Introduction of C.C.


C.C.L is a subsidiary company of coal India limited under ministry of coal and mines govt. of India C.C.L is one of the 7 coal production subsidiaries of coal india limited under ministry of coal and mines. Company is governed by a board of directors consisting of 5 full time directors and 6 part time directors. Full time directors are responsible for specific functions of operation, project & planning, finance and personnel.

India is third largest country in the production of coal. C.C.L means Central Coalfields Limited.


Coal India Limited – A Profile

Coal India limited is the third largest coal producing company in the world. It was formed on 21 st October, 1975 as a Holding Company under the ministry of coal, Govt. of India, for the entire coal industry in the country barring the coal mines in Andhra Pradesh and captive mines of TISCO, IISCO and DVC. Its registered office is located at 10, Netaji Subhash Road, Kolkata. It was declared Public Sector Undertaking in November, 1975 for reorganizing the nationalized coal mines and ensuring integrated development of coal, the prime source of energy. Coal India presently contributes 90% of the total coal production in India. It operates through NINE subsidiaries: EIGHT producing companies: Eastern Coalfield Limited (ECL), Sanctoria, WB; Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL); Central Coalfield Limited (CCL), Ranchi Jharkhand; Northern Coalfield Limited (NCL), Singrauli, MP; Western Coalfields Limited (WCL), Nagpur, Maharashtra; Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL), Sambalpur, Orissa; The mines of North Eastern Coalfields Limited (NECL), Assam & Meghalaya; South Eastern Coalfield Limited (SECL), Bilaspur; and Coal Mine Planning & Development at Institute Limited (CMPDI). And Dankuni Coal Companies (DCC) in West Bengal operates directly under coal India. Coal India currently operates 510 mines (tentatively) and 15 washeries spread over nine states to produce and beneficiate coal for meeting the demand of the consumers all over the country. The ranges of products are: Raw coal (coking and non-coking), Washed coal, Middlings, soft coke & Hard coke, coal, tar, coal gas, coal chemicals etc.


Background History
Warren Hastings initiates commercial coal mining at Raniganj (West Bengal) First Shaft Mine opened at Ranigunj Carr, Tagore & Company takes over the Ranigunj Coal Mines Bengal Coal Company takes over Ranigunj Coal Mines and others; is first Joint Stock Coal Company in India. Minimal development; River transportation used to transport coal to Calcutta;railway lines at Calcutta leads to expansion of Coal Production Capacity at 6 million tonnes per annum Focus on Coal Industry; capacity up to 38.4 Million tonnes. National Coal Development Corporation (NCDC) formed to explore and expand coal mining in Public Sector Coking Coal Industry Nationalised, Bharat Coking Coal Limited formed to manage operations of all Coking Coal mines in Jharia Coalfield. Non-coking coal nationalised; Coal Mine Authority Limited set up to manage these mines; NCDC operations bought under the ambit of CMAL. Coal India Limited formed as holding Company with 5 subsidiaries viz. Bharat Coking Coal Limited (BCCL), Central Coalfields Limited (CCL), Western Coalfields Limited (WCL), Eastern Coalfields Limited (ECL) and Central Mine Planning and Design Institute Limited (CMPDIL). Northern Coalfields Limited (NCL) and South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL) carved out of CCL and WCL Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) formed out of SECL to manage the Talcher and IB Valley Coalfields in Orissa. De-regulation of Coal pricing and distribution of coal. Coal India & four of its nos Subsidiaries,viz,NCL,SECL,MCL,WCL was accorded coveted "Mini Ratna" Status

1774 1815-1820 1835 1843

Upto 1900 Early 1900s 1955-56 1956





1992 2000 2007



Company Profile
Date of incorporation Corporate Status : Coal India Limited was formed as holding Company with 5 subsidiaries on 21.10.1975 The company is incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 and is wholly owned by the Government of India (GOI). Engaged in the mining of coal, coal based products and mining consultancy.
Eastern Coalfields Ltd. Bharat Coking Coal Ltd. Central Coalfields Ltd. Northern Coalfields Ltd. Western Coalfields Ltd. South Eastern Coalfields Ltd. Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. and Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Ltd. North Eastern Coalfields

Business :

Wholy Owned Subsidiaries

is directly under Coal

India Ltd.
Registered Office :
Coal Bhavan, 10 Netaji Subhas Road, Kolkata - 700 001 West Bengal, India.



DELEGATION OF POWER CIL exercise the power delegated under DPE guidelines to the MOU signing companies and also powers delegated by the ministry of Coal to Coal India Ltd. from time to time. Obligation of the Government: In order to enable CIL to achieve its objectives and the level of performance set in the MOU, the Government on its part undertakes to: Assist CIL in setting adequate supply of railway wagons.  Assist CIL in acquisition of land and getting clearance for forest land by taking up the matter with MOEF and the respective state government so that land acquired under the LA/CBA Act is handed over and the forest clearance given under time bound programmed.  Assist CIL in arranging and getting necessary approval for internal credit.  Assist CIL in recovery of outstanding coal sale due.  Assist CIL in restructuring of ECL and BCCL in view of report submitted by consultant. MONITORING CIL has to submit a quarterly report of performance for each of the performance indicators. The quarterly target in respect of indicators is same as reflected in the annual action plan 2001-02 of the Ministry of coal. The Performance evaluation is based on its annual performance.


The performance rating is done in the following way:5% more than the target • • • • Equal to the target 5% less than the target 10% less than the target 15% less than the target - Excellent - Very Good - Good - Fair - Poor

CIL Board has followings members:• • • • • • Chairman CIL Functional Director Additional Secretary, MCC Joint Secretary & financial advisor , MOC Representative from railway board Two CMD’s of subsidiary company.



HEADQUARTERS Sanctoria Dhanbad Ranchi Nagpur Singrauli Bilaspur Sambhalpur Meghalaya Ranchi

YEAR OF CORPORATION 1975 1973 1975 1975 1986 1986 1992 1975 1975

Coal India and its subsidiaries



Central Coalfield Limited has been on the coal map the country as a public sector on October, 1956, under different names. In the beginning it was known as National Coal Development Corporation, then Central Division of Coal mines Authority , and finally under its present nomenclatures at Ranchi, Jharkhand. The Central Coalfield Limited is one of the subsidiaries of coal India Limited registered under the Company’s Act 1956 in the year 1975. The mining and extraction of coal is entrusted to a public sector organization Coal India Limited. The Company is divided into eight subsidiaries and Central Coalfield Limited is one of them. The company presently known as CCL has a history of more than three decades. Pursuant to the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956, a company was formed by the names of M/S Hindustan Collieries Private Limited, on 5 September, 1956. The name was changed to the National Coal Development Corporation. The NCDC was formed on 01.10.1956 with 11 state railway collieries in Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. Like other industries and organization, the affair of CCL too is not settled by its owner (Govt. of India). Rather the professional team of management called Board of Directors (BOD) is appointed by the Govt. of India to manage the affair of CCL. It consists of chairman – cum-Managing Director, four functional Directors in charge of operations, personnel, finance and projects & planning. Besides part-time Directors as may be appointed by the Govt. from time to time. At present CCL have 67 collieries and 7 washeries under revenue production. Some of the state collieries are very old, at least one of which that in Giridih has crossed century in the year 1961. It also has seven coal washeries , a coal oven plant , besides workshop and handling plants spread over in Hazaribagh , Palamau, Ranchi, Bokaro , Giridih, and Chatra district.

CCL is the major source of medium coking coal in India. CCL’s other important activities are beneficiation of medium coking coal for steel plants through its chain of coal washeries and manufacture of soft coke for domestic kitchen. Most of the production (88%) comes from surface mines. The productivity of underground mines and many of the surface mines is low, but because of high priced of coking coal, the company has been making marginal profit and losses with the recent deregulation of coking coal price the profitability of the company is expected to improve. The command area of CCL companies 10 coalfields namely Giridih, East Bokaro, West

Bokaro, Ramgarh-kaitha, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Auranga, Hutar, Daltongang and Giridih/ Jayanti. Chairman-cum-Managing Directors is the full time executive of the company. The collieries and washeries have been grouped into 15 areas each headed by chief General Manager/General Manager. The coal projects are headed by project officer



Coking Coal Washeries Location

1. Rajrappa 2. Kedla 3. Sawang 4. Kargali Non Coking Coal Washeries Location 1. Piparwar

2. Gidi 3. kathara Coal-Type and Constitutes Vegetable matter subjected to diverse geological processes and pressures give birth to the sedimentary rock called coal. Chemically coal is made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen,and some other impurities. The main constitutes of coal are:Carboneous Vitarin Clarin Non Carboneous Ash Moisture Volatile matter Fixed Carbon Broadly speaking , coal is of four types: 1.Anthracite 2.Bituminous 3.Lignite 4.Peat CCL is mainly concerned with bituminous coal. These are mainly of two types:1. Coking coal 2. Non-coking coal

Coking coal is that variety of coal which has better coking properties and which can be converted into hard coke suitable for iron and steel industry and metallurgical purpose. Coking coal is of three types:1. Prime coking coal 2. Medium coking coal 3. Semi coking coal GRADES OF COAL Coal is divided into following grades according to uhv (useful heat value) COKING St-1steel grades 1 St-2steel grades 2 W-1 washeries grades 1 W-2 washeries grades 2 W-3 washeries grades 3 W-4 washeries grades 4 NON COKING GRADES A (>6200kcal/kg) GRADES B (>5600kcal/kg) GRADES C (>4940kcal/kg) GRADES D (>4200kcal/kg) GRADES E (>3360kcal/kg) GRADES F (>2400kca/kg) GRADES G (>1300kcal/kg)



To become a World class, innovate, competitive & profitable Coal Mining Operation to achieve customer satisfaction as top priority, Committed to create eco-friendly mining.

