WWW.RENTECHBOILERS.

COM
BOILERS FOR PEOPLE WHO KNOW AND CARE
Heat Recovery Steam Generators | Waste Heat Boilers | Fired Packaged Watertube Boilers | Specialty Boilers
We’ve been around awhile. The RENTECH team has
a heap of experience – a total of more than 3,000 years – making boilers that operate efficiently
and safely on six continents. Our formula has been tested and perfected so you can be
assured that a boiler from RENTECH will perform reliably and earn your trust. So don’t be
tempted to saddle up with a greenhorn; insist that your boiler be built Texas-tough by the
skilled people at RENTECH.
RenBoi_PE_1011 1 10/26/10 4:13 PM
1
1
8
YEARS
the magazine of power generation
May 2014 t www.power-eng.com
STEAM TURBINE REHABS
THE BENEFITS AND OUTCOMES
OF REHAB PROJECTS
WIND TURBINE O&M
LONGER LIFE, LOWER COSTS
AND HIGHER CAPACITIES
FUEL FLEXIBILITY
INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES OFFER
A WIDE RANGE OF OPTIONS
The
Transition to
Natural Gas:
A Roundtable
Discussion
1405pe_C1 1 5/9/14 11:08 AM
trusted combustion expertise
Better by design. It’s been a core value for Zeeco for more than
three decades. We engineer firing systems that simply solve
complex issues. Field-proven solutions that provide guaranteed
results like the ZEECO
®
Ultra-Low NOx GLSF Free-Jet burner.
Designed to easily fit new and retrofit applications, to deliver
ultra-low NOx emissions, and pre-engineered to startup with
little or no field adjustment, our Free-Jet burner will keep you
in compliance. Better burner technology from the company
trusted worldwide as the combustion experts.
Trust the experts. Choose Zeeco.
Zeeco, Inc.

22151 E. 91st St., Broken Arrow, OK 74014 USA
+1-918-258-8551 sales@zeeco.com zeeco.com
ZEECO
®
is a registered trademark of Zeeco, Inc. in the U.S.
©Zeeco, Inc. 2014
meet the Zeeco team at Power-Gen Europe, booth #6P41
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 1
1405pe_C2 2 5/9/14 11:08 AM
Power Engineering
®
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS—PennWell Corp.
1421 8outh 8heridan Road º Tulsa, 0K 74112
P.0. Box 12GO, Tulsa, 0K 741O1
Telephone. (918¦ 835-31G1 º Fax. (918¦ 831-9834
E-mail. pe@pennwell.com
world wide weo. http.//www.power-enq.com
Power Engineering is the flagship
media sponsor for
MANAGING EDITOR — Russell Ra]
(918¦ 832-93G8 russellr@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR — Justin Nartino
(918¦ 831-9492 justinm@pennwell.com
ASSOCIATE EDITOR — 8harr]n Dotson
(918¦ 832-9339 sharr]nd@pennwell.com
ON-LINE EDITOR — Jennifer Van Burkleo
(918¦ 831-92G9 jvanourkleo@pennwell.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR—Brad Buecker
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR—Brian 8chimmoller
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR—wa]ne Baroer
(54O¦ 252-2137 wa]neo@pennwell.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITOR—Barr] Cassell
(8O4¦ 815-918G oarr]c@pennwell.com
GRAPHIC DESIGNER — Deanna Pridd] Ta]lor
(918¦ 832-9378 deannat@pennwell.com
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
P.0. Box 32G4, horthorook, ll GOOG5
Phone. (847¦ 7G3-954O
E-mail. poe@halldata.com
SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER — Jessica 0rier
(918¦ 832-9272 jessicaq@pennwell.com
SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT, NORTH AMERICAN
POWER GENERATION GROUP — Richard Baker
(918¦ 831-9187 richardo@pennwell.com
NATIONAL BRAND MANAGER — Rick Huntzicker
(77O¦ 578-2G88 rickh@pennwell.com
CHAIRMAN — Frank T. lauinqer
PRESIDENT/CEO — Rooert F. Biolchini
CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER/SENIOR
VICE PRESIDENT — Nark C. wilmoth
CIRCULATION MANAGER — linda Thomas
PRODUCTION MANAGER — Katie hoftsqer
P0wER Eh0lhEERlh0, l88h OO32-59G1, U8P8 44O-98O, is puolished
12 times a ]ear, monthl] o] Pennwell Corp., 1421 8. 8heridan Rd., Tulsa,
0K 74112, phone (918¦ 835-31G1. ©Cop]riqht 2O14 o] Pennwell Corp.
(Reqistered in U.8. Patent Trademark 0ffice¦. Authorization to photocop]
items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of
specific clients, is qranted o] P0wER Eh0lhEERlh0, l88h OO32-59G1,
provided that the appropriate fee is paid directl] to Cop]riqht Clearance
Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, NA O1923 U8A 5O8-75O-84OO.
Prior to photocop]inq items for educational classroom use, please
contact Cop]riqht Clearance Center, lnc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers,
NA O1923 U8A 978-75O-84OO. Periodicals postaqe paid at Tulsa, 0K
and additional mailinq offices. 8uoscription. U.8.A. and possessions,
$88 per ]ear, Canada and Nexico, $98 per ]ear, international air mail,
$242 per ]ear. 8inqle copies. U.8., $14, 0utside U.8. $23. Back issues
of P0wER Eh0lhEERlh0 ma] oe purchased at a cost of $14 each in
the United 8tates and $1G elsewhere. Copies of oack issues are also
availaole on microfilm and microfiche from Universit] Nicrofilm, a Xerox
Co., 3OO h. Zeeo Rd., Ann Aroor, Nl 481O3. Availaole on lexishexis, Box
933, Da]ton, 0H 454O2, (8OO¦ 227-49O8. P08TNA8TER. 8end chanqe
of address, other circulation information to P0wER Eh0lhEERlh0, P0
Box 3271, horthorook, ll GOOG5-3271. "P0wER Eh0lhEERlh0" is a
reqistered trademark of Pennwell Corp. Return undeliveraole Canadian
addresses to P.0. Box 122, hiaqara Falls, 0h l2E G84.
Nemoer
American Business Press
BPA lnternational
PRlhTED lh THE U.8.A. 08T h0. 12G813153
Puolications Nail Aqreement ho. 4OO5242O
FEATURES
1
1
8
VOLUME
56 Steam Turbine Rehabs
Steam turbine upgrades offer power producers an opportunity
to optimize the entire turbine design. Power Engineering
examines the challenges and benefits of rehabilitation projects.
60 A System for Improved
Water/Steam Chemistry
Control and Plant Reliability
Learn about an intelligent system to provide automation for
water/steam chemistry monitoring to help avoid a boiler tube
failure that could have disastrous results in a power plant.
POWER ENGINEERING ONLINE : www.power-eng.com
Newsletter:
Stay current on industry news,
events, features and more.
Newscast:
A concise, weekly update of all
the top power generation news
Industry News:
Global updates
throughout the day
No. 5, May 2014
30
EXECUTIVE ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION:
The Future of
Gas-Fired Generation
Executives participate in an eye-opening discussion
about the future of gas-fired generation in the U.S.,
including the O&M challenges created by the nation’s
growing dependence on gas-fired power.
40 Fuels, Combustion & Environmental
Considerations in Industrial Gas Turbines
Gas turbines should be able to burn a wide variety of fuels for economic and
environmental reasons. Learn about the types of fuels available and the basic
types of combustion systems.
52 Independent Service Providers in
Wind Turbine O&M
The rapid increase of wind power projects in the U.S. has led to a growth
in companies that provide services to wind farm owners, including
independent service providers that work in tandem with OEMs.
DEPARTMENTS
2 Opinion
4 Industry News
10 Clearing the Air
14 Gas Generation
16 View on Renewables
18 Energy Matters
20 Nuclear Reactions
22 Power Plant Profile
1405pe_1 1 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
2
OPINION
increments. According to one analysis,
distributed generation capacity in the
U.S. is expected to grow to 20 GW by
2020.
A new report from the Electric Power
Research Institute highlights the dan-
gers of deploying large amounts of
DER without planning for its integra-
tion. The report, The Integrated Grid:
Realizing the Full Value of Central and
Distributed Energy Resources, pointed to
the rapid deployment of DER in Ger-
many and the problems it caused for
the nation’s grid and its utilities.
The large and rapid deployment of
DER in Germany created large spikes
in electricity rates, reliability issues,
and significant financial losses for
electric utilities. German utility RWE
reported a $3.8 billion loss in 2013 be-
cause they failed to recognize the ef-
fects of a disruptive technology.
“German policymakers and utili-
ties now are changing interconnection
rules, grid expansion plans, DER con-
nectivity requirements, wind and PV
incentives, and operation to integrate
distributed resources,” the report said.
A successful integration of DER should
recognize that “the best solutions vary
with local circumstances, goals and in-
terconnections.”
Distributed solar isn’t the only DER
making serious moves in the power
generation market. Many industries
are turning to combined heat and pow-
er projects (CHP), also known as co-
generation, to power their businesses.
The number of CHP projects powered
by gas turbines and gas-fired recipro-
cating engines is on the rise.
In North America, CHP capacity is
projected to grow from 93,500 MW
now to nearly 116,000 MW in 2020,
D
istributed generation – pow-
er produced by homes and
businesses using batteries,
solar panels, reciprocating engines and
small wind turbines – is, without ques-
tion, a burgeoning market in power
generation and a “disruptive force” for
the developers and operators of large
central power stations.
Distributed generation, or on-site
power, has become a central focus for
many engineering firms and technology
companies. In February, GE launched a
new Distributed Generation business to
capitalize on what it described as a “$100
billion opportunity.” According to GE,
distributed power will grow 40 percent
faster than global electricity demand be-
tween now and 2020.
The surge in distributed energy
resources (DER) is significant, and
some utilities and states are making
progress in modifying their business
models to reflect the increasing use
of DER. But claims that DER will lead
to the death of centralized power are
gross exaggerations, to say the least.
Jon Wellinghoff, former chairman
of the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission, told reporters last year
that, “Solar is growing so fast it is going
to overtake everything.”
Reports like these distort the true
state of the U.S. power generation
market and the direction it’s headed.
Distributed solar capacity in the U.S.
grew to nearly 10 GW last year. That’s
less than 2 percent of the nation’s total
generation capacity. What’s more, the
cost of rooftop solar is still much high-
er than power produced from coal, gas,
nuclear, wind and utility-scale solar.
The growth of distributed generation
will be measured in very small
according to GlobalData, a research
and consulting firm. Cheap natural
gas, new incentives for CHP projects
and a public demand for greater effi-
ciency and reduced emissions are driv-
ing the development of CHP projects
across the nation.
“They make great economic sense
and the environmental impact is also
quite unique,” said Scott Parent, Engi-
neering Leader for GE’s new Distrib-
uted Generation business. “What we’re
seeing is really good economics with
specialized factories and processing
plants that make great sense.”
Last year, David Crane, chief execu-
tive officer of NRG Energy, described
the shift to distributed generation as a
“mortal threat” to utilities. In his latest
conference call with investors, Crane
reiterated DG’s threat to the century-
old business model used by utilities.
“Our industry is on the cusp of dis-
ruptive change,” he said. “New energy
technologies now cost effective and
available to be deployed at scale will
transform the traditional power sector
and the vertically integrated utilities
that have dominated it since the 1930s.
“Think of 50 million American
homes, each with a distributed solar
system at $20,000 a pop on average,”
Crane said. “That represents  a trillion
dollar market opportunity.”
Crane has a different vision for utili-
ties. He sees a world where utilities
own and operate DER. In his call with
investors, he said the grid is becoming
“increasingly obsolete and unreliable”
for a population that is reducing its re-
liance on centralized power every day.
If you have a question or a comment,
contact me at russellr@pennwell.com. Fol-
low me on Twitter @RussellRay1.
The Integrated Grid
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
1405pe_2 2 5/9/14 11:05 AM
W
E
S
T
I
N
G
H
O
U
S
E

