35 cm
2
?
10 Express
112
63
224
28
in simplest form.
11 If
3
x
=
x
7 +
3
, nd the values of x.
12 Express
1 +
5 +
3
+
1
3
in the form a
5 +b
6.
13 Simplify
27
12 +2
75
48
25
.
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14 A, B and C are three sets and = A B C. The number of elements in the regions of the
Venn diagram are as shown. Find
32
7 15 3
0
0
A B
C a the number of elements in A B
b the number of elements in C
c the number of elements in B
A.
15 Using the result that (
a +
b)
2
= a +b +2
8.
Extendedresponse questions
1 a Show that (
x +
y)
2
= x + y +2
xy.
b Substitute x = 3 and y = 5 in the identity of a to show
(
3 +
5) =
8 +2
15
c Use this technique to nd the square root of
i 14 +2
56 iii 51 36
2
2 In this question, {a +b
1: a, b R}.
a If (2 +3
3) +(4 +2
3) = a +b
3, nd a and b.
b If (2 +3
3)(4 +2
3) = p +q
3, nd p and q.
c If
1
3 +2
3
= a +b
3, nd a and b.
d Solve each of the following equations for x.
i (2 +5
3)x = 2
3 ii (x 3)
2
3 = 0 iii (2x 1)
2
3 = 0
e Explain why every rational number is a member of {a +b
3 : a, b Q}.
3 a Show
1
2 +
3
= 2
3
b Use the substitution t =
2 +
x
and the result of a to show that the equation
2 +
x
+
x
= 4 can be written as t +
1
t
= 4.
c Show that the solutions of the equation are t = 2
3 and t = 2 +
3.
d Use this result to solve the equation
2 +
x
+
x
= 4
4 Use Venn diagrams to illustrate
a n(A B) = n(A) +n(B) n(A B)
b n(A B C) = n(A) +n(B) +n(C) n(A B) n(B C)
n(A C) +n(A B C)
5 The number 2
q))(x (m +n
q))
6 A triple (x, y, z) is said to be Pythagorean if x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
, e.g. (3, 4, 5) is a Pythagorean
triple, (5, 12, 13) is a Pythagorean triple.
All Pythagorean triples may be generated by the following:
x = 2mn, y = m
2
n
2
, z = m
2
+n
2
where m, n N
e.g. if m = 2, n = 1 then x = 4, y = 3, z = 5
a Find the Pythagorean triple for m = 5, n = 2.
b Verify that for x = 2mn, y = m
2
n
2
, z = m
2
+n
2
where m, n N, x
2
+ y
2
= z
2
.
7 The factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12.
a How many factors does each of the following have?
i 2
3
ii 3
7
b How many factors does 2
n
have?
c How many factors does each of the following have?
i 2
3
3
7
ii 2
n
3
m
d Every natural number may be expressed as a product of powers and primes. This is
called prime factorisation, e.g. 1080 = 2
3
3 5.
For x, a natural number, let p
1
1
p
2
2
p
3
3
. . . p
n
n
be the prime factorisation where
i
N
and each p
i
is a prime number.
How many factors does x have? (Answer to be given in terms of
i
.)
e Find the smallest number which has eight factors.
8 The least common multiple of natural numbers m and n is the smallest natural number
which is a multiple of both m and n, e.g. the least common multiple of 4 and 6 is 12.
a Give the prime decomposition of 1080 and 25 200.
b In order to nd the least common multiple of two numbers a and b, take the prime
decomposition of each of the numbers, i.e. a = p
1
1
p
2
2
p
3
3
. . . p
n
n
and
b = p
1
1
p
2
2
p
3
3
. . . p
m
m
and then the least common multiple of a and
b = p
max(
1
,
1
)
1
p
max(
2
,
2
)
2
. . . p
max(
n
,
n
)
n
. . . p
max(
m
,
m
)
m
, where all primes in the prime
decomposition of either a or b are included in this product, e.g. the least common
multiple of 24 = 2
3
3 and 18 = 3
2
2 is 2
3
3
2
= 72. Find the least common
multiple of 1080 and 25 200.
c Carefully explain why if m and n are integers mn = least common multiple of m and
n highest common factor of m and n.
(contd)
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Chapter 3 Number systems and sets 87
d i Find four consecutive even numbers such that the smallest is a multiple of 5, the
second a multiple of 7, the third a multiple of 9 and the largest a multiple of 11.
ii Find four consecutive natural numbers such that the smallest is a multiple of 5, the
second a multiple of 7, the third a multiple of 9 and the largest a multiple of 11.
9 a In the Venn diagram is the set of all students enrolled at Argos Secondary College. Set
R is the set of all students with red hair. Set B is the set of all students with blue eyes. Set
F is the set of all female students.
The numbers on the diagram indicate the eight different regions.
i Identify the region in the Venn diagram which represents male students who have
neither red hair nor blue eyes.
ii Describe the gender, hair colour and eye colour of students represented in
region 1 of the diagram.
iii Describe the gender, hair colour and eye colour of students represented in
region 2 of the diagram.
b It is known that at Argos Secondary College, 250 of the students study French (F),
Greek (G) or Japanese (J). Fortyone students do not study French. Twelve students
study French and Japanese, but not Greek. Thirteen students study Japanese and Greek,
but not French. Thirteen students study only Greek. Twice as many students study
French and Greek but not Japanese as study all three. The number studying only
Japanese is the same as the total of those studying both French and Greek.
i How many students study all three languages?
ii How many students study only French?
10 Consider the universal set as the set of all students enrolled at Sounion Secondary College.
Let B denote the set of students taller than 180 cm at Sounion Secondary College and A
denote the set of female students.
a Give a brief description of each of the following sets.
i B
ii A B iii A
= (A
).
c Hence show that A B C = (A
),
x
i.e. y x
1
2
x 2 4 6
y 1 1.225 1.414
Solution
a If y x
2
then y = kx
2
When x = 2, y = 12
12 = k(2
2
)
k = 3
Check:
When x = 6, y = 3(6
2
)
= 108
y = 3x
2
In order to complete the
table, consider the following.
When x = 4, y = 3(4
2
)
y = 48
When y = 192, 192 = 3x
2
64 = x
2
x = 8
b If y
x
then y = k
x
When x = 4, y = 1
1 = k(
4)
k = 0.5
Check:
When x = 6, y = 0.5(
6)
1.225
y = 0.5
x
In order to complete the table,
consider the following.
When x = 2, y = 0.5(
2)
y 0.7071
When y = 1.414, 1.414 0.5(
x)
2.828
x
x 8
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Chapter 4 Variation 91
x 2 4 6 8
y 12 48 108 192
x 2 4 6 8
y 0.707 1 1.225 1.414
Example 2
In an electrical wire, the resistance (R ohms) varies directly with the length (L m) of the wire.
a If a wire 6 m long has a resistance of 5 ohms, what would be the resistance in a wire of
length 4.5 m?
b How long is a wire for which the resistance is 3.8 ohms?
Solution
The constant of variation is determined rst.
R L
R = kL
When L = 6, R = 5
5 = k(6)
k =
5
6
i.e. the constant of variation is
5
6
Hence R =
5L
6
a When L = 4.5, R =
5 4.5
6
R = 3.75
The resistance of a wire of length
4.5 m is 3.75 ohms.
b When R = 3.8, 3.8 =
5L
6
L = 4.56
The length of a wire of resistance
3.8 ohms is 4.56 m.
Example 3
The volume of a sphere varies directly as the cube of its radius. By what percentage will the
volume increase if the radius is
a doubled b increased by 20%?
Solution
V r
3
i.e. V = kr
3
Initially set the radius equal to 1,
then V = k(1
3
) = k
a If r is doubled, then set r = 2
Then V = k(2
3
) = 8k
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92 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
the volume has increased from k to 8k, an increase of 7k
% increase of volume =
7k
k
100
1
= 700%
b If r is increased by 20%, then set r = 1.2.
Then V = k(1.2
3
) = 1.728k
% increase of volume = 72.8%
Exercise 4A
1 Determine the value of k, the constant of variation, in each of the following and hence
Example 1
complete the table of values.
a y x
2
x 2 4 6
y 8 32 128
b y x
x
1
2
1
3
2
y
1
6
1
2
2
3
c y
x
x 4 9 49
y 6 9 90
d y x
1
5
x
1
32
1 32
y
1
5
2
5
8
5
2 If V r
3
and V = 125 when r = 2.5, nd
a V when r = 3.2 b r when V = 200
3 If a b
2
3
and a =
2
3
when b = 1, nd
a a when b = 2 b b when a = 2
4 The area (A) of a triangle of xed base length varies directly as its perpendicular height
Example 2
(h). If the area of the triangle is 60 cm
2
when its height is 10 cm, nd
a the area when its height is 12 cm b the height when its area is 120 cm
2
.
5 The extension in a spring (E) varies directly with the weight (w) suspended from it. If a
weight of 452 g produces an extension of 3.2 cm, nd
a the extension produced by a weight of 810 g
b the weight that would produce an extension of 10 cm.
6 The weight (W) of a square sheet of lead varies directly with the square of its side length
(L). If a sheet of side length 20 cm weighs 18 kg, nd the weight of a sheet that has an
area of 225 cm
2
.
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Chapter 4 Variation 93
7 The volume (V) of a sphere varies directly with the cube of its radius (r). A sphere whose
radius is 10 cm has a volume of 4188.8 cm
3
. Find the radius of a sphere whose volume is
1 cubic metre.
8 The time taken for one complete oscillation of a pendulum is called its period. The period
Example 3
(T) of a pendulum varies directly with the square root of the length (L) of the pendulum. A
pendulum of length 60 cm has a period of 1.55 seconds. Find the period of a pendulum
that is one and a half times as long.
9 The distance (d) to the visible horizon varies directly with the square root of the height (h)
of the observer above sea level. An observer 1.8 m tall can see 4.8 km out to sea when
standing on the shoreline.
a How far could the person see if they climbed a 4 m tower?
b If the top of a 10 m mast on a yacht is just visible to the observer in the tower, how far
out to sea is the yacht?
10 In each of the following calculate the percentage change in y when x is
a doubled b halved c reduced by 20%
d increased by 40%
i y x
2
ii y
x iii y x
3
4.2 Inverse variation
A builder employs a number of bricklayers to build a brick wall. Three bricklayers will
complete the wall in eight hours but if he employs six bricklayers the wall will be complete in
half the time. The more bricklayers he employs, the shorter the time taken to complete the
wall. The time taken (t) decreases as the number of bricklayers (b) increases.
This is an example of inverse variation. The time taken to complete the wall varies
inversely as the number of bricklayers employed.
t varies inversely as b or t is inversely proportional to b
i.e. t
1
b
In general, inverse variation exists if a
1
b
n
where n is some positive number
i.e. a varies inversely as b
n
.
If a
1
b
n
then a =
k
b
n
where k is a positive constant called the constant of variation.
For all examples of inverse variation, as one variable increases the other will decrease and
vice versa. The graph of a against b will show a downward trend. It should be noted, however,
that any graph showing a decreasing trend will not necessarily be an example of inverse
variation.
If a
1
b
n
then the graph of a against
1
b
n
will be a straight line.
However, since if b = 0,
1
b
n
is undened, the line will not be dened at the origin.
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94 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 4
Use the tables of values below to determine the value of the constant of variation, k, in each
case and hence complete each of the tables.
a y
1
x
2
x 2 5 10
y 0.1 0.016 0.001
b y
1
x
x 1 25 100
y 10 5 1
Solution
a y
1
x
2
y =
k
x
2
When x = 2, y = 0.1
0.1 =
k
2
2
k = 0.4
i.e. the constant of variation is 0.4
Check:
When x = 5, y =
0.4
5
2
= 0.16
y =
0.4
x
2
In order to complete the table,
consider the following.
When x = 10, y =
0.4
10
2
y = 0.004
When y = 0.001, 0.001 =
0.4
x
2
0.001x
2
= 0.4
x
2
=
0.4
0.001
x = 20
x 2 5 10 20
y 0.1 0.016 0.004 0.001
b y
1
x
y =
k
x
When x = 1, y = 10
10 =
k
1
k = 10
Check:
When x = 100, y =
10
100
= 1
y =
10
x
In order to complete the table,
consider the following.
When x = 4, y =
10
4
y = 5
When y = 2, 2 =
10
x
2
x = 10
x = 25
x 1 4 25 100
y 10 5 2 1
Example 5
For a cylinder of xed volume, the height (h cm) is inversely proportional to the square of the
radius (r cm).
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Chapter 4 Variation 95
a What percentage change in the height would result if its radius were reduced by 25%?
b If a cylinder 15 cm high has a base radius of 4.2 cm, how high would a cylinder of
equivalent volume be if its radius were 3.5 cm?
Solution
a h
1
r
2
i.e. h =
k
r
2
If r = 1, then h =
k
(1)
2
= k
If r is reduced by 25%, then
set r = 0.75
Then h =
k
(0.75)
2
=
k
0.5625
1.778k (correct to
three decimal places)
h is increased by 77.8%
b h =
k
r
2
When h = 15, r = 4.2
15 =
k
(4.2)
2
k = 15(4.2)
2
= 264.6
h =
264.6
r
2
Consider a cylinder of radius 3.5 cm.
If r = 3.5, then h =
264.6
(3.5)
2
h = 21.6
The height of the cylinder is 21.6 cm.
Exercise 4B
1 Determine the value of k, the constant of variation, in each of the following and hence
Example 4
complete the tables of values.
a y
1
x
x 2 4 6
y 1
1
2
1
16
b y
1
x
x
1
4
1 9
y 1
1
2
1
4
c y
1
x
2
x 1 2 3
y 3
3
4
1
12
d y
1
x
1
3
x
1
8
1 125
y
2
3
1
3
1
9
2 If a
1
b
3
and a = 4 when b =
2, nd
a a when b = 2
2 b b when a =
1
16
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96 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 If a
1
b
4
and a = 5 when b = 2, nd
a a when b = 4 b b when a = 20.
4 The gas in a cylindrical canister occupies a volume of 22.5 cm
3
and exerts a pressure
of 1.9 kg/cm
2
. If the volume (V) varies inversely as the pressure (P), nd the pressure if the
volume is reduced to 15 cm
3
.
5 The current (I amperes) that ows in an electrical appliance varies inversely as the
Example 5
resistance (R ohms) of the appliance. If the current is 3 amperes when the resistance is
80 ohms, nd
a the current when the resistance is 100 ohms
b the increase in resistance required to reduce the current to 80% of its original value.
6 The intensity of illumination (I) of a light varies inversely as the square of the distance (d)
from the light. At a distance of 20 m a light has an intensity of 100 candela. Find the
intensity of the light at a distance of 25 m.
7 The radius (r) of a cylinder of xed volume varies inversely as the square root of its height
(h). If the height is 10 cm when the radius is 5.64 cm, nd the radius if the height is 12 cm.
8 In each of the following, calculate the percentage change in y when x is
a doubled b halved c reduced by 20%
d increased by 40%.
i y
1
x
2
ii y
1
x
iii y
1
x
3
4.3 Fitting data
Sometimes the relationship that exists between two variables a and b is not known. By
inspection of a table of values, it is sometimes possible to ascertain whether the relationship
between the variables is direct or inverse proportion. Analysis is required to establish the rule
that best ts the given data. This may involve graphing the data.
Example 6
Establish the relationship between the two variables for each of the following tables of values.
a
b 0 2 4 6 8
a 0 12 48 108 192
b
x 1 3 6 12 15
y 30 10 5 2.5 2
Solution
a By inspection it can be conjectured that some type of direct variation exists. As b
increases, a also increases and when a = 0, b = 0.
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Chapter 4 Variation 97
Assume a b
n
for some positive number n
a = kb
n
i.e. k =
a
b
n
Select a value for n (it must be a positive number) and test each of the pairs of
values given in the table (do not use (0, 0)). If the value of k for each pair of values
is the same then the choice of n is correct.
Let n = 1 k =
a
b
Consider
a
b
for the values
given in the table.
Testing:
12
2
= 6
48
4
= 12
108
6
= 18
192
8
= 24
Since the quotients differ, n = 1.
Let n = 2 k =
a
b
2
Consider
a
b
2
for the values
given in the table.
Testing:
12
4
= 3
48
16
= 3
108
36
= 3
192
64
= 3
The quotients are all equal to 3.
k = 3 and n = 2
i.e. a = 3b
2
b By inspection it can be conjectured that some type of inverse variation exists.
As x increases, y decreases.
Assume y
1
x
n
for some positive number n
y =
k
x
n
i.e. k = yx
n
Let n = 1 k = yx
Consider the product yx for the values given in the table.
Testing: 30 1 = 30
10 3 = 30
5 6 = 30
2.5 12 = 30
2 15 = 30
k = 30 and n = 1
i.e. y =
30
x
The type of variation can also be investigated by graphical analysis. By plotting the graph of
a against b, an upward trend may indicate direct variation or a downward trend may indicate
inverse variation.
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98 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
To nd the specic type of variation that exists, the following can be used as a guide.
If direct variation exists (a b
n
), then the graph of a against b
n
will be a straight line
through the origin. The gradient of this line will be the constant of variation k.
If inverse variation exists
a
1
b
n
b, a = 0.4, b = 3.
Hence y = 0.4x
3
, so the required
relationship is N = 0.4D
3
.
The graph and the data can be graphed
in a Graphs & Geometry application
( 2) as a Function (b31)
and a Scatter Plot (b34)
respectively.
Using the Casio ClassPad
In the program area, enter the data
into list 1 and list 2 then tap Calc, Power
Reg and ensure the settings are as shown.
Note that selecting y1 will copy the
formula to graph y1 in the program
area. Note the formula from the Stat
Calculation screen before tapping OK. The
required relationship is N = 0.4D
3
.
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100 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 9
Establish a rule connecting y and x given the following data.
x 1 8 64
y 5 2.5 1.25
Solution
The solution is given in the screens below.
Using the TINspire
Note thaty = 5x
1
3
=
5
x
1
3
Using the Casio ClassPad
The solution is given in the screens. Note that y = 5x
1
3
=
5
x
1
3
Exercise 4C
1 Each of the tables in parts a to e ts one of the following types of variation:
Example 6
direct y x inverse y
1
x
direct square y x
2
inverse square y
1
x
2
direct square root y
x
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Chapter 4 Variation 101
Establish the relationship between x and y in each case.
a
x 0 3 6 9 12
y 0 2 4 6 8
b
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 4 16 36 64 100
c
x 20 15 10 5 1
y
1
4
1
3
1
2
1 5
d
x 1 2 3 4 5
y 2 2.828 3.464 4 4.472
e
x 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
y 4 1.78 1 0.64 0.444
2 Which of the following graphs could represent examples of direct variation?
a
x
0
y
b
x
3
0
y c
x
0
y
d
x
0
y
e
0
y
x
1
f
x
0
y
3 Which of the following graphs could represent examples of inverse variation?
a
x
0
y
b
x
1
0
y c
x
0
y
d
x
0
y e
1
x
3
0
y
f
x
0
y
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102 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
4 Give the rule connecting y and x for each of the following.
a
(1, 3)
x
0
y
b
x
1
0
y
(2, 6)
c
x
2
0
y
(3, 10)
d
0
y
x
(1, 2)
e
(9, 3)
x
1
0
y
f
(1, 6)
x
3
0
y
5 Plot the graph of y against x
2
and hence establish the relationship between x and y.
Example 7
x 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
y 9.6 15 21.6 29.4 38.4
6 Plot the graph of y against
1
5
57 = 15k
1
+45
k
1
=
12
15
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108 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
k
1
=
4
5
d =
4
5
s +
1
5
s
2
When s = 18
d =
4
5
(18) +
1
5
(18)
2
d = 79.2
The stopping distance of the tram will be 79.2 m.
Exercise 4E
1 The cost of a taxi ride (C) is partly constant (b) and partly varies with the distance travelled
Example 12
(d). A ride of 22 km costs $42.40 and a ride of 25 km costs $47.80. Find the cost of a
journey of 17 km.
2 The cost of a wedding reception at Hillview Reception Centre includes a xed overhead
charge and an amount per guest.
a If a reception for 50 people costs $2625 and a reception for 70 people costs $3575, nd
the xed overhead charge and the cost per guest.
b Hence nd the total cost of a reception for 100 guests.
3 p is the sum of two numbers, one of which varies as x and the other, as the square of y. If
Example 13
p = 14 when x = 3 and y = 4, and p = 14.5 when x = 5 and y = 3, nd p when x = 4
and y = 5.
4 The cost of running a ferris wheel in an amusement park varies partly as the number of
people who ride it and partly as the inverse of the number of people who ride it. If the
running cost is $32 when 200 people ride it and $61 if 400 people ride it, nd the running
cost on a day when 360 people ride it.
5 The distance travelled (s) by a particle varies partly with time and partly with the square of
time. If it travels 142.5 m in 3 s and 262.5 m in 5 s, nd
a how far it would travel in 6 s b how far it would travel in the sixth second.
6 The time taken (t) to load boxes onto a truck varies partly with the number of
boxes (b) and partly with the inverse of the number of men (m) loading the
boxes. If it takes one man 45 minutes to load ten boxes and two
men 30 minutes to load eight boxes, how long would it take four men to
load sixteen boxes?
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Chapter 4 Variation 109
Chapter summary
Direct variation
a b
n
, i.e. a varies directly as b
n
(n R
+
)
This implies a = kb
n
where k is the constant of variation (k R
+
).
As b increases, a will also increase.
If a b
n
, the graph of a against b
n
is a straight line through the origin.
Inverse variation
a
1
b
n
, i.e. a varies inversely as b
n
(n R
+
)
This implies a =
k
b
n
where k is the constant of variation (k R
+
).
As b increases, a will decrease.
If a
1
b
n
, the graph of a against
1
b
n
is a straight line but is undened at the origin.
Joint variation
One quantity varies with more than one other variable. This may be a combination of direct
and/or inverse variation.
e.g. V r
2
h implies V = kr
2
h
a
c
b
implies a =
kc
b
Part variation
The value of one variable is the sum of two or more quantities each of which is determined
by a variation. In some cases, one of those quantities may be constant.
e.g. A = k
1
r +k
2
r
2
where k
1
, k
2
are constants of variation.
Multiplechoice questions
1 For the values in the table shown, it is known that
y x
2
. The value of k, the constant of variation,
is equal to
x 2 3 6
y
4
3
3 12
A 3 B 9 C
1
3
D 2 E
4
3
2 For the values in the table shown, it is known that
y
1
x
. The value of k, the constant of variation,
is equal to
x 2 4 8
y
1
4
1
8
1
16
A
1
2
B 1 C 4 D 2 E
1
4
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110 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 a b
3
and a = 32 when b = 2. Find a when b = 4.
A 64 B 256 C 4 D 16 E 128
4 p
1
q
2
and p =
1
3
when q = 3. Find q when p = 1
A 3 B 3 C
3 D 1 E
1
3
5 The rule connecting y and x as shown in the graph is
A y = 3x B y = 3x
2
C y = 3
x
D y =
1
3
x
E y = x
2
+2
x
2
y
(2, 6)
6 The rule connecting y and x as shown in the graph is
A y =
1
4
x B y = 4x C y =
x
D y = 4
x E y = x
x
y
(1, 4)
7 For the values in the table shown, it is known that
y
x
z
2
. The value of k, the constant of variation,
is equal to
x 2 4 8
z 2 2 2
y
1
3
2
3
4
3
A 2 B
4
3
C
1
3
D 3 E
2
3
8 a varies directly as the square of p and inversely as q and a = 8 when p = 2 and q = 5. If
p = 3 and q = 6 then a =
A
1
2
B 12 C 120 D 15 E 5
9 If p q
2
and q is increased by 10%, p would be
A Increased by 10% B Increased by 20% C Increased by 100%
D Increased by 21% E Remain the same
10 If p
1
q
and q is decreased by 20%, p would be
A Decreased by 25% B Increased by 25% C Decreased by 20%
D Increased by 20% E Unchanged
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Chapter 4 Variation 111
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 a If a b
2
and a =
3
2
when b = 2, nd a when b = 4 and b when a = 8.
b If y x
1
3
and y = 10 when x = 2, nd y when x = 27 and x when y =
1
8
.
c If y
1
x
2
and y =
1
3
when x = 2, nd y when x =
1
2
and x when y =
4
27
.
d a varies directly as b and inversely as
c. If a =
1
4
when b = 1 and c = 4, nd a when
b =
4
9
and c =
16
9
.
2 The distance, d metres, which a body falls varies directly as the square of the time,
t seconds, for which it has been falling. If a body falls 78.56 m in 4 s, nd
a the formula connecting d and t b the distance fallen in 10 s
c the time taken to fall 19.64 m.
3 The velocity of a falling body (v metres per second) varies directly as the square root of the
distance (s metres) through which it has fallen. A body has a velocity of 7 metres per
second after falling 2.5 m.
a Find its velocity after falling 10 m.
b Find the distance through which it falls to attain a velocity of 28 metres per second.
c What variables would be plotted on the axis to obtain a straight line graph?
4 The time taken for a journey is inversely proportional to the average speed of travel. If it
takes 4 hours travelling at 30 km/h, how long will it take travelling at 50 km/h?
5 If y varies inversely as x, what is the effect on
a y if x is doubled b x if y is doubled c y if x is halved d x if y is halved?
6 The cost of running an electric appliance varies jointly as the time it is run, the electrical
resistance and the square of the current. It costs 9 cents to use an appliance of resistance
60 ohms, which draws 4 amps of current for 2.5 hours. How much will it cost to use an
appliance of resistance 80 ohms, which draws 3 amps of current for 1.5 hours?
7 The cost of printing is made up of two parts: a xed charge and a charge proportional to
the number of copies. If the cost of printing 100 copies is $20 and the cost of printing
500 copies is $30, what would be the cost of printing 700 copies?
8 For a constant resistance, the voltage (v volts) of an electric circuit varies directly as the
current (I amps). If the voltage is 24 volts when the current is 6 amps, nd the current when
the voltage is 72 volts.
9 The intensity of sound varies inversely as the square of the distance of the observer from the
source. If the observer moves to twice the distance from the source, compare the second
intensity I
2
with the rst intensity I
1
.
10 If y varies directly as x
2
and inversely as z, nd the percentage change in y when x is
increased by 10% and z is decreased by 10%.
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112 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Extendedresponse questions
1 A certain type of hollow sphere is designed in such a way that the mass varies as the square
of the diameter. Three spheres of this type are made. One has mass 0.10 kg and diameter
9 cm, the second has diameter 14 cm and the third has mass 0.15 kg. Find
a the mass of the second sphere b the diameter of the third sphere.
2 The height (h m) to which a centrifugal pump raises water is proportional to the square of
its speed of rotation (n revs/min). If the pump raises water to a height of 13.5 m when it is
rotating at 200 revs/min, nd
a the formula connecting h and n
b the height that the water can be raised to when it is rotating at 225 revs/min
c the speed required to raise the water to a height of 16 m.
3 The maximum speed of yachts of normal dimensions varies as the square root of their
length. If a yacht 20 m long can maintain a maximum speed of 15 knots, nd the maximum
speed of a yacht 15 m long.
4 a The air in a tube occupies 43.5 cm
3
and the pressure is 2.8 kg/cm
2
. If the volume
(Vcm
3
) varies inversely as the pressure (P), nd the formula connecting V and P.
b Calculate the pressure when the volume is decreased to 12.7 cm
3
.
5 The weight (w kg) which a beam supported at each end will carry without breaking, varies
inversely as the distance (d m) between supports. A beam which measures 6 m between
supports will just carry a load of 500 kg.
a Find the formula connecting w and d.
b What weight would a similar beam carry if the distance between the supports
were 5 m?
c What weight would a similar beam carry if the distance between the supports
were 9 m?
6 The relationship between pressure and volume of a xed mass of gas when the temperature
is constant is shown by the following table.
Pressure ( p) 12 16 18
Volume (v) 12 9 8
a What is a possible equation relating p and v?
b Using this equation, nd
i the volume when the pressure is 72 units
ii the pressure when the volume is 3 units.
c Sketch the graph relating v and
1
p
.
7 The time taken to manufacture particular items of scientic equipment varies partly as
the diameter of the item and partly as the number of parts required in the item. If it takes
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Chapter 4 Variation 113
30 minutes to make a 3 cm diameter item with eight parts and 38 minutes to make a 5 cm
diameter item with ten parts, how long does it take to make a 4 cm diameter item with
twelve parts?
8 The cost of decorative wrought iron is the sum of two parts which vary as the length and
the square of the length respectively. When the length is 2 m, the cost is $18.40 and when
the length is 3 m, the cost is $33.60. Find the cost when the length is 5 m.
9 The sum of the rst n natural numbers is equal to the sum of two quantities, the rst of
which is proportional to n and the second to n
2
. Work out the sums of the rst three and
four natural numbers and hence nd the formula for the sum of the rst n natural numbers.
10 Data about the number of pies sold at football matches and the size of the crowds attending
has been recorded as follows
Attendance (N 1000) 20 30 60
Number of pies sold (P) 15 650 19 170 27 110
a Use a graphics calculator to nd an approximate relationship between N and P of the
form P = aN
b
.
b The crowd predicted for a forthcoming match is 55 000. Assuming the model found in
part a applies, how many pies would the caterers anticipate selling on that day?
c The caterers have only 25 000 pies available for sale. Again assuming the model found
in part a applies, what is the maximum crowd the caterers might be hoping for if they
are able to satisfy all customers wanting pies?
11 The effectiveness of an anaesthetic drug is being tested by varying the dose (d mL) given to
patients and recording both the time (t min) for the patient to lose consciousness and the
time (T min) for the patient to regain consciousness. The following data was recorded:
Dosage (d mL) 10 30 60
Time to lose consciousness (t min) 36 4 1
Time to regain consciousness (T min) 14 126 504
a Establish the relationship between d and t (assume t is proportional to a power of d).
b Establish the relationship between d and T (assume T is proportional to a power of d).
c If it is desirable to have a particular patient unconscious for no longer than 80 minutes,
what is the maximum dosage of the drug that should be given?
d How long would it take that patient to lose consciousness?
e Another patient is given a dose of 20 mL. How long will it take for the patient to lose
consciousness and how long will they remain unconscious?
12 The German astronomer Johannes Kepler collected data on the mean distance from the Sun
to the planets (R 10
6
km) and the period of the orbit (T years). He was able to establish a
relationship between R and T.
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114 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
a Using the data below (approximations only)
i establish the relationship between R and T (assume T is proportional to a power
of R)
ii complete the table of values showing the period of orbit of the remaining planets
Approximate radius of orbit Period of orbit
Planet (R 10
6
km) (T years)
Mercury 58 0.24
Venus 108 0.61
Earth 150 1
Mars 228
Jupiter 779
Saturn 1427
Uranus 2870
Neptune 4497
Pluto 5900
b A comet orbits the sun every 70 years. What is its radius of orbit?
13 To test the effectiveness of an advertising campaign for cheap ights to Hawaii, a travel
agent keeps a record of the number of enquiries she receives. It is estimated that the
number of enquiries, E, is proportional to the number of times, n, that the advertisement is
shown on television. The following data is collected.
Number of advertisements (n) 10 20 30
Number of enquiries (E) 30 40 47
a Assuming that the relationship between the number of enquiries and the number of
advertisements is modelled by the rule E = an
b
, use your graphics calculator to nd
values for a and b.
b Predict the number of enquiries received if the advertisement is shown 100 times.
After two weeks the advertisement has been shown 50 times and the advertising campaign
is stopped. The travel agent continues to get enquiries and continues to record them. It is
now estimated that the number of enquiries, E, is proportional to the number of days, d,
since the advertising campaign stopped. The following data is recorded.
Number of days (d) 3 5 7 10
Number of enquiries (E) 45 25 17 11
c Assuming that the relationship between the number of enquiries and the number of days
is modelled by the rule E = kd
p
, use your graphics calculator to nd values for k and p.
d Predict the number of enquiries received on the 14th day after the advertising campaign
has nished.
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C H A P T E R
5
Sequences and series
Objectives
To explore sequences of numbers and their difference equations
To use a CAS calculator to generate sequences and display graphs
To recognise arithmetic sequences
To find the terms, difference equation and number of terms for an arithmetic sequence
To calculate the sum of the terms of an arithmetic series
To recognise geometric sequences
To find the terms, difference equation and number of terms for a geometric sequence
To calculate the sum of the terms of a geometric series
To recognise and calculate the sum of the terms in an infinite geometric series
To use fixed point iteration to generate convergent sequences and hence solve
equations
To apply sequences and series to solving problems
5.1 Introduction to sequences
The following are examples of sequences of numbers:
A 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, . . . . . . B 0.1, 0.11, 0.111, 0.1111, . . . . . .
C
1
3
,
1
9
,
1
27
,
1
81
, . . . . . . D 10, 7, 4, 1, 2, . . . . . . E 0.6, 1.7, 2.8, 3.9, . . . . . .
Note each sequence is a set of numbers with order being important. For some sequences of
numbers a rule can be found for getting from one number to the next. For example:
for sequence A, a rule is: add 2
for sequence C, a rule is: multiply by
1
3
for sequence D, a rule is: subtract 3
for sequence E, a rule is: add 1.1
115
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116 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The numbers of a sequence are called terms. The nth term of a sequence is denoted by the
symbol t
n
. So the rst term is t
1
, the 12th term is t
12
and so on.
A sequence may be dened by specifying a rule which enables each subsequent term to be
found using the previous term. In this case, the rule specied is called an iterative rule or a
difference equation. For example:
sequence A may be dened by t
1
= 1, t
n
= t
n1
+2
sequence C may be dened by t
1
=
1
3
, t
n
=
1
3
t
n1
Example 1
Use the difference equation to nd the rst four terms of the sequence
t
1
= 3, t
n
= t
n1
+5
Solution
t
1
= 3
t
2
= t
1
+5 = 8
t
3
= t
2
+5 = 13
t
4
= t
3
+5 = 18
The rst four terms are 3, 8, 13, 18.
Example 2
Find the rst four terms of the sequence dened by the rule t
n
= 2n +3.
Solution
t
1
= 2(1) +3 = 5
t
2
= 2(2) +3 = 7
t
3
= 2(3) +3 = 9
t
4
= 2(4) +3 = 11
The rst four terms are 5, 7, 9, 11.
Example 3
Find the difference equation for the following sequence.
9, 3, 1,
1
3
, . . .
Solution
3 =
1
3
9 i.e. t
2
=
1
3
t
1
1 =
1
3
3 i.e. t
3
=
1
3
t
2
t
n
=
1
3
t
n1
, t
1
= 9
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 117
Alternatively a sequence may be dened by a rule that is stated in terms of n. For example:
t
n
= 2n denes the sequence t
1
= 2, t
2
= 4, t
3
= 6, t
4
= 8, . . .
t
n
= 2
n1
denes the sequence t
1
= 1, t
2
= 2, t
3
= 4, t
4
= 8, . . .
Example 4
Find the rule for the nth term for the sequence 1, 4, 9, 16 in terms of n.
Solution
t
1
= 1
t
2
= 4 = 2
2
t
3
= 9 = 3
2
t
4
= 16 = 4
2
t
n
= n
2
Example 5
At a particular school, the number of students studying General Mathematics increases each
year. If in 2006 there are 40 students studying General Mathematics
a set up the difference equation if the number is increasing by ve students each year
b write down an expression for t
n
in terms of n for the difference equation found in a
c nd the number of students expected to be doing General Mathematics at the school in
2011.
Solution
a t
n
= t
n1
+5
b t
1
= 40,
t
2
= t
1
+5 = 45 = 40 +1 5
t
3
= t
2
+5 = 50 = 40 +2 5
Therefore t
n
= 40 +(n 1) 5
t
n
= 35 +5n
c n = 6
t
6
= 40 +5 5 = 65
Sixtyve students will study General Mathematics in 2011.
Example 6
The height of a sand dune is increasing by 10% each year. It is currently 4 m high.
a Set up the difference equation that describes the height of the sand dune.
b Write down an expression for t
n
in terms of n for the difference equation found in a.
c Find the height of the sand dune seven years from now.
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118 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
a t
n
= t
n1
1.1
b t
1
= 4
t
2
= 4 1.1 = 4.4
t
3
= 4 (1.1)
2
= 4.84
Therefore t
n
= 4 (1.1)
n1
c Seven years from now implies n = 8
t
8
= 4 (1.1)
7
7.795
The sand dune will be 7.795 m high in 7 years
Using the TINspire
Sequences defined in terms of n
Add a Graphs & Geometry application,
(c2) and choose Graph Type and
Sequence, (b35). Enter in a known
initial value or leave clear as shown. We could
have entered 7 in this example for the initial
value.
Set appropriate Window and press and
/Tto display table of values
Iteratively defined sequences
This type of sequence is easiest handled in a Lists & Spreadsheet application (c
3).
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 119
Example 7
Use a CAS calculator to generate the sequence dened by the difference equation
t
n
= t
n1
+3, t
1
= 1 and sketch the graph of the sequence against n.
Solution
Use the arrows ( ) to name the rst
two columns n and tn respectively.
Enter 1 in cell A1 and enter 1 in cell B1.
Enter = a1 +1 in cell A2 and = b1 +3 in
cell B2.
Highlight the cells A2 and B2 using g
and the NavPad, and use Fill Down (b
33) to generate the sequence of
numbers.
To graph the sequence, open a Graphs &
Geometry application (c2) and graph
the sequence as a Scatter Plot (b3
4), using an appropriate Window (b
4).
Note that it is possible to see the
coordinates of the points using Trace (b
51).
Another method is to use a Graphs & Geometry application and then b35and
enter the difference equation.
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120 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the Casio ClassPad
The Casio Classpad spreadsheet is an efcient
way to produce and graph the sequence. It is
similar to operating in a computer spreadsheet
such as Microsoft Excel.
Enter the values for n in column A, then in B1,
enter the formula = 3 +4
A1.
Highlight cell B2 and the cells below it and tap
Edit, Fill Range to complete the sequence.
Click the arrow beside , select graph type
and click on this icon to produce the graph.
For an iteratively dened sequence, the procedure
is similar except the cells in column A are each
dened in terms of the cell(s) above.
The entry for the Fibonacci sequence is
A1 = 1, A2 = 1, A3 = A1 +A2. Highlight the
formula in A3, together with as many cells as
required below, and then tap Edit, Fill Range to
complete the operation.
Note: In the screen shown, the formula in cell A3 is displayed in the formula bar at the
bottom of the screen.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 121
Exercise 5A
1 In each of the following an iterative denition for a sequence is given. List the rst ve
terms.
Example 1
a t
1
= 3, t
n
= t
n1
+4 b t
1
= 5, t
n
= 3t
n1
+4 c t
1
= 1, t
n
= 5t
n1
d t
1
= 1, t
n
= t
n1
+2 e t
n+1
= 2t
n
+t
n1
, t
1
= 1, t
2
= 3
2 Each of the following is a rule for a sequence. In each case nd t
1
, t
2
, t
3
, t
4
.
Example 2
a t
n
=
1
n
b t
n
= n
2
+1 c t
n
= 2n d t
n
= 2
n
e t
n
= 3n +2 f t
n
= (1)
n
n
3
g t
n
= 2n +1 h t
n
= 2 3
n1
3 For each of the following sequences
Examples 3, 4
i nd a possible rule for t
n
in terms of n
ii nd the difference equation.
a 3, 6, 9, 12 b 1, 2, 4, 8
c 1,
1
4
,
1
9
,
1
16
d 3, 6, 12, 24 e 4, 7, 10, 13 f 4, 9, 14, 19
4 Consider a sequence for which t
n
= 3n +1. Find t
n+1
, t
2n
.
5 Hamish collects Pokemon cards. He currently has 15 and he adds three to his collection
every week.
Example 5
a Set up the difference equation that will generate the number of cards Hamish has in
any given week.
b Write down an expression for t
n
in terms of n for the difference equation found in a.
c Find the number of cards Hamish should have after another 12 weeks.
6 Isobel can swim 100 m in 94.3 s. She aims to reduce her time by 4% each week.
Example 6
a Set up the difference equation that generates Isobels time for the 100 m in any given
week.
b Write down an expression for t
n
in terms of n for the difference equation found in a.
c Find the time in which Isobel expects to be able to complete the 100 m after another
8 weeks.
7 Stephen is a sheep farmer with a ock of 100 sheep. He wishes to increase the size of his
ock by both breeding and buying new stock. He estimates that 80% of his sheep will
produce one lamb each year and he intends to buy 20 sheep to add to the ock each year.
Assuming no sheep die
a write the difference equation for the expected number of sheep at the end of each year
(let t
0
= 100)
b calculate the number of sheep at the end of each of the rst ve years.
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122 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
8 Alison invests $2000 at the beginning of the year. At the beginning of each of the
following years, she puts a further $400 into the account. Compound interest of 6% p.a. is
paid on the investment at the end of each year.
a Write down the amount of money in the account at the end of each of the rst three
years.
b Set up a difference equation to generate the sequence for the investment. (Let t
1
be the
amount in the investment at the end of the rst year.)
c With a calculator or spreadsheet, use the difference equation to nd the amount in the
account after ten years.
9 For each of the following difference equations, use a graphics calculator to nd the rst
six terms of the sequence dened and sketch the graph of these terms against n.
Example 7
a t
n
= t
n1
+3, t
1
= 1 b t
n
= t
n1
2, t
1
= 3
c t
n
= 2t
n1
, t
1
=
1
2
d t
n
=
1
2
t
n1
, t
1
= 32
e t
n
= (t
n1
)
2
, t
1
= 1.1 f t
n
=
2
3
t
n1
, t
1
= 27
g t
n
= 2t
n1
+5, t
1
= 1 h t
n
= 4 t
n1
, t
1
= 3
10 a For a sequence for which t
n
= 2
n1
, nd t
1
, t
2
, t
3
.
b For a sequence for which u
n
=
1
2
(n
2
n) +1, nd u
1
, u
2
, u
3
.
c What do you notice? d Find t
4
and u
4
.
11 If S
n
= an
2
+bn, a R, b R, nd S
1
, S
2
, S
3
and S
n+1
S
n
.
12 For the sequence dened by t
1
= 1, t
n+1
=
1
2
t
n
+
2
t
n
, nd t
2
, t
3
, t
4
. The terms of the
sequence are successive rational approximations of a real number. Can you recognise the
number?
13 The Fibonacci sequence is dened by t
1
= 1, t
2
= 1, t
n+2
= t
n+1
+t
n
(n N).
Use the rule to nd t
3
, t
4
, t
5
. Show that t
n+2
= 2t
n
+t
n1
(n N\{1}).
5.2 Arithmetic sequences
A sequence in which each successive term is found by adding a constant amount to the previous
term is called an arithmetic sequence. For example, 2, 5, 8, 11. . . . is an arithmetic sequence.
An arithmetic sequence can be dened by a difference equation of the form
t
n
= t
n1
+d, where d is a constant.
If the rst term of an arithmetic sequence t
1
= a then the nth term of the sequence can also
be described by the rule
t
n
= a +(n 1)d where a = t
1
and d = t
n
t
n1
where d is the common difference.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 123
Example 8
Find the 10th term of the arithmetic sequence 4, 1, 2, 5 . . .
Solution
a = 4, d = 3
t
n
= a +(n 1)d
t
10
= 4 +(10 1)3
t
10
= 23
Example 9
A national park has a series of huts along one of its mountain trails. The rst hut is 5 km from
the start of the trail, the second is 8 km from the start, the third 11 km and so on.
a How far from the start of the trail is the sixth hut?
b How far is it from the sixth hut to the twelfth hut?
Solution
a Distances of the huts from the start of the trail form an arithmetic sequence with
a = 5 and d = 3.
For the sixth hut t
6
= a +5d
t
6
= 5 +5 3 = 20
The sixth hut is 20 km from the start of the trail
b For the twelfth hut t
12
= a +11d
t
12
= 5 +11 3 = 38
distance from sixth to the twelfth hut = t
12
t
6
= 38 20 = 18 km
The twelfth hut is 18 km from the sixth hut.
Example 10
The 12th term of an arithmetic sequence is 9 and the 25th term is 100. Find a and d.
Solution
Since t
n
= a +(n 1)d
9 = a +11d . . . 1
100 = a +24d . . . 2
Subtract 1 from 2
91 = 13d
d = 7
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124 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
From 1 we have
9 = a +11(7)
a = 68
Arithmetic mean
The arithmetic mean of two numbers a and b is dened as
a +b
2
.
If the numbers a, c and b are consecutive terms of an arithmetic sequence, then
c a = b c
2c = a +b
c =
a +b
2
i.e. c is the arithmetic mean of a and b.
Exercise 5B
1 For the arithmetic sequence where t
n
= a +(n 1)d, nd the rst four terms given that
Example 8
a a = 0, d = 2 b a = 3, d = 5 c a = d =
5 d a = 11, d = 2
2 Find a and d and hence nd the rule of the arithmetic sequence whose rst few terms are
a 3, 7, 11 b 3, 1, 5 c
1
2
,
3
2
,
7
2
,
11
2
d 5
5, 5, 5 +
5
3 a An arithmetic sequence has a rst term of 5 and a common difference of 3. Find the
thirteenth term.
b An arithmetic sequence has a rst term of 12 and a common difference of 4. Find
the tenth term.
c In an arithmetic sequence a = 25 and d = 2.5. Find the ninth term.
d In an arithmetic sequence a = 2
3 and d =
3 and t
20
= 38
3.
16 Find the arithmetic mean of
a 8 and 15
b
1
2
2 1
and
1
2
2 +1
17 Find x if 3x 2 is the arithmetic mean of 5x +1 and 11.
18 If a, 4a 4 and 8a 13 are successive terms of an arithmetic sequence, nd a.
19 If t
x
= y and t
y
= x, prove that t
x+y
, = 0 (t
x
and t
y
are the xth and yth terms of an
arithmetic sequence).
20 If a, 2a and a
2
are consecutive terms of an arithmetic sequence, nd a(a = 0).
5.3 Arithmetic series
The sum of the terms in a sequence is called a series. If the sequence in question is arithmetic,
the series is called an arithmetic series. The symbol S
n
is used to denote the sum of n terms of
a sequence.
i.e. S
n
= a +a +d +a +2d + +a +(n 1)d
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126 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
If this sum is written in reverse order, then
S
n
= a +(n l)d +a +(n 2)d + +a +d +a
Adding these two expression together gives
2S
n
= n[2a +(n 1)d]
S
n
=
n
2
[2a +(n 1)d]
and since the last term l = t
n
= a +(n 1)d
S
n
=
n
2
(a +l)
Example 11
A hardware store sells nails in a range of packets containing different numbers of nails. Packet
A contains 50 nails, packet B has 75 nails, packet C has 100 and so on.
a Find the number of nails in packet J.
b Lachlan buys one of each of packets A to J. How many nails in total does Lachlan have?
c Assuming he buys one of each packet starting at A, how many packets does he need to buy
to have a total of 1100 nails?
Solution
a a = 50, d = 25,
t
n
= a +(n 1)d
For packet J, t
10
= 50 +9 25
= 275
Packet J contains 275 nails
b a = 50, d = 25
S
n
=
n
2
(2a +(n 1)d)
S
10
=
10
2
(2(50) +11 25)
S
10
= 1625
Packets A to J contain a total of
1625 nails
c a = 50, d = 25, S
n
= 1100
S
n
=
n
2
(2a +(n 1)d)
S
n
=
n
2
(2(50) +(n 1)(25)) = 1100
n(100 +25n 25) = 2200
25n
2
+75n 2200 = 0
n
2
+3n 88 = 0
(n +11)(n 8) = 0
n = 11 or n = 8
since n > 0, n = 8
If Lachlan buys one of each of the rst eight packets (A to H) he will have
exactly 1100 nails.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 127
Example 12
For the arithmetic sequence 3, 6, 9, 12, . . . , calculate
a the sum of the rst 25 terms
b the number of terms in the series if S
n
= 1395.
Solution
a a = 3, d = 3, n = 25
S
n
=
n
2
[2a +(n 1)d]
=
25
2
[2(3) +(24)(3)]
= 975
b a = 3, d = 3, S
n
= 1395
S
n
=
n
2
[2a +(n 1)d]
1395 =
n
2
[2(3) +(n 1)(3)]
2790 = n[6 +3n 3]
2790 = 3n +3n
2
3n
2
+3n 2790 = 0
n
2
+n 930 = 0
(n 30)(n +31) = 0
n = 30 since n > 0
there are 30 terms in the series.
Example 13
For the arithmetic sequence 27, 23, 19, 15, . . . , 33, nd
a the number of terms b the sum of the terms.
Solution
a a = 27, d = 4, l = t
n
= 33
t
n
= a +(n 1)d
33 = 27 +(n 1)(4)
60 = (n 1)(4)
15 = n 1
n = 16
There are 16 terms in the series.
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128 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
b a = 27, l = t
n
= 33, n = 16
S
n
=
n
2
(a +l)
S
16
=
16
2
(27 33)
S
16
= 48
The sum of the terms is 48.
Example 14
The sum of the rst 10 terms of an arithmetic sequence is 48
3
4
. If the fourth term is 3
3
4
, nd
the rst term and the common difference.
Solution
t
4
= a +3d = 3
3
4
a +3d =
15
4
. . . 1
S
10
=
10
2
(2a +9d) = 48
3
4
10a +45d =
195
4
. . . 2
1 40 40a +120d = 150
2 4 40a +180d = 195
60d = 45
d =
3
4
Substitute in 1 a +3
3
4
=
15
4
a =
6
4
The rst term is 1
1
2
and the common difference is
3
4
.
Exercise 5C
1 For the arithmetic sequences
a 8, 13, 18, . . . , nd S
12
b 3.5, 1.5, 0.5, . . . , nd S
10
c
1
2
,
2,
3
2
, . . . , nd S
15
d 4, 1, 6, . . . , nd S
8
2 Greg goes shing every day for a week. On the rst day he catches seven sh and each
day he catches three more than the previous day. How many sh did he catch in total?
Example 11
3 There are 110 logs to be put in a pile, with 15 logs in the bottom layer, 14 in the next, 13
in the next and so on. How many layers will there be?
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 129
4 Find the sum of the rst 16 multiples of 5.
5 Find the sum of all the even numbers between 1 and 99.
6 Doras walking club plans 15 walks for the summer. The rst walk is a distance of 6 km
and the last walk is distance of 27 km and the distances of each of the walks form an
arithmetic sequence,
a How far is the eighth walk?
b How far does the club plan to walk in the rst ve walks?
Dora goes away on holiday and misses the 9th, 10th and 11th walks but completes all
other walks.
c How far does Dora walk in total?
7 Liz has to proofread 500 pages of a new novel. She plans to do 30 pages on the rst day
and increase the number by ve each day.
a How many days will it take her to complete the proofreading?
She has only ve days to complete the task. She therefore decides to read 50 pages on
the rst day and increase the number she reads by a constant amount each day.
b By how many should she increase the number she reads each day if she is to meet her
deadline?
8 For the sequence 4, 8, 12, . . . , nd {n : S
n
= 180}.
9 The sum of m terms of an arithmetic sequence with rst term 5 and common difference
4 is 660. Find m.
Example 12
10 An assembly hall has 50 seats in row A, 54 seats in row B, 58 seats in row C, i.e. there are
four more seats in each row.
a How many seats in row J?
b How many seats are there altogether if the back row is row Z?
If on a particular day the front four rows are reserved for parents (and there is no other
seating for parents)
c how many parents can be seated
d how many students can be seated?
The hall is extended by adding more rows following the same pattern.
e If the nal capacity of the hall is 3410, how many rows were added?
11 A new golf club is formed with 40 members in its rst year. Each following year the
number of new members exceeds the number of retirements by 15. Each member pays
$120 p.a. in membership fees. Calculate the amount received from fees in the rst
12 years of the clubs existence.
12 In an arithmetic sequence, t
2
= 12 and S
12
= 18. Find a, d, t
6
and S
6
.
Example 14
13 The sum of the rst ten terms of an arithmetic sequence is 120 and the sum of the rst
twenty terms is 840. Find the sum of the rst thirty terms.
14 Evaluate 54 +48 +42 + +54.
Example 13
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130 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
15 If t
6
= 16 and t
12
= 28, nd S
14
.
16 For an arithmetic sequence, nd t
n
if:
a t
3
= 6.5, S
8
= 67
b t
4
=
6
5
, S
5
= 16
5
17 For the sequence with t
n
= bn (b R), nd
a t
n+1
t
n
b t
1
+t
2
+ +t
n
18 For a sequence where t
n
= 15 5n, nd t
5
and the sum of the rst 25 terms.
19 An arithmetic sequence has a common difference of d. If the sum of 20 terms is 25 times
the rst term, nd, in terms of d, the sum of 30 terms.
20 The sum of the rst n terms of a particular sequence is given by S
n
= 17n 3n
2
.
a Find an expression for the sum to (n 1) terms.
b Find an expression for the nth term of the sequence.
c Show that the corresponding sequence is arithmetic and nd a and d.
21 Three consecutive terms of an arithmetic sequence have a sum of 36 and a product of
1428. Find the three terms.
22 Show that the sum of the rst 2n terms of an arithmetic sequence is n times the sum of the
two middle terms.
5.4 Geometric sequences
A sequence in which each successive term is found by multiplying the previous term by a xed
amount is called a geometric sequence. For example, 2, 6, 18, 54, . . . is a geometric sequence.
A geometric sequence can be dened by an iterative equation of the form
t
n
= rt
n1
, where r is constant
If the rst term of a geometric sequence t
1
= a then the nth term of the sequence can also be
described by the rule
t
n
= ar
n1
, where r =
t
n
t
n1
and r is the common ratio.
Example 15
Calculate the tenth term of the sequence 2, 6, 18, . . .
Solution
a = 2, r = 3
t
n
= ar
n1
t
10
= 2 3
(101)
= 39 366
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 131
Example 16
Georgina draws a pattern consisting of a number of similar equilateral triangles. The rst
triangle has sides of length 4 cm and the side length of each successive triangle is one and a
half times the side length of the previous one.
a How long is the side length of the fth triangle?
b Which triangle has a side length of 45
9
16
cm?
Solution
a a = 4, r =
3
2
t
n
= ar
n1
t
5
= ar
4
= 4
3
2
4
= 20
1
4
The fth triangle has a side length of 20
1
4
cm
b a = 4, r =
3
2
t
n
= 45
9
16
t
n
= ar
n1
= 45
9
16
which implies 4
3
2
n1
= 45
9
16
=
729
16
Hence
3
2
n1
=
729
64
Recognising that 729 = 3
6
and 64 = 2
6
yields
3
2
n1
=
3
2
6
Therefore n 1 = 6
and n = 7
The seventh triangle will have a side length of 45
9
16
cm
An application of geometric sequences is compound interest. Compound interest is interest
calculated at regular intervals on the total of the amount originally invested and the amount
accumulated in the previous years.