MISSION The mission of CCL is to produce and market the planned quantity of coal and coal products efficiently and economically with due regard to safety, conservation and quality. The main thrust of CCL in the present context is to orient its operations towards market requirements maintaining at the same time financial viability to meet the resource needs.

Product Profile

Gradewise availability of Raw Coal Available Grade of Coal Non-coking Coking Grade U.H.V. (K Cal/Kg.)


Grade A B C D E F G

U.H.V. (K Cal/Kg.) Exceed 6200 Between 5600-6200 Between 4940-5600 Between 4200-4940 Between 3360-4200 Between 2400-3360 Between 1300-2400


% Ash Between 18-21 Between 21-24 Between 24-28 Between 28-35


Coal is obtained from the earth’s surface called mines.

Mines are of two types. 1.OPENCAST MINES In this type of mine with the help of technology attempt is made to reach the level of coal seam by removing the overburden (i.e. after removing everything lying above the coal seam). For this heavy machines like HEMM (heavy Earth Moving Machine) are used the manpower is reduced. 2. UNDERGROUND MINES In this type of mine technology attempts to reach the coal seam not by removing the overburden but through a pit. These mines are in those areas where coal seam is deep. The overburden remains intact the workers dig the ground. The workers are sent to the level of coal seam either through shaft (an inclination) or through lift, i.e. DOLI. There is optimum utilization of manpower in these mines.

In this type of mines there is high risk of accidents due to the fall of roofs and sides. In order to avoid these accidents thrust is given to provide support of green roof with steel supports like steel cogs, pit props, roof, Bolts, W-straps, etc


Human Resource is treated as a major. For improvement of production and productivity in CCL. For achieving the goals, special thrust is given by motivating & providing opportunity to every member of the organization to discover, unlock & develop their talent potential & wider the horizon through continuous learning. One of the thrust areas of the company is to impart need basic retraining of underutilized/surplus manpower and employees appointed under SFVRS (Special Female VRS). Newly recruitment and out sees and inductees under NCWA scheme are developed as a work force to compete in the statutory examinations conducted by DGMS, Electricity Board etc. During 1999-2000, Several courses were conducted covering topics like Leadership Development, TQM-ISO 9000, Techno Managerial topics, Team Building, Work Ethnics, New Industrial policy, Contract Management, Quality Assurance, Statutory Cources, Advance Technology, Decision Making, Computer Education and Applications, Management Development programme, Safety Management etc. Following are the training Institutes of CCL:15

1. Management Training centre, Ranchi. 2. Bhurkunda training Institute, Bhurkunda 3. Central Excavation Training Institute, Barkakana. 4. Security Training Institutes, Gandhi nagar, Ranchi. 5. Institute of Occupational Medicine and health centre, Gandhinagar, Ranchi. Computer Appreciation Program (CAP) is being regularly conducted at MTC. Training programmed for pit safety committee members and workman inspector is also being regularly conducted

1. To carry on business of coal mining 1.1 Acquisition of coal mining. 1.2 To produce or otherwise engage generally in the production, sale and and its by-product. 1.3 Mining coal, manufacturing coke and other business. 1.4 Manufacturing, trading and other business. 2. Recognition and reconstruction of coal mines taken over by government. 3. Policy formulation and advisory function. 4. To finance replacement expenditure. 5. To develop technical know-how. 6. Exploration and prospecting. 7. To manufacture and sell coal as a patent fuel. 8. To carry on mining and carrying coal other by products incidental there to. 9. To acts as trader of coal and coke and other by-products directly or through agents.

disposal of

10. To manufacture coke and other by-products of coal. 11. To act as colliery and mines proprietors coke manufacture in all their respective branches.

The main project objective are to support the market-oriented reform India is undertaking in the sector and specially to provide financial and technical support of coal India’s effort to make itself commercially viable and self-sustaining under pinning India’s broad drive to achieve economic growth. The project also aim to increase domestic supplies of coal by planning investment in the most profitable 24 opencast mines of coal India for the power sector and other industries until imports and production from private investments can fill the merging supply gap.


1. To get implemented the policy and program laid down by the government of time.

India. CIL

ensures working in accordance with the guidelines and directions issued by them from time to

2. To keep them informed of the program with regard to implementation of their policies and progress in accordance with the guideline and direction issued by them. 3. To plan and carryout all operations in such a manner that there is no risk of loss, injury or damage to the health of workman. 4. To adopt techniques and methods working such that loss of coal reserves by ways similar to other reasons and blockage of reserved in barriers etc. in the east. 5. To draw annual plans for production, preparation and dispatch of coal connect activities keeping in priority wise demand. 6. To maintain store of equipment, spares and other material to that necessary items are available in time without unduly blocking capital for propose.

7. To draw out inputs of various equipments that is plant and machinery, stores & spares, land and building etc. 8. To install maintain and operate plant and machinery property so that they are available for the working to maximum extend and to utilize them in the best possible manner. 9. To keep down cost in all possible ways so as to get maximum profit. 10. To arrange for necessary fund and utilize that in the most advantageous manner. 11.To take care of housing, water supply, recreational, education, medical & other for the social security of employees to the extend it is reasonable & practicable. 12. To maintain harmonious industrial relation. 13. To arrange for security of company’s properties collective security of employees & their properties maintenance of law & order in coordination with Government machinery. 14. To construct new project to meet the future need & to ensure timely communication & completion of jobs. 15. To promote marketing of products and to realize sales proceeds promptly. 16. To carry out studies with the view to asses to normal standard of performance in different spheres and to develop & implement incentives to increase efficiency. facilities



The Chairman cum Managing Director is the whole time chief executive of the company. The chief vigilance officer is responsible to see that the work is done as per the set rules producer and guidelines and being the guilty to book secretary to board is responsible for keeping the meeting agenda. The board of directors consists of functioned directors and nominees from the state and central government. The functional Directors are personnel operations etc. All functional Directors are indirectly related to the areas General Managers. Each area General Manager is fully responsible for the performance of the area having separate project. Officer for each project is supposed to achieve the projected target fixed by the company as a whole. Each project has a colliery manager to individually supervise all types of activities like transport, production sales realization. The functional Directors has separate departmental heads namely G.M. sales and marketing, quality control, finance personnel administration. All have separate work or duties but are indirectly related to each other.



Mr. R.K. Saha

Chairman-cum-managing Director (CMD)

DIRECTORS Mr. T.K.NAG Mr. T.K. Chand Directors (Tech/Oprn.) Directors (personnel)

Company Secretary Shri C.V.N. Gangaram

Statutory Auditors Anand Rungta & Co. Chartered Accountants




1. CMS







5. GM (P& IR) 6. GM (ADMIN.) 7. GM (W & CD) 8. GM (EE) 9. DY. GM (TA) 10. CHIEF OF SECURITY



Year ending 31st March







Average Manpower









The stock of raw coal as on 31/7/2007 stood at 11.37 million tones. From which 58% is NON-COKING COAL 42% is COAKING COAL



The table below shows the production and productivity figures achieved by C.C.L during the year 2006-2007 as compared to the targets for the year and actual of 2005-2006. Particulars Production From OC (MT) From UG (MT) TOTAL (MT) 39.970 2.630 42.000 39.364 1.955 41.895 42 2 44 42.31 1.83 44.14 46.75 2.25 49.00 41.68 1.56 43.24 2006-2007 Target 2007-2008 Actual Target Actual 2008-2009 Target Actual

(OC- Open Cast Mining, UG- Under Ground mining, MT- Million Tones)

Graphical presentation of comparison of last five years production and productivity in C.C.L.

YEARS (y-axis shows production in million tones and X-axis shows years)


Webster’s dictionary defines a profession as “a calling, vocation or employment requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation.” To qualify as a profession, at least six characteristics must be present. • • • • A common body of knowledge Agreed to performance standards A representative professional organization An external perception as a profession

• •

A code of ethics Agreed certification procedure

Although human resource has recently gained recognition as a profession compared to more established professions. The management of company’s people (human resource) has been a recognized, time-honoured function of every organization. Human resource management incorporates a number of interrelated job functions and work processes, whose primary goal is to acquire and retain qualified, valued employees as a source of competitive advantage for an organization. Typical HR functions include:

Anticipating and making provisions for the movement of people into, within and out of organization. Staffing Locating potential applicants and encouraging them to apply for existing or anticipated job openings (recruitment) and choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings (recruitment) and choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings (selection).These tasks are often referenced together under a function called staffing.

Job design Improving jobs through technological and human consideration in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee satisfaction.

Learning, developing and training Designing and delivering programs using a variety of methods to develop an employee’s knowledge, skills and abilities to work at a satisfactory level of performance on the job (training), and broaden an individual’s skills for future responsibilities (development).

Performance Management Designing and developing programs and tools which help managers and employees establish performance standards, identify ways to improve performance asses and document work performance.