E
L
E
C
T
R
I
C

C
O
M
P
A
N
Y

L
L
C
BWRPLUS is your single source for accessing the combined technology and
experience of Toshiba Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Company. We
deliver products and services for BWR nuclear steam supply system and both
BWR and PWR steam turbine generator/balance of plant equipment.
Our capabilities include:
· Pro|èct managèmènt
· Stèam turbinè gènèrator maintènancè sèrvicès
· Skillèo ano èxpèrièncèo nèlo ènginèèrs
· U.S. rèpair íacility ano sèrvicè cèntèr
· ln-housè ènginèèring ano manuíacturing
BWRPLUS provides innovative Toshiba steam turbine generator replacements,
upgrades and equipment with increased reliability and performance.
To learn more, contact us at info@bwrplus.com.
YOUR SINGLE SOURCE
FOR NUCLEAR STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR
EQUIPMENT SUPPORT
Toshiba Nuclear LP Steam Turbine
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 2
1405pe_3 3 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
4
INDUSTRY NEWS
Supreme Court
overturns decision
invalidating EPA’s CSAPR
The U.S. Supreme Court has vacated a
decision by a federal appeals court that
ruled the U.S. Environmental Protec-
tion Agency’s Cross State Air Pollution
Rule (CSAPR) violated the  Clean Air
Act (CAA).
The 6-2 decision in EPA v. EME Homer
City Generation, written by Justice Ruth
Bader Ginsburg, stated CSAPR is a “per-
missible, workable and equitable inter-
pretation of the Good Neighbor Provi-
sion” of the CAA. The Good Neighbor
Provision requires state implementation
plans to contain adequate provisions to
prohibit emissions within a state that
would contribute signifcantly to nonat-
tainment in any other state with respect
to any national ambient air quality stan-
dards (NAAQS).
CSPAR limits sulfur dioxide (SO
2
) and
nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions limits in
28 states and was the EPA’s most recent
rule designed to prevent emissions from
one state from carrying downwind and
affecting another. Its previous attempt,
the Clean Air Interstate Rule, was also
struck down by a federal appeals court
but left in place.
The case will now return to the U.S.
Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit.
Pattern acquires Texas wind
energy project for $125mn
Pattern Energy Group will acquire a
179-MW interest in the 218-MW Panhan-
dle 1  wind power  project in Texas from
Pattern Energy Group LP.
Energy Future Holdings fles
for Chapter 11 bankruptcy
Energy Future Holdings said it would
fle for Chapter 11 bankruptcy to reduce
$40 billion of debt  while maintaining
business operations.
EFH said in a release it would separate
from its subsidiary, Texas Competitive
Electric Holdings, the holding company
for Luminant and TXU Energy. The plan
also calls for the elimination of $2.5 bil-
lion of funded debt from Energy Future
Intermediate Holding Co. LLC through
a capital infusion of up to $1.9 billion.
EFIH is the holding company for Oncor
Electric Delivery Co., which is not part
of the bankruptcy fling.
EFH said it expects to complete restruc-
turing in about 11 months and also ex-
pects day-to-day operations to continue
during reorganization.
The Electric Reliability Council of
Texas (ERCOT) said it has been monitor-
ing the situation and has been in contact
with the subsidiaries to address concerns
that could impact system reliability or the
effciency of the market.
Toshiba to supply
steam turbines for thermal
power plant in Mexico
Toshiba Corp., a supplier of thermal
power generation equipment, will sup-
ply with two high-effciency 165-MW
steam turbines and related equipment for
the retroft and modernization of the Al-
tamira Thermal Power Plant in Tamauli-
pas State, northeastern Mexico.
Currently, Altamira is equipped with
Pattern Energy will pay the $125 mil-
lion cash purchase price to Pattern De-
velopment upon meeting certain con-
ditions, including the project reaching
commercial operation. The balance of
the project will be acquired from Pattern
Development by two institutional tax eq-
uity investors.
Panhandle 1 will consist of 118 GE
1.85-MW wind turbines and is expected
to begin operations in June 2014. Pattern
acquired the 181.7-MW Panhandle 2 in
December. That project is expected to
reach commercial operation in late 2014.
Construction of MOX
fuel facility will continue
through September
Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., said
the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)
would continue construction of
the  Mixed Oxide(MOX)  Fuel Fabrica-
tion Facility  in the state through Sep-
tember.
Graham said in a release that he
spoke with DOE Secretary Ernest
Moniz and was assured the DOE
would continue construction on the
facility through the end of the fscal
year, which ends Sept. 30. The facil-
ity would dispose of 34 metric tons of
weapons-grade plutonium.
President Obama did not include
funding for the MOX plant in the fscal
year 2015 budget and put the project in
“cold standby,” stating that the plant is
signifcantly more expensive than an-
ticipated.  Areva said putting a project
in cold standby is a euphemism for
terminating the project. Joint venture
Shaw Areva MOX Services LLC has a
contract with the National Nuclear Se-
curity Administration to design, build
and operate the facility.
DOE also released a report that said
the MOX option is the best for fulfll-
ing the nonproliferation treaty with
Russia, according to Areva.
CONTINUED ON PAGE 8
1405pe_4 4 5/9/14 11:05 AM
If your fan shows signs of wear, corrosion, abrasion, or unbalance,
it’s time to call Robinson Fans.
A Robinson Fan’ diagnostic inspection will confirm whether you should repair, rebuild or replace your fan, regardless of
original manufacturer. A redesigned or upgraded fan will increase capacity and improve efficiency.
To schedule a visit, call 724.452.6121 or visit Robinson Fans.com. To schedule a visit, call 724.452.6121 or visit Robinson Fans.com.
SHUTDOWN.
THE EIGHT-
LETTER
FOUR-
LETTER
WORD.
RobinsonFans.com | 724.452.6121
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 3
1405pe_5 5 5/9/14 11:05 AM
1405pe_6 6 5/9/14 11:05 AM
Expanding Talent and
Technology into ONE
The global merger of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Hitachi Thermal Power Generation
businesses, now expands resources for and in the Americas.
Maximizing availability, reliability and profitability is the continuing goal of Mitsubishi Hitachi
Power Systems for existing and evolving energy needs – with a presence of more than 1,500
U.S. based personnel and 800,000 sq. ft. of state-of-the-art manufacturing, maintenance and
repair facilities in support of our world class products.
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems – expanding talent and technology into one.
Visit us online to learn more about our world class capabilities.
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas, Inc.
100 Colonial Center Parkway • Lake Mary, FL 32746 USA
1-407-688-6100
www.mhpowersystems.com
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems America – Energy and Environment, Ltd.
645 Martinsville Road • Basking Ridge, NJ 07920
1-908-605-2800
www.psa.mhps.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 4
1405pe_7 7 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
8
INDUSTRY NEWS
and Pepco to create the largest Mid-
Atlantic electric and gas utility. The
combined utility businesses will have
around 10 million customers and a
rate base of around $26 billion.
Crane will remain president and
CEO of the combined company, while
Pepco Holdings Chairman, President
and CEO Joseph Rigby, who previously
announced his retirement, will remain
in his current roles with Pepco Hold-
ings until the transaction is closed.
Pepco Holdings will retain the region-
al headquarters used for their utilities.
Natural gas-fred
combined-cycle power
plant gains GHG permit
The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) issued a fnal green-
house gas  Prevention of Signifcant
Deterioration construction permit
for FGE Power to build a 747-MW nat-
ural gas-fred power plant in Texas.
The frst and second phases of the
FGE Texas combined-cycle plant will
use Alstom Thermal Power’s KA-24
platform. Both units will generate 747-
MW of capacity. The plant will cost a
total of $1.2 billion. The frst unit is
scheduled for completion in mid-2016,
while the second unit is set for comple-
tion in early 2017.
NRG, MidAmerican begin
operations at 290-MW solar
PV plant in Arizona
NRG Solar, a subsidiary of NRG En-
ergy and MidAmerican Solar completed
the 290-MW Agua Caliente Solar Photo-
voltaic Facility in Arizona.
The Agua Caliente project will sell its
output to Pacifc Gas & Electric Co. un-
der a 25-year power purchase agreement.
It uses First Solar thin-flm solar panels,
and First Solar will maintain the facility.
It was fnanced with support from a loan
guarantee from the U.S. Department of
Energy’s Loan Programs Offce.
solutions that improve effciency, perfor-
mance and longevity of an Electrostatic
Precipitator (ESP). FGC specializes in
products and services for fue gas condi-
tioning systems, which improve the per-
formance of ESPs by modifying the prop-
erties of the fy ash particle.
DTE Energy fles renewal
application for Fermi 2
nuclear power 
DTE Energy fled an application with
the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) to renew the license for its Fermi 2
nuclear power plant, in Newport, Mich.
The application includes safety and
environmental evaluations and can take
more than two years to complete.
The original license for the site is sched-
uled to end in 2025. A successful license
renewal process will allow power genera-
tion to continue at the facility for an ad-
ditional 20 years, until 2045.
Fermi 2 received its original operating
license in 1985. During the past 25 years,
the power plant has generated 190 mil-
lion MWh and represents nearly 15 per-
cent of DTE Energy’s total generation.
Exelon buying Pepco
Holdings for $6.83 billion
Exelon Corp. has reached a defni-
tive agreement to acquire Pepco Hold-
ings Inc. for $6.8 billion in a deal that
has been unanimously approved by
both companies’ board of directors.
The agreement will combine Ex-
elon’s Baltimore Gas and Electric,
Consolidated Edison Co. of New York
and PECO with Pepco Holdings’ At-
lantic City Electric, Delmarva Power
two 158-MW steam turbines and gen-
erators that Toshiba shipped to Comisión
Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico’s
state-owned electricity utility.
CFE, the owner of Altamira, award-
ed an Isolux Corsán an engineering,
procurement and construction (EPC)
contract for the retroft and upgrade of
the plant.
Toshiba will deliver the equipment in
2016, and the upgraded power plant is
scheduled to go online in 2017.
B&W receives $2.5mn DOE
award for clean coal tech
development
The U.S. Department of Energy has
awarded Babcock & Wilcox Power Gen-
eration Group Inc. a $2.5 million award
for Phase 2 development of iron-based
coal direct chemical looping  (CDCL)
technology.
B&W PGG and The Ohio State Uni-
versity have collaborated on the devel-
opment of the technology, which was
developed and successfully tested at
bench scale at OSU’s labs in Columbus,
Ohio. B&W PGG is continuing research
and testing at the B&W Research Cen-
ter in Barberton, Ohio and OSU’s labs
as part of the commercial design effort.
In Phase II of the project, B&W PGG
and its collaborators will test the CDCL
process at a laboratory scale.
Fuel Tech buys two
emissions control companies
for $8.25mn
Fuel Tech Inc. acquired two air pollu-
tion control technology companies for
$8.25 million total.
Fuel Tech bought Cleveland Roll Form-
ing Environmental Division (PECO) for a
total cash consideration of $7.25 million
and FGC Corp. for a cash consideration
of $1 million. The deals for both compa-
nies closed on April 30.
PECO  provides custom retroft
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 5
1405pe_8 8 5/9/14 11:05 AM
FOR A 60-YEAR OLD
INDUSTRY.
IT’S A N
U
DAY
And the winner is…NuScale Power. The US Department of Energy selected NuScale
Power for the second round of funding for Small Modular Reactor (SMR) development.
The fve-year funding program will signifcantly advance the design and certifcation of
the NuScale Power Module™ SMR technology. This accelerates commercial availability
to support customer needs for carbon-free baseload electricity, and validates the viability
of smaller, safer, simpler, more economical nuclear power. It’s a Nu day.
nuscalepower.com @NuScale_Power NuScale Powe
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 5
1405pe_9 9 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
10
CLEARING THE AIR
Robert Nicolo Marco Mendoza
Oxidation air blowers designed with a
high stoichiometry may not require up-
grading or modification for the absorber
to work satisfactorily. Additional SO
2

from adjacent units will lower the overall
oxidation stoichiometry, but may still be
conservative for adequate forced oxida-
tion.
To maintain the same reagent stoichi-
ometry, the capacity of the reagent feed
system may need to be increased. This
might be accomplished by increasing the
flow rate from the slurry tanks to the ab-
sorber or increasing the slurry concentra-
tion in the tank.
The existing absorber bleed system may
require operational changes to ensure the
density in the reaction tank is consistent
with the original design. This will ensure
that the dewatering system can remain
unchanged and reduce the overall cost of
the WFGD upgrade. The absorber bleed
system may require mechanical upgrades
if the increase in overall SO
2
is substan-
tial and the bleed system cannot keep up
with the gypsum production.
The additional flow and higher exit ve-
locity will also affect the stack flow distri-
bution. Liquid collection devices may be
required to ensure that moisture droplets
are not entrained and discharged from
the chimney.
With MATS compliance just around
the corner, upgrading an existing WFGD
can be a viable solution for life extension
of marginal, older coal-fired units. The
increase in performance will support ad-
ditional PM removal, oxidized mercury
collection and HCI reduction. It must
be analyzed on a case-by case basis. De-
pending on site specifics, a viable emis-
sions control solution may only require a
few low-cost upgrades.
I
ncreasingly stringent emissions
regulations are driving utilities to
shut down aging coal-fired units
rather than bearing the burden of install-
ing emission controls. For multiple unit
plants with an in-place WFGD system,
there is another solution: routing the flue
gas from nearby, untreated units to the
existing WFGD. Overall plant emissions
can be reduced at a relatively low cost by
upgrading and using the existing WFGD.
When deciding if an existing WFGD
can be used to treat additional flue gas, a
few things must be considered.
Depending on the location of the ad-
ditional units relative to the WFGD, up-
grades to the ID fan from the untreated
units or a booster fan may be required.
The added pressure drop from the ab-
sorber and absorber inlet duct may also
affect the performance of the absorber’s
original, dedicated ID fan.
The tie-in location should be carefully
considered to allow sufficient mixing and
ensure that no flow perturbations are
formed near the absorber inlet. However,
due to the nature of retrofit design, this
is not always possible and tie-in locations
will be selected based on space available.
In that case, CFD modeling should be
used to evaluate potential flow problems
and the need for new vaning or mixing
devices.
The increased gas flow increases the
absorber velocity which will affect its
performance. The blended flue gas may
have a new SO
2
concentration and the
increased gas flow lowers the absorber’s
available liquid-to-gas ratio, effectively
reducing the absorber’s SO
2
removal ef-
ficiency. The type of absorber (open
spray tower, tray, DCFS, etc.), reagent,
nozzle type and other absorber specifics
should be carefully considered. Increas-
ing the absorber recycle pumps’ capacity
to increase the absorber L/G will ensure
proper SO
2
removal and absorber per-
formance. Depending on the existing
pumps’ design, upgrades may include
changing out motors and gear boxes; of-
ten, upper spray level gear boxes and mo-
tors can be moved to lower spray levels
and new equipment purchased for the
upper levels only. Additionally, spray
nozzles can be upgraded to increase re-
cycle slurry spray rates and optimize head
on the recycle pumps. The increases in
flow and head may require that recycle
lines are replaced with larger piping. In
the worst case, spray levels would be re-
placed with configurations with higher
spray rates. Note that the increase in the
slurry spray rate may not increase pro-
portionately with the increase in flue gas
flow as the blended units SO
2
concentra-
tion may be lower than the original de-
sign SO
2
concentration.
Mist eliminator performance will
be affected with the higher velocities.
WFGD have been traditionally designed
for velocities of 10 – 12 ft/s. However,
today, ME can operate up to 16 – 18 ft/s
with low liquid entrainment. Upgrades
could include replacing existing ME with
new high velocity designs as well as add-
ing another stage of ME. Blanking plates
can be replaced with high velocity, flat
ME to fill in the area around the existing
ME. The ME wash headers should also be
added or upgraded to provide sufficient
spray coverage. If headroom is limited in
the absorber, upstream preliminary ME
could be considered.
Other absorber auxiliary systems
should be carefully analyzed and their
maximum capacities understood.
Old Dog, New Tricks
Using existing Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization
to Control Emissions from Additional Units
BY ROBERT NICOLO, DIRECTOR OF AQCS, AND MARCO MENDOZA,
AQCS PROCESS ENGINEER, MITSUBISHI HITACHI POWER SYSTEMS AMERICAS
1405pe_10 10 5/9/14 11:05 AM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 6
1405pe_11 11 5/9/14 11:05 AM
S
ulzer has long been a leading service provider for
rotating equipment due to a continued commitment
to deliver advanced, customized service solutions. In
an effort to expand on that commitment and provide
customers with a full portfolio of services, Sulzer has
integrated Sulzer Turbo Services, Sulzer Pumps CSS,
and Sulzer EMS into a single Services division. The new
division combines services for turbines, compressors,
motors, generators and pumps, and expands Sulzer’s
geographical footprint to over 100 service centers
worldwide.
As a third-party service provider, Sulzer aims to offer
customers an alternative approach to maintenance,
repair, overhauls and upgrades. By leveraging combined
capabilities and integrated service centers, Sulzer is
able to provide customers with a single access point for
service, eliminating the need to source separate vendors
for varying types and brands of rotating equipment.
Turbomachinery
Sulzer is recognized as a technically-advanced service
provider for turbomachinery. With over 30 years of
experience and continuous investment and development
of in-house repair processes, we are able to provide
unrivalled responsiveness and superior service, even
when compared to the OEM. Our expansive service
centers feature capabilities ranging from component
repair and parts manufacturing to specialty coatings
and at-speed balancing.
Pumps
No matter how simple or complex the machine,
Sulzer is dedicated to improving customers’ pumping
systems and operational reliability. Our service team
responds to industry needs and is focused on ensuring
high performance with tools including operation and
maintenance training, performance and system analysis
and spare parts programs.
Electromechanical Equipment
With 3 North American electromechanical shops, Sulzer
specializes in a full range of electrical and mechanical
rotating equipment repairs. Services include complete
rotor and stator rewinds, and in-shop or onsite
mechanical repairs.
To discover Sulzer’s Services division, contact your local
Sulzer representative or email us at sulzertshouston@
sulzer.com.
Sulzer’s integrated services division gives customers a new approach to
rotating equipment repair
www.sulzer.com
A New Vision in Service
1405pe_12 12 5/9/14 11:05 AM
Sulzer is the leading service provider
for rotating equipment.
Our customized and innovative
solutions help reduce maintenance
time and cost, and improve the
effciency and reliability of your
equipment.
When turbines, pumps, generators
and electric motors are essential to
your operations, you need a service
partner you can trust.
Contact us today to discover your
best service solution.
Sulzer Turbo Services Houston Inc
11518 Old La Porte Road
La Porte, TX 77571, USA
Phone +1 713 567 2700
sulzertshouston@sulzer.com
www.sulzer.com
Your Service Solution
for Rotating Equipment
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 7
1405pe_13 13 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
14
VIEW ON RENEWABLES
- A layer of systems controls, cnsui-
ing ìlc icIiahiIiìy of ìlc plysicaI
dcviccs inìciconnccìcd ìo losìing
infiasìiucìuics. 1lis couId incIudc
moniìoiing and cncigy ncìwoil sc-
cuiiìy asscssmcnì.
- A dynamic market layer, icspon-
sihIc foi addicssing cconomic, opìi-
mizaìion, icguIaìoiy, financiaI, and
poIicy aspccìs of ìlc cncigy sysìcm
and iìs cnviionmcnì.
ESI is ahouì ìapping inìo ìlc comhincd
sìicngìl of ìlcsc sysìcms and squccz-
ing moic cfficicncy ouì of cvciy cIccìion
and cvciy dcvicc, hoosìing pcifoimancc
wliIc icducing cosìs, aII wliIc minimiz-
ing cnviionmcnìaI impacìs.
Add ìo aII of ìlis ìlc wiinlIc of cIimaìc
clangc, wlcic gIohaI ìcmpciaìuics aic
iising, diouglìs aic moic dcvasìaìing,
and luiiicancs haììci coasìaI ciìics wiìl
gicaìci foicc — so mucl so ìlaì oncc-a-
ccnìuiy sìoims aic hccoming oncc-a-dc-
cadc sìoims. 1lis cnviionmcnìaI clangc
is aIso ìlicaìcning oui cncigy infiasìiuc-
ìuic, lnocling down ìiansmission Iincs,
sapping ìlc capaciìy of lydiopowci,
sìicìcling cIccìiiciìy gcnciaìion capaciìy
on loì summci days.
Amciica's aging cncigy infiasìiucìuic
musì lccp pacc noì onIy wiìl ìlc clangcs
in cncigy suppIy, huì wiìl cIimaìc clangc
and sccuiiìy.
Buì, ìlc claIIcngc is aclicvahIc hc-
causc Amciica Icads ìlc woiId in cncigy
innovaìion. A focus on ESI is impciaìivc
ìo Amciica's icsponsc ìo iìs aging infia-
sìiucìuic, cIimaìc clangc, sccuiiìy, and
clangcs in cncigy suppIy. 1lc icsponsc
musì hc muIìi-piongcd, comhining pio-
ìccìions, smaiìci ìcclnoIogics, and cn-
cigy cfficicncy. ESI is }usì ìlc ìooI ìo lcIp
Amciica aclicvc succcss.
I
ì sounds Iilc somcìling ouì of a
movic, huì iì is ficìion no moic. 1o-
day's piogicssivc cncigy consumcis
diivc cIccìiic vclicIcs, wlicl pIug inìo
ìlcii soIai powcicd lomcs. Bcfoic gcììing
lomc, ìlc diivci can Iool aì lci smaiì
plonc ìo scc if ìlc aii condiìionci is iun-
ning, oi if ìlc wasling maclinc liclcd
on oncc ìlc ioofìop soIai sysìcm sìaiìcd
cicaìing cIcan cncigy foi ìlc day.
1lc Encigy Dcpaiìmcnì's (DOE) Na-
ìionaI RcncwahIc Encigy Lahoiaìoiy
(NREL) is spcailcading innovaìion in
Encigy Sysìcms Inìcgiaìion (ESI) ic-
scaicl and las a ncw faciIiìy ìo lcIp
spccd ìo mailcì ìlc ìooIs nccdcd foi ìlc
ncxì cncigy icvoIuìion.
RcccnìIy givcn ìlc picsìigious lonoi of
Lahoiaìoiy of ìlc Ycai hy R&D Magazine,
ìlc ncw Encigy Sysìcms Inìcgiaìion FaciI-
iìy (ESIF) is an l82,5uu-squaic-fooì DOE
Usci FaciIiìy ìlaì wiII picpaic ìlc cncigy
sysìcm of ìoday ìo upIoad and downIoad
cncigy foi vclicIcs, opìimizc sìoiagc dc-
viccs, scamIcssIy Ioad icncwahIcs onìo
ìlc cIccìiiciìy giid, and add conìioI sìiaì-
cgics foi powci cIccìionics.
Ovci ìlc pasì dccadc, invcsìmcnìs in
cIcan cncigy icscaicl and dcvcIopmcnì
and inccnìivcs foi commciciaI dcpIoy-
mcnì lavc spuiicd a diamaìic incicasc in
ìlc pcifoimancc and così-cffccìivcncss of
cncigy cfficicncy and icncwahIc cncigy
ìcclnoIogics. 1lc dcpIoymcnì of ìlcsc
ìcclnoIogics is clanging ìlc cncigy Iand-
scapc ìowaids a moic susìainahIc fuìuic.
Insìcad of a onc-way dcIivciy of cIcc-
ìiiciìy gcnciaìcd hy fossiI fucIs maling
sìcam ìo ìuin ìuihincs aì ìlc IocaI uìiIiìy,
ìlis ncw cia is ahouì inìcgiaìion of cnci-
gy - fiom coaI and wind, naìuiaI gas and
soIai, hiofucIs and gcoìlcimaI, Iiìlium
ion haììciics and lydiogcn fucI ccIIs.
ESIF offcis uìiIiìy cxccuìivcs and oìlci
dccision-malcis a pIacc ìo icscaicl ncw
ìcclnoIogics in a pIacc ìlaì is fiicndIy ìo
cxpIoiaìion. ESIF wiII aIIow uìiIiìy com-
panics and invcsìois ìlc ahiIiìy ìo 'ìoucl
ìlc scicncc´ and scc iì woiling in icaI
ìimc and on a Iaigc scaIc.
BuiIding a smaiìci, moic icsiIicnì cnci-
gy sysìcm poscs hoìl claIIcngc and op-
poiìuniìy. NREL is cxciìcd ìo hc Icading
a woiId-widc convcisaìion on low ìlcsc
ncw inìcgiaìions of cncigy wiII clangc
ìlc way wc gcnciaìc, dcIivci and usc cn-
cigy. WliIc wc can'ì anìicipaìc ìlc ncaiIy
infiniìc numhci of comhinaìions of ìccl-
noIogics, daìa and dcviccs ìlaì wiII in-
ìciacì in an inìcgiaìcd cncigy sysìcm, wc
do lnow ìlaì ESI is mucl hioadci ìlan
}usì huiIding a smaiìci giid. By focusing
on ìlc opìimizaìion of oui cnìiic cncigy
sysìcm, ncw ESI can incicasc cfficicncy,
icIiahiIiìy and pcifoimancc, wliIc icduc-
ing cosìs and minimizing cnviionmcnìaI
impacìs.
Looling alcad, wc scc ESI icscaicl
cxamining ìlc foIIowing inìciconnccìcd
and cvoIving cIcmcnìs of oui cncigy sys-
ìcm:
- A Iayci of plysicaI cncigy devices
ìlaì pioducc, consumc, sìoic oi
ìianspoiì cncigy, sucl as ligl voIì-
agc wiics, a wind ìuihinc oi cvcn a
icfiigciaìoi moìoi oi a dislwaslci.
- An cIccìiomcclanicaI, cIccìionic oi
sofìwaic-hascd local controls layer
ncccssaiy ìo aIIow ìlcsc plysicaI dc-
viccs ìo icspond ìo cxìcinaI signaIs
in an opìimizcd way.
- A communications layer, consisìing
of sccuic and piivaìc infoimaìion
and compuìaìion pIaìfoims ncccs-
saiy ìo suppoiì conìioI appIicaìions
aì ìlc sysìcm IcvcI.
NREL: Energy Systems
Integration is Bigger
than ‘Just’ Renewables
BY BRYAN HANNEGAN, ASSOCIATE LABORATORY DIRECTOR FOR ENERGY SYSTEMS INTEGRATION, NREL
1405pe_14 14 5/9/14 11:05 AM
With worldwide energy consumption expected to double to an estimated 39.0 billion MW hours
by 2040, Fluor’s experts are committed to providing industry-leading solutions, innovation, and
technologies that bring strategic value to our clients’ capital projects. With more than 20 years
of experience building gas-fired power plants, Fluor recently completed Dominion’s 590 MW
combined cycle project, the Bear Garden Generating Station. www.fuor.com
©