So $1000 invested at 10% per annum would grow to
1000 +10%(1000) = $1100 at the end of the rst year.
At the end of the second year, it will have grown to
(1000 +10%(1000)) +10%(1000 +10%(1000)) = $1210
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132 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The value of the investment at the end of each year forms a geometric sequence. In the
above example
a = 1000, r = 1.1; i.e. r = 100%+10%
Example 17
Hamish invests $2500 at 7% p.a. compounded annually. Find
a the value of his investment after 5 years
b how long it takes until his investment is worth $10 000.
Solution
a = 2500, r = 1.07
a t
6
= ar
5
t
n
is the end of the (n 1)th year.
= 2500(1.07)
5
= 3506.38
The value of his investment after 5 years is $3506.38.
b t
n
= ar
n1
= 10 000
2500(1.07)
n1
= 10 000
(1.07)
n1
= 4
log
10
(1.07)
n1
= log
10
4
(n 1) log
10
(1.07) = log
10
4
n 1 =
log
10
4
log
10
(1.07)
n = 21.489
By the end of the 21st year, his investment will be worth in excess of $10 000.
Note: The number of years can also be found by trial and error or through using a
CAS calculator.
Example 18
The third term of a geometric sequence is 10 and the sixth term is 80. Find r and the rst term.
Solution
t
3
= ar
2
= 10 . . . 1
t
6
= ar
5
= 80 . . . 2
Divide 2 by 1
ar
5
ar
2
=
80
10
r
3
= 8
r = 2
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 133
Substitute in 1 to nd a.
a 4 = 10
a =
5
2
The rst term is
5
2
Geometric mean
The geometric mean of two numbers a and b is
ab.
Note that if three numbers a, c, b are consecutive members of a geometric sequence
c
a
=
b
c
and c =
ab
Exercise 5D
1 For a geometric sequence t
n
= ar
n1
, nd the rst four terms given that
a a = 3, r = 2 b a = 3, r = 2 c a = 10 000, r = 0.1 d a = r = 3
2 Find the specied term in each of the following geometric sequences.
Example 15
a
15
7
,
5
7
,
5
21
, . . . nd t
6
b 1,
1
4
,
1
16
, . . . nd t
5
c
2, 2, 2
2, . . . nd t
10
d a
x
, a
x+1
, a
x+2
, . . . nd t
6
3 Find the rule for the geometric sequence whose rst few terms are
a 3, 2,
4
3
b 2, 4, 8, 16 c 2, 2
5, 10
4 For a geometric sequence the rst term is 25 and the fth term is
16
25
. Find the common
ratio.
5 A geometric sequence has rst term
1
4
and common ratio 2. Which term of the sequence
is 64?
6 If t
n
is the nth term of the following geometric sequences, nd n in each case.
a 2, 6, 18, . . . t
n
= 486 b 5, 10, 20, . . . t
n
= 1280
c 768, 384, 192, . . . t
n
= 3
d
8
9
,
4
3
, 2, . . . t
n
=
27
4
e
4
3
,
2
3
,
1
3
, . . . t
n
=
1
96
7 An art collector has a painting that is increasing in value by 8% each year. If the painting
is currently valued at $2500
Example 16
a how much will it be worth in 10 years
b how many years before its value exceeds $100 000?
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134 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
8 An algal bloom is growing in a lake. The area it covers triples each day.
a If it initially covers an area of 10 m
2
, how many square metres will it cover after
1 week?
b If the lake has a total area of 200 000 m
2
, how long before the entire lake is covered?
9 A ball is dropped from a height of 2 m and continues to bounce so that it rebounds to
3
4
of
the height from which it previously falls. Find the height it rises to on the fth bounce.
10 The Tour de Moravia is a cycling event which lasts for 15 days. On the rst day the
cyclists must ride 120 km and each successive day they ride 90% of the distance of the
previous day.
a How far do they ride on the eighth day? b On which day do they ride 30.5 km?
11 A child negotiates a new pocket money deal with her unsuspecting father in which she
receives 1 cent on the rst day of the month, 2 cents on the second, 4 cents on the third,
8 cents on the fourth and so on . . . until the end of the month. How much would the child
receive on the 30th day of the month? (Give your answer to the nearest thousand dollars.)
12 The number of sh in the breeding tanks of a sh farm follow a geometric sequence. The
third tank contains 96 sh and the sixth tank contains 768.
a How many sh are in the rst tank?
b How many sh are in the 10th tank?
13 The 12th term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the fteenth term is 54. Find the seventh
term.
Example 18
14 A geometric sequence has t
2
=
1
2
2
and t
4
=
2. Find t
8
.
15 The rst three terms of a geometric sequence are 4, 8, 16. Find the rst term which
exceeds 2000.
16 The rst three terms of a geometric sequence are 3, 9, 27. Find the rst term in the
sequence which exceeds 500.
17 $5000 is invested at 6% p.a. compounded annually.
Example 17
a Find the value of the investment after 6 years.
b Find how long it will take for the original investment to double in value.
18 How much would need to be invested at 8.5% p.a. compounded annually to yield a return
of $8000 after 12 years?
19 What annual compound interest rate would be required to triple the value of an investment
of $200 in 10 years?
20 The number of type A apple bugs present in an orchard is estimated to be 40 960 and is
reducing in number by 50% each week. At the same time it is estimated that there are
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 135
40 type B apple bugs whose number is doubling each week. After how many weeks will
there be the same number of each type of bug?
21 Find the geometric means of
a 5 and 720 b 1 and 6.25 c
1
3
and
3 d x
2
y
3
and x
6
y
11
22 The fourth, seventh and sixteenth terms of an arithmetic sequence also form consecutive
terms of a geometric sequence. Find the common ratio of the geometric sequence.
5.5 Geometric series
The sum of the terms in a geometric sequence is called a geometric series. An expression for
S
n
, the sum of n terms of a geometric sequence, can be found using a similar method to that
used in the development of a formula for an arithmetic series.
Let S
n
= a +ar +ar
2
+ +ar
n1
. . . 1
Then r S
n
= ar +ar
2
+ar
3
+ +ar
n
. . . 2
Subtract 1 from 2
r S
n
, S
n
= ar
n
a
S
n
(r 1) = a(r
n
1)
and S
n
=
a(r
n
1)
r 1
For values of r such that 1 < r < 1, it is often more convenient to use the alternative formula
S
n
=
a(1 r
n
)
1 r
which is obtained by subtracting 2 from 1 above.
Example 19
Find the sum of the rst nine terms of the sequence
1
3
,
1
9
,
1
27
,
1
81
, . . .
Solution
a =
1
3
, r =
1
3
, n = 9
S
9
=
1
3
1
3
9
1
1
3
1
=
1
2
1
3
9
1
1
2
(0.999949)
0.499975
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136 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 20
For the geometric sequence 1, 3, 9, . . . , nd how many terms must be added together to obtain
a sum of 1093.
Solution
a = 1, r = 3, S
n
= 1093
S
n
=
a(r
n
1)
r 1
S
n
=
1(3
n
1)
3 1
= 1093
3
n
1 = 1093 2
3
n
= 2187
Taking logarithms of both sides gives
log
10
3
n
= log
10
2187
n log
10
3 = log
10
2187
n =
log
10
2187
log
10
3
n = 7
Seven terms are required to give a sum of 1093.
A CAS calculator can also be used.
Example 21
In the 15day Tour de Moravia the cyclists must ride 120 km and each successive day they ride
90% of the distance of the previous day.
a How far do they ride in total to the nearest km?
b After how many days will they have ridden half that distance?
Solution
a a = 120, r = 0.9
S
n
=
a(r
n
1)
r 1
S
15
=
120(1 (0.9)
15
)
1 0.9
= 952.93
953 km
b a = 120, r = 0.9, S
n
= 476.5 km
S
n
=
a(r
n
1)
r 1
S
n
=
120(1 (0.9)
n
)
1 0.9
= 476.5
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 137
1 (0.9)
n
=
476.5 0.1
120
= 0.3971
(0.9)
n
= 1 0.3971
(0.9)
n
= 0.6029
Taking logarithms of both sides gives
log
10
(0.9)
n
= log
10
(0.6029)
n log
10
(0.9) = log
10
(0.6029)
n =
log
10
(0.6029)
log
10
(0.9)
n = 4.8023
on the fth day they pass the halfway mark.
Exercise 5E
1 Find the sum specied for each of the following geometric series.
Example 19
a 5 +10 +20 + , nd S
10
b 1 3 +9 , nd S
6
c
4
3
+
2
3
1
3
+ , nd S
9
2 Find
a 2 6 +18 +1458 b 4 +8 16 + 1024
c 6250 +1250 +250 + +2
3 Gerry owns a milking cow. On the rst day he milks the cow, it produces 600 mL of milk.
On each successive day, the amount of milk increases by 10%.
a How much milk does the cow produce on the seventh day?
b How much milk does it produce in the rst week?
4 An insurance salesman makes $15 000 commission on sales in his rst year. Each year, he
increases his sales by 5%.
Example 21
a How much commission would he make in his fth year?
b How much commission would he make in total over 5 years?
5 On Monday, William spends 20 minutes playing the piano. On Tuesday, he spends
25 minutes playing and on each successive day he increases the time he spends playing in
the same ratio.
a For how many hours does he play on Friday?
b How many hours in total does he play from Monday to Friday?
c On which day of the following week will his total time played pass 15 hours?
6 A ball dropped from a height of 15 m rebounds from the ground to a height of 10 m. With
each successive rebound, it rises twothirds of the height of the previous rebound. What
total distance will it have travelled when it strikes the ground for the 10th time?
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138 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
7 Andrew invests $1000 at 20% simple interest for 10 years. Bianca invests her $1000 at
12.5% compound interest for 10 years. At the end of 10 years, whose investment is worth
more?
8 For the geometric sequence with nth term t
n
a t
3
= 20, t
6
= 160, nd S
5
b t
3
=
2, t
8
= 8, nd S
8
9 a How many terms of the geometric sequence where t
1
= 1, t
2
= 2, t
3
= 4, . . . must be
taken for S
n
= 255?
Example 20
b Let S
n
= 1 +2 +4 + +2
n1
. Find {n: S
n
> 1000 000}.
10 Find 1 x
2
+ x
4
x
6
+ + x
2m
(m is even).
5.6 Infinite geometric series
If the common ratio of a geometric sequence has a magnitude less than 1, i.e. 1 < r < 1,
then each successive term of the sequence is closer to zero.
e.g. 4, 2, 1,
1
2
,
1
4
, . . .
When the terms of the sequence are added, the corresponding series
a +ar +ar
2
+ +ar
n1
will approach a limiting value,
i.e. as n , S
n
a limiting value.
Such a series is called convergent.
In Example 19 from the previous section, it was found that for the sequence
1
3
,
1
9
,
1
27
,
1
81
, . . . , the sum of the rst nine terms, S
9
, was 0.499975
For the same sequence, S
20
= 0.4999999999 0.5
Given that S
n
=
a(1 r
n
)
1 r
S
n
=
a
1 r
ar
n
1 r
as n , r
n
0 and hence
ar
n
1 r
0
It follows then that the limit as n of S
n
is
a
1 r
So S
=
a
1 r
This is also referred to as the sum to innity of the series.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 139
Example 22
Find the sum to innity of the series 1 +
1
2
+
1
4
+
1
8
+
Solution
r =
1
2
, a = 1
S
=
1
1
1
2
= 2
Example 23
A square has a side length of 40 cm. A copy of the square is made so that the area of the copy
is 80% of the original. The process is repeated each time with the area of the new square being
80% of the previous one. If this process continues indenitely, nd the total area of all the
squares.
Solution
Area of rst square is 40
2
= 1600 cm
2
a = 1600, r = 0.8
S
=
a
1 r
S
=
1600
1 0.8
= 8000 cm
2
Example 24
Express the recurring decimal 0.
=
0.32
0.99
=
32
99
i.e. 0.
2 =
32
99
Exercise 5F
1 Find
Example 22
a 1 +
1
5
+
1
25
+
1
125
+ b 1
2
3
+
4
9
8
27
+
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140 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
2 An equilateral triangle has perimeter p cm. The midpoints
Example 23
of the sides are joined to form another triangle, and this
process is repeated. Find the perimeter and area of the
nth triangle, and nd the limits as n of the
sums of perimeters and areas of the rst n triangles.
3 A rocket is launched into the air so that it reaches a height of 200 m in the rst second.
Each subsequent second it gains 6% less height. Find how high the rocket will climb.
4 A patient has an infection that, if it exceeds a certain level, will kill him. He is given a
drug that will inhibit the spread of the infection. The drug acts in such a way that the level
of infection only increases by 65% of the previous days level. On the rst day, the level of
infection is measured at 450.
The critical level of infection is 1280. Will the infection kill him?
5 A man can walk 3 km in the rst hour of a journey, but in each succeeding hour walks half
the distance covered in the preceding hour. Can he complete a journey of 6 km? Where
does this problem cease to be realistic?
6 A frog standing 10 m from the edge of a pond sets out to jump towards it. Its rst jump is
2 m, its second jump is 1
1
2
m, its third jump is 1
1
8
m and so on. Show that the frog will
never reach the edge of the pond.
7 A computergenerated virus acts in such a way that initially it blocks out a third of the
area of the screen of an infected computer. On each successive day, it blocks out a further
1
3
of the area it blocked the previous day. If the virus continues to act unchecked
indenitely, what percentage of the users screen will eventually be blocked out?
8 A stone is thrown so that it skips across the surface of a lake. If each skip is 30% less that
the previous skip, how long should the rst skip be if the total distance travelled by the
stone is 40 m?
9 A ball dropped from a height of 15 m rebounds from the ground to a height of 10 m. With
each successive rebound, it rises twothirds of the height of the previous rebound. If it
continues to bounce indenitely, what is the total distance it will travel?
10 Express each of the following periodic decimals as the ratio of a pair of integers.
Example 24
a 0.
4 b 0.0
3 c 10.
3 d 0.0
5 e 0.
9 f 4.
1
11 The sum of the rst four terms of a geometric series is 30 and the sum to innity is 32.
Find the rst two terms.
12 Find the third term of a geometric sequence that has a common ratio of
1
4
and a sum to
innity of 8.
13 Find the common ratio of a geometric sequence that has a rst term of 5 and a sum to
innity of 15.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 141
5.7 Fixed point iteration
The solution(s) to equations may be found using a numerical method that involves generating a
sequence of numbers. This method is particularly useful when solving equations for which
using an analytic method may be problematic or impossible.
The solution to an equation of the form f (x) = 0 may be found by rst nding an
approximation to the solution and then using this rst approximation to generate a better
approximation, which is in turn used to produce an even better approximation and so on.
This process of using a previous value to generate the next value is called iteration. If the
sequence of numbers produced using the iterative process converges to a limit, this limit will
be the solution of the equation in question.
Consider the equation f (x) = 0. Begin by rewriting the equation in the form x = g(x).
If x
1
is the initial approximation for the solution to the equation, the second approximation is
found by evaluating
x
2
= g(x
1
).
This value is then used to generate a third approximation
x
3
= g(x
2
), and so on.
If the sequence is convergent, each successive term will be closer to the actual solution of
the original equation i.e., the sequence of numbers generated by the equation x
n
= g(x
n1
)
converges to a value which is the solution to the equation x = g(x) (which is of course the
solution to the equation f (x) = 0).
The iterative process is continued until the value of x
n
is equal to x
n1
to a predetermined
level of accuracy such as ve decimal places. This type of iteration is called xed point
iteration.
Example 25
Write down the rst ve terms generated by the iterative equation x
n
=
x
n1
5
+1, x
1
= 2 and
hence state if the sequence produced appears to be convergent.
Solution
x
1
= 2
x
2
=
2
5
+1 = 1.4
x
3
=
1.4
5
+1 = 1.28
x
4
=
1.28
5
+1 = 1.256
x
5
=
1.256
5
+1 = 1.2512
x
6
=
1.2512
5
+1 = 1.25024
The sequence generated appears to be convergent.
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142 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 26
Given that the solution to the equation f (x) = 0 where f (x) =
x x +4 is approximately
6.5, use xed point iteration to nd the solution to the equation correct to ve decimal places.
Solution
First rearrange the equation into the form x = g(x).
Note: There may be a number of ways to rearrange the original equation producing
different functions g(x). The implications of these different forms will be discussed
later.
x x +4 = 0
Therefore x =
x +4 i.e., g(x) =
x +4
Using x
1
= 6.5
Therefore x
2
=
x
1
+4
=
6.5 +4
= 6.549509757
x
3
=
x
2
+4 x
4
=
x
3
+4
=
6.549509757 +4 =
6.559201 +4
= 6.559201 = 6.561093712
x
5
= 6.561463197
x
6
= 6.56153532 (= 6.56154 to ve decimal places)
x
7
= 6.561549398 (= 6.56155 to ve decimal places)
x
8
= 6.561552146 (= 6.56155 to ve decimal places)
Since the values of x
8
= x
7
to the required level of accuracy the iteration process is
terminated.
Hence the solution to the equation
x x +4 = 0 is 6.56155 correct to ve
decimal places.
Using the TINspire
A solution using this technique can be
found efciently using the TINspire
calculator.
Using the above example, start by
entering the initial approximation x
1
= 6.5
followed by enter (
enter
). Then enter
( as
shown. Repeatedly tapping EXE will produce
successive terms in the sequence until the
desired accuracy is achieved.
Note: It is useful to change the display mode
from Standard to Decimal to return answers in the
appropriate form.
In the above example a decision was made to rearrange the original equation
x x +4 = 0
into an equation of the form x =
x +4 so that g(x) =
x +4. An alternative
rearrangement could have been used.
Again consider the equation
x x +4 = 0
i.e.
x = x 4
x = (x 4)
2
i.e., in this case g(x) = (x 4)
2
Again using x
1
= 6.5 a solution can be sought using the iterative process
If x
1
= 6.5
Therefore x
2
= (x
1
4)
2
= (6.5 4)
2
= 6.25
x
3
= (x
2
4)
2
x
4
= (x
3
4)
2
= (6.25 4)
2
= (5.0625 4)
2
= 5.0625 = 1.12890625
x
5
= 8.243179321 x
6
= 18.00457075 x
7
= 196.128002 x
8
= 36913.16914
It is clear that the sequence of numbers generated by the iterative equation x
n
= (x
n1
4)
2
is not convergent and the solution to the equation
x x +4.
4
6
2
0
2
4
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
x
7
y
It appears that a solution to the equation
f (x) = 0 occurs between x = 6 and x = 7.
Now consider the graphs of y = x and y = g(x),
where g(x) =
x +4.
y = g (x)
y = x
4
6
8
2
0
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
x
7
y
Also consider the graphs of y = x and y = g(x),
where g(x) = (x 4)
2
.
y = g(x)
y = x
4
6
8
2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 10
x
7
y
In both of these pairs of graphs it is clear that a
solution to the equation x = g(x) occurs between
x = 6 and x = 7. What is of interest in both
cases is the gradient of the graph of y = g(x) in the
vicinity of the actual solution.
In the rst of the two, the gradient of y = g(x) in
the vicinity of x = 6.5 is quite small (less than that
of the line y = x); however in the second the
gradient of y = g(x) in the vicinity of x = 6.5 is quite large (greater than that of the line
y = x).
It is the gradient of the function of y = g(x) in the vicinity of the solution which will
determine if the iterative process is to be successful.
(If students have studied differential calculus a more rigorous examination of the gradient of
y = g(x) may be done, however an informal recognition of the signicance of the gradient of
y = g(x) is sufcient for students to appreciate that the iterative process will not always
succeed.)
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 145
Exercise 5G
1 a Write down the rst six terms generated by the following iterative equations
Example 25
i x
n
=
x
n1
4
+2, x
1
= 3
ii x
n
= x
2
n1
3, x
1
= 1
iii x
n
= 3x
2
n1
+1, x
1
= 2 iv x
n
=
x
n1
+2 +1, x
1
= 3
b Which of the sequences produced in a are convergent?
2 Use xed point iteration to nd a solution to the equations f (x) = 0. In each question, the
Example 26
initial approximation x
1
is given. Note: It may be necessary to try more than one
rearrangement of f (x) = 0 before a solution can be found successfully.
a f (x) = x
3
+4x 3, x
1
= 1 b f (x) = x
3
+ x 1, x
1
= 1
c f (x) =
x
2
3
x 1, x
1
= 1
d f (x) = x
4
x 2, x
1
= 1
e f (x) = 2
x
4x, x
1
= 0.5 f f (x) = x +log
10
x +2, x
1
= 5
g f (x) = 4x 2
x
3, x
1
= 1 h f (x) = x
3
3x +1, x
1
= 0.5
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146 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
Sequences
The nth term of a sequence is denoted using the symbol t
n
.
A difference equation enables each subsequent term to be found using the previous term.
A rule specied in this way is said to be dened iteratively.
e.g. t
1
= 1, t
n
= t
n1
+2
A sequence may be dened by a rule that is stated in terms of n.
e.g. t
n
= 2n
An arithmetic sequence is a sequence where
t
n
= a +(n 1)d with d = t
n
t
n1
where a is the rst term and d is called the common difference.
The arithmetic mean of two numbers a and b is dened as
a +b
2
The sum of the terms in an arithmetic sequence is called an arithmetic series.
The sum to n terms of an arithmetic sequence,
S
n
=
n
2
[2a +(n 1)d]
=
n
2
[a +l] where l = the last term (l = t
n
= a +(n 1)d)
A geometric sequence is a sequence where
t
n
= ar
n1
with r =
t
n
t
n1
a is the rst term and r is called the common ratio.
The sum of the terms in a geometric sequence is called a geometric series.
The sum of n terms of a geometric sequence is
S
n
=
a(r
n
1)
(r 1)
r = 1
or S
n
=
a(1 r
n
)
(1 r)
If 1 < r < 1, the sequence is convergent and S
n
approaches a limiting value.
The sum to an innite number of terms (sum to innity) is denoted by S
and S
=
a
1 r
.
Fixed point iteration can be used to nd the solution(s) to equations of the form f (x) = 0
by nding the sequence of numbers generated by the equation x
n
= g(x
n1
), as long as the
sequence is convergent. The equation x
n
= g(x
n1
) is found by an appropriate
rearrangement of the equation f (x) = 0.
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 147
Multiplechoice questions
1 The rst three terms of the sequence dened by the rule t
n
= 3n +2 are
A 1, 2, 3 B 2, 4, 6 C 5, 7, 9 D 5, 8, 11 E 5, 8, 10
2 If t
1
= 3, t
n+1
= t
n
+3, then t
4
is
A 4 B 12 C 9 D 15 E 14
3 For the arithmetic sequence 10, 8, 6 . . . t
10
=
A 8 B 10 C 12 D 10 E 8
4 For the arithmetic sequence 10, 8, 6 . . . S
10
=
A 10 B 0 C 10 D 20 E 20
5 If 58 is the nth term of the arithmetic sequence 8, 13, 18 . . . then n =
A 12 B 11 C 10 D 5 E 3
6 The sixth term of the geometric sequence 12, 8,
16
3
, . . . . is . . .
A
16
3
B
128
27
C
64
81
D
128
81
E
256
81
7 For the sequence 8, 4, 2, . . . S
6
=
A
1
4
B 15
1
2
C 15
7
8
D 15 E 15
3
4
8 For the sequence 8, 4, 2, . . . S
=
A
1
2
B 0 C 16 D 4 E
9 $2000 is invested at 5.5% p.a. compounded annually. The value of the investment after
6 years is
A $13 766.10 B $11 162.18 C $2550 D $2613.92 E $2757.69
10 If S
= 37.5 and r =
1
3
, then a equals
A
2
3
B 12.5 C 16
2
3
D 25 E 56.25
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Find the rst six terms of the following sequences
a t
1
= 3, t
n
= t
n1
4 b t
1
= 5, t
n
= 2t
n1
+2
2 Find the rst six terms of the following sequences
a t
n
= 2n b t
n
= 3n +2
3 Nick invests $5000 at 5% p.a. compound interest at the beginning of the year. At the
beginning of each of the following years he puts a further $500 into the account.
a Write down the amount of money in the account at the end of each of the rst two years.
b Set up a difference equation to generate the sequence for the investment.
4 The fourth term of an arithmetic sequence is 19 and the seventh term is 43. Find the 20th
term.
5 In an arithmetic sequence, t
5
= 0.35 and t
9
= 0.15. Find t
14
.
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148 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
6 An arithmetic sequence has t
6
= 24 and t
14
= 6. Find S
10
.
7 For the arithmetic sequence 5, 2, 9, . . . , nd {n: S
n
= 402}.
8 The sixth term of a geometric sequence is 9 and the tenth is 729. Find the fourth term.
9 One thousand dollars is invested at 3.5% p.a. compounded annually. Find the value of the
investment after n years.
10 The rst term of a geometric sequence is 9 and the third term is 4. Find the possible values
for the second and fourth terms.
11 The sum of three consecutive terms of a geometric sequence is 24 and the sum of the next
three terms is also 24. Find the sum of the rst 12 terms.
12 Find the sum of the rst eight terms of a geometric sequence with rst term 6 and common
ratio 3.
13 Find the sum to innity of 1
1
3
+
1
9
1
27
+
14 The numbers x, x +4, 2x +2 are three successive terms of a geometric sequence. Find the
value of x.
Extendedresponse questions
1 A rm offering a doityourself picture frame kit makes the kit in various sizes. Size 1
contains 0.8 m of moulding, size 2 contains 1.5 m, size 3 contains 2.2 m, . . . and so on.
a Form the sequence of lengths of mouldings.
b Is the sequence of lengths of moulding an arithmetic sequence?
c Find the length of moulding contained in the largest kit, size 12.
2 A rm proposes to sell coated seeds in packs containing the following number of seeds:
50, 75, 100, 125,
a Is this an arithmetic sequence?
b Find a formula for the nth term.
c Find the number of seeds in the 25th size packet.
3 A number of telegraph poles are to be placed in a straight line between two towns, A and B,
which are 32 km apart. The rst is placed 5 km from town A, the last is placed 3 km from
town B. The poles are placed so that the intervals starting from town A and nishing at
town B are 5, 5 d, 5 2d, 5 3d, . . . , 5 6d, 3. There are seven poles. How far is the
fth pole from town A and how far is it from town B?
4 A new, electronic desktop telephone exchange, for use in large organisations, is available
in various sizes.
Size 1 can handle 20 internal lines
Size 2 can handle 36 internal lines
Size 3 can handle 52 internal lines
Size 4 can handle 68 internal lines, and so on . . .
Size n can handle T
n
internal lines
(contd)
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Chapter 5 Sequences and series 149
a Continue the sequence up to T
8
.
b Write down a formula for T
n
in terms of n.
c A customer said he needed an exchange to handle 196 lines. Is there a version of the
desktop exchange which will just do this? If so, which size is it? If not, which is the
next largest size?
5 A rm making nylon thread made it in the following deniers (thicknesses):
2, 9, 16, 23, 30, . . . etc.
a Find the denier number, D
n
, of the rms nth thread in order of increasing thickness.
A request came in for some very heavy 191 denier thread, but this turned out to be one
stage beyond the thickest thread made by the rm.
b How many different thicknesses did the rm make?
6 A new house appears to be slipping down a hillside. The rst year it slipped 4 mm, the
second year 16 mm, the third year 28 mm. If it goes on like this, how far will it slip during
the 40th year?
7 Anna sends 16 Christmas cards the rst year, 24 the second year, 32 the next year and so
on. How many Christmas cards will she have sent altogether after ten years if she keeps
increasing the number sent each year in the same way?
8 Each time Lee rinses her hair after washing it, the result is to remove a quantity of shampoo
from the hair. With each rinsing the quantity of shampoo removed is a tenth of the previous
rinse.
a If Lee rinses out 90 mg of shampoo with the rst rinse, how much will she have washed
out altogether after six rinses?
b How much shampoo do you think was present in her hair at the beginning?
9 A prisoner is trapped in an underground cell which is inundated with a sudden rush of
water which comes up to a depth of 1 m, a third of the height of the ceiling (3 m). After an
hour a second inundation occurs, but this time the water level rises by only
1
3
m. After a
second hour another inundation of water raises the level by
1
9
m. If this process continues
for 6 hours, write down
a the amount the water level will rise at the end of the sixth hour,
b the total height of the water level then.
If this process continues, do you think the prisoner, who cannot swim, will drown? Why?
10 After an undetected leak in a storage tank, the staff at an experimental station were
subjected to 500 curie hours of radiation the rst day, 400 curie hours the second day, 320
the third day and so on.
Find the number of curie hours they were subjected to
a on the 14th day b during the rst 5 days of the leak.
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11 A rubber ball is dropped from a height of 81 m. Each time it strikes the ground, it rebounds
twothirds of the distance through which it has fallen.
a Find the height the ball reaches after the sixth bounce.
b Assuming the ball continues to bounce indenitely, nd the total distance travelled by
the ball.
12 In payment for loyal service to the king, a wise peasant asked to be given one grain of rice
for the rst square of a chessboard, two grains for the second square, four for the third
square and so on for all 64 squares of the board. The king thought this seemed fair and
readily agreed, but was horried when the court mathematician informed him of how many
grains of rice he would have to pay the peasant. How many grains of rice did the king have
to pay? (Leave your answer in index form.)
13 a In its rst month of operation a cement factory, A, produces 4000 tonnes of cement. In
each successive month, production rises by 250 tonnes per month. This growth in
production is illustrated for the rst ve months in the table shown.
Month number (n) 1 2 3 4 5
Amount of cement produced (tonnes) 4000 4250 4500 4750 5000
i Find an expression in terms of (n) for the amount of cement produced in the nth
month.
ii Find an expression in terms of n for the total amount of cement produced in the rst
n months.
iii In which month is the amount of cement produced 9250 tonnes?
iv In month m the amount of cement produced is T tonnes. Find m in terms of T
v The total amount of cement produced in the rst p months is 522 750. Find the
value of p.
b A second factory, B, commences production at exactly the same time as the rst. In its
rst month of production it produces 3000 tonnes of cement. In each successive month,
production increases by 8%.
i Find an expression for the total amount of cement produced by this factory after n
months.
ii Let Q
A
be the total amount of cement produced by factory A in the rst n months
and Q
B
be the total amount of cement produced by factory B in the rst n months.
Find an expression in terms of n for Q
B
Q
A
and nd the smallest value of n for
which Q
B
Q
A
0.
14 By using xed point iteration to solve the equation x
2
8 = 0, nd the value of
8 correct
to ve decimal places. Hint: Add x
2
to both sides of the equation and then rearrange to
produce an iterative equation of the form x
n
= g(x
n1
).
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C H A P T E R
6
Algebra II
Objectives
To understand equality of polynomials
To use equating coefficients to solve problems
To solve quadratic equations by various methods
To use rates to solve problems
To resolve a rational algebraic expression into partial fractions
To find the coordinates of the points of intersection of linear graphs with
r
parabolas
r
rectangular hyperbolae
r
circles
6.1 Polynomial identities
Polynomials are introduced in Chapter 3 of Essential Mathematical Method 1 & 2 CAS. A
polynomial function has a rule of the type
y = a
n
x
n
+a
n1
x
n1
+. . . a
1
x +a
0
, n N
where a
0
, a
1
, . . . a
n
are numbers called coefcients.
The degree of a polynomial is given by the value of n, the highest power of x with nonzero
coefcient.
Two polynomials are equal if they give the same value for all x. If two polynomials are
equal then they are of the same degree, and corresponding coefcients are equal.
For example, if ax +b = cx
2
+dx +e, then c = 0, d = a and e = b
if x
2
x 12 = x
2
+(a +b)x +ab then ab = 12 and a +b = 1
This process is called equating coefcients.
Example 1
If the expressions (a +2b)x
2
(a b)x +8 and 3x
2
6x +8 are equal for all x, nd the
values of a and b.
151
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152 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
If (a +2b)x
2
(a b)x +8 = 3x
2
6x +8 for all x,
then a +2b = 3 and (a b) = 6
Solve as simultaneous equations
a +2b = 3 . . . 1
a +b = 6 . . . 2
Add 1 and 2
3b = 3
b = 1
Substitute into 2
a = 5
Example 2
Express x
2
in the form c(x 3)
2
+a(x 3) +d.
Solution
If x
2
= c(x 3)
2
+a(x 3) +d,
then x
2
= c(x
2
6x +9) +a(x 3) +d
= cx
2
+(a 6c)x +9c 3a +d
which implies c = 1 . . . 1
a 6c = 0 . . . 2
9c 3a +d = 0 . . . 3
From 2 a = 6
and from 3 9 18 +d = 0
i.e. d = 9
x
2
= (x 3)
2
+6(x 3) +9
Example 3
Find the values of a, b, c and d such that
x
3
= a(x +2)
3
+b(x +1)
2
+cx +d for all x.
Solution
Expand the right hand side.
a(x
3
+6x
2
+12x +8) +b(x
2
+2x +1) +cx +d
Collect like terms.
ax
3
+(6a +b)x
2
+(12a +2b +c)x +(8a +b +d)
If x
3
= ax
3
+(6a +b)x
2
+(12a +2b +c)x +(8a +b +d)
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 153
then a = 1 . . . 1
6a +b = 0 . . . 2
12a +2b +c = 0 . . . 3
8a +b +d = 0 . . . 4
Substituting a = 1 into 2 gives
b = 6a
= 6
Substituting a = 1 and b = 6 into 3 gives
12 12 +c = 0
c = 0
Substituting a = 1 and b = 6 into 4 gives
8 6 +d = 0
d = 2
x
3
= (x +2)
3
6(x +1)
2
2
Example 4
Show that 2x
3
5x
2
+4x +1 cannot be expressed in the form a(x +b)
3
+c.
Solution
Assume that 2x
3
5x
2
+4x +1 can be expressed in the form a(x +b)
3
+c
i.e., 2x
3
5x
2
+4x +1 = a(x +b)
3
+c
Expanding the right hand side
2x
3
5x
2
+4x +1 = a(x
3
+3bx
2
+3b
2
x +b
3
) +c
= ax
3
+3abx
2
+3ab
2
x +ab
3
+c
Equating coefcients a = 2 . . . 1
3ab = 5 . . . 2
3ab
2
= 4 . . . 3
and ab
3
+c = 1 . . . 4
From 2 b =
5
6
, but from 3 b =
2
3
=
6
3
We have a contradiction and therefore have shown that 2x
3
5x
2
+4x +1 cannot be
expressed in the form a(x +b)
3
+c.
Exercise 6A
1 If ax
2
+bx +c = 10x
2
7, nd the values of a, b and c.
Example 1
2 If (2a b)x
2
+(a +2b)x +8 = 4x
2
3x +8, nd the values of a and b.
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154 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 If (2a 3b)x
2
+(3a +b)x +c = 7x
2
+5x +7, nd the values of a, b and c.
4 If 2x
2
+4x +5 = a(x +b)
2
+c, nd the values of a, b and c.
5 Express x
2
in the form c(x +2)
2
+a(x +2) +d.
Example 2
6 Express x
3
in the form (x +1)
3
+a(x +1)
2
+b(x +1) +c.
7 Find the values of a, b and c such that x
2
= a(x +1)
2
+bx +c.
Example 3
8 a Show that 3x
3
9x
2
+8x +2 cannot be expressed in the form a(x +b)
3
+c.
Example 4
b If 3x
3
9x
2
+9x +2 can be expressed in the form a(x +b)
3
+c, then nd the
values of a, b and c.
9 Show that constants a, b, c and d can be found such that
n
3
= a(n +1)(n +2)(n +3) +b(n +1)(n +2) +c(n +1) +d
10 a Show that no constants can be found such that
n
2
= a(n +1)(n +2) +b(n +2)(n +3)
b Express n
2
in the form a(n +1)(n +2) +b(n +1) +c
11 a Express a(x +b)
2
+c in expanded form.
b Express ax
2
+bx +c in completed square form.
12 Prove that, if ax
3
+bx
2
+cx +d = (x 1)
2
( px +q), then
b = d 2a and c = a 2d
13 If 3x
2
+10x +3 = c(x a)(x b) for all values of x, nd the values of a, b and c.
14 If n is any number, show that n
2
can be expressed in the form
a(n 1)
2
+b(n 2)
2
+c(n 3)
2
, and nd the values of a, b and c.
15 If x
3
+3x
2
9x +c is of the form (x a)
2
(x b), show that c = 5 or c = 27 and
nd a and b for each of these cases.
6.2 Quadratics and rates
Quadratics
The general expression of a quadratic function is y = ax
2
+bx +c, x R, a = 0
The number of solutions to the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 can be determined by the
discriminant, , where = b
2
4ac
i If b
2
4ac > 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has two real solutions
ii If b
2
4ac = 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has one real solution
iii If b
2
4ac < 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has no real solutions
A quadratic equation may be solved by factorising, completing the square or using the general
quadratic formula x =
b
b
2
4ac
2a
. The following example demonstrates each method.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 155
Example 5
Solve the following quadratic equations for x.
a x
2
+3x = 4 b 3x
2
+4x = 2 c 9x
2
+6x +1 = 0
Solution
a Rearranging the quadratic equation x
2
+3x 4 = 0
Factorising (x +4)(x 1) = 0
Applying the null factor law x +4 = 0 or x 1 = 1
Therefore x = 4 or 1
Note: = 3
2
4 1 (4) = 25, so there are two real solutions.
Using the TINspire
Use Solve( ) from the Algebra menu (b
1) as shown.
Using the Casio ClassPad
Enter and highlight the equation
2x
2
+5x 12 = 0, tap Interactive,
Equation/inequality, solve and ensure
the variable is set to x.
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156 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
b Rearranging the quadratic equation 3x
2
+4x 2 = 0
3
x
2
+
4
3
x
2 = 0
Add and subtract
b
2
2
to complete the square
3
x
2
+
4
3
x +
2
3
2
3
2 = 0
3
x +
2
3
4
9
2 = 0
3
x +
2
3
4
3
2 = 0
3
x +
2
3
2
=
10
3
x +
2
3
2
=
10
9
x +
2
3
=
10
3
x =
2
3
10
3
Therefore x =
2 +
10
3
or
2
10
3
Note: = 4
2
4 3 (2) = 40, so there are two real solutions.
c
Consider 9x
2
+6x +1 = 0
Using the general quadratic formula x =
b
b
2
4ac
2a
x =
6
6
2
4 9 1
2 9
=
6
0
18
Therefore x =
1
3
More simply 9x
2
+6x +1 = (3x +1)
2
Note: = 6
2
4 9 1 = 0, so there is one real solution.
Example 6
Consider the quadratic equation x
2
4x = t . Make x the subject and give the values of t for
which real solution(s) to the equation can be found.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 157
Solution
x
2
4x = t
Completing the square x
2
4x +4 = t +4
(x 2)
2
= t +4
x 2 =
t +4
x = 2
t +4
For real solutions to exist, t +4 0, i.e., t 4
Using the TINspire
Use Solve( ) from the Algebra menu (b
1) as shown.
Using the Casio ClassPad
Enter and highlight the equation x
2
4x = t ,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequality, solve and
ensure the variable is set to x.
Note: Variable t is found in the menu in the
keyboard screen.
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158 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 7
A rectangle has an area of 288 cm
2
. If the width is decreased by 1 cm, and the length increased
by 1 cm, the area would be decreased by 3 cm
2
. Find the original dimensions of the rectangle.
Solution
Let w and l be the width and length, in centimetres, of the original rectangle.
Therefore wl = 288 . . . 1
The dimensions of the new rectangle are w 1 and l +1, and the area is 285 cm
2
Therefore (w 1)(l +1) = 285 . . . 2
Rearranging 1 to make l the subject, and substituting in 2 gives
(w 1)
288
w
+1
= 285
288
288
w
+w 1 = 285
w
288
w
+2 = 0
w
2
+2w 288 = 0
Using the general quadratic formula x =
b
b
2
4ac
2a
w =
2
2
2
4 1 288
2 1
= 18 or 16
But w > 0, so w = 16. The original dimensions of the rectangle are 16 cm by 18 cm.
Rates
A rate describes how a certain quantity changes with respect to the change in another quantity
(often time). An example of a rate is speed. A speed of 60 km/h gives us a measure of how
fast an object is travelling. A further example is ow, where a rate of 20 L/min is going to ll
an empty swimming pool faster than, say, a rate of 6 L/min.
Many problems are solved using rates, which can be expressed as fractions. For example, a
speed of 60 km/h can be expressed in fraction form as
60(km)
1(h)
.
It is often rst necessary to add two or more fractions with different denominators, as shown
in the following examples.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 159
Example 8
a Express
6
x
+
6
x +8
as a single fraction.
b Solve the equation
6
x
+
6
x +8
= 2 for x.
Solution
a
6
x
+
6
x +8
=
6(x +8)
x(x +8)
+
6x
x(x +8)
=
6x +48 +6x
x(x +8)
=
12(x +4)
x(x +8)
b Since
6
x
+
6
x +8
=
12(x +4)
x(x +8)
then
12(x +4)
x(x +8)
= 2
12(x +4) = 2x(x +8)
6(x +4) = x(x +8)
6x +24 = x
2
+8x
0 = x
2
+2x 24
0 = (x +6)(x 4)
x +6 = 0 or x 4 = 0
x = 6 or x = 4
Example 9
A tank is lled by two pipes. The smaller pipe alone will take 24 minutes longer than the larger
pipe alone, and 32 minutes longer than when both pipes are used. How long will each pipe take
to ll the tank alone? How long will it take for both pipes used together to ll the tank?
Solution
Let C cubic units be the capacity of the tank, and x minutes the time it takes for the
larger pipe alone to ll the tank. Therefore the average rate of ow for the larger pipe
is
C
x
cubic units per minute.
Since the smaller pipe alone takes (x +24) minutes to ll the tank, the average rate
of ow for the smaller pipe is
C
x +24
cubic units per minute.
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160 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The average rate of ow when both pipes are used together is the sum of these two
rates,
C
x
+
C
x +24
cubic units per minute.
Expressed as a single fraction,
C
x
+
C
x +24
=
C(x +24) +Cx
x(x +24)
=
2C(x +12)
x(x +24)
The time taken to ll the tank using both pipes is
C
2C(x +12)
x(x +24)
= C
x(x +24)
2C(x +12)
=
x(x +24)
2(x +12)
The time taken for the smaller pipe to ll the tank can be also be expressed as
x(x +24)
2(x +12)
+32
i.e.
x(x +24)
2(x +12)
+32 = x +24
x(x +24)
2(x +12)
= x 8
x(x +24) = 2(x +12)(x 8)
x
2
+24x = 2x
2
+8x 192
0 = x
2
16x 192
0 = (x 24)(x +8)
x 24 = 0 or x +8 = 0
x = 24 or x = 8 (but x > 0)
It takes 24 minutes for the larger pipe alone to ll the tank, and 48 minutes for the
smaller pipe alone to ll the tank, and 16 minutes to ll the tank using both pipes.
Exercise 6B
1 Solve the following quadratic equations for x.
Example 5
a x
2
+2x = 1
b x
2
6x +9 = 0 c 5x
2
10x = 1
d 2x
2
+4x = 1 e 2x
2
+4x = 7 f 6x
2
+13x +1 = 0
2 Make x the subject in each of the following and give the values of t for which real
solution(s) to the equation can be found.
Example 6
a 2x
2
4t = x
b 4x
2
+4x 4 = t 2
c 5x
2
+4x +10 = t d t x
2
+4t x +10 = t
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 161
3 a Solve the quadratic equation x
2
+3x 9 = 0 for x, giving exact solutions.
b i Solve the quadratic equation x
2
+ px 16 = 0 in terms of p.
ii Find the value(s) of p, where 0 p 10 and p is a nonnegative integer, for which
the quadratic equation in i has a nonnegative integer solution.
x m
x m
8 m
6 m
10 m
4 A pole 10 m long leans against a wall. The bottom
of the pole is 6 m from the wall. If the bottom of the
pole is pulled away x m so that the top slides down
by the same amount, nd x.
5
Example 8
a Express
6
x
6
x +3
as a single fraction.
b Solve the equation
6
x
6
x +3
= 1 for x.
6 The sum of the reciprocals of two consecutive odd numbers is
36
323
. Form a quadratic
equation and hence determine the two numbers.
Example 9
7 A car travels from town A to town B, a distance of 600 km, in x hours. A plane, travelling
220 km/h faster than the car, takes ve and a half hours less to cover the same distance.
a Express, in terms of x, the average speed of the car and the average speed of the plane.
b Find the actual average speed of each of them.
8 A car covers a distance of 200 km at a speed of x km/h. A train covers the same distance at
a speed of (x +5) km/h. If the time taken by the car is 2 hours more than that taken by the
train, nd x.
9 A man travels 108 km, and nds that he could have made the journey in 4
1
2
hours less had
he travelled at an average speed 2 km/h faster. What was the mans average speed when he
made the trip?
10 A bus is due to reach its destination 75 km away at a certain time. The bus usually travels
with an average speed of x km/h. Its start is delayed by 18 minutes but, by increasing its
average speed by 12.5 km/h, the driver arrives on time.
a Find x. b How long did the journey actually take?
11 Ten minutes after the departure of an express train, a slow train starts, travelling at an
average speed of 20 km/h less. The slow train reaches a station 250 km away 3.5 hours
after the arrival of the express. Find the average speed of each of the trains.
12 When the average speed of a car is increased by 10 km/h the time taken for the car to
make a journey of 105 km is reduced by 15 minutes. Find the original average speed.
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162 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
13 A tank can be lled with water by two pipes running together in 11
1
9
minutes. If the larger
pipe alone takes 5 minutes less to ll the tank than the smaller pipe, nd the time that each
pipe will take to ll the tank.
14 At rst two different pipes running together will ll a tank in
20
3
minutes. The rate that
water runs through each of the pipes is then adjusted. If one pipe, running alone, takes
1 minute less to ll the tank at its new rate, and the other pipe, running alone, takes
2 minutes more to ll the tank at its new rate, then the two running together will ll the
tank in 7 minutes. Find in what time the tank will be lled by each pipe running alone at
the new rates.
15 The journey between two towns by one route consists of 233 km by rail followed by
126 km by sea. By a second route the journey consists of 405 km by rail followed by
39 km by sea. If the time taken for the rst route is 50 minutes longer than for the second
route, and travelling by rail is 25 km/h faster than travelling by sea, nd the average speed
by rail and the average speed by sea.
16 A freighter sailing due north at 12 km/h sights a cruiser straight ahead at an unknown
distance and speeding due east at unknown speed. After 15 minutes the vessels are 10 km
apart and then, 15 minutes later, they are 13 km apart. (Assume both travel at constant
speeds.) How far apart are the vessels when the cruiser is due east of the freighter?
17 A cask A, of capacity 20 litres, is lled with wine. A certain quantity of wine from A is
poured into a cask B which also has a capacity of 20 litres. Cask B is then lled with
water. After this cask A is lled with some of the mixture from cask B. A further
20
3
litres
of the mixture now in A is poured back into B, and the two casks now have the same
amount of wine. How much wine was rst taken out of cask A?
6.3 Partial fractions
A rational function is the quotient of two polynomials. If g(x) and h(x) are polynomials,
f (x) =
g(x)
h(x)
is a rational function,
e.g., f (x) =
x
2
+1
x
2
1
If the degree of g(x) < the degree of h(x), then
g(x)
h(x)
is a proper fraction.
If the degree of g(x) the degree of h(x), then
g(x)
h(x)
is an improper fraction.
It is convention to consider rational functions for their maximal domain. For example,
x
2
+1
x
2
1
is only considered for R\{1, 1}.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 163
A rational algebraic function may be expressed as a sum of separate functions by resolving
it into what are called partial fractions. This can help in the sketching of graphs of these
functions or performing other mathematical procedures such as integration.
Proper fractions
For proper fractions, the technique used for obtaining partial fractions depends on the type of
factors in the denominator of the original algebraic fraction. Only examples where the
denominators have factors that are either 1st degree (linear) or 2nd degree (quadratic) will be
considered.
For every linear factor (ax +b) in the denominator, there will be a partial fraction of the
form
A
ax +b
For every repeated linear factor (cx +d)
2
in the denominator, there will be partial
fractions of the form
B
cx +d
and
C
(cx +d)
2
For every irreducible quadratic factor (ax
2
+bx +c) in the denominator, there will be a
partial fraction of the form
Dx + E
ax
2
+bx +c
To resolve an algebraic fraction into its partial fractions, rstly write a statement of identity
between the original fraction and a sum of the appropriate number of partial fractions. Then
express the sum of the partial fractions as a single fraction and note that the numerators of both
sides are equivalent. By choosing an appropriate value(s) for x and/or equating coefcients, the
values of the introduced constants A, B, C, etc. can be found.
Example 10
Resolve
3x +5
(x 1)(x +3)
into partial fractions.
Solution
Since the denominator has two linear factors, there will be two partial fractions of the
form
A
x 1
and
B
x +3
Let
3x +5
(x 1)(x +3)
=
A
x 1
+
B
x +3
(x R\{1, 3})
Express the right hand side as a single fraction.
3x +5
(x 1)(x +3)
=
A(x +3) + B(x 1)
(x 1)(x +3)
3x +5
(x 1)(x +3)
=
(A + B)x +3A B
(x 1)(x +3)
3x +5 = (A + B)x +3A B
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164 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Equate the coefcients,
i.e., A + B = 3
3A B = 5
Solving these equations simultaneously,
4A = 8
i.e., A = 2
and B = 1
Therefore
3x +5
(x 1)(x +3)
=
2
x 1
+
1
x +3
Using the TINspire
Use Expand( ) from the Algebra menu (b
) as shown.
Notice that you can access the fraction
template by typing / .
Using the Casio ClassPad
Tap Interactive, Transformation, expand and the Partial Fraction button. Enter the
expression and the variable.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 165
Example 11
Resolve
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
into partial fractions.
Solution
Since there is a repeated linear factor and a single linear factor, there are three partial
fractions such that
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
=
A
x +1
+
B
x 1
+
C
(x 1)
2
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
=
A(x 1)
2
+ B(x +1)(x 1) +C(x +1)
(x +1)(x 1)
2
Therefore 2x +10 = A(x 1)
2
+ B(x +1)(x 1) +C(x +1)
To nd A, B and C, a combination of methods will be used.
First let x = 1
2(1) +10 = C(1 +1)
12 = 2C
C = 6
Let x = 1
2(1) +10 = A(1 1)
2
8 = 4A
A = 2
Substitute these values for A and C.
2x +10 = 2(x 1)
2
+ B(x +1)(x 1) +6(x +1) . . . 1
= 2(x
2
2x +1) + B(x
2
1) +6(x +1)
= (2 + B)x
2
+2x +8 B
Now by equating coefcients,
2 + B = 0
and 8 B = 10
B = 2
So
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
=
2
x +1
2
x 1
+
6
(x 1)
2
The value of B may also be found by substituting x = 0 into equation 1 .
In the exercises for this section, the following result is established: that it is impossible
to nd A and C such that
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
=
A
(x +1)
+
C
(x 1)
2
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166 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 12
Resolve
x
2
+6x +5
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
into partial fractions.
Solution
The denominator contains a quadratic factor, which cannot be reduced to linear
factors (an irreducible quadratic), as well as a single linear factor.
x
2
+6x +5
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
=
A
x 2
+
Bx +C
x
2
+ x +1
x
2
+6x +5
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
=
A(x
2
+ x +1) +(Bx +C)(x 2)
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
x
2
+6x +5 = A(x
2
+ x +1) +(Bx +C)(x 2)
Let x = 2
2
2
+6(2) +5 = A(4 +2 +1)
21 = 7A
A = 3
Also x
2
+6x +5 = A(x
2
+ x +1) +(Bx +C)(x 2) . . . 1
= A(x
2
+ x +1) + Bx
2
2Bx +Cx 2C
= (A + B)x
2
+(A 2B +C)x + A 2C
Since A = 3, then
x
2
+6x +5 = (3 + B)x
2
+(3 2B +C)x +3 2C
Equating coefcients
3 + B = 1
B = 2
and 3 2C = 5
C = 1
[checking: 3 2B +C = 3 2(2) +(1) = 6]
Therefore
x
2
+6x +5
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
=
3
x 2
+
2x 1
x
2
+ x +1
or
x
2
+6x +5
(x 2)(x
2
+ x +1)
=
3
x 2
2x +1
x
2
+ x +1
Note: The values of B and C can also be found by substituting x = 0 and x = 1
respectively in equation 1 .
Improper fractions
Improper algebraic fractions can be expressed as a sum of partial fractions by rst dividing the
denominator into the numerator to produce a quotient and a proper fraction. The resulting
proper fraction can then be resolved into its partial fractions using the techniques outlined
above.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 167
Example 13
Express
x
5
+2
x
2
1
in partial fractions.
Solution
Dividing through
x
3
+ x
x
2
1
x
5
+2
x
5
x
3
x
3
+2
x
3
x
x +2
x
5
+2
x
2
1
= x
3
+ x +
x +2
x
2
1
Expressing
x +2
x
2
1
=
x +2
(x 1)(x +1)
as partial fractions,
x
5
+2
x
2
1
= x
3
+ x
1
2 (x +1)
+
3
2 (x 1)
Using the TINspire
Use Expand( ) from the Algebra menu (b
) as shown.
Notice that you can access the fraction
template by typing / .
Using the Casio ClassPad
Tap Interactive, Transformation, expand and the
Partial Fraction button. Enter the expression and
the variable.
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168 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Partial fractions are summarised through examples, as follows.
Linear factors
3x 4
(2x 3)(x +5)
=
A
2x 3
+
B
x +5
Repeated linear factors
3x 4
(2x 3)(x +5)
2
=
A
2x 3
+
B
x +5
+
C
(x +5)
2
Irreducible quadratic factors
3x 4
(2x 3)(x
2
+5)
=
A
2x 3
+
Bx +C
x
2
+5
If f (x) =
g(x)
h(x)
and the degree of g(x) is greater than or equal to the degree of h(x) then
division must be performed rst.
Exercise 6C
1 Resolve the following rational expressions into partial fractions.
Example 10
a
5x +1
(x 1)(x +2)
b
1
(x +1)(2x +1)
c
3x 2
x
2
4
d
4x +7
x
2
+ x 6
e
7 x
(x 4)(x +1)
2 Resolve the following rational expressions into partial fractions.
Example 11
a
2x +3
(x 3)
2
b
9
(1 +2x)(1 x)
2
c
2x 2
(x +1)(x 2)
2
3 Resolve the following rational expressions into partial fractions.
Example 12
a
3x +1
(x +1)(x
2
+ x +1)
b
3x
2
+2x +5
(x
2
+2)(x +1)
c
x
2
+2x 13
2x
3
+6x
2
+2x +6
4 Resolve
3x
2
4x 2
(x 1)(x 2)
into partial fractions.