Compensation and benefits Establishing policies and developing programs that fairly compensate employees for work performance and meet the strategic objectives of the organization. Direct compensation includes wages, salaries, incentives, bonuses and commissions. Indirect compensation includes the benefit provided by employers to improve employee’s quality of life. Example of some employee include – compensation insurance contributions, health care, paid vacation, sick level programs, Canada compensation plan, Employment insurance and Workers compensation. Payroll is also a key responsibility included in the total compensation function.

Employee and Labour Relation Designing and developing HR policies and practices that strive to maintain harmonious working relationships between departments, employees and managers. Specific functions include employee communications and managing organization change, absenteeism, sexual harassment, employment equity, and diversity. When employees are unionized, the process (labour relations) includes developing maintaining effective working relationships with representative unions, participating in collective bargaining, providing advice and guidance on grievance procedures and policy interpretation and managing workforce reductions.

Health and Safety Designing and developing policies, practices and procedures that provide a hazard- free work place and comply with all applicable government statutes and regulations. Additional

requirements include informing employees about health and safety, enforcing safety rules, and keeping comprehensive records.

Human Resource Information Management Designing and maintaining a computerized system that provides current and accurate data for the purpose of control and decision making. In addition to storing and retrieving HR information, data is used to produce reports, forecast HR needs, establish strategic, plans careers and promotions, and evaluate HR policies and practices. But in today’s intensely competitive and global marketplace, a growing number of organization’s human resources are now viewed as a source of competitive advantage. There is a greater recognization that distinctive competencies are obtained through highly developed employee skills, distinctive organizational cultures, management processes and systems. This is contrast to traditional emphasis on transferable resources such as equipment. Increasingly it is being recognized that competitive advantage can be obtained with a high quality workforce that enables organization to compete on the basis of market responsiveness, product and service quality, differentiated products and technological innovation. So, the new HR role is to be viewed from the strategic perspective wherein HR plays an important and vital role whilst designing and delivering the HR strategy for the organization. The approach of HR planning activity is no more in isolation but very much aligned to the strategy of the organization as a whole delivering a strategic impact, the HR strategy needs to be in sync with the business objectives and the system and processes incorporated must also support demonstrating the required results. Some of the unsuccessful models/strategy used by the corporations are generalist strategy, personnel strategy, e-HR strategy, performance culture etc. The strategies or the models cited do have their own advantage and disadvantages .Some of the evaluation parameters worthwhile considering while planning the suitable strategy: Priority and focus, likely impact, size, structure and organization appropriateness, benefits and risks associated, budget and time constraints, technology usage etc. More than the new strategic role adopted by the HR fraternity; the contribution of the function has also seen a radical change in the recent past. The performance assessment methodology and measures incorporated, introducing HR scorecard and usage of ROI concept in measuring the performance of this function in terms of financial outputs, have allowed the HR function to crown the status of

Strategic Business Units akin to other functions. As the industry rolls into the stream of knowledge management concepts defining, sharing and impacting of industry and role specific vital information, the HR professionals are dealing with knowledge and empowered associates now a days. This necessitates the HR professional to be competent on the personal and professional grounds requiring to have sound business knowledge, proactiveness and innovative. Managing change and diversity have become preponderant in the HR agenda. The cross- cultural and team becoming more obvious and common, HR often takes a consulting role within the organization enabling to build an employee oriented culture and climate. Combating with the acute attrition prevailing admits the knowledge industry, the HR professional are enforced to think out of the box to taste the success of their retention strategies. With the onus of creating an employee barding-enabling the corporation to attract the potential talents, the HR function bolsters the value proposition of the corporation.

Review of literature

Effectiveness of performance Appraisal system it is argued is a function of applying the right system in right context. By Klein; The Art o Appraisal

Performance appraisal system are “home work” that provides the information you need in order to make appropriate administrative recommendations, hold meaningful feedback discussions with staff members, and determined were performance improvement is required By Marion E. Haynes; Managing Performance


The effectiveness of an Appraisal System is determined by the quality of communication between the manager and staff member, not by multiple raters, complex scoring methods, or the form used. By John D. Drake; Performance Appraisal: One More Time

Performance appraisal can actually be counter-productive for employees who are in the greatest need of training and further development By Victor Buzzottan; Improving your Performance Appraisal

One of the measure reason Performance management and Performance Appraisal fail is that too much time is spent on Appraising performance using vague criteria, and not enough time and effort put into helping employee understand what his job is about, and the goals and objectives he/she is expected to achieve to be successful. Learn to do goals setting painlessly. By Robert Bacal; Learn to plan Performance and set employee goals

Maximizing and measuring our own performance and that of the people who work for us is a basic tenant of the work environment. Always use of simple tool and approach that can be beneficial in achievement performance plan. By Zack Mansdorf; Performance Management; Identifying work goals

Most managers and supervisors today are attempting to quantify their departmental objective and pass them on their employees through performance standards. Despite the simplicity of this management- by –objective approach, deadlines are missed, quality is relatively poor and productive is low. The reasons for this may not be the fault of the employees carrying out the work. The cause is most often associated with the immediate supervisor’s lack of attention to the realities surrounding objectives and performance standards require a careful analysis of all the relevant issues. By Gregory Isaac; Plan for performance


Organizations striving to develop an open and participative approach have begun to give employees the chance to say what they think of their managers. Such appraisals can only work in a culture where mangers are willing to listen and learn and effect any necessary changes as a result. By Madhukar Shukla; Upward Appraisal and Organizational culture

At one stage performance appraisal relied mainly on personality characteristics. Sub ordinates were being appraised by their superior on the extent to which they exhibited characteristic like, tact, willingness, enthusiasm, and maturity. Mangers were being put into position of psychologists and required to make subjective ratings without any point of reference expect their own opinion By Bob Nelson; Performance Assessment

Performance appraisal is a part is a part of overall performance management system of an organization. Through the appraisal process, gap between an individual’s agreed performance standard his actual performance is assessed and appropriate strategies are drawn for subsequent performance cycle. This is a useful performance enhancement exercise. In many Organizations, PMS is linked with other systems like salary & Benefits, Training &Development and Succession Planning. By H.K.Shukla; Straties Human Resource Management

Bi-directional performance recognizes that for performance to improve, both manager and employee must receive feedback on how well they are fulfilling their obligations to their organizations and to each other. By Robert bacal; when Boss evaluates you

Most advocates of total quality believe that total quality management (TQM) and performance appraisal is incompatible. For them company managers can choose to promote either of these two approaches but not both. Since fundamental TQM requirements contradict the basic elements of performance appraisal, it would be impossible to combine them. Thus, companies may have to re-examine their approaches to corporate leadership. By, Peters Scholtes; TQM& Performance Appraisal

In recent year there has been a shift away from the traditional employee rating system, which places emphasis on the use of such rating for administrative actions to service ratings, which serves as a basis for counseling in employee regarding the improvement of their performance of the job. For example, many personnel authority believe that disciplinary matters should be created in terms of specific causes rather than in terms of general service-ratings programme the new look in employee ratings emphasize the use of performance evaluation and opportunity for the supervisor to give the employee a better understanding of the job and what is expected of the employee the new look like wise provide the opportunity for the employee to give input into the scope and sequences of the task performed. By, Krishna Raghvan; the Mantra of employee rating system


The history of performance appraisal is quite brief. Its root in the 20th century can be traced to Taylor’s pioneering Time and Motion studies. But this is not very helpful, for the same may be said about almost everything in the field of modern human resource management. As a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance, appraisal really dates from the of the second world war-not more than 60 years ago. Yet in a broader sense, the practice of appraisal is a very ancient art. In the scale of things historical, it might well lay claim to being the world’s second oldest professional! There is, says Dulewicz (1989), “…a basic human tendency to make judgment about those one is working with, as well as about oneself.”Appraisal, it seems, is both inevitable and universal. In the absence of a carefully structured of appraisal, people will tend to judge the work performance of others, including subordinates, naturally and informally, arbitrarily.

The human inclination to judge can create serious motivational, ethical and legal problems in the place. Without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgment made will be lawful, fair, defensible and accurate. Performance appraisal systems began as simple methods of income justification. This is,appraisal was used to decide whether or not the salary or wage of an individual employee was justified. The process was firmly linked to material outcomes. If an employee’s performance was found to be less than ideal, a cut in pay would follow. On the other hand, if their performance was better than the supervisor expected, a pay rise was in order. Little consideration, if any, was given to the developmental possibilities of appraisal. It was felt that a cut in pay, or a rise, should provide the only required impetus for an employee to either improve or continue perform well. Sometimes this basic system succeeded in getting the results that were intended; but more often than not, it failed. For example, early motivational researchers were aware that different people with roughly equal work abilities could be paid the same amount of money and yet have quite different levels of motivation and performance. These observations were confirmed in empirical studies. Pay rates were important, yes; but they were not the only element had an impact on employee performance. It was found that other issue, such as morale and self esteem, could also have a major influence As a result, the traditional emphasis on reward outcomes was progressively rejected. In the 1950s in the United States, potential usefulness of appraisal as tool for motivation and development was gradually recognized. The general model of performance appraisal, as it is known today, began from that time. In today’s competitive world, various organization and companies are struggling for maximum consumer satisfaction and economic benefit. The degree of success that all employees have in reaching their desired goals is important in determining organization effectiveness.