2
0
1
3

F
l
u
o
r
.

A
l
l

R
i
g
h
t
s

R
e
s
e
r
v
e
d
.


A
D
G
V
0
9
8
9
1
3
.
FLUOR’S LEGACY AS YOUR ASSET
Fluor’s Power Business –
Fossil Generation, Renewables, Alternate
Technologies, Nuclear, Transmission, and
Operations & Maintenance.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 8
1405pe_15 15 5/9/14 11:05 AM
www.power-eng.com
16
GAS GENERATION
community meetings to discuss what
the company was doing with its new
plant and getting feedback from the
neighborhood residents. The company
also worked to not create a disruption
with its construction.
NV Energy took a similar approach
when it modernized the Edward W.
Clark Generating Station in Las Vegas.
The utility doubled the generation of
the facility while cutting emissions by
half, and worked closely with the com-
munity during the project.
The 1100-MW power plant uses a
low-NOx combustion system and can
put 600 MW on the system within 10
minutes, letting NV Energy make a sig-
nificant upgrade to its generation fleet
without requiring any additional land.
NV Energy Generation Executive
Dariusz Rekowski said the company
did not use explosives during the de-
molition of the old plant in order to
avoid noise pollutions and managed
to bring in 24 turbines in 12 blocks
without major traffic interruptions or
A
s utilities work to modernize
their fleets and retire older, less
efficient resources, many are
turning to building new plants – but on
land formerly occupied by older plants.
Reusing land has
several benefits for
companies. When
Chugach Electric As-
sociation decided to
build a new plant in
Anchorage, Alaska,
the company decid-
ed to build on the
site of an existing
plant. The new plant,
Southcentral Power
Project, is the most
efficient natural gas
plant in the state.
“One notable ad-
vantage for the site is it was purchased
in the early ‘60s, and a power plant
had been here since the mid-‘60s,”
Chugach Electric Association Senior
Vice President of Power Supply Paul
Risse said. “A lot of people didn’t even
know that.”
Often, companies are replacing
power plants that are located inside cit-
ies in small footprints, as was the case
with the Southcentral power plant.
New gas plants, with low emissions
and quiet operation, can be ideal for
siting in areas many people wouldn’t
consider ideal for power plants.
Putting a power plant in the mid-
dle of the city comes with complica-
tions, however, and companies have
been careful to work with residents
to be part of the community. Risse
said Chugach attended multiple
complaints from its neighbors.
“That was a very big challenge to
construct the plant in the middle of
town,” he said.
Siting also posed difficulties during
the construction of
NRG Energy’s El Se-
gundo Power Plant
in El Segundo, Calif.
The company and Sie-
mens added two units
to the power plant,
located on the beach,
and began commer-
cial operation of the
units on Aug. 1, 2013.
The El Segundo site is located be-
tween a cliff and the Pacific Ocean,
and the new units were being built at
the same time the facility was being
operated. The company had to find
solutions to work around the small
footprint, and even considered bring
in equipment by beach landing. The
plant’s design enables the use of air-
cooled heat exchangers, which are
smaller than conventional air-cooled
condensers and enabled the plant to fit
into a much smaller space.
The El Segundo repowering project
also serves as another example of a
company working with the local com-
munity to be as inconspicuous as pos-
sible. The plant has a low profile, is
and put up a custom-designed sea wall
to separate the plant from the busy
beach located next door.
Reusing land:
Modernizing a generation
fleet in small footprints
BY JUSTIN MARTINO, J.D., ASSOCIATE EDITOR
NV Energy’s Edward W. Clark Generating
Station is located in the middle of Las
Vegas and presented unique challenges
during its modernization.
1405pe_16 16 5/9/14 11:06 AM
TerraSource

Global offers three market-leading brands
of material handling and size reduction equipment to
the power industry, whether it be for coal-fired power
generation or 100% or co-firing of
biomass and alternative energy fuels.
Our Gundlach Crushers brand
single-stage and two-stage double roll
crushers crush coal at the mine mouth
or preparation plant, or at coal-fired
power stations.
Our Jeffrey Rader brand material
handling systems are used to unload,
convey, screen and crush in the
multiple stages of biomass energy
generation, from truck/rail receiving
through metered in-feed into the
boiler.
Our Pennsylvania Crusher brand impactors, granulators,
hammermills, single roll crushers and sizers are used in
the size reduction of 75% of all coal processed through
power plants in the United States
and for multiple material reduction
and processing applications in
79 countries around the world.
Additionally, Pennsylvania Crusher
brand positive displacement feeders
provide consistent, dust-free feeding
of coal for improved plant safety.
These three distinguished brands,
recognized and trusted across the
globe, are now available from a single
source.
Contact us today or visit our website
for additional information.
Phone: (855) 4-TERRA-1

Email: info@terrasource.com

Web: www.terrasource.com
Handling a World of Materials
The brands comprising TerraSource Global (Gundlach Crushers, Jeffrey Rader and
Pennsylvania Crusher) are wholly-owned subsidiaries of Hillenbrand, Inc. (NYSE: HI)
© 2014 TerraSource Global. All Rights Reserved.
Truck Dumpers & Receiving Bunkers
Positive Displacement Feeders
Vibratory Feeders
Crushers & Sizers
Screening & Processing
Conveying & Material Handling
Storage & Reclaim
Boiler Fuel Feed Systems
CRUSH. FEED. PROCESS. CONVEY. STORE.
Equipment and Systems for Coal and Biomass Power Equipment and Systems ffffor Coal and Biomass Power
Material Handling & Size Reduction
The recently opened, 20,000 sq. ft., state-of-
the-art, TerraSource Global Demonstration
& Development Center, located in Duncan,
South Carolina, is our new, premier facility
for conducting equipment demonstrations
and materials testing. It’s just another way
TerraSource Global ensures that our top-quality
equipment, integrated systems and reliable
services meet and exceed your expectations.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 9
1405pe_17 17 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
18
ENERGY MATTERS
that condense to form particulate
matter at ambient temperatures.
As such it passes through the flter
in a stack test.
t Finally, PM
2.5
is flterable mat-
ter less than 2.5 microns in size
plus condensable particulate mat-
ter and secondary PM
2.5
. It’s this
secondary PM
2.5
that is so little
understood. Secondary PM
2.5
is
formed in the atmosphere after
pollutants from fuel combustion
leave the stack. In the presence of
sunlight and water vapor, some
of the SO
2
, NOx, volatile organic
compounds (VOC) and ammo-
nia (NH
3
) chemically react to
form PM
2.5
. Therefore, secondary
PM
2.5
cannot be controlled di-
rectly; it can only be controlled by
reducing emissions of its precur-
sors, SO
2
, NO
x
, VOC and NH
3.
EPA is currently developing
guidance for calculating second-
ary PM
2.5
. It is already true that
triggering major source (Preven-
tion of Signifcant Deterioration
– PSD) review for NO
x
or SO
2