Example 13
5 Find values of A and C such that
2x +10
(x +1)(x 1)
2
=
A
x +1
+
C
(x 1)
2
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 169
6 Express each of the following in partial fractions.
a
1
(x 1)(x +1)
b
x
(x 2)(x +3)
c
3x +1
(x 2)(x +5)
d
1
(2x 1)(x +2)
e
3x +5
(3x 2)(2x +1)
f
2
x
2
x
g
3x +1
x
3
+ x
h
3x
2
+8
x(x
2
+4)
i
1
x
2
4x
j
x +3
x
2
4x
k
x
3
x
2
1
x
2
x
l
x
3
x
2
6
2x x
2
m
x
2
x
(x +1)(x
2
+2)
n
x
2
+2
x
3
3x 2
o
2x
2
+ x +8
x(x
2
+4)
p
1 2x
2x
2
+7x +6
q
3x
2
6x +2
(x 1)
2
(x +2)
r
4
(x 1)
2
(2x +1)
s
x
3
2x
2
3x +9
x
2
4
t
x
3
+3
(x +1)(x 1)
u
2x 1
(x +1)(3x +2)
6.4 Simultaneous equations
In this section, methods for nding the coordinates of the points of intersection of a linear
graph with different nonlinear graphs are discussed. The nonlinear graphs are parabolas,
circles and rectangular hyperbolae. The associated relations have been discussed in Essential
Mathematical Methods 1 and 2 CAS.
Example 14
Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the parabola with equation
y = x
2
2x 2 with the straight line with equation y = x +4.
Solution
Consider x +4 = x
2
2x 2
Then 0 = x
2
3x 6
x =
3
9 4 6 1
2
=
3
33
2
The points of intersection have
coordinates A
33
2
,
11
33
2
and
B
3 +
33
2
,
11 +
33
2
y = x + 4
y = x
2
2x 2
x
A
4
4
2
0
y
B
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170 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire
Use Solve( ) from the Algebra menu (b
1) as shown.
The and can either be typed or found in
the catalog ( 1 ).
Use the NavPad to move the cursor up to
the solution and see all the solutions.
The simultaneous equations template
can also be used.
Using the Casio ClassPad
The CAS calculator will give exact values for the
points of intersection.
Turn on the screen keyboard, tap 2D and select
the simultaneous equations symbol .
Enter the equations in the spaces provided and
the variables x, y as shown.
Example 15
Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the circle with equation
(x 4)
2
+ y
2
= 16 and the line with equation x y = 0.
x
(4, 0)
(4, 4)
0
y
Solution
Rearrange x y = 0 to make y the subject.
Substitute y = x into the equation of the circle.
i.e., (x 4)
2
+ x
2
= 16
x
2
8x +16 + x
2
= 16
i.e., 2x
2
8x = 0
2x(x 4) = 0
x = 0 or x = 4
The points of intersection are (0, 0) and (4, 4)
Example 16
Find the point of contact of the line with equation
1
9
x + y =
2
3
and the curve with equation
xy = 1.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 171
x
y =
x
+
9
1
y =
x
1
3
2
0
y
Solution
Rewrite the equations as y =
1
9
x +
2
3
and y =
1
x
Consider
1
9
x +
2
3
=
1
x
x +6 =
9
x
and x
2
+6x = 9
Therefore x
2
6x +9 = 0
and (x 3)
2
= 0, i.e. x = 3
The point of intersection is
3,
1
3
5 touches the
circle x
2
+ y
2
= 9.
11 Find the coordinates of the point where the straight line with equation y =
1
4
x +1
touches the curve with equation y =
1
x
.
12 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the curve with equation y =
2
x 2
and the line y = x 1.
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 173
Chapter summary
The general expression of a quadratic function is y = ax
2
+bx +c, x R
A quadratic equation may be solved by
r
Factorising
e.g., 2x
2
+5x 12 = 0
(2x 3)(x +4) = 0 x =
3
2
or 4
r
Completing the square
e.g., x
2
+2x 4 = 0
Add and subtract
b
2
2
to complete the square.
x
2
+2x +1 1 4 = 0
(x +1)
2
5 = 0
(x +1)
2
= 5
x +1 =
5 x = 1 +
5
r
Using the general quadratic formula x =
b
b
2
4ac
2a
e.g., 3x
2
12x 7 = 0
x =
(12)
(12)
2
4(3)(7)
2(3)
=
6
15
3
The number of solutions to the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 can be determined by
the discriminant, , where = b
2
4ac
r
If b
2
4ac > 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has two real solutions
r
If b
2
4ac = 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has one real solution
r
If b
2
4ac < 0, the quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c = 0 has no real solutions
A function of the form f (x) =
g(x)
h(x)
, where g(x) and h(x) are polynomials in x, is called a
rational algebraic function, e.g. f (x) =
x +1
x
2
1
Some rational algebraic functions may be expressed as a sum of partial fractions. For every
linear factor (ax +b) in the denominator there will be a partial fraction of the form
A
ax +b
For every repeated linear factor (cx +d)
2
in the denominator there will be two partial
fractions of the form
B
(cx +d)
and
C
(cx +d)
2
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174 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
For every irreducible quadratic factor (ex
2
+ f x + g) in the denominator there will be a
partial fraction of the form
Dx + E
(ex
2
+ f x + g)
e.g.
2x +10
(x +1) (x 1)
2
may be expressed as partial fractions in the form
A
(x +1)
+
B
(x 1)
+
C
(x 1)
2
where A = 2, B = 2 and C = 6
Multiplechoice questions
1 If x
2
is written in the form (x +1)
2
+b(x +1) +c, then the values of b and c are
A b = 0, c = 0 B b = 2, c = 0 C b = 2, c = 1
D b = 1, c = 2 E b = 1, c = 2
2 If x
3
= a(x +2)
3
+b(x +2)
2
+c(x +2) +d, then the values of a, b, c and d are
A a = 0, b = 8, c = 10, d = 6 B a = 0, b = 6, c = 10, d = 8
C a = 1, b = 8, c = 10, d = 6 D a = 1, b = 6, c = 12, d = 8
E a = 1, b = 8, c = 12, d = 6
3 The quadratic equation 3x
2
6x +3 = 0 has
A two real solutions, x = 1 B one real solution, x = 1
C no real solutions D one real solution, x = 1
E two real solutions, x = 1 and x = 2
4 The quadratic equation whose solutions are 4 and 6 is
A (x +4)(x 6) = 0 B x
2
2x 24 = 0 C 2x
2
+4x = 48
D x
2
+2x 24 = 0 E x
2
+2x +24 = 0
5
3
x +4
5
x 2
is equal to
A
2
(x +4)(x 2)
B
2(x +1)
(x +4)(x 2)
C
2(x 7)
(x +4)(x 2)
D
2(4x +13)
(x +4)(x 2)
E
2(x +13)
(x +4)(x 2)
6
4
(x +3)
2
+
2x
x +1
is equal to
A
8x
(x +3)
2
(x +1)
B
2(3x
2
+ x +18)
(x +3)
2
(x +1)
C
3x
2
+13x +18
(x +3)
2
(x +1)
D
2(3x
2
+13x +18)
(x +3)
2
(x +1)
E
2(x
3
+6x
2
+11x +2)
(x +3)
2
(x +1)
7 If
7x
2
+13
(x 1)(x
2
+ x +2)
is expressed in the form
a
x 1
+
bx +c
x
2
+ x +2
, then the values of a,
b and c are
A a = 5, b = 0, c = 13 B a = 5, b = 0, c = 10 C a = 5, b = 2, c = 3
D a = 7, b = 2, c = 3 E a = 7, b = 3, c = 13
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Chapter 6 Algebra II 175
8
4x 3
(x 3)
2
is equal to
A
3
x 3
+
1
x 3
B
4x
x 3
3
x 3
C
9
x 3
+
4
(x 3)
2
D
4
x 3
+
9
(x 3)
2
E
4
x 3
15
(x 3)
2
9
8x +7
2x
2
+5x +2
is equal to
A
2
2x +1
3
x +2
B
2
2x +1
+
3
x +2
C
4
2x +2
1
x +1
D
4
2x +2
+
1
x +1
E
4
2x +2
1
x +1
10
3x
2
+2x 1
(x
2
+1)(x +1)
is equal to
A
2
x
2
+1
+
3
x +1
B
2
x
2
+1
3
x +1
C
5
x
2
+1
+
2
x +1
D
3
x
2
+1
2
x +1
E
3
x
2
+1
+
2
x +1
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 If (3a +b)x
2
+(a 2b)x +b +2c = 11x
2
x +4, nd the values of a, b and c.
2 Express x
3
in the form (x 1)
3
+a(x 1)
2
+b(x 1) +c.
3 Prove that, if ax
3
+bx
2
+cx +d = (x +1)
2
( px +q), then b = 2a +d and c = a +2d.
4 Prove that, if ax
3
+bx
2
+cx +d = (x 2)
2
( px +q), then b = 4a +
1
4
d and
c = 4a d.
5 Solve the following quadratic equations for x.
a x
2
+ x = 12 b x
2
2 = x c x
2
+3x +11 = 1
d 2x
2
4x +1 = 0 e 3x
2
2x +5 = t f t x
2
+4 = t x
6 Solve the equation
2
x 1
3
x +2
=
1
2
for x.
7 Express the following as partial fractions.
a
3x +4
(x 3)(x +2)
b
7x +2
x
2
4
c
7 x
x
2
+2x 15
d
3x 9
x
2
4x 5
e
3x 4
(x +3)(x +2)
2
f
6x
2
5x 16
(x 1)
2
(x +4)
g
x
2
6x 4
(x
2
+2)(x +1)
h
x +4
(x 1)(x
2
+ x +1)
i
4x +5
(x +4)(x 3)
j
2x +8
(x +4)(x 3)
8 Express each of the following in partial fractions.
a
14(x 2)
(x 3)(x
2
+ x +2)
b
1
(x +1)(x
2
x +2)
c
3x
3
x
2
5x +4
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176 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
9 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection for each of the following.
a y = x
2
y = x
b x
2
+ y
2
= 16
x + y = 4
c x + y = 5
xy = 4
10 Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the line with equation 3y x = 1 and
the circle with equation x
2
+2x + y
2
= 9.
Extendedresponse questions
1 A train completes a journey of 240 km at a constant speed.
a If it had travelled 4 km/h slower, it would have taken two hours more for the journey.
Find the actual speed of the train.
b If it had travelled a km/h slower, and still taken two hours more for the journey of
240 km, what would have been the actual speed? (Answer in terms of a.) Discuss the
practical possible values of a and also the possible values for the speed of the train.
c If the train had travelled a km/h slower, and taken a hours more for the journey of
240 km, and if a is an integer and the speed is an integer, nd the possible values for a
and the speed of the train.
2 An upholsterer purchased some fabric for $a. If he had bought the fabric from another
supplier who charged $b per metre more he would have received b metres less for the same
amount of money.
a How many metres did he purchase, in terms of a and b?
b If a and b, and the number of metres purchased, are natural numbers, nd the possible
values of a given a < 100.
3 Two trains are travelling at uniform speeds. The slower train takes a hours longer to cover
b km. It travels 1 km less than the faster one in c hours.
a What is the speed of the faster train, in terms of a, b and c?
b If a, b and c, and the speeds of the trains, are rational numbers, nd ve sets of values for
a, b and c. Choose and discuss two sensible sets of values.
4 A tank can be lled using two pipes. The smaller pipe alone will take a minutes longer than
the larger pipe alone to ll the tank. Also the smaller pipe will take b minutes longer to ll
the tank than when both pipes are used.
a Find, in terms of a and b, how long it will take each of the pipes to ll the tank.
b If a = 24 and b = 32, nd how long it takes for each of the pipes to ll the tank.
c If a and b are consecutive positive integers, nd ve pairs of values of a and b such that
b
2
ab is a perfect square. Interpret these results in the context of this tank problem.
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C H A P T E R
Revision
7
Revision of chapters 16
7.1 Multiplechoice questions
1 If P
2
= 4I, then P
1
equals
A
1
4
P B
1
2
P C
1
2
I D 2P E 4P
2 If R = [5 3 1] and S =
0
1
2
, then RS is
A not dened B [1] C
0 0 0
5 3 1
10 6 2
D [0 3 2] E
0
3
2
3 If A =
9 8
11 5
1
2
5
5 2
2 1
, B =
2 1
6 7
and C =
5 4
8 9
, then if AX +B = C,
X equals
A
1
20
2 19
2 6
1 1
4 0
2 19
2 6
3 10
4 10
E
1
20
1 3
4 5
177
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178 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
6 Let P =
2 1
3 2
, Q =
4 2
6 5
, R =
2 1
3 2
3 5
1 2
, then X
1
is
A
2 5
1 3
2 5
1 3
1
3
1
5
1
1
2
3 1
5 2
3 1
5 2
4 6
2 4
is
A 16 B 4 C 16
D
1
4
E 4
9 If S =
5 7
2 2
, then S
1
is
A
5 7
2 2
5 7
2 5
C
1
4
2 7
2 5
D
1
4
2 7
2 5
E
1
4
2 7
2 5
10 In algebraic form, ve is seven less than three times one more than x can be written as
A 5 = 7 3(x +1) B 3x +1 = 5 7 C (x +1) 7 = 5
D 5 = 7 3x +1 E 5 = 3x 4
11
3
x 3
2
x +3
is equal to
A 1 B
x +15
x
2
9
C
15
x 9
D
x 3
x
2
9
E
1
6
12 p varies directly as x and inversely as the square of y. If x is decreased by 30% and y is
decreased by 20%, the percentage change in p is best approximated by
A increase by 10% B decrease by 10% C increase by 9.4%
D decrease by 9.4% E no change
13 The sum of the odd numbers from 1 to n inclusive is 100. The value of n is
A 13 B 15 C 17 D 19 E 21
14 If the sum of the rst n terms of a geometric sequence is 2
n+1
2 , the nth term of the
geometric sequence is
A 2
n1
B 2
n
C 2
n
1 D 2
n1
+1 E 2
n
+1
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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 179
15 If m n and m = 9 when n = 4, then k, the constant of variation, equals
A
9
4
B 13 C 36 D
4
9
E 5
16 If A = {1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and C = {3, 4, 5, 6, 7} then A (B C) is equal to
A {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} B {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} C {2, 3, 4}
D {3, 4} E {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
17 The price of painting the outside of a cylindrical tank (the bottom and top are not painted)
of radius r and height h varies directly as the total surface area. If r = 5 and h = 4, the
price is $60. The price when r = 4 and h = 6 is
A $45 B $57.60 C $53.50 D $62.80 E $72
18 If x y and x = 8 when y = 2, the value of x when y = 7 is
A 20 B 13 C 11 D 28 E 1.75
19 The recurring decimal 0.
2 is equal to
A
72
101
B
72
100
C
72
99
D
72
90
E
73
90
20 If x varies directly as y
2
and inversely as z, the percentage increase of x when y is
increased by 25% and z is decreased by 20% is best approximated by
A 5% B 50% C 85% D 95% E 100%
21
4
x 1
3
1 x
+
x
x 1
is equal to
A 1 B 1 C
7x
x 1
D
1
1 x
E none of these
22
x +2
3
5
6
is equal to
A
x 3
6
B
2x +4
6
C
2x 1
6
D
2x 5
6
E
x 3
3
23 If a = 1 +
1
1 +b
, then b equals
A 1
1
a 1
B 1 +
1
a 1
C
1
a 1
1 D
1
a +1
+1 E
1
a +1
1
24 When the repeating decimal 0.
7 +3)(
7 3) is equal to
A 2 B 10 C
14 19 D 2
7 9 E 45
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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 181
39 If
13x 10
2x
2
9x +4
=
P
x 4
+
Q
2x 1
then the values of P and Q are
A P = 1 and Q = 1 B P = 1 and Q = 1 C P = 6 and Q = 1
D P = 6 and Q = 1 E P = 1 and Q = 6
40 The rst term of a geometric sequence is a and the innite sum of the geometric sequence
is 4a. The common ratio of the geometric sequence is
A 3 B 4 C
3
4
D
3
4
E
4
3
41 If
5x
(x +2)(x 3)
=
P
x +2
+
Q
x 3
, then
A P = 2, and Q = 3 B P = 2, and Q = 3 C P = 2, and Q = 3
D P = 2, and Q = 3 E P = 1, and Q = 1
42 If n is a perfect square then the next largest perfect square greater than n is
A n +1 B n
2
+1 C n
2
+2n +1 D n
2
+n E n +2
n +1
43 The area of triangle varies directly as the base length provided the altitude is constant. If
the area equals 14 when the base is 2.4, then the base length (correct to three decimal
places) when the area is 18 will equal
A 3.086 B 5.000 C 6.400 D 9.600 E 0.324
44 Which of the following is not a rational number?
A 0.4 B
3
8
C
5 D
16 E 4.125
45 If
1
x
=
a
b
and
1
y
= a b, then x + y equals
A
2
a
B
a
2
b
2
a
C
ba b
2
+a
a(a b)
D
2a
a
2
b
2
E
2b
a
2
b
2
46 9x
2
4mx +4 is a perfect square when m equals
A 5 B 12 C 2 D 1 E 3
47 If x = (n +1)(n +2)(n +3) where n is a positive integer, then x is not always divisible
by
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 5 E 6
48 The numbers 4, a, b, c, d, e, f, 10 are consecutive terms of an arithmetic sequence. The
sum a +b +c +d +e + f is equal to
A 6 B 10 C 18 D 24 E 48
49 If n and p are both odd numbers, which one of the following numbers must be an even
number?
A n + p B np C np +2 D n + p +1 E 2n + p
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182 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
7.2 Extendedresponse questions
1 The diagram represents a glass containing milk. When the height
of the milk in the glass is h cm, the diameter, d cm, of the surface
of the milk is given by the formula
d =
h
5
+6
a Find d when h = 10 b Find d when h = 8.5
c What is the diameter of the bottom of the glass?
d The diameter of the top of the glass is 9 cm. What is the
height of the glass?
d cm
h cm
2 The formula A = 180
360
n
gives the size of each interior angle, A
, of a regular polygon
with n sides.
a Find the value of A when n equals
i 180 ii 360 iii 720 iv 7200
b As n becomes very large
i what value does A approach? ii what shape does the polygon approach?
c Find the value of n when A = 162. d Make n the subject of the formula.
e Three regular polygons, two of which are octagons, meet at a point so that they t
together without any gaps. Describe the third polygon.
3 The gure shows a solid consisting of three parts, a cone, a cylinder
and a hemisphere, all of the same base radius.
a Find in terms of w, s, t and the volume of each part.
b i If the volume of each of the three parts is the same,
nd the ratio w : s : t .
ii If also w +s +t = 11, nd the total volume in terms of .
w
s
t
4 The cost, $C, of manufacturing each jacket of a particular type is
given by the formula
C = an +b for 0 < n 300
where a and b are constants and n is the size of the production run of this type of jacket.
For making 100 jackets, the cost is $108 each.
For making 120 jackets, the cost is $100 each.
a Find the values of a and b.
b Sketch the graph of C against n for 0 < n 300.
c Find the cost of manufacturing each jacket if 200 jackets are made.
d If the cost of manufacturing each jacket is $48.80, nd the size of the production run.
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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 183
5 a In the diagram, OPQ is a sector of radius R.
A circle, centre C
1
and radius r
1
is inscribed
in this sector.
R
Q
O
P
60
r
3
r
2
r
1
r
1
r
2
r
3
C
3
C
2
C
1
i Express OC
1
in terms of R and r
1
.
ii Show that
r
1
OC
1
=
1
2
and hence express r
1
in terms of R.
b Another circle, centre C
2
, is inscribed in the sector as shown.
i Express OC
2
in terms of r
2
and R.
ii Express r
2
in terms of R.
c Circles C
3
, C
4
, . . . are constructed in a similar way. Their radii are r
3
, r
4
, . . .
respectively. It is known that r
1
, r
2
, r
3
, . . . is a geometric sequence.
i Find the common ratio. ii Find r
n
.
iii Find the sum to innity of the sequence, and interpret the result geometrically.
iv Find in terms of R and , the sum to innity of the areas of the circles with radii r
1
,
r
2
, r
3
, . . . .
6 At the beginning of 1997, Andrew and John bought a small catering business. The prot,
$P, in a particular year is given by
P = an +b
where n is the number of years of operation and a and b are constants.
a Given the table, nd the values of a and b.
Year 1997 2001
Number of years of operation (n) 1 5
Prot 9000 15 000
b Find the prot when n = 12. c In which year was the prot $45 000?
7 Two companies produce the same chemical. For Company A the number of tonnes
produced increases by 80 tonnes per month. For Company B production increases by 4%
per month. Each company produced 1000 tonnes in January 2003. (Let n be the number of
months of production. Use n = 1 for January 2003.)
a Find, to the nearest tonne where appropriate,
i the production of Company A in the nth month
ii the production of each company in December 2004 (i.e. for n = 24)
(contd)
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184 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
iii the total production of Company A over n months (starting with n = 1 for January
2003)
iv the total production of each company for the period January 2003 to December
2004 inclusive.
b Find in which month of which year the total production of Company A passed 100 000
tonnes.
8 The square shown has each side of length one.
a The perimeter of the square is denoted by P
1
.
What is the value of P
1
?
1
1
1
1
b A new gure is formed by joining two squares of
side length
1
2
to this square, as shown. The
perimeter is denoted by P
2
. What is the value of P
2
?
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
c What is the perimeter, P
3
, of this gure?
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
4 4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
d It is known that P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, . . . are the terms of an arithmetic sequence with rst term
P
1
. What is the common difference ?
e i Find P
4
. ii Find P
n
in terms of P
n1
. iii Find P
n
in terms of n.
iv Draw the diagram of the gure corresponding to P
4
.
9 A piece of wire 28 cm long is cut into
two parts, one to make a rectangle three
times as long as it is wide and the other
to make a square.
3x cm
x cm
a What is the perimeter of the rectangle in terms of x?
b What is the perimeter of the square in terms of x?
c What is the length of each side of the square in terms of x?
Let A be the sum of the areas of the two gures.
d Show that A = 7(x
2
4x +7)
e Use a graphics calculator to help sketch the graph of
A = 7(x
2
4x +7) for 0 < x < 5
f Find the minimum value that A can take and the corresponding value of x.
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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 185
10 A particular plastic plate manufactured at a factory sells at $1.50. The cost of production
consists of an initial cost of $3500 and then $0.50 per plate. Let x be the number of plates
produced.
a Let $C be the cost of production of x plates. Write an expression for C in terms of x.
b Let $I be the income from selling x plates. Write an expression for I in terms of x.
c On the one set of axes, sketch the graphs of I against x and C against x.
d How many plates must be sold for the income to equal the cost of production?
e How many plates must be sold for a prot of $2000 to be made?
f Let P = I C. Sketch the graph of P against x. What does P represent?
11 n is a natural number less than 50 such that n +25 is a perfect square.
a Show that there exists an integer a such that
n = a(a +10)
b Any natural number less than 100 can be written in the form 10p +q where p and q are
digits. For this representation of n show that q = p
2
.
c Give all possible values of n.
12 a i For the equation
7x 5
2x =
14x
2
10x
ii Square both sides of this equation and simplify to form the equation
x
2
3x +2 = 0 1
iii The solutions to the equation 1 are x = 1 or x = 2.
Test these solutions for the equation
7x 5
2x =
15 7x
and hence show that x = 2 is the only solution for the original equation.
b Use the techniques of a to solve the equations
i
x +2 2
x =
x +1 ii 2
x +1 +
x 1 = 3
x
13 A geometric series is dened by
x +1
x
2
1
x
+
1
x +1
a Let r be the common ratio. Find r in terms of x.
b i Find the innite sum if x = 1.
ii Find the innite sum if x =
1
4
.
iii Find the innite sum if x = 2.
c Find the possible values of x for which the innite sum is dened.
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14 a The area, A, of the shaded region varies directly
as the cube of a.
i If A =
4
3
when a = 2, nd an expression
for A in terms of a.
ii Find A when a = 3.
iii If A = 4500, nd a.
0
x
y = x(x a)
y
b The area, A
1
, of the shaded region varies directly
as the cube of a
i If A
1
= 1152 when a = 24, nd an
expression for A
1
in terms of a.
ii Find A
1
when a = 18.
iii Find a when A
1
= 3888.
x
y
y = x(x a)
a
2
4
a
2
,
0
c The area, A
2
, of the shaded region varies partly as
the reciprocal of a and partly as the reciprocal of b.
x
y
y =
1
x
2
a b
i Find A
2
in terms of a and b if,
when a = 1 and b = 2, A
2
=
1
2
and
when a = 3 and b = 4, A
2
=
1
12
ii Find A
2
when a = 1 and b = 6.
iii Find A
2
when a =
1
4
and b = 3.
iv Find A
2
when a =
1
100
and b = 100.
v Find A
2
when a =
1
1000
and b = 1000.
15 In a vegetable garden carrots are planted in rows parallel to the fence.
F
e
n
c
e
r
o
w
1
r
o
w
2
r
o
w
3
r
o
w
4
rabbit
burrow
0.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m
a Calculate the distance between the fence and the 10th row of carrots.
b If t
n
represents the distance between the fence and the nth row, nd a formula for t
n
in
terms of n.
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Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 187
c Given that the last row of carrots is less than 80 m from the fence, what is the largest
number of rows possible in this vegetable garden?
d A systematic rabbit has its burrow under
the fence as shown in the diagram. It runs
to the rst row, takes a carrot and returns
it to its burrow. It then runs to the
second row, collects a carrot and
returns it to its burrow.
It continues in this way until it has
15 carrots. Calculate the shortest distance the rabbit has to run to accomplish this.
F
e
n
c
e
rabbit
burrow
Trip 1
Trip 2
r
o
w
1
r
o
w
2
16 The potential energy, P joules, of a body varies jointly as the mass, m kg, of the body and
the height, h m, of the body above the ground.
a For a body of mass 5 kg
i nd P in terms of h if P = 980 when h = 20
ii sketch the graph of P against h iii nd P if h = 23.2.
b i Find P in terms of h and m if P = 980 when h = 20 and m = 5.
ii Find the percentage change in potential energy if the height (h m) is doubled and the
mass remains constant.
iii Find the percentage change in potential energy if a body has a quarter of the
original height (h m) and double the original mass (m kg).
c If a body is dropped from a height, h m, above ground level its speed, V m/s, when it
reaches the ground is given by V =
19.6h.
i Find V when h = 10. ii Find V when h = 90.
d In order to double the speed a given body has when it hits the ground, by what factor
must the height from which it is dropped be increased?
17 In its rst month of operation a soft drink manufacturer produces 50 000 litres of a type of
soft drink. In each successive month the production rises 5000 litres a month.
a i The quantity of soft drink, t
n
, produced in the nth month can be determined from a
rule of the form
t
n
= a +(n 1)d
Find the values of a and d.
ii In which month will the factory double its original production?
iii How many litres in total will be produced in the rst 36 months of operation?
b Another soft drink manufacturer sets up a factory at the same time as the rst. In the
rst month the production is 12 000 litres. The production of this factory increases by
10% every month.
i Find a rule for q
n
, the quantity of soft drink produced in the nth month.
ii Find the total amount of soft drink produced in the rst 12 months.
c If the two factories start production in the same month, in which month will the
production of the second factory exceed the production of the rst factory?
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18 In a certain country grain production and population statistics are produced.
In December 1986 the population of the country was 12.5 million.
In 1986 the grain production was 10 million tonnes.
It was found that since then the population has grown by 5% each year and grain
production has increased by 0.9 million tonnes each year.
Let P
1
denote the population in December 1986.
Let p
2
denote the population in December 1987.
P
n
denotes the population n 1 years after December 1986.
Let t
1
denote the grain production in 1986.
Let t
2
denote the grain production in 1987.
t
n
denotes the grain production in the (n 1)th year after 1986.
a Find, in millions of tonnes, the grain production in
i 1992 ii 1999
b Find an expression for t
n
.
c Find the total grain production for the 20 years starting 1986.
d How many years does it take for the grain production to double?
e Find an expression for P
n
.
f How many years does it take for the population to double?
19 The diagram shows a straight road OD where
OD = 6 km. A hiker is at A, 2 km from O.
2 km
x km O
A
X D
6 km
The hiker can walk at 3 km/h when offroad
but at 8 km/h along the road.
a Calculate the time taken, in hours and
minutes, correct to the nearest minute,
if he hikes directly to X then along the
road to D where OX = 3 km.
b Calculate OX, correct to one decimal place (in km) if the total time taken was
1
1
2
hours.
20 Seventysix photographers submitted work for a photographic exhibition in which they
were permitted to enter not more than one photograph in each of the three classes, black
and white (B), colour prints (C), transparencies (T). Eighteen entrants had all their work
rejected while 30 B, 30 T and 20 C were accepted.
From the exhibitors, as many showed T only as showed T and C.
There were three times as many exhibitors showing B only as showing C only.
Four exhibitors showed B and T but not C.
a Write the last three sentences in symbolic form.
b Draw a Venn diagram representing the information.
c Find
i n(B C T) ii n(B C T
)
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R
e
v
i
s
i
o
n
Chapter 7 Revision of chapters 16 189
21 Let A =
a b
c d
with b = 0 and c = 0
a Find
i A
2
ii 3A
b If A
2
= 3A I, show that
i a +d = 3 ii det(A) = 1
c If A has the properties
r
a +d = 3
r
det(A) = 1
show that A
2
= 3A I.
22 The trace of square matrix A is dened to be the sum of the leading diagonal of A, and it is
denoted by Tr(A).
For example, if A =
6 3
2 2
, Tr(A) = 8
a Prove each of the following for any 2 2 matrices X and Y.
i Tr(X +Y) = Tr(X) +Tr(Y)
ii Tr(X) = Tr(X) iii Tr(XY) = Tr(YX)
b Use the results of a to show that there do not exist 2 2 matrices X and Y such that
XY YX = I.
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C H A P T E R
8
Transformations
Objectives
To define translations
To define reflections in the axes and in the line y = x
To define dilations from the x axis and the y axis
To apply these transformations to points and figures
To find algebraic rules for these transformations
To find the composition of two transformations and give the rule for this
transformation
To apply transformations to graphs
To determine the rule which transforms one graph to another (within a suitable
family of graphs)
To sketch the graph of the absolute value function, the integer part function and
transformations of these graphs
To describe transformations with function notation
Introduction
In this chapter three different types of transformations of the cartesian plane are discussed.
These are
Translations Reections Dilations.
These transformations are very useful in the graphing of functions.
A transformation is a rule which associates each point in the cartesian plane to another
point in the plane. These points uniquely dene each other through the rule.
For example, one transformation can be dened by:
Add 5 to each x coordinate.
This can be expressed algebraically
(x, y) (x +5, y)
e.g., (1, 6) (6, 6)
190
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Chapter 8 Transformations 191
This is read as:
The point with coordinates (1, 6) is mapped to the point with coordinates (6, 6).
A formal denition is the following:
A transformation T is a mapping from R
2
to R
2
such that if T(a, b) = T(c, d) then a = c and
b = d.
The transformation dened above can be written
T : R
2
R
2
, T(x, y) = (x +5, y)
This formal notation is avoided in this book and the transformation will be dened by the rule
given in the form
(x, y) (x +5, y)
8.1 Translations
The transformation dened above, i.e. (x, y) (x +5, y), is an example of a translation. A
translation is a transformation for which each point in the plane is moved the same distance in
the same direction.
In this section, a vector will mean a column of two numbers. The rst number indicates a
move in the positive or negative direction of the x axis and the second indicates a move in
the positive or negative direction of the y axis. A directed line segment is used to illustrate a
vector.
For example, the vector
_
2
3
_
is the vector 2 to the right and 3 up.
2
3
The image of the point (1, 2) would be (3, 5) under the translation
determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
.
The top number gives the displacement in the positive or negative direction of the x axis and
the lower number gives the displacement in the positive or negative direction of the y axis.
1
2
3
2
4
3
2
1
If the top number is negative, the displacement is to the left and if the lower number is
negative, the displacement is downwards.
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192 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Vectors can be used to describe translations. They will be studied in a more general context
in Chapter 15.
Example 1
The point A has coordinates (1, 2). Find the image of A under the translation dened by the
vector
_
4
2
_
.
Solution
4 2 0 2
2
4
A'
A
x
y
The image of A is (3, 4).
Example 2
Find the vector which denes the translation which takes A(3, 4) to A
(2, 6).
Solution
Let (3, 4) (2, 6)
The vector
_
a
b
_
denes this translation if (3 +a, 4 +b) = (2, 6)
This implies
3 +a = 2 and 4 +b = 6
i.e., a = 1 and b = 2
The vector is
_
1
2
_
Example 3
A translation is dened by the rule (x, y) (x 3, y +2) and the point A with coordinates
(a, b) is mapped to A
.
Example 2
a A(1, 2), A
(5, 4)
d A(3, 0), A
(0, 0)
3 In each of the following the given point A
(7, 9),
_
2
3
_
b A
(3, 6),
_
1
4
_
c A
(0, 6),
_
2
3
_
4 Give the vectors describing the translations
which map
a ABC to PQR
b ABC to LMN
c XYZ to ABC
d ABC to ABC
x
N
L M
A B
R
Q
Y
Z
X
P
C
4
2
0
4
4 2 2 6
y
5 Draw axes for x and y from 4 to 5. Draw
the following triangles.
ABC withA(2, 2), B(4, 2), C(2, 5)
PQR with P(1, 2), Q(3, 2), R(1, 1)
XYZ with X(3, 1), Y(1, 1), Z(3, 4).
Give the vectors describing the translations which map
a ABC to PQR b PQR to ABC
c PQR to XYZ d ABC to ABC
6 a Find the image of the point (2, 3) under the translation determined by the vector
_
3
4
_
followed by the translation determined by the vector
_
1
5
_
.
b Find the image of the point (5, 6) under the translation determined by the vector
_
3
4
_
followed by the translation determined by the vector
_
1
5
_
.
c Describe how one translation may be used to obtain the nal image in a and b.
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7 A translation has a rule (x, y) (x 5, y +3). Find
Example 3
a the image of the point (1, 3) under this translation
b a and b if (a, b) (6, 7) under this translation.
8 A translation has a rule (x, y) (x +1, y).
a The points (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9) all lie on
the graph of y = x
2
. Find the image of each of
these points under the translation.
b Sketch the graph of y = x
2
for x 0 as shown,
and complete.
c Describe the image of all the points on the
graph of y = x
2
under this transformation.
x
y
(3, 9) ( , )
( , )
(2, 4) (3, 4)
(1, 1)
(0, 0) (1, 0)
8.2 Reflections
P
1
is the image of P under a reection in the line m.
The line m is the perpendicular bisector of line PP
1
.
m
P
P
1
A
1
is the image of A under the transformation
reection in the y axis.
A
2
is the image of A under the transformation
reection in the x axis.
A
3
is the image of A under the transformation
reection in the line y = x.
x
y
3
2
1
2
2 1
1
0 1 2 3 4 3
A
2
(2, 1)
A(2, 1)
y = x
A
3
(1, 2)
A
1
(2, 1)
For reection in the x axis the rule is (x, y) (x, y)
For reection in the y axis the rule is (x, y) (x, y)
For reection in the line y = x the rule is (x, y) (y, x)
Example 4
The triangle ABC has coordinates A(1, 0), B(1, 6) and C(4, 6). Find the image of triangle ABC
under a reection in
a the x axis b the line y = x.
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Chapter 8 Transformations 195
Solution
a A(1, 0) A
(1, 0)
B(1, 6) B
(1, 6)
C(4, 6) C
(4, 6)
b A(1, 0) A
(0, 1)
B(1, 6) B
(6, 1)
C(4, 6) C
(6, 4)
x
y
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 2 3 4 5 6
1
2
3
4
5
6
A"(0, 1)
A(1, 0)
B"(6, 1)
B'(1, 6) C'(4, 6)
C"(6, 4)
C(4, 6) B(1, 6)
y = x
0
Exercise 8B
1 Draw axes for x from 5 to 5 and for y from 0 to 5. Draw triangle ABC by plotting
Example 4
A(1, 2), B(3, 2) and C(3, 5). Draw the image A
(2, 1), D
(2, 0)
x
y
B(0, 1)
A(0, 0) D(1, 0) D'(2, 0)
C(1, 1) C'(2, 1)
Example 5
Triangle ABC has vertices A(1, 2), B(3, 4), C(5, 1).
Find the image of the triangle under a dilation of factor 2 from the y axis.
Solution
(3, 4) (6, 4)
(1, 2) (2, 2)
(5, 1) (10, 1)
x
y
A(1, 2)
B(3, 4) B'(6, 4)
C'(10, 1)
C(5, 1)
0
1
1
2
3
4
5
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A'(2, 2)
The transformation dilation from the x axis of factor k is dened by the rule:
(x, y) (x, ky); k R
+
For example, a triangle with vertices A(1, 2), B(3, 4), C(5, 1) is mapped to the triangle with
vertices A
(1, 4), B
(3, 8), C
(0, 2),
C
(1, 2), D
(1, 0)
Exercise 8C
1 Find the image of the point (1, 3) under each of the following
Example 5
a a dilation of factor 3 from the x axis b a dilation of factor 2 from the y axis
c a dilation of factor 4 from the y axis.
2 Give the rule for the dilation from the x axis which maps (1, 2) (1, 8).
3 Give the rule for the dilation from the y axis which maps (3, 2) (9, 2).
4 a Find the image of the unit square A(0, 0), B(0, 1), C(1, 1), D(1, 0) under a dilation
from the x axis of factor 3.
b Find the image of the unit square A(0, 0), B(0, 1), C(1, 1), D(1, 0) under a dilation
from the y axis of factor 3.
5 Triangle ABC has vertices A(0, 0), B(3, 0), C(3, 4).
a Find the image of triangle ABC under
i a dilation of factor
1
2
from the x axis
ii a dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis.
b Illustrate triangle ABC and its images.
8.4 Rules for transformations
Transformations can be described through a rule given in terms of ordered pairs. For example,
it has been seen that (x, y) (x +2, y +3) describes the transformation of 2 units in the
positive direction of the x axis and 3 units in the positive direction of the y axis.
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198 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 6
Find the rules for each of the following transformations.
a a translation determined by the vector
_
3
2
_
b a reection in the line y = x c a dilation of factor
1
4
from the x axis.
Solution
a (x, y) (x +3, y 2) b (x, y) (y, x) c (x, y)
_
x,
1
4
y
_
A point (a, b) is said to be invariant under a transformation if (a, b) (a, b) under that
transformation.
The transformation which maps (x, y) (x, y) for all (x, y) R
2
is called the identity
transformation.
Example 7
A transformation has rule (x, y) (2x +3, y +4).
a Find the image of (2, 3) under this transformation.
b Find the coordinates of the point which maps to (11, 12).
Solution
a If x = 2 and y = 3
(x, y) (2 2 +3, 3 +4) = (7, 7)
i.e., (2, 3) (7, 7)
b If (2x +3, y +4) = (11, 12)
Then 2x +3 = 11 and y +4 = 12
x = 4 and y = 8
Exercise 8D
1 For each of the following transformations nd
Example 6
i the rule ii the invariant points (if they exist).
a a translation determined by the vector
_
5
6
_
b a dilation from the x axis of factor 4 c a dilation from the y axis of factor
1
3
d a translation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
e a reection in the line y = x f a reection in the y axis
2 A transformation has rule (x, y) (3 x, 2y +1)
Example 7
a Find the image of (2, 3) under this transformation.
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Chapter 8 Transformations 199
b Find the coordinates of the point which maps to (6, 12).
c Find the coordinates of the point which is invariant under this transformation.
3 A transformation has rule (x, y) (3 y, 4 x). Find the coordinates of the invariant
point.
4 A transformation has rule (x, y) (3 2x, 2y +1).
a Find the image of (4, 1) under this transformation.
b Find the coordinates of the point which maps to (7, 12).
c Find the coordinates of the point which is invariant under this transformation.
5 A transformation has rule (x, y) (x, 2y).
a Find the image of (1, 3) under this transformation.
b Find the coordinates of the point which maps to (0, 0).
c Find the coordinates of the point which is invariant under this transformation.
8.5 Composition of transformations
Consider a transformation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
followed by a reection in the line
x = 0.
The rules for these two transformations are (x, y) (x +2, y +3) and (x, y) (x, y)
respectively.
The triangle A(1, 1), B(5, 1), C(5, 2) is mapped to A
(3, 4), B
(7, 4), C
(7, 5)
x
y
0
1 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 6 7
C"
B" A" A' B'
C'
A B
C
One rule can be used to describe the transformation of triangle ABC to triangle A
.
Consider
(x, y) (x +2, y +3) ((x +2), y +3)
translation reection
The rule is (x, y) ((x +2), y +3)
Note: (1, 1) (3, 4) (5, 1) (7, 4) (5, 2) (7, 5)
This new rule is called the composition of the two transformations.
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200 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 8
Find the rule for the transformation dened by a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis followed
by a translation determined by the vector
_
1
3
_
.
Solution
The dilation is given by the rule (x, y) (x, 2y) and the translation by the rule
(x, y) (x 1, y +3).
The composition is determined by
(x, y) (x, 2y) (x 1, 2y +3)
dilation translation
i.e., the rule is (x, y) (x 1, 2y +3)
Exercise 8E
1 For each of the following nd the rule for
Example 8
i transformation of column A followed by transformation of column B
ii transformation of column B followed by transformation of column A.
Column A Column B
a a translation determined by the
vector
_
2
3
_
a translation determined by the
vector
_
3
2
_
b a dilation from the x axis of
factor 2
a dilation from the y axis of factor 2
c a translation determined by the
vector
_
4
5
_
a dilation from the x axis of factor 3
d a translation determined by the
vector
_
1
2
_
a reection in the y axis
e a reection in the line y = x a reection in the line y = x
f a reection in the line x = 2 a reection in the x axis
g a dilation from the y axis of
factor
1
2
a translation determined by the
vector
_
1
2
_
h a dilation from the y axis of
factor 2
a translation determined by the
vector
_
2
3
_
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Chapter 8 Transformations 201
8.6 Applying transformations to graphs
of functions
As mentioned in the introduction, transformations have an important role in graphing
functions. In this section techniques are developed for graphing functions using
transformations.
Consider {(x, y) : y = x
2
}. This is the set of points on the graph of y = x
2
. Transformations
can be applied to this set of points.
For example, consider the translation determined
by the vector
_
2
0
_
applied to this set of points.
It can be seen that all the images of the points of
y = x
2
lie on the graph of y = (x 2)
2
x
(1, 1)
(2, 4)
(0, 0) (2, 0)
(3, 1)
(4, 4)
(2, 4)
(1, 1)
(0, 4)
y
The rule for this transformation is (x, y) (x +2, y).
Each coordinate (x
, y
= x +2, y
, y
) is
the image of a point on y = x
2
, and x = x
2, then
y
= (x
2)
2
.
Example 9
Find the equation of the image of the line y = x +1 under the translation determined by the
vector
_
2
1
_
. Sketch the graph of y = x +1 and its image.
Solution
The rule for the translation is (x, y) (x +2, y +1).
Let (x
, y
= x +2, y
= y +1 and y = x +1
Thus x = x
2 and y = y
1
and the relation y = x +1
becomes y
1 = x
2 +1
y
= x
, y
=
x
2
and y
= y
Also y = x
2
Therefore the relationship between x
and y
is
y
= (2x
)
2
= 4(x
)
2
x
y
(1, 1)
(1, 4)
(2, 4) (2, 4)
(1, 4)
y = 4x
2
y = x
2
0
, 1
1
2
Note:
(1, 1)
_
1
2
, 1
_
(2, 4) (1, 4)
(2, 4) (1, 4)
Example 11
For y = x
2
a nd the equation for the image of y = x
2
under a dilation of factor
1
2
from the x axis
b sketch the graph of y = x
2
and its image under this transformation.
c i Find the equation for the image of y = x
2
under the dilation of a followed by a
translation determined by the vector
_
1
2
_
.
ii Sketch the graph of this second image on the same set of axes as b.
Solution
a The rule for dilation is (x, y)
_
x,
1
2
y
_
If (x
, y
= x and y
=
1
2
y
i.e., x
= x and y = 2y
Also y = x
2
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Chapter 8 Transformations 203
The image will have equation 2y
= (x
)
2
i.e., y
=
1
2
(x
)
2
b
x
y
0
(1, 1)
(2, 4)
(2, 2)
y = x
2
1,
1
2
1
2
y = x
2
c i The rule becomes
(x, y)
_
x,
1
2
y
_
_
x +1,
1
2
y +2
_
dilation translation
i.e., let (x
, y
= x +1, y
=
1
2
y +2
x = x
1 and y = 2(y
2)
y = x
2
is mapped to 2(y
2) = (x
1)
2
y
=
1
2
(x
1)
2
+2
ii
x
y
0
(1, 1)
(1, 2)
(2, 4)
(2, 2)
y = x
2
1
2
y = (x 1)
2
+ 2
1,
1
2
1
2
y = x
2
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204 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
In Exercise 8F, reference is made to the following basic graphs.
x
y
y = x
0
x
y
0
y = x
2
x
y
0
y =
1
x
x
y
0
x
2
+ y
2
= 1
x
y
0
y = 2
x
(0, 1)
Example 12
Find the image of each of the following curves under a dilation of factor 3 from the y axis
followed by a translation determined by the vector
_
1
2
_
.
a y = x
2
b y =
1
x
c x
2
+ y
2
= 1
Solution
The rule is given by (x, y) (3x, y) (3x 1, y +2)
dilation translation
x
= 3x 1 and y
= y +2
i.e., x =
x
+1
3
and y = y
2
a y = x
2
is mapped to y
2 =
_
x
+1
3
_
2
The image has equation y =
_
x +1
3
_
2
+2
b y =
1
x
is mapped to y
2 =
1
x
+1
3
y
=
3
x
+1
+2
The image has equation y =
3
x +1
+2
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Chapter 8 Transformations 205
c x
2
+ y
2
= 1 is mapped to
_
x
+1
3
_
2
+(y
2)
2
= 1
The image has equation
(x +1)
9
2
+(y 2)
2
= 1
The image is an ellipse.
Exercise 8F
1 Find the image of each of the following curves under the translation determined by the
vector
_
1
4
_
. State the equation of the image and sketch the graph of both the original
relation and its image on the one set of axes.
Example 9
a y = x b y = x
2
c y =
1
x
d y =
1
x
2
e x
2
+ y
2
= 1
2 Find the image of each of the following curves under the dilation from the x axis given by
Example 10
the rule (x, y) (x, 2y), i.e., a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis. State the equation of
the image and sketch the graph of both the original relation and its image on the one set of
axes.
a y = x b y = x
2
c y =
1
x
d y =
1
x
2
e x
2
+ y
2
= 1
3 For each of the curves considered in 1, nd the equation of its image under the
transformation dened by a reection in the line x = 0 followed by a translation
determined by the vector
_
3
2
_
.
Examples 11, 12
4 For each of the curves considered in 1, nd the equation of its image under the
transformation dened by a dilation of factor 2 from the y axis followed by a translation
determined by the vector
_
3
1
_
.
5 Find the image of the graph of y = 2x +3 under the transformation dened by rst
reecting in the line y = x and then translating as determined by the vector
_
4
6
_
.
6 Find the image of the line {(x, y) : y = x +2} under each of the following
transformations. Sketch a graph showing {(x, y) : y = x +2} and its image in each case.
a a translation determined by the vector
_
2
4
_
b a reection in the x axis
c a dilation of factor 4 from the x axis d a reection in the line y = x
e a reection in the y axis
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206 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
7 Repeat 1 for the circle {(x, y) : x
2
+ y
2
= 4}.
8 Consider {(x, y) : y = x
2
}. Find the image after
a reection in the x axis then a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
b translation where (0, 0) (5, 2) then a dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis
c dilation of factor
1
2
from the x axis followed by translation where (0, 0) (5, 2)
d translation where (0, 0) (2, 1) followed by a reection in the y axis
e reection in the line y = x followed by a translation where (0, 0) (0, 2).
9 Sketch the graph of the image of {(x, y) : y = x
2
} in 8 ae above.
10 Consider {(x, y) : y = 2
x
}. Find the image after
a translation where (0, 0) (1, 0) b translation where (0, 0) (0, 1)
c dilation of factor 2 from the y axis followed by dilation of factor
1
3
from the x axis
d dilation of factor
1
3
from the x axis followed by dilation of factor 2 from the y axis
e translation where (0, 0) (2, 4) followed by reection in the y axis
f translation where (0, 0) (0, 2) then dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis then
reection in the x axis.
11 Sketch the graph of the image of {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} in 10 af above.
8.7 Determining transformations
In the previous section a method was presented for determining the equation of the image of a
graph under a given transformation. In this section a procedure for determining the
transformations which have produced a particular image is discussed.
Example 13
Find a sequence of transformations which maps y = x
2
to y = 2(x +3)
2
4
Solution
The composition of transformations maps (x, y) to (x
, y
)
y
= 2(x
+3)
2
4
Rearrange to make the transformation from y = x
2
more obvious
y
+4
2
= (x
+3)
2
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Chapter 8 Transformations 207
It can be seen that to obtain this, take
y =
y
+4
2
and x = (x
+3)
i.e., y
= 2y 4 and x
= x 3
A dilation of factor 2 from the x axis followed by a translation determined by the
vector
_
3
4
_
gives this image.
Example 14
Find a sequence of transformations which maps y = 2
x
to y = 3(2
x2
) 4.
Solution
Assume the composition of transformations maps (x, y) to (x
, y
)
Write y
= 3(2
x
2
) 4
Rearrange to
y
+4
3
= 2
x
2
It can be seen to obtain this, take
y =
y
+4
3
and x = x
2
y
= 3y 4 and x
= x +2
A dilation of factor 3 from the x axis followed by a translation determined by the
vector
_
2
4
_
gives this image.
Exercise 8G
1 Find the single transformation which maps
Example 13
a {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : y = 2x
2
}
b {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : y = (x +2)
2
}
c {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : x = y
2
}
d {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} to {(x, y) : y = 2
2x
}
e {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} to {(x, y) : y = 3 2
x
}
f {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} to {(x, y) : y = 2
x3
}
g {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} to {(x, y) : y = 2
x
}
h {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} to {(x, y) : y = 2
x
}
2 Find a sequence of transformations which maps
Example 14
a {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : y = 2(x 3)
2
}
b {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : y = 2x
2
3}
c {(x, y) : y = x
2
} to {(x, y) : y = 2(x 3)
2
+1}
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208 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
d
_
(x, y) : y =
1
x
_
to
_
(x, y) : y =
2
x 3
_
e
_
(x, y) : y =
1
x
_
to
_
(x, y) : y =
2
x
3
_
f
_
(x, y) : y =
1
x
_
to
_
(x, y) : y =
1
3 x
_
g y = 2
x
to y = 2
x1
3
+4
h y =
1
x
to y =
3
2x 4
8.8 Absolute value function and integer
value function
Absolute value function
Let f : R R be dened as
f (x) =
_
x if x 0
x if x < 0
This function is written as f (x) = x
The graph of this function is as shown.
It is known as the modulus function or absolute value function.
x
y
0
The images of this graph under several transformations are considered.
Example 15
Find the image of {(x, y) : y = x} and sketch the graph of the image for each of the following
transformations.
a a translation dened by the vector
_
2
3
_
b a dilation of factor 4 from the y axis
c a reection in the line y = x d a reection in the x axis
Solution
a (x, y) (x +2, y +3)
(x, y) (x
, y
)
x
= x +2, y
= y +3
x = x
2 and y = y
3
{(x, y) : y = x} is mapped to
{(x
, y
) : y
3 = x
2}
x
y
0
(2, 3)
(0, 5)
y = x 2 + 3
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Chapter 8 Transformations 209
b (x, y) (4x, y)
(x, y) (x
, y
)
x
= 4x and y
= y
{(x, y) : y = x} is mapped to
_
(x
, y
) : y
_ x
y
(4, 1) (4, 1)
y =
x
4
0
c (x, y) (y, x)
(x, y) (x
, y
)
x
= y and y
= x
{(x, y) : y = x} is mapped to
{(x
, y
) : x
= y
}
x
y
0
x = y
d (x, y) (x, y)
(x, y) (x
, y
)
x
= x, y
= y
{(x, y) : y = x} is mapped to
{(x
, y
) : y
= x
}
x
y
0
y = x
Integer value function
The integer value function I : R Z is dened by I (x) = [x] where [x] is the greatest integer
not exceeding x. For example,
[3.9] = 3, [5] = 5, [4.1] = 5, [] = 3
For all real numbers x, we have x 1 [x] x
x
y
1
1
1
1
2
3
2 3 4
y = I(x)
2
2
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210 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire
Absolute Value function
The abs( ) function can be found in the
catalog ( 1 ) or typed directly. It
works as shown.
The graph of the absolute value function
can be obtained in the usual way in a
Graphs & Geometry application (c2).
The graph of f 1(x) = abs(x) is shown
with medium line width. The graph of the
composite function f 2(x) = abs(x
2
4) is
also shown.
Integer Value function
The integer value function rounds down to
the nearest integer, so on the TINspire it is
called the oor( ) function and can be
found in the Number Tools submenu of the
Number menu (b286). It works
as shown.
(Note the difference from the Integer Part
Function (b282) that returns
the integer part of a number.)
The graph of the integer value function can
be obtained in the usual way in a Graphs &
Geometry application (c2).
The graph of f 1(x) = oor(x) is shown
with medium line width. The graph of the
composite function f 2(x) = oor
_
x
2
_
is
also shown.
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Chapter 8 Transformations 211
Using the Casio ClassPad
To enter the absolute value function, switch on
the screen keyboard and in tap .
This is entered in the menu.
Tick the selection box and then tap $to
produce the graph.
Note: The Zoom is set to Quick Initialize for the
graph shown.
The absolute value function can be composed
with other functions. The small graph shows
y = x
2
4.
The CAS calculator has the absolute value and
integer part functions as builtin features.
(absolute value function)
Turn on the screen keyboard and tap
then enter the number.
(integer part function)
This function is found in the catalogue. Tap and use the alphabetic shortcut at the
bottom of the screen to nd a function beginning with i. The required function is intg(.
This function returns the next whole number which is less than the given number.
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212 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the Casio ClassPad
The CAS calculator has the absolute value
and integer part functions as builtin
features.