The assessment of success achieved by employee becomes a critical part of HRM. This leads us to the need of performance appraisal. In simple terms, performance appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individual’s performance in a systematic way. A formal definition of performance appraisal is: “It is the systematic evolution of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development.” Performance Appraisal can be understood as: A formal, structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee ,organization, and society all benefit.


Data relating to performance assessment of employees are recorded, stored, and use for several purposes. The main purposes of employees assessment are: 1. To effect promotion based on competence and performance. 2. To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily. 3. To assess the training and development needs of employees. 4. To decide upon a pay raise where (as in the unorganized sector) regular pay scale has been fixed.


5. To let the employees know where they stand in so far as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development. 6. To improve communication. Performance Appraisal provides a format for dialogue between the superior and the subordinate, and improves understanding of personal goals and concerns. This can also have the effect of increasing the trust between the rater and the ratee. 7. Finally, Performance Appraisal can be used to determined whether HR programmes such as selection, training ,and transfers have been effective or not. Broadly, performance Appraisal serves four objectives I. II. III. IV. Developmental uses, Administrative uses/decision Organizational maintenance/ objectives and Documentation purposes.


General Application

Specific Purpose

Developmental uses

Identification of individual needs Performance feedback Determining transfer and job Assignments Identification of individual

Strengths and developmental needs

Administrative uses/ Decisions

Salary Promotion Retention of termination Recognition of individual Performance Lay-offs Identification of poor Performers

Organizational maintenance/ objectives

HR Planning Determining organization Training needs Evaluation of organizational goal Achievement Information of goal identification Evaulation of HR systems Reinforcement of organizational Development needs.


Criteria for validation research Documentation for HR decisions Helping to meet legal requirements



The process of appraisal begins with the establishment of performance standards. These performance standards should be clear and objective enough to be understood and measured. The next step is to communicate these standards to the employees. To make the communication effective, ‘feedback is necessary from the subordinate to the manager. The third steps in the appraisal process are the measurement of performance. This step is concerned with the decision on appraisal method and implementation of the system selected. The fourth steps in the comparison of actual performance with standards. At the next step, the results of appraisal are discussed periodically with the employees, where strength, weakness and difficulties are discussed so that performance can be improved. The final step is the initiation of corrective action whenever necessary.


Numerous methods have been devised to measure the quantity and quality of employee’s job performance. Broadly all the approaches to appraisal can be classified into: 1 Past oriented methods, 2 Future oriented methods. Each group has several techniques for appraising employee’s performance



PAST-ORIENTED Rating scales Checklist Forced choice method Forced distribution method Critical incident methods Behaviorally anchored scales

FUTURE ORIENTED Management by objective

360-Degree appraisal

Field review methods Performance tests and observations Annual confidential reports Essay methods Cost accounting approach Comparative evaluation approach Assessment centre Psychological appraisal


Ratings scales This is the simplest and most popular technique for appraising employee performance. The typical rating scale system consists of several numerical scales, each representing a job-related performance criterion such as dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude, co-operation, and the like. Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The rater checks the appropriate performance level on each criterion, then computes the employee’s total numerical scores.

Checklist Under this method, a checklist of statement on the traits of employee and his or her job is prepared in two columns-viz,a ‘Yes’ column and a ‘No’ column. All that the rater (immediate superior) should do is tick the ‘Yes’ column if the answer to the statement is positive and in column ‘No’if the answer is negative. After ticking off against each item, the rater forwards the list to the HR department where the actual assessment of the employee takes place. The HR department assigns certain points to each ‘Yes’ ticked. Depending on the number of ‘Yes’ the

total score is arrived. When points are allotted to the checklist, the technique becomes a weighted checklist.

FORCED CHOICE METHODS In this the rater is given a series of statements about an employee. These statements are arranged in blocks of two or more, and the rater indicates which statements are most or least descriptive of the employee. This method is known as the forced choice methods because the rater is forced to select statements which are readymade.

FORCED DISTRIBUTION METHOD One of the errors in rating is leniency-clustering a large number of employee around a high point on a rating scale. The forced distribution method seeks to overcome the problem by compelling the rater to distribute the rates on all points on the rating scale. The method operates under an assumption that the employee performance level conforms to a normal statistical distribution. Generally it is assumed that employee performance level conforms to a bell-shaped curve

CRITICAL INCIDENTS METHOD The critical incidents methods of employee assessment have generated a lot of interest these days. The approach focuses on certain critical behaviors of an employee that make all the difference between effective and non-effective performance of a job. Such incidents are recorded by the superiors as and when they occur.

BEHAVIORALLY ANCHORED RATING SCALES Behaviorally anchored scale, sometimes called behavioral expectation scales, are rating scales whose scale points are determined by statements of effective and ineffective behaviors. They are

said to be behaviorally anchored in that the scales represent a range of descriptive statements of behavior varying from the least to the most effective. A rater must indicate which behavior on each scale best describes an employee’s performance. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) have the following features: 1. Areas of performance to be evaluated are identified and defined by the people who will use the scales. 2. The scales are anchored by descriptions of actual job behaviors that, supervisors agree, represent specific level of performance. The result is a set of rating scales in which both dimensions and anchors are precisely defined. 3. All dimensions of performance to be evaluated are based on observable behaviors and are relevant to the job being evaluated since BARS are tailor made for the job. 4. Since the raters who will actually use the scales are actively involved in the development process, they are more likely to be committed to the final product. BARS were developed to provide results which subordinates could use to improve performance. Supervisors would feel comfortable to give feedback to the ratees.

FIELD REVIEW METHOD This is an appraisal by someone outside the assesse’s own department, usually someone from the corporate office or the HR department. The outsider reviews employee records and holds interviews with the rate and his or her superior. The method is used for making promotional decision at the managerial level.

PERFORMANCE TESTS AND OBSERVATIONS With a limited number of jobs, employee assessment may be based upon a test of knowledge or skills. The test may be of the paper-and-pencil variety or an actual demonstration of skills. The test must be reliable and validated to be useful. Even then, performance tests are apt to measure potential more than actual performance.


CONFIDNTIAL RECORDS Confidential records are maintained mostly in government departments, though its application in the industry is not ruled out. ITI, for example had followed method for a long time. Called the Annual Confidential Report (ACR),

The approach had 14item1. Attendance 2. Self-expression (written or oral) 3. Ability to work with others 4. Leadership 5. Initiative 6. Technical ability(job knowledge) 7. 8. 9. Ability to understand new material Ability to reason Originality and resourcefulness,

10. Areas of work that suits the person best, 11. Judgment 12. Integrity 13. Responsibility, and 14. Defect-indebtedness, memo served, etc.

twelve of these were filled on a four point grade scale (Excellent, Good, Fair, Poor).For integrity, there were special instructions from the management. Justification was separately given

(outstanding, Very good, Average, Poor), again with justification for rating as outstanding or poor. Recommendations for promotion were also given. The ACR contained recommendations and signature of the rater, the head of the department and the CMD. The system was highly secretive and confidential. Feedback to the assesses was given only in case of an adverse entry. The ACR was highly subjective. Ratings were easily manipulated because the evolution was linked to promotion. Even ITI has discontinued this system for these reasons

Essay Method

In the essay method, the rater must describe the employee within a number of broad categories, such as 1. The rater’s overall impression of the employee’s performance, 2. The promotability of the employee, 3. The jobs that the employee is now able to or qualified to performed, 4. The strengths and weakness of the employee, and 5. The training and development assistance required by the employee. The strength of the essay method depends on the writing skills and analytical ability of the rater. Although this method may be used independently, it is most frequently found in combination with others. It is extremely useful in filing information gaps about the employee.

COST ACCOUNTING METHOD This method evaluates performance from the monetary returns the employee yields to his or her organization. A relationship is established between the cost included in keeping the employee

and the benefit the organization derives from him or her. Performance of the employee is then evaluated based on the established relationship between the cost and the benefit.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION APPROACHES These are a collection of different methods that compare one worker’s performance with that the of his/her co-workers. As these appraisals can results in a ranking from best to worst, they are useful in deciding merit-pay increases, promotions and organizations rewards. The usual comparative forms used in this kind of evaluation are the ranking method and the paired comparison method.

RANKING METHOD In this, the superior ranks his or her subordinates in their merit, starting from the best to the worst. All that the HR department knows is that A is better than B. The ‘how’ and ‘why’ are not questioned, nor answered. No attempts are made to factionalize what is being appraised into component elements. This method is subjected to the halo and regency effects, although rankings by two or more raters can be averaged to help reduce biases.

PAIRED-COMPARISON METHODS Under these methods, the appraiser compares each with every other employee, one at a time. For example, there are five employees named A, B, C, D, and E. The performance of A is first compared with the performance of B and a decision is made about whose performance is better. Then A is compared with C, D and E in that order. The same procedure is repeated for other employees. The number of comparisons may be calculated with the help of this formula: N (N-1)*1/2 where N stands for the number of employee to be compared. After the completion of comparison, the results can be tabulated, and a rank is created from the number of times each person’s is considered to be superior.