automatically triggers review for
PM
2.5
.
Additionally, the logic behind
regulating NO
2
and SO
2
through
the Clean Air Interstate Rule
(CAIR), the Cross-State Air Pol-
lution Rule (CSAPR), or whatever
fnal iteration of this regulation
survives the court challenges, is
to control secondary PM
2.5
emis-
sions. These new PM
2.5
PSD re-
quirements, which are separate
from the grandson of CAIR rules,
were expected to be published
during the spring of 2014.
G
reenhouse gases
(GHGs) may be the
newest pollutant regu-
lated by EPA, but since there are
no National Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS) for GHGs, a
facility is much more likely to be
affected by particulate matter re-
strictions. Dispersion modeling
of the various subsets of particu-
late matter, each with their own
distinctly different makeups,
often leads to changes in the de-
sign of a new facility or retrofts
of existing equipment. This is es-
pecially true for the smallest size
of particulate matter, PM
2.5
, since
the background air quality for
PM
2.5
is often over 80 percent of
the NAAQS. This leaves very lit-
tle room for emissions from your
facility. Therefore, it is important
to understand the different types
of particulate.
Particulate matter (PM) is
broken into three subgroups for
NAAQS compliance: PM, PM
10
,
and PM
2.5
. See Figures 1-3.
t PM refers to dust of any
size (usually less than 30
microns in diameter) that
can be caught on a flter.
Particles larger than 10 mi-
crons (sand and large dust)
are not regulated by EPA but
may still be included in state
regulations.
t EPA defnes PM
10
as both
flterable (less than 10 mi-
crons) and condensable
particulate matter. “Con-
densable particulate matter”
refers to gaseous emissions
Why Particulate
Matters
BY ROBYNN ANDRACSEK, P.E., BURNS & MCDONNELL
Body Copy (each word capped)
Headline
Figure 1 PM
Filterable
PM
2.5
SO
2
NO
x
VOC NH
3
PM
10v
PM
Condensable
Condensable
Particulate
Matter
Secondary PM
2.5
Precursors
Body Copy (each word capped)
Headline
Figure 2 PM10
Filterable
PM
2.5
SO
2
NO
x
VOC NH
3
PM
10v
PM
Condensable
Condensable
Particulate
Matter
Secondary PM
2.5
Precursors
Body Copy (each word capped)
Headline
Figure 3 PM2.5
Filterable
PM
2.5
SO
2
NO
x
VOC NH
3
PM
10v
PM
Condensable
Condensable
Particulate
Matter
Secondary PM
2.5
Precursors
1405pe_18 18 5/9/14 11:06 AM
A World of Solutions
Visit www.CBI.com
MORE THAN AN
EPC CONTRACTOR
A Trusted Team of Power Experts
CB&I serves the fossil power industry from start to finish. We offer
a full spectrum of services including engineering, procurement,
construction, uprate and decommissioning.
With low natural gas prices and short project schedules, many
power producers are choosing high-tech gas-fired generation to
meet demand. CB&I helps owners succeed in constructing new-
build natural gas facilities that are efficient and cost effective.
We also have extensive experience helping clients achieve
environmental compliance for existing solid fuel facilities.
CB&I can provide everything, from site studies to competitive
enhancement of existing facilities, all with today’s stringent
environmental regulations in mind.
ENGINEERING, PROCUREMENT AND CONSTRUCTION
GENERATION SERVICES
COMPLETE PROJECT EXECUTION
COMMISSIONING
MODULE CONSTRUCTION AND DELIVERY
ADVANCED GAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 10
1405pe_19 19 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
20
NUCLEAR REACTIONS
in early 2012. In a blog post on the En-
ergy Economics Exchange, Lucas Davis
and Catie Hausman of the University
of California, Berkeley’s Haas School of
Business use the SONGS closure to exam-
ine the value of transmission in electric-
ity markets. They found that the SONGS
shutdown increased the cost of electricity
generation by $370 million during the
first 12 months following closure.
SONGS sits in a load pocket between
Los Angeles and San Diego, and because
of transmission constraints, a large por-
tion of southern California’s generation
must be met locally. This resulted in a seg-
mentation of the market between north
and south. “After the closure, there were
many more days with positive [price]
differentials, including a small number
of days in which prices in the south ex-
ceeded prices in the north by more than
$40 per megawatt hour.”
The analysis found that, of the $370
million in increased generation costs,
about $40 million could be attributed to
the transmission constraints. The authors
acknowledged that this figure is not pre-
cise because there were other factors at
play during this time, but emphasized
that transmission constraints were rarely
binding before the SONGS closure.
What this all means is that the electrici-
ty marketplace is increasingly bearing the
markings of a “modern family” as it feels
its way through this transition period.
Nuclear will be part of the family, but its
role and its relationships with its siblings
will never be the same.
When Blockbuster was entering bank-
ruptcy, I recall seeing a top 10 list of
proposed new slogans. One said simply,
“Blockbuster. We still exist.” Macabre hu-
mor, admittedly, but I see it as incentive
to keep nuclear alive and well.
R
emember Blockbuster Video?
Not too many years ago, Block-
buster was a business titan. At
one point, the company was valued at
more than $5 billion, employed about
60,000 people, operated more than 9,000
stores, and even had the naming rights to
a college football bowl game.
So what led to its demise? Some might
point to Redbox, which certainly played
a role, but the origins of the demise are
more fully traced back to the evolution
of the internet and personal electronic
devices. That’s what set in motion the
technological and commercial advances
that led to streaming video, kiosk video
delivery, and on-demand entertainment
– advances that made Blockbuster irrel-
evant and bankrupt by 2010.
It’s no great insight that disruptive
forces like the Internet and personal com-
puting can have far-flung impacts across
business, industry, politics, even culture.
Predicting the course and range of im-
pacts is folly. Recognizing that there will
be a new reality – and planning for that
new reality – is smart business.
Distributed generation and the natural
gas boom clearly have the look and feel
of disruptive forces. Horizontal drilling,
hydraulic fracking, energy storage, lower-
priced photovoltaic cells: all are heavily
impacting the electric power industry.
Whether or not they really are disruptive
forces is immaterial. Nuclear plants have
to behave as if they will be.
A looming question in this context is
how the value of generation assets, in-
cluding nuclear plants and other basel-
oad resources, will be recognized in elec-
tricity markets. A white paper by Samir
Succar of ICF International examines the
impact of distributed generation on U.S.
capacity markets. The statistics are heady
stuff: ICF projects 29 TWh of energy ef-
ficiency by 2020, offsetting most load
growth; 12 GW of solar by 2020, repre-
senting a 600 percent growth; and 5 TWh
of electric vehicle charging demand,
much of which could be supplied by dis-
tributed generation.
Succar points out that while net me-
tering and the intermittent availability
of distributed generation resources have
drawn the most attention, bigger impacts
may be in store. “As variable, distrib-
uted generation increasingly becomes a
prevalent source of generation in regions,
changes in capacity market dynamics
will have a profound impact on generat-
ing assets and their future economic vi-
ability. Without commensurate changes
in capacity market structure to account
for these changes, system reliability will
be compromised.”
The nuclear industry is already feel-
ing the pressure. A number of merchant
nuclear plants are at risk due to their
smaller size, lack of support in deregulat-
ed markets, and competition from other
generation sources. While some plants
may find refuge in new power contracts,
others may need help from state legisla-
tors. According to an article in Crain’s Chi-
cago Business, Exelon may be “…laying the
ground work with state leaders for legisla-
tion next year that…may be necessary to
keep half its Illinois fleet from closing.”
One option reportedly under consid-
eration is a new clean energy standard
that would give nuclear generation extra
payments for their round-the-clock, CO
2
emissions-free power.
Another interesting nuclear-related
aspect of the changing nature of electric-
ity markets can be seen in California in
the aftermath of the San Onofre Nuclear
Generating Station (SONGS) shutdown
The Blockbuster
Conundrum
BY BRIAN SCHIMMOLLER, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
1405pe_20 20 5/9/14 11:06 AM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 11
1405pe_21 21 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
22
POWER PLANT PROFILE
temperature.
The plant uses a selective catalytic
reduction (SCR) system, which reduc-
es NOx from the combustion process,
while an oxidation catalyst removes
most of the CO and volatile organic
compounds produced.
Each gas turbine has a common
exhaust stack and a bypass stack that
is only used when the HRSG is not in
use. After going through the SCR sys-
tem, the remaining fue gas is chan-
neled through one of two 195-foot
exhaust stacks. Plant workers monitor
emissions to ensure air quality regula-
tions are being met.
The steam produced by the plant
A
s utilities aim to modernize
their generation feet to cut
emissions and increase eff-
ciency, one method is to replace older
assets with modern assets. Duke Ener-
gy chose to do this with its $600 mil-
lion L.V. Sutton combined-cycle natu-
ral gas plant, a 625-MW facility that
replaces a retired 575-MW coal-fred
plant at the same site.
The natural gas-fred turbines at the
site began commercial operation in
November 2013.
The frst coal-fred unit at the Sut-
ton site began operating in 1954, with
additional units added in 1955 and
1972. The three coal-fred units were
retired in 2013 as their generation was
replaced by the new natural gas-fred
units.
Replacing older facilities with new
assets has been a major aspect of
Duke’s efforts recently.
INSIDE THE PLANT
The plant was built by Kiewit Power
Engineers and The Industrial Co. It
uses two dual-fuel Siemens combus-
tion turbines. The exhausted heat
from the turbines is captured by two
Vogt triple-pressure reheat heat recov-
ery steam generators, which heat wa-
ter inside a series of tubes to produce
steam. Gas burners increase the steam
L.V. Sutton:
Finding A New Fuel Mix
BY JUSTIN MARTINO, J.D., ASSOCIATE EDITOR
The 625-MW L.V. Sutton combined-cycle
natural gas plant began commercial operation
in November 2013.
1405pe_22 22 5/9/14 11:06 AM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 12
1405pe_23 23 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
24
50 MW. Compared to the coal-fred units
on the site, the gas-fred units reduce SO
2

by 99 percent, NOx by 97 percent and
CO
2
by 41 percent.
“We continue to transform our power
plant feet while maintaining our focus
on generating electricity that is both reli-
able and affordable,” Sutton Plant Man-
ager Allen Clare said when the facility
went online. “Our new natural gas plant
is another stride forward in meeting cus-
tomer needs using highly effcient, in-
creasingly clean energy sources.”
turns a Toshiba steam turbine that
produces an additional 265 MW. This
turbine generator uses steam from the
HRSGs to produce electricity, which
increases plant effciency.
The plant can go from cold shut-
down to full capacity in about four
hours, and can ramp up and down or
run 24 hours a day.
Building the plant involved almost
35,000 cubic yards of concrete, more
than 295 miles of electrical cable, more
than 1,800 tons of structural steel and
more than 180,000 linear feet of un-
derground and aboveground pipe.
EMISSIONS CONTROL
The plant’s SCR system to remove
NOx from the combustion process, and
a oxidation catalyst removes most of the
CO and volatile organic compounds pro-
duced by the plant.
The technology and fring natural gas
has resulted in signifcantly lower emis-
sions than the coal plant it replaced while
increasing overall generation capacity by
The coal units at the site were retired in 2013, and their
generation has been more than replaced by the capacity of the
new gas-fred units.
1405pe_24 24 5/9/14 11:06 AM
Fluid control solutions. Right. Now.
We are the world’s leading supplier of solenoid valves with rock-solid reliability in controlling
flows of air, gas, water, oil, and steam across the globe. And we’re reinforcing that leadership
by setting new industry standards for service and delivery. So we work to ensure callbacks
within 4 hours, onsite technical response within 24 hours, and shipment of many popular models
within 1 day with our ASCO Today program. When it comes to fluid control, there’s only one supplier
that absolutely won’t waste your time. You’re looking at it: ASCO.
I DON’T HAVE TIME TO WASTE.
My success is measured by the minute. I can’t
depend on products that aren’t up to my standards
or don’t arrive when I need them.
Failure is not an option.

1-800-972-ASCO (2726) | www.ascovalve.com/RightNow | e-mail: info-valve@asco.com
The ASCO trademark is registered in the U.S. and other countries. The Emerson logo is a trademark and service mark of Emerson Electric Co. © 2014 ASCO Valve, Inc.
Scan this QR code*
to learn more about
ASCO Fluid Control
Solutions. Right. Now.
*Requires QR code reader.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 13
1405pe_25 25 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www. vi ct oryenergy. com | t el : 918. 274. 0023 | hot l i ne: 877. 783. 2665
F O L L O W A L E A D E R
Patented HRSG design solutions for
combustion turbine and process
exhaust streams
Shop-assembled modular solutions
r|r|r|ze corslrucl|or/le|d cosl
Industry’s highest steam production
ellc|erc|es lor relrererl ard
processing applications
Long-term reliability under the most
extreme demands
Full line of economizers and
industrial-duty air pre-heaters
Thermal oil heaters and other
secondary heat recovery equipment
Modularization minimizes time and
|aoor cosls |r l|e le|d
Unparalleled in-house engineering
slall or|rgs app||cal|or spec|lc
expertise to every project
COMPLETE
MODULARIZATION
Specializing in advanced steam generation technology
and heat recovery applications.
INNOVATIVE
BOILER DESIGN
C0GENERATION
EXPERTISE
PROVEN
EFFICIENCIES
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 14
CHALLENGES IN BUILDING
THE SUTTON PLANT
One of the challenges facing the con-
struction of the Sutton plant was placing
it on the same site as the coal-fred units
that are replaced.
“The Sutton site presents one specifc
unique challenge – a small footprint,”
said Catherine Butler, associate commu-
nications consultant for Duke..
“Duke Energy
invested $9 billion
in the last decade
in building some
of the cleanest
natural gas
and coal plants
possible today.”
- Catherine Butler, Duke
The Sutton gas-fred plant uses two dual-fuel Siemens
combustion turbines, which send heat to two Vogt triple
pressure heat recovery steam generators. Photo courtesy
of Siemens.
1405pe_26 26 5/9/14 11:06 AM
rolls-royce.com
Trusted to deliver excellence
A natural fit for any
environment.
Trent 60 attributes support today’s energy markets with outstanding
adaptability and flexibility making it a natural fit for any
environment. It is the most efficient and powerful aeroderivative
gas turbine designed for cyclic operation, fast starting and
restarting, unsurpassed load rates and environmental performance.
The Trent 60 with its unrivalled availability and reliability
combines these formidable traits to blend seamlessly and profitably into
your operating conditions.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 15
1405pe_27 27 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
Take the drama out of your next fuel system transfer with a JASC reliability upgrade.
www.jasc-controls.com www.jasc-controls.com
Tel: +1 602.438.4400 Fax: +1 602.438.4420
sales@jasc-controls.com
•Installation Time: Average of 3 days
•Benefits: Reliable starts on liquid fuel and seamless
transfers from gas to liquid fuel
•System Maintenance: Refurbish check valves every
4 years
•Global Installed Base: Baseload, Peaking, Simple
Cycle, Combined Cycle and IGCC turbines
•Contact: JASC sales for additional information
Dire Conditions
Can dictate the need to operate gas turbine back-up liquid fuel systems
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 16
continues a long-term Duke strategy of
reducing emissions and modernizing
its feet.
“Duke Energy invested $9 billion in
the last decade in building some of the
cleanest natural gas and coal plants
possible today, with high effciency
and start of the art emissions controls,”
Butler said. “This allows the company
to retire nearly 6,800 MW of older coal
and large oil-fred units. Nearly 6,300
MW of the capacity we’ll retire is coal,
which represents 25 percent of our
coal feet. By the end of 2013, Duke
Energy retired more than 3,800 MW of
this older coal capacity, including the
Sutton plant.”
The company added fve natural gas-
fred plants within a two-year period,
replacing some of its coal-fred genera-
tion with 2,760 MW of new generation
through moderinzation projects.
Other recent projects that reduce
emissions in the Duke generation feet
while maintaining generation capacity
include the Cliffside modernization
project, which retired several older
units while equipping another unit
with modern emissions control tech-
nology and building a new supercriti-
cal unit; the 618-MW Edwardsport In-
tegrated Gasifcation Combined Cycle
plant; replacing the 276-MW coal-fred
Dan River Steam Station with the 620-
MW Dan River Combined Cycle Sta-
tion and the construction of the 920-
MW H.F. Lee Plant.
The coal and natural gas plant sit in
close proximity to each other, which
presented challenges during the con-
struction phase of the plant. The chal-
lenge presented by the small footprint
at the site will continue as the company
moves forward.
“As we begin the decommissioning
and demolition of the retired coal units,
we will face similar challenges due to the
limited space at the site,” Butler said.
A TREND OF CLEAN ENERGY
The construction of the Sutton plant
“Hydrogen rich
fuels have been
used with some
success, but
require the use
of conventional
combustion.”
1405pe_28 28 5/9/14 11:06 AM
Uneventful is paradise.
Combined cycle stations. Nuclear reactors. Hydroelectric
power plants. In places like these, where any problem could
mean catastrophe, you want each day to be as uneventful
as the next. The insights from GE Predictivity™ solutions
power the future by connecting intelligent machines, data
and people. From Bently Nevada condition monitoring to
Masoneilan valves, GE’s Measurement & Control business is
improving the health of industry by keeping your operations
running smoothly without incident. And that is paradise.
To learn more about our end-to-end solutions,
visit ge-mcs.com.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 17
1405pe_29 29 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
30
its production projections for both plays
to a combined 25 billion cubic feet per
day by 2020.
“Despite a slight downturn in the Mar-
cellus rig count over the past year, output
has grown as producers reduce drilling
time and increase the production per
well,” said Frank Brock, senior energy
market specialist for ICF. “The Utica,
which was originally expected to have
higher oil production, has had a signifi-
cant growth in gas production.”
As a result, natural gas-fired generation
is projected to grow 3.1 percent a year
through 2038, adding 348,000 MW of
gas-fired capacity to the U.S. grid, accord-
ing to a report released earlier this year by
Black & Veatch.
Most, if not all, of that capacity will
be met with combined cycle gas turbine
technology (CCGT). Natural gas-fired
combined cycle plants are expected to ac-
count for 50.5 percent of U.S. power pro-
duction by 2038, up from 25 percent this
year, according to the report. By 2038,
coal’s share of the generation pie will
drop to 21 percent, down from 39 percent
in 2014.
In its 2014 outlook, the Energy Infor-
mation Administration said natural gas
will overtake coal as the dominant source
of power generation by 2035. That’s a
significant change compared with EIA’s
2013 outlook, which projected coal
would account for most of the nation’s
power production through 2040.
The transition to CCGT technology is
being driven by low gas prices, stricter
regulation for coal plants, and the inte-
gration of growing amounts of renewable
power. Combined cycle plants compli-
ment wind and solar power because they
can start and stop quickly, and thus are
capable of offsetting the fluctuations in
renewable power.
In addition to rapid-response times,
combined cycle plants emit significantly
fewer emissions of carbon dioxide (CO
2
),
sulfur dioxides (SO
2
), nitrogen oxides
(NOx) and other air emissions. CO
2