(absolute value function)
Turn on the screen keyboard and tap
then enter the number.
(integer part function)
This function is found in the catalog. Tap
and use the alphabetic shortcut at the bottom of the
screen to nd a function beginning with i. The
required function is intg(. This function returns the
next whole number which is less than the given
number.
Exercise 8H
1 Find the image of {(x, y) : y = x} and sketch the graph of the image for the following.
Example 15
a a translation corresponding to the vector
_
1
3
_
b a reection in the line y = x
c a dilation from the y axis of factor 4
d a reection in the x axis
e a translation corresponding to the vector
_
1
3
_
followed by a reection in the line y = x
f a reection in the line y = x then a translation corresponding to the vector
_
1
3
_
g a dilation from the x axis of factor 2 followed by a reection in the x axis.
2 State the transformation(s) which map(s)
a {(x, y) : y = x} to {(x, y) : y = x +3}
b {(x, y) : y = x} to {(x, y) : y = x 3 +3}
c {(x, y) : y = x} to {(x, y) : y = 2x}
d {(x, y) : y = x} to {(x, y) : y = 2x}
3 Find the image of {(x, y) : y = [x]} and sketch the graph of the image of the following.
a a dilation from the y axis of factor 2
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Chapter 8 Transformations 213
b a translation corresponding to the vector
_
2
0
_
c a translation corresponding to the vector
_
0
2
_
d a reection in the line y = x
e a reection in the line y = x
f a translation corresponding to the vector
_
4
0
_
g a dilation from the y axis of factor 2 followed by a reection in the x axis
h a reection in the x axis followed by a translation corresponding to the vector
_
0
2
_
.
8.9 Function notation with transformations
In this section the image of the graph y = f (x) (where f is an arbitrary function) under a
transformation is considered. This is particularly useful when using a graphics or CAS
calculator.
Example 16
Let y = f (x) be the equation of a curve.
Find the image of y = f (x) under each of the following transformations.
a a translation determined by the vector
_
h
k
_
b a reection in the x axis
c a dilation of factor k from the y axis d a dilation of factor k from the x axis
Solution
a The rule is (x, y) (x +h, y +k)
Consider x
= x +h and y
= y +k
x = x
h and y = y
k
y = f (x) is mapped to y
k = f (x
h)
i.e., the image is y = f (x h) +k
b The rule is (x, y) (x, y)
Consider x
= x and y
= y
i.e., the image is y = f (x)
c The rule is (x, y) (kx, y)
Consider x
= kx and y
= y
x =
x
k
and y = y
y = f (x) is mapped to y
= f
_
x
k
_
i.e., the image of y = f (x) is y = f
_
x
k
_
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214 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
d The rule is (x, y) (x, ky)
Consider x
= x and y
= ky
x = x
and y =
y
k
y = f (x) is mapped to
y
k
= f (x
)
i.e., the image of y = f (x) is y = k f (x)
Example 17
For f (x) = x
2
nd 4 f (x +3) and state the transformations which take
y = f (x) to y = 4 f (x +3)
Solution
4 f (x +3) = 4(x +3)
2
y = x
2
is mapped to y = 4(x +3)
2
If (x, y) is mapped to (x
, y
)
Then
y
4
= (x
+3)
2
x = x
+3 and y =
y
4
i.e., x
= x 3 and y
= 4y
a dilation of factor 4 from the x axis followed by a translation
_
3
0
_
takes
y = f (x) to y = 4 f (x +3)
Using the TINspire
The notation for transformations can be
used with a calculator.
In the screen shown, the transformation
which takes the curve of y = f (x) to the
curve of y = f (x 5) is applied to the
curve with equation f (x) = x
2
by dening
f 1(x) = x
2
and f 2(x) = f 1(x 5).
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Chapter 8 Transformations 215
Consider the following sequence of
transformations:
dilation of factor 2 from the xaxis
translation of 3 to the left
translation 4 down
These transformations will take the curve
of y = f (x) to the curve of
y = 2 f (x +3) 4. In the screen shown,
this is applied to the curve with equation
f (x) = x
2
.
Using the Casio ClassPad
The notation for transformations can be
used with the CAS calculator.
Consider the transformation which takes
the curve of y = f (x) to the curve of
y = f (x 5). The function for y1 can be
entered and then y2 can be dened as
shown.
Note: The y must be selected from the
tab on the screen keyboard, not the y on the
physical keyboard.
A dilation factor
1
2
from the yaxis is
applied to the curve with rule f (x) = x
2
.
The rule has been entered as y3 = y1 (2x).
Consider the following sequence of transformations:
dilation of factor 2 from the xaxis
translation of 3 to the left
translation 4 down
These transformations will take the curve
of y = f (x) to the curve of
y = 2 f (x +3) 4. In the screen shown,
this is applied to the curve with equation
y = x
2
.
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216 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 8I
1 Let y = f (x) be the equation of a curve. Find the image of y = f (x) under each of the
following transformations.
Example 16
a a translation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
b a reection in the line y = x
c a dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis d a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
2 For f (x) = 2
x
, nd
Example 17
a f (x +3) b f (2x) c f
_
x
2
_
d 4 f (x 3)
3 For f (x) = x
2
, nd 4 f
_
x
2
_
and state the transformations which take
y = f (x) to y = 4 f
_
x
2
_
4 For f (x) =
1
x
nd f (2x 3) +4 and state the transformations which take
y = f (x) to y = f (2x 3) +4
5 For f (x) = x
2
nd 3 f (2 x) and state the transformations which take
y = f (x) to y = 3 f (2 x)
8.10 Summary of transformations
A summary of some of the transformations and their rules is presented here. Suppose (x
, y
) is
the image of (x, y) under the mapping in the rst column of the table below.
Mapping Rule
Reection in the x axis x
= x = x +0y
y
= y = 0x +y
Dilation by factor k from the y axis x
= kx = kx +0y
y
= y = 0x + y
Rotation of
c
2
about O in an anticlockwise direction x
= y = 0x +y
y
= x = x +0y
Expansion of factor k from the origin x
= kx = kx +0y
y
= ky = 0x +ky
Reection in the line y = x x
= y = 0x + y
y
= x = x +0y
Translation dened by a vector
_
a
b
_
x
= x +a
y
= y +b
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Chapter 8 Transformations 217
The rst ve mappings are special cases of a general kind of mapping dened by
x
= ax +by
y
= cx +dy
where a, b, c, d are real numbers.
These equations can be rewritten as
x
= a
11
x +a
12
y
y
= a
21
x +a
22
y
which yields the equivalent matrix equation
_
x
_
=
_
a
11
a
21
a
12
a
22
__
x
y
_
A transformation of the form
(x, y) (a
11
x +a
12
y, a
21
x +a
22
y)
is called a linear transformation.
Example 18
Consider a linear transformation such that (1, 0) (3, 1) and (0, 1) (2, 4). Find the
image of (3, 5).
Solution
_
a
11
a
21
a
12
a
22
__
1
0
_
=
_
3
1
_
and
_
a
11
a
21
a
12
a
22
__
0
1
_
=
_
2
4
_
a
11
= 3, a
21
= 1 and a
12
= 2, a
22
= 4
i.e., the transformation can be dened by the 2 2 matrix
_
3
1
2
4
_
Let (3, 5) (x
, y
_
x
_
=
_
3 2
1 4
__
3
5
_
=
_
3 3 +2 5
1 3 4 5
_
=
_
1
17
_
(3, 5) (1, 17)
The image of (3, 5) is (1, 17)
Note: Nonlinear mappings cannot be represented by a matrix in the way indicated above.
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218 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Thus for the translation dened by (0, 0) (a, b)
x
= x +a
y
= y +b
While this cannot be represented by a square matrix, the dening equations
suggest
_
x
_
=
_
x
y
_
+
_
a
b
_
where the sum has denition:
for each x, y, a, b in R,
_
x
y
_
+
_
a
b
_
=
_
x +a
y +b
_
Composition of mappings
Consider a linear transformation dened by the matrix A =
_
a
11
a
21
a
12
a
22
_
composed with a
linear transformation dened by the matrix B =
_
b
11
b
21
b
12
b
22
_
The composition consists of the transformation of A being applied rst and then the
transformation of B.
The matrix of the resulting composition is the product
BA =
_
b
11
a
11
+b
12
a
21
b
21
a
11
+b
22
a
21
b
11
a
12
+b
12
a
22
b
21
a
12
+b
22
a
22
_
Exercise 8J
1 Find
a
_
2
5
3
4
__
1
2
_
b
_
3
1
1
3
__
a
b
_
2 If a linear transformation is dened by the matrix A =
_
2
4
1
3
_
, nd the image of
(1, 0), (0, 1) and (3, 2) under this transformation.
Example 18
3 Find the images of (1, 0) and (1, 2) under the linear transformation whose matrix is
a
_
2
1
1
1
_
b
_
2
0
0
1
_
c
_
2
3
3
1
_
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Chapter 8 Transformations 219
4 a Find the matrix of the linear transformation which maps (1, 2) (4, 5) and
(3, 4) (18, 5).
b The images of two points are given for a linear transformation. Investigate whether this
is sufcient information to determine the matrix of the transformation.
c Find the matrix of the linear transformation such that (1, 0) (1, 1) and
(0, 1) (2, 2). What is the range of this transformation?
5 By nding the images of (1, 0) and (0, 1), write down the matrix of each of the following
transformations.
a reection in the line x = 0
b reection in the line y = x
c reection in the line y = x
d dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
e expansion of factor 3 from the origin
f dilation of factor 3 from the y axis
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220 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
A transformation T is a mapping from R
2
to R
2
such that if
T(a, b) = T(c, d) then a = c and b = d
A translation is a transformation for which each point in the plane is moved the same
distance in the same direction. A translation of 5 units in the positive direction of the x axis
can be represented by the rule (x, y) (x +5, y)
A vector will mean a column of two numbers. The rst number indicates a move in the
positive or negative direction of the x axis and the second indicates a move in the positive
or negative direction of the y axis. Directed line segments are used to illustrate vectors.
For example, the vector
_
2
3
_
is the vector 2 to the right and 3 up.
The rule for the translation described by this vector is (x, y) (x +2, y +3)
For reection in the x axis the rule is (x, y) (x, y)
For reection in the y axis the rule is (x, y) (x, y)
For reection in the line y = x the rule is (x, y) (y, x)
Lengths and angles are preserved by reections and translations.
The transformation dilation from the y axis of factor k is dened by the rule
(x, y) (kx, y); k R
+
The transformation dilation from the x axis of factor k is dened by the rule
(x, y) (x, ky); k R
+
Lengths and angles are not preserved by dilations.
A point (a, b) is said to be invariant under a transformation if (a, b) (a, b) under that
transformation.
The composition of two transformations is dened by applying one transformation, and
then the second, to the images of the rst.
e.g., (x, y) (x +2, y +3) ((x +2), y +3)
translation reection
Applying transformations to graphs of functions
e.g., let (x, y) (2x +1, y +3)
Let (x
, y
= 2x +1 and y
= y +3
and x =
x
1
2
and y = y
3
y = f (x) is mapped to y
3 = f
_
x
1
2
_
If f (x) = x
2
, y = f (x) is mapped to y =
_
x 1
2
_
2
+3
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Chapter 8 Transformations 221
Determining transformations
For example, if y = f
_
x +3
2
_
4
then y +4 = f
_
x +3
2
_
Let (x, y) (x
, y
)
Then y
+4 = y and
x
+3
2
= x
Hence y
= y 4 and x
= 2x 3
The transformation is given by the rule (x, y) (2x 3, y 4)
x =
_
x if x 0
x if x < 0
x
y
0
y =  x
This is called the absolute value function.
The integer value function is dened by
I (x) = [x]
where [x] is the greatest integer not
exceeding x.
x
y
0
1
1
2
2 3 1
1
2
2
Function notation
The image of the graph of y = f (x) under the translation
(x, y) (x +h, y +k) is the graph of y = f (x h) +k
The image of the graph of y = f (x) under the reection
(x, y) (x, y) is the graph of y = f (x)
The image of the graph of y = f (x) under the reection
(x, y) (x, y) is the graph of y = f (x)
The image of the graph of y = f (x) under the dilation
(x, y) (kx, y) is the graph of y = f
_
x
k
_
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222 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Multiplechoice questions
1
x
y
y = f(x)
0
2 2
2
2
4
4
4 6 4 6
x
y
y = g(x)
0
2 2
2
2
4
4
4 6 4 6
The transformation which maps the graph of y = f (x) to the graph of y = g(x) is
A rotation of 180
x 2 3 B y =
x 2 3 C y =
x +2 3
D y =
x 2 +3 E y =
x +2 +3
7 The equation of the image of the graph of y =
1
x
2
after a reection in the x axis followed
by a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis is
A y =
2
x
2
B y =
1
2x
2
C y =
2
x
2
D y =
1
2x
2
E y =
2
(x)
2
8 The equation of the image of the graph of y = x after a dilation of factor
1
3
from the
y axis followed by a translation of 5 units in the negative direction of the x axis and 2 units
in the positive direction of the y axis is
A y = 3x 5 +2 B y = 3x +5 +2 C y =
x 5
3
+2
D y =
x +5
3
+2
E y =
x +15
3
+2
9 The value of [4.6] +[7.2] +[8.7] is
A 9 B 10 C 8 D 13 E 11
10 The equation of the image of the graph of y = [x] after a reection in the x axis followed
by a translation of 5 units in the positive direction of the x axis and 4 units in the negative
direction of the y axis is
A y = [x] +1 B y = [x 5] 4 C y = [x +5] 4
D y = [x] +9 E y = [x +5] +4
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Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Find the image of the point (3, 1) under each of the following transformations.
a a dilation of factor 3 from the y axis b a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
c a translation determined by the vector
_
3
2
_
d a reection in the line x = 0
e a reection in the line y = 0 f a reection in the line y = x
2 Find the equation of the image of the graph of y = x
2
under each of the following
transformations.
a a translation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
b a reection in the line y = x
c a reection in the line y = 0
3 Find the rule for each of the following compositions of transformations.
a a reection in the line y = x followed by a translation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
b a dilation of factor 5 from the x axis followed by a reection in the x axis
c a dilation of factor 4 from the y axis followed by a translation determined by the
vector
_
2
3
_
d a translation determined by the vector
_
2
3
_
followed by a dilation of factor 4 from the
x axis
4 Find the image of y = 2x 1 under each of the transformations dened in 1.
5 Find the image of y = 2 x
2
under each of the transformations dened in 3.
6 Sketch the graph of each of the following. Indicate the coordinates of the vertex and at least
one other point.
a y = x b y = 2x +3 c y = 4 2x
7 Give the rule for the transformations which would map
a y =
1
x
to y =
2
x 3
+4 b y = x
2
to y = 2(x 4)
2
+3
c y = x to y = 3x 4 d y =
1
x
to y =
x +1
x 1
e y = x
2
to y = (x 2)
2
+3
8 Sketch the graph of each of the following using transformations.
a x
2
= y 1 b (x 1)
2
= y +2 c (x 2)
2
= 3(y 2)
d y = [4x] e y = 32x 1 f y = 2 3x 2
Extendedresponse questions
1 a Find the image of the point with coordinates (2, 6) under reection in the line x = 3.
b Find the rule for the following sequence of transformations.
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Chapter 8 Transformations 225
r
a translation determined by the vector
_
3
0
_
r
a reection in the y axis
r
a translation determined by the vector
_
3
0
_
c Hence give the rule for the transformation, reection in the line x = 3.
d i Give a sequence of three transformations which would determine a reection in the
line x = m.
ii Give the rule for the transformation, reection in the line x = m.
e i Give a sequence of three transformations which would determine a reection in the
line y = n.
ii Give the rule for the transformation, reection in the line y = n.
f Find the image of each of the relations under the transformation, reection in the line
x = 3.
i y = x 3 ii y = x iii y = x
2
iv y = (x 3)
2
2 a Find the coordinates of the image of the point A(3, 1)
under a rotation of 90
in an anticlockwise
direction around the origin.
x
y
0
A'
A(3, 1)
b i State the gradient of line OA.
ii State the gradient of line OA
.
c A point A has coordinates (p, q).
i State the gradient of line OA.
ii The point is rotated about the origin by 90
, the image of A.
d Find the rule for the transformation rotation about the origin by 90
in an anticlockwise
direction.
e Find the equation of the image of each of the following curves under this
transformation.
i y = x ii y = x
2
iii x
2
+ y
2
= 1 iv y =
1
x
3 a Find the image of the point A(1, 3) under a rotation of 180
in a clockwise
direction about the point (0, 1).
ii Sketch the graph of the curves on one set of axes.
4 a i Find the dilation from the x axis which takes y = x
2
to the parabola with vertex at
the origin and which passes through the point (25, 15).
ii State the rule which reects this dilated parabola in the x axis.
iii State the rule which takes the reected parabola of ii to a parabola with x intercepts
(0, 0) and (50, 0) and vertex (25, 15).
iv State the rule which takes the curve of y = x
2
to the parabola dened in iii.
b The plans for the entrance of a new building involve twin parabolic arches as shown in
the diagram.
x
y
50 m 50 m
15 m
Arch 1 Arch 2
0
i From the results of a give the equation for the curve of Arch 1.
ii Find the translation which maps the curve of Arch 1 to the curve of Arch 2.
iii Find the equation of the curve of Arch 2.
c The architect wishes to have exibility in his planning and so wants to develop an
algorithm for determining the equations of the curves given arch width m metres and
height n metres.
i Find the rule for the transformation which takes y = x
2
to Arch 1 with these
dimensions.
ii Find the equation for the curve of Arch 1.
iii Find the equation for the curve of Arch 2.
5 a Let f (x) = [x]
i Find the equation of the image of the graph of y = f (x) under the transformation
with rule (x, y) (2x 1, y +3)
ii Sketch the graph of the image of y = f (x) under this transformation.
iii Describe a sequence of transformations which takes the graph of
y = f (x) to y = f (x 3) 2
b Let g(x) = x
i Sketch the graph of y = g(x 3) +3 and the graph of y = g(2x 1)
ii Solve the equation g(x 3) +3 = g(2x 1)
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C H A P T E R
9
Ratios and similarity
Objectives
To divide a quantity in a given ratio
To determine the ratio in which a quantity has been divided
To apply the transformations which are expansions from the origin
To define similarity of two figures
To determine when two triangles are similar by using the conditions
r
equal angles (AAA)
r
equal ratios (PPP)
r
corresponding sides having the same ratio and the included angle equal (PAP)
To apply similarity to solve problems
To determine and apply expansion factors for areas and volumes
9.1 Ratios
This section is revision of work of previous years. Several examples are presented.
Example 1
Divide 300 in the ratio 3 : 2.
Solution
one part = 300 5 = 60
two parts = 60 2 = 120
three parts = 60 3 = 180
Example 2
Divide 3000 in the ratio 3 : 2 : 1.
227
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Solution
one part = 3000 6 = 500
two parts = 500 2 = 1000
three parts = 500 3 = 1500
Example 3
A day is divided into 10 newhours, each newhour is divided into 100 newminutes and each
newminute is divided into 100 newseconds. What is the ratio of a newsecond to an ordinary
second?
Solution
There are 10 10
2
10
2
newseconds in a day
and 24 60 60 ordinary seconds in a day
the ratio of newseconds : ordinary seconds
=
1
10
5
:
1
8.64 10
4
= 864 : 1000
= 108 : 125
Example 4
Two positive integers are in the ratio 2 : 5. If the product of the integers is 40 nd the larger
integer.
Solution
Let a and b denote the integers
a
b
=
2
5
. . . 1
and ab = 40 . . . 2
From 1 a =
2
5
b Substitute in 2
2
5
b
2
= 40
b
2
= 100
b = 10
and as b is a positive integer, b = 10 and a = 4
The larger integer is 10.
Exercise 9A
1 Divide 9000 in the ratio 2 : 7.
Example 1
2 Divide 15 000 in the ratio 2 : 2 : 1.
Example 2
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3 x : 6 = 9 : 15. Find x.
4 The ratio of the numbers of orange owers to pink owers in a garden is 6 : 11. There are
144 orange owers. How many pink owers are there?
5 15 : 2 = x : 3. Find x.
6 The angles of a triangle are in the ratio 6 : 5 : 7. Find the sizes of the three angles.
7 Three men X, Y and Z share an amount of money in the ratio 2 : 3 : 7. If Y receives $2
more than X, how much does Z obtain?
8 An alloy consists of copper, zinc and tin in the ratios 1 : 3 : 4 (by weight). If there is 10 g
of copper in the alloy, nd the weights of zinc and tin.
9 In a bag the ratio of red beads to white beads to green beads is 7 : 2 : 1. If there are 56 red
beads, how many white beads and how many green beads are there?
10 On a map the length of a road is represented by 45 mm. If the scale is 1 : 125 000, nd the
actual length of the road.
11 Five thousand two hundred dollars was divided between a mother and daughter in the
ratio 8 : 5. Find the difference between the sums they received.
12 Points A, B, C and D are placed in that order on a line so that AB = 2BC = CD. Express
BD as a fraction of AD.
13 If the radius of a circle is increased by two units, nd the ratio of the new circumference
to the new diameter.
14 In a class of 30 students the ratio of boys to girls is 2 : 3. If six boys join the class, nd the
new ratio of boys to girls in the class.
15 If a : b = 3 : 4 and a : (b +c) = 2 : 5, nd the ratio a : c.
16 The scale of a map reads 1 : 250 000. Find the distance, in kilometres, between two towns
which are 3.5 cm apart on the map.
9.2 An introduction to similarity
The two triangles ABC and A
are similar.
Note: OA
= 2OA, OB
= 2OB, OC
= 2OC.
2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
A'(4, 12)
B'(10, 6)
C'(8, 2)
A(2, 6)
C(4, 1)
4 6 8 10 12
B(5, 3)
Triangle A
1
2
x,
1
2
y
.
Two gures are similar if one is congruent to an image of the other under an expansion
from the origin of factor k.
For example, the rectangle of side lengths 1 and 2 is similar
to the rectangle with side lengths 3 and 6.
Note here the expansion factor is 3 and the rule is
(x, y) (3x, 3y).
0
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
(3, 9) (6, 9)
(6, 3) (3, 3)
(2, 3) (1, 3)
(1, 1) (2, 1)
2 3 4 5 6
Note:
any two circles are similar
any two squares are similar
any two equilateral triangles are similar
For a triangle ABC with side lengths a, b, c and a similar
triangle A
, b
, c
a
=
b
b
=
c
c
= k
where k is the appropriate expansion factor.
Similar statements can be made about other pairs of similar polygons.
Note also that the measure of an angle does not change under an expansion: i.e., for two
similar gures, corresponding angles are equal.
Similar triangles
Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions holds:
triangles have equal angles (AAA)
45
100
35
C
B
A
A'
B'
C'
35
100
45
corresponding sides are in the same ratio (PPP)
A
AB
=
B
BC
=
A
AC
= k, where k is the expansion (enlargement) factor
two pairs of corresponding sides have the same ratio and the included angles are equal,
(PAP)
C A
B
45
A'
B'
C'
45
A
AB
=
A
AC
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 231
two pairs of corresponding sides have the same ratio and two corresponding nonincluded
angles are equal, provided these angles are right angles or obtuse.
A
B
C
120
B'
C'
120
A'
Triangle ABC is similar to triangle A
The triangles are named so that angles of equal magnitude hold the same position i.e., A
corresponds to A
, B corresponds to B
, C corresponds to C
.
i.e.
BC
B
=
AC
A
or
BC
B
=
BA
B
Example 5
a Give the reason for triangle ABC being
similar to triangle A
.
b Find the value of x.
C'
B'
6.25 cm
3.75 cm
3.013 cm
20
A'
20
3 cm
A
5 cm
B
C
x cm
Solution
a Triangle ABC is similar to triangle
A
as
5
6.25
=
3
3.75
= 0.8
and the magnitude of ABC = magnitude of A
= 20
c
2 cm
x cm
D 4 cm B 6 cm A
C
E
d C
B
10 cm
A
x cm
6 cm
Q
8 cm
P
R
with
A
= kAB,
area of triangle A
= k
2
area of triangle ABC
A C
D
B
c
b
h
a
A' C'
D'
B'
c'
b'
h'
a'
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This can be shown by observing that ABC A
and
area of triangle A
=
1
2
b
=
1
2
kb kh,
(where AC = b and A
= b
)
= k
2
1
2
bh
= k
2
area of triangle ABC
Some examples of similar shapes and the ratio of their areas are considered in the following.
3 cm
Area = .3
2
Similar circles
Scale factor =
4
3 4 cm
Area = .4
2
Ratio of areas =
.4
2
.3
2
=
4
2
3
2
=
4
3
2
3 cm
2 cm
Area = 6 cm
2
Similar rectangles
Scale factor = 2
6 cm
4 cm
Area = 24 cm
2
Ratio of areas =
24
6
= 4 = 2
2
4 cm
5 cm
3 cm
8 cm
6 cm
10 cm
Area = 6 cm
2
Area = 24 cm
2
Similar triangles
Scale factor = 2
Ratio of areas =
24
6
= 4 = 2
2
Example 7
The two rectangles shown below are similar. The area of rectangle ABCD is 20 cm
2
. Find the
area of rectangle A
.
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 237
3 cm
B C
D A
5 cm
B' C'
D' A'
Solution
The ratio of the length of their bases =
A
AB
=
5
3
The ratio of their areas =
Area of A
Area of ABCD
=
5
3
2
=
25
9
Area of A
=
25
9
20 cm
2
= 55
5
9
cm
2
Two solids are considered to be similar if they have the same shape and the ratio of their
corresponding linear dimensions are equal.
E H
G
C
B
A D
F
3 cm
2 cm
1 cm
E'
H'
G'
C' B'
A'
D'
F'
7.5 cm
5 cm
2.5 cm
Scale factor = 2.5
The cuboids ABCDEFGH and A
are similar.
For similar solids, if the scale factor is k then the
volume of the similar solid = k
3
volume of the original solid
For example,
Volume of ABCDEFGH = (3 2 1) cm
3
= 6 cm
3
Volume of A
= (5 2.5 7.5) cm
3
= 93.75 cm
3
The ratio of volumes =
93.75
6
= 15.625 = 2.5
3
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Here is another example.
3 cm
3
c
m
3 cm
A C
V
B
5 cm
5
c
m
5 cm
A'
C'
V'
B'
Scale factor =
5
3
Ratio of volumes =
5
3
3
3
=
5
3
3
Example 8
The two square pyramids are similar. VO = 9 cm.
4 cm
9 cm
A
D
B
O
V
C
5 cm
D'
A'
B'
O'
V'
C'
a Find the ratio of the length of their bases, and hence the height, V
, of the pyramid
V
.
b The volume of VABCD is 48 cm
3
. Find the ratio of their volumes, and hence nd the
volume of V
.
Solution
a The ratio of the length of their bases =
C
CD
=
5
4
V
=
5
4
9
=
45
4
The length of V
is 11.25 cm.
b The volume of VABCD is 48 cm
3
The ratio of their volumes =
Volume of V
Volume of VABCD
=
5
4
3
=
125
64
Volume of V
=
125
64
48 cm
3
= 93.75 cm
3
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 239
Exercise 9C
1 These four rectangles are similar.
a Write down the ratio of the lengths of their bases.
b By counting rectangles, write down the ratio of their areas.
c Is there a relationship between these two ratios?
2 These four parallelograms are similar.
a Write down the ratio of the lengths of their bases.
b By counting parallelograms, write down the ratio of their areas.
c Is there a relationship between these two ratios?
3 The two rectangles shown are similar. The area of rectangle ABCD is 7 cm
2
.
Example 7
B
A D
C
3 cm
B'
A'
C'
D'
5 cm
Find the area of rectangle A
.
4 Triangle ABC is similar to triangle XYZ.
XY
AB
=
YZ
BC
=
ZX
CA
= 2.1
The area of triangle XYZ is 20 cm
2
. Find the area of triangle ABC.
5 Triangles ABC and A
are equilateral
triangles.
2 cm
2 cm
2 cm
A C
F
B
2 cm
A' C'
F'
B'
a cm
a Find the length of BF. b Find a.
c Find the ratio
Area of triangle A
a can be constructed.
a
b
Construction of a + b
Draw a straight line and mark off with a compass, as
shown in the diagram, the distance OA and AB where
OA = a and AB = b. Then OB = a +b.
a + b
A B O
Construction of a  b
Draw a straight line and mark off with a compass the
distance OA and AB where OA = a and AB = b, but
this time AB is constructed in the other direction. Then
OB = a b.
a b
b
B O A
a
Construction of ra
To construct 3a = a +a +a, three copies of the line segment of length a are constructed.
For na = a +a + +a, where n is a natural number, n copies of the line segment of length
a are constructed.
Construction of ab
Mark off line segments OA and OB of length a units and
b units respectively. Construct OC of length 1 unit. Join
points C and B and draw a line parallel to the line CB
through A. The line segment OD has length ab.
Note that triangle OAD is similar to triangle OCB and
OA = aOC. Therefore OD = aOB = ab.
C 1
a
A
O
b
B
ab
D
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 243
Construction of
1
b
This will be done for b = 5.
Line segment AB is of unit length. Draw any line
AX. Choose a line segment AC and then replicate
this line segment four times to form line segments
CC
, C
, C
and C
, C
and C
a
Construct line segments of length a and 1, and a circle of diameter a +1. In the diagram
OA = a and AB = 1. Angle ODB is a right angle (right angle subtended at the circle by a
diameter), and OAD is a right angle by construction.
Therefore triangle ODB is similar to triangle OAD and to triangle DAB.
Hence
OA
AD
=
AD
AB
D
B
A
O
a
AD
=
AD
1
Therefore AD
2
= a
and hence AD =
a
Exercise 9D
1 Construct a line segment of length
3 units.
2 Construct a line segment of length
5 units.
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244 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 Draw a line segment of length 10 cm and use a construction described above to divide it
into three equal intervals.
4 Draw a line segment of length 20 cm and use a construction described above to divide it
into nine equal intervals.
5 Draw two line segments OA and OB of lengths 4 cm and 14 cm respectively. Use a
construction described above to construct a line segment of length
2
7
units.
6 Draw two line segments OA and OB of lengths 9 cm and 13 cm respectively. Use a
construction described above to construct a line segment of length
9
13
units.
7 Describe the method for constructing a line of length
10
3
units.
8 Illustrate the construction of a line segment of length 3 4 units, given line segments of
length 3 units, 4 units and 1 unit.
9.5 Golden ratio
If
a
b
=
c
a
then a is said to be the geometric mean of c and b (or sometimes the mean
proportional of b and c).
Let AB be a line segment length a units and C a point on AB such that
AB
AC
=
AC
CB
.
Let AC = x. Therefore CB = a x
A C B
a x x
The relation
a
x
=
x
a x
holds. AC is the geometric mean of AB and CB.
If
a
x
=
x
a x
then a(a x) = x
2
Which implies that x
2
+ax a
2
= 0
Therefore using the general quadratic formula x =
a
a
2
4 1 a
2
2 1
=
a
5a
2
2 1
x = a
1
5
2
Only one of these is possible as AC is a length. Thus AC = a
1 +
5
2
(which is positive)
Therefore
AB
AC
= a
(1 +
5)a
2
=
2
1 +
5
=
2
1 +
5
1 +
5
1 +
5
=
1 +
5
2
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 245
Hence the ratio
AB
AC
is independent of the length of AB and is always the same number. This
number is known as the golden ratio or section and is denoted by , i.e., =
1 +
5
2
is the only number which when diminished by one becomes its own reciprocal,
i.e., 1 =
1
This is shown as 1 =
1 +
5
2
1
=
1 +
5
2
=
1 +
5
2
1 +
5
1 +
5
=
2
1 +
5
A construction of the golden ratio is as follows.
Let AB be a segment of unit length. Draw BD of
length
AB
2
, perpendicular to AB. Draw line segment AD.
With centre D draw an arc of radius DB cutting AD
at E. Draw an arc of radius AE with centre A cutting
AB at C.
AB
AC
=
1
x
=
A
x
x
E
D
C 1 x B
The golden rectangle
The rectangle ABHF shown is known as the golden rectangle.
A
E
B
F
G
H
L K
1
1
1
The ratio of the side lengths AB : AF = 1 + :
and
1 +
1 +
1 +
5
2
1 +
5
2
=
3 +
5
2
2
1 +
5
=
3 +
5 +1
=
2 +2
5
4
=
1 +
5
2
=
That is, the ratio of the side lengths is .
This rectangle has some very pleasant properties, as observed in the following explorations.
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246 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Forming a sequence of similar golden rectangles
In the golden rectangle ABHF, construct square AEGF
with side length .
A
E
B
F
G
H
L K
1
1
1
The remaining rectangle EBHG has side lengths 1 and .
Construct the square LKHG with side length 1. The sides
of the remaining rectangle EBKL are 1 and 1.
It was established earlier in the section that 1 =
1
.
Thus the rectangles ABHF, EBHG, EBKL are all similar as
they all have sides in the ratio : 1. This pattern continues.
Consider the golden rectangle EBKL.
E
Y
B
L
X
K
Now rectangle YBKX has sides
1
and 1
1
.
The ratio
1
: 1
1
= 1 : 1
and as shown previously 1 =
1 +
5
2
1
=
1 +
5
2
=
1
Therefore 1 : 1 = : 1
It can be shown that all the rectangles formed in this way are similar to each other.
Forming a sequence of squares and rectangles, the areas of
which are in geometric sequence with common ratio
1
The ratio of the areas of the squares and rectangles is also worth considering. The areas in
sequence are
A
E Y
B
L
X
K
H
G
F
Area rectangle ABHF = (+1) =
3
Area of square AEGF =
2
Area of rectangle EBHG =
Area of square LKHG = 1
Area of rectangle EBKL =
1
2
Area of rectangle YBKX =
1
3
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 247
Exercise 9E
1 For the golden ratio show that
a 1 =
1
b
3
= 2+1
c 2 = (1)
2
=
1
2
2 ABC is a rightangled triangle with the right angle at C.
CX is the altitude of the triangle from C.
A
C
X
B
a Prove that
AX
CX
=
CX
XB
; i.e., the length CX is the
geometric mean of lengths AX and XB.
b Find CX if
i AX = 2 and XB = 8 ii AX = 1 and XB = 10.
3 A square is inscribed in a semicircle as shown.
Prove that
AD
BD
=
BD
CD
= 1.
A D E C
B
4 A regular decagon is inscribed in a circle with unit radius as shown.
a Find the magnitude of angle
i AOB ii OAB
b The line AX bisects angle OAB. Prove that
i triangle AXB is isosceles
ii triangle AXO is isosceles
iii triangle AOB is similar to triangle BXA
A
B
X
O
c Find the length of AB, to two decimal places.
d Describe a construction for
i a regular decagon ii a regular pentagon.
5 Calculate
0
,
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
and
1
,
2
,
3
,
4
. Show that each power of is equal to
the sum of the two powers before it, i.e.,
n+1
=
n
+
n1
6 The Fibonacci sequence is dened by t
1
= t
2
= 1 and t
n+1
= t
n1
+t
n
. The sequence is
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, . . . Consider the sequence
t
2
t
1
,
t
3
t
2
,
t
4
t
3
,
t
5
t
4
. . . and show that as n gets very large
(n approaches innity),
t
n+1
t
n
approaches .
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248 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
Two gures are similar to each other if one is congruent to the other under an expansion
from the origin of factor k. An expansion of factor k from the origin has rule
(x, y) (kx, ky)
Similar triangles
Two triangles are similar if one of the following conditions holds.
r
Triangles have equal angles (AAA)
r
Corresponding sides are in the same ratio (PPP)
r
Two pairs of corresponding sides have the same ratio and the included angles are equal
(PAP)
45
A
B
C
AB
A'B'
AC
A'C'
=
45
A'
B'
C'
If triangle ABC is similar to triangle XYZ, this can be written symbolically as
ABC XYZ. The triangles are named so that angles of equal magnitude hold the same
position, i.e., A corresponds to X, B corresponds to Y, C corresponds to Z.
If two shapes are similar and the scale factor is k, i.e. for any length AB of one shape, the
corresponding length A
of the similar shape has length kAB, then the area of the similar
shape = k
2
area of the original shape.
For similar solids, if the scale factor is k, then the volume of the similar solid is k
3
volume
of the original solid.
Multiplechoice questions
1 If 5 : 3 = 7 : x then x is equal to
A 12 B
35
3
C 5 D
21
5
E
5
21
2 Brass is composed of a mixture of copper and zinc. If the ratio copper : zinc is 85 : 15, then
the amount of copper in 400 kg of brass is
A 60 kg B 340 kg C 360 kg D 380 kg E 150 kg
3 If the total cost of P articles is Q dollars, then the cost of R articles of the same type is
A PQR B
P
QR
C
PQ
R
D
QR
P
E
R
PQ
4 A car is 3.2 m long. The length in cm of a model of the car if the scale is 1 : 100 is
A 0.032 B 0.32 C 3.2 D 320 E 32
5 An athlete runs 75 m in 9 seconds. If she were to maintain the same average speed for
100 m her time for 100 m in seconds would be
A 11.6 B 12.0 C 11.8 D 12.2 E 12.4
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 249
6 If 50 is divided into three parts in the ratio 1 : 3 : 6 then the largest part is
A 5 B 15 C
50
3
D 30 E 3
7 Two similar cylinders are shown.
10 cm
15 cm
45 cm
30 cm
The ratio of the volume of the smaller cylinder to
the larger cylinder is
A 1 : 3 B 1 : 9 C 1 : 27
D 1 : 5 E 2 : 9
8 The radius of sphere A is
4
5
times the radius of
sphere B. Hence, the ratio of the volume of sphere A to the volume of sphere B is
A 16 : 25 B 4 : 5 C 5 : 4 D 25 : 16 E 64 : 125
9 Triangles ABC and XYZ are similar isosceles triangles.
10 cm 10 cm
3 cm
A B
C
12 cm 12 cm
Z
X Y
The length of XY is
A 4 cm B 5 cm C 4.2 cm
D 2.5 cm E 3.6 cm
10 YZ is parallel to Y
and Y
Y =
1
3
YX. The area of triangle
XYZ is 60 cm
2
. The area of triangle XY
is
X
Z'
Y'
Y
Z
A 20 cm
2
B 30 cm
2
C
20
9
cm
2
D
20
3
cm
2
E
80
3
cm
2
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 In triangle XYZ, P is a point on XY and Q is a point on XZ such that PQ is parallel to YZ.
a Show that the two triangles XYZ and XPQ are similar.
b If XY = 36 cm, XZ = 30 cm and XP = 24 cm, nd
i XQ ii QZ
c Write down the values of XP : PY and PQ : YZ.
2 Triangles ABC and DEF are similar. If the area of triangle ABC is 12.5 cm
2
, the area of
triangle DEF is 4.5 cm
2
and AB = 5 cm, nd
a the length of DE b the value of AC : DF c the value of EF : BC.
3 If a 1 m stake casts a shadow 2.3 m long, nd the height of a tree (in metres) which casts a
shadow 21 m long.
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250 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
4 ABC is a rightangled triangle with AB = 4 and AC = 3.
If the triangle is folded along the line XY, vertex C
coincides with vertex B.
Find the length of XY.
A
C B
Y
X
5 Points A, B and C lie on a straight line. The squares are
adjacent and have side lengths 4, 7 and x.
Find the value of x.
A
4 7
x
B
C
6 Find the value of y in the diagram on the right.
y
7.2
2.2
6.6
26.4
7 An alloy is produced by mixing metal X with metal Y in the ratio of 5 : 3 by volume. The
mass of 1 cm
3
of metal X is
8
5
g and of 1 cm
3
of metal Y is
4
3
g. Calculate
a the mass of a solid cube of alloy of edge 4 cm
b the ratio, in the form n : 1, by mass, of metal X to metal Y in the alloy
c the volume, to the nearest cm
3
, of a cubic block of alloy whose mass is 1.5 kg
d the length, in mm, of the edge of this cubic block.
8 ABCD is a rectangle in which AB = 40 cm and AD = 60 cm.
M is the midpoint of BC, and DP is perpendicular to AM.
B
P
A
C
M
D
40 cm
60 cm
a Prove that the triangles BMA and PAD are similar.
b Calculate the ratio of the areas of the triangles BMA
and PAD.
c Calculate the length of PD.
9 A sculptor is commissioned to create a bronze statue 2 m high. He begins by making a clay
model 30 cm high.
a Express, in simplest form, the ratio of the height of the completed bronze statue to the
height of the clay model.
b If the total surface area of the model is 360 cm
2
, nd the total surface area of the statue.
c If the total volume of the model is 1000 cm
3
, nd the volume of the statue.
10 The radius of a spherical soap bubble increases by 1%. Find, correct to the nearest whole
number, the percentage increase in
a its surface area b its volume.
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Chapter 9 Ratios and similarity 251
11 AC is the diagonal of a rhombus ABCD. The line XYZ
is parallel to AD, AX = 3 cm and AB = 9 cm.
B C
D A
X
Y
Z
Find
a
XY
BC
b
AY
AC
c
CY
AC
d
YZ
AD
e
area triangle AXY
area triangle ABC
f
area triangle CYZ
area triangle ACD
12 AB and DC are parallel sides of a trapezium and DC = 3AB. The diagonals AC and DB
intersect at O. Prove that AO =
1
4
AC.
13 Triangles ABC and PQR are similar. The medians AX and PY are drawn. (X is the midpoint
of BC and Y is the midpoint of QR.) Prove
a that triangles ABX and PQY are similar b
AX
PY
=
BC
QR
Extendedresponse questions
1 a In this diagram which other triangle is similar
to DAC?
D
p
A B C
F
E
x y
q
h
b Explain why
h
p
=
y
x + y
.
c Use another pair of similar triangles to write
down an expression for
h
q
in terms of x and y.
d Explain why h
1
p
+
1
q
= 1.
e Calculate h when p = 4 and q = 5.
2 ABCDE is a regular pentagon whose sides are each
1 unit long. Each diagonal is of length d units.
In a regular pentagon, each diagonal is parallel to
one of the sides of the pentagon.
C
D E
A
B
F
1 1
1 1
1
d
a What kind of shape is ABCF and what is the
length of CF?
b Explain why the length of EF is d 1.
c Which triangle is similar to EFD?
d Use the pair of similar triangles to write an equation
for d and show that the equation can be rewritten as d
2
d 1 = 0.
e Find d.
3 Place conditions upon x such that DE is parallel to AB
given that CD = x 3, DA = 3x 19, CE = 4 and
EB = x 4.
C
A B
E D
3x 19
x 3
x 4
4
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252 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
4 a If BR, CS and DT are perpendicular to BD, name
the pairs of similar triangles.
b Which is correct:
z
y
=
p
q
or
z
y
=
p
p +q
?
B D
T
R
C p q
S
z
x
y
c Which is correct:
z
x
=
q
p
or
z
x
=
q
p +q
?
d Show that
1
x
+
1
y
=
1
z
5 In the diagram, PQ is parallel to BC and PR is parallel to AC.
AQ = 2 cm, QC = 6 cm, AP = 3 cm and PQ = 4 cm.
A
P
3 cm
2 cm
6 cm
4 cm
B
R
C
Q
a Calculate
i PB ii BR
iii
area APQ
area ABC
iv
area BPR
area ABC
b If the area of triangle APQ is a cm
2
, express in terms of a:
i area ABC ii area CPQ
6 Construct a triangle ABC such that BC = 10 cm, AC = 9 cm and AB = 6 cm. Find a point
D on AB and a point E on AC, such that DE is parallel to BC and the area of ADE is
oneninth the area of ABC.
7 A triangular lot has boundaries of lengths AB = 130 m,
BC = 40
c
=180
1
c
=
180
or 1
=
c
180
Example 1
Convert 30
to radians.
Solution
Since 1
=
c
180
30
=
30
180
=
c
6
Example 2
Convert
c
4
to degrees.
Solution
Since 1
c
=
180
c
4
=
180
4
= 45
is written as
4
rather
than
c
4
.
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 255
Exercise 10A
1 Express the following angles in radian measure in terms of .
Example 1
a 60
b 144
c 240
d 330
e 420
f 480
b 73
c 107
d 161
e 84
10
f 228
g 136
40
h 329
3
b 4 c 3 d
e
5
3
f
11
6
g
23
6
h
23
6
6 Express each of the following in radian measure in terms of .
a 360
b 540
c 240
d 720
e 330
f 210
c
1
1
x
Many different angles will give the same point, P, on
the circle, so the relation linking an angle to the
coordinates is a manytoone function. There are, in
fact, two functions involved and they are called sine
and cosine and are dened as follows:
The x coordinate of P, x = cosine , R
The y coordinate of P, y = sine , R
Note: These functions are usually written in an
abbreviated form as follows:
x
y
P() = (cos, sin)
O
1
1
1
cos
sin
1
1
c
x = cos
y = sin
Note: cos (2 +) = cos and
sin (2 +) = sin , as adding 2 results in a return
to the same point on the unit circle.
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256 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 3
Evaluate
a sin and cos b sin
_
3
2
_
and cos
_
2
_
c sin
5
2
and sin
7
2
d sin
9
2
and cos 27.
Solution
a In moving anticlockwise through an angle of , the position is P() which is
(1, 0)
cos =1
sin =0
b In moving clockwise through an angle of
3
2
, the position is P
_
3
2
_
which is
(0, 1)
sin
_
3
2
_
= 1
cos
_
2
_
= 0
c sin
_
5
2
_
= sin
_
2
1
2
_
= sin
_
2 +
2
_
= sin
2
= 1
sin
_
7
2
_
= sin
_
3
1
2
_
= sin
_
2 +
3
2
_
= sin
3
2
= 1
d sin
_
9
2
_
= sin
_
4 +
2
_
= sin
2
= 1
cos(27) = cos (26 +) = cos = 1
Exercise 10B
1 For each of the following angles, t, determine the values of sin t and cos t.
Example 3
a t = 0 b t =
3
2
c t =
3
2
d t =
5
2
e t = 3 f t =
9
2
g t =
7
2
h t = 4
2 Evaluate, using a calculator (with calculator in Radian mode).
a sin 1.9 b sin 2.3 c sin 4.1 d cos 0.3
e cos 2.1 f cos (1.6) g sin (2.1) h sin (3.8)
3 For each of the following angles, , determine the values of sin and cos .
a = 27 b =
5
2
c =
27
2
d =
9
2
e =
11
2
f = 57 g = 211 h = 53
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 257
10.3 Another circular function: tangent
Again consider the unit circle.
If a tangent to the unit circle at A is drawn, then the
y coordinate of C, the point of intersection of the
extension of OP and the tangent is called tangent
(abbreviated to tan ). By considering the similar
triangles OPD and OCA:
tan
1
=
sin
cos
tan =
sin
cos
Now when cos = 0, tan is undened.
x
y
O D
A
1
1
1
cos
tan
sin
P()
1
C(1, y)
B
Hence tan is undened when =
2
,
3
2
,
5
2
,
Domain of tan = R\{ : cos = 0}.
Example 4
Use a calculator to evaluate, correct to two decimal places
a tan 1.3 b tan 1.9 c tan (2.8) d tan 59
e tan 138
Solution
a tan 1.3 = 3.60 (Dont forget calculator must be in Radian mode.)
b tan 1.9 = 2.93
c tan (2.8) = 0.36
d tan 59
= 0.90
Exercise 10C
1 Use a calculator to nd, correct to two decimal places
Example 4
a tan 1.6 b tan (1.2) c tan 136
d tan (54
)
e tan 3.9 f tan (2.5) g tan 239
2 Evaluate
a tan b tan () c tan
7
2
d tan (2) e tan
5
2
f tan
_
2
_
3 For each of the following values of nd tan .
a = 180
b = 360
c = 0
d = 180
e = 540
f = 720
1
1
B
A
For 0 < <
2
, functions sin, cos and tan are dened by the trigonometric ratios and are the
same as the respective circular functions introduced earlier.
Exercise 10D
1 Find the value of the pronumeral for each of the following.
8
3
a b c
d e f
g h i
5
25
x
6
25
x
10
50
x
5
6
x
20
10
5
x
65
7
70
x
5
40
x
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 259
2 a Use a calculator to nd a and b, correct to four
decimal places.
b Hence nd the values of c and d.
c i Use a calculator to nd cos 140
and
sin 140
.
ii Write cos 140
in terms of cos 40
.
x
y
(c, d)
(a, b)
1
0
40
140
10.5 Symmetry properties of circular functions
The coordinate axes divide the unit circle
into four quadrants. The quadrants can be
numbered anticlockwise from the positive
direction of the x axis, as shown.
x
y
0
Quadrant 2
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 1
Quadrant 4
Relationships, based on symmetry between circular functions, for angles in different
quadrants can be determined.
(0, b)
(0, b)
(a, 0) (a, 0)
P(2 )
P( )
P( + )
=
(a, b)
P()
=
(cos, sin)
Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2
By symmetry
sin( )
=
b
=
sin
cos( )
=
a
=
cos
tan( ) = = tan
0
a
Quadrant 3
sin( + )
=
b
=
sin
cos( + )
=
a
=
cos
tan( + ) = = tan
b
a
b
a
Quadrant 4
sin(2 )
=
b
=
sin
cos(2 )
=
a
=
cos
tan(2 ) = = tan
Note: These relationships are true for all values of .
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260 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Signs of circular functions
These symmetry properties can be summarised for the
signs of sin, cos and tan for the four quadrants as follows:
1st quadrant All are positive (A)
2nd quadrant Sin is positive (S)
3rd quadrant Tan is positive (T)
4th quadrant Cos is positive (C)
x
y
S A
T C
Negative of angles
By symmetry
cos () = cos
sin () = sin
tan () =
sin
cos
= tan
x
y
P()
P()
0
1
1 1
1
Example 5
If sin x = 0.6, nd the value of
a sin( x) b sin ( + x) c sin (2 x) d sin (x)
Solution
a sin ( x)
= sin x
= 0.6
b sin ( + x)
= sin x
= 0.6
c sin (2 x)
= sin x
= 0.6
d sin (x)
= sin x
= 0.6
Example 6
If cos x
b cos (180 + x)
c cos (360 x)
d cos (x)
Solution
a cos (180 x)
= cos x
= 0.8
b cos (180 + x)
= cos x
= 0.8
c cos (360 x)
= cos x
= 0.8
d cos (x)
= cos x
= 0.8
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 261
Exercise 10E
1 If sin = 0.42, cos x = 0.7 and tan = 0.38, write down the values of
Example 5
a sin ( +) b cos ( x) c sin (2 ) d tan ( )
e sin ( ) f tan (2 ) g cos ( + x) h cos (2 x)
2 If sin x
= 0.7, cos
b cos (180 +)
c tan (360 )
d cos (180 )
e sin (360 x)
f sin (x)
g tan (360 +)
h cos ()
0
1
2
3 1
2
,
(a, b)
(c, d)
4 Write down the values of
a d = sin ( +)
b c = cos ( +)
c tan ( +)
d sin (2 )
e cos (2 )
x
y
0
1
(c, d)
+
2
3 1
2
,
10.6 Exact values of circular functions
A calculator can be used to nd the values of the circular functions for different values of .
For many values of the calculator gives an approximation. Consider some values of such
that sin, cos and tan can be calculated exactly.
Exact values for 0 (0
) and
2
(90
)
From the unit circle
When = 0,
sin 0 = 0
cos 0 = 1
tan 0 = 0
x
y
0 1
1
1
1
cos
sin
When =
2
,
sin
2
= 1
cos
2
= 0
tan
2
is undened
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262 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exact values for
6
(30
) and
3
(60
)
Consider an equilateral triangle ABC of side length two units. In
ACD, by Pythagoras theorem DC =
_
AC
2
AD
2
=
3
sin 30
=
AD
AC
=
1
2
sin 60
=
CD
AC
=
3
2
cos 30
=
CD
AC
=
3
2
cos 60
=
AD
AC
=
1
2
tan 30
=
AD
CD
=
1
3
tan 60
=
CD
AD
=
3
1
=
3
C
A B
D
2
1 1
60 60
30 30
2
Exact values for
4
(45
)
AC =
_
1
2
+1
2
=
2
sin 45
=
BC
AC
=
1
2
cos 45
=
AB
AC
=
1
2
tan 45
=
BC
AB
= 1
45
1
1
A B
C
As an aid to memory, the exact values for circular functions can be tabulated.
Summary
(
6
(30
)
1
2
3
2
1
4
(45
)
1
2
1
2
1
3
(60
3
2
1
2
2
(90
) 1 0 undened
Example 7
Evaluate
a cos
5
4
b sin
11
6
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 263
Solution
a cos
5
4
= cos
4
(by symmetry)
=
1
2
b sin
11
6
= sin
6
(by symmetry)
=
1
2
Exercise 10F
1 Write down the exact values of
Example 7
a sin
2
3
b cos
3
4
c tan
5
6
d sin
7
6
e cos
_
5
4
_
f tan
4
3
g sin
5
3
h cos
7
4
i tan
11
6
2 Without using a calculator, evaluate the sin, cos and tan of each of the following.
a 120
b 135
c 210
d 240
e 315
f 390
g 420
h 135
i 300
j 60
2
3
_
b cos
_
11
4
_
c tan
_
13
6
_
d tan
_
15
6
_
e cos
_
14
4
_
f cos
_
3
4
_
g sin
_
11
4
_
h cos
_
21
3
_
10.7 Graphs of sine and cosine
Graphs of sine functions
The graph of f (x) = sin x is given below. It has been plotted for x 3.
x
y
2
3
4
5
4
3
2
7
4
9
4
5
2
11
4
2 3 3
4
4
0
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3
f (x) = sinx
Observations from the graph
The graph repeats itself after an interval of 2 units, i.e. f (x +2k) = f (x) for all
x R, k Z. A function which repeats itself regularly is called a periodic function and
the interval between the repetitions is called the period of the function.
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264 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The maximum and minimum values of sin x are 1 and 1 respectively. The distance
between the mean position and the maximum position is called the amplitude. The graph
of f (x) = sin x has an amplitude of 1.
Graphs of cosine functions
The graph of g(x) = cos x for x 3 is as shown.
x
y
2
3
4
5
4
3
2
7
4
9
4
5
2
11
4
2 3
3
4
4
0
1
1
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3
g(x) = cosx
Dilations of sine and cosine functions
A dilation of factor 2 from the y axis has the rule (x, y) (2x, y).
Hence (0, 0) (0, 0),
_
2
, 1
_
(, 1) and (, 0) (2, 0).
When this transformation is applied to y = sin x, it will be stretched away from the y axis.
Let (x, y) (x
, y
= 2x and y
= y, and thus x =
x
2
and y = y
.