2. FUTURE-ORIENTED APPRAISALS It is enough if only the past performance is assessed. How an employee can perform in the days to come is equally important. This can be assessed by focusing on employee potential or setting future performance goals. The commonly used future-oriented techniques are:

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES (MBO) It was Peter F.Drucker who first gave the concept of MBO to the world back in 1954 when his The Practice of Management was first published. The MBO concept, as was conceived by Drucker, reflects a management philosophy which values and utilizes employee contribution. How MBO works can be describes in four steps: The first step is to establish the goals each subordinates is to attain. In some organization, superiors and subordinates work together to establish goals. In others, superiors established goal for subordinates. The goals typically refer to the describes outcome to be achieved. These goals can be then by used to evaluate employee performance. The second step involves setting the performance standard for the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. As subordinates perform, they know fairly well what there is to do, what has been done, and what remains to be done. In the third step, the actual level of goal attainment is compared with the goal agreed upon. The evaluator explores reasons for the goals that were not met and for the goal that were exceeded. This step helps determine possible training needs. It also alerts the superior to conditions in the organization that may affect a subordinate but over which the subordinates has no control. The final step involves establishing new goals and, possibly, new strategies for goals not previously attained. At this point, subordinates and superior involvement in goal setting may

change. Subordinates who successfully reach the established goals may be allowed to participate more in the goal setting process the next time. The process is then repeated.

MBO has been criticized also. One comment made against the approach is that it is not applicable to all jobs in all organizations. Jobs with little or no flexibility, such as assembly-line work, are not compatible with MBO. An assembly line worker usually has so little job flexibility that the performance standards and objectives are already determined. The MBO process seems to be most useful with managerial personnel and employee who have a fairly wide range of flexibility and self control in their jobs. Besides when the results of an MBO system are to be used to all to allocate organizational rewards, employees may be less to less likely to establish challenging goals. They are confident that they can accomplish. Further, the allocation of merit pay on a semi-annual or annual basis may encourage the setting up of goals with short tune horizons to the disadvantage of important long term goals.

PSYCHOLOGICAL APPRAISALS Large organizations employ full-time industrial psychologist. When psychologists are used for evaluations, they assess an individual’s future potential and not past performance. The appraisals normally consist of in-depth interviews, psychological test, discussion with supervisors and a review of other evaluations. The psychologist then writes an evaluation of the employees intellectual, emotional motivations and other related characteristics that suggest individual potential and may predict future performance. The evolution by the psychologist mat be for a specific job opening for which the persons for which the persons is being considered, or it may be a global assessment of his or her future potentials. From these evaluations, placement and development decisions may be made to shape the persons career

ASSESSMENT CENTERS An assessment centre is a central location where managers may come together to have their participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers. The principle idea is to evaluate managers over a period of time, say one to three days, by observing (and later

evaluating) their behaviors across a series of select exercises or work samples. Assesses are requested to participate in in-basket exercises, work groups (without leaders),computer

simulations, role playing, and other similar activities which require the same attributes for successful performance, as in the actual job. After recording their observations of rate behaviors, the raters meet for the discussion of observations. Self-appraisal and peer evaluation are thrown in for final rating. The characteristics assessed in a typical assessment centre include assertiveness, persuasive ability, communicating ability, planning & organization ability, self confidence, and résistance to stress, energy level, decision-making, sensitivity to the feelings of others, administrative ability, creativity and mental alertness. First developed in the US and the UK in 1943, the assessment centre is gaining popularity in our country. Crompton Greaves, Eicher, HLL, Modi Xerox are using the technique with results being highly positive. The problem with the assessment centre is their cost. Not only are the assesses away from their jobs while the company pays for their travel and loading, but the evaluators are often company managers who are assigned to the assessment centre for short durations. These managers are often supplemented by psychologists and HR specialists who run the center and also make evaluations. Hence this approach is cost-effective only in large organizations. Assessment-center staffs are often influenced by subjective elements, such as personality of the candidates. Raters tend to evaluate the quality of the individual’s social skill rather than the quality of the decisions he/she makes. Assessment center ratings seem to be strongly influenced by the participant’s interpersonal skills. The approach also involves real hazards. One of the most obvious is the examination-taking syndrome. Solid performers in day to day operations feel suffocated in the simulated environment. Another drawback is its potential adverse effect on those not selected to participate in the exercise.


Employee who receives a poor report from the center may react in negative ways. A rejected employee would return to his or her former job, satisfied that he or she would not be promoted to a job he/she couldn’t handle. However, a good performer at one level may leave the organization

in order to remove the bad assessment report from his or her work record. Thus, a poor report can demoralize an employee who was once an asset. But a well-conducted assessment center can and does achieve better forecast of fortune performance and progress than other methods of appraisal. Also, reability, content validity, and predictive validity are said to be high in the assessment centers. The test also makes sure that the wrong people are not hired or promoted. Finally, the assessment-center test clearly defines the criteria for selection and promotion.

360-Degree Feedback Where multiple raters are involved in evaluating performance, the technique is called 360-degree appraisal. The 360-degree technique is understood as systematic collection of performance data on an individual or group, derived from a number of stakeholders-the stake being the immediate supervisors, team members, customers, peers and self. If fact, any one who has useful information on ‘how an employee does the job’ may be one of the appraisers. The 360-degree appraisal provides a broader perspective about an employee’s performance. In addition, the technique facilities greater self development of the employee. For one’s development, multi-source feedback is highly useful. It enables an employee to compare his or her perception about self with perceptions of others. Besides, the360-degree appraisal provides formalized communication links between an employee and his or her customer. It makes the employee feel much more accountable to his or her internal or external customers. The techniques are particularly helpful in assessing softs skills possessed by employees. By design, the 360 degree appraisal is effective in identifying and measuring interpersonal skills, customer’s satisfaction, and team-building skills.


However, there are drawbacks associated with the 360-degree feedback. Receiving feedback on performance from multiple sources can be intimidating. It is essential that the organization create a non-threatening environment by emphasizing the positive impact of the technique on an

employee’s performance & development. Further, firms that use the technique take a long time on selecting and the rater, designing questionnaires and analyzing the data. In addition, multiple raters are less adept at providing a balanced and objective feedback than the supervisors who are sought to be replaced. Raters can have enormous problems separating honest observation from personal from personal differences and biases. Pitfalls notwithstanding, more and more number of firms are using the 360-degree appraisal technique to assess the performance of their employees.

APPRAISALS ERRORS The ideal approach to performance appraisal is that in which the evaluator is free from personal biases and prejudices. But there are many significant factors which deter or objective of the evaluation.

1. Leniency Error:every evaluator has his own value system which acts as a standard against which he makes his appraisals. Relative to the true or actual performance an individual exhibit .This is the tendency of awarding higher marks than what is really due. This depends on variation of value system or standard between different raters.

1. Halo Effect:-

sometimes an employee can create a certain impression on the rater because of some incidents or behavior. This could be either positive or negative. For example, an employee might have been selected as a champion in athletics meet. This good impression has a tendency to influence the rater to provide higher marks on all factors

being evaluated. Similarly a person who is shabbily dressed for an interview give a bad impression on the rater which carry negative feedback, while he is being appraised, giving a chance of putting less marks on all points in the appraisal card.

2. Similarity Error:-

This is the situation in which apprisee possesses a certain similarity or identity with the rater himself. It could be identity in ideology, personality, cast, creed or language etc.

3. Central Tendency:-

Appraisers have a tendency to play safe. This results in ratings all employees “above average” or “good”. Normally in all organizations there are about 10 percent excellent and 10 percent very poor. One cannot ignore this aspect.

4. Reward Effect:-

Some time rating can effect promotion or some such reward to which the employee is a candidate. The tendency of ratter is to award some “extra marks” in such occasions. 5. Recent Incident Effects:Normally the annual appraisals are made some time in the month of December every year. This is the error in which the rater is biased because of certain incidents which occurred during a period just prior to the date of appraisal. If such an incident has created a good impression on the rater, it leads to award of “higher marks” than deserved and vice-versa.

6. Raters Error:If the rater is only one , all the above errors will have little effect in rankings since errors are equally effected to all the employees even though individual marks vary from realistic

analysis . The problem becomes acute when raters are many. We have different type of raters, very strict or very relaxed. The strict raters put lesser marks whereas the relaxed raters give very high marks. Thus, the employees who are marked/appraised by strict rater suffer because the annual confidential reports contains the rater marks of appraisal, which form the basis of further promotion or lucrative assignment or choice transfer etc. The personality of rater is another factor for such errors. For example the marks allotted will be generally on the lower side by a rater who believes in “Theory of X” compared to another rater who believes in “Theory of Y”.


1. Use Behaviour Based Scales:The BARS should be used instead of traits or personality attributes for appraisal. 2. Combine individual and group ranking:These are the methods of classifying employees in various grades and indicate position of each employee in their respective in their grades. This will also revel the nature (strict or relaxed)raters and might help to correct them. 3. Continuous feedback:If the superior and worker interact often and confront problems, solution and performance, annual appraisal will not be a surprise to the subordinate. A sort of partnership can develop where supervisors continuously appraises him the areas requiring improvement. 4. Multiple Raters:Uses of multiple raters minimize raters error discussed above. This can also assist to employ suitably qualified and competent rater to appraise a person in specialized areas. This latter method is also called “Selective Rating Method”. 5. Training Appraise/Raters:Suitable training assist a lot to bring in uniformity in criteria and measurement of performance. 6. Peer Evaluation:Here peers are asked to evaluate their colleagues and suitable weight age is assigned. 7.Rewards to Accurate Appraise/Raters: This will provide the following 1. Improve motivation to become objective in appraisal. 2. Improve value of appraisal. Very often raters consider, rating is a routine affair which has “no value” on career prospects/promotion etc.of employees.