emissions from power plants using com-
bined cycle technology are about 50 per-
cent lower than most coal-fired plants.
Emissions of NOx and SO
2
are 80 to 90
percent lower.
What does the future of gas-fired gen-
eration in North America look like? I
A
cross North America,
more than a handful of
natural gas-fired power
projects are in some stage
of development amid low-
priced gas created by a boom in the pro-
duction of unconventional gas supplies.
According to most projections, gas
prices will hover between $4 and $6 per
million Btu for several years. According
to ICF International, gas production from
the Marcellus and Utica shale plays will
continue to increase. The company raised
The Shift
to Natural Gas:
Steady

but
SLOW
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
Billed as one of the most energy efficient and respon-
sive power plants in the U.S., the new 550-MW, gas-fired
El Segundo Energy Center illustrates how far the power
generation industry has come in the last 50 years.
Photo courtesy: Siemens
EXECUTIVE ROUNDTABLE
1405pe_30 30 5/9/14 11:06 AM
I nt roduci ng ProRox
®
and SeaRox
®
.
The new Gl obal assor t ment f or
Per f or mance Dr i ven Sol ut i ons
Unlock the future of insulation at www.roxul.com
or call 800.265.6878
The gl obal l anguage of i nsul at i on i s now wr i t t en i n st one.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 18
1405pe_31 31 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
32
in mid 2016 In addition,
our integrated resource
plan projects a similar
size unit would be re-
quired by 2019.
PARENT: We see this
regionally in the U.S.
We see the Northeast up.
We see the Southwest up.
We see the rest of the country
kind of flat. They’re not up by
huge ticks, so the question
would be are we seeing a
big enough gap around
capacity that people
are going to make
those investment deci-
sions? Or are they going
to hold them off a little
longer? In the Northeast
and the area around the Gulf,
where there is a lot of economic
activity, we think those de-
cisions might be made a
little sooner.
POWER ENGINEER-
ING: We’ve seen a
substantial increase
in capacity factors
for gas-fired power
plants for a number of
reasons. Clearly, power
producers are counting on
gas to supply a larger
share of baseload ca-
pacity. As these plants
run longer and
harder, how impor-
tant is it for power
producers to revisit
and adjust their O&M
strategies to reflect
the actual operation of
these plants?
JAMES: The amount of money
power companies want us to spend on
research related to preventive main-
tenance activities to extend the life of
components and life extension activities
of various sorts has increased steadily
heard some interest-
ing stories about
people taking a
little more time
and little more
effort to get sites
permitted and ap-
proved than they
used to be.
MITCHELL: There are a
number of factors which
influence demand for
new power projects,
including eco-
nomic develop-
ment, unit retire-
ments and other
factors such as re-
newable generation
growth and demand-
side management. At
Dominion, we’ve been
very fortunate to enjoy
continued growth
in our regulated
markets even dur-
ing the economic
downturn. The
PJM load fore-
cast indicates the
Dominion Zone has
the highest projected
growth rate at 1.8 percent
a year. We have actu-
ally been building
quite a bit of new
generation. We
completed a coal
plant in 2012 and
have converted
some of our older,
smaller coal units to
biomass or gas peak-
ing units. We currently
have two 3x1 combined cycle
power plants under construction. That
includes our 1,329-MW Warren County
project, expected to be in service late
this year, and our 1,358-MW Brunswick
County project, expected to be in service
recently moderated a roundtable discus-
sion with executives from GE Power &
Water, Dominion, Bechtel, and the Elec-
tric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to
address that question. The participants
were: Scott Austin, business development
manager for Bechtel’s thermal genera-
tion business; Mark Dennis Mitchell, vice
president-generation construction at Do-
minion; Revis James, director of Genera-
tion Research and Development at EPRI;
and Scott Parent, Engineering Leader for
GE’s Distributed Power business.
What follows is a transcript of that dis-
cussion.
POWER ENGINEERING: Several new
combined cycle projects are in some
stage of development throughout
North America. But the construction
boom most were expecting did not
take place. The construction of new
gas-fired projects has been well be-
low the industry’s early expectations.
Why?
AUSTIN: We all know electricity de-
mand in the U.S. has been relatively low.
In addition to that, you’re seeing a lot
of the energy efficiency measures and
demand response being very effective.
They’re producing better-than-expected
results. Those two things together have
really reduced the demand for electricity.
In 2013, electricity demand was still be-
low the 2007 peak. Then you look at the
supply side. While we saw quite a few coal
plants retire, the capacity factors of those
plants were on the low end. The effect of
those plants retiring didn’t result in the
need for additional capacity to the extent
that was predicted.
JAMES: I think there’s risk aversion
not only from the merchant standpoint
but also a little bit of discomfort getting
overinvested in an asset that if there were
changes in fuel prices, there might be
some added exposure there. Even though
they’re very cost effective and very flex-
ible, it’s getting more expensive and
more difficult to build inside a gas-fired
turbine than it was 10 years ago. We’ve
R
E
V
I
S