Hence y = sin x is mapped to y = sin
x
2
.
A dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis will map y = sin x to y = sin 2x.
x
y
x
y
x
y
2 2 4
1 1 1
0
1 1 1
0 0
2
y = sin
x
2
y = sin x y = sin 2x
Period = 4 Period = 2 Period =
Range = [1, 1] Range = [1, 1] Range = [1, 1]
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 265
In general:
f : R R, f (x) = sin (nx) f : R R, f (x) = cos (nx)
Period =
2
n
Period =
2
n
Amplitude = 1 Amplitude = 1
Range = [1, 1] Range = [1, 1]
A dilation of factor 3 from the x axis has the rule (x, y) (x, 3y).
Hence (0, 1) (0, 3),
_
2
, 0
_
2
, 0
_
and (, 1) (, 3).
When this transformation is applied to y = cos x, it will be stretched away from the x axis.
y = cos x is mapped to y = 3 cos x
2
2 2
2
3
2
3
2
3
1
1
0
2
3 3
1
0
1
2
3
2
x
y y
x
y = cos x y = 3 cos x
Period = 2 Period = 2
Range = [1, 1] Range = [3, 3]
In general:
f : R R, f (x) = a sin (nx), n, a > 0 f : R R, f (x) = a cos (nx), n, a > 0
Period =
2
n
Period =
2
n
Amplitude = a Amplitude = a
Range = [a, a] Range = [a, a]
Example 8
Sketch the graphs of
a y = 2 cos 2 b y =
1
2
sin
x
2
Show one complete cycle.
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266 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
a period =
2
2
=
amplitude = 2
b period = 2
1
2
= 4
amplitude =
1
2
x
y
2
0
2
2
3
x
y
2
0
3 4
1
2
1
2
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian mode. Open a Graphs & Geometry application
( 2), enter the function and select appropriate Window Settings (b41) as
shown.
a f 1 (x) = 2 cos (2x)
xMin = 0
xMax =
xScale =
4
yMin = 2
yMax = 2
b f 1 (x) =
1
2
sin
_
x
2
_
xMin = 0
xMax = 4
xScale =
yMin = 0.5
yMax = 0.5
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 267
Using the Casio ClassPad
Ensure that the calculator is set to Radian mode (bottom left of the screen; tap to change).
a Enter the function y = 2 cos (2x) in the
window. Tap $to produce the
graph.
To show one complete cycle as required,
tap 6and make the window settings
x min = 0, max = and scale =
4
.
The appropriate values for y should also
be set.
Do not be concerned with the setting
for dot, it will take care of itself.
b Enter the function y =
1
2
sin
_
2
_
in the
window then tap $to produce
the graph.
The 6settings for the graph are
shown below.
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268 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 9
Sketch the graph of y = 5 sin 3 for
4
3
2.
Solution
The amplitude = 5, the period =
2
3
x
y
3
2
3
4
3
5
3
4
3
2
3
2
3
0
5
5
The x axis intercepts can also be found by observing that one half period is
3
.
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian mode. Open a Graphs & Geometry application
( 2), enter the function and select appropriate Window Settings (b41) as
shown.
f 1(x) = 5 sin(3x)
xMin =
4
3
xMax = 2
xScale =
6
yMin = 5
yMax = 5
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 269
Using the Casio ClassPad
Check that the calculator is in Radian
mode.
Enter the function as shown with the
window settings shown to produce the
graph.
Exercise 10G
1 For each of the following, write down
i the period and ii the amplitude.
a 2 sin b 3 sin 2 c
1
2
cos 3 d 3 sin
1
2
e 4 cos 3 f
1
2
sin 4 g 2 cos
1
2
2 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing one complete cycle. State the amplitude
Example 8
and period.
a y = 3 sin 2x b y = 2 cos 3 c y = 4 sin
2
d y =
1
2
cos 3x e y = 4 sin 3x f y = 5 cos 2x
g y = 3 cos
_
2
_
h y = 2 cos (4) i y = 2 sin
_
3
_
3 Sketch the graph of
Example 9
a f (x) = sin 2x for x [2, 2] b f (x) = 2 sin
x
3
for x [6, 6]
c f (x) = 2 cos 3x for x [0, 2] d f (x) = 2 sin 3x for x [0, 2]
4 Sketch the graph of f : [0, 2] R, f (x) =
5
2
cos
_
2x
3
_
Hint: For endpoints nd f (0) and f (2).
5 a On the one set of axes, sketch the graphs of f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = sin x and
g: [0, 2] R, g(x) = cos x
b By inspection from the graph state the values of x for which sin x = cos x.
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10.8 Further transformations of sine and
cosine graphs
Reflection in the axes
The function with rule f (x) = sin x is described as an odd function, i.e., f (x) = f (x). A
reection in the y axis gives the same result as a reection in the x axis when applied to the
graph of y = sin x.
The function with rule f (x) = cos x is described as an even function, i.e., f (x) = f (x).
The graph of f (x) = cos x is mapped onto itself when reected in the y axis.
Example 10
Sketch the graphs of
a f () = 3 cos 2 for 0 2 b g() = 5 sin(3) for 0 2
Solution
a
y
3
3
0
2
f () = 3 cos 2
Period =
Amplitude = 3
b
y
5
5
0 2
g() = 5 sin(3)
3
2
3
4
3
5
3
Period =
2
3
Amplitude = 5
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 271
Translations
Translations in the direction of the y axis
The graph of y = sin x +1 is obtained
from the graph of y = sin x by a
translation of one unit in the positive
direction of the y axis.
x
y
2
0
4 3 2
Period = 2
Range = [0, 2]
Amplitude = 1
The graph of y = cos 2x 2 is obtained from
the graph of y = cos 2x by a translation of two
units in the negative direction of the y axis.
x
y
2 3 4
0
1
2
3
Translations in the direction of the x axis
The graph of y = sin
_
x
3
_
is obtained from
the graph of y = sin x by a translation of
3
in the positive direction of the x axis.
x
y
0
6
5
6
4
3
7
3
11
6
17
6
3
The graph of y = cos 2
_
x +
3
_
is obtained
from the graph of y = cos 2x by a translation
of
3
in the negative direction of the x axis.
x
y
0
12
6
5
12
2
3
7
6
11
12
17
12
5
3
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272 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 11
On separate axes sketch the graphs of
a y = 3 sin 2
_
t
4
_
for t 2 b y = 2 cos 3
_
t +
3
_
for t
Solution
a The transformations applied
to y = sin t are
r
a dilation of factor 3 from
the x axis
r
a dilation of factor
1
2
from
the y axis
r
a translation of
4
in the positive
direction of the x axis.
t
y
3
4
2
3
3
2
3
4
5
4
3
2
7
4
2
Period =
Amplitude = 3
Range = [3, 3]
0
Note: This is the graph of y = 3 cos 2t .
b Note: The transformations applied to y = cos t are
r
a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
r
a dilation of factor
1
3
from the y axis
r
a translation of
3
in the negative direction of the x axis.
0
t
y
5
6
5
6
2
3
6
2
2
2
2
3
Exercise 10H
1 Sketch the graph of each of the following showing one complete cycle. State the period,
Example 10
amplitude and the greatest and least values.
a y = 4 cos (2x) b f () =
3 sin 2
_
2
_
e y = 3 sin 2x f y = 2 cos 3
_
+
4
_
g y =
2 sin 2
_
3
_
h y = 3 sin 2x i y = 3 cos 2
_
+
2
_
3 For the function f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = cos
_
x
3
_
a nd f (0), f (2) b sketch the graph of f.
4 For the function f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = sin 2
_
x
3
_
a nd f (0), f (2) b sketch the graph of f.
5 For the function f : [, ] R, f (x) = sin 3
_
x +
4
_
a nd f (), f () b sketch the graph of f.
10.9 Solution of circular function equations
Example 12
Find all solutions to the equation sin =
1
2
for [0, 4].
Solution
It is clear from the graph that there are
four solutions in the interval [0, 4].
The solution for
_
0,
2
_
is =
6
.
This solution can be obtained from a
knowledge of exact values or using
sin
1
on a calculator.
y
y = sin
6
1
2
y =
3 4 2
1
1
0
The second solution is obtained by
symmetry. The function is positive in
the second quadrant and
sin ( ) = sin .
Therefore =
5
6
is the second
solution.
It can be seen that further solutions
can be achieved by adding 2, as
sin = sin ( +2).
y
1
1
y = sin
1
2
y =
6 6
5
6
13
6
17 0
Thus =
13
6
and
17
6
are also solutions.
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274 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian
mode.
Use solve( ) from the Algebra menu
(b 1) as shown.
The symbol can be found in the
catalog ( 4), by typing , or by
typing / .
Using the Casio ClassPad
Set the calculator to Radian mode.
Enter the functions y = sin (x) and
y =
1
/
2
.
The window settings should be as
shown. Tap $to produce the graph.
Ensure the graph window is selected (bold
border) and tap Analysis, Gsolve, intersect
to nd decimal approximations for the
solutions. The scroll key moves the cursor
between solutions.
To nd exact solutions, the window
is used.
Enter and highlight the equation
sin (x) =
1
2
. Tap Interactive,
Equation/inequality, solve and ensure the
variable is set to x.
The answer returned is
x = 2 constn (9) +
6
, x = 2 constn (10) +
5
6
.
This may be read as
x = 2m +
6
, 2n +
5
6
.
Note: The restricted domain can be entered. See the Appendix for directions.
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 275
It should be clear that there are 4 solutions to the problem. Hence, the values for each
of m and n will be required which produce a solution in the domain. In this case the
values are m = 0, 1 and n = 0, 1. The solutions are x =
6
,
11
6
,
13
6
,
23
6
.
Example 13
For the following, nd two values of x in the range 0 x 360.
a sin x
= 0.3 b cos x
= 0.7
Solution
a First solve the equation sin x
= 0.3.
Use a calculator to nd the solution for x [0, 90]; x = 17.46
Now the value of sin is negative for P(x) in the 3rd and 4th quadrants.
From the symmetry relationships (or from the graph of y = sin x
)
3rd quadrant x = 180 +17.46
= 197.46
4th quadrant x = 360 17.46
= 342.54
if sin x
= 0.7.
Use a calculator to nd the solution for x [0, 90]; x = 45.57
Now the value of cos is negative for P(x) in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants
2nd quadrant x = 180 45.57
= 134.43
3rd quadrant x = 180 +45.57
= 225.57
if cos x
3
2
for [, ].
Solution
It is clear that there are four solutions.
To solve the equation let x = 2.
Note: if [, ]
then 2 = x [2, 2]
Consider the equation sin x =
3
2
for x [2, 2]
y
1
1
y = sin2
2
3
2
y =
0
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276 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The 1st quadrant solution of the
equation sin x =
3
2
is x =
3
Symmetry gives the solutions to
sin x =
3
2
for x [0, 2] as
x = +
3
and x = 2
3
i.e., x =
4
3
or x =
5
3
The other two solutions are obtained by subtracting 2,
i.e.,
4
3
2 and
5
3
2
the required solutions for x are
2
3
or
3
or
4
3
or
5
3
the required solutions for are
3
or
6
or
2
3
or
5
6
x
y
1
1
y = sinx
2 2
3
2
y =
0
Exercise 10I
1 Find, without using a calculator, all the values of between 0 and 2 for each of the
Example 12
following.
a
2 sin x +1 = 0 b
2 cos x 1 = 0
2 Find all values of x between and for which
a cos x =
1
2
b sin x =
3
2
c cos x =
1
2
3 Find, without using a calculator, all the values of between 0
and 360
3
2
b sin
=
1
2
c cos
=
1
2
d 2 cos
+1 = 0 e 2 sin
3 f
2 sin
1 = 0
4 Find all the values of x between 0 and 2 for which
Example 13
a sin x = 0.8 b cos x = 0.4 c sin x = 0.35
d sin x = 0.4 e cos x = 0.7 f cos x = 0.2
5 Find all the values of x between 0 and 4 for which
a sin x = 0.6 b sin x =
1
2
c sin x =
3
2
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 277
6 Solve the following equations for [0, 2].
Example 14
a sin 2 =
1
2
b cos 2 =
3
2
c sin 2 =
1
2
d sin 3 =
1
2
e cos 2 =
3
2
f sin 2 =
1
2
7 Solve the following equations for [0, 2].
a sin 2 = 0.8 b sin 2 = 0.6 c cos 2 = 0.4 d cos 3 = 0.6
8 a Sketch the graph of f : [2, 2] R, f (x) = cos x.
b On the graph, mark the points which have y coordinate
1
2
and give the associated
x values.
c On the graph, mark the points which have y coordinate
1
2
and give the associated
x values.
10.10 Further sketch graphs
Sketch graphs of y = sin n(t + ) + b
and y = a cos n(t + ) + b
Consider the graph of each of the following functions.
a y = 3 sin 2
_
t
4
_
+2,
4
t
5
4
b y = 2 cos 3
_
t +
3
_
1,
3
t
3
a
t
y
0
1
1
2
3
4
5
y = 3sin 2 t + 2
2
3
4
5
4
b
t
y
1
1
3
y = 2cos 3 t + 1
3
0
3
6
2
Observations
1 The graph of y = 3 sin 2
_
t
4
_
+2 is the same shape as the graph of
y = 3 sin 2
_
t
4
_
but it is translated two units in the positive direction of the y axis.
2 Similarly, the graph of y = 2 cos 3
_
t +
3
_
1 is the same shape as the graph of
y = 2 cos 3
_
t +
3
_
but it is translated one unit in the negative direction of the y axis.
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278 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
In general, the effect of b is to translate the graph b units in the positive direction of the y axis
when b > 0, and in the negative direction of the y axis when b < 0.
Finding axis intercepts
Example 15
Sketch the graphs of each of the following for x [0, 2]. Clearly indicate axis intercepts.
a y =
3
Solution
a To determine the axis intercepts, the equation
2 sin x +1 = 0
sin x =
1
2
x = +
4
, 2
4
x =
5
4
,
7
4
intercepts
_
5
4
, 0
_
,
_
7
4
, 0
_
y
2 + 1
x
1
0
2
4
5 2
2
3
4
7
y = 2sin x + 1
2 + 1
2 sin(x) +1
and select appropriate Window Settings
(b41) as shown.
xMin = 0
xMax = 2
yMin = 1
_
(2)
yMax = 1 +
_
(2)
Open a Calculator application ( 1)
to nd the exact values of the xintercepts
using solve( ) from the Algebra menu
(b 1) as shown.
The symbol can be found in the
catalog ( 4), by typing ,
or by typing / .
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 279
Using the Casio ClassPad
Ensure that the calculator is in Radian mode.
Enter and highlight the equation
2 sin(x) +1 = 0.
Tap Interactive, Equation/inequality, solve.
The required solutions x =
7
4
or
5
4
are found by selecting the appropriate values for
the constant, constn(2) and constn(2).
b
2 cos 2x 1 = 0
cos 2x =
1
2
2x =
3
,
5
3
,
7
3
,
11
3
x =
6
,
5
6
,
7
6
,
11
6
intercepts
_
6
, 0
_
,
_
5
6
, 0
_
,
_
7
6
, 0
_
,
_
11
6
, 0
_
x
5
6
6
7
6
11
6
2
y = 2cos2x 1
1
0
1
2
3
y
c 2 sin 2
_
x
3
_
3 = 0
sin 2
_
x
3
_
=
3
2
2
_
x
3
_
=
3
,
2
3
,
7
3
,
8
3
x
3
=
6
,
3
,
7
6
,
4
3
x =
2
,
2
3
,
3
2
,
5
3
axis intercepts
_
2
, 0
_
,
_
2
3
, 0
_
,
_
3
2
, 0
_
,
_
5
3
, 0
_
x
y
y = 2
3
y =
2
3
3
(0, 2
3)
3
2
5
3
2
3
2
0
y = 2 sin 2
3
x 3
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Exercise 10J
1 Sketch the graphs of each of the following for x [0, 2]. List the x axis intercepts of
Example 15
each graph for this interval.
a y = 2 sin x +1 b y = 2 sin 2x
3 c y =
2 cos x +1
d y = 2 sin 2x 2 e y =
2 sin
_
x
4
_
+1
2 Sketch the graphs of each of the following for x [2, 2].
a y = 2 sin 3x 2 b y = 2 cos 3
_
x
4
_
c y = 2 sin 2x 3 d y = 2 cos 2x +1
e y = 2 cos 2
_
x
3
_
1 f y = 2 sin 2
_
x +
6
_
+1
3 Sketch the graphs of each of the following for x [, ].
a y = 2 sin 2
_
x +
3
_
+1 b y = 2 sin 2
_
x +
6
_
+1
c y = 2 cos 2
_
x +
4
_
+
3
10.11 Rotation of a point about the origin
Consider the points with coordinates (0, 1) and (1, 0) under a rotation of
c
in an anticlockwise
direction around the origin.
cos
2
+
2
+ , sin
(cos, sin)
(0, 1)
(1, 0) 0
c
x
y
From the diagram
(1, 0) (cos , sin )
(0, 1)
_
cos
_
2
+
_
, sin
_
2
+
__
and
_
cos
_
2
+
_
, sin
_
2
+
__
= (sin , cos )
The matrix dening the transformation =
_
cos
sin
sin
cos
_
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Hence if (x, y) (x
, y
)
_
x
_
=
_
cos
sin
sin
cos
__
x
y
_
=
_
x cos y sin
x sin + y cos
_
i.e., x
= x cos y sin
and y
= x sin + y cos
Example 16
a Find the matrix, A, for rotation of
3
about O in an anticlockwise direction, and hence nd
the coordinates of the image of the point (1, 0) under this rotation.
b Find the matrix, B, for rotation of
3
about O in a clockwise direction, and hence nd the
coordinates of the image of the point (1, 0) under this rotation.
Solution
a A =
_
_
_
cos
3
sin
3
sin
3
cos
3
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
x
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
_
_
b
B =
_
_
_
cos
3
sin
3
sin
3
cos
3
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
x
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
_
_
1
0
_
_
=
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
_
_
Example 17
Describe the rotation represented by the matrix
_
_
_
_
2
1
2
_
_
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Solution
The matrix dening a rotation of
c
in an anticlockwise direction around the origin is
given by
_
cos sin
sin cos
_
Let
_
cos
sin
sin
cos
_
=
_
_
_
_
2
1
2
_
_
Therefore cos =
1
2
and sin =
1
2
, and the smallest positive solution for is
3
4
The matrix represents a rotation of
3
4
radians about the origin in an anticlockwise
direction.
Note: This can also be described as a rotation of
5
4
radians about the origin in a
clockwise direction.
Exercise 10K
1 For each of the following, nd the matrix associated with the rotation and hence the image
Example 16
of the given point under that transformation.
a rotation of
6
about O in an anticlockwise direction, point (1, 0)
b rotation of
4
about O in a clockwise direction, point (0, 1)
c rotation of
2
about O in an anticlockwise direction, point (1, 0)
d rotation of
2
3
about O in a clockwise direction, point (0, 1)
e rotation of
5
4
about O in an anticlockwise direction, point
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
f rotation of
5
6
about O in a clockwise direction, point
_
3
2
,
1
2
_
2 Describe the rotation represented by each of the following matrices.
Example 17
a
_
_
_
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
2
_
_
b
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
c
_
_
_
4
5
3
5
3
5
4
5
_
_
3 a Find the matrix R
4
of rotation of
4
about O in an anticlockwise direction.
b Find the image of (2, 1) under this rotation.
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 283
c Let R
2
and cos =
4
5
, nd sin and write down the matrix R
.
10.12 Applications
Example 18
It is suggested that the height h(t) metres of the tide above mean sea level on 1 January at
Warnung is given approximately by the rule h(t ) = 4 sin
_
6
t
_
where t is the number of hours
after midnight.
a Draw the graph of y = h(t ) for 0 t 24. b When was high tide ?
c What was the height of the high tide ? d What was the height of the tide at 8 am ?
e A boat can only cross the harbour bar when the tide is at least 1 m above mean sea level.
When could the boat cross the harbour bar on 1 January?
Solution
a
period = 2
6
= 12
t
y
4
0 6 12 18 24
4
y = h(t)
b High tide occurs when h(t ) = 4
4 sin
_
6
t
_
= 4
implies sin
_
6
t
_
= 1
6
t =
2
,
5
2
t = 3, 15
i.e., high tide occurs at 3.00 (3 am) and 15.00 (3 pm)
c The high tide has height 4 m above the mean height.
d h(8) = 4 sin
_
8
6
_
= 4 sin
_
4
3
_
= 4
3
2
= 2
3
The water is 2
6
t
_
= 1
Thus sin
_
6
t
_
=
1
4
6
t = 0.2527, 2.889, 6.5359, 9.172
t = 0.48, 5.52, 12.48, 17.52
i.e., the water is at height 1 m at 00:29, 05:31, 12:29, 17:31.
Thus the boat can pass across the harbour bar between 00:29
and 05:31 and between 12:29 and 17:31.
Exercise 10L
1 The number of hours of daylight at a point on the Antarctic Circle is given approximately
Example 18
by d = 12 +12 cos
1
6
_
t +
1
3
_
where t is the number of months which have elapsed
since 1 January.
a Find d
i on 21 June (t 5.7) ii on 21 March (t 2.7).
b When will there be ve hours of daylight ?
2 The depth, D(t ) metres, of water at the entrance to a harbour at t hours after midnight on a
particular day is given by D(t ) = 10 +3 sin
_
t
6
_
, 0 t 24.
a Sketch the graph of D(t ) for 0 t 24.
b Find the values of t for which D(t ) 8.5.
c Boats which need a depth of w metres are permitted to enter the harbour only if the depth
of the water at the entrance is at least w metres for a continuous period of one hour.
Find, correct to one decimal place, the largest value of w which satises this condition.
3 The depth of water at the entrance to a harbour t hours after high tide is D metres, where
D = p +q cos (rt )
6
t
3
_
where t is the
number of hours after midnight and d is the depth of the water in metres.
a What is the earliest time of day at which the water is at its highest ?
b When is the water 2 m up the wall ?
7 The graph shows the distance d(t ) of the top of the hour hand of a large clock from the
ceiling at time t hours.
d (m)
t (h)
5
2
0
12 24
a d(t ) is the rule of a sinusoidal function. Find
i the amplitude ii the period
iii the rule for d(t ) iv the length of the hour hand.
b At what times is the distance less than 3.5 m from the ceiling ?
8 In a tidal river the time between high tide and low tide is 8 hours. The average depth of
water in a point on the river is 4 m; at high tide the depth is 5 m.
a Sketch a graph of the depth of the water at the point over time if the relationship
between time and depth is sinusoidal and there is a high tide at noon.
b If a boat requires a depth of 4 m of water in order to sail, how many hours before noon
can it enter the point and by what time must it leave to avoid being stranded?
c If a boat requires a depth of 3.5 m of water in order to sail, at what time before noon can
it enter the point and by what time must it leave to avoid being stranded ?
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9 The population, N, of a particular species of ant varies with time. The population at time t
weeks after 1 January 2006 is given by
N = 3000 sin
((t 10))
26
+4000
a For N(t ) = 3000 sin
((t 10))
26
+4000 state
i the period ii the amplitude iii the range.
b i State the values of N(0) and N(100).
ii Sketch the graph of y = N(t ) for t [0, 100].
c Find the values of t (t [0, 100]) for which the population is
i 7000 ii 1000
d Find {t : N(t ) > 5500} for t [0, 100], i.e., nd the intervals of time during the rst
hundred days for which the population of ants is greater than 5500.
e A second population M(t ) of ants also varies with time. The population has the
following properties.
r
minimum population is 10 000 at t = 20
r
no maximum or minimum value between t = 10 and t = 20
r
maximum population is 40 000 at t = 10
r
M(t ) = a sin
((t c))
b
+d where a, b, c and d are positive constants
Find a set of possible values of a, b, c and d.
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Chapter summary
Denition of a radian
One radian (written 1
c
) is the angle formed at the
centre of the unit circle by an arc of length 1 unit.
x
y
1
1 0
1
1 unit
1
c
1
1
1
c
=
180
=
c
180
Sine and cosine
x coordinate of P(Q) in unit circle,
x = cosine , R
y coordinate of P() in unit circle,
y = sine , R
Abbreviated to
x = cos , y = sin
x
y
x
y
1
1 0
1
1
1
P()
Tangent
If the tangent to the unit circle at A is drawn then the
y coordinate of B is called tangent (abbreviated to tan ).
x
y
1
A
B
0
1
cos
tan
1
1
sin
Also by similar triangles,
tan =
sin
cos
Circular functions and trigonometric ratios
x
y
x
y
0
1
opposite
side
adjacent
side
hypotenuse
sin =
opp
hyp
=
y
1
= y
cos =
adj
hyp
=
x
1
= x
tan =
opp
adj
=
y
x
=
sin
cos
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Symmetry properties of circular functions
x
1
1
1
1
b
b
y
Quadrant 2
(sin is positive)
sin( ) = b = sin
Quadrant 1
(all function are positive)
e.g. sin = b
sin(2 ) =
b =
sin
Quadrant 4 (cos is positive)
sin( + ) =
b =
sin
Quadrant 3 (tan is positive)
Further symmetry properties
Negative angles
cos () = cos
sin () = sin
tan () =
sin
cos
= tan
x
y
1
1 1
1
6
1
2
3
2
1
4
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
1
2
2
1 0 undened
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Graphs of sine and cosine functions
y
2
1
y = sin
amplitude = 1
period = 2
y
1
1
y = cos
3
2
2
2
amplitude = 1
period = 2
Solutions of circular function equations of the type sin x
= a and cos x
= a
e.g., If cos x
6
3
0
1
The graph is the same shape as y = 2 cos 3t but is translated
i
3
units in the negative direction of the x axis and
ii 1 unit in the negative direction of the y axis.
Multiplechoice questions
1 In the triangle ABC, cos x is equal to
A
a
a
2
+b
2
B
b
a
2
+b
2
C
a
b
D
b
a
E
a
2
+b
2
a
A
x
b
B
C
a
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2 The period of the graph of y = 2 sin (3x ) +4 is
A
2
3
B 2 C 3 D E 2
3 The amplitude of the graph of y = 5 cos 5x +3 is
A 5 B 2 C 2 D 5 E 8
4 The number of solutions of 5 sin (2x ) +2 = 0 in the interval [0, 2] is
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E 8
5 An angle of
3
11
radians expressed in degrees (correct to two decimal places) is
A 49 B 154.22 C 49.09 D 0.01 E 0.00
6 The solutions of 2 sin 3x +
2 = 0 in the interval
_
5
12
,
23
12
_
are
A
5
12
,
7
12
,
13
12
,
5
4
,
7
4
,
23
4
B 1.83, 3.40, 3.93, 5.50
C
4
9
,
5
9
,
10
9
,
11
9
,
16
9
,
17
9
D
7
12
,
13
12
,
5
4
,
7
4
E none of the above
7 cos
_
13
6
_
is equal to
A cos
_
13
6
_
B
3
2
C cos
_
7
6
_
D
1
2
E sin
_
2
3
_
8 tan (180 )
is equal to
A
sin (90 +)
cos (90 )
B
cos (180 )
sin (180 )
C
sin (90 )
cos (90 +)
D
cos (90 )
sin (90 +)
E
cos (90 +)
sin (90 )
.
9 The period of the graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) 3 cos (2x) is
A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 E
2
3
10 The transformation given by the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
1
2
3
2
3
2
1
2
_
_
is
A a rotation of 30
b 810
c 1080
d 1035
e 135
f 405
g 390
h 420
i 80
c
4
h
11
c
4
i
23
c
4
3 Give exact values of each of the following.
a sin
_
11
4
_
b cos
_
7
4
_
c sin
_
11
6
_
d cos
_
7
6
_
e cos
_
13
6
_
f sin
_
23
6
_
g cos
_
23
3
_
h sin
_
17
4
_
4 State the amplitude and period of each of the following.
a 2 sin
2
b 3 sin 4 c
1
2
sin 3
d 3 cos 2x e 4 sin
x
3
f
2
3
sin
2x
3
5 Sketch the graphs of each of the following (showing one cycle).
a y = 2 sin 2(2x) b y = 3 cos
_
x
3
_
c y = 2 sin 3x
d y = 2 sin
x
3
e y = sin
_
x
4
_
f y = sin
_
x +
2
3
_
g y = 2 cos
_
x
5
6
_
h y = 3 cos
_
x +
6
_
6 Solve each of the following equations for R.
a sin =
3
2
, [, ] b sin 2 =
3
2
, [, ]
c sin
_
3
_
=
1
2
, [0, 2] d sin
_
+
3
_
= 1, [0, 2]
e sin
_
3
_
=
1
2
, [0, 2]
7 Sketch the graphs of each of the following for x [, 2].
a f (x) = 2 sin 2x +1 b f (x) = 1 2 cos x c f (x) = 3 cos
_
x +
3
_
d f (x) = 2 cos
_
x +
3
_
e f (x) = 1 2 sin 3x
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Extendedresponse questions
1 The depth, D metres, of sea water in a bay, t hours after midnight on a particular day, may be
represented by the function with rule
D(t ) = a +b cos
_
2t
k
_
, where a, b and k are real numbers.
The water is at a maximum depth of 15.4 m at midnight and noon, and is at a minimum
depth of 11.4 m at 6.00 and 18.00 hours.
a Find the value of
i a ii b iii k
b Find the times when the depth of the water is 13.4 m.
c Find the values of t for which the depth of the bay is less than 14.4 m.
2 The temperature (
?
d Sketch the graph for the temperatures over a day.
3 A particle oscillates back and forth, in a straight line, between points A and B about a point
O. Its position, x(t) metres, relative to O at time t seconds is given by the rule
x(t ) = 3 sin (2t a). The position of the particle when t = 1 is x = 1.5.
A O B
a If a [0,
2
], nd the value of a.
b Sketch the graph of x(t ) against t for t [0, 2]. Label maximum and minimum points,
axes intercepts and endpoints with their coordinates.
c How far from O is point A?
d At what time does the particle rst pass through A?
e How long is it before the particle returns to A?
f How long does it take for the particle to go from A to O?
g How far does the particle travel in
i the rst 2 s of its motion ii the rst 2.5 s of its motion?
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Chapter 10 Circular functions I 293
4 The depth of water, h(t ) m, at a particular jetty in a harbour at time t hours after midnight is
given by the rule h(t ) = p +q sin
_
t
6
_
. The graph of h(t ) against t for t [0, 24] is as
shown.
h(t)
10.2
6
t
(24, 6)
1.8
O
The maximum depth is 10.2 m and the minimum depth is 1.8 m.
a Find the values of p and q.
b State the times at which the depth of water is a maximum for the interval of time [0, 24].
c What is the average depth of the water in the time interval [0, 24]?
d At what times in the time interval [0, 24] is the depth of the water 3.9 m?
e For how long in the 24hour period from midnight is the water more than 8.1 m in depth?
5 For the function f : [0, 2] R with rule f (x) = 2 sin(3x) +1
a Find the values of k such that the equation f (x) = k has
i six solutions for x [0, 2] ii three solutions for x [0, 2]
iii no solutions for x [0, 2]
b Find a sequence of transformations which takes the graph of y = f (x) to the graph of
y = sin x.
c Find the values of h [0, 2] such that
i there is a maximum for the graph of y = f (x +h) at the point
_
3
, 3
_
ii there is a minimum for the graph of y = f (x +h) at the point
_
3
, 1
_
6 a Find a sequence of transformations which takes the graph of y = cos x to the graph of
y = sin x.
b Find a sequence of transformations which takes the graph of y = 2 cos x to the graph of
y =
1
2
sin 2x.
c i Find the rule for the image of the graph of f (x) = sin x under a dilation of factor
2
+16.5.
a Use a graphics calculator to sketch the graph of the equation for the rst 2 minutes of
the ride.
b How far above the ground is Isobels seat at the commencement of the ride?
c After how many seconds does Isobels seat pass the access platform?
d How many times will her seat pass the access platform in the rst 2 minutes?
e How many times will her seat pass the access platform during the entire ride?
Due to a malfunction the ride stops abruptly 1 minute and 40 seconds into the ride.
f How far above the ground is Isobel stranded?
g If Isobels brother Hamish had a seat 1.5 m above the ground at the commencement of
the ride, how far above the ground was Hamish stranded?
11 The transformation of rotation about the origin in an anticlockwise direction by
is
dened by the matrix
R
=
_
cos sin
sin cos
_
a Find the matrices
i R
= R
2
= R
3
r
translation dened by the vector
_
a
b
_
i Find the image of the point (x, y) following rotation about the point (a, b).
ii Find the image of the point (x, y) following rotation about the point (1, 1).
d i If R
_
x
y
_
=
_
x
_
, nd x
and y
in terms of x and y.
ii Find the image of the curve of y = x
2
under a rotation of 45
a
b
a
b
P()
2
P
2
y
x
b
b
a
a
2
+
P()
P
2
+
= a
and since a = cos
sin
= cos
Similarly
cos
= b
and since b = sin
cos
= sin
sin
2
+
= a = cos
cos
2
+
= b = sin
297
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Example 1
If sin = 0.3 and cos = 0.8, nd the values of
a sin
b cos
2
+
c sin()
Solution
a
sin
= cos
= 0.8
b
cos
2
+
= sin
= 0.3
c
sin () = sin
= 0.3
Exercise 11A
1 If sin x = 0.3, cos = 0.6 and tan = 0.7, nd the values of
Example 1
a cos() b sin
2
+
c tan() d cos
2
x
e sin(x) f tan
g cos
2
+ x
h sin
i sin
3
2
+
j cos
3
2
x
2
2
y
1
= 2sinx
y
2
= 3cos2x
y = 2sinx + 3cos2x
3
2
Solution
The graphs of y
1
= 2 sin x and y
2
= 3 cos 2x are shown below.
To obtain points on the graph of y = 2 sin x +3 cos 2x the process of addition of
ordinates is used.
Let y = y
1
+ y
2
when y
1
= 2 sin x and y
2
= 3 cos 2x
e.g., at
x = 0, y = 0 +3 = 3
x =
4
, y =
2
2
+0 =
2
2
=
2
x =
2
, y = 2 3 = 1
x = , y = 0 +3 = 3
x =
3
2
,y = 2 3 = 5
and so on.
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 299
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian
mode. Open a Graphs & Geometry
application ( 2) and enter the
functions
f 1 (x) = 2 sin (x)
f 2 (x) = 3 cos (2x)
f 3 (x) = f 1 (x) + f 2 (x)
The graph of f 3 (x) is the heavier line.
Add Function Table (b2 ) and split
the screen as shown using the Tools menu
(/ 523) to see that the values
of f 1 (x) and f 2 (x) add to give f 3 (x).
Use the down arrow ( ) to see more x
values.
The table of values may also be obtained
by selecting a Lists & Spreadsheet
application and pressing /T.
Using the Casio ClassPad
Check that the calculator is Radian mode. Choose
Graphs & Tab. from the Menu.
Enter
y1 = 2 sin(x)
y2 = 3 cos(2x)
y3 = 2 sin(x) +3 cos(2x).
Tap the graph icon to obtain the graph.
Tap the table icon to obtain a table and then the
table input icon to obtain the desired table.
Graph icon Table icon Table input
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300 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The table input window has been completed as
shown.
Another way to achieve this addition of functions is to Dene f (x) = 2 sin(x) and
g(x) = 3 cos(2x). Then enter the functions as shown.
Note also that the graph of ( f + g)(x) has been drawn with a thick line. The menu
shown to choose this as shown. It can be accessed by taping on the line segment to the
right of y3.
Exercise 11B
1 Use addition of ordinates to sketch the graphs of
Example 2
a y = 2 sin +cos b y = 3 cos 2 +2 sin 2
c y =
1
2
sin 2 cos d y = 3 sin +cos 2
e y = 4 sin 2 cos
11.3 Sketch graphs of the tangent function
A table of values for y = tan x is given below. Use a calculator to check these values.
x
3
4
4
0
4
2
3
4
5
4
3
2
7
4
2
9
4
5
2
11
4
3
y 0 1 undened 1 0 1 undened 1 0 1 undened 1 0 1 undened 1 0
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 301
The graph of y = tan x is given below.
x
y
1
1
0
2
2 3
2 3
8 9 4 5 6 7 10
2
3
2
2
5
2
3 4 2 1
1
2
Note: x =
2
,
2
,
3
2
and
5
2
are asymptotes.
Observations from the graph
1 The graph repeats itself every units, i.e., the period of tan is .
2 The range of tan is R.
Exercise 11C
1 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing one complete cycle.
a y = tan 2x b y = 2 tan 3x c y = 2 tan
x +
4
d y = 3 tan x +1 e y = 2 tan
x +
2
+1 f y = 3 tan 2
x
4
2
11.4 General solution of circular function equations
The solution of circular function equations has been discussed in Section 10.9 for functions
over a restricted domain. In this section, we consider the general solutions of such equations
over the maximal domain for each function.
If a circular function equation has one or more solutions in one cycle, then it will have
corresponding solutions in each cycle of its domain, i.e., there will be an innite number of
solutions.
For example, if cos x = a, then the solution in the interval [0, ] is given by:
x = cos
1
(a)
By the symmetry properties of the cosine function, other solutions are given by:
cos
1
(a), 2 +cos
1
(a), 2 cos
1
(a), 4 +cos
1
(a),
4 cos
1
(a), . . . and so on.
In general, if cos (x) = a,
x = 2n cos
1
(a), where n Z and a [1, 1]
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302 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Similarly, if tan (x) = a,
x = n +tan
1
(a), where n Z and a R
If sin (x) = a,
x = 2n +sin
1
(a) or x = (2n +1) sin
1
(a), where n Z and a [1, 1]
Note: An alternative and more concise way to express the general solution of sin (x) = a is:
x = n +(1)
n
sin
1
(a), where n Z and a [1, 1]
Example 3
Find the general solution to each of the following equations.
a cos (x) = 0.5 b
3 tan (3x) = 1 c 2 sin (x) =
2
Solution
a x = 2n cos
1
(0.5)
= 2n
3
=
(6n 1)
3
, n Z
b tan (3x) =
1
3
3x = n +tan
1
= n +
6
=
(6n +1)
6
x =
(6n +1)
18
, n Z
c sin (x) =
1
2
x = 2n +sin
1
= 2n +
4
= (2n +1)
4
=
(8n +1)
4
, n Z =
(8n +3)
4
, n Z
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian mode.
a Use Solve( ) from the Algebra menu
(b31) and complete as shown.
Note the use of
1
2
rather than 0.5 to
ensure that the answer is exact.
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 303
b Complete as shown.
c Complete as shown.
Using the Casio ClassPad
a Enter and highlight the equation cos (x) = 0.5,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequation, solve
and ensure the variable is set to x.
b Enter and highlight the equation
2 sin (x) = 1,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequation, solve
and ensure the variable is set to x.
Example 4
Find the rst three positive solutions to each of the following equations.
a cos (x) = 0.5 b
3 tan (3x) = 1 c 2 sin (x) =
2
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304 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Solution
a The general solution (from Example 3) is given by x =
(6n 1)
3
, n Z
When n = 0, x =
3
, and when n = 1, x =
5
3
or x =
7
3
The rst three positive solutions of cos (x) = 0.5 are x =
3
,
5
3
,
7
3
b The general solution (from Example 3) is given by x =
(6n +1)
18
, n Z
When n = 0, x =
18
, and when n = 1, x =
7
18
, and when n = 2, x =
13
18
The rst three positive solutions of
2 are x =
4
,
3
4
,
9
4
Exercise 11D
1 Find the general solution to each of the following equations.
Example 3
a sin (x) = 0.5 b 2 cos (3x) =
3 c
3 tan (x) = 3
2 Find the rst two positive solutions to each of the following equations.
Example 4
a sin (x) = 0.5 b 2 cos (3x) =
3 c
3 tan (x) = 3
3 Find the general solution to 2 cos
2x +
4
3 tan
6
3x
=
1
cos
3
=
1
1
2
= 2
b cot
5
4
=
cos
5
4
sin
5
4
=
cos
+
4
sin
+
4
=
1
2
1
2
= 1
c cosec
7
4
=
1
sin
2
4
=
1
sin
=
1
2
=
2
Example 6
Find the value(s) of x between 0 and 2 for which
a sec x = 2 b cot x = 1
Solution
a sec x = 2
1
cos x
= 2
cos x =
1
2
x =
3
or x = +
3
i.e., x =
2
3
or x =
4
3
b cot x = 1
implies
tan x = 1
x =
4
or x = 2
4
i.e. x =
3
4
or x =
7
4
Using the TINspire
Check that the calculator is in Radian mode.
Use solve( ) from the Algebra menu (b31) as shown.
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306 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the Casio ClassPad
a Enter and highlight the equation
1
cos(x)
= 2,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequation,
solve and ensure the variable is set to x.
b Enter and highlight the equation
1
tan(x)
= 1,
tap Interactive, Equation/inequation,
solve and ensure the variable is set to x.
Note: The restriction to the domain can be
used as shown in the Appendix.
The Pythagorean identity
Consider a point, P(), on the unit circle.
By Pythagoras theorem:
OP
2
= OM
2
+MP
2
1 = (cos )
2
+(sin )
2
Now (cos )
2
and (sin )
2
may be written as cos
2
and sin
2
.
x
y
1
1
1
1
sin
cos M O
P()
Since this is true for all values of it is called an identity.
In particular this is called the Pythagorean identity.
cos
2
+sin
2
= 1
Other forms of the identity can be derived.
Dividing both sides by cos
2
gives:
cos
2
cos
2
+
sin
2
cos
2
=
1
cos
2
1 +tan
2
= sec
2
sin
2
+
sin
2
sin
2
=
1
sin
2
cot
2
+1 = cosec
2
33
7
b Since sec x =
3
2
, cos x =
2
3
cos
2
x +sin
2
x = 1
4
9
+sin
2
x = 1
sin x =
5
3
For P(x) in the 2nd quadrant, sin x is
positive
sin x =
5
3
Example 8
If sin =
3
5
and
2
< < , nd the value of cos and tan .
Solution
Since cos
2
+sin
2
= 1
then cos
2
+
3
2
5
2
= 1
cos
2
= 1
9
25
=
16
25
cos =
4
5
since
2
< <
tan =
3
4
as tan =
sin
cos
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308 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 9
Prove the identity
1
1 cos
+
1
1 +cos
= 2 cosec
2
Solution
LHS =
1
1 cos
+
1
1 +cos
=
1 +cos +1 cos
1 cos
2
=
2
1 cos
2
=
2
sin
2
= 2 cosec
2
= RHS
Exercise 11E
1 Find the exact value of each of the following.
Example 5
a cot
3
4
b cot
5
4
c sec
5
6
d cosec
2
e sec
4
3
f cosec
13
6
g cot
7
3
h sec
5
3
2 Without using a calculator write down the exact value of each of the following.
a cot 135
b sec 150
c cosec 90
d cot 240
e cosec 225
f sec 330
g cot 315
h cosec 300
i cot 420
3 c sec x +
2 = 0 d cosec x = sec x
4 If sec =
17
8
and
2
< < , nd
Example 7
Example 8
a cos b sin c tan
5 If tan =
7
24
and
3
2
< < 2, nd cos and sin .
6 Find the value of sec if tan = 0.4 and is not in the 1st quadrant.
7 If tan =
4
3
and < <
3
2
, evaluate
sin 2 cos
cot sin
.
8 If cos =
2
3
and is in the 4th quadrant, nd the simplest expression in surd form for
tan 3 sin
cos 2 cot
.
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 309
9 Prove each of the following identities for suitable values of and .
Example 9 Example 9
a (1 cos
2
)(1 +cot
2
) = 1 b cos
2
tan
2
+sin
2
cot
2
= 1
c
tan
tan
=
tan +cot
cot +tan
d (sin +cos )
2
+(sin cos )
2
= 2
e
1 +cot
2
cot cosec
= sec f sec +tan =
cos
1 sin
11.6 Addition formulas and double angle formulas
Addition formulas
Consider a unit circle.
Let arc length AB = v units
arc length AC = u units
arc length CB = u v units
x
y
u v
C
A
B
(cos u, sin u)
(cos v, sin v)
1
O
1
1
Rotate OCB so that B is coincident with A.
The point P has coordinates
(cos (u v), sin (u v)).
Since the triangles CBO and PAO are congruent,
CB = PA
u v
P
A
O 1
x
1
(1, 0)
(cos(u v), sin(u v))
y
Applying the coordinate distance formula
CB
2
= (cos u cos v)
2
+(sin u sin v)
2
= 2 2(cos u cos v +sin u sin v)
PA
2
= (cos (u v) 1)
2
+(sin (u v) 0)
2
= 2 2(cos (u v))
Equating these
2 2(cos u cos v +sin u sin v) = 2 2(cos (u v))
cos (u v) = cos u cos v +sin u sin v
Using the TINspire and the ClassPad
Use tExpand( )from the Trigonometry
submenu of the Algebra menu (b3
1) as shown.
ClassPad
The command and tExpand is found
through Interactive Transformation
tExpand.
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Replacing v with v
cos (u (v)) = cos u cos (v) +sin u sin (v)
From symmetry properties
cos () = cos
sin () = sin
cos (u +v) = cos u cos v sin u sin v
Example 10
Evaluate cos 75
.
Solution
cos 75
= cos (45
+30
)
= cos 45
cos 30
sin 45
sin 30
=
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
=
3 1
2
2
=
3 1
2
2
=
2
4
Replacing u with
2
u in cos (u v)
cos
2
u
= cos
2
u
cos v +sin
2
u
sin v
Applying symmetry properties
sin = cos
cos
2
(u +v)
b sin 15
.
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 311
Solution
a sin 75
= sin (30
+45
)
= sin 30
cos 45
+cos 30
sin 45
=
1
2
1
2
+
3
2
1
2
=
1 +
3
2
2
=
1 +
3
2
2
=
2 +
6
4
b sin 15
= sin (45
30
)
= sin 45
cos 30
cos 45
sin 30
=
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
=
3 1
2
2
=
3 1
2
2
=
2
4
Addition formula for tangent
Also tan (u +v) =
sin (u +v)
cos (u +v)
=
sin u cos v +cos u sin v
cos u cos v sin u sin v
Divide the numerator and denominator by cos u cos v = 0
tan (u +v) =
tan u +tan v
1 tan u tan v
Similarly it can be shown that
tan (u v) =
tan u tan v
1 +tan u tan v
Example 12
If tan u = 4 and tan v =
3
5
and u and v are acute angles, show that u v =
4
.
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Solution
tan (u v) =
tan u tan v
1 +tan u tan v
=
4
3
5
1 +4
3
5
=
17
5
17
5
= 1
u v =
4
Note: tan is a onetoone function for 0 < <
2
Derivation of the addition formulas using
rotation about the origin
The use of matrices to describe rotations about
the origin has been discussed in Section 10.11.
We can use matrices as an alternative method to
derive the addition formulas. Consider, for
example, the point with coordinates
(cos (u +v), sin (u +v)), which can be regarded
as the image of a point with coordinates (cos u, sin u)
under a rotation of v
c
in an anticlockwise
direction around the origin.
x
y
O
v
u
(cos(u + v), sin(u + v))
(cos u, sin u)
The matrix that denes a rotation of v radians anticlockwise about the origin is given by
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
i.e.,
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
x
y
becomes
cos (u +v)
sin (u +v)
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
cos u
sin u
i.e., cos (u +v) = cos v cos u sin v sin u or cos (u +v) = cos u cos v sin u sin v
and sin (u +v) = sin v cos u +cos v sin u or sin (u +v) = sin u cos v +cos u sin v
Similarly, consider a point
(cos (u v), sin (u v)), which can be
regarded as the image of a point with
coordinates (cos u, sin u) under a rotation
of v
c
in a clockwise direction around the
origin.
O
u
v
(cos(u v), sin(u v))
(cos u, sin u)
x
y
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 313
The matrix that denes a rotation of v radians clockwise about the origin is given by
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
i.e.,
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
x
y
becomes
cos (u v)
sin (u v)
cos v sin v
sin v cos v
cos u
sin u
i.e., cos (u v) = cos v cos u +sin v sin u or cos (u v) = cos u cos v +sin u sin v
and sin (u v) = sin v cos u +cos v sin u or sin (u v) = sin u cos v cos u sin v
Double angle formulas
cos (u +v) = cos u cos v sin u sin v
Replacing v with u
cos (u +u) = cos u cos u sin u sin u
cos 2u = cos
2
u sin
2
u
= 2 cos
2
u 1
= 1 2 sin
2
u
since sin
2
u = 1 cos
2
u
since cos
2
u = 1 sin
2
u
Similarly, replacing v with u in sin (u +v) = sin u cos v +cos u sin v
sin 2u = sin u cos u +cos u sin u
sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u
Replacing v with u in tan (u +v) =
tan u +tan v
1 tan u tan v
tan (u +u) =
tan u +tan u
1 tan u tan u
tan 2u =
2 tan u
1 tan
2
u
Example 13
If tan =
4
3
and 0 < <
2
, evaluate
a sin 2 b tan 2
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314 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 4
3
Solution
a sin =
4
5
and cos =
3
5
sin 2 = 2 sin cos
= 2
4
5
3
5
=
24
25
b tan 2 =
2 tan
1 tan
2
=
2
4
3
1
16
9
=
8
3
7
9
=
24
7
Example 14
Prove each of the following identities.
a
2 sin cos
cos
2
sin
2
= tan 2 b
sin
sin
+
cos
cos
=
2 sin ( +)
sin 2
c
1
cos +sin
+
1
cos sin
= tan 2 cosec
Solution
a LHS =
2 sin cos
cos
2
sin
2
=
sin 2
cos 2
= tan 2
= RHS
Note: Identity holds when cos 2 = 0
b LHS =
sin
sin
+
cos
cos
=
sin cos +cos sin
sin cos
=
sin ( +)
1
2
sin 2
=
2 sin ( +)
sin 2
Note: Identity holds when sin 2 = 0
c LHS =
1
cos +sin
+
1
cos sin
=
cos sin +cos +sin
cos
2
sin
2
=
2 cos
cos 2
But 2 cos =
2 sin cos
sin
=
sin 2
sin
LHS =
sin 2
cos 2 sin
=
tan 2
sin
= tan 2 cosec
Note: Identity holds when cos 2 = 0
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 315
Sometimes the easiest way to prove two expressions are equal is to simplify each of them. This
is demonstrated in the following example.
Example 15
Prove that (sec A cos A)(cosecA sin A) =
1
tan A +cot A
Solution
LHS = (sec A cos A)(cosecA sin A) RHS =
1
tan A +cot A
=
1
cos A
cos A
1
sin A
sin A
=
1
sin A
cos A
+
cos A
sin A
=
1 cos
2
A
cos A
1 sin
2
A
sin A
=
1
sin
2
A +cos
2
A
cos A sin A
=
sin
2
A cos
2
A
cos A sin A
=
cos A sin A
sin
2
A +cos
2
A
= cos A sin A = cos A sin A
LHS = RHS
Exercise 11F
1 By making use of the appropriate addition formula nd the exact values for each of the
Example 10
following.
a cos 15
b cos 105
2 By making use of the appropriate addition formula nd exact values for each of the
Example 11
following.
a sin 165
b tan 75
12
4 If sin u =
12
13
and sin v =
3
5
, evaluate sin (u +v). (Note: There is more than one answer.)
Example 12
5 Simplify the following.
a sin
+
6
b cos
c tan
+
3
d sin
6 Simplify
a cos (u v) sin v +sin (u v) cos v b sin (u +v) sin v +cos (u +v) cos v
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316 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
7 If sin =
3
5
and is in the 3rd quadrant and cos =
5
13
and is in the 2nd quadrant, Example 13
evaluate each of the following without using a calculator.
a cos 2 b sin 2 c tan 2 d sec 2
e sin ( +) f cos ( ) g cosec ( +) h cot 2
8 If tan u =
4
3
and tan v =
5
12
and both u and v are acute angles evaluate:
a tan (u +v) b tan 2u c cos (u v) d sin 2u
9 If sin =
3
5
and sin =
24
25
and
2
< < < evaluate
a cos 2 b sin ( ) c tan ( +) d sin (2)
10 If sin =
3
2
and cos =
1
2
evaluate
a sin 2 b cos 2
11 Simplify each of the following expressions.
a (sin cos )
2
b cos
4
sin
4
+cos
+
3
= cos
c tan
+
4
tan
= 1 d cos
+
6
+sin
+
3
3 cos
e tan
+
4
=
1 +tan
1 tan
f
sin (u +v)
cos u cos v
= tan v +tan u
g
tan u +tan v
tan u tan v
=
sin (u +v)
sin (u v)
h cos 2 +2 sin
2
= 1
i sin 4 = 4 sin cos
3
4 cos sin
3
j
1 sin 2
sin cos
= sin cos
11.7 acos x + bsinx
In Section 11.2 the method of addition of ordinates was used in the plotting of the sums of
circular functions. In this section it will be shown how functions with rule of the form
f (x) = a cos x +b sin x may have the rule written in terms of a single circular function.
First write
a cos x +b sin x =
a
2
+b
2
a
2
+b
2
cos x +
b
a
2
+b
2
sin x
a
2
+b
2
(cos cos x +sin sin x)
where cos =
a
a
2
+b
2
and sin =
b
a
2
+b
2
Let r =
a
2
+b
2
and thus
a cos x +b sin x = r cos (x )
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 317
Similarly it may be shown that
a cos x +b sin x = r sin (x +)
where r =
a
2
+b
2
, sin =
a
a
2
+b
2
and cos =
b
a
2
+b
2
Example 16
Express cos x
3 sin x in the form r cos (x ) and hence nd the range of the function
with rule f (x) = cos x
3 r =
1 +3 = 2
also cos =
a
r
=
1
2
and sin =
b
r
=
3
2
=
3
cos x
3 sin x = 2 cos
x +
3
Range of f is [2, 2]
The maximum and minimum values of f are 2 and 2 respectively.
Using the TINspire
Use tCollect( ) from the Trigonometry
submenu of the Algebra menu (b3
2) as shown.
Example 17
Solve cos x
3 sin x = 2 cos
x +
3
2 cos
x +
3
= 1
cos
x +
3
=
1
2
x +
3
=
3
,
5
3
,
7
3
x = 0,
4
3
, 2
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318 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the TINspire
Use solve( ) from the Algebra menu (b
31) as shown.
The symbol can be found in the
catalog ( 4), by typing , or by
typing / .