Main objective for the study of Performance Appraisal in CCL are as follows:1. To study in detail the actual working of a modern Performance Appraisal System. 2. To know the method of Appraisal in CCL, and its effectiveness on the workers and to find out how much the system is effective in reaching its target. 3. To interact at different level of the organization to formulate an overall opinion regarding the Performance Appraisal System. 4. To know the level of satisfaction, then reaction against the system, scope of introducing new and most modern technique of Appraisal.



Performance appraisal practice in any sector becomes effective only when the outcome of the deliverable meets business requirements. This gets reflected in the matching of human business requirements that embark upon after having effective and robust appraisal process which focuses on competence need identification. With this in mind a survey was conducted by the researcher to see whether the objective laid down by the organization regarding performance appraisal was obtained or not The questionnaires were distributed among the executive and non-executive staff and were to be filled by them. The researcher met some of the employee personally and interviewed them. The questionnaire was collected later on further analysis.


The task of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research design/ plan chalked out. While deciding about the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types viz; primary and secondary.


1. Questionnaire 2. personal Interview


1. Questionnaire: Questionnaires were distributed among the eligible participants and were to be filled by them .The researcher explained the questions to the participants who were unable to get the implication of the given question and helped in filling up the questionnaire. The questionnaires were collected later for further analysis.

2. Personal Interview: While conducting the survey the researcher went to every department and interviewed non-executive staffs. For getting a full picture of performance appraisal system prevailing at CCL and its pitfalls, it was necessary or needs of the time to conduct an interview of employees at different levels.

Secondary data collection:Researcher used data that were published in these forms:1. Technical and Trade journals 2. Books, Magazines and News papers 3. Reports and Publications of various associations connected with business and industry.


The sample of study for employees 10% of the universe i.e non-executive (which was1300) of different department which were randomly selected by the researcher.


The universe for researcher for constituted of all non executives working in various department at C.C.L Darbhanga House, Ranchi (Head Quarter).


While doing the project the researcher faced many difficulties as a result of which the number of responses received were less than expected number. 1. Some participants were reluctant to fill up the questionnaire with the excuse that they were not allowed to share such information related to their Performance Appraisal. 2. Some of the staffs were not at all willing to corporate due to which the researcher had taken best effort to persuade then to come on but result was not satisfactorily.


(Adopted for the year 1986-87 on words)
Performance appraisal system for EXECUTIVE level employees in CCL is known as Executive Evolution Report (EER). The main objective of the (Executive Evaluation Report)is to evaluate and identify potential and development needs for the Executive’s growth towards achievement of corporate objective. Performance appraisal of Executives employees in CCL is carried out through Self-appraisal and Rating method. The promotion criteria in CCL are divided into two categories depends upon the level of the posta) The officer of E-5 rank and below – The promotion is done on the basis of seniority cum merit basis i.e. seniority is given higher weightage than merit. b) The officer of E-6 rank and above The promotion is done on the basis of merit cum seniority i.e. merit is given higher weightage than seniority. Rating of the Executive employees is done by the appraisee’s reporting officer and then it is reviewed by the two reviewing officer one by one and at lastly rating is done by the Functional Head of the organization. Appraisal Year: 12 months (1st April to 31st March) Appropriate PAR from will be made available to the executives (appraise) by the personnel department in the first week of April every year. The performance appraisal system followed at CCL is objective and step by step method. Apprise: executive working under a superior. Appraise1st: Under whom the Appraise works . 2nd: Executive who functionally or directly oversees the activities of the Appraise. 3rd: Any other who functionally or directly oversees the activities of the Appraise.

Reviewer: A very senior officer (Functional Head of the organization) who gives final grading on the PAR The whole process of performance evaluation involves the following steps.






Grading system (overall)


A: Outstanding B: Very Good C: Good D: Average E: Below Average Grading for personality and potential traits G: Good N: Normal P: Poor Developments needs: in respect of training specific recommendation about the topic be mentioned. The suggestion for job- rotation be indicated by putting ( ) tick mark columns. Form A: Grade E5 to E9 all disciplines working at Headquarters area and other offices B: E5 to E9 posted at collieries /washeries /Workshop/ subareas and executives in charge of define area of activities C: For executives of grade E1 to E4 of all disciplines D: For directly recruited officers for competitions of probation period, after 12 months E: For JET / Management Trainee/ LWO for initial training of 12 months or more. F: For the promoters for assessment of 12 months performance, for completion of probation period. Interim performance report (IPR) be used for period prior to promotion or period after the clearance of probation period, till the beginning or end of the appraisal year.



The essential features of the Performance Appraisal System are: 1: Analysis of performance essentially with a view to determine the input to effort and not necessarily the output only. 2. To bring into sharper focus results achieved in respect of key areas. 3. Analysis of the potential features of appraise’s personality, both professional and management for his development in the organization. 4. To suggest the area of further development in respect of nature of assignment. 5. Suggestions with regard to training on the job and off the job, for further growth and development. The proposed performance seeks to provide guideline to the Appraiser to make PAR system development oriented through sharper analysis of the individual, the organizational demands. The system also would help locating executives with different potential strength who could meet the organizational needs of higher production through induction of new technology and at lower costs. We could call such executives as high flyers who has to be encouraged to continue to perform even better in the future. On the basis of feedback received about feasibility or executives performance appraisal system designed during 1987, further modification and structuring was done named as CIL Executives Evaluation Report(Task Assignment & Document) came out during 1993-1993 and since then it is operative accordingly. situation & the


The OBJECTIVE of the EXECVTIVE EVALUTION REPORT (EER) is to evaluate performance and identify potential and development needs for the Executive’s growth towards achievement of Corporate Objectives. 2.1) In the circumstances , it is necessary that the target are assessed taking into account the constraints. As such, the first requirements is the preparation of accepted Task Assignment & Acceptance Documents(TAAD) by reporting authority ,in the consultation with the appraise, by the end of the financial year. Four –monthly review will be made in regard to the task performance on the basis of the task Assignment & Acceptance Document in which the task to be performed during a particular four months period will be indicated by the controlling officer. 2.2) While preparing the key task for the TAAD, the following parameters (which are relevant to the appraisee) shall be given under different task areas: Quality Quantity Development Cost Industrial Relation Welfare Asset Management etc.

3.) As the planning in terms of the frame for the jobs is necessary for achieving the target, the Appraise should discuss the 4 program of task with the Appraisee and finalize it. This would be supporting documents for monitoring the progress for every four months. The Reporting Officer will discuss the assigned task etc. with the Appraisee before the beginning of every four months and record in this documents 4.) With the completion of the Assessment year the appraisee will be supplied with the EER from duly numbered by the Executives Establishment Department directly, by the end of January, so that format should be available with the appraise latest by 28th February. Self Appraisal in the printed format duly filled is must be handed over to the reporting officer by 30 th April.


5.1) the reporting officer will complete his evaluation and send it to the first level reviewer by 15th may. 5.2) If the reviewing officer (both Staff and Line) differs with the assessment of the Reporting Officer, he should give reasons for final grading with the final comment. The first reviewer will complete the evaluation and same to the Second level review officer (both Staff and Line) by 15th June. 5.3)The second level reviewing officer (both Staff and Line)y will evaluate the performance by 30th June giving reasons, if any, for disagreeing with the first level Review Officer. 5.4) Subsequent to the above, the EER shall be sent to the functional head of the company for his review, and within 15days thereafter to the Executive Establishment Department for record, the reporting officer shall not initiate the EER unless the appraisee has worked at least for a period of 4 (four) months under him in the relevant assessment. 5.5)In case there is a difference of opinion between the first level review officer and the second level Review Officer, the EER shall be sent to the 3rd Level Review Officer. 6) The following approach has been considered for the overall assessment. 6.1)For officer of the rank of E-6 and below, the performance evaluation with reference to the task performed as mentioned in TAAD shall carry 60 marks as against 40 marks for the personality Traits, Leadership and other criteria. 6.2)In the case of officers of E-7 rank and above levels, since Managerial skills, Union Management, Decision Making, judgment etc. are considered equally important , 50 marks have been assigned for personal Traits and remaining 50 marks for performance. 6.3) while reviewing the EER, the Reporting Officer shall take into consideration performance as well as the constraints and arrive at his final Marking/Rating.

7.) It is the intention of the company to identify the High performance with a view to develop their potential and utilize them in the overall interest of the company. As such, the format proposed has taken into consideration the grading under four categories as follows:

Excellent: 85-100 Commendable: 60-84

Adequate: 41-59 Inadequate: 40 and

(Note: it is expected that the First Level Review Officer will discuss with the Appraise and Reporting Officer in all cases where the grading of the officer is either INADEQUATE or EXCELLENT. All such cases of the Executives whose ranking has been EXCELLENT or INADEQUQTE shall also go to the third level reviewing authority.) 8) The grading of ADEQUATE and INADEQUATE shall be communicated to the Executive immediately after receipt of his report from the Executive Establishment Department. 9. (a)The EER of Executive whose ranking have been INADEQUATE shall be considered by a committee of Director(Personnel), Director (Tech) and the Functional head to check, if any moderation is required and to arrive at the action to be taken by the company, for the development of these Executive. b) The EER of Executive whose ranking has been Excellent shall considered by a Committee of Directors (Pers.), Directors (Tech.) and the Functional Head to check, if any moderation is required and to arrive at such steps that may be necessary for further development of the executives. 10. Similarly in the case of EERs maintained at the level of CIL Hqrs, the review on similar line shall be undertaken by a committee consisting of Directors (P&IR), Directors (Tech), and the functional Head. 11. Personnel Department of coal India Ltd. Will send appropriate instructions with regard to the details as to initiation of EER and review of EER etc. Note : (1) In keeping with objective of this EER,as stated in Para 1 above, the assessment by the reporting officer and the Reviewing officer shall be done for the grooming and betterment of the executive.