J
A
M
E
S
, E
P
R
I
M
A
R
K

M
I
T
C
H
E
L
L
,
D
O
M
IN
IO
N
S
C
O
T
T

P
A
R
E
N
T
,
G
E

P
O
W
E
R
&
WATER
S
C
O
T
T

A
U
S
T
IN
, B
E
C
H
TEL
1405pe_32 32 5/9/14 11:06 AM
Ž
DECEMBER 9–11, 2014 / ORLANDO, FLORI DA / ORANGE COUNTY CONVENTI ON CENTER
OWNED & PRODUCED BY: PRESENTED BY: SUPPORTED BY:
FOREVER ADVANCING
W W W . P O W E R - G E N . C O M
REGISTER BY OCTOBER 6 AND SAVE!
Register early and take advantage of the early bird discounts! POWER-GEN International will feature
more than 1,400 exhibiting companies unveiling the latest power generation products and services.
For a full list of exhibitors at the world’s largest power generation event, visit www.power-gen.com.
5 EVENTS + 5 DAYS
www.powergenerationweek.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 19
1405pe_33 33 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
34
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 20
SMART. PROVEN. POWER.
141-690 HP
Our proven SCR technology saves fuel, period. With no DPF or DOC, our engines require no
regen and their innovative Start/Stop technology provides better idling. You can see fuel savings
up to 5% or more. Learn about our complete Tier 4 Final lineup at volvopenta.com/industrial.
A GALLON SAVED IS A GALLON EARNED.
needed to support these changes as the
market demands. For our newer com-
bined cycle units, they are expected to
run as base load units with O&M forecast
based on that expectation.
AUSTIN: You can look at this issue in
two ways. You are running these units
longer and harder. But if you look at a
combined cycle plant, one of the biggest
O&M challenges result from frequent
starts and stops. When you’re running at
these high temperatures and you’re us-
ing a advanced nickel based alloys and
coatings, that could lead to some of the
more significant O&M issues. Running
these units as a true baseload operation
may, in fact, not be negative from an
O&M perspective. Having said that, we
work closely with our combustion tur-
bine suppliers and advise clients they put
in rigorous training programs during the
commissioning stages to get that hands-
on experience prior to going into the op-
erations phase of a project.
PARENT: We’re seeing both the inter-
est in uprating equipment to squeeze
another 5 or 10 percent load capability,
which could have significant lifting ef-
fects on all of these products. People are
looking at their fleet and saying “Is there
a way I can manage to squeeze a little bit
more life or capacity?” That would be the
first piece. The second piece is, I think in
terms of age/mission knowledge of the
equipment, going to see a doctor for the
first time when you’re 55 is a mistake, you
can’t get a trend. You get information, but
it doesn’t give you an understanding of
how the equipment was performing or
has been used historically. We need to
wire and collect historical data to bet-
ter estimate and optimize a product’s
over the last several years for combined
cycle and gas turbines. I think that’s a
response to people trying to operate
these assets longer or in different ways.
We have a program focused on heat re-
covery steam generators. We’ve certainly
seen some challenges related to reliability
to those components related to thermal
transients. There’s an increased focus on
diagnosing those problems, anticipating
those problems and modifying your op-
erational and maintenance approach to
try to mitigate those problems.
MITCHELL: Based on reduced gas prices
relative to other fuel types, we have seen
shifts in some of our stations’ capacity
factors from one fuel source to another
over certain periods. This includes our
combined cycle plants running as base
load units. As with any of our units, we
do monitor and adjust O&M strategies as
1405pe_34 34 5/9/14 11:06 AM
Powering
the Future.
An industry innovator,
Kiewit Power has extensive
experience in the gas-fired,
air quality control systems,
power delivery, renewable
and nuclear markets. Kiewit
serves the power industry
through a number of its
subsidiaries, such as Kiewit
Power Constructors Co.,
Kiewit Power Engineers
Co. and TIC-The Industrial
Company (TIC).
As a full EPC provider, our
in-depth market knowledge
and industry-leading
projects show how Kiewit is
committed to clients and to
remaining a power pioneer.
Kiewit Power Group Inc.
9401 Renner Boulevard
Lenexa, KS 66219
(913) 928-7000
kiewit.com
Leader in EPC
installations for
TODAY’S
ADVANCED
GENERATION
TECHNOLOGIES
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 21
1405pe_35 35 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
36
facilities come online and more coal
plants are retired, are there concerns
about maintaining a diverse fleet of
generation?
MITCHELL: History has shown that a
diverse fuel source is very important over
the long haul and it is certainly important
to understand the implications of moving
too much toward a single fuel source or
any single criteria which could impact a
large portion of your generation fleet. As
I mentioned, we have a number of proj-
ects in construction now which represent
several thousand megawatts. If you look
at our Integrated Resource Plan, we recog-
nize the need for fuel diversity and con-
tinue to develop other generation sources
JAMES: As we have spent more time
developing some of the maintenance
research results, one of the side effects
is that more work is being done on our
instrumentation and controls program
to develop capabilities to measure things
that are really important for longer peri-
ods of time. Even if we are seeing higher
capacity factors and more cycling of com-
bined cycles, those mission profiles could
change, depending on economic condi-
tions and other externalities.
POWER ENGINEERING: According
to one report, gas-fired combined
cycle plants will account for a little
more than half of U.S. power pro-
duction by 2038. As more gas-fired
remaining life. We find folks willing to
say I may change the application of this
piece of equipment based on knowing
more about the history and how that can
affect the longer term performance.
The third thing, and it’s a big push for
us in our services business, is this push
for advanced gas path solutions to all
hardware coatings and materials. As we
work our way to the turbines and our re-
ciprocating engines, how do we enhance
the key life components and re-extend
the life of a product? There is obviously
huge interest in this space. It’s a way to
get more megawatts sometimes and it’s
a way to potentially get more availability
and reliability.
GE recently introduced its 9HA gas turbine, an air-
cooled high efficiency turbine with firing temperatures
exceeding 2600oF for 50Hz and 60Hz combined cycle
power generation. Photo courtesy: GE Power & Water
1405pe_36 36 5/9/14 11:06 AM
||C| \|S|||||¹` |/¹¹||S C·.c· |c¸·c|.c |cvc|
|·c.cc|c·s c·c cc.cccc w.|| ||c w.ccs| v.sc| .·c.cc|c·
cvc.|cc|c ||\|/| `c cc· c|sc c¸·ccc c· c·.s|.·¸
|cvc| ¸c¸c w.|| |cvcc| |c c·|c·cc ·c|.cc.|.|y v.s.c.|.|y
8 cc·´c··c·cc
\.|| ||csc·cs c´ .·s|c||c|.c·s cc·css ||c ¸|ccc .· sc·c
c´ ||c wc·|cs |c¸|cs| cc·c.|.c·s c·c ccc|.cc|.c·s
C·.c· |·s|··c·|s c·cvcs cc.|y ||c| wc c·c ||c |ccc.·¸
scc|.c· c´ ·c¸·c|.c |cvc| .·c.cc|.c·
www.orlonlnsLrumenLs.com - 210S Cak vllla 8oulevard - 8aLon 8ouge, Loulslana - 7081S - 866-SS-C8lCn - 22S-906-2343 - f: 22S-906-2344
ISO 9001:2008
Advanced MLl wlLh
lnLegraLed Culded Wave
8adar level Lransmluer.
8aslc, hlgh-performance
MLl sulLable for a varleLy
of appllcauons.
MagneLosLrlcuve Level
1ransmluer
a better way to view
www.orìonìnsLrumenLs.com
ce
eLy
ns.
#1 Magnetic Level Indicator
#1 Magnetostrictive Level Transmitter
31ó SS Ccn:lruclicn lFó8 Fclec
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 22
1405pe_37 37 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
38
curve. But we have a lot more infor-
mation to work with to optimize that
curve. We have a 10-MW gas recipro-
cating engine - the J920 FleXtra - that
has 20 cylinders. Each cylinder’s peak
pressure is controlled individually.
Therefore, we can get the overall ef-
ficiency of the engine higher by mak-
ing sure all cylinders are optimized for
their as-built varia-
tions.
AUSTIN: I agree
with working with
the customers to
chase the average ef-
ficiency. How do you
operate the plant and
design a plant to oper-
ate in the most efficient way? We ask what
is going to be the driver for chasing that
efficiency, especially in the U.S., where
we have low-cost gas. Is that efficiency,
the cost of the new materials, and the risk
of introducing new technology worth
that investment?
POWER ENGINEERING: To build
a combined cycle plant, an inves-
tor must be able to make an ad-
equate return on that investment.
Right now, does the market pro-
vide that kind of surety?
MITCHELL: There has to be some rea-
sonable surety of a fair rate of return
to invest millions of dollars to build
these new, larger stations. That can be
through the rate structure, or a PPA
can provide that rate of return. We do
have a regulatory system that recog-
nizes the need for a fair rate of return
once the project is approved. That is
what has enabled us to be successful in
building a large infrastructure in Vir-
ginia. We have a very good track record
of executing projects safely, on time
and on budget.
AUSTIN: We’re keenly aware of
the market dynamics. As Mark just
said, we love to see that surety of a
PPA. Surety is not the word I would
use to describe the environment for
temperatures and higher efficien-
cies. The energy conversion rates for
combined cycle plants range from
50 to 60 percent. Is there room for
more efficiency improvements?
JAMES: We have a history of being able
to improve efficiency. The higher firing
temperatures and higher pressure rates
would enable us to reach higher efficien-
cies, maybe as high
as 65 percent. That
would lead to new
materials require-
ments. We are cer-
tainly spending some
time and money on
high temperature ma-
terials at EPRI. The
balance of plant for combined cycle has
to come along with that. Demand growth
and higher gas prices overseas might help
drive the continued development of im-
proved technology and more efficient
technology. An uncertainty, though,
would be where the break-even point is
in terms of improving efficiency versus
the cost. That’s a function of fuel prices,
demand and other market factors.
MITCHELL: We have seen efficiency
gains and would expect to see efficiency
gains to continue. In our large combined
cycles, we highly value efficiency because
we expect these large units to run at base-
load. The higher firing temperatures typi-
cally associated with higher efficiencies
are a concern which we evaluate as the
OEMs continue to advance their designs.
PARENT: We believe there’s more
room for improvement in that space
and the balance of plant, where fur-
ther investment in technology would
be needed if we wanted to bring the
whole system up to higher efficiencies.
Software will play a huge role moving
forward, a bigger role than the hard-
ware in the short term. We say we want
to move average efficiency to a higher
level of capability. We’re starting to see
opportunities to bring efficiency to our
customers. We’re basically following a
to make sure we maintain a balance over
the long term. This includes early devel-
opment and licensing of a new nuclear
plant and development of Offshore wind
which is a resource in Virginia. We re-
cently secured a wind lease area offshore
of Virginia and we’re participating in a
demonstration project for the advance-
ment of offshore wind. Fuel diversity is
something we monitor very closely.
JAMES: We’ve done a number of anal-
yses over the last decade looking at the
impact of various sorts of policies and
what kind of technology implications
they would have. There’s a monetary
value to a diverse fuel mix that manifests
itself in more economic growth. We’re
pretty much convinced that every tech-
nology – even gas with all of its strengths
– has vulnerabilities. You have to hedge
that risk. A diverse fuel mix helps with
that. That will be a risk to manage as we
move forward with gas. There is a lot of
evidence that says there is quantitative
economic value to generation diversity.
PARENT: The age of such inexpensive
gas in the U.S. is driving people to think
very differently about not only the ap-
plication but the distribution of gas. It
could potentially bring with it an incred-
ible increase in manufacturing and other
things as energy prices overall go down. I
wouldn’t suggest today that gas goes from
30 percent to 50 percent and coal goes
from 50 to 30. But I do think it’s some-
thing everybody’s going to look at more
opportunistically moving forward.
Austin: The question is what is the bal-
ance and how do you strike that balance?
Most of our customers are moving for-
ward with gas plants. We believe technol-
ogy will help drive where those choices
go. We believe offshore wind has a role to
play in the future. We’re building up our
capability in the offshore sector. We can’t
ignore that the role energy storage will
play as we move forward.
POWER ENGINEERING: Modern-
day gas turbines and combined
cycle systems operate at higher
“Our combined
cycles, for the last
few years, have
run essentially as
baseload units.”
- Mark Mitchell, Dominion
1405pe_38 38 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
Increase power cycle efficiency and reduce
environmental impact with Oxamine
®
from Buckman.
Cleaner energy starts with a cleaner condenser; and that begins with Oxamine.
Oxamine performs better than conventional oxidizing microbicides in high
demand systems. Benefits include keeping condensers clean, minimizing
corrosion and improving overall power cycle efficiency. Improved efficiency
means burning less fuel for every megawatt of power produced – reducing
CO2 emissions and operational costs.
A better biocide, a cleaner biosphere.
©2014 Buckman Laboratories International, Inc.
Find out more. Contact your local Buckman representative or visit buckman.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 23
Most forecasts will end up being
wrong at some point. We’re involved
in processing gas out of the Marcel-
lus and Utica Shale. I would agree that
gas prices should remain stable for
some time. With that said, there can
be large swings in certain regions or
at certain periods, as we saw this past
winter where the polar vortex caused
extremely large swings in gas prices on
a short-term basis.
AUSTIN: Our view is that over next
five to 10 years, you’re looking at sub
$6 gas. That’s weighted against the
level of gas exports and any environ-
mental restrictions placed on the ex-
traction techniques being used today.
We are planning for a continued build
out of combined cycle plants over the
mid-term.
JAMES: We stay away from those
projections. Nobody needs our help
with that.
investing. Having said that, I think
there are certain pockets of opportu-
nity - the area around the Gulf Coast,
the Southwest and in the PJM. Scott
earlier mentioned the area around the
Gulf Coast, the Southwest and in the
PJM. We think there are opportunities
there. They are increasingly difficult to
find, but with the right amount of dili-
gence, there is opportunity to get the
return to justify investment.
POWER ENGINEERING: Many
combined heat and power (CHP)
plants are fueled with natural gas.
The Obama administration wants
to increase CHP usage 50 percent
by 2020. Low gas prices are ex-
pected to promote the construc-
tion of new CHP plants. Do you
agree? Is CHP an emerging market
for gas-fired generation?
PARENT: They are small projects, but
they are special and very different. An
example of that would be a greenhouse
project we did recently in California.
We delivered a couple of our J624 gas
reciprocating engines, and they’re pro-
viding CO2 for the greenhouse, they’re
providing heat, and they’re also pro-
viding power. Additionally, we’re also
using condensed water from the ex-
haust – about 10,000 gallons a day – to
go back into the greenhouse.
When we look at these kinds of dis-
tributed CHP projects, they make great
economic sense and the environmen-
tal impact is also quite unique. In this
case, the payback was quite quick. I
think what we’re seeing is really good
economics with specialized factories
and processing plants that make great
sense.
POWER ENGINEERING: What’s
your outlook for gas prices?
MITCHELL: Predicting gas prices has
been a difficult task over the years.
1405pe_39 39 5/9/14 11:06 AM
www.power-eng.com
40
also ensuring all fluids entering the GT
are equally kept at a high standard, thus
minimizing or eliminating all sources of
contaminants.
Modern gas turbines operate at high
temperatures, and use component de-
signs and materials at the forefront of
technology, but these are more suscep-
tible to damage if contaminated fuel and
air enter the GT through poor operating
procedures. This article will consider
the need to ensure good quality fluids
enter the GT and review combustion
technology which has moved forwards
in achieving low emissions without
resorting to wet abatement methods.
Both conventional and low emissions
technologies are discussed along with
basic operating parameters associated
with the fuels in question.
The fuel range used in GT applications
is very wide with the choice based typi-
cally on availability and cost. In some
cases fuels may have little or no treat-
ment, in others they may have “added
value” which results in the high quality
pipeline natural gas that provides the
fuel of choice for gas turbine OEMs and
operators alike. Gas turbines can and do
operate on a wide range of fuels, but the
impact that such fuels may have on tur-
bine life has to be recognised.
It is not a case of saying these fuels
are acceptable, but understanding the
details, such as the composition [hy-
drocarbon species in the case of a gas-
eous fuel, inert species, contaminants,
water vapour, …]. Detailed analysis of
the fuels is necessary to determine key
parameters of the fluid, such as delivery,
storage and conditioning as well as key
features of the fuel itself, including Low-
er Heating Value (LHV), Wobbe Index,
dew point and density. Understanding
all of these provides the OEM and users
alike with indicators that the fuel enter-
ing the GT is suitable and can result in
good operation across a wide range of
F
or economic and environ-
mental reasons, it is im-
portant that gas turbines
used in both industrial
power generation and also
oil & gas applications can burn a wide
variety of fuels, with minimum impact
on the environment.
This article will examine the types of
gaseous and liquid fuels that can be con-
sidered for use in industrial gas turbines,
discuss the basic types of combustion
system employed such as ‘conventional’
and ‘Dry Low Emissions’. The flexibil-
ity of these systems to accept different
types of fuel given due consideration to
fuel quality and composition will be in-
cluded along with methods employed to
review and assess fuels. Common con-
taminants found in fuels and the impact
these have on the operability and main-
tenance of an industrial gas turbine will
also be covered. Understanding gaseous
fuel composition and the impact on the
combustion process will be presented
along with the resultant emissions to
atmosphere and pollution abatement
methods available and applied to limit
the impact on the environment.
GAS TURBINE FUEL
AND EMISSION
Ensuring fuel is provided and main-
tained at a high quality is key to deliv-
ering good operation in a modern gas
turbine over long periods of time. How-
ever, it is not just fuel that is critical, it is
Fuels, Combustion
& Environmental
Considerations
in Industrial Gas
Turbines
BY BRIAN IGOE AND MICHAEL WELCH,
SIEMENS INDUSTRIAL TURBOMACHINERY LTD
1
Conventional Combustion
Conventional combustion operates at high primary zone temperatures,
causing high thermal NOx formation.
GAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY
1405pe_40 40 5/9/14 11:07 AM
UnitedRentals.com/Futures | 800.UR.RENTS
Visit us at booth #2453 at WindPower 2014 in Las Vegas, NV
© 2014 United Rentals, Inc.
#URBuildingFutures
From commercial construction to industrial operations
and public projects, the United Rentals team
is proud to provide our customers the best equipment,
tools and solutions in the industry.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 24
1405pe_41 41 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
42
temperatures, circa 2500K, resulting in
high thermal NO
x
formation. Lowering
the flame temperature, and hence NO
x

production, can be achieved by injec-
tion of diluents such as water or steam
into the primary zone, which quench
the flame and has been successfully em-
ployed for many years by many of the
gas turbine manufacturers. Different
OEMs use differing methods for water
or steam injection, but all recognize the
impact each has on reliability and life
cycle costs. Generally such combustion
systems have been more tolerant to dif-
ferent fuel types.
Reducing exhaust emissions by inject-
ing water or steam into the primary zone
is compared to the benefits of DLE/DLN
solution (Figure 2). Wet injection needs
a large quantity of de-mineralized water
and there is an impact on the service re-
gime, with more frequent planned inter-
ventions. The ratio of water, or steam, to
fuel (WFR or SFR) used results in lower
NO
x
, but can impact CO emissions in a
detrimental manner. Completion of a
loads and ambient conditions. It is also
important to determine and understand
the products of combustion and impact
on the environment. Exhaust emissions
are highly regulated in many parts of
the world and even those areas that up
until recently had no requirements have
started to introduce standards or guide-
lines which need to be noted during the
application assessment stage.
TYPES OF COMBUSTION
EMISSIONS REGULATED
The U.S. Clean Air Act and the Euro-
pean Union (EU) Combustion Plant Di-
rective are examples where limits on the
worst polluting species from gas turbine
plants are regulated. Consequently, low
emissions became the norm and not the
exception, especially for pollutants such
as nitrogen oxide (NO
x
), carbon mon-
oxide (CO) and un-burnt hydrocarbons
(UHC).
In addition, the major gas turbine
OEMs, along with a large number of oil
& gas companies, have their own poli-
cies with regard to environmental stew-
ardship and offer or specify low emis-
sion equipment even in locations where
no formal legislation exists, or is set at a
higher level.
The result of all of these drivers is to
make the Dry Low Emissions or Dry
Low NO
x
(DLE/DLN) combustion sys-
tem the primary combustion system of
choice. In some cases DLE/DLN is the
only combustion system offered, espe-
cially on newer models.
Available Combustion Systems
Two types of combustion systems
are widely used in gas turbines: one
based on the “conventional” diffusion
flame; the second typically uses lean
pre-mix technology targeting low ex-
haust emissions signature. These are
offered in both annular and can-annu-
lar arrangements.
Conventional Combustion
Conventional combustion (Figure 1),
also referred to as diffusion flame com-
bustion, operates at high primary zone
2
Expected Guarenteed
RELATIVE EMISSIONS PERFORMANCE
(PIPELINE QUALITY GAS AT FULL LOAD)
Effects of Wet Injection on Diffusion Flame
Combustor compared with DLE.
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
p
p
m
v

r
e
l

1
5
%

O
2

i
n

E
x
h
a
u
s
t
None WI(wfr=0.7) PSI (sfr=1.5) SSI (sfr=3) DLE
NOx
CO
3
5
1
120.0
100.0
80.00
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0
Months
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr.
1998 1999
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

M
a
s
s

E
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
s

%
5 Fold Decrease
Effect of Conversion of Multi-Engine Site
from Conventional to DLE Combustion Confguration
Relative Change in NOx Mass Emissions
1405pe_42 42 5/9/14 11:07 AM
Instromet
Everything You Need in an Ultrasonic Flow Meter.
Performance.
Accuracy.
Availability.
When it comes to gaining efficiencies, continuous
improvement is the name of the game.
Q.Sonic
plus
Ultrasonic Gas Flow
Meters are the only ultrasonic meters
on the market that have extended
diagnostics for detecting
fouling and ultrasonic flow
pattern recognition. Plus,
they communicate their
diagnostics remotely, saving
on maintenance costs. Our
patented single and double
reflective path technology delivers unparalleled flow
velocity recognition and range, and has become the
standard in custody transfer gas measurement systems.
Q.Sonic
plus
Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meters do not rely on
kinetic energy from the field, so our meters can detect
very low flows. And because they’re designed without any
mechanical moving parts, maintenance is a breeze.
To learn more about Q.Sonic
plus
meters’ advanced
technology and design, visit elster-instromet.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 25
1405pe_43 43 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
44
transient response; and all without ex-
cessive cost.
METHODS OF REDUCING
NOX EMISSIONS
There are three main ways for NOx
formation
t thermal NO
x
t prompt NO
x
t fuel bound NO
x
(FBN)
Thermal NO
x
is by far the most domi-
nant source of NO
x
and is produced by
the reaction between nitrogen and oxy-
gen in the air as described by Zeldovich.
This reaction takes place above 1700K
and the rate increases exponentially as
temperature increases (Figure 4). Prompt
NOx is produced by the high-speed reac-
tions at the flame front, whilst FBN can
only be influenced by removal of nitro-
gen bearing compounds in the fuel.
DLE DESIGN
DLE combustion arrangements tend to
be either can-annular as shown in Figure
5 or annular combustion configuration
(Figure 6). In this latter configuration a
single combustion chamber is mounted
around the outside of the compressor
exit section of the gas turbine, with mul-
tiple burners mounted through engine
casings through holes in the combustor.
DIFFUSION FLAME
COMPARISONS WITH DLE
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
In order to produce low NO
x
and
low CO the homogeneous flame tem-
perature within the combustor must be
controlled between strict limits. Con-
ventional diffusion flame combustor
has a high primary zone temperature
due to high turbulence regions promot-
ing mixing and result in temperatures in
excess of 2500K. In order to reduce NO
x

levels either the temperature within the
combustor has to be lowered or the NO
x

must be removed after the turbine. Im-
provements in mixing the fuel and air to
achieve a homogeneous mixture whilst
at the same time ‘leaning out’ the mix-
ture within the DLE combustor, achieves
the desired effect of a more uniform and
lower peak combustor temperature, thus
retrofit of existing gas turbines was made
to include DLE combustion achieving a
notable environmental benefit, offering
almost a 5 times reduction in NO
x
emis-
sions compared to previous abatement
system employed (Figure 3).
DRY LOW EMISSIONS
COMBUSTION SYSTEMS
Lowering primary zone temperatures
without resorting to wet diluents is now
achieved using lean pre-mix combus-
tion. Dry Low Emissions (DLE) or Dry
Low NO
x
(DLN) combustion systems
address the production of NO
x
at source
with a design that does not rely on in-
jected diluents, hence the term “dry”.
Of all of the promising technologies:
Lean-premixed pre-vaporised combus-
tion; Staged Combustion; Catalytic
Combustion; Rich-burn lean quench
combustion; lean pre-mixing is the
most dominant. Lean premixed system,
which reduces the production of NO
x
by
reduction of the reaction temperature,
is the one that has been developed by a
number of gas turbine OEMs as the com-
bustion system of choice with many mil-
lions of operating hours now recorded.
NO
x
formation increases exponen-
tially with temperature, therefore it
is critical to ensure air and fuel is well
mixed. Lower NO
x
has been achieved
by combusting the fuel in an excess of
air, hence “lean” pre-mix combustion.
During the early design and develop-
ment work, there was much attention
devoted to achieving a homogeneous
mixture, and burning this mixture with-
out detrimental impact on combustion
and turbine hardware. One lean pre-mix
combustor design comprises four main
features: Fuel/air injection device; stabil-
ity device; pre-mixing zone; flame stabi-
lization zone.
Meeting emissions requirements is
only one aspect of combustion design.
It has also to meet operational crite-
ria, including: component life; flexible
fuel operation; reliable starting; reli-
able switching between fuels; reliable
4
100000
10000
1000
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.0001
0.00001
0.000001

p
p
m
m
This reaction takes place above 1700K and the
rate increases exponentially as temperature increases.
1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500 2700 2900
Flame Temperature (K)
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