Example 18
Express
3 = r cos ... 1
If x = 0, 1 = r sin ... 2
Squaring and adding 1 and 2 gives
r
2
cos
2
+r
2
sin
2
= 4
i.e., r
2
= 4
r = 2
The positive solution is taken. Substituting in 1 and 2 gives
3
2
= cos and
1
2
= sin
=
3 sin 2x cos 2x = 2 sin
2x
6
3 sin x f sin x
3 cos x
g cos x
[0, 360].
Example 17
a sin x cos x = 1 b
3 sin x +cos x = 1
c sin x
3 cos x = 1 d 3 cos x
3 sin x = 3
e 4 sin
+3 cos
= 5 f 2
2 sin
2 cos
= 3
3 Write
3 sin x +cos x
c f (x) = sin x +cos x d f (x) = sin x
3 cos x
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320 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
Further symmetry properties: complementary angles
sin
= cos
sin
2
+
= cos
cos
= sin
cos
2
+
= sin
Addition of ordinates
y
3
2
1
0
y
1
= 2 sin x
y
2
= 3 cos 2x
y = 2 sin x + 3 cos 2x
2
2
3
2
1
4
5
2
3
Graph of tangent function
y
1
2
2
2
3
2 2
5
1
y = tan
period =
General solution of circular function equations
If cos (x) = a, x = 2n cos
1
(a), where n Z and a [1, 1]
If tan (x) = a, x = n +tan
1
(a), where n Z and a R
If sin (x) = a, x = 2n +sin
1
(a), or
x = (2n +1) sin
1
(a), where n Z and a [1, 1]
Reciprocal circular functions
secant = sec =
1
cos
cosecant = cosec =
1
sin
cotangent = cot =
1
tan
, sin = 0 and cos = 0
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 321
Pythagorean identity
cos
2
+sin
2
= 1
1 +tan
2
= sec
2
cot
2
+1 = cosec
2
Addition formulas
cos (u v) = cos u cos v +sin u sin v
cos (u +v) = cos u cos v sin u sin v
sin (u +v) = sin u cos v +cos u sin v
sin (u v) = sin u cos v cos u sin v
tan (u +v) =
tan u +tan v
1 tan u tan v
tan (u v) =
tan u tan v
1 +tan u tan v
Double angle formulas
cos 2u = cos
2
u sin
2
u
= 2 cos
2
u 1
= 1 2 sin
2
u
sin 2u = 2 sin u cos u
tan 2u =
2 tan u
1 tan
2
u
a cos x +b sin x can be written as r cos (x )
where r =
a
2
+b
2
and cos =
a
a
2
+b
2
and sin =
b
a
2
+b
2
It can also be written as r sin (x +)
where r =
a
2
+b
2
and sin =
a
a
2
+b
2
and cos =
b
a
2
+b
2
Multiplechoice questions
1 cosec x sin x is equal to
A cos x cot x B cosec x tan x C 1 sin
2
x
D sin x cosec x E
1 sin x
sin x
2 If cos x =
1
3
, the possible values of sin x are
A
2
2
3
,
2
2
3
B
2
3
,
2
3
C
8
9
,
8
9
D
2
3
,
2
3
E
1
2
,
1
2
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322 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 If cos =
a
b
and 0 < <
2
, then tan in terms of a and b is
A
a
2
+b
2
b
B
b
2
a
2
a
C
a
b
2
a
2
D
a
b
2
+a
2
E
a
b
b
2
+a
2
4 The magnitude of ABX is , AX = 4 cm, XC = x cm
and BC = 2 cm. In terms of x, tan is equal to
A
8
(x +2)
2
B
4
x
C 8 x D 8 + x
E
8
x
2
+4
2 cm
4 cm
x cm
X
C
A
B
5 For
2
< A < and < B <
3
2
, with cos A = t and sin B = t , sin (B + A) is equal to
A 0 B 1 C 2t
2
1 D 1 2t
2
E 1
6
sin 2A
cos 2A 1
is equal to
A cot 2A 1 B sin 2A +sec 2A
C
sin A
cos A 1
D sin 2A tan 2A E cot A
7 sin
2
x
is not equal to
A cos (2 x) B sin
3
2
+ x
2
+ x
8 (1 +cot x)
2
+(1 cot x)
2
is equal to
A 2 +cot x +2 cot 2x B 2 C 4 cot x D 2 +cot 2x E 2cosec
2
x
9 If sin 2A = m and cos A = n, tan A in terms of m and n is equal to
A
m
2n
2
B
n
m
C
2n
m
2
D
2n
m
E
2n
2
m
10 cos x +sin x, in the form r sin (x +) where r > 0, is
A
2 sin
x +
4
B sin
x +
4
C
2 sin
x +
5
4
D
2 sin
x +
7
4
E
2 sin
x +
3
4
sec +sin
2 Find the maximum and minimum values of each of the following.
a 3 +2 sin b 1 3 cos c 4 sin
3
2
d 2 sin
2
1
2
e
1
2 +cos
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 323
3 Find the values of , [0, 2], for which
a sin
2
=
1
4
b sin 2 =
1
2
c cos 3 =
3
2
d sin
2
2 = 1 e tan
2
=
1
3
f tan 2 = 1
g sin 3 = 1 h sec 2 =
2
4 Solve the equation tan = 2 sin for values of from 0
to 360
.
5 If sin A =
5
13
, sin B =
8
17
where A and B are acute, nd
a cos (A + B) b sin (A B) c tan (A + B)
6 Find
a cos 80
cos 20
+sin 80
sin 20
b
tan 15
+tan 30
1 tan 15
tan 30
7 If A + B =
2
, nd the value of
a sin A cos B +cos A sin B b cos A cos B sin A sin B
8 Find the maximum and minimum values of the function with rule
a 3 +2 sin b 4 5 cos
9 Prove each of the following.
a sin
2
A cos
2
B cos
2
A sin
2
B = sin
2
A sin
2
B b
sin
1 +cos
+
1 +cos
sin
=
2
sin
c
sin 2 sin
3
2 cos
3
cos
= tan
10 Given that sin A =
5
3
and that A is obtuse, nd the value of each of the following:
a cos 2A b sin 2A c sin 4A
11 Prove
a
1 tan
2
A
1 +tan
2
A
= cos 2A b
sin A
1 +cos A
+
1 +cos A
sin A
=
2
sin A
12 a Find tan 15
3 cos x 2 sin x
14 Solve for x, 0 x 2.
a sin x +cos x = 1 b sin
1
2
x cos
1
2
x =
1
4
c 3 tan 2x = 2 tan x d sin
2
x = cos
2
x +1
e sin 3x cos x cos 3x sin x =
3
2
f 2 cos
2x
3
3
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324 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
15 Sketch graphs of
a y = 2 cos
2
x b y = 1 2 sin
2
x
2
c f (x) = tan 2x
16 It is given that tan A = 2. Find the exact value of tan , given that tan ( + A) = 4.
17 a Express 2 cos +9 sin in the form r cos ( ), where r > 0 and 0 < <
2
b i Give the maximum value of 2 cos +9 sin
ii Give the cosine of for which this maximum occurs.
iii Find the smallest positive solution of the equation 2 cos +9 sin = 1
Extendedresponse questions
1 The diagram shows a rectangle ABCD inside a semicircle, centre O and radius 5 cm.
BOA = COD =
1 +tan
2
b
i Use the result of a to show 1 + x
2
=
2x
2
2 where x = tan
67
1
2
67
1
2
= a +b
2
c Find the value of tan
7
1
2
.
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Chapter 11 Circular functions II 325
4 In the diagram triangle ABC has a right angle at B.
Length of BC = 1 unit.
a Find in terms of
i h
1
ii h
2
iii h
3
iv h
n
A
h
1
h
2
h
3
B
C
2, nd .
5 ABCD is a regular pentagon with side length one unit.
The exterior angles of a regular pentagon each have
magnitude
2
5
.
a i Show that the magnitude of BCA is
5
ii Find the length of CA
b i Show the magnitude of DCP is
2
5
ii Use the fact that AC = 2CQ = 2CP +PR
to show that 2 cos
5
= 2 cos
2
5
+1
B
C
P Q R
A
D E
2
5
iii Use the identity cos 2 = 2 cos
2
1 to form a quadratic equation in terms of
cos
5
iv Find the exact value of cos
5
6 a Prove each of the identities
i cos =
1 tan
2
2
1 +tan
2
2
ii sin =
2 tan
2
1 +tan
2
2
b Use the result of a to nd the value of tan
2
, given 8 cos sin = 4
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C H A P T E R
12
Trigonometric ratios
and applications
Objectives
To solve practical problems using the trigonometric ratios
To use the sine rule and the cosine rule to solve problems
To find the area of a triangle given two sides and an included angle
To find the area of a sector and a segment of a circle
To find the length of an arc
To solve problems involving angles of depression and angles of elevation
To identify the line of greatest slope of a plane
To solve problems in three dimensions including determining the angle between
planes
12.1 Defining sine, cosine and tangent
The unit circle is a circle of radius 1 with centre at the origin.
x
y
(1, 0) (0, 0)
(0, 1)
(1, 1)
(0, 1)
Sine and cosine may be dened for any angle
through the unit circle.
P(cos(), sin())
x
y
(0, 0)
For the angle of
=
1
2
0.7071 cos 100
= 0.1736
cos 30
3
2
0.8660 cos 135
=
1
2
0.7071 sin 100
= 0.9848
In this chapter, angles greater than 180
or less than 0
will
not be considered.
For a rightangled triangle OBC, a similar triangle OB
can be constructed that lies in the unit circle. From the diagram,
OC
= cos (
) and C
= sin (
)
The scale factor is the length OB.
Hence BC = OB sin (
) and OC = OB cos (
)
This implies
BC
OB
= sin (
) and
OC
OB
= cos (
)
B'
O
C'
C
B
1
This gives the ratio denition of sine and cosine for a rightangled triangle. The naming of
sides with respect to an angle
is as shown.
B
O
C
hypotenuse
adjacent
opposite
sin
=
opp
hyp
opposite
hypotenuse
cos
=
adj
hyp
adjacent
hypotenuse
tan
=
opp
adj
opposite
adjacent
) = sin (180 )
, e.g. sin 45
= sin 135
and cos (
) = cos (180 )
) = cos (135
)
(cos(), sin())
(cos(180 ), sin(180 ))
x
y
(180 )
0
This result will be used later in this chapter.
Example 1
Find the value of x correct to two decimal places.
B
x cm
C
80 cm
A
29.6
Solution
x
80
= sin 29.6
x = 80 sin 29.6
= 39.5153 . . .
x = 39.52 correct to two decimal places
Example 2
Find the length of the hypotenuse correct to two decimal places.
C
A
B
15
10 cm
Solution
10
AB
= cos 15
10 = ABcos 15
AB =
10
cos 15
= 10.3527 . . .
The length of the hypotenuse = 10.35 cm correct to two decimal places.
Example 3
Find the magnitude of ABC.
A
B C
3 cm
11 cm
x
Solution
tan x =
11
3
x = tan
1
11
3
x = (74.74 . . .)
x = 74
44
42
. Find the
length of the string.
105
30 cm
14 The distance AB = 50 m. If the line of sight of a
person standing at A to the tree makes an angle of 32
=
10
sin 70
c =
10 sin 31
sin 70
c = 5.4809 . . .
The length of AB is 5.48 cm correct to two decimal places.
Example 5
Use the sine rule to nd the magnitude of angle
XZY in the triangle, given that Y = 25
, y = 5 cm,
and z = 6 cm.
Z
5 cm
6 cm
25
Y X
Solution
5
sin 25
=
6
sin Z
sin Z
6
=
sin 25
5
sin Z =
6 sin 25
5
= 0.5071 . . .
Z = sin
1
(0.5071 . . .)
Z = (30.4736 . . .)
or (180 30.4736 . . .)
Z = 30
28
25
or Z = 149
31
35
.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 333
Exercise 12B
1 Find the value of the pronumeral for each of the following triangles.
Example 4
a
Y
70
50
X
10 cm
Z
x cm
b
Z
65
y cm
X
6 cm
37
Y
c
Z
5.6 cm
100
x cm
Y
28
X
d
Y X
x cm
12 cm
Z
90
38
2 Find the value of for each of the following triangles.
Example 5
a
72
7 cm
A
8 cm
B
C
b
A
9.4 cm
C
8.3 cm
B
42
c
C
10 cm
108
8 cm
A
B
d
B
8 cm
9 cm
C
38
A
3 Solve the following triangles (i.e. nd all sides and angles).
a a = 12, B = 59
, C = 73
b A = 75.3
, b = 5.6, B = 48.25
c A = 123.2
, a = 11.5, C = 37
d A = 23
, a = 15, B = 40
e B = 140
, b = 20, A = 10
, c = 15.3
b B = 129
, b = 7.89, c = 4.56
c A = 28.35
, a = 8.5, b = 14.8
5 A landmark A is observed from two points B and C, which are 400 m apart. The magnitude
of angle ABC is found to be 68
and 69
= 85.9268 . . .
c 9.2697
The length of AB is 9.27 cm correct to two decimal places.
Example 7
Find the magnitude of angle ABC for triangle ABC.
Solution
cos B =
a
2
+c
2
b
2
2ac
=
12
2
+6
2
15
2
2 12 6
= 0.3125
B = (108.2099 . . .)
B 108
12
35.845
12
36
b = 16 c = 30, nd a
b a = 14 B = 53
c = 12, nd b
c a = 27 b = 35 c = 46, nd the magnitude of angle ABC
d a = 17 B = 120
c = 63, nd b
e a = 31 b = 42 C = 140
, nd c
f a = 10 b = 12 c = 9, nd the magnitude of angle BCA
g a = 11 b = 9 C = 43.2
, nd c
h a = 8 b = 10 c = 15, nd the magnitude of angle CBA
4 A section of an orienteering course is as shown.
Find the length of leg AB.
B
A
6 km
4 km
20
C
5 Two ships sail from point O. At a particular time their
positions A and B are as shown. Find the distance between
the ships at this time.
N
B
4 km
O
30
6 km
A
6 ABCD is a parallelogram. Find the length of the diagonals:
a AC
b BD
5 cm B
4 cm
48
A
D
C
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 337
7 A weight is hung from two hooks in a ceiling by strings
of length 54 cm and 42 cm, which are inclined at 70
to
each other. Find the distance between the hooks.
54 cm
42 cm
70
8 a Find the length of diagonal BD.
b Use the sine rule to nd the length of CD.
B
4 cm
5 cm
92
6 cm
88
D
C
A
9 Two circles of radius 7.5 cm and 6 cm have a
common chord of length 8 cm.
a Find the magnitude of angle AO
B.
b Find the magnitude of angle AOB.
A
7.5 cm
O
8 cm O'
6 cm
B
10 Two straight roads intersect at an angle of 65
. A point
A on one road is 90 m from the intersection and a point
B on the other road is 70 m from the intersection,
as shown on the diagram.
a Find the distance of A from B.
b C is the midpoint of AB. Find the distance
of C from the intersection.
A
C
B
65
90 m
O
70 m
12.4 Area of a triangle
It is known that the area of a triangle is given by the formula
Area =
1
2
bh
B
h
A
b
C
Area =
1
2
base length height
By observing that h = c sin A the following formula can be found.
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338 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Area of triangle =
1
2
bc sin A
i.e., the area is given by half the product of the length of two sides and the sine of the
angle included between them.
Example 8
Find the area of triangle ABC shown in the
diagram.
B
140 6.5 cm
7.2 cm
A
C
Solution
Area =
1
2
7.2 6.5 sin 140
= 15.04 cm
2
The area of triangle ABC is 15.04 cm
2
correct to two decimal places.
Example 9
Find the area of each of the following triangles, correct to three decimal places.
a
A
10 cm
6.4 cm
C
8 cm
B
b
8.2 cm
70
85
F
D
E
c
G
7 cm
I
10 cm
H
12
Solution
a Using the cosine rule,
8
2
= 6.4
2
+10
2
2 6.4 10 cos C
64 = 140.96 128 cos C
cos C = 0.60125
C
= (126.95 . . .)
= 25
)
8.2
sin (85
)
= 3.47 . . . (the exact value can be stored on
the graphics calculator as E, say)
Area of triangle DEF =
1
2
8.2 E sin (70
)
= 13.403 cm
2
, correct to three decimal places.
c Using the sine rule,
sin I = 10
sin (12
)
7
= 0.2970 . . .
I
= (180 17.27 . . .)
= (180 (12 + I ))
= (5.27 . . .)
)
= 3.220 cm
2
, correct to three decimal places.
Exercise 12D
1 Find the area of each of the following triangles.
Example 8
a C
70
6 cm
4 cm
B A
b X
5.1 cm
72.8 6.2 cm
Z
Y
c
N
3.5 cm
130
M
8.2 cm
L
d
A
C
B
5 cm
25
5 cm
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340 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
2 Find the area of each of the following triangles, correct to three decimal places.
Example 9
a A
B
C
5.9 cm
4.1 cm
3.2 cm
b A
B
C
9 cm
100
7 cm
c E
F
D
6.3 cm
55
65
d
E
F
D
5.7 cm
5.9 cm
5.1 cm
e
5 cm
12 cm
24
G
I
H
f
4 cm
19
10
G
I
H
12.5 Circle mensuration
Terminology
In this circle with centre O, the interval AB is called a chord of
the circle. A chord is an interval with endpoints on the circle.
If the centre of the circle is on the chord, the interval is called
a diameter, e.g. interval CD in the diagram. Any two points on
a circle divide the circle into arcs. The shorter arc is called the
minor arc, the longer is the major arc, e.g. arc ACB is a minor
arc and ADB is a major arc in this diagram. Note that arc DBC and arc DAC are semicircular
arcs in this diagram. Every chord divides the interior of a circle into two regions called
segments. The smaller is called the minor segment, the larger is the major segment. In the
above diagram the minor segment has been shaded.
A
C
B
O
D
Two radii and an arc dene a region called a sector. In this
diagram with circle centre O, the shaded region is a
minor sector and the unshaded region is a major sector.
Formulas to nd arc lengths, chord lengths and areas of
regions inside a circle will now be developed.
A
C
B
O
D
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 341
Arc length
The arc ACB and the corresponding chord AB are said to subtend
the angle AOB at the centre of the circle. If the magnitude of
AOB =
=
c
l = r where
c
= mag AOB
Chord length
From the diagram, the cosine rule gives
A
O
r
r
B
AB
2
= r
2
+r
2
2r
2
cos
= 2r
2
(1 cos )
AB =
2r
2
(1 cos )
In triangle OAP,
B
A
r
O
P
2
AP = r sin
2
AB = 2r sin
2
Note: 1 cos = 1
1 2 sin
2
2
= 2 sin
2
2
Area of sector
If mag AOB =
360
Again using =
180
Area of sector =
1
2
r
2
where
c
= mag AOB
Example 10
In this circle, centre O, radius length 10 cm, the angle subtended
at O by arc ACB has magnitude 120
. Find
B
A
C
O
10 cm
10 cm
120
a the exact lengths of
i the chord AB ii the arc ACB
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342 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
b the exact area of the minor sector AOB
c the magnitude of angle AOC, in degrees and minutes, if the minor arc AC has length 4 cm.
Solution
a i Use chord length = 2r sin
2
where r = 10 and = 120
= 20
3
2
= 10
3
Length of chord is 10
3 cm.
ii Use l = r where r = 10, =
2
3
(note use of radians)
= 10
2
3
=
20
3
Length of arc is
20
3
cm.
(Verify that length of arc is greater than length of chord as a check.)
b Use area of sector =
1
2
r
2
where r = 10, =
2
3
(note use of radians)
=
1
2
10
2
2
3
=
100
3
So area of minor sector AOB =
100
3
cm
2
.
c Use arc length = r
A
C
O
4 cm
10 cm
4 = 10
=
4
10
angle AOC = 0.4
180
= (22.918 . . .)
= 22
55
360
1
2
r
2
sin
Where mag AOB =
1
2
r
2
sin
=
1
2
r
2
(sin )
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 343
Generally speaking the formulas are simpler if mag AOB is measured in radians. The
following formulas assume is in radians.
Arc length = r
Chord length = 2r sin
2
Area of sector =
1
2
r
2
Area of segment =
1
2
r
2
( sin )
Example 11
A circle, centre O, with radius length 20 cm has a chord AB that is 10 cm from the centre of the
circle. Calculate the area of the minor segment formed by this chord.
Solution
Now area of segment =
1
2
r
2
( sin )
20 cm
10 cm
A
O
B
C
2
=
10
20
2
= 60
and = 120
Hence mag AOB =
2
c
3
Area of segment =
1
2
20
2
2
3
sin
2
3
cm
2
= 200
2
3
3
2
cm
2
= 200
4 3
3
6
cm
2
=
100
4 3
3
cm
2
Exercise 12E
1 Find the arc length which subtends an angle of magnitude 105
2r
2
(1 cos ) = 2r sin
2
6 Find the area of the region between an equilateral triangle of side length 10 cm and the
circumcircle of the triangle (the circle that passes through the three vertices of the
triangle).
7 A person stands on level ground 60 m from the nearest point of a cylindrical tank of
radius length 20 m. Calculate
a the circumference of the tank
b the percentage of the circumference that is visible to the person.
8 The minute hand of a large clock is 4 m long.
a How far does the tip of the minute hand move between 12.10 p.m. and 12.35 p.m?
b What is the area covered by the minute hand between 12.10 p.m. and 12.35 p.m?
9 Two circles of radii 3 cm and 4 cm have their centres 5 cm apart. Calculate the area of the
region common to both circles.
10 A sector of a circle has perimeter of 32 cm and an area of 63 cm
2
. Find the radius length
and the magnitude of the angle subtended at the centre of the two possible sectors.
11 Two wheels (pulleys) have radii of length 15 cm and 25 cm and have their centres 60 cm
apart. What is the length of the belt required to pass tightly around the pulleys without
crossing?
12 A frame in the shape of an equilateral triangle encloses three circular discs of radius
length 5 cm so that the discs touch each other. Find
a the perimeter of the smallest frame which can enclose the discs
b the area enclosed between the discs.
12.6 Angles of elevation and depression
and bearings
The angle of elevation is the angle between the horizontal
and a direction above the horizontal.
angle of elevation
eye level
lin
e
o
f s
ig
h
t
The angle of depression is the angle between the
horizontal and a direction below the horizontal.
angle of depression
lin
e
o
f
s
ig
h
t
eye level
cliff
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 345
Example 12
The pilot of a helicopter ying at 400 m observes
a small boat at an angle of depression of 1.2
.
Calculate the horizontal distance of the boat to
the helicopter.
(diagram not to scale)
400 m
1.2 (angle of depression)
A
B
H
Solution
AH
AB
= tan 1.2
400
AB
= tan 1.2
AB =
400
tan 1.2
AB = 19 095.800 56 . . .
The horizontal distance is 19 100 m to the nearest 10 m.
Example 13
The light on a clifftop lighthouse, known to be 75 m
above sea level, is observed from a boat at an angle
of elevation of 7.1
.
Calculate the distance of the boat from the lighthouse.
75 m
A
B
L
7.1
Solution
75
AB
= tan (7.1
)
AB =
75
tan (7.1
)
= 602.135 . . .
The distance of the boat from the lighthouse is 602 m to the nearest metre.
Example 14
From the point A, a man observes that the angle of elevation
of the summit of a hill is 10
.
Find the height of the hill above the level of A.
166
4
14
500 m
10
A
B
C
H
Solution
The magnitude of angle HBA = (180 14)
= 166
= 4
=
HB
sin 10
HB =
500 sin 10
sin 4
= 1244.67 . . .
In triangle BCH:
HC
HB
= sin 14
HC = HBsin 14
= 301.11 . . .
The height of the hill is 301 m to the nearest metre.
Bearings
The bearing (or compass bearing) is the direction
measured from north clockwise.
N
A
D
C
W E
S
B
30
210
120
330
O
The bearing of A from O is 030
Example 15
The road from town A runs due west for 14 km to town B.
A television mast is located due south of B at a distance
of 23 km. Calculate the distance and bearing of the
mast from the centre of town A.
14 km
23 km
B A
T
N
Solution
tan =
23
14
= 58.67
+(90 58.67)
= 211.33
By Pythagoras theorem
AT
2
= AB
2
+BT
2
= 14
2
+23
2
= 725
AT = 26.925 . . .
The mast is 27 km from the centre of town (to the nearest kilometre) and on a
bearing of 211.33
.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 347
Example 16
A yacht starts from a point A and sails on a bearing of 038
for
3000 m. It then alters its course to one in a direction with a
bearing of 318
= 100
In triangle ABC
AB
2
= 3000
2
+3300
2
2 3000 3300 cos (100
)
= 23 328 233.92
AB = 4829.931 04 . . .
The distance of B from A is 4830 m (to the nearest metre).
b To nd the bearing of B from A, the magnitude of angle BAC must rst be found.
The sine rule may be used.
3300
sin A
=
AB
sin 100
sin A =
3300 sin 100
AB
sin A = 0.672 8 . . .
A = (42.288 . . .)
(42.29
38
)
= 355.71
.
The bearing of B from A is 356
.
Example 12
What is the distance of the buoy from the foot of the cliff?
2 The angle of elevation of the top of an old chimney stack at a point 40 m from its base is
Example 13
41
. If the height of the man above the foot of the building is 500 m, nd the
horizontal distance from the man to the building.
4 A man lying down on top of a cliff 40 m high observes the angle of depression to a buoy
in the sea below to be 20
and 20
and 075
respectively. The
distance PS = 7.5 km and the distance QS = 5 km. Find the distance PQ.
12.7 Problems in three dimensions
Problems in three dimensions are solved by picking out triangles from a main gure and
nding lengths and angles through these triangles.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 349
Example 17
ABCDEFGH is a cuboid.
Find
a distance DB b distance HB
c the magnitude of angle HBD
d the magnitude of angle HBA.
H
G
F
C
D
E
A
B
7 cm
8 cm
10 cm
Solution
a
DB
2
= 8
2
+10
2
= 164
DB =
164
= 12.806 . . .
The length of DB is 12.81 cm correct to two decimal places.
8 cm
10 cm
D
A
B
b
HB
2
= HD
2
+DB
2
= 7
2
+164
= 49 +164
= 213
HB =
213
= 14.59 . . .
The length of HB is 14.59 cm correct to two decimal places.
H
D
B
7 cm
164 cm
c tan =
HD
BD
=
7
164
= 0.5466 . . .
= 28
40
164 cm
d From triangle HBA
cos B =
10
213
10
213
213
B = 46
45
2
= 8.4852 . . .
The length of DB is 8.49 cm to two decimal places.
A B
C D
E
6 cm
6 cm
b BE =
1
2
DB
BE =
1
2
72
= 3
2
= 4.2426 . . .
The length of BE is 4.24 cm correct to two decimal places.
c
VE
2
= VB
2
EB
2
= 100
1
4
72
= 100 18
= 82
VE =
82
= 9.0553 . . .
The length of VE is 9.06 cm correct to two decimal places.
V
E
B
10 cm
d
sin =
VE
VB
=
82
10
= 0.9055 . . .
= 64
54
54
Example 19
A communications mast is erected at the corner, A, of a
rectangular courtyard ABCD whose sides measure 60 m
and 45 m. If the angle of elevation of the top of the mast
from C is 12
, nd
12
60 m
45 m
H
A
B
D
C
a the height of the mast
b the angle of elevation of the top of the mast from
B (where AB = 45 m).
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 351
Solution
a
AC
2
= AB
2
+CB
2
= 45
2
+60
2
= 5625
AC = 75
HA
75
= tan 12
HA = 75 tan 12
= 15.9417
A
B C
60 m
45 m
The height of the mast is 15.94 m,
correct to two decimal places.
H
A
C
75 m
12
b tan =
HA
45
= 0.3542 . . .
19
30
30
B A
H
45 m
Exercise 12G
1 ABCDEFGH is a cuboid with dimensions as shown. Find
Example 17
a the length of FH
b the length of BH
c the magnitude of angle BHF
d the magnitude of angle BHG.
A
B
C
D
E
H
G
F
12 cm
5 cm
8 cm
2 VABCD is a right pyramid with a square base. The sides of the base are 8 cm in length.
Example 18
The height, VF, of the pyramid is 12 cm. Find
a the length of EF
b the magnitude of angle VEF
c the length of VE
d the length of a sloping edge
e the magnitude of angle VAD
f the surface area of the pyramid.
V
C
A B
D
E
F
8 cm
3 A tree stands at the corner of a square playing eld. Each
Example 19
side of the square is 100 m long. At the centre of the eld
the tree subtends an angle of 20
, 90
and 32
respectively, nd
a the distance CB
b the height XB.
A
B
X
C
85 m
45
32
5 Standing due south of a tower 50 m high, the angle of elevation of the top is 26
. What is
the angle of elevation after walking a distance 120 m due east?
6 From the top of a cliff 160 m high two buoys are observed. Their bearings are 337
and
308
and 5
.
From point B, 100 m on a bearing of 120
. Find the
height of the tower.
9 A and B are two positions on level ground. From an advertising balloon at a vertical
height of 750 m, A is observed in an easterly direction and B at a bearing of 160
. The
angles of depression of A and B as viewed from the balloon are 40
and 20
respectively.
Find the distance between A and B.
10 A right pyramid, height 6 cm, stands on a square base of side 5 cm. Find
a the length of a sloping edge
b the area of a triangular face.
11 A light aircraft ying at a height of 500 m above the ground
is sighted at a point A
) at 300 km/h.
A'
A
B
O
O'
B'
500 m
45
1000 m
a How far will it travel in one minute?
b Find its bearing from O (O
) at this time.
c What will be its angle of elevation from O at this time?
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 353
12.8 Angles between planes and more
difficult 3D problems
Angles between planes
Consider any point P on the common line of two planes
1
and
2
. If PA and PB are drawn at right angles to the
common line so that PA is in
1
and PB is in
2
, then
angle APB is the angle between
1
and
2
.
P
B
A
2
Note: If one of the planes,
2
say, is horizontal, then
PA is called a line of greatest slope in the plane
1
.
P
A
lines of
greatest slope
angle of
greatest slope
2
Example 20
Given the cuboid shown in the diagram, nd
a the angle between AC
and DCD
.
D'
D
A
A'
B'
C'
C
B
3a
3a
a
Solution
a To nd the angle between AC
,
we need the projection of AC
in the plane. So we
drop a perpendicular from C
A
and B
A.
D'
D
A
A'
C
C'
B'
B
a
3a
3a
Drawing separate diagrams showing the base and the section through A, C
and B
we have
A
B'
B
A'
3a
3a and
A
B'
C'
a
Thus AB
(3a)
2
+(3a)
2
= 3a
2
and tan =
a
3a
2
=
1
3
2
Hence the required angle, , is 13.3
.
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354 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
b The line common to the planes ACD
and DCD
is CD
C in plane DCD
and
MA is perpendicular to D
C in plane D
CA.
Thus is the angle between the planes DCD
and D
CD.
D
D'
A
A'
M
C
C'
B'
a
B
3a
3a
D
A
M
But DM =
1
2
DC
=
1
2
(3a
2)
Hence tan = a
3a
2
2
2
3
i.e. the required angle is 25.2
Example 21
Three points A, B and C are on a horizontal line such that
AB = 70 m, and BC = 35 m. The angles of elevation of
the top of a tower are , and where tan =
1
13
,
tan =
1
15
and tan =
1
20
(as shown in the diagram).
The foot of the tower is at the same level as A, B and C.
Find the height of the tower.
P
A C
B
Q
70 m 35 m
tan =
1
13
tan =
1
15
tan =
1
20
Solution
Let the height of the tower, PQ, be h m.
Then h = QA tan = QB tan = QC tan
which implies QA = 13h, QB = 15h, QC = 20h
Now consider the base triangle ABCQ.
Q
A
B
C
15h
35 m 70 m
13h
20h
using V =
4
3
r
3
=
8
3
21.25
3
So percentage air =
100
42.5
2
85
8
3
21.25
2
42.5
2
85
= 47.6% (to one decimal place)
Exercise 12H
1 The diagram shows a rectangular prism.
Example 20
AB = 4a units, BC = 3a units, GC = a units.
H
E
A
D
F
B
C
G
a Calculate the areas of the faces ABFE, BCGF, ABCD.
b Calculate the magnitude of the angle which
plane GFAD makes with the base.
c Calculate the magnitude of the angle which plane HGBA makes with the base.
d Calculate the magnitude of the angle which AG makes with the base.
2 VABCD is a right pyramid with square base ABCD.
AB = 2a and OV = a.
a Find the slope of edge VA, i.e., the magnitude of VAO.
b Find the slope of the face VBC.
D
O
B
C
V
A
3 A hill has gradient
5
12
. If BF makes an angle of 45
with
the line of greatest slope, nd
a the gradient of BF
b the magnitude of FBD.
F E
C
12
5
B
A
D
4 The crosssection of a right prism is an isosceles triangle ABC. AB = BC = 16 cm and
the magnitude of ABC = 58
and 30
respectively.
a Calculate, giving answers to the nearest metre, the distances
i AB ii AC iii BC
b Calculate the angle of elevation of T from the midpoint, M, of AB.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 357
6 A right square pyramid, vertex O, stands on a square base ABCD. The height is 15 cm and
base side length is 10 cm. Find
a the length of the slant edge b the inclination of a slant edge to the base
c the inclination of a sloping face to the base
d the magnitude of the angle between two adjacent sloping faces.
7 A post stands at one corner of a rectangular courtyard. The elevations of the top of the
post from the nearest corners are 30
and 45
. At
the same time an observer at B, 2 km due south of A, reports the aircraft on a bearing of
50
to the horizontal.
AE = 100 m, AB = 100 m.
A skier traverses the slope from A to F. Calculate
A
D
E
F
C
B
a the distance that the skier has traversed
b the inclination of the skiers path to the horizontal.
12 A sphere of radius length 8 cm rests on the top of a hollow inverted cone of height 15 cm
Example 22
whose vertical angle is 60
. Find the height of the centre of the sphere above the vertex of
the cone.
13 A cube has edge length a cm. What is the radius length, in terms of a, of
a the sphere that just contains the cube b the sphere that just ts inside the cube?
14 In this diagram AB is vertical and BCD is horizontal. CBD is a right angle.
AB = 20 m, BD = 40 m, BC = 30 m. Calculate the inclination to the horizontal of
a AD
b AE where AE is the line of greatest slope
c AE where E is the midpoint of CD.
A
B
D
E
C
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358 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Chapter summary
The sine rule is used to nd unknown quantities in a triangle when one of the following
situations arises:
r
one side and two angles are given
r
two sides and the nonincluded angle are given.
In the rst of the two cases a unique triangle is dened but for the second it is possible for
two triangles to exist.
Labelling convention
The following convention is followed. Interior angles are
denoted by upper case letters and the length of the side
opposite an angle is denoted by the corresponding
lower case letter. e.g.
A C
B
b
c
a
The magnitude of angle BAC is denoted by A.
The length of side BC is denoted by a.
The sine rule states that for a triangle ABC
A C
B
b
c
a
a
sin A
=
b
sin B
=
c
sin C
The cosine rule is used to nd unknown quantities in a triangle when one of the following
situations arises:
r
two sides and an included angle are given
r
three sides are given.
The cosine rule states that for a triangle ABC
A
C
B
b
c
a
a
2
= b
2
+c
2
2bc cos A or equivalently
cos A =
b
2
+c
2
a
2
2bc
The symmetrical results also hold, i.e.
b
2
= a
2
+c
2
2ac cos B
c
2
= a
2
+b
2
2ab cos C
It is known that the area of a triangle is given by the formula
Area =
1
2
bh
Area =
1
2
base length height
A C
B
b
c a
h
By observing that h = c sin A the following formula can be found:
Area of triangle =
1
2
bc sin A
i.e. the area is given by half the product of the length of two sides and the sine of the angle
included between them.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 359
The length of the minor arc AB (red line) is given by the formula
l = r
The area of sector AOB (shaded) is given by the formula
Area =
1
2
r
2
1
and
2
.
O
c
A
B
r
Note: If one of the planes,
2
say, is
horizontal, then PA is called a line of greatest slope
in the plane
1
.
P
B
A
2
P
A
lines of
greatest slope
angle of
greatest slope
2
Multiplechoice questions
1 In a triangle XYZ, x = 21 cm, y = 18 cm and YXZ = 62
B 0.8
C 1.0
D 49.2
E 53.1
B 63
C 74
D 82
E 98
and B = 70
, is
A 2.75 cm
2
B 3.75 cm
2
C 6.50 cm
2
D 7.50 cm
2
E 8 cm
2
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360 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 The length of the radius of the circle shown, correct to two decimal places, is
A 5.52 cm
B 8.36 cm
C 9.01 cm
D 12.18 cm
E 18.13 cm
10 cm
130
6 A chord of length 5 cm is drawn in a circle of radius 6 cm. The area of the smaller region
inside the circle cut off by the chord, correct to one decimal place, is
A 1.8 cm
2
B 2.3 cm
2
C 3.9 cm
2
D 13.6 cm
2
E 15.5 cm
2
7 From a point on a cliff 500 m above sea level, the angle of depression to a boat is 20
. The
distance from the foot of the cliff to the boat, to the nearest metre, is
A 182 m B 193 m C 210 m D 1374 m E 1834 m
8 A tower 80 m high is 1.3 km away from a point on the ground. The angle of elevation to the
top of the tower from this point, correct to the nearest degree, is
A 1
B 4
C 53
D 86
E 89
9 A man walks 5 km due east followed by 7 km due south. The bearing he must take to return
to the start is
A 036
B 306
C 324
D 332
E 348
B 055
C 090
D 215
E 250
and C = 90
.
Find
a the length of the diagonal AC b the area of triangle ABC
c the area of triangle ADC d the area of the quadrilateral.
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Chapter 12 Trigonometric ratios and applications 361
5 If sin x = sin 37
and x is obtuse, nd x.
6 A point T is 10 km due north of a point S, and a point R, which is east of a straight line
joining T and S, is 8 km from T and 7 km from S. Calculate the cosine of the bearing of R
from S.
7 In ABC, AB = 5 cm, magnitude of BAC = 60
. Find
a i the magnitude of TAB
ii the magnitude of ATB
b Given that sin 15
2
4
, nd
AT and BT.
10 A boat sails 11 km from a harbour on a bearing of 220
to a check point B. It
then ies due east to its base C.
a If the bearing of C from A is 120
on a bearing of
120
.
a Find the magnitude of angles ACB, CBO and CBA.
b Find the length of BC.
c Find the height of the hill, i.e. the length of OB.
O
C
B
A
2 The angle of a sector of a circle, centre O and radius length
12 cm has magnitude 2.5 radians. The sector is folded
so that OA and OA
.
a Find the magnitude of angles TAB, ABT and ATB.
b Use the sine rule to nd the length of AB.
c Find CB, the height of the hill.
T
110 m
10
7
C A
B
A
O
S
B
120 m
59
57
4 Point S is a distance of 120 m from the base of a building.
On the building is an aerial, AB. The angle of elevation
from S to A is 57
. Find
a the distance OA
b the distance OB
c the distance AB.
5 From the top of a communications tower, the angles of
depression of two points A and B on a horizontal line through
the foot of the tower are 30
and 40
B 39
C 51
D 54
E 63
2.6 m
2.1 m
2 The graph shown has amplitude
A 2 B 3 C 4
D 6 E 2
x
y
2
4
0
2
3 Which one of the following equations gives the
correct value for c?
A c =
58 cos 38
cos 130
B c =
58 sin 38
sin 130
C c = 58 sin 38
D c =
58 cos 130
cos 38
E c =
58 sin 130
sin 38
58 cm
12 38
130
B
A
C
4 A map is drawn so that a wall 17.1 m long is represented by a line 45 mm long. The scale
is
A 1 : 3.8 B 1 : 38 C 1 : 380 D 1 : 3800 E 1 : 38000
5 The point (5, 2) is reected in the line y = x. The coordinates of its image are
A (5, 2) B (5, 2) C (2, 5) D (2, 5) E (5, 2)
6 If sin A =
5
13
, sin B =
8
17
where A and B are acute, then sin (A B) is given by
A
140
221
B
21
221
C
34 209
23 560
D
107
140
E
107
140
363
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364 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
7 In triangle ABC, c = 5, b = 9 and A = 43
2
3
x
6
B
1
2
6 7 cos 48
C
1
2
6 7 sin 52
D
1
2
6 7 cos 52
E
1
2
6 7 tan 48
A
B
C
6 cm
7 cm
48 52
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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812 365
16 Given that cos = c and that is acute, cot can be expressed in terms of c as
A c
1 c
2
B
1 c
2
C
1
1 c
2
D
c
1 c
2
E 2c
1 c
2
17 A trigonometric graph has the following characteristics:
r
period of 120
r
amplitude is 3
r
range is [4, 2]
r
y = 1 when a = 0
This graph would be described by the equation
A y = 3 sin (a)
+1 B y = 3 cos (3a)
1 C y = 3 sin (3a)
1
D y = 3 sin (3a)
+1 E y = cos (3a)
2
18 The point (a, b) is reected in the line with equation x = m. The image point has
coordinates
A (2m a, b) B (a, 2m b) C (a m, b)
D (a, b m) E (2m +a, b)
19 A child on a swing travels through an arc of length 3 m. If the ropes of the swing are 4 m
in length, the angle which the arc makes at the top of the swing (where the swing is
attached to the support) is best approximated by
A 135
B 75
C 12
D 75
c
E 42
58
1
2
has
A the same amplitude but double the period
B the same amplitude but half the period
C double the amplitude but the same period
D half the amplitude but the same period
E the same amplitude but shifted
1
2
a unit to the left.
21 The image of the line {(x, y) : x + y = 4} after a dilation of factor
1
2
from the y axis
followed by a reection in x = 4 is
A {(x, y) : y = 2x} B {(x, y) : y +2 = 0} C {(x, y) : y +2x 16 = 0}
D {(x, y) : x + y = 0} E {(x, y) : y = 2x 12}
22 If A + B =
2
, the value of cos A cos B sin A sin B is
A 2 B 1 C 1 D 0 E 2
23 Given that sin A =
5
3
and that A is obtuse, the value of sin 2A is
A
16
5
243
B
1
9
C
8
5
27
D
5
9
E
4
5
9
24 A ladder rests against a wall, touching the wall at a height of 5.6 m. The bottom of the
ladder is 2 m from the wall. The distance (to the nearest centimetre) that a person, of
height 1.6 m, must be from the wall to just t under the ladder is
A 1.43 m B 0.57 m C 1.75 m D 0.25 m E 1.2 m
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366 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
25 A possible equation of the graph shown is
A y = sin 2
x
12
B y = cos 2
x
12
C y = sin 2
x +
12
D y = cos 2
x +
12
E y = sin 2
x
12
x
y
0
1
12
3
4
26 Let ABC and DEF be similar triangles such that AB = 4 cm and DE = 10 cm. If the
area of ABC is 24 cm
2
, then the area of DEF, in cm
2
, is
A 60 B 240 C 150 D 96 E none of these
27 Which of the following statements is true for f (x) = 2 tan (3x)
?
i The period is 60. ii The amplitude is 2. iii The period is 120.
iv The graph is a reection of the graph of h(x) = 2 tan (3x)
in the x axis.
v The graph is a reection of g(x) = tan (x)
in the y axis.
A i and iv only B i, ii and iv only C i, iv and v only
D ii and iv only E iii and iv only
28 The image of {(x, y) : y = x
2
} under a translation determined by the vector
3
2
followed
by a reection in the x axis is
A {(x, y) : y = (x 3)
2
+2} B {(x, y) : (x 3)
2
= y +2}
C {(x, y) : y = (x +3)
2
+2} D {(x, y) : y +2 = (x 3)
2
} E none of these
29 The area, in cm
2
correct to two decimal places, of a sector with included angle of 60
in a
circle of diameter 10 cm is
A 104.72 cm
2
B 52.36 cm
2
C 13.09 cm
2
D 26.16 cm
2
E 750 cm
30 KLMN is a parallelogram and OQ is parallel to KL.
If O divides KN in the ratio of 1 : 2,
the ratio
areaKOP
areaKLMN
is equal to
A
1
4
B
1
9
C
1
12
D
1
18
E
1
20
K
N
L
M
P
O
Q
31 VABCD is a right, square pyramid with base length 80 mm and
perpendicular height 100 mm. The angle between a sloping
face and the base ABCD, to the nearest degree, is
A 22
B 29
C 51
D 61
E 68
A
B
C
D
V
E
O
32 Given that cos = c and that is acute, sin 2 can be expressed in terms of c as
A c
1 c
2
B
1 c
2
C
1
1 c
2
D
c
1 c
2
E 2c
1 c
2
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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812 367
33 The image of {(x, y) : y = 2
x
} after a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis followed by a
dilation of factor
1
3
from the y axis is
A y =
1
3
2
3x
B y = 3 2
x
2
C y = 2 2
3x
D y = 2 2
x
3
E none of these
34 The angles between 0
and 360
and 126.87
B 48.41
and 205.33
C 41.59
and 244.67
D 131.59
and 334.67
E 154.67
and 311.59
1
2
x
4
+3
B y = tan
1
2
x +
4
3
C y = 3 tan
1
2
x
4
D y = 3 tan
1
2
x +
4
E y = tan 3x
x
y
3
3
2
2
3
2
39 If the ratio volume of the hemisphere : volume of the right circular cone equals 27 : 4
where r is the radius of the base of the cone and R is the radius of the hemisphere,
then R : r is equal to
R
r
r
A 1 : 2 B 2 : 3 C 3 :
2 D 27 : 8 E 3 : 2
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368 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
40 Let T be the translation determined by the vector
2
3
1 0
0 1
0 1
2 1
.
x
y
1
1
0
(1, 1)
Which one of the following shows the image of the square after these two
transformations?
A
x
y
1 3
1
2
0
B
1 1
3
2
1
2
0
x
y
C
2 1 1
2
0
1
3
x
y
D
x
y
1
1
2
1
1
0
E
x
y
2
1
3
1
1
0
13.2 Extendedresponse questions
1 a Find the rule of the transformation which
maps triangle ABC to triangle A
.
b On graph paper, draw triangle ABC and its
image under reection in the x axis. The
coordinates of A, B and C are (4, 1), (2, 1)
and (2, 5) respectively.
c On the same set of axes draw the image of
ABC under a dilation of factor 2 from
the y axis.
d Find the image of the parabola y = x
2
under a dilation of factor 2 from the x axis
followed by a translation dened by the vector
3
2
.
y
2 4
0
1
8
4
5
4 2
A B
C
C'
A' B'
x
(contd.)
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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812 369
e Find the rule for the transformation which maps the graph of
y = x
2
to y = 2(x 3)
2
+4
f If f (x) = x
3
2x use a graphics calculator to help sketch the graph of
y = 3 f (x 2) +4
2 In ABC, A = 30
and BC
A
b Find the length of line segment
i AC ii AC
iii CC
A
C
C'
B
80
30
60 60
c i Show that the magnitude of CBC
is 96.38
2
1
.
iii Sketch the graph of y = x
2
and of its image dened in ii on the one set of axes.
State the coordinates of the vertex and of the axes intercepts.
e State the rule for the transformation which maps the curve with equation
y = 5(x +2)
2
3 to the curve with equation y = x
2
.
4 A transformation is represented by the matrix M=
3
5
4
5
4
5
3
5
.
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370 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 A transformation is dened by the matrix M=
4 1
2 3
.
a Find the image of (2, 5) under this transformation. b Find the inverse of M.
c Given that the point (11, 13) is the image of the point (a, b), nd the values of
a and b.
d Find in terms of a, the image of the point (a, a).
e If M
a
b
a
b
, y
and y
.
ii Find the image of y = x
2
under this transformation.
7 A particle oscillates along a straight line. Its displacement x (m), at time t (s), from a point
O is given by x = 5 +3 sin
6
t
.
a Find its displacement at time
i t = 0 ii t = 3
b Sketch the graph of x against t for t [0, 24], labelling clearly all turning points.
c State
i the maximum distance of the particle from O
ii the minimum distance of the particle from O.
d At what times (t [0, 24]) is the particle
i 5 m from O ii 6 m from O, correct to two decimal places?
8 A logo for a Victorian team is as shown here. O is the
centre of the circle and A, B and C are points on the
circle. OC = OA = OB = 10 cm.
a i Convert 30
to radians.
ii Find the length of the minor arc AB.
b The magnitude of AOC is 167
and the
magnitude of BOC is 163
.
Find the length of chord BC, correct to two
decimal places.
167 163
30
A
O
C
B
c Find, correct to two decimal places,
i the area of triangle BOC ii the area of triangle AOC
iii the shaded area of the logo.
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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812 371
9 Triangle LMN is an isosceles, rightangled triangle.
P, Q and R are midpoints of LM, MN and LN respectively.
a Prove PRQ LMN. b State the scale factor.
c Find the area of triangle PQR in terms of a.
X, Y and Z are the midpoints of PR, PQ and RQ
respectively.
XYZ is similar to LMN.
a units
a units
R
L
X
P
Y
Z
N
Q M
d State the scale factor.
e Find the area of triangle XYZ in terms of a.
f Let A
1
be the area of triangle LMN.
Let A
2
be the area of triangle PQR.
Let A
3
be the area of triangle XYZ.
The process of forming triangles by joining midpoints of the previous triangle is
continued to form a sequence of triangles,
1
,
2
,
3
, . . . ,
n
, . . . and associated
areas A
1
, A
2
, A
3
, . . . , A
n
, . . .
i Find A
n
in terms of a and n.
ii Find in terms of a, the sum to innity of the series A
1
+ A
2
+ + A
n
+
10 It is known that y varies partly as x and partly as
1
x
2
; i.e. there exist constants k
1
and k
2
such that y = k
1
x +
k
2
x
2
.
a When x = 1, y = 1 and when x = 1, y = 5.
Find the values of k
1
and k
2
.
b The graph of y against x is as shown.
i Sketch the graph of the image of
y = k
1
x +
k
2
x
2
under the transformation
determined by reection in the x axis
followed by a translation determined
by the vector
3
0
.
(The answers to parts ii, iii and iv
below may help you answer this.)
ii Find the value of c and hence the
x axis intercept of the image.
iii The image of the point with coordinates
(e, f ) is (e
, f
). Find e
and f
in terms
of e and f.
x
y
y = k
1
x +
x
2
k
2
y = k
1
x
(c, 0)
(e, f )
0
iv Find the equation of the image of the curve with equation y = k
1
x +
k
2
x
2
under
this transformation.
11 Let M be the transformation reection in the line y = x
.
a i Find the coordinates of the image of the point A (1, 3) under this transformation.
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372 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
ii Find the coordinates of the triangle which is the image of the triangle with vertices
A (1, 3), B (1, 5), C (3, 3).
iii Illustrate triangle ABC and its image on a set of axes scaled from 5 to 5 on both
axes.
b i Show that the equation of the image of the curve with equation y = x
2
2 under
the transformation M is x = y
2
2.
ii Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the curve y = x
2
2 with the
line y = x.
iii Show that the x coordinates of the points of intersection of y = x
2
2 and its
image may be determined by the equation x
4
4x
2
x +2 = 0.
iv Two solutions of the equation x
4
4x
2
x +2 = 0 are x =
1
2
(1 +
5) and
x =
1
2
(1
5).
Use this result and the result of b ii to nd the coordinates of the points of
intersection of y = x
2
2 and its image under M.
12 In the gure, AE = BE = BD = 1 unit.
BCD is a right angle.
a Show that the magnitude of BDE is 2.
b Use the cosine rule in triangle BDE to show that
DE = 2 cos 2.
A
B
D
E
C
1 1
1
3
c Show that
i DC = sin 3
ii AD =
sin 3
sin
d Use the results of b and c to show sin 3 = 3 sin 4 sin
3
. Two
other people, Brian and Colin, who are both standing due east of Adam, claim the tree
is 150 m away from them. Given that their claim is true and that Brian and Colin are
not standing in the same place, how far apart are they? Give your answer to the nearest
metre.
b From the top of a vertical tower of height 10 m,
standing in the corner of a rectangular courtyard,
the angles of depression to the nearest corners
(B and D) are 32
and 19
respectively.
Find
i AB, correct to two decimal places
T
A
B
C
D
ii AD, correct to two decimal places
iii the angle of depression of corner C diagonally opposite the tower from T, correct
to the nearest degree.
c Two circles, each of radius length 10 cm, have their centres 16 cm apart. Calculate the
area common to both circles, correct to one decimal place.
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Chapter 13 Revision of chapters 812 373
14 A satellite travelling in a circular orbit 1600 km
above the Earth is due to pass directly over a
tracking station at noon. Assume that the
satellite takes two hours to make an orbit and
the radius of the Earth is 6400 km.
a If the tracking station antenna is aimed
at 30
at the point E.
Let AB = CD = x, AD = BC = y, BD = p,
AC = q.
a Apply the cosine rule to triangle DEC to
nd x in terms of p, q and .
A
B C
E
D
+2b
= 2(a +b)
= 2APB
Note: In the proof presented above, the centre and point P are considered to be on the same side
of chord AB.
The proof is not dependent on this and the result always holds.
The converse of this result also holds:
i.e., if A and B are points on a circle with centre O and angle APB is equal to half angle
AOB, then P lies on the circle.
A segment of a circle is the part of the plane bounded by
an arc and its chord.
Arc AEB and chord AB dene a major segment which
is shaded.
Arc AFB and chord AB dene a minor segment which is not
shaded.
E
A
F
B
AEB is said to be an angle in segment AEB.
A
E
B
O
Theorem 2
Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
Proof
Let AXB = x
and AYB = y
= 2y
Therefore x = y
A
X
x
y
Y
B
O
Theorem 3
The angle subtended by a diameter at the circumference is equal
to a right angle (90
).
Proof
The angle subtended at the centre is 180
.
Theorem 1 gives the result.
A
E
B
O
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Chapter 14 Circle theorems 377
A quadrilateral which can be inscribed in a circle is called a cyclic quadrilateral.
Theorem 4
The opposite angles of a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle sum to two right angles (180
). (The
opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral are supplementary). The converse of this result also
holds.
Proof
O is the centre of the circle
By Theorem 1 y = 2b and x = 2d
Also x + y = 360
Therefore 2b +2d = 360
i.e. b +d = 180
The converse states: if a quadrilateral has opposite angles supplementary then the quadrilateral
is inscribable in a circle.
A
b
x
y
d
B
C
D
O
Example 1
Find the value of each of the pronumerals in the diagram. O is the
centre of the circle and AOB = 100
.
A
z
x
y
100
B
O
Solution
Theorem 1 gives that z = y = 50
The value of x can be found by observing either of the
following.
Reex angle AOB is 260
.