The entries/observation are required to be constructive ,as the case of improvement/Assistance Areas in section B(v) ,the qualitative ,aspects of section C and in Training and development Needs in section D. Similarly, it is expected that the executives will approach and handle his/her self assessment objectively and with a befitting maturity. 2. Review/counseling card is to be prepared for every four month period in duplicate and to be signed by both Appraise and the Reporting Officer. The duplicate (perforated) copy of each Review card to be handed over to the Appraisee. 3. Format “D” TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS to be prepared in triplicate –one to remain with EER and two copies to be sent to the Functional Head at Corporate Head Office. The functional head after recording his recommendation shall send one copy to GM (HRD) for arranging training.

Some examples of entries to help the Appraisee and Appraisers to fill the PAR form indicated are indicated below:

Constraints: Non –availability of equipment. : Inadequate delegation power. : Long geographical distance. : Communication net- work is weak. : Office records are inadequate and traceable. : Inadequate laboratory facilities/ support. : Voluminous back –log/untrained staff.

Opportunities: Equipment/P&M new. : Well trained personnel. : Proximity to industrial city. : Infrastructural support. : Peer group support. : New vistas of challenge. Development: This means new processes, system procedure which are developed and adopted. Only one item would be more than adequate. For example, reference may be made about new system for compiling accounts on time, standardization of equipment, new system of maintenance, safety and new mining methods etc : In respect of development of people mention name of one or two subordinates who were motivated to their working may be listed indicating specially the manner in which it was done.

Special Achievements: Mention may be made about the earnestness with results were achieved, for example these could be listed.

-preparation of operation manual -Absorption of new technology -Substantial increase in equipment utilization -Staff deployment/retraining -Designing new information system -Substantial equipment re-habilitation - Improvement in quality of coal and sales realization

Special Interest: Mention may be made of the Appraiser’s professional interest which may be even not related to the job entrusted to him. These could be in respect of writing, reading, cultural activities, sports etc. : In the matter of social managerial dimension has to be made about the contribution of the executives in developing the social organization in the company including contribution to activities outside the company. The Appraiser has to make his observation by indicating G (Good) ,N(Normal),and P(poor).

Special Instructions In respect of Development needs of an executives reference be made about areas of training which would help the executives to grow further in his career, and these may be indicated in terms of topics in respect of managerial skills and technical skills. Job rotation of the executives as a means of his further development and career growth is indicated.


General instructions In all case where the grading are Outstanding, Very good, and E (below average), the Appraise must mention specifically the event to support his views in the column provide for criteria incidents; otherwise it will be considered subjective. Mere achievements of targets or marginal raise over it do not signify outstanding /very good performance. Remarks like “hard working and honest” also do not merit a grade of “very good or outstanding”.

FORM – 1V (Annual Appraisal Form for all Non-executive Employees Borne in NCWA Scale of Pay)

Office of the ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Report for year ending……………………………………………………………………………...

(Strike out column not applicable) 1. Name of Employee …………………………………………………………… 2. Date of Birth …………………………………………………………………… 3. (a)Designation……………………………………………………………………… (b) Grade …………………………………………………………………………… (c)Nature of Duties ………………………………………………………………… 4. Educational Qualification………………………………………………………… 5. Date of joining the Deptt………………………………………………………… 6. Preceding Deptt/Section of Posting……………………………………………… 7. Period for which the employee has worked Under the Reporting Officer in the year…………………………………………… ASSESSMENT BY THE REPORTING OFFICER 8. Professional/technical general Knowledge and application 9. If Supervisor: (a)Capacity to plan, organize and execute (b)Delegating duties to and taking work From subordinates exercising effective Supervision and control, maintenance Of discipline and leadership 10. Dose he/she rise to occasion? 11. Cost consciousness 12. Punctuality and regularity in attendance

“Very Good”



Yes yes Punctual

No No Irregular

13. Industry and aptitude for work 14. Maintenance of official records 15. Accuracy &Speed 16. Capacity to express 17. Has he been warned for any failure? Or any inadequacy in the year in writing Or orally? If so, give brief details. 18. Relationship with colleagues and Fellow employee 19. Was any disciplinary action initiated against him during the period under report and if so, the result thereof? 20. Loyalty and honesty 21. Does his health interfere with his work? 22. Fitness for confirmation/promotion 23. General Remarks, if any 24. Overall Grading

“Very Good” “Very Good” “Very Good”

“Good” “Good” “Good”

“Poor” “Poor” “Poor”

“Very Good”




“Very Good” “Good”


Signature of Reporting Officer

Name (in Block Letters) of the Reporting Officer





“Very Good”



Signature of Reviewing Officer Name (in Block Letters) and Designation of the Reviewing Officer

Rating “Poor” will only be considered as Adverse Entry. In case the employee who has been rated “Poor” or in case of any Adverse Entry in the above report, the employee should be shown this report and in the token there of his signature be obtained. Signature of the Employee


Question No. – 1

Out of the respondent so interviewed indicates that 83% of the persons are aware of the method of performance appraisal system applicable to them where as 3% of respondents are not aware of the method of Performance Appraisal and14 % have expressed their ignorance to the Performance Appraisal system prevailing in the company.

On the whole it indicates that people are aware of the Performance Appraisal system applicable to the company.

Question No. – 2

Out of the respondent so interviewed indicates that 100 % of persons are agreed to the need of Performance Appraisal system in which 67 % are agreed and 33 % are strongly agreed. So it can be concluded that majority of the people agree that there is a need of Performance Appraisal system in the organization.


Question No. – 3

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that only 5% of people are rated the performance rating system prevailing in the company to excellent and 17% of the respondents are rated to the prevailing system to very good where as 61% of people rated it good and 17 % considered it average. So we can conclude that majority of the people are satisfied with the existing system of Performance Appraisal in the company.


Question No. – 4

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 91% of the people agree that there is influence of

Performance Appraisal system over the efficiency & career growth of the workers on which 19% of people strongly agree to it and 9 % of the people disagree with the question. So it can be concluded that majority of people believe that the existing Performance Appraisal system does influence the efficiency & career growth of the workers.


Question No. – 5

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 50% of persons have responded that training imparted to them in past does have an effect on their performance and 28 % of people believe that training imparted to them does not have any effects on their performance where as 22% of respondents do not want to give any comments. So it can be concluded that training imparted to people in past do effects their performance.


Question No. – 6

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that about 36 % of the respondent indicates that Perfomance Appraisal System bring out real training & development needs and 33 % said it does not bring out real training & development needs where as 31 % do not want to give any comments. Hence it can conclude that Performance Appraisal do bring the real training & development.


Question No. – 7

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 4 % of people gets only 1 promotion in their tenure of service, 25 % of people gets 2 promotions in their tenure, 32 % of people gets 3 promotions in their tenure and only 39 % of people gets 4 or more promotions in their tenure of service. So it can be concluded that period to remain in a particular post is too long or rather promotion occurs after a long time. Promotion in C.C.L occurs in a fixed interval of period.


Question No. – 8

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 22 % of the people agrees that there is an alternative way to compensate them if promotion has not been given to them where as 64 % of people don’t agree to it and 14 % of persons is indifferent to such thing as they gives no comment to it. So we can conclude that the alternative way to compensate the employees if promotion is not provided to them is very less.


Question No. – 9

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 67 % of people agree that Performance Appraisal system helps in taking right decision regarding promotion on which 11 % are strongly agree while 33 % disagree with the question raised. So we can conclude that Performance Appraisal system do helps in taking right decision regarding promotion.


Question No. – 10

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates, 70 % of people believe that there is a system of Service Linked Upgradation in the organization and 8 % of people don’t agree to it where as 22 % people gives no comment to it. So we can conclude that there is a system of SLU in the organization which is the way to compensate the people when promotion is not given to them due to some circumstances.


Question No. – 11

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 70 % of people believe that their relationship with the superior, peers & subordinates affects the performance and 19 % of people are strongly agree 11 % of the people are disagree with such a relationship on which 3 % are strongly disagree So we can conclude that the relationship of people with their superiors, peers & subordinates do effect their performance.


Question No. – 12

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 78 % of respondents agree that discussion of the tasks do take place with their superior and 8 % of people does not agree to it where as 14% of peopledo not want to give any comments. So we can conclude that discussion of the task takes place to the people by their seniors.


Question No. – 13

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that only 42 % of people agree that performance imbalance is communicated to them satisfactorily and 36 % of respondents does not agree to it where as 22 % of people do not want to give aany comments. So we can conclude that performance imbalance is communicated to the employees satisfactorily


Question No. – 14

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 42 % of respondents strongly agreed that promotion provide motivation to the employee and 33 % of people only agreed to it where as 25 % of respondents disagreed to it. So we can conclude that promotion provide motivation to employees in C.C.L.