L
e
a
n

B
u
r
n
P
e
a
k

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s
T
y
p
i
c
a
l

D
i
f
f
u
s
i
o
n

F
l
a
m
e
P
e
a
k

T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s
NOx Formation rate
1405pe_44 44 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
45
QUIETLY SOLVING YOUR
ACOUSTIC AND EMISSIONS
CHALLENGES
Exhaust » Inlet » Retrofit » Turnkey
Do you have a turbine system that needs updating or replacement? Universal is your single
source for inlet and exhaust replacement. From site survey to commissioning, we have the
experience and expertise to simplify your complex project.
One single point of contact provides you:
• Site Survey
• Design Improvements
• Demolition
• Installation
• Budget Preparation
• System Inspection
• Commissioning
• Project Management
(888) 300-4272 | turbinesales@universalAET.com | www.UniversalAET.com
Universal AET designed and manufactured this exhaust system for a
Westinghouse 501D5 gas turbine. This system was installed at the Puget Sound
Energy - Fredonia Station in Mount Vernon, Washington.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 26
resulting in low thermal NO
x
produc-
tion.
DRY LOW EMISSIONS
COMBUSTION
The design approach by one OEM is
shown in Figure 7, highlighting the use
of scaled combustion geometry across
the product portfolio and use of can-
annular combustion hardware.
A common design approach was ad-
opted where scaling and adjustments
for air flow have been applied depend-
ing on the rating and combustor num-
bers used in the GT model. The com-
bustor comprises a number of sections
(Figure 5):
t Fuel injection device or the pilot
burner - houses the pilot fuel gal-
leries and injectors for both gaseous
and liquid fuel
t Main fuel injection device - the
main burner - houses the main air
5 DLE Combustion System Design 2000
DLE combustion arrangements tend to be can-annular
or annular combustion configuration.
1405pe_45 45 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
46
degree of ‘premixedness’ and
hence low NO
x
emissions
t Pilot, which is reduced as the
load demand increases and en-
sures flame stability
The pilot is arranged such that as the
pilot fuel split increases, the fuel is bi-
ased towards the axis of the combustor.
Describing each element of the DLE
system in more detail and referring to
Figures 5 shown earlier:
Pilot Burner
Provide fuel for ignition and transient
operation, with a small percentage used
at full load for stability purposes. An ig-
nition source is mounted in each pilot
burner, along with a thermocouple to
monitor the temperature of the face of
the burner. For dual fuel units, a sepa-
rate liquid fuel lance, located and ac-
cessed through the rear of the burner,
provides fuel for ignition and transient
operation.
Main Burner
Fuel flow increases as speed and then
load is increased. This provides the pre-
mixing via the radial swirler and numer-
ous gas injection ports. The swirlers are
fixed design with control of fuel neces-
sary to achieve both load and ambient
temperature control.
Liquid Core
Located with main swirler/burner
when a dual fuel arrangement is re-
quired, otherwise a blank ring is used.
Diesel is injected through a number
of equally spaced nozzles resulting in
good pre-mixing with high velocity and
achieving good liquid fuel emissions
characteristics.
Combustion Liner
Main swirler/burner is mounted at the
head of the combustor, which comprises
a double skin liner, the outer skin con-
trolling the cooling air feeding the annu-
lus between inner and outer liner. The
head of the combustor locates the pre-
chamber where the fuel is mixed prior
to ignition.
Transition Duct
Controls and directs the hot combus-
tion gases towards the first stage nozzle
and typically includes effusion cooling.
Materials
Conventional materials typically used
in this part of the gas turbine. Burners
are routinely made from stainless steel,
with the application of a thermal barrier
coating in key areas. Combustion cham-
bers are manufactured from Nimonic
steels with thermal barrier coatings ap-
plied to the inner liner surface.
GAS TURBINE FUELS
AND FUEL QUALITY
Modern highly efficient gas tur-
bines rely on high-quality alloys allow-
ing increased firing temperatures to be
achieved, whilst still maintaining accept-
able product life. To achieve this, more
attention on the use of the fluids entering
the gas turbine is necessary, including air,
lubricating oil and fuel. All gas turbine
OEMs provide comprehensive specifica-
tions covering the fuel quality permit-
ted for use in the gas turbine. These are
used to ensure fuel quality is defined at
the onset of a project and throughout the
lifetime of the turbine and are prepared
for good reason. To ensure acceptable tur-
bine operation is achieved with little or
no impact on major turbine component
life, it is necessary to understand fuel
composition and the supply conditions
in more detail. Identification of contami-
nation has become particularly necessary
as this can have a detrimental impact on
exotic materials used in turbine blading.
swirler and main gas and liquid
fuel systems
t The combustor - the flame mix-
ing and stability device – which
includes a narrow inlet feature,
called the pre-chamber; is of
double skin construction with
impingement cooling, this air
exhausting into the combustor
through dilution holes down-
stream of the main reaction zone.
A transition duct, located down-
stream of the combustor, conditions the
flow from the circular combustor exit to
a sector of the turbine entry annulus.
In this DLE design main combus-
tion air enters through a single radial
swirler at the head of the combustor.
Flow turns through 90 degrees into the
pre-chamber followed by a sudden ex-
pansion into the combustion chamber.
The swirl number is sufficiently high to
induce a vortex breakdown reverse flow
zone along the axis. This is termed the
internal reverse flow zone. In this design
concept the reverse flow zone remains
attached to the back surface of the com-
bustor thereby establishing a firm aero-
dynamic base for flame stabilization. In
the wake of the sudden expansion, an
external reverse flow zone occurs with
flame stabilization in the shear layers
around the internal and external reverse
flow zones.
Gaseous and liquid fuels are intro-
duced, in two stages:
t Main, which results in a high
6 Annular Combustor with 3rd Generation DLE Burner
1405pe_46 46 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
Lapeyre Stair...
We don

t miss a step.
Lapeyre Stair serves all your stair needs quickly and precisely.
In-house detailing and design ensure project accuracy – every time, on time.
Choose from our expanding product line to meet your on-site assembly requirements.
www.lapeyrestair.com
Welded Egress Stairs • Alternating Tread Stairs • Platform Systems • Bolt-together Stairs W l W l W l W lded ded ded ded Eg s S s S s Stai tai tai tai tai • Alte m S Bol Bol the the the the ther S r S r S r S r Stai ting T g T g T d Stai • P • P • P • P • Plat lat lat latform S m S
Accurate and timely advanced stair building technology since 1981.
Send us your plans or email us at ls.sales@lapeyrestair.com to
learn how you can experience the ease of working with long-time
stair building professionals. Or, to immediately consult a
knowledgeable customer service agent, call 800-535-7631.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 27
Index (number) is the Net (lower) calo-
rific value of the fuel divided by the
square root of the fuels specific gravity.
WobbeIndex
Where CVv
0
= net calorific value
(MJ/m
3
) at standard conditions
(288K, 1.013bara)
SG
0
= specific gravity at standard
conditions
The choice of gaseous fuels as a pri-
mary fuel for use in gas turbines is dic-
tated by widespread availability and low
price. Compositions of gaseous fuels
vary widely, from those taken directly
from wells (can contain high amounts of
heavier hydrocarbons), to those contain-
ing non-combustible species (such as ni-
trogen & carbon dioxide). In some cases
hydrogen sulfide may be present, which,
left untreated, can produce sulfur oxides
in the exhaust, and, more significantly,
can combine with halides to form com-
pounds which readily attack the exotic
alloys used in turbine blading, resulting
in premature component failure.
Gaseous fuels can contain a wide vari-
ety of contaminants such as: solids, wa-
ter, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen sul-
phide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,
and hydrogen. The importance of provid-
ing a comprehensive fuel composition
in order to determine the suitability of
such fuels should not be underestimated.
Concerns and issues can be identified at
an early stage to allow preventative mea-
sures, such as fuel treatment, to be taken.
Higher hydrocarbons influence the
hydrocarbon dew point, hence a high
supply temperature is required. If the
temperature is not maintained then liq-
uid dropout (condensate) will result and
can cause problems in the fuel system,
or, more seriously, impinge on combus-
tor surfaces leading to localized burning
and component failure, such as indicated
in Figure 8.
Hydrogen sulfide combustion results
in sulfur oxides in the exhaust (hence po-
tential for acid rain). Of equal concern is
the presence of alkali metal halides, such
as sodium chloride or potassium chlo-
ride, and water vapour. These result in the
formation of alkali sulfates, giving rise to
aggressive corrosive attack of the nickel
alloys used in modern turbine blades.
GASEOUS FUEL
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
Assessment of gaseous fuels is neces-
sary to determine the suitability, some of
which are discussed here:
Temperature Corrected Wobbe
Index
Pipeline quality gas fuels contain
mostly methane, with small quantities
of ethane.
Wobbe Index (WI) is one of the pa-
rameters used to assess fuel and allows
a direct comparison of different fuels to
be made based on heat content. Wobbe
1405pe_47 47 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
48
prevent condensate or liquid drop out.
Some OEMs apply a minimum of 20°C,
but others may apply higher levels, com-
monly 25-30°C. Fuels which contain
higher, and variable, hydrocarbon spe-
cies may require a higher margin of su-
perheat to be applied.
OTHER CONTAMINANTS
Water and higher hydrocarbons are
two contaminants already discussed,
but there are others that are met and
need to be considered
Carbon Dioxide
CO
2
reacts in the presence of moisture
producing a weak acid, but mostly acts
as a diluent reducing the heat content
available in the fuel.
Hydrogen Sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide is highly toxic and
can pose unique challenges to opera-
tors as well as in the operation of gas
turbines. Besides specific health and
safety requirements H
2
S (also sulfur
in liquid fuels) can combust produc-
ing SO
x
(SO
2
/SO
3
) emissions to atmo-
sphere, which react in the presence
of moisture resulting in weak acid
where and are at standard
conditions (288K, 1.013bara)
Fuels are often provided at different
supply conditions. Therefore the use of
Temperature Corrected Wobbe Index
(TCWI) becomes an important aspect
when reviewing fuels. Gas fuels con-
taining water and or higher hydrocar-
bon species will result in higher dew
point requirements, hence the need
to provide a set amount of superheat
margin, ensuring the gas remains in a
vapour at all times.
Where:
T
fuel
is temperature of fuel at turbine skid
edge (K)
WI
T
= Temperature Corrected Wobbe In-
dex
WI
0
= Wobbe Index at standard condi-
tions, 288K
Fuels with visually different composi-
tions may have the same Wobbe Index
and therefore same heat content. How-
ever, other factors such as dew point
need to be evaluated.
GT OEMs have limits on ranges of fuel
CV or WI before it becomes necessary to
introduce changes in combustion hard-
ware. This may be as simple as geometry
changes within the same burner or more
extensive and involve fuel system chang-
es. The objective is to achieve a similar
fuel supply pressure and pressure drop
across the burner to ensure stable com-
bustion is maintained.
Dew Point and Supply
Temperature
Gaseous fuels comprise a variety of
hydrocarbon species, each of which has
a unique “dew” point temperature, i.e.
the temperature at which the gas con-
denses producing liquids, and those
fuels which also contain water will have
in addition a water dew point. Thus it
is possible to determine the dew point
for a known gas at a given pressure. It
is normal to apply a margin of super-
heat over the calculated dew point to
7 Design Approach
Scaled hardware design across the product portfolio
and use of can-annular combustion hardware.
8 Component Failure
DLE Pre-chamber damage as the result of heavy
hydrocarbon carry over and oxidation.
1405pe_48 48 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
49
Because you know
Biach, you already
know us.
hydratight.com
Biach, now part of Hydratight, pioneered the first nuclear tensioning system. Today,
Hydratight operates in more than half of the world’s nuclear plants, including 80% in the
USA. As one company, we provide specialized bolted joint integrity products and services
that ensure leak-free performance, reliable operation and shorter, more predictable outages.
To find out more contact solutions@hydratight.com.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 28
kerosene, for example) are processed
from crude oil and can be made to a
wide range of specifications. Other liq-
uid fuels such as natural gas liquids or
higher hydrocarbon liquids, such LPG
(a mixture of propane and butane), are
also produced and have been used as a
gas turbine fuel, although special con-
sideration is needed in such cases.
The suitability of commercially avail-
able diesel fuels must be assessed and
compared to the OEM’s own specifica-
tion. Several international specifications
exist, all with small differences that
can make a huge difference in gas tur-
bine operability. Typical Specifications
include EN590 and ASTM D975 along
with low and Ultra Low Sulfur diesels.
Alternative liquid fuels to fossil diesel
are becoming more widespread such as
paraffinic biodiesel and liquids derived
from natural gas, the latter via conver-
sion techniques such as Fischer Tropsch
production (acid rain). Where SO
x
leg-
islation exists, treatment of the fuel at
source to remove or lower H
2
S (or sul-
fur in liquid fuels) is necessary.
In the presence of sodium, potassium
or vanadium, such as found off-shore or
in coastal environments, further assess-
ment will be required as the reaction of
these metals and their salts with sulfur
results in the production of sodium and
potassium sulfates or vanates which are
highly corrosive to modern materials
used in the hot gas path components,
such as turbine nozzles and rotor blades.
Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide
Both readily combust, but require spe-
cial understanding before acceptance as
a GT fuel. Both exacerbate combustor
flame speed, and can result in flash-
back, where the flame velocity exceeds
the local combustor velocities. This
makes these types of fuels less suited for
lean pre-mix type combustion systems.
However, conventional diffusion flame
combustion systems are more tolerant
to such fuels, subject to full assessment
and application of appropriate safety
measures.
OTHER FUELS USED IN
INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES
Pipeline quality gas fuel has been
shown to be the primary source of fuels
for gas turbine applications mainly due
to widespread availability and low cost.
However, there are many other fuels
which are used or considered, especially
where pipeline gas is either not available
or of insufficient quantity.
Premium Liquid Fuels
Diesel fuel and kerosene processed to
internationally recognized quality stan-
dards are used either on their own or in
conjunction with gas fuels (dual fuel op-
eration).
Distillate fuels (No2 Diesel and
1405pe_49 49 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
50
Biogas Fuels
Mainly weak methane-based gas fuels
(can be referred to as medium Btu fuels)
containing high levels of carbon dioxide,
CO
2
and/or Nitrogen, N
2
. which can be
naturally occurring or derived from the
decomposition of waste material (Land
Fill Gas - LFG) or from anaerobic diges-
tion (AD) process or Waste Water Treat-
ment Process (WWTP), and can be con-
sidered as a useful fuel for gas turbines.
LFG, AD, or WWTP are sometimes rec-
ognized as renewable fuels and can gain
‘green’ accredita-
tion and additional
economic benefits.
There are many ex-
amples of gas tur-
bines operating on
these weak fuels
using conventional
combustion, but in
recent times extend-
ed fuels capability
using low emission
combustion configurations have been
developed. With such fuels it is a require-
ment of the fuel system to provide suf-
ficient quantity of fuel to sustain stable
combustion and be responsive to varia-
tions in such fuel sources.
Refinery; Process Off-gas; Hydro-
gen Syngas
Process off-gas, such as a refinery
tail gas, can be used as a suitable gas
turbine fuel. These fuels can contain
high levels of hydrogen and carbon
monoxide, therefore require special
consideration due to the much higher
flame velocities of these species.
In this category is syngas, derived
from the gasification or pyrolysis of
coal, petcoke, various wood types, or
municipal or agricultural waste prod-
ucts. These are low in heating value
compared to biogas, for example,
but comprise hydrogen and carbon
monoxide as well as quantities of in-
ert species, CO
2
and N
2
. All of these
need special consideration due to the
impact each has on combustor flame
speeds and the propensity for “flash-
back” and the resultant damage to
combustion hardware.
Hydrogen rich fuels have been used
with some success, but require the use
of conventional combustion. Wet in-
jection can be applied to reduce atmo-
spheric pollution. A derivative of this
capability is gases produced from coke
batteries in the steel making process.
Coke Oven Gas, COG, is high hydro-
gen, but also contains methane and to
a lesser extent CO. Conventional, dif-
fusion combustion system is applied
but additional gas cleaning is essential
to prevent a shortening of the hard-
ware life due to the effects of contami-
nation found in such fuels.
Natural Gas Liquids and LPG fuels
Less used, but still viable, gas turbine
fuels include those containing higher
hydrocarbon species. These require spe-
cific assessment and consideration with-
in both the fuel system and combustor
injector.
LPG can be used either in vaporized
or liquid form. When vaporized and
maintained in gaseous form, the gas
should be supplied at elevated tempera-
tures due to the use of the higher hydro-
carbons usually associated with LPG,
butane and propane. Special injectors
will be required to ensure the metered
fuel is correctly controlled.
When supplied in liquid form special
consideration must be made to the fuel
system. LPG has a low viscosity and spe-
cial pumps are required to overcome the
problem of low lubricity. Control of the
fluid is critical to ensure other problems
are avoided such as:
t Waxing (fuel temperature too low)
t Exceeding flash point (temperature
too high)
t Corrosion (particularly where cop-
per is present)
t Vapor lock due to premature vapor-
ization of liquid
Storage of such fuels needs particular
attention. Having a lower viscosity in
and commonly referred to as “Gas to Liq-
uids” or GTL fuels (similar fuels include
BTL – biomass to liquids and CTL – coal
to liquids). Although production quan-
tities are small today these will grow in
years to come and either will be blended
with fossil diesel or used as a stand-alone
fuel. Specifications for such fuels are in
development, such as TS 15940:2012,
covering Paraffinic biodiesel fuel.
LNG
LNG is available from a wide variety
of sources and can vary significantly
in properties due
mostly to the con-
tent of ethane, C2
species in the com-
position (in place
of methane). These
tend to be higher
in Wobbe Number
than standard pipe-
line quality natural
gas, so may require
nitrogen dilution
to ensure compatibility with general
pipeline quality fuel specifications.
Wellhead Gases as a GT Fuel
Alternative gaseous fuel solutions for
gas turbines are used where export of the
gas fuel from source makes little econom-
ic sense. Assessment and use of wellhead,
or associated, gas fuels can allow mar-
ginal wells and locations to be developed.
Each fuel is assessed on its merits with
some recommendations made regarding
minimal cleanliness, water content, dew
point control, all of which have been cov-
ered in detail.
Unconventional Gaseous Fuels
Unconventional gas implies gas fu-
els extracted from coal beds (coal bed
methane or coal seam gas) or from shale
rock using the technique called frack-
ing. The merit of this process is not dis-
cussed, but rather the fuel extracted and
treated. The method may be unconven-
tional, but once extracted and cleaned
the gas is very much conventional and
can be treated in the same way as pipe-
line quality gas or LNG.
“Hydrogen rich
fuels have been
used with some
success, but
require the use
of conventional
combustion.”
1405pe_50 50 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
51
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 29
The power of nature is admirable.
Many species can thrive in extremely tough
conditions. We have taken this as inspiration
for developing cutting-edge solutions, which are
environment-friendly too.
Like our solutions for bio-energy generation. Robust,
efficient, clean solutions, that are able to create new
energy where before there was only residual matter
or organic waste.
Solicíte nuestro nuevo catálogo ecológico en: www. g u a s c o r p o we r. c o m
Admiring the power of nature
The power of nature is admirable.