Exercise 14A
1 Find the values of the pronumerals for each of the following, where O denotes the centre of
Example 1
the given circle.
a
50
x
O
y
b
108
x
O
y
z
c
35
O
y
z
d
O
y
x
e
O
y
3x
z
x
f
O
y x
25
125
2 Find the value of the pronumerals for each of the following.
a
x
y
59
112
b
x y
93
68
c
x
y
70
130
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Chapter 14 Circle theorems 379
3 An isosceles triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. What are the
angles in the three minor segments cut off by the sides of the
triangle?
40
A
C B
4 ABCDE is a pentagon inscribed in a circle. If AE = DE and BDC = 20
,
CAD = 28
and ABD = 70
OP = OQ (radii)
Therefore XP = XQ
X
P
O
Q
r
r
Alternate segment theorem
The shaded segment is called the alternate segment in
relation to STQ.
The unshaded segment is alternate to PTS
P
T
Q
S
Theorem 7
The angle between a tangent and a chord drawn from the
point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate segment.
Proof
Let STQ = x
, RTS = y
and TRS = z
where RT is
a diameter.
Then RST = 90
O
P
z
y
x
X
R
Q
S
T
Example 4
Find the magnitude of the angles x and y in
the diagram.
P
T
S
Q x
y
30
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Chapter 14 Circle theorems 381
Solution
Triangle PTS is isosceles (Theorem 6, two tangents from the same point) and
therefore PTS = PST
Hence y = 75. The alternate segment theorem gives that x = y = 75
Example 5
Find the values of x and y.
PT is tangent to the circle centre O
60
x
y
T
P
O Solution
x = 30 as the angle at the circumference is half
the angle subtended at the centre and y = 60 as
OTP is a right angle.
Example 6
The tangents to a circle at F and G meet at H. If a chord FK is
drawn parallel to HG, prove that triangle FGK is isosceles.
Solution
Let XGK = y
Then GFK = y
(alternate angles)
Therefore triangle FGK is isosceles with FG = KG
H
F
Y
G
K
X
y
Exercise 14B
1 Find the value of the pronumerals for each of the following. T is the point of contact of the
Example 4
tangent and O the centre of the circle.
a
81
x
y
73
T
b
33
x
q
T
O
c
BC = BT
74
z
y
x
T
C
B
d
80
40
w
y
x
z
e
w
Q
S
T
P
z
y
x
54
S and T are points of
contact of tangents
from P.
TP is parallel to QS
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382 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
2 A triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle, and the tangent at C
Example 5
to the circle is parallel to the bisector of angle ABC.
A
B
D
C
Y
X
40
a Find the magnitude of BCX.
b Find the magnitude of CBD, where D is the point
of intersection of the bisector of angle ABC with AC.
c Find the magnitude of ABC.
3 AT is a tangent at A and TBC is a secant to the circle. Given
CTA = 30
, CAT = 110
PT
PA
=
PB
PT
which implies PT
2
= PA PB
T
P
A
B
Example 7
The arch of a bridge is to be in the form of an arc of a circle. The span of the bridge is to be
25 m and the height in the middle 2 m. Find the radius of the circle.
Solution
By Theorem 8
RP PQ = MP PN
Therefore
2PQ = 12.5
2
PQ =
12.5
2
2
Also PQ = 2r 2 where r is the radius of the circle.
Hence 2r 2 =
12.5
2
2
and r =
1
2
12.5
2
2
+2
=
641
16
m
R
N
Q
O
2 m
M
12.5 m
P
12.5 m
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384 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 8
If r is the radius of a circle, with center O, and if A is any point inside the circle, show that the
product CA AD = r
2
OA
2
, where CD is a chord through A.
Solution
Let PQ be a diameter through A
Theorem 8 gives that
CA AD = QA AP
Also QA = r OA and PA = r +OA
CA AD = r
2
OA
2
Q
C
A
O
P
D
Exercise 14C
1 Two chords AB and CD intersect at a point P within a circle. Given that
Example 7
a AP = 5 cm, PB = 4 cm, CP = 2 cm, nd PD
b AP = 4 cm, CP = 3 cm, PD = 8 cm, nd PB.
2 If AB is a chord and P is a point on AB such that AP = 8 cm, PB = 5 cm and P is 3 cm
from the centre of the circle, nd the radius.
3 If AB is a chord of a circle with centre O and P is a point on AB such that BP = 4PA,
OP = 5 cm and the radius of the circle is 7 cm, nd AB.
4 Two circles intersect at A and B and, from any point P on AB produced tangents PQ and PR
Example 8
are drawn to the circles. Prove that PQ = PR.
5 PQ is a variable chord of the smaller of two xed concentric circles.
PQ produced meets the circumference of the larger circle at R. Prove that the product
RP.RQ is constant for all positions and lengths of PQ.
6 ABC is an isosceles triangle with AB = AC. A line through A meets BC at D and the
circumcircle of the triangle at E. Prove that AB
2
= AD AE.
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Chapter 14 Circle theorems 385
Chapter summary
The angle subtended at the circumference is half the angle at
the centre subtended by the same arc.
2
O
B A
Angles in the same segment of a circle are equal.
B
O
A
A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius
drawn from the point of contact.
O
T
P
The two tangents drawn from an external point are
the same length i.e. PT = PT
.
T
P
T'
O
The angle between a tangent and a chord drawn from
the point of contact is equal to any angle in the alternate
segment.
A
B
A quadrilateral is cyclic if and only if the sum of each pair of opposite angles is two right
angles.
If AB and CD are two chords of a circle which cut at a point P then PA PB = PC PD.
C
B
D
P
A
A
B
C
D
P
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386 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Multiplechoice questions
1 In the diagram A, B, C and D are points on the circumference
of a circle. ABC = 115
, BAD = 70
B 55
C 40
D 70
E 50
B
C
70
115
D
A
2 In the diagram, PA and PB are tangents to the circle centre O. Given that Q is a point on the
minor arc AB and that AOB = 150
B APB = 40
C APB = 25
D APB = 30
E APB = 25
150
A
Q
P
B
O
3 A circle centre O, passes through A, B and C. AT is the
tangent to the circle at A. CBT is a straight line. Given
that ABO = 68
and OBC = 20
the magnitude of
ATB is
A 60
B 64
C 65
D 70
E 66
O
C
20
B
T
68
A
4 In the diagram the points A, B and C lie on a circle centre O.
BOC = 120
and ACO = 42
B 20
C 22
D 24
E 26
A
O
42
C
120
B
5 ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral with AD parallel to BC.
DCB = 65
B 110
C 115
D 120
E 122
D A
B
E
C
6 A chord AB of a circle subtends an angle of 50
B 65
C 75
D 85
E 82
13 C 2
13 D 14 E 8
A
13 cm
O
5 cm
N
B
P
Q
9 In the diagram A, B, C and D are points on the circumference
of a circle. ABD = 40
.
The magnitude of XDC is
A 35
B 40
C 45
D 50
E 55
B
C
105
40
A
X
D
10 A, B, C and D are points on a circle, centre O such that AC is a
diameter of the circle. If BAD = 75
and ACD = 25
B 15
C 20
D 25
E 30
B
C
D
25
O
75
A
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Find the value of the pronumerals in each of the following.
a
y
O
140
x
b
x
50
75
y
O
c
x
53
z
y
47
d
x
z
30
70
y
2 O is the centre of a circle and OP is any radius. A chord BA is drawn parallel to OP. OA and
BP intersect at C. Prove that
a CAB = 2CBA b PCA = 3PBA
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388 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 A chord AB of a circle, centre O, is produced to C. The straight line bisecting OAB meets
the circle at E. Prove that EB bisects OBC
4 Two circles intersect at A and B. The tangent at B to one circle meets the second again at D,
and a straight line through A meets the rst circle at P and the second at Q. Prove that BP is
parallel to DQ.
5 Find the values of the pronumerals for each of the following:
a
x
57
b
64
x
c
y
x
48
6 Two circles intersect at M and N. The tangent to the rst at M meets the second circle at P,
while the tangent to the second at N meets the rst at Q. Prove that MN
2
= NP QM.
7 If AB = 10 cm, BE = 5 cm and CE = 25 cm, nd DE.
A
B
D
C
E
Extendedresponse questions
1 The diagonals PR and QS of a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS intersect
at X. The tangent at P is parallel to QS. Prove that
a PQ = PS
b PR bisects QRS.
R
Q
X
S P
2 Two circles intersect at A and B. The tangents at C and D
intersect at T on AB produced. If CBD is a straight line
prove that
a TCAD is a cyclic quadrilateral
b TAC = TAD
c TC = TD.
A
T
D
B
C
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Chapter 14 Circle theorems 389
3 ABCD is a trapezium in which AB is parallel to DC and the diagonals meet at P.
The circle through D, P and C touches AD, BC at D and C respectively.
Prove that
a BAC = ADB
b the circle through A, P and D touches BA at A
c ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.
A
B
C
P
D
4 PQRS is a square of side length 4 cm inscribed in a circle with
centre O. M is the midpoint of the side PS. QM is produced to
meet RS produced at X.
a Prove that:
i XPR is isosceles
ii PX is a tangent to the circle at P.
P
Q
R
O
M
4 cm S
X
b Calculate the area of trapezium PQRX.
5 a An isosceles triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. AB = AC and chord AD intersects BC
at E. Prove that
AB
2
AE
2
= BE CE
b Diameter AB of circle with centre O is extended to C and from C a line is drawn tangent
to the circle at P. PT is drawn perpendicular to AB at T. Prove that
CA CB TA TB = CT
2
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C H A P T E R
15
Vectors
Objectives
To understand the concept of vector
To apply basic operations to vectors
To understand the zero vector
To use the unit vectors i and j to represent vectors in two dimensions
To use the fact that, if a and b are parallel, then a = kb for a real value k. The
converse of this also holds.
To use the unit vectors i, j and k to represent vectors in three dimensions
15.1 Introduction to vectors
For experiments in science or engineering some of the things which are measured are
completely determined by their magnitude. For example, mass, length or time are determined
by a number and an appropriate unit of measurement.
e.g., length: 30 cm is the length of the page of a particular book
time: 10 s is the time for one athlete to run 100 m
More is required to describe velocity, displacement or force. The direction must be recorded
as well as the magnitude.
e.g., displacement: 30 km in a direction north
velocity: 60 km/h in a direction south east
Quantities that have direction as well as magnitude are represented by arrows that point in
the direction of the action and whose lengths give the magnitude of the quantity in terms of a
suitably chosen unit.
Arrows with the same length and direction are regarded as equivalent. These arrows are
directed line segments and the sets of equivalent segments are called vectors.
390
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Chapter 15 Vectors 391
The ve directed line segments shown all have the same
magnitude and direction.
y
A
B
D
C
O
P
x
F
E
G
H
A directed line segment from a point A to a point B is
denoted by
AB.
For simplicity of language this is also called vector
AB,
i.e., the set of equivalent segments can be named through
one member of that set.
Note:
AB =
CD =
OP =
EF =
GH
In Chapter 8, vectors were introduced in the context of
translations (in two dimensions). A column of numbers
was introduced to represent the translation and it was
called a vector.
This is consistent with the approach here as the column
of numbers corresponds to a set of equivalent directed
line segments.
The column
3
2
.
Addition of vectors
Two vectors u and v can be added geometrically by drawing
a line segment representing u from A to B and then a line
segment from B to C representing v.
The sum u +v is the vector from A to C.
That is, u +v =
AC.
C
v
B
u
A
u + v
C
v
B
u
u + v
u
D
v
A
The same result is achieved if the order is reversed. This is
represented in the following diagram
i.e. u +v =
AC
and u +v = v +u
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392 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The addition can also be achieved with the column
vector notation.
e.g., if u =
4
1
and v =
1
3
then u +v =
4
1
1
3
3
4
3
v
u
1
4
4
1
3
u + v
Scalar multiplication
Multiplication by a real number (scalar) changes the length of
the vector.
u
2u
u
1
2
e.g., 2u = u +u and
1
2
u +
1
2
u = u
2u is twice the length of u and
1
2
u is half the length of u.
The vector ku, k R
+
, with u = 0, has the same direction as u, but its length is
multiplied by a factor of k.
When a vector is multiplied by 2 the vectors direction is reversed
and its length doubled.
u
2u
When a vector is multiplied by 1 the vectors direction is reversed
and the length remains the same.
If u =
3
2
, u =
3
2
, 2u =
6
4
and 2u =
6
4
If u =
AB then u =
AB =
BA.
The directed line segment
AB goes from B to A.
Zero vector
The zero vector is denoted by 0 and represents a line segment of zero length. The zero vector
has no direction.
Subtraction of vectors
In order to subtract v from u, add v to u.
For example
u
v
v
u
u v
v
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Chapter 15 Vectors 393
Example 1
Draw the directed line segment dened by
3
2
.
Solution
3
2
a
b
, nd a and b.
Solution
The vector u =
3
1
2
6
1
5
Hence a = 1 and b = 5
x
y
A
0
B
(3, 1)
(2, 6)
Example 3
If the vector u =
3
1
2
2
, nd 2u +3v.
Solution
2u +3v = 2
3
1
+3
2
2
6
2
6
6
0
4
Polygons of vectors
For two vectors
AB and
BC,
AB +
BC =
AC
B
A
C
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394 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
For a polygon ABCDEF,
AB +
BC +
CD +
DE +
EF +
FA = 0
B
C
F E
D
A
Example 4
Illustrate the vector sum
AB +
BC +
CD, where A, B, C and D are points in the plane.
Solution
AB +
BC +
CD =
AD
B
C
A
D
Parallel vectors
The nonzero vectors u and v are said to be parallel if there exists k R\{0} such that u = kv.
If u =
2
3
and v =
6
9
BC =
1
2
b (same direction and half the length)
b
DC =
BD =
1
2
b (equivalent vectors)
c
AC =
AB +
BC = a +b
d
AD =
AB +
BD = a +
1
2
b
e
CA =
AC = (a +b) (
CA +
AC = 0)
Example 6
In the gure,
DC = kp where k R\{0}.
a Express p in terms of k, q and r.
b Express
FE in terms of k and p to show FE is parallel to DC.
c If
FE = 4
AB, nd the value of k.
A
p
B
r
q
D C
r
F
q
E
Solution
a p =
AB =
AD +
DC +
CB
= q +kp r
(1 k)p = q r
and hence p =
1
1 k
(q r)
b
FE = 2q +p +2r
= 2(r q) +p
But r q = kp p = (k 1)p . . . from a
FE = 2kp 2p +p
= (2k 1)p
c If
FE = 4
AB
(2k 1)p = 4p
2k 1 = 4
k =
5
2
Exercise 15A
1 On the same graph, draw the arrows which represent the following vectors.
Example 1
a
1
5
0
2
1
2
4
3
a
b
,
Example 2
nd a and b.
3 The vector v is dened by the directed line segment from (1, 5) to (2, 10). If
v =
a
b
, nd a and b.
4 A = (1, 2), B = (3, 0), C = (2, 3) and O is the origin. Express the following vectors
in the form
a
b
.
a
OA b
AB c
BC d
CO e
CB
5 A = (2, 3), B = (4, 0), C = (1, 4) and O is the origin. Sketch the following vectors.
Example 4
a
OA b
AB c
BC d
CO e
CB
6 On graph paper, sketch the vectors joining the following pairs of points in the direction
indicated.
a (0, 0) (2, 1) b (3, 4) (0, 0) c (1, 3) (3, 4)
d (2, 4) (4, 3) e (2, 2) (5, 1) f (1, 3) (3, 0)
7 Identify vectors from 6 which are parallel to each other.
8 a Plot the points A (1, 0) , B (1, 4) , C (4, 3) , D (2, 1) on a set of coordinate axes.
b Sketch the vectors
AB,
BC,
AD, and
DC.
c Show that
i
AB =
DC ii
BC =
AD
d Describe the shape of the quadrilateral ABCD.
9 Let a =
1
2
, b =
1
3
and c =
2
1
.
Example 3
a Find
i a +b ii 2c a iii a +b c
b Show that a +b is parallel to c.
10 Find the values of m and n such that m
3
3
+n
2
4
19
61
A
M
B
C
N
D
11 In the gure A, B, C, D are the vertices of a parallelogram.
AB = a and
AD = b
M, N are the midpoints of AB and DC respectively.
a Express the following in terms of a and b.
i
MD ii
MN
b Find the relationship between
MN and
AD.
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Chapter 15 Vectors 397
12 The gure represents the triangle ABC with
AB = a
and
AC = b.
M, N are midpoints of
AB and
AC respectively.
a Express
CB and
MN in terms of a and b.
b Hence describe the relation between the
two vectors (or directed line segments).
A
M
C
N
B
13 The gure represents the regular hexagon ABCDEF
Example 5
with vectors
AF = a and
AB = b.
Express the following vectors in terms of a and b.
a
CD b
ED c
BE d
FC
e
FA f
FB
g
FE
B
A F
E
D C
14 In parallelogram ABCD,
AB = a and
BC = b. Express each of the following vectors in
Example 6
terms of a and b.
a
DC b
DA c
AC d
CA e
BD
15 In triangle OAB,
OA = a and
OB = b. P is a point on AB such that
AP = 2
PB and Q is a
point such that
OP = 3
PQ. Express each of the following in terms of a and b.
a
BA b
PB c
OP d
PQ e
BQ
16 PQRS is a quadrilateral in which
PQ = u,
QR = v,
CM, express
CP in terms of u and v.
d Find
OP and hence show that P lies on
OB.
e Find the ratio OP : PB.
x
y
B(5, 7)
A(2, 3)
X
O
15.2 Components of vectors
The vector
AB illustrated opposite can be described
by the column vector
3
4
AB =
AX +
XB.
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398 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
In column vector notation
3
4
3
0
0
4
1
0
and j =
0
1
.
For the example above,
AX = 3i and
XB = 4j
Therefore
AB = 3i +4j.
It is possible to describe any twodimensional vectors in this way.
For a vector u =
x
y
x
2
+ y
2
Operations with vectors now look more like basic algebra.
(xi + yj) +(mi +nj) = (x +m) i +(y +n) j
k (xi + yj) = kxi +kyj
For a = xi + yj and b = mi +nj,
a = b if x = m and y = n
Example 7
a Find
AB if
OA = 3i and
OB = 2i j
b Find 2i 3j.
Solution
a
AB =
OA +
OB
= 3i +(2i j)
= i j
b 2i 3j =
4 +9 =
13
Example 8
A, B are points on the cartesian plane such that
OA = 2i +j and
OB = i 3j. Find
AB and 
AB.
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Chapter 15 Vectors 399
Solution
AB =
AO +
OB
=
OA +
OB
AB = (2i +j) +i 3j
= i 4j

AB =
1 +16 =
17
Unit vectors
A unit vector is a vector of length one unit (i and j are unit vectors).
The unit vector in the direction of a is a (pronounced a hat).
 a = 1 so a a = a
a =
a
a
or
1
a
a
Example 9
Let a = 3i +4j.
Find a, the magnitude of a, and hence the unit vector in the direction of a.
Solution
a = 3i +4j so a =
x
2
+ y
2
=
3
2
+4
2
a = 5
a =
1
a
a
So a =
1
5
(3i +4j)
Exercise 15B
1 A, B are points on the cartesian plane such that
OA = i +2j and
OB = 3i 5j. Find
AB.
Example 7
2 OAPB is a rectangle in which the vector
OA = 5i and the vector
OB = 6j.
Express the following vectors in terms of i and j.
a
OP b
AB c
BA
3 Determine the magnitude of the following vectors.
Example 8
a 5i b 2j c 3i +4j d 5i +12j
4 The vectors u and v are given by u = 7i +8j and v = 2i 4j.
a Find u v.
b Find constants x and y such that xu + yv = 44j.
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400 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 In the triangle OAB,
OA = 10i and
OB = 4i +5j. If M is the midpoint of AB, nd
OM in
terms of i and j.
6 In the rectangle OPAQ,
OP = 2i and
OQ = j. M is the point on OP such that OM =
1
5
OP.
N is the point on MQ such that MN =
1
6
MQ.
a Find the following vectors in terms of i and j.
i
OM ii
MQ iii
MN iv
ON v
OA
b i Hence show that N is on the diagonal OA.
ii State the ratio of the lengths ON : NA.
7 The position vectors of A and B are given by
OA =
1
3
and
OB =
5
1
.
Find the distance between A and B.
8 Find the pronumerals in the following equations.
a 2i +3j = 2 (li +kj) b (x 1) i + yj = 5i +(x 4) j
c (x + y) i +(x y) j = 6i d k (i +j) = 3i 2j +l (2i j)
9 Let A = (2, 3) and B = (5, 1). Find
a
AB b 
AB
10 Let OA = 3i, OB = i +4j and OC = 3i +j. Find
a
AB b
AC c 
BC
11 Let A = (5, 1) , B = (0, 4) and C = (1, 0). Find
a D such that
AB =
CD b F such that
AF =
BC c G such that
AB = 2
GC
12 Let a = i +4j and b = 2i +2j. A, B and C are points such that
AO = a,
OB = b,
RQ and 
OR
15 A(1, 6), B(3, 1), C(13, 5) are the vertices of a triangle ABC
a Find
i 
AB ii 
BC iii 
CA
b Hence show that ABC is a rightangled triangle.
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Chapter 15 Vectors 401
16 A(4, 4), B(3, 1) and C(7, 3) are the vertices of the triangle ABC.
a Find the vector
i
AB ii
BC iii
CA
b Find
i 
AB ii 
BC iii 
CA
c Hence show that triangle ABC is an isosceles rightangled triangle.
17 A(3, 2), B(0, 7) are points on the cartesian plane. O is the origin. M is the
midpoint of AB.
a Find
i
OA ii
OB iii
BA iv
BM
b Hence nd the coordinates of M. (Hint:
OM =
OB +
BM)
18 Find the unit vector in the direction of each of the following vectors.
Example 9
a a = 3i +4j b b = 3i j c c = i +j
d d = i j
e e =
1
2
i +
1
3
j f f = 6i 4j
y
x
(x, y, z)
z
y
z
k
i
j
1
1
1
x
z
A
yj
zk
B x
xi
O
y
15.3 Vectors in three dimensions
Points in three dimensions (3D) are represented in axes
as shown. Vectors in 3D are of the form
a =
x
y
z
= xi + yj + zk where
i =
1
0
0
, j =
0
1
0
and k =
0
0
1
OA = xi + yj + zk
By Pythagoras theorem
OB
2
= x
2
+ y
2
and OA
2
= OB
2
+BA
2
= x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2

OA =
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
Example 10
Let a = i +j k and b = i +7k. Find
a a +b b b 3a c a
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Solution
a a +b = i +j k +i +7k = 2i +j +6k
b b 3a = i +7k 3(i +j k) = 2i 3j +10k
c a =
3
Example 11
OABCDEFG is a cuboid.
OA = 3j,
OC = k,
OD = i.
a Express each of the following in terms of i, j, k.
i
OE ii
OF iii
GF iv
GB
b M, N are the midpoints of
OD and
GF respectively.
Find MN.
D
G
C
O
F
B
A
E
Solution
a i
OE =
OA +
AE = 3j +i (
AE =
OD)
ii
OF =
OE +
EF = 3j +k +i (
EF =
OC)
iii
GF =
OA = 3j
iv
GB =
DA =
DO +
OA = i +3j
b
MN =
MD +
DN =
MD +
DG +
GN
=
1
2
i +k +
3
2
j

MN =
1
4
+1 +
9
4
=
14
2
Example 12
If a = 3i +2j +2k, nd a.
Solution
a =
9 +4 +4 =
17
a =
1
17
(3i +2j +2k)
=
3
17
i +
2
17
j +
2
17
k
Exercise 15C
1 Let a = i +j +2k, b = 2i j +3k, c = i +k. Find
Example 10
a a b b 3b 2a +c c b d b +c e 3(a b) +2c
2 If a = 3i +j k
Example 12
a nd
i a ii 2 a
b nd the vector b in the direction of a such that b = 5.
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3 If a = i j +5k and b = 2i j 3k nd the vector c in the direction of a such that
c = b.
4 P and Q are points dened by the position vectors i +2j k and 2i j k respectively.
M is the midpoint of
PQ. Find
a
PQ b 
PQ c
OM
G
D
C
O
F
B
E
A
5 OABCDEFG is a cuboid.
OA = 2j,
OC = 2k,
OD = i
Express the following vectors in terms of i, j and k.
a
OB b
OE c
OG d
OF
e
ED f
EG g
CE h
BD
Example 11
G
D
C
O
F
B
E
A
6 OABCDEFG is a cuboid.
OA = 3j,
OC = 2k,
OD = i
M is such that
OM =
1
3
OE.
N is the midpoint of BF. Find
a
MN b 
MN
15.4 Applications
Example 13
Three points P, Q, and R have position vectors p, q, and k(2p +q) respectively, relative to a
xed origin O. O, P and Q are not collinear. Find the value of k if
a
QR is parallel to p b
PR is parallel to q c P, Q and R are collinear.
Solution
a
QR =
QO +
OR
= q +k(2p +q)
= q +2kp +kq
If
QR is parallel to p, there exists R\{0} such that
(k 1)q +2kp = p
k 1 = 0 and 2k =
k = 1
b
PR =
PO +
OR
= p +k(2p +q)
= (2k 1)p +kq
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If
PR is parallel to q there exists m R\{0} such that
(2k 1)p +kq = mq
k =
1
2
c If P, Q and R are collinear there exists n R\{0} such that
n
PQ =
QR
n(p +q) = (k 1)q +2kp
k 1 = n and 2k = n
which implies 3k 1 = 0
i.e., k =
1
3
Exercise 15D
1 In the diagram OR =
4
5
OP,
OP = p,
OQ = q
and PS : SQ = 1 : 4.
a Express each of the following in terms of p and q.
i
OR ii
RP iii
PQ
iv
PS v
RS
b What can be said about line segments RS and OQ?
c What type of quadrilateral is ORSQ?
d The area of triangle PRS is 5 cm
2
. What is the area of ORSQ?
q
Q
O
p
P
S
R
2 The position vectors of three points A, B and C relative to an origin O are a, b and ka
respectively. The point P lies on AB and is such that AP = 2PB. The point Q lies on BC and
is such that CQ = 6QB.
a Find in terms of a and b
i the position vector of P
ii the position vector of Q
b Given that OPQ is a straight line, nd
i the value of k
ii the ratio
OP
PQ
c The position vector of a point R is
7
3
a. Show that PR is parallel to BC.
3 The position vectors of two points A and B relative to an origin O are 3i +3.5j and
Example 13
6i 1.5j respectively.
a i Given that
OD =
1
3
OB and
AE =
1
4
ED.
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Chapter 15 Vectors 405
b Given that OE and AD intersect at X and that
OX = p
OE and
XD = q
AD, nd the
position vector of X in terms of
i p ii q
c Hence determine the values of p and q.
4 The position vectors of P, Q with reference to an origin O are p and q and M is the point on
PQ such that
PM =
MQ
a Prove that the position vector of M is m where
m =
p +q
+
b The vector p = ka and the vector q = lb where k and l are positive real numbers and a
and b are unit vectors.
i Prove that the position vector of any point on the internal bisector of POQ has the
form (a +b)
ii If M is the point where the internal bisector of POQ meets PQ, show that
=
k
l
5 ORST is a parallelogram. U is the midpoint of RS and V is the midpoint of ST. Relative to
the origin O, r, s, t, u and v are the position vectors of R, S, T, U and V respectively.
a Express s in terms of r and t.
b Express v in terms of s and t.
c Hence or otherwise show that 4 (u +v) = 3 (r +s +t)
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Chapter summary
A vector is a set of equivalent directed line segments.
A directed line segment from a point A to a point B is denoted by
AB.
In two dimensions, a vector can be represented by a column of numbers, e.g.
2
3
is the
vector 2 across and 3 up.
The sum u +v can be shown diagrammatically
A
B
v
u
u + v
C
u +v = v +u
If u =
a
b
and v =
c
d
then u +v =
a +c
b +d
x
2
+ y
2
The unit vector in the direction of a is
a
a
. This vector is denoted by a.
In three dimensions a vector u can be written as u = xi + yj + zk, where i, j and k are unit
vectors as shown.
y
z
x
(x, y, z)
y
k
i
j
x
z
If u = xi + yj + zk, u =
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
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Chapter 15 Vectors 407
Multiplechoice questions
1 The vector v is dened by the directed line segment from (1, 1) to (3, 5). If v = ai +bj then
A a = 3 and b = 5 B a = 2 and b = 4 C a = 2 and b = 4
D a = 2 and b = 3 E a = 4 and b = 2
2 If vector
AB = u and vector
AC = v then vector
CB is equal to
A u +v B v u C u v D u v E v +u
3 If vector a =
1
2
and vector b =
2
3
then a +b =
A
1
5
1
5
1
1
1
1
3
1
4 If vector a =
3
2
and vector b =
1
3
then 2a 3b =
A
9
13
9
7
9
7
3
13
3
5
5 PQRS is a parallelogram. If
PQ = p and
QR = q, then in terms of p and q,
SQ equals
A p +q B p q C q p D 2q E 2p
6 3i 5j =
A 2 B
34 C 34 D 8 E 16
7 If
OA = 2i +3j and
OB = i 2j then
AB equals
A i 5j B i +5j C i j D i +j E i +j
8 If
OA = 2i +3j and
OB = i 2j then
AB
equals
A 6 B 26 C
26 D
24 E 36
9 If a = 2i +3j then the unit vector parallel to a is
A 2i +3j B
1
13
(2i +3j) C
1
5
(2i +3j)
D
1
13
(2i +3j) E
13(2i +3j)
10 If a = 3i +j +3k then a is
A
1
7
(3i +j +3k) B
1
7
(3i +j +3k) C
1
19
(3i +j +3k)
D
1
19
(3i +j +3k) E 3i +j +3k
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Given that a = 7i +6j and b = 2i + xj, nd the values of x for which
a a is parallel to b b a and b have the same magnitude.
2 ABCD is a parallelogram where
OA = 2i j,
AB = 3i +4j and
AD = 2i +5j. Find the
coordinates of the four vertices of the parallelogram.
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3 If a = 2i 3j +k, b = 2i 4j +5k and c = i 4j +2k, nd the values of p and
q if a +pb +qc is parallel to the x axis.
4 The position vectors of P and Q are 2i 2j +4k and 3i 7j +12k respectively.
Find
a 
OC
=
16
5
.
a Find the unit vector in the direction of
OA.
b Hence nd
OC.
7 In the diagram, ST = 2TQ,
PQ = a,
SR = 2a and
SP = b.
a Find each of the following in terms of a and b.
R
Q
a
P
b
S
T
2a
i
SQ ii
TQ iii
RQ
iv
PT v
TR
b Show that P, T and R are collinear.
8 If a = 5i sj +2k and b = t i +2j +uk are equal vectors, nd
a i s ii t iii u
b a
9 The vector p has magnitude 7 units and bearing 050
1
0
0
1
4
3
16
12
2
1
2
, b =
11
7
3
, c =
7
9
7
and d =
26
12
2
20
15
.
a Find the coordinates of Q, and write down the vector
QR.
b Write down the vector
RS, and show that the coordinates of S are (12, 32).
5 The diagram shows the path of a light beam from its source
at O in the direction of the vector r =
3
1
. At P the beam
is reected by an adjustable mirror and meets the x axis at
M. The position of M varies, depending on the adjustment
of the mirror at P.
O
P
M
r
a Given that
OP = 4r, nd the coordinates of P.
b The point M has coordinates (k, 0). Find in terms of k an expression for the vector
PM.
c Find the magnitudes of vectors
OP,
OM and
PM, and hence nd the value of k for
which is equal to 90
.
d Find the value for which M has coordinates (9, 0).
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C H A P T E R
16
Polar coordinates and
complex numbers
Objectives
To describe points on the plane using polar coordinates
To describe graphs with polar coordinates
To transform polar coordinates to cartesian coordinates
To transform cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates
To understand the imaginary number i
To understand the set of complex numbers C
To understand the realvalued functions of the complex numbers, Re(z) and Im(z)
To represent complex numbers graphically on an Argand diagram
To understand the rules which define equality, addition, subtraction and
multiplication of complex numbers
To understand the concept of the complex conjugate
To understand the operation of division by complex numbers
To understand the modulusargument form of a complex number and the basic
operations on complex numbers in that form
To understand the geometrical significance of multiplication and division of
complex numbers in the modulusargument form
To be able to factorise quadratic polynomials over C
To be able to solve quadratic polynomials over C
A new set of numbers called Complex numbers is introduced in this chapter. The need for this
new set of numbers can be equated to the need for a solution of the equation x
2
+1 = 0. A
geometric interpretation is also shown to be useful.
Complex numbers can be expressed in two ways, cartesian form and polar form. As a
preliminary to this, polar coordinates are introduced.
410
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 411
16.1 Polar coordinates
In previous work the cartesian coordinate system has been used to represent points in
twodimensional space. The point (x, y) is described in terms of its horizontal displacement (x)
and its vertical displacement (y) from a xed point called the origin (O).
An alternative way of locating the point P is to describe it in terms of its polar coordinates
[r, ] where r species the distance from the origin or pole and species the angle of the line
OP relative to the line OZ which extends to the right from O and is called the polar axis.
Note: An angle in an anticlockwise direction from OZ is
considered to be positive.
O Z
r
P[r, ]
For example, the point P[4, 60
] is located a
distance of 4 units along a line forming an angle
of 60
].
The angle = 120
[4, 120
].
P'
4
120
O
Z
60
4
120
O Z
P
P[4, 60
] or P[4, 240
].
Example 1
Plot the point P with coordinates [3, 30
].
Solution
3
30
O Z
P
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412 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The relationship between cartesian and
polar coordinates
If a set of cartesian axes is superimposed
over a polar axis, the relationship between
cartesian and polar coordinates can be
established.
x(Z)
y
O
r
r cos()
r sin()
P(x, y)
From the diagram
x = r cos 1
and y = r sin 2
The angle can be found by nding a solution which satises both equations 1 and 2
Squaring both sides of equations 1 and 2 and adding yields
x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
cos
2
+r
2
sin
2
= r
2
(cos
2
+sin
2
)
i.e. x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
Using these relationships, coordinates can be converted from cartesian to polar and vice versa.
Example 2
a Express (
2, 45
] in cartesian form.
Solution
a
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
sin =
1
2
= (
3)
2
+(1)
2
= 4 and cos =
3
2
r = 2 = 30
]
b
r =
2 and = 45
x =
2 cos 45
2
1
2
= 1
y =
2 sin 45
2
1
2
= 1
[
2, 45
r = 3 (1 cos (60
)) = 3
_
1
1
2
_
=
3
2
For = 180
, r = 3 (1 cos (180
))
= 3 (1 (1)) = 6
For = 90
, r = 3 (1 cos (90)) = 3
_
x
2
+ y
2
= 1 y
x
2
+ y
2
= 1 2y + y
2
x
2
= 2
_
y
1
2
_
y =
x
2
2
+
1
2
c
r = 3(1 cos )
r
2
= 3r 3r cos (Multiplying both sides of equation by r)
x
2
+ y
2
= 3
_
x
2
+ y
2
3x
x
2
+ y
2
+3x = 3
_
x
2
+ y
2
Exercise 16A
1 Plot each of the following points using a polar axis.
Example 1
a A[2, 30
] b B[3, 45
] c C[2, 60
] d D[4, 30
]
e E[5, 50
] f F[5, 50
] g G[5, 130
] h H[5, 130
]
2 Plot each of the following points using a polar axis.
a A[1, ] b B[1, ] c C
_
2,
2
_
d D
_
3,
3
4
_
3 Convert the following cartesian coordinates to polar coordinates. (Remember to note
which quadrant each point is in.)
Example 2a
a (4, 4) b (1,
3) c (2
3, 2) d (5, 12)
e (6, 5) f (
] b
_
4,
2
_
c
_
1,
5
4
_
d [4, 2]
e
_
2,
7
6
_
f [5, 240
] g [2, 180
] h [1, 120
]
5 Plot each of the following polar graphs.
Examples 3, 4
a r =
3
cos
b r =
4
sin
c r = 2 cos
d r = 2, 0 6 e r =
6
4 f r = cos 2
g r = 5(1 +cos ) h r = 2(1 sin ) i r = 3 cos +2
j r =
cos 2 k r =
_
, 0 6 l r = 2 sin 2
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 417
6 Obtain the polar equations of each of the following.
Example 5
a x
2
+ y
2
= 16 b x + y = 6 c x
2
= y d
x
2
4
+ y
2
= 1
7 Obtain the cartesian equations of each of the following.
Example 6
a r = 2 b r = a(1 +cos ) c r = a cos
d r = 2a(1 +sin 2) e r =
a
1 +cos
f r =
a
1 +sin
16.2 The set of complex numbers
In earlier work in mathematics it was assumed that an equation of the form x
2
= 1 had no
solutions. Mathematicians of the eighteenth century introduced the imaginary number i with
the property i
2
= 1. i is dened as i =
4 =
4 1
=
1
= 2i
Imaginary numbers led to the introduction of complex numbers, which further broadened the
scope of mathematical thinking. Today complex numbers are widely used in engineering, the
study of aerodynamics and many other branches of physics.
Consider the equation x
2
+2x +3 = 0. Using the quadratic formula to solve yields:
x =
2
4 12
2
=
2
8
2
= 1
2
This equation has no real solutions since the discriminant = b
2
4ac is less than zero.
However, for complex numbers
x = 1
2i
A complex number is an expression of the form a +bi , where a and b are real numbers. C
is the set of complex numbers, i.e. C = {a +bi : a, b R}. The letter often used to denote a
complex number is z.
Therefore z C implies z = a +bi where a, b R
If a = 0, z is said to be imaginary.
If b = 0, z is real.
Real numbers and imaginary numbers are subsets of C.
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Functions of complex numbers
Let z = a +bi
Re (z) is a function which denes the real component of z. Im(z) is a function which denes
the value of the imaginary component of z.
Re (z) = a and Im(z) = b
Note: Re (z) and Im(z) are both realvalued functions of z, i.e. Re : C R and Im: C R.
So for the complex number z = 2 +5i, Re (z) = 2 and Im(z) = 5.
Equality of complex numbers
Two complex numbers are equal if and only if both their real and imaginary parts are equal.
i.e. x
1
+ y
1
i = x
2
+ y
2
i
if and only if x
1
= x
2
and y
1
= y
2
Example 7
If 4 3i = 2a +bi nd the values of a and b.
Solution
2a = 4 and b = 3
a = 2
Example 8
Find the values of a and b such that (2a +3b) +(a 2b)i = 1 +3i
Solution
2a +3b = 1 1
a 2b = 3 2
2 2 gives
2a 4b = 6 3
1 3 gives
7b = 7
b = 1 and a = 1
Operations with complex numbers
Addition and subtraction
If z
1
= a +bi and z
2
= c +di (a, b, c, d R)
Then z
1
z
2
= (a c) +i (b d)
i.e. Re (z
1
z
2
) = Re (z
1
) Re (z
2
) and Im(z
1
z
2
) = Im(z
1
) Im(z
2
)
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Example 9
If z
1
= 2 3i and z
2
= 4 +5i nd
a z
1
+ z
2
b z
1
z
2
Solution
a z
1
+ z
2
= 2(2 +4) +(3 +5)i
= 2 +2i
b z
1
z
2
= (2 4) +(3 5)i
= 6 8i
Multiplication by a real constant
If z = a +bi and k R
then kz = k(a +bi )
= ka +kbi
For example, if z = 3 6i then 3z = 9 18i
Multiplication by powers of i
Successive multiplication by powers of i gives the following:
i
1
= i
i
2
= 1
i
3
= i
i
4
= (1)
2
= 1
i
5
= i
and so on
In general, for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
i
4n
= 1
i
4n+1
= i
i
4n+2
= 1
i
4n+3
= i
When multiplying by powers of i, the usual index laws apply.
Example 10
Simplify
a i
13
b 3i
4
(2i )
3
Solution
a i
13
= i
43+1
= i
b 3i
4
(2i )
3
= 3 (2)
3
i
4
i
3
= 24i
7
= 24i
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Exercise 16B
1 State the values of Re (z) and Im(z) for each of the following.
a 2 +3i b 4 +5i
c
1
2
3
2
i
d 4 e 3i f
2 2
2i
2 Find the values of a and b in each of the following if
Examples 7, 8
a 2a 3bi = 4 +6i b a +b 2abi = 5 12i
c 2a +bi = 10 d 3a +(a b)i = 2 +i
3 Simplify the following.
Example 9
a (2 3i ) +(4 5i ) b (4 +i ) +(2 2i )
c (3 i ) (3 +i ) d (2
2i ) +(5
8i )
e (1 i ) (2i +3) f (2 +i ) (2 i )
g 4(2 3i ) (2 8i ) h (5 4i ) +(1 +2i )
i 5(i +4) +3(2i 7)
j
1
2
(4 3i )
3
2
(2 i )
4 Simplify
Example 10
a
16 b 2
9 c
2 d i
3
e i
14
f i
20
g 2i i
3
h 4i
4
3i
2
i
8i
5
2
5 Simplify
a i (2 i ) b i
2
(3 4i ) c
2i (i
_
2) d
3(
3 +
2)
16.3 Multiplication and division of
complex numbers
Multiplication of complex numbers
If z
1
= a +bi and z
2
= c +di (a, b, c, d R)
Then z
1
z
2
= (a +bi ) (c +di )
= ac +bci +adi +dbi
2
= (ac bd) +(bc +ad)i (bdi
2
= bd)
Example 11
If z
1
= 3 2i and z
2
= 1 +i , nd z
1
z
2
.
Solution
z
1
z
2
= (3 2i )(1 +i )
= 3 2i +3i 2i
2
= 5 +i
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 421
Conjugate of a complex number
If z = a +bi then the conjugate of z denoted by the symbol z is
z = a bi
For example, the conjugate of 4 +3i is 4 3i and vice versa.
Note that zz = (a +bi ) (a bi )
= a
2
+abi abi b
2
i
2
= a
2
+b
2
which is a real number
Using this result, a
2
+b
2
can now be factorised over the set of complex numbers.
Example 12
If z
1
= 2 3i and z
2
= 1 +2i nd
a (z
1
+ z
2
) and z
1
+ z
2
b z
1
z
2
and z
1
z
2
Solution
z
1
= 2 +3i and z
2
= 1 2i
a
z
1
+ z
2
= (2 3i ) +(1 +2i )
= 1 i
(z
1
+ z
2
) = 1 +i
z
1
+ z
2
= 2 +3i +1 2i
= 1 +i
b
z
1
z
2
= (2 3i )(1 +2i ) = 4 +7i
z
1
z
2
= 4 7i
z
1
z
2
= (2 +3i )(1 2i ) = 4 7i
In general it can be stated that
the conjugate of the sum of two complex numbers is equal to the sum of the conjugates
the conjugate of the product of two complex numbers is equal to the product of the
conjugates.
i.e. (z
1
+ z
2
) = z
1
+ z
2
and (z
1
z
2
) = z
1
z
2
Division of complex numbers
Division of one complex number by another relies on the fact that the product of a complex
number and its conjugate is a real number.
If z
1
= a +bi and z
2
= c +di (a, b, c, d R)
Then
z
1
z
2
=
(a +bi )
(c +di )
If the numerator and denominator are multiplied by the conjugate of z
2
then
z
1
z
2
=
(a +bi )
(c +di )
(c di )
(c di )
=
ac +bci adi bdi
2
c
2
+d
2
=
(ac +bd)
c
2
+d
2
+
(bc ad)i
c
2
+d
2
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422 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 13
If z
1
= 2 i and z
2
= 3 +2i , nd
z
1
z
2
.
Solution
z
1
z
2
=
2 i
3 +2i
3 2i
3 2i
=
6 3i 4i +2i
2
3
2
+2
2
=
4 7i
13
=
1
13
(4 7i )
Example 14
Solve for z the equation (2 +3i ) z = 1 2i
Solution
(2 +3i )z = 1 2i
z =
1 2i
2 +3i
=
1 2i
2 +3i
2 3i
2 3i
z =
8 i
13
There is an obvious similarity in the process of expressing a complex number with a real
denominator and the process of rationalising the denominator of a surd expression.
Example 15
If z = 2 5i nd z
1
and express with a real denominator.
Solution
z
1
=
1
z
=
1
2 5i
=
1
2 5i
2 +5i
2 +5i
=
2 +5i
29
=
1
29
(2 +5i )
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 423
Using the TINspire
The TINspire can be used to deal with complex numbers. Select Rectangular form in
the Document Settings (c81) to perform calculations on complex numbers in
the form a +bi .
The square root of a negative number can now
be performed as shown.
The results of the operations +, , and
,
are illustrated using the two complex numbers
2 +3i and 3 +4i .
It is possible to perform arithmetic
operations with complex numbers as shown.
The Real Part command from the Complex
Number Tools submenu of the Number menu
(b292) can be used as shown to nd
the real part of a complex number.
The Magnitude command from the
Complex Number Tools submenu of the
Number menu (b295) can be used as
shown to nd the modulus of a complex number.
The Complex Conjugate command from the
Complex Number Tools submenu of the Number
menu (b291) can be used as shown
to nd the complex conjugate of a complex
number.
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424 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
There are also commands for factorising
polynomials over the complex numbers and for
solving polynomial equations over the complex
numbers. These are available from the Complex
submenu of the Algebra menu (b3 ).
Using the Casio ClassPad
In tap Real in the status bar at the bottom of the screen to enter Cplx mode. In this
mode enter
3i )(
2 +
3i ) f (5 2i )(2 +3i )
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 425
2 Write down the conjugate of each of the following complex numbers.
a 2 5i b 1 +3i c
5 2i d 5i
3 If z
1
= 2 i and z
2
= 3 +2i nd
Example 12
a z
1
b z
2
c z
1
z
2
d z
1
z
2
e z
1
z
2
f z
1
+ z
2
g z
1
+ z
2
h z
1
+ z
2
4 If z = 2 4i express each of the following in the form x + yi .
Example 15
a z b zz c z + z d z(z + z)
e z z f i (z z) g z
1
h
z
i
5 Find the values of a and b such that (a +bi )(2 +5i ) = 3 i
6 Express in the form x + yi
Example 13
a
2 i
4 +i
b
3 +2i
2 3i
c
4 +3i
1 +i
d
2 2i
4i
e
1
2 3i
f
i
2 +6i
7 Find the values of a and b if (3 i )(a +bi ) = 6 7i
8 Solve each of the following for z.
Example 14
a (2 i )z = 4 +2i b (1 +3i )z = 2 i c (3i +5)z = 1 +i
d 2(4 7i )z = 5 +2i e z(1 +i ) = 4
16.4 Argand diagrams
An Argand diagram is a geometrical representation of the set of complex numbers. In a
vector sense, a complex number has two dimensions; the real part and the imaginary part.
Therefore a plane is required to represent C.
An Argand diagram is drawn with two
perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis
represents Re(z), z C, and the vertical
axis represents Im(z), z C.
1
1
2
2
3
3 3
3
2
2
1
1
0
(2 + i) (3 + i)
(2 3i)
Re(z)
Im(z)
Each point on an Argand diagram represents
a complex number. The complex number a +bi
is situated at the point (a, b) on the equivalent
cartesian axes as shown by the examples in this
gure. The number written as a +bi is
called the cartesian form of the complex number.
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426 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 16
Write down the complex number represented
by each of the points A to F on this Argand diagram.
4
5
5
5
5
0
Re(z)
Im(z)
A
B
C
D
F
E
Solution
A: 2 +3i B: 4i
C: 5 D: 1 +i
E : 5 2i F : 1 3i
Geometrical representation of the basic
operations on complex numbers
The addition of two complex numbers is similar to a vector sum and follows the triangle of
vectors rule.
The multiplication by a scalar follows vector properties of parallel position vectors.
Re(z)
Im(z)
0
z
1
+ z
2
z
1
z
2
Re(z)
Im(z)
0
bz
cz
az
z
a > 1
0 < b < 1
c < 0
The subtraction z
1
z
2
is represented by the sum z
1
+(z
2
).
Example 17
a Represent the following points on an Argand diagram.
i 2 ii 3i iii 2 i iv (2 +3i ) v 1 +2i
b Let z
1
= 2 +i and z
2
= 1 +3i .
Represent z
1
, z
2
, z
1
+ z
2
and z
1
z
2
on an Argand diagram and verify that the complex
number sum and difference follow the vector triangle properties.
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 427
Solution
a
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
(2 + 3i)
1 + 2i
2 i
3i
Re(z)
Im(z)
b
1
1
2
2
3
4
4 3 3 4
4
3
2
2
1
1
Re(z)
Im(z)
z
1
+ z
2
z
1
z
1
z
2
z
2
z
2
0
z
1
+ z
2
= (2 +i ) +(1 +3i )
= 1 +4i
z
1
z
2
= (2 +i ) (1 +3i )
= 3 2i
Rotation about the origin
When the complex number 2 +3i is multiplied by 1 the result is 2 3i .
This can be considered to be achieved through a rotation of 180
in an anticlockwise direction
about the origin. If 3 +2i is multiplied by
i the result is 2 3i . This is again achieved
through a rotation of 90
in an anticlockwise
direction about the origin.
Re(z)
Im(z)
0
3 + 2i
2 3i
2 + 3i
Example 18
If z
1
= 1 4i and z
2
= 2 +2i , nd z
1
+ z
2
algebraically and illustrate z
1
+ z
2
on an
Argand diagram.
Solution
Im(z)
Re(z)
z
1
1 2 3 4
1
2
3
4
1 2 3 4
0
1
2
3
z
1
+ z
2
z
2
z
1
+ z
2
= (1 4i ) +(2 +2i )
= 1 2i
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428 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 16D
1 Write down the complex numbers
represented on the following Argand diagram.
Example 16
5
1
2
1 2
1
2
Im(z)
Re(z) 1 2 3 44
3
4
F
0
A
E
D
C
B
3 4 5
3
2 Represent each of the following complex numbers as points on an Argand plane.
Example 17
a 3 4i b 4 +i c 4 +i d 3 +0i e 0 2i f 5 2i
3 If z
1
= 6 5i and z
2
= 3 +4i , nd algebraically and represent on an Argand diagram.
Example 18
a z
1
+ z
2
b z
1
z
2
4 If z = 1 +3i , represent on an Argand diagram
a z b z c z
2
d z e
1
z
5 If z = 2 5i , represent on an Argand diagram
a z b zi c zi
2
d zi
3
e zi
4
16.5 Solving equations over the complex field
Quadratic equations for which the discriminant is less than zero have no solutions for the real
numbers. The introduction of the complex number enables such quadratic equations to be
solved. Further solutions to higher degree polynomials may also be found using complex
numbers. Solution of higher degree polynomials appears in the Specialist Mathematics course.
In this chapter only quadratics will be considered.
Sum of two squares
Earlier it was seen that the product of a complex number a +bi and its conjugate a bi
yielded the result
(a +bi )(a bi ) = a
2
+b
2
Hence sums of two squares can be factorised enabling equations of the form z
2
+a
2
= 0 to
be solved.
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 429
Example 19
Solve the equations
a z
2
+16 = 0 b 2z
2
+6 = 0
Solution
a z
2
+16 = 0
z
2
16i
2
= 0
(z +4i )(z 4i ) = 0
z = 4i
b 2z
2
+6 = 0
2(z
2
+3) = 0
2(z
2
3i
2
) = 0
2(z +
3i )(z
3i ) = 0
z =
3i
Solution of quadratic equations
To solve quadratic equations where the discriminant is less than zero, still use the quadratic
formula in the usual way.
Example 20
Solve the equation 3z
2
+5z +3 = 0
Solution
Using the quadratic formula
z =
5
25 36
6
=
5
11
6
=
1
6
(5
11i )
Using the TINspire
Each of the expressions in the above examples can be factorised using cFactor from the
Complex submenu of Algebra, for example,
cfactor (z
2
+16, z).
Each of the equations in the above examples can be solved using cSolve from the
Complex submenu of Algebra, for example
cSolve (3z
2
+5z +3 = 0, z).
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430 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Using the Casio ClassPad
To factorise in the above examples, ensure the mode is set to Cplx.
Enter and highlight the expression z
2
+16 then
tap Interactive, Transformation, rFactor.
To solve in the above examples, the usual method for solving equations is used. For
example, enter and highlight 3z
2
+5z +3 = 0 then tap Interactive,
Equation/inequality, solve and ensure that the variable selected is z.
Exercise 16E
1 Solve each of the following equations over C.
Examples 19, 20
a z
2
+4 = 0 b 2z
2
+18 = 0 c 3z
2
= 15
d (z 2)
2
+16 = 0 e (z +1)
2
= 49 f z
2
2z +3 = 0
g z
2
+3z +3 = 0 h 2z
2
+5z +4 = 0 i 3z
2
= z 2
j 2z = z
2
+5 k 2z
2
6z = 10 l z
2
6z = 14
16.6 Polar form of a complex number
Earlier in this chapter it was shown that points on a cartesian plane (x, y) may be represented in
terms of polar coordinates [r, ]. Similarly, complex numbers may be represented in polar
form.
Recalling that x = r cos and y = r sin where
r
2
= x
2
+ y
2
then the point P in the complex plane
corresponding to the complex number in cartesian form,
z = x + yi , may be represented as shown in the diagram.
z = r cos +r sin i
= r(cos +sin i )
Im(z)
Re(z)
P(x + iy)
y r
x
0
The polar form is abbreviated to z = r cis .
r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
is called the absolute value or modulus of z. It is denoted by mod z or z.
Remember that is measured in an anticlockwise direction from the horizontal axis.
Note: The same point may be represented a number of ways in polar form, since
cos = cos( 2n) and sin = sin ( 2n), where n Z, the polar form of a complex
number is not unique.
i.e. z = r cis = r cis ( +2n), n Z
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 431
Usually the interval < is used. The corresponding value of is called the principal
value of the argument of z and is denoted by Arg z.
i.e. < Arg z
Example 21
Express in polar form the following complex numbers
a z = 1 +
3i b z = 2 2i
Solution
a First note that z = 1 +
2
Now x = 1 and y =
3
Therefore r =
1 +3
= 2
also =
3
(since cos =
1
2
and sin =
3
2
)
z = 1 +
3i
= 2 cis
3
b z = 2 2i is a point in the 4th quadrant.
2
< < 0
Now x = 2 and y = 2
Therefore r =
4 +4
=
8
= 2
2
Also =
4
(since cos =
1
2
and sin =
1
2
)
z = 2 2i
= 2
2 cis
_
4
_
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432 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Example 22
Express in cartesian form z = 2 cis
_
2
3
_
Solution
x = r cos = 2 cos
_
2
3
_
= 2
_
1
2
_
= 1
y = r sin = 2 sin
_
2
3
_
= 2
_
3
2
_
=
3
z = 2 cis
_
2
3
_
= 1
3i
Multiplication and division in polar form
If z
1
= r
1
cis and z
2
= r
2
cis
2
Then z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis (
1
+
2
)
and
z
1
z
2
=
r
1
r
2
cis (
1
2
)
These results may be proved using the addition formulas for sine and cosine established in
Chapter 11. This is left as an exercise for the reader.