Question No. – 15

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 70 % of people wants to have an open performance appraisal system in the organization and 30 % of people as 22% of people are indifferent so they gives no comment. So we can conclude that employee wants to have an open appraisal system in the organization in spite of the prevailing system in the organization.


Question No. – 16

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 5 % of the people said that time fixed for Performance Appraisal is 3 months and 6 % of the perople said it is 4 months and 17 % of them said it is 6 months where as 72 % of the people said it is 12 months. So we can conclude that majority of the people said that time fixed for Performance Appraisal is 12 months.


Question No. – 17

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 39 % of the respondent agree that the current Performance Appraisal System is transparent and 22 % said it is not transparent whereas 39 % do not want to give any comments So it can be concluded that the current Performance Appraisal System in C.C.L is not transparent


Question No. – 18

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 39 % of the respondent agree that present Performance Appraisal System rates their efficiency effectively and 28 % said they do not agree that Performance Appraisal System rates their efficiency effectively where as 33 % do not want to give any comments. So it may be concluded that the present Performance Appraisal System rates their efficiency effectively.


Question No. – 19

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 55 % of the respondent agree that the quantity of work gets reflected in their Performance Appraisal and 28 % said it is not reflected where as 17 % do not want to give any comments in the matter. So it can be calculated that quantity of work get reflected in their Performance Appraisal.

Question No. – 20

Out of the respondents so interviewed indicates that 61 % of the respondent agree that Performance Appraisal System dependent upon quality of work and 14 % said it is not dependent upon quality of work where as 25 % expressed their ignorance. So it can conclude that majority of the respondent agree that Performance Appraisal System dependent upon quality of work

FINDINGS India is a third largest country in the production of coal. Coal India Limited is the main source in
the production of coal. Coal India limited is the second greatest employer after Railway. C.C.L, having a vast repot ire of human resource, follow a well defined metrices to appraise performance for both executive & non executive.


With the help of interview and discussion and on the basis of instrument of defined questionnaire I found that the member of the C.C.L is aware of the method of Performance Appraisal and they feel the need of this system in the Organization. Performance Appraisal in the company is being at a regular interval of one year (12 months). They feel that the system has its influence over the efficiency & career growth of the workers Performance Appraisal of individual employee is sought for by the NEE department only when the promotion of the concerned employee is under consideration. Otherwise the Performance Appraisal of the worker concerned is kept with the HOD of the department where the worker is posted. Research reveals that there is general awareness regarding the Performance Appraisal process in the organization. The Performance Appraisal in the company is probably a confidential one where there is no interaction of the superior with the subordinate at the time of assessment of performance. However instances have been seen that the Performance Appraisal is made in front of the worker but even then the strength and weaknesses of the worker has not been conveyed to him. The study of “Performance Appraisal system” at C.C.L. has given me an opportunity to have closer look at the different imperatives of the appraisal system as an important domain of HR delivery. After studying the different factors that affects variably the performance, I would like to give certain suggestions herewith, which further can be added on the agenda of HR initiatives at C.C.L.

SUGGESTION 1. Features and tools of Performance Appraisal system should be changed so that the subjectivity is reduced and an individual bias that may impact the effectiveness of performance management system is inactivated. 2. System should be redesigned for objectivity, transparency and consistency across C.C.L.


3. Management by objectives (MBO) should also be applied. It is the modern and advanced method of appraisal. MBO is potentially a powerful philosophy of managing and an effective way for operationalizing the evaluator process. It seeks to minimize external controls and maximize internal motivation through goal setting between the superior and subordinates and increases the subordinate control over their own work. 4. The self appraisal form should have open-ended approach to get the true picture of individual’s competence level (strength and weakness). The employee should not hesitate in giving their weakness. 5. The process of 360-degree appraisal should be applied to make the system more transparent. 6. The review should be done quarterly and specifically focused on feedback and coaching and hence should require the appraisee and the appraiser to have formal feedback session. This will further help the appraiser in both obtaining information and providing inputs on how an appraisee is performing and whether or not he /she is headed in the right direction. It will be an opportunity for the appraisee to get resources and help that may be required for enhancing his/her own performance. 7. Personal interview can be introduced in Performance Appraisal system for promotion in C.C.L. 8. Apart from assigned jobs which are very difficult to quantify, a system needs to be involved which is imperative.


The study on Performance Appraisal at CCL has given me opportunity to have a closer look at the imperatives of the performance Appraisal System as a domain of HR delivery.


It has enhanced my knowledge as how an organization work and operates to perform its operations effectively and efficiently. The project has not only helped me to have close insight into the practical implication of business process but also the performance appraisal is done. While going through the different process followed at CCL within performance Appraisal, I came to know of the importance of performance appraisal. This opportunity to work as researcher has helped me understanding the theoretical and practical aspects of management. The summer project, also made me realize the importance of HR as a fascinating function in an organization. I got to know of the importance of communication and interpersonal skill in getting things done from others. In a nut shell, it was great learning for me as management student. With the help of personal interview and discussion with the employee and on the basis of instrument of defined questionnaire I reached on the following conclusion. 1. According to respond given against the question no. 1, 2, 3, it can conclude that majority of the respondent are know about the Performance Appraisal System and they feel its need in the organization, they rated it good. It means that Performance Appraisal System is satisfactory in the organization.

2. According to respond given against the question no. 4, 5, 6, 9 and 14 it can conclude that Performance Appraisal System affected the workers in many respect. They affect the efficiency & career growth of the workers. It brings out training 7 development needs of the workers. It means it provide motivation to workers and helps in taking the right decision. 3. According to respond given against the question no. 11,12,13,15 and 17, the relationship of the workers with superior, peers and subordinate is good. Any task assigned to workers is communicated to them. Thus it can be concluded that open and transparent Performance Appraisal System is prevailing in the organization and their relationship is satisfactorily. 4. According to respond given against the question no.7, 8 and 10, it can conclude that majority of the respondent get promotion in their service period. If they do not get any promotion, they are compensated by other means like SLU/SLI. It means ,workers are satisfied with the Performance Appraisal System in the organization.


Annual Performance Appraisal System is prevailing in the organization

6. According to respond given against the question no.18,19 and 20, it can be concluded that Performance Appraisal System dependent upon quantity and quality of work.It means it rate the efficiency of the workers effectively.



Submitted By:Kirti Priya Anand Roll No. – (Master in Personnel Management) 2008 -09



All the information will be kept confidential.

Personal Data
1. Department: ………………………………………………….. 2. Designation: ………………………………………………….

3. Grade: …………………………………………………………

4. Tenure of service in company: ……………………………….. 5. Tenure of grade in present position: ………………………….. 6. Gender: ……………………………………………………….. 7. Age: ……………………………………………………………

1. Are you aware of method which is followed for your Performance Appraisal in this organization? a)Yes 2. b)No c)Do not know

Do you agree to the need of Performance Appraisal system in any organization? a)Strongly Agree b)Agree c)Disagree d)Srongly Disagree

3. How do you rate the Performance rating system prevailing in C.C.L? a)Excellent 4. b)Very Good c)good d)Average

Does performance appraisal system has its influence over the efficiency & career growth of workers? a)Strongly Agree b)Agree c)Disagree d)Strongly Disagree


Does training imparted to you in the past has effect on your performance? a)yes b)No c)No Comment

6. Does the current system of Performance Appraisal bring out the real training & development needs? a)yes b)No c)No Comment


How many promotion do you get in your tenure of service in this organization? a)1 b)2 c)3 d)4

8. Is there any way to compensate you if promotion has not been given to you? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

9. Does performance Appraisal system helps in taking the right decision regarding the promotion? a)Strongly Agree b)Agree


d)Strongly Disagree

10. Whether there is a system of SLU(service linked upgradation)/SLI(service linked increment)? a)yes b)No c)No comment

11. Does your relationship with superior, peers and subordinates affect your performance? a) Strongly Agree b)Agree c)Disagree d)Strongly Disagree

12. Do discussion on the task assigned to you take place with your superior? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

13. Whether performance imbalance communicated to you satisfactorily? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

14. Do you agree that promotion provide motivation to you? a)Strongly Agree b)Agree c)Disagree d)Strongly Disagree

15. Do you want open Performance Appraisal System in place of the present prevailing system? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

16. What is the time fixed for your Performance Appraisal? a)3 months b)4 months c)6 months d)12 months

17. Is current Performance Appraisal System is transparent? a) Yes b)No c)No comment

18. Is the present Performance Appraisal System rates your efficiency effectively? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

19. Does quantity of work gets reflected in your Performance Appraisal? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

20. Is the Performance Appraisal System dependent upon quality of work? a)Yes b)No c)No comment

21. Any suggestion for the improvement of appraisal system at CCL ? Please prioritize them in order? a)…………………………………………………………………………………………. b)………………………………………………………………………………………… c)………………………………………………………………………………………….


Armstrong, M (1991) A Handbook of personnel management practice, fourth edition, London, Kogon

Aswathapa, K. (2008) human Resource Management, fifth edition, new Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill publishing,

Haynes, E. Marion, (1992) Managing Performance, New Delhi, Galgotia Publications(p) ltd.

Jain C.Sugan (2002) Performance Appraisal, Jaipur, Raj Publishing House

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