Dresser-Rand takes this power as inspiration
for developing its cutting-edge solutions, which
are environment-friendly too. Energy solutions
to meet power generation and energy efficiency
requirements of all types, all over the planet.
EMEA: (Int’l +34) 943-86-52-00 / The Americas: (Int’l +1) 508-595-1700
Asia-Pacific: (Int’l +60) 3-2093-6633 / info@dresser-rand.com
Compressors–Turbo & Recip / Steam Turbines / Gas Turbines / Engines / Control Systems / Expanders
Bringing energy and the environment into harmony.
®
Visit us at POWER-GEN Europe, Booth 6W59,
and ASME Turbo Expo, Booth 110
and Na
2
O-V
2
O
5
systems. Determination
of the ash sticking temperature is usu-
ally a good feature to use, and should be
>900°C if sticking to the blade is to be
avoided.
CONCLUSIONS
The understanding of fuels used in
modern high performance, high effi-
ciency gas turbines is a critical step in
achieving the goals of high availability
and reliability, but at the same ensuring
the environmental needs are fully met.
The impact of the wide range of fuels
used in gas turbine combustion systems,
especially those of the low emissions va-
riety, has been considered.
In conclusion, the supply of the right
quality fuels can result in the above re-
quirements being met, while the use of
fuels outside the advised specifications
can result in increased maintenance re-
quirements.
liquid form and being heavier than air
when in gaseous form means special
precautions have to be adopted.
Crude Oil as a GT fuel
Viscosity is one of the key parameters
used when evaluating liquid fuels for
use in industrial gas turbines and gener-
ally should be <10cSt (most regular die-
sel fuels <7.5cSt @ 40degC).
There are cases where neither diesel
nor gaseous fuels are available and the
only “fuel” is crude oil. This creates chal-
lenges that have to be handled through
fuel pre-treatment and fuel injection
system functionality. Firstly, heating the
fuel reduces the viscosity, but noting the
limitations:
t First is 100°C, at which water boils
off (all liquid fuels contain a small
amount of water) causing cavitation
in fuel pumps
t Increasing fuel oil supply pressure
allows the heating to be extended
beyond 100°C, but is limited by the
temperature limits within the fuel
delivery system
t Further heating can result in fuel
cracking and coking in the fuel sys-
tem and burners depending on the
constituents within the crude oil
Crude oils need to be treated in order
to meet industrial gas turbine limits on
metallic and other contaminants in the
fuel.
Crude oil often contains high
amounts of alkali metals (Na, K) and
heavy metals (V, Ni, etc.) which, if intro-
duced into the combustion system, can
result in accelerated deposit formation
and high temperature corrosion in gas
turbine hot gas path components.
Major corrosive constituents include
Vanadium pentoxide (V
2
O
5
), sodium
sulfate (Na
2
SO
4
) and aggressive low
melting forms in the Na
2
SO
4
– V
2
O
5

1405pe_51 51 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
52
people want that tender, loving care
from the OEM,” Haley said. “They
want to have that love from the OEMs
themselves because it’s their product,
and they know it best from that per-
spective. The way we use that to our
advantage is to work hand-in-hand
with the majority of the OEMs here
in the U.S. We can rely on that knowl-
edge, and we’re stepping in as the OEM
in a lot of situations.”
OEMs will always have a part in the
post-sale O&M strategy, Haley said.
Many ISPs have responded by linking
themselves to turbine manufacturers.
Gemini has trained its technicians to
work on most turbines available in the
U.S. in order to provide support for
warranty work and parts work.
Gemini also provides information
and recommendations to OEMs on
how designs might be improved or
unscheduled maintenance. Although
OEMs will always have place in the
role of maintaining a wind power proj-
ect, ISPs can help reduce costs and be a
benefit to wind farm operators.
WORKING HAND-IN-
HAND WITH OEMS
Although ISPs may provide the
same or similar services as OEMs, the
two sectors of the industry are not in
competition, according to Gemini
Energy Services Vice President and
Managing Director Jimmy Haley.
A large section of Gemini’s work is
subcontracting with OEMs to provide
services to wind projects.
“These are multimillion-dollar ma-
chines and projects, and as a result
BY JUSTIN MARTINO, J.D., ASSOCIATE EDITOR
T
he wind power genera-
tion business is growing
rapidly in the U.S., and
the increased amount
of megawatts produced
by wind turbines has created new
businesses and a demand for new ser-
vices. While turbine manufacturers
have seen a growth in production and
services, third-party or independent
service providers (ISP) are also a key
component of keeping a wind power
project in top condition.
Unlike the operations and mainte-
nance services provided by an origi-
nal equipment manufacturer (OEM),
an ISP will work on across a range of
models and brands, providing both
routine scheduled maintenance and
As wind power becomes a larger segment of the power
generation industry, more money is being spent to
provide O&M services and more solutions are available
to wind farm operators. Photo courtesy of Gemini.
SERVICE
PROVIDERS
The Role
Independent
in
of
WindTurbine
O&M
1405pe_52 52 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
FROM
ENGINEERING
ANALYSIS TO
ADVANCED NDE,
LOOK TO
STRUCTURAL
INTEGRITY
Scan the QR Code for more information
www.structint.com/power-eng
We Connect the Dots
Over the past 30 years,
Structural Integrity has
built a team of over
200 industry experts
providing comprehensive solutions to the energy
industry. We connect the dots from problem to resolution,
from regulations to compliance, from nondestructive
examination, to engineered solutions, even custom
equipment.
You can look to us for our:
• Knowledge of power plants, codes, and how things
work.
• Extensive experience and leadership.
• High quality, hard work, and responsiveness.
Call us today and we’ll connect
the dots for you.
( 8 7 7 - 4 S I - P O W E R )
8 7 7 - 4 7 4 - 7 6 9 3
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 30
tweaked, some of which may be the sort of minor detail
that isn’t noticed until the turbine is in the field and op-
erational.
In one instance, Haley said, a turbine model had a hatch
that would open to the front and push against the gearbox
and often come back down and hit the technician’s head.
The manufacturer was notified of the problem.
“The next revision of the turbine, they’d implemented a
change,” Haley said. “It’s definitely a good feedback mech-
anism to have in place.”
SERVICES PROVIDED BY ISPS
Although an ISP may range from a global corporation
to a one-man local operation, it’s possible to find ISPs that
can provide nearly any service a wind farm operator could
require.
Gemini, for example, provides condition monitoring,
lubrication oil quality management, technical staffing,
scheduled and unscheduled maintenance and large major
component repair, including gearbox change outs when
required.
“We work from the base bolts to the blade tips,” Haley
said. “We work with the OEMs. We work with the owners.
We provide very highly
trained techs. We have
tools and trucks and
equipment to support
projects in remote loca-
tions. The focus for us
as an organization is the
life cycle of the turbine
from construction and
commissioning so the customer can start off on the right
foot throught the operational life cycle of the turbine.”
The company provides different styles of support that
depends on the needs of the customer. That can include
short-term support with a defined start and tentatively de-
fined ending, such a scheduled maintenance or a retrofit.
That category also includes any major component change
out, which goes a little beyond the standard short-term
support because of the additional costs and accountability
associated with the repair.
Like many other ISPs, Gemini also includes long-term
maintenance options where the company builds a package
depending on what the wind farm operator wants. That
could include scheduled maintenance support, remote
monitoring and call support.
“Every project is so different,” Haley said. “There are dif-
ferent flavors of each project too – it could be a very heavy
mechanical project, hydraulic project or electrical project,
“The focus for us
as an organization
is the life cycle of
the turbine.”
- Jimmy Haley, Gemini
Energy Services
1405pe_53 53 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
54
to “the old analysis paralysis mentality
where you don’t know where to start
because there’s so much detail.”
The amount of data and experience
an ISP may have from working on a va-
riety of models and brands across the
U.S. can help prioritize that data.
“It’s about how to develop the trends
and know what to key in on and what
data to look at so you can make that
data usable,” he said. “Once we have
enough data, we can home in on what
to look for. It makes the entire strategic
outlook more predictive.”
ISPs are often able to quickly inte-
grate information obtained from mon-
itoring systems as well, with Haley
saying generating changes in an OEM’s
system often being time-consuming.
“We have completely customized
solutions,” he said. “If I need chang-
es, I can implement those literally
overnight. I can get our coders on the
phone to implement changes if we’re
so we kind of shape our teams based
on that.”
PROVIDING FLEXIBILITY
Although ISPs may work closely
with O&Ms to provide O&M for wind
turbines, ISP owners say there are sev-
eral differences between an ISP and an
OEM for long-term support.
“When you’re looking at this and
choosing purely between the OEM
and the ISP, flexibility is a key advan-
tage for us because scheduled mainte-
nance is one aspect,” Haley said. “Un-
predicted, unscheduled maintenance
is a much large cost component of
the O&M strategy and the O&M bud-
get moving forward for the life of the
project. Therefore, having an auxiliary
workforce like we provide means we
can adapt to different situations and
come out when necessary as opposed
to having that dedicated cost each year,
each month, each day that a warranty
is going to provide in that situation.”
ISPs also have a smaller corporate
structure than many OEMs, Haley said.
“We don’t carry the overhead an
OEM is going to carry from a manu-
facturing standpoint,” he said. “They
have a manufacturing cost, they have a
large corporate backing that they have
to handle from a back office support
structure, they have to have those ma-
terials and the supply chain developed
to support their sold projects. We don’t
have that. We’re not burdened by that,
so we’re able to operate as a much lean-
er organization, which means we can
pass a lot of cost savings based on that
alone onto the customers.”
ISPs may also be more flexible when
using condition monitoring systems
and adapting to new technology,
Haley said.
Many wind farms now use condition
monitoring systems that can track a
great deal of data, potentially gigabytes
a day just from one turbine. Haley said
the amount of data available can lead Because of the loss of revenue associated
with a wind turbine failure, having 24/7
support from an O&M company can help
a company maximize the efficiency of a
project. Photo courtesy of Gemini.
1405pe_54 54 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 31
Driven by
TMEIC
Motor, Drive and
Control Solutions for
Power Generation
High-Performance
Control Solutions
Variable Frequehcy Drive
(VFD) ahd MoIor SysIems
· High Reliability
Low-maihIehahce VFDs
ahd elecIric moIors
· Unparalleled
Customer Support
24/7 ehgiheer supporI
· Remote Diagnostics
Peduced dowhIime
www.tmeic.com
540-283-2300
Poahoke, Virgihia, USA
gi@Imeic.com
Up to
100 MW
Up to
120,000
kVA
Up t
10
going to find something that works a
little better. That capability for us is es-
sential.
“Globalization is driving innovation
in the wind industry. Find the solu-
tions that are scalable and can work for
an entire project or an entire fleet of
projects is paramount.”
WORKING WITH
EMERGING TECHNOLOGY
That capability is essential because