Example 23
If z
1
= 2 cis 30
and z
2
= 4 cis 20
nd the product z
1
z
2
and represent it on an Argand
diagram.
Solution
Im(z)
Re(z)
30
50
z
2
z
1
z
2
20
0
z
1
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
cis (
1
+
2
)
= 2 4 cis (20
+30
)
= 8 cis 50
2
+
5
6
_
= 6 cis
_
4
3
_
z
1
z
2
= 6 cis
_
2
3
_
since < Arg z
Example 25
If z
1
=
3 +i and z
2
= 2
3 +1 Arg z
1
=
5
6
, since sin
1
=
1
2
and cos
1
=
3
2
= 2 where Arg z
1
=
1
z
2
 =
12 +4 Arg z
2
=
6
, since sin
2
=
1
2
and cos
2
=
3
2
= 4 where Arg z
2
=
2
z
1
= 2 cis
_
5
6
_
and z
2
= 4 cis
6
z
1
z
2
=
r
1
r
2
cis (
1
2
)
=
2
4
cis
_
5
6
6
_
=
1
2
cis
_
2
3
_
In cartesian form
z
1
z
2
=
1
2
cos
_
2
3
_
+
1
2
sin
_
2
3
_
i
=
1
2
_
1
2
_
+
1
2
_
3
2
_
i
=
1
4
(1
3)i
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434 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Exercise 16F
1 Express each of the following in the simplest polar form.
Example 21
a 1 +
3i b 1 i c 2
3 +2i
d 4 4i e 12 12
3i
f
1
2
+
1
2
i
2 Express each of the following in the form x + yi .
Example 22
a 3 cis
2
b
2 cis
3
c 2 cis
6
d 5 cis
3
4
e 12 cis
5
6
f 3
2 cis
4
g 5 cis
4
3
h 5 cis
2
3
3 Simplify the following and express the answers in cartesian form.
Examples 23, 24, 25
a
_
2 cis
6
_
.
_
3 cis
12
_
b
_
4 cis
12
_
.
_
3 cis
4
_
c
_
cis
4
_
.
_
5 cis
5
12
_
d
_
12 cis
3
_
.
_
3 cis
2
3
_
e
_
12 cis
5
6
_
.
_
3 cis
2
_
f (
2 cis ).
_
3 cis
3
4
_
g
_
10 cis
4
_
_
5 cis
12
_ h
_
12 cis
3
_
3 cis
2
3
i
_
12
8 cis
3
4
_
_
3
2 cis
12
_ j
_
20 cis
6
_
_
8 cis
5
6
_
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 435
Chapter summary
The polar coordinates [r, ] may be represented as follows.
P[r, ]
pole
polar axis
O
is measured in an anticlockwise direction
from the polar axis.
For conversion of coordinates from cartesian to polar and vice versa
x = r cos , y = r sin and hence x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
.
Therefore
_
2,
3
_
describes the same point as
_
2 cos
3
, 2 sin
3
_
= (1,
3)
For (1, 1), r =
2
1 =
2 cos and 1 =
2 sin
Therefore cos =
1
2
and sin =
1
2
and =
4
(1, 1) =
_
2,
4
_
For conversion of an equation from cartesian to polar use
x = r cos , y = r sin and x
2
+ y
2
= r
2
Therefore x + y = 1
becomes
r cos +r sin = 1
i.e. r(cos +sin ) = 1
Consider y = x
2
This becomes
r sin = r
2
cos
2
r sin r
2
cos
2
= 0
r(sin r cos
2
) = 0
r = 0 or sin = r cos
2
2
)
Multiplechoice questions
1 The polar coordinates [3, 30
] B [3, 30
] C [3, 150
] D [3, 150
] E [3, 150
]
2 The polar coordinates of point A are
A [2, 40
] B [2, 40
] C [2, 140
]
D [4, 40
] E [2, 140
]
A
40
2
Z O
3 The polar coordinates of the point with cartesian coordinates (1,
3) are
A
_
2,
4
3
_
B
_
2,
3
_
C
_
2,
3
_
D
_
2,
2
3
_
E
_
2,
3
_
4 The cartesian coordinates of the point with polar coordinates
_
3,
6
_
are
A (3,
3) B
_
3,
1
3
_
C
_
3
2
,
3
3
2
_
D
_
3
3
2
,
3
2
_
E
_
3
2
,
3
2
_
5 The polar equation of the circle with centre
_
3,
2
_
and radius 3 is
A r = 3 sin B r =
3 C r = 3 D r = 3 cos E r = 6 sin
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6 The graph of r cos = 2 is
A
O
B
O
C
O
D
O
E
O
7 The polar equation of the circle with cartesian equation x
2
+ y
2
= 16 is
A r = 16 B r = 4 sin C r
2
+cos
2
= 4 D r = 4 cos E r = 4
8 If u = 1 +i , then
1
2 u
=
A
1
2
1
2
i B
1
5
+
2
5
i C
1
2
+
1
2
i D
1
2
+
1
5
i E 1 +5i
9 The point C on the Argand diagram represents the complex number z. Which point
represents the complex number i z?
A A B B C C D D E E
Re(z)
B
D E
A C
Im(z)
10 If z = 5 then
1
z
=
A
1
5
B
1
5
C
1
5
D
1
5
E
5
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 Graph each of the following.
a [3, ] b
_
2,
3
_
c [2, 210
] d
_
3,
11
6
_
2 Find the cartesian coordinates of the points in 1.
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438 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
3 Graph each of the following.
a {[r, ] : r = 3} b
_
[r, ] : =
3
_
c {[r, ] : r = 4} d
_
[r, ] : =
5
4
_
4 Express each of the following in polar form.
a (3, 3) b
_
3
2
,
1
2
_
c
_
5
2
,
5
3
2
_
d (4
2, 4
2)
5 Transform each of the following equations from cartesian to polar form.
a x
2
+ y
2
= 16 b x
2
+ y
2
= 9 c y
2
= 8x
d x
2
= 4y e x
2
+4y
2
= 64 f 2x y +2 = 0
6 Transform each of the following equations from polar to cartesian form.
a r = 5 b r = 3 sin c r
2
cos 2 = 9
d r(1 2 cos ) = 8 e r(2 cos ) = 7 f r(1 sin ) = 1
7 For z
1
= m +i n and z
2
= p +i q, express each of the following in the form a +i b.
a 2z
1
+3z
2
b z
2
c z
1
z
2
d
z
1
z
2
e z
1
+ z
1
f (z
1
+ z
2
)(z
1
z
2
)
g
1
z
1
h
z
2
z
1
i
3z
1
z
2
8 In the following, z = 1
3i c 2
3 +i
d 3
2 +3
2i e 3
2 3
2i f
3 i
10 Write each of the following in cartesian form.
a 2 cis
3
b 3 cis
4
c 3 cis
3
4
d 3 cis
_
3
4
_
e 3 cis
_
5
6
_
f
2 cis
_
4
_
Extendedresponse questions
1 a Plot the graphs of r = 2 sin and r = 2 cos .
b Write the corresponding cartesian equation for each of these relations.
c Describe the curves you obtain from the polar equations r = 2a sin or r = 2a cos
where a is a nonzero constant.
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Chapter 16 Polar coordinates and complex numbers 439
2 Investigate each of the families of graphs dened by:
a r = a +b sin or r = a +b cos where a and b are nonzero constants
b r
2
= a
2
sin 2, r
2
= a
2
sin 2, r
2
= a
2
cos 2, r
2
= a
2
cos 2 where a is a positive
constant
c r = a
d r = a sin n and r = a cos n where a is a nonzero constant
3 a Find the exact solutions in C for the equation z
2
2
3z +4 = 0.
b i Plot the two solutions from a on an Argand diagram.
ii Find the equation of the circle, with centre the origin, which passes through these
two points.
iii Find the value of a Z such that the circle passes through (0, a)
4 Let z be a complex number with z = 6. Let A be the point representing z. Let B be the
point representing (1 +i )z.
Find
a (1 +i )z b (1 +i )z z
c Prove that OAB is an isosceles rightangled triangle.
5 Let z =
1
2
+
1
2
i
a On an Argand diagram O, A, Z, P, Q represent the complex numbers 0, 1, z, 1 + z and
1 z respectively. Show these points on a diagram.
b Prove that the magnitude of POQ =
2
. Find the ratio
OP
OQ
.
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C H A P T E R
17
Loci
Objectives
To find the cartesian equation of a locus, where each point P of the locus satisfies
the following properties:
r
that P is equidistant from two given points A and B, i.e., PA = PB
r
that P is a fixed distance from a given point A, i.e., there is a positive number k
such that PA = k
r
that PA = kPB, i.e., the distance from a fixed point A is k times its distance from
a fixed point B
r
that the sum of the distances from two points A and B is always a constant,
i.e. PA +PB = k
r
that the difference of the distances from two points A and B is always a
constant, i.e. PA PB = k
To sketch the graphs of circles, ellipses and hyperbolas
To consider the asymptotes of hyperbolas
17.1 Introduction and parabolas
Introduction
In order to nd the equation of a curve, some condition must be given which establishes which
points are on a curve. Up to now in this book, curves have been described through a
relationship between the x and y coordinates (and in Chapter 16, between the polar
coordinates). For example, y = 2x is the straight line through the origin with gradient 2 (and
for polar coordinates, r = 5 is the circle with center the origin and radius 5).
Many curves can also be described through a geometric description. For example, the set of
points equidistant from the points A(4, 0) and B(2, 0) lie on the line with equation x = 3.
A locus is a set of points which satisfy a condition. For the above example, the locus of the
points which are equidistant from A and B is the straight line with equation x = 3. Note that
every point which lies on the line x = 3 satises this condition. This is an important
observation which should be thought about with every locus problem.
440
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Chapter 17 Loci 441
Example 1
Find the equation of the locus of points P satisfying PA = PB, where A is the point with
coordinates (3, 0) and B is the point with coordinates (6, 4).
Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PA = PB
Then
(x 3)
2
+(y 0)
2
=
(x 6)
2
+(y 4)
2
Squaring both sides and expanding
x
2
6x +9 + y
2
= x
2
12x +36 + y
2
8y +16
6x +9 = 12x 8y +52
8y +6x = 43
The locus is a straight line as shown.
Every point P on the line also satises the property that PA = PB.
x
y
43
8
43
(6, 4)
(3, 0)
6
O
Example 2
Find the equation of the locus of points P satisfying PA = 3, where A is the point with
coordinates (2, 1).
Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PA = 3
Then
(x 2)
2
+(y 1)
2
= 3
Squaring both sides
(x 2)
2
+(y 1)
2
= 9
The locus is a circle with centre (2, 1) and radius 3.
Every point P on the circle satises the property that PA = 3.
Example 3
Find the equation of the locus of points P satisfying PO = 2PA, where A is the point with
coordinates (4, 0) and O is the origin.
Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PO = 2PA
Then
x
2
+ y
2
= 2
(x 4)
2
+ y
2
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442 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Squaring both sides
x
2
+ y
2
= 4[(x 4)
2
+ y
2
]
Expanding
x
2
+ y
2
= 4[x
2
8x +16 + y
2
]
x
2
+ y
2
= 4x
2
32x +64 +4y
2
0 = 3x
2
32x +64 +3y
2
0 = 3
x
2
32
3
x +
64
3
+3y
2
Completing the square
0 = 3
x
2
32
3
x +
256
9
+
64
3
256
9
+3y
2
0 = 3
x
16
3
2
+3y
2
64
3
64
9
=
x
16
3
2
+ y
2
The locus is a circle with centre
16
3
, 0
and radius
8
3
.
Every point P on this circle satises the property that PO = 2 PA.
Parabolas
Example 4
Find the equation of the locus of points P satisfying PM = PF, where F is the point with
coordinates (3, 0) and PM is the perpendicular distance from P to the line with equation
x = 3.
Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PF = PM
Then
(x 3)
2
+ y
2
=
(x +3)
2
Squaring both sides
(x 3)
2
+ y
2
= (x +3)
2
Hence
x
2
6x +9 + y
2
= x
2
+6x +9
Therefore
y
2
= 12x
This is a parabola.
x
y
x = 3
O
M(3, y) P(x, y)
F(3, 0)
x = 3
x
y
P(x, y)
F(3, 0) O
M(3, y)
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Chapter 17 Loci 443
Exercise 17A
1 Sketch the locus of points P(x, y) for each of the following and hence write down its
cartesian equation.
a P is equidistant from the points A(3, 0) and B(6, 0)
Example 1
b P is equidistant from the points A(0, 8) and B(0, 12)
c P is always three units from the origin
Example 2
d A triangle OAP has vertices O(0, 0), A(4, 0) and P(x, y). The triangle has area
12 square units. Find the locus of P as it moves.
2 Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves so that it is equidistant from the origin and
the point (2, 5).
3 Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves so that it is equidistant from the points
(0, 6) and (2, 4).
4 Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves so that the sum of the squares of its
distances from the points (2, 0) and (2, 0) is 26 units.
5 A point P(x, y) moves so that its distance from the point K(2, 5) is twice its distance
from the line x = 1. Find its locus.
6 A point P moves so that its distance from the point (0, 20) is twice its distance from
B(4, 5). What is the locus of P?
Example 3
7 Find the locus of a point P(x, y) which moves so that it is equidistant from the points
(1, 2) and (2, 1).
8 A point P(x, y) moves so that its distance from the point K(4, 2) is twice its distance
from the origin. Find its locus.
9 Determine the locus of a point P which moves so that the difference of the squares of its
distances from the points A(4, 0) and B(4, 0) is 16.
10 Determine the locus of a point P which moves so that the square of its distance from the
origin is equal to the sum of its coordinates.
11 A(0, 0) and B(4, 0) are two of the vertices of a triangle ABP. The third vertex P is such
that PA : PB = 2. Find the locus of P.
12 Find the locus of the point P which moves so that it is always equidistant from two xed
points A(1, 2) and B(1, 0).
13 Given two xed points A(0, 1) and B(2, 5) nd the locus of P if the slope of AB equals
that of BP.
14 P moves so that its distance from the line y = 3 is always 2 units. Find the locus of P.
15 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the
Example 4
distance of P to the point F(2, 0) is equal to the distance PM, the perpendicular distance
to the line with equation x = 4. That is, PF = PM.
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444 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
16 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the
distance from P to the point F(0, 4) is equal to the distance PM, the perpendicular
distance to the line with equation y = 2. That is, PF = PM.
17 Describe the locus, in terms of equal distance from a line and a point, of a parabola with
equation y
2
= 3x.
17.2 Ellipses
The equation for an ellipse can be found in a similar way to those loci considered in
Section 17.1.
Example 5
Find the equation of the locus of points P satisfying PA +PB = 8, where A is the point with
coordinates (2, 0) and B is the point with coordinates (2, 0).
Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PA +PB = 8
Then
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
+
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
= 8
Then
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
= 8
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
Squaring both sides
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
= 64 16
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
+(x 2)
2
+ y
2
Expanding and simplifying
x
2
+4x +4 + y
2
= 64 16
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
+ x
2
4x +4 + y
2
and x 8 = 2
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
Squaring both sides and expanding
x
2
16x +64 = 4(x
2
4x +4 + y
2
)
Simplifying yields
48 = 3x
2
+4y
2
or
x
2
16
+
y
2
12
= 1
This is an ellipse with centre the origin,
x axis intercepts 4 and 4 and y axis
intercepts 2
3 and 2
3.
Every point on the ellipse satises the property
that PA + PB = 8.
x
23
23
4 4 O
y
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Chapter 17 Loci 445
In general, an ellipse can be dened as the
locus of the point P so that, as it moves,
PA +PB = k for some k greater than the
distance between A and B. This is shown in
the diagram.
x
y
O
P
1
F
2
F
1
P
2
P
3
P
1
F
1
+ P
1
F
2
= P
2
F
1
+ P
2
F
2
= P
3
F
1
+ P
3
F
2
This can be pictured as a string of length P
1
F
1
+ P
1
F
2
being attached by nails to a board at
F
1
and F
2
and, considering the path mapped out by a pencil, extending the string so that it is
taut, and moving around the two points.
Example 6
Find the image of the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under each of the following transformations.
a a dilation of factor 4 from the x axis followed by a dilation of factor 5 from the y axis
b a dilation of factor 4 from the x axis followed by a dilation of factor 5 from the y axis and
then a translation of 4 units in the positive direction of the x axis and 3 units in the negative
direction of the y axis
Solution
a The transformation is dened by the rule (x, y) (5x, 4y)
Therefore let x
= 5x and y
= 4y where (x
, y
) is the
image of (x, y) under the transformation.
Hence x =
x
5
and x =
y
4
. The image is
(x
)
2
25
+
(y
)
2
16
= 1. This is an ellipse with centre the
origin, x axis intercepts 5 and 5 and y axis intercepts 4 and 4.
x
y
4
5
4
5 O
b The transformation is dened by the rule
(x, y) (5x +4, 4y 3)
Therefore let x
= 5x +4 and y
= 4y 3 where
(x
, y
4
5
and y =
y
+3
4
. The image is
(x
4)
2
25
+
(y
+3)
2
16
= 1. This an ellipse with
centre (4, 3).
x
y
4
4
(4, 3)
O
Example 7
Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance of
P to the point F(1, 0) is half the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with
equation x = 2. That is, PF =
1
2
PM.
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Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PF =
1
2
PM
(x 1)
2
+ y
2
=
1
2
(x +2)
2
Squaring both sides
(x 1)
2
+ y
2
=
1
4
(x +2)
2
4(x
2
2x +1) +4y
2
= x
2
+4x +4
4x
2
8x +4 +4y
2
= x
2
+4x +4
3x
2
12x +4y
2
= 0
Completing the square
3[x
2
4x +4] +4y
2
= 12
3(x 2)
2
+4y
2
= 12 or equivalently
(x 2)
2
4
+
y
2
3
= 1
This is an ellipse with centre (2, 0).
x
y
x = 2
M(2, y)
P(x, y)
O F(1, 0)
It can be shown that the locus of points P(x, y) satisfying PF = ePM, where 0 < e < 1, F is a
xed point and PM is the perpendicular distance from P to a xed line l, is an ellipse. From the
symmetry of the ellipse it is clear that there is a second point F
such that
PF
= ePM
, where PM
(4, 0) is 10 units.
5 Sketch the graph of the image of the circle with equation x
2
+ y
2
= 1 under the
transformation, dilation of factor 4 from the x axis and a dilation of factor 8 from the
y axis. Give the equation of this image.
6 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance
Example 7
of P to the point F(2, 0) is half the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with
equation x = 4. That is, PF =
1
2
PM.
7 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance
of P to the point F(0, 8) is half the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with
equation y = 4. That is, PF =
1
2
PM.
17.3 Hyperbolas
The curve with equation
x
2
a
2
y
2
b
2
= 1 is a hyperbola with centre at the origin. The axis
intercepts are (a, 0) and (a, 0). The hyperbola has asymptotes y =
b
a
x and y =
b
a
x. An
argument for this is as follows.
The equation
x
2
a
2
y
2
b
2
= 1
may be rearranged
x
2
a
2
y
2
b
2
= 1
y
2
b
2
=
x
2
a
2
1
y
2
=
b
2
x
2
a
2
1
a
2
x
2
But as x ,
a
2
x
2
0
x
y
(a, 0) (a, 0)
0
y =
a
b
x y =
a
b
x
y
2
b
2
x
2
a
2
i.e. y
bx
a
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448 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
The general equation for a hyperbola is formed by suitable translations.
The curve with equation
(x h)
2
a
2
(y k)
2
b
2
= 1
is a hyperbola with centre (h, k). The asymptotes are
y k =
b
a
(x h)
This hyperbola is obtained from the hyperbola with equation
x
2
a
2
y
2
b
2
= 1 by the
translation dened by (x, y) (x +h, y +k).
Example 8
For each of the following equations, sketch the graph of the corresponding hyperbola, give the
coordinates of the centre, the axes intercepts and the equations of the asymptotes.
a
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1 b
y
2
9
x
2
4
= 1
c (x 1)
2
(y +2)
2
= 1 d
(y 1)
2
4
(x +2)
2
9
= 1
Solution
a
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1
y
2
=
4x
2
9
1
9
x
2
Equations of asymptotes
y =
2
3
x
When y = 0, x
2
= 9 and therefore x = 3
x
y
y =
3
2
x
3
2
x
y =
(3, 0) (3, 0) 0
Axes intercepts (3, 0) and (3, 0), centre (0, 0)
b
y
2
9
x
2
4
= 1 is the reection of
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1
in the line y = x
asymptotes are
x =
2
3
y
i.e. y =
3
2
x
The y axis intercepts are (0, 3) and (0, 3)
x
y
(0, 3)
0
(0, 3)
3
2
y = x
3
2
y = x
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Chapter 17 Loci 449
c (x 1)
2
(y +2)
2
= 1. The graph of
x
2
y
2
= 1 is sketched rst. The asymptotes
are y = x and y = x.
This hyperbola is called a rectangular
hyperbola as its asymptotes are perpendicular.
The centre is (0, 0) and the axes intercepts
are at (1, 0) and (1, 0).
x
y
(1, 0) (1, 0) 0
y =
x y = x
A translation of (x, y) (x +1, y 2) is
applied. The new centre is (1, 2) and the
asymptotes have equations y +2 = (x 1),
i.e., y = x 3 and y = x 1.
When x = 0, y = 2 and when y = 0,
(x 1)
2
= 5
x = 1
5
x
y
y
=
x 1
(0, 2) (2, 2)
3
1
1 3 0
y
=
x 3
(1, 2)
(1 5, 0) (1 + 5, 0)
d
(y 1)
2
4
(x +2)
2
9
= 1
This is obtained by translating the hyperbola
y
2
4
x
2
9
= 1 through the
translation dened by (x, y) (x 2, y +1)
x
y
2
3
y = x
(0, 2)
(0, 2)
0
2
3
y = x
x
2
9
= 1
y
2
4
(2, 1)
(2, 1)
(2, 3)
x
y
0
(x + 2)
2
9
= 1
( y 1)
2
4
y = x
3
2
3
1
y = x+
3
2
3
7
52
3
+ 1
52
3
1
Note: the asymptotes for
y
2
4
x
2
9
= 1 are the same as for those of the hyperbola
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1. The two hyperbolae are called conjugate hyperbolae.
Example 9
Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance of
P to the point F(1, 0) is twice the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with
equation x = 2. That is, PF = 2PM.
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Solution
Let (x, y) be the coordinates of point P.
If PF = 2PM
(x 1)
2
+ y
2
= 2
(x +2)
2
Squaring both sides
(x 1)
2
+ y
2
= 4(x +2)
2
x
2
2x +1 + y
2
= 4(x
2
+4x +4)
x
2
2x +1 + y
2
= 4x
2
+16x +16
0 = 3x
2
+18x y
2
+15
Completing the square
x =
2
M(
2, y)
F(1, 0)
P(x, y)
O
x
y
0 = 3[x
2
+6x +9] y
2
+15 27
3(x +3)
2
y
2
= 12 or equivalently
(x +3)
2
4
y
2
12
= 1
This is a hyperbola with centre (3, 0)
x
y
y = 3(x + 3)
y = 3(x + 3)
5 3 1
O
It can be shown that the locus of points P(x, y) satisfying PF = ePM, where e > 1, F is a
xed point and PM is the perpendicular distance from P to a xed line l, is a hyperbola. From
the symmetry of the hyperbola it is clear that there is a second point F
such that PF
= ePM
, where PM
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
= 3
Then
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
= 3 +
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
Squaring both sides
(x +2)
2
+ y
2
= 9 +6
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
+(x 2)
2
+ y
2
Expanding and simplifying
x
2
+4x +4 + y
2
= 9 +6
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
+ x
2
4x +4 + y
2
and 8x 9 = 6
(x 2)
2
+ y
2
. Note that this only holds if x >
9
8
Squaring both sides
64x
2
144x +81 = 36[x
2
4x +4 + y
2
]
Simplifying yields
28x
2
36y
2
= 63
4x
2
9
4y
2
7
= 1 x
3
2
This is the right branch of a hyperbola with centre the origin, x axis intercept
3
2
.
The equations of the asymptotes are y =
7x
3
.
Exercise 17C
1 Sketch the graph of each of the following hyperbolas. Label axes intercepts and give the
Example 8
equation of the asymptotes.
a
x
2
9
y
2
64
= 1 b
x
2
25
y
2
100
= 1
c
y
2
9
x
2
64
= 1 d 25x
2
9y
2
= 225
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2 Sketch the graph of each of the following hyperbolas. State the centre and label axes
intercepts and asymptotes.
a
(x 3)
2
9
(y 4)
2
64
= 1 b
(x +3)
2
9
(y +4)
2
25
= 1
c
(y 3)
2
16
(x 2)
2
4
= 1 d 25(x 5)
2
9y
2
= 225
e x
2
y
2
= 4 f 2x
2
y
2
= 4
g x
2
4y
2
4x 8y 16 = 0 h 9x
2
25y
2
90x +150y = 225
3 Find the locus of the point P as it moves such that the difference of its distances from two
Example 10
xed points F(4, 0) and F
(4, 0) is 6 units.
4 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance
Example 9
of P to the point F(2, 0) is twice the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line
with equation x = 4. That is, PF = 2PM.
5 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance
of P to the point F(0, 8) is four times the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the
line with equation y = 4. That is, PF = 4PM.
6 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) satisfying PA PB = 4 where A is the
point with coordinates (3, 0) and B is the point with coordinates (3, 0).
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Chapter 17 Loci 453
Chapter summary
Lines
The general equation of a straight line may be written as ax +by = c.
For xed points A and B, the locus of P(x, y), as P moves such that PA = PB, is a straight
line.
Circles
The circle with centre the origin and radius a is the graph of the equation x
2
+ y
2
= a
2
.
The circle with centre (h, k) and radius a is the graph of the equation
(x h)
2
+(y k)
2
= a
2
. For a xed point A, the locus of P(x, y) as P moves such that
PA = k, where k > 0, is a circle.
Ellipses
The curve with equation
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
= 1 is an ellipse with centre the origin, x axis intercepts
(a, 0) and (a, 0), and y axis intercepts (0, b) and (0, b). For a > b, the ellipse will
appear as shown in the diagram to the left. If b > a, the ellipse is as shown in the diagram
to the right.
x
B'
B
O
b
A
a a
b
A'
y
x
B'
B
O
b
A
a a
b
A'
y
The curve with equation
(x h)
2
a
2
+
(y k)
2
b
2
= 1 is an ellipse with centre (h, k).
For xed points A and B, the locus of P(x, y) as P moves such that PA +PB = k, where k
is greater than the distance between A and B, is an ellipse.
Hyperbolas
The curve with equation
x
2
a
2
y
2
b
2
= 1 is a hyperbola
with centre the origin. The axis intercepts are (a, 0)
and (a, 0). The hyperbola has asymptotes
y =
b
a
x and y =
b
a
x.
The curve with equation
(x h)
2
a
2
(y k)
2
b
2
= 1
is a hyperbola with centre (h, k). The hyperbola
has asymptotes y k =
b
a
(x h) and y k =
b
a
(x h).
For xed points A and B, the locus of P(x, y) as P
moves such that PA PB = k, where k is a suitable constant, is a hyperbola.
x
y
0
(a, 0) (a, 0)
y = x
b
a y = x
b
a
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454 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Multiplechoice questions
1 The equation of the ellipse shown is
A 5x
2
+ y
2
= 5
B 5x
2
+ y
2
= 25
C x
2
+5y
2
= 25
D x
2
+5y
2
= 5
E
x
5
2
+ y
2
= 1
x
y
0
1 1
1
1
2
3
2
3
4
2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6
2 The coordinates of the x axis intercepts of the graph of the ellipse with equation
x
2
25
+
y
2
9
= 1 are
A (5, 0) and (3, 0) B (3, 0) and (3, 0) C (0, 5) and (0, 5)
D (5, 0) and (5, 0) E (5, 0) and (3, 0)
3 The graph of the ellipse with equation
x
9
2
+
y
4
2
= 1 is
A
x
y
9
6
3
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 5 3 2 1 4 6
3
9
6
B
x
y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7 8 9 5
5
3
3
2
2
1
1
4
4
6
C
x
y
2 3
1
1 4
0
1
1 3 2
2
2
D
x
y
3 1
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
1 3 2 2
E
x
y
3 4
2
2
1
1
0
1
3 2 1
2
4
4
3
3
4 The coordinates of the y axis intercepts of the graph of the ellipse with equation
x
2
9
(y +2)
2
4
= 1 are
A (2, 0) and (2, 0) B (4, 0) and (4, 0) C (0, 4) and (0, 4)
D (0, 0) and (0, 4) E (3, 0) and (0, 2)
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Chapter 17 Loci 455
5 The graph of the equation ax
2
+by
2
= 8 has y axis intercept 2 and passes through the
point with coordinates
1,
1
2
10
. Then
A a = 2 and b = 3 B a = 4 and b = 3 C a =
3 and b = 2
D a = 3 and b = 2 E a = 2 and b = 2
6 The circle with equation (x a)
2
+(y b)
2
= 16 has its centre on the y axis and passes
through the point with coordinates (4, 4). Then
A a = 0 and b = 4 B a = 0 and b = 0 C a = 2 and b = 0
D a = 4 and b = 0 E a = 4 and b = 0
7 The circle with equation x
2
+ y
2
= 1 is transformed to an ellipse through the following
sequence of transformations:
r
dilation of factor 4 from the x axis
r
dilation of factor 3 from the y axis
r
translation of 4 units in the positive direction of the x axis
r
translation of 3 units in the positive direction of the y axis
The equation of the resulting ellipse is
A
(x 4)
2
16
+
(y 3)
2
9
= 1 B
(x 4)
2
9
+
(y 3)
2
16
= 1
C
(x +4)
2
3
+
(y +3)
2
4
= 1 D
(x 4)
2
36
+
(y 3)
2
16
= 1
E
(x +4)
2
20
+
(y +3)
2
48
= 1
8 The equation of the graph shown is
A
(x +2)
2
27
y
2
108
= 1
B
(x 2)
2
9
y
2
34
= 1
C
(x +2)
2
81
y
2
324
= 1
D
(x 2)
2
81
y
2
324
= 1
E
(x +2)
2
9
y
2
36
= 1
x
O
y
4
2
11
4
7
9 The locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that PA = PB where A is the point
with coordinates (2, 5) and B is the point with coordinates (4, 1) is described by the
equation
A y = x 1 B y = x 6 C y = x 3
D y = x +1 E y = 3 x
10 The locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that PA = 2PB where A is the point
with coordinates (2, 5) and B is the point with coordinates (4, 1) is
A a straight line B an ellipse C a circle
D a parabola E a hyperbola
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456 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
Shortanswer questions (technologyfree)
1 A circle has equation x
2
+4x + y
2
+8y = 0. Find the coordinates of the centre and radius
of the circle.
2 An ellipse has equation x
2
+4x +2y
2
= 0. Find the coordinates of the centre and the axes
intercepts of the ellipse.
3 Find the locus of the point P(x, y) such that PA = PB, where A is the point with coordinates
(0, 2) and B is the point with coordinates (6, 0).
4 Find the locus of the point P(x, y) such that PA = 6, where A is the point with coordinates
(3, 2).
5 State the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola with equation
x
2
9
y
2
4
= 1.
6 Find the locus of the point P(x, y) such that PA = 2PB, where A is the point with
coordinates (0, 2) and B is the point with coordinates (6, 0).
7 Sketch the graph of the ellipse with equation
(x 2)
2
9
+
y
2
4
= 1 and state its centre.
8 Determine the locus of a point P which moves so that the difference of the squares of its
distances from two xed points P
1
(4, 0) and P
2
(4, 0) is constant.
Extendedresponse questions
1 Let A, B and C be points with coordinates (6, 0), (6, 0) and (0, 6) respectively. Find the
locus of the points P which satisfy each of the following.
a PA = PC b PA = 6 c PA = 2PC
d PA = 2PB e PA =
1
2
PB f PA +PB = 20
g PA +PB = 12 h PA PB = 5 i PB PA = 5
2 Find the equation of the locus of points P(x, y) which satisfy the property that the distance
of P to the point F(0, 4) is
a equal to PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with equation y = 2
b half the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with equation y = 2
c twice the distance PM, the perpendicular distance to the line with equation y = 2.
3 a The base of a triangle is xed and the distance from one end of the base to the midpoint
of the opposite side is a constant. Find the locus of the vertex joining the other two sides.
b The base of a triangle is xed and the ratio of the lengths of the other two sides is a
constant. Find the locus of the vertex joining the other two sides.
c Three vertices of a convex quadrilateral are xed. Find the locus of the fourth vertex if
the area of the quadrilateral is a constant.
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C H A P T E R
Revision
18
Revision of chapters
1417
18.1 Multiplechoice questions
1 ST is a tangent at T to the circle with center O.
If angle QOT = 150
B 75
C 95
D 105
E 150
Q
O
T
S
150
2 ML and MN are tangents to the circle at L and N.
The magnitude of angle LMN is
A 80
B 90
C 100
D 110
E 140
P
O
N
M
L
40
3 TS is a tangent at X and ZX bisects angle TXY.
Given these facts it can be proved that
A YZ = XT B YZ = XZ
C YZX = ZXT D SXY = ZXY
E TX
2
= XY.YZ
Z
Y
X
T
S
4 POQ is a diameter of the circle centre O. The size of angle QRS is
A 90
B 100
C 110
D 125
E 160
Q
R
O
P
S
70
457
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458 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
5 In the gure O is the centre of the circle and D is the midpoint of AB.
If AB = 8 cm, and CD = 2 cm, the radius of the circle is
A 3 cm B 4 cm C 5 cm
D 6 cm E 7 cm
A
D
O
B
C
6 In the gure, TA and TB are tangents to the circle.
If TA is perpendicular to TB and TA is perpendicular
to AC then the magnitude of BCA is
A 30
B 40
C 45
D 55
E 65
C
T
B
A
7 R, S and T are three points on the circumference of a circle,
with RST equal to 30
.
RTS is equal to
A 70
B 80
C 90
D 100
E 110
40
30
P
R
S
T
8 If AB = AC, ADB = 60
and CAD = 50
B 90
C 100
D 110
E 120
50
60
A
D
C
B
9 The unit vector in the direction of vector a = 3i 4 j is
A i j B
1
5
(3i 4j ) C i + j D
1
25
(3i 4 j ) E
3
5
i +
4
5
j
10 If
OA = 2i 4 j +k and
OB = 3i +4 j +k , then
AB equals
A 5i +2k B i 8 j C i +8 j +2k D i +8 j E i
11 If a = 2i +4 j and b = 3i 2 j , then a b equals
A 5i 6 j B i +6 j C 5i 2 j D 5i +2 j E i 6 j
12 The magnitude of vector a = 2i j +4k is
A
21 B 21 C 19 D
19 E 7
13 AB is parallel to OC, DC is parallel to OB,
OB = b,
OC = c, and AB = OB = OC = DC.
AD is equal to
A b +c B 2(c b) C 2(b c)
D 2b +2c E b +c
B C
A
O
D
b c
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Chapter 18 Revision of chapters 1417 459
14 If r = 2i j +k and s = i + j +3k, then 2r s equals
A 3i j +5k B 3i 3 j k C 5i j +5k
D 5i 3 j k E 6i 4 j 4k
15 PQR is a straight line and PQ = 2QR.
OQ = 2i 3 j and
OR = i +2 j .
OP is equal to
A 4i 13 j B 3i j C 2i 10 j
D 3i + j E i 5 j
R
Q
P
16 Let u = i +aj 5k and v = bi 3j +6k. Vectors u and v are parallel when
A a = 3 and b = 1 B a =
5
2
and b =
6
5
C a = 3 and b = 1
D a =
5
6
and b =
6
5
E a =
2
5
and b =
5
6
17 Given that a = 3i +4j , b = 2i j , x = i +5j and x = sa +tb, then the scalars s and t
are given by
A s = 1 and t = 1 B s = 1 and t = 1 C s = 1 and t = 1
D s = 1 and t = 1 E s = 5 and t = 5
18 In this diagram, OABC is a trapezium.
OA = a,
OC = c and
OA = 3
CB.
AB equals
A 3c B c
2
3
a C 3c 2a
D
2
3
a c E
4
3
a +c
C B
O
a
c
A
19 In this diagram,
OC = c,
OA = a,
OB = b and
AC : AB = 2 : 1. c is equal to
A a +2b B 3a 2b C 2a +b
D 2a b E 3a +b
C
c
O
b
a
A
B
20 If v, w and z are complex numbers such that v = 4 cis (0.3), w = 5 cis (0.6) and
z = vw, then Arg z is equal to
A 0.9 B 0.9 C 0.3 D 0.3 E 1.8
21 In cartesian form, 2 cis
2
3
is equal to
A
3 i B
3 +i C 1
3i D 1 +
3i E
1
3
3
2
i
22 If z =
3
2
1
2
i then Arg z is equal to
A
4
3
B
7
6
C
6
D
2
3
E
5
6
23 The imaginary part of the complex number 2 3i is
A 3 B 3i C 3 D 2 E 3i
24 If u = 3 cis
2
and v = 5 cis
2
3
then uv is equal to
A 15 cis
3
B 15 cis
2
3
C 15 cis
5
6
D 8 cis
2
3
E 8 cis
7
6
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460 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
25 The modulus of 12 5i is
A 169 B 7 C 13 D
119 E
7
26 Let z = x +i y, where x and y are real numbers which are not both zero. Which one of the
following expressions does not necessarily represent a real number?
A z
2
B zz C z
1
z D Im(z) E z + z
27 If z = 14 7i then the complex conjugate of z is equal to
A 7 14i B 14 +7i C 14 +7i D 14 7i E 7 +14i
28 The expression 3z
2
+9 is factorised over C. Which one of the following is a factor?
A 3z B z +3 C z +3i D z 3i E z +
3i
29 (1 +2i )
2
is equal to
A 3 B 3 +2i C 3 +4i D 1 +4i E 5 +4i
30 A point has polar coordinates
2,
4
3
3) B (1,
3) C (
3, 1) D (1,
3) E (
3, 1)
31 The point with cartesian coordinates (4
2, 4
2,
8,
3
4
2,
5
4
8,
7
4
8,
32 The polar equation of the circle with centre given by polar coordinates
2,
and radius
2 units is
A r = 2 sin B r = 2 cos C r = 4 sin D r = 4 cos E r = 2
33 Which one of the following graphs is the graph of r cos = 4?
A
O [4, 0] Z
B
O
[4, ]
Z
C
O [4, 0] Z
D
Z O
4,
2
[ ]
E
Z
O
[4, 0]
34 The circle with cartesian equation x
2
+ y
2
= 9 has polar equation
A r cos +r sin = 3 B r = 3 C r = 9 D r = 3 cos E r = 3 sin
35 The curve with polar equation r
2
= 1 r
2
sin
2
has cartesian equation
A x
2
+ y
2
+2y = 1 B x +2y = 1 C 2x
2
+ y
2
= 1
D x
2
+2y
2
= 1 E x +2y
2
= 1
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Chapter 18 Revision of chapters 1417 461
36 The graph of the relation r = 1 +cos is the cardioid shown.
Z O [2, 0]
Which one of the following graphs best represents the relation r =
1
1 +cos
?
A
Z O [2, ]
B
Z O
1
2
, 0
[ ]
C
Z O
1
2
, 0
[ ]
D
Z O
1
2
, 0
[ ]
E
Z O
1
2
, 0
[ ]
18.2 Extendedresponse questions
1 D is the midpoint of AC and E is a point on BC
such that BE : EC = 1 : t , where t > 0.
DE is produced to a point F such that
DE : EF = 1 : 7.
Let
AD = a and
AB = b.
a Express
AE in terms of t, a and b.
B
A
E
D
C
b Express
AE in terms of a and
AF. c Show that
AF =
9 7t
1 +t
a +
8t
1 +t
b
d If A, B and F are collinear, nd the value of t.
2 ABC is a triangle whose vertices have position
vectors a, b and c respectively, relative to an
origin in the plane ABC.
B
A C
a Show that an arbitrary point P on the segment
AB has position vector ma +nb where
m 0, n 0 and m +n = 1.
(Hint: Assume P divides AB in the ratio x : y.)
b Find
PC in terms of a, b and c.
c Let Q be an arbitrary point on line segment PC. Show that Q has position vector
a +b +c, where 0, 0, 0 and + + = 1.
3
OA = a,
OB = b,
OP =
4
5
PQ and
BR = kb. Express
QR in terms of
i n, a and b ii k, a and b
c Find the value of n and k.
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462 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
4 In the gure, O is the centre of a circle. TD and AC
are parallel. TA and TB are tangents to the circle.
Let BPT = x
.
a Prove that TBOA is a cyclic quadrilateral.
b Find BCA, BOA, TAB and TBA in terms of x.
B
T
A
O
C
D
P
x
5 a A man walks north at a rate of 4 km/h and notices that the wind appears to blow from
the west. He doubles his speed and now the wind appears to blow from the northwest.
What is the velocity of the wind? (Note: Direction and magnitude must be given.)
b A river 400 m wide ows from east to west at a steady speed of 1 km/h. A swimmer,
whose speed in still water is 2 km/h, starts from the south bank and heads north across
the river. Find the swimmers speed over the river bed and how far downstream he is
when he reaches the north bank.
c To a motorcyclist travelling due north at 50 km/h, the wind appears to come from the
northwest at 60 km/h. What is the true velocity of the wind?
d A dinghy in distress is 6 km on a bearing of 230
OB = b,
ZM
ii Express
ZG in terms of h, k,
ZHand
ZK
iii Find the value of
1
h
+
1
k
(use the result from a).
iv If h = k, nd the value of h and describe
geometrically what this implies.
v If the area of triangle XYZ is 1 cm
2
, what is
the area of triangle HZK when h = k?
H
X
M
G
K
Y
Z
vi If k = 2h, nd the value of h and describe geometrically what this implies.
vii Describe the restrictions on h and k and sketch the graph of h against k for suitable
values of k.
viii Investigate the area, A cm
2
, of triangle ZHK as a ratio with respect to the area of
triangle XYZ, as k varies. Sketch the graph of A against k. Be careful of the domain.
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C H A P T E R
19
Kinematics
Objectives
To model motion in a straight line and to use calculus to solve problems involving
motion in a line with constant and variable acceleration
To use graphical methods to solve problems involving motion in a straight line
Introduction
Kinematics is the study of motion without reference to the cause of the motion. In this chapter
we will consider the motion of a particle in a straight line only. Such motion is called
rectilinear motion. When referring to the motion of a particle we may in fact be referring to a
body of any size. However for the purposes of studying its motion we can consider that all
forces that act upon the body, causing it to move, act through a single point. Hence we can
consider the motion of a car or train in the same way as we would consider the motion of a
dimensionless particle.
It is important to make a distinction between vector and scalar quantities when studying
motion. Quantities such as displacement, velocity and acceleration must be specied by both
magnitude and direction. They are vector quantities. Distance, speed and time on the other
hand are specied by their magnitude only. They are scalar quantities.
Since we are considering movement in a straight line only, the direction of all vector
quantities is simply specied by the sign of the numerical value.
19.1 Position, velocity and acceleration
Position
The position coordinate of a particle moving in a straight line is determined by its distance
from a xed point O on the line, called the origin, and whether it is to the right or left of O.
Conventionally the direction to the right of the origin is considered to be positive.
O P
x
X
463
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Consider a particle which starts at O and begins to move. The position of a particle is
determined by a number, x, called the position coordinate. If the units are metres and if
x = 3, the position is 3 m to the left of O, while if x = 3, the displacement is 3 m to the
right of O.
The displacement is dened as the change in position of the particle relative to O.
Sometimes there is a rule which enables the position coordinate, at any instant, to be
calculated. In this case x is redened as a function of t. Hence x(t ) is the displacement at
time t. Specication of a displacement function together with the physical idealisation of
a real situation constitute a mathematical model of the situation.
An example of a mathematical model is the following.
A stone is dropped from the top of a vertical cliff 45 m high. Assume that the stone is a
particle travelling in a straight line. Let x(t ) be the downwards position of the particle from O,
the top of the cliff, t seconds after the particle is dropped. If air resistance is neglected, an
approximate model for the displacement is
x(t ) = 5t
2
for 0 t 3
It is important to distinguish between the scalar quantity distance and the vector quantity
displacement.
Consider a particle that starts at O and moves rstly ve units to the right to point P, and
then seven units to the left to point Q.
1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4
Q O P
Its nal position is x = 2. However the distance the particle has moved is 12 units.
Example 1
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t
2
7t +6, t 0. Find
a its initial position b its position at t = 4.
Solution
a At t = 0, x = +6 i.e. the particle is 6 cm to the right of O.
b At t = 4, x = (4)
2
7(4) +6 = 6 i.e. the particle is 6 cm to the left of O.
Velocity
You should already be familiar with the concept of a rate of change through your studies in
Mathematical Methods.
The velocity of a particle is dened as the rate of change of its position with respect to time.
We can consider the average rate of change, the change in position over a period of time, or
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we can consider the instantaneous rate of change, which species the rate of change at a
given instant in time.
If a particle moves from x
1
at time t
1
to x
2
at time t
2
, then its
average velocity =
x
2
x
1
t
2
t
1
Velocity may be positive, negative or zero. If the velocity is positive the particle is moving to
the right and if it is negative the direction of motion is to the left. A velocity of zero means the
particle is instantaneously at rest.
The instantaneous rate of change of position with respect to time is the instantaneous
velocity. If the position, x, of the particle at time t is given as a function of t, then the velocity of
the particle at time t is determined by differentiating the rule for position with respect to time.
Common units of velocity (and speed) are:
1 metre per second = 1 m/s
1 centimetre per second = 1 cm/s
1 kilometre per hour = 1 km/h
The rst and third are connected in the following way:
1 km/h = 1000 m/h
=
1000
60 60
m/s
=
5
18
m/s
1 m/s =
18
5
km/h
Note the distinction between velocity and speed.
Speed is the magnitude of the velocity.
Average speed for a time interval [t
1
, t
2
] is equal to
distances travelled
t
2
t
1
Instantaneous velocity v =
dx
dt
where x is a function of time.
Example 2
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t
2
7t +6, t 0. Find
a its initial velocity b when and where its velocity equals zero
c its average velocity for the rst 4 s d its average speed for the rst 4 s.
Solution
a
x = t
2
7t +6
v =
dx
dt
= 2t 7
at t = 0, v = 7 i.e. the particle is moving to the left at 7 cm/s.
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b
2t 7 = 0
implies t = 3.5
When t = 3.5, x = (3.5)
2
7(3.5) +6
= 6.25
The particle is 6.25 cm to the left of O.
c average velocity =
change in position
change in time
at t = 4, x = 6
average velocity =
6 +6
4
= 3 cm/s
d average speed =
distance travelled
change in time
1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
O
t = 4
t = 0
t = 3.5
1
4
6
Since the particle has stopped at t = 3.5 and begun to move in the opposite direction,
we must consider the distance travelled in the rst 3.5 s (from x = 6 to x = 6.25)
and then the distance travelled in the nal 0.5 s (from x = 6.25 to x = 6).
total distance travelled = 12.25 +0.25 = 12.5
average speed =
12.5
4
= 3.125 cm/s
Acceleration
The acceleration of a particle is dened as the rate of change of its velocity with respect to time.
Average acceleration for the time interval [t
1
, t
2
] is dened by
v
2
v
1
t
2
t
1
where v
2
is the
velocity at time t
2
and v
1
is the velocity at time t
1
.
Instantaneous acceleration a =
dv
dt
=
d
dt
dx
dt
=
d
2
x
dt
2
For kinematics, the second derivative
d
2
x
dt
2
is denoted by x
(t ) or x (t).
Acceleration may be positive, negative or zero. Zero acceleration means the particle is
moving at a constant velocity. Note that the direction of motion and the acceleration need not
coincide. For example, a particle may have a positive velocity indicating it is moving to the
right, but a negative acceleration indicating it is slowing down. Also, although a particle may
be instantaneously at rest its acceleration at that instant need not be zero. If acceleration has
the same sign as velocity then the particle is speeding up. If the sign is opposite the particle is
slowing down.
The most commonly used units for acceleration include cm/s
2
and m/s
2
.
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Example 3
A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds is
given by x = t
3
6t
2
+5, t 0. Find
a its initial position, velocity and acceleration and hence describe its motion
b the times when it is instantaneously at rest and its position and acceleration at those times.
Solution
a
for x = t
3
6t
2
+5, v = 3t
2
12t and a = 6t 12
t = 0
x = 5, v = 0 and a = 12
Particle is instantaneously at rest 5 cm to right of O with an acceleration of
12 cm/s
2
.
b v = 3t
2
12t = 0
3t (t 4) = 0
t = 0 or t = 4
Particle is initially at rest and stops again after 4 s.
At t = 0, x = 5 and a = 12
At t = 4, x = (4)
3
6(4)
2
+5 = 27 and a = 6(4) 12 = 12
After 4 s the position of the particle is 27 cm to the left of O and its acceleration is
12 cm/s.
Exercise 19A
1 A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds
Examples 1, 2
(t 0) is given by x = t
2
7t +12. Find
a its initial position b its position at t = 5
c its initial velocity d when and where its velocity equals zero
e its average velocity in the rst 5 s f its average speed in the rst 5 s.
2 The position x metres at time t seconds (t 0) of a particle moving in a straight line is
Example 3
given by x = t
2
7t +10. Find
a when its velocity equals zero b its acceleration at this time
c the distance travelled in the rst 5 s d when and where its velocity is 2 m/s.
3 A particle moving in a straight line is x cm from the point O at time t seconds (t 0) where
x = t
3
11t
2
+24t 3. Find
a its initial position and velocity b its velocity at any time
c at what times the particle is stationary d where the particle is stationary
e for how long the particles velocity is negative f its acceleration at any time
g when the particles acceleration is zero and its velocity and position at that time.
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4 A particle moves in a straight line so that its position x cm relative to O at time t seconds
(t 0) is given by x = 2t
3
5t
2
+4t 5. Find
a when its velocity is zero and its acceleration at that time
b when its acceleration is zero and its velocity at that time.
5 A particle moving in a straight line is x cm from the point O at time t seconds (t 0) where
x = t
3
13t
2
+46t 48.
Find when it passes through O and its velocity and acceleration at those times.
6 Two particles are moving along a straight path so that their displacements, x cm from a
xed point P at any time, are given by x = t +2 and x = t
2
2t 2. Find
a the time when the particles are at the same position
b the time when they are moving with the same velocity.
19.2 Using antiderivatives for kinematics problems
So far we have considered examples where the equation of motion has dened the position of
the particle in terms of time and from it we have derived equations for the velocity and the
acceleration by differentiation.
We may be given a rule for acceleration at time t, and by the use of antidifferentiation with
respect to t and some additional information we can deduce rules for both velocity and
position.
Example 4
A body starts from O and moves in a straight line. After t seconds (t 0) its velocity (v cm/s)
is given by v = 2t 4. Find
a its position x in terms of t b its position after 3 s
c its average velocity in the rst 3 s d the distance travelled in the rst 3 s
e its average speed in the rst 3 s.
Solution
a Antidifferentiate with respect to t to nd the expression for position x m at time
t seconds
x = t
2
4t +c
When t = 0, x = 0 and therefore c = 0
x = t
2
4t
b When t = 3, x = 3. The body is 3 units to the left of O
c Average velocity =
3 0
3
= 1 m/s
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Chapter 19 Kinematics 469
d v = 0 when 2t 4 = 0, i.e., when t = 2
When t = 2, x = 4
Therefore the body goes from x = 0 to x = 4 in the rst 2 s, then back
to 3 in the next second. It has travelled 5 m in the rst 3 s.
e Its average speed is
5
3
m/s.
Example 5
A particle starts from rest 3 m from a xed point and moves in a straight line with an
acceleration of a = 6t +8. Find its position and velocity at any time t seconds.
Solution
a =
dv
dt
= 6t +8
by antidifferentiating v = 3t
2
+8t +c
at t = 0, v = 0 and so c = 0
v = 3t
2
+8t
by antidifferentiating again x = t
3
+4t
2
+d
at t = 0, x = 3 and so d = 3
x = t
3
+4t
2
+3
Example 6
A stone is projected vertically upward from the top of a building 20 m high with an initial
velocity of 15 m/s.
Find
a the time taken for the stone to reach its maximum height
b the maximum height reached by the stone
c the time taken for the stone to reach the ground
d the velocity of the stone as it hits the ground.
In this case we only consider the stones motion in a vertical direction so we can consider it as
rectilinear motion. Also we will assume that the acceleration due to gravity is approximately
10 m/s
2
(note that downward is considered the negative direction).
Solution
Given that a = 10
v = 10t +c
at t = 0, v = 15
v = 10t +15
x = 5t
2
+15t +d
at t = 0, x = 20
x = 5t
2
+15t +20
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470 Essential Advanced General Mathematics
a The stone will reach its maximum height when v = 0
10t +15 = 0
which implies t = 1.5
b
At t = 1.5, x = 5(1.5)
2
+15(1.5) +20
= 31.25
The maximum height reached by the stone is 31.25 m.
c The stone reaches the ground when x = 0
5t
2
+15t +20 = 0
5(t
2
3t 4) = 0
5(t 4)(t +1) = 0
t = 4 (solution of t = 1 is rejected since t 0)
i.e. the stone takes 4 s to reach the ground.
d At t = 4, v = 10(4) +15
= 25
i.e. velocity on impact is 25 m/s.
Exercise 19B
1 A body starts from O and moves in a straight line. After t seconds (t 0) its velocity
Example 4
(v cm/s) is given by v = 4t 6. Find
a its position x in terms of t b its position after 3 s
c the distance travelled in the rst 3 s d its average velocity in the rst 3 s
e its average speed in the rst 3 s.
2 The velocity (v m/s) at time t seconds (t 0) of a particle is given by v = 3t
2
8t +5. It
is initially 4 m to the right of a point O. Find
a its displacement and acceleration at any time
b its displacement when the velocity is zero
c its acceleration when the velocity is zero.
3 A body moves in a straight line with an acceleration of 10 m/s
2
. If after 2 s it passes
Example 6
through O and after 3 s it is 25 m from O, nd its initial displacement relative to O.
4 A body moves in a straight line so that its acceleration
a m/s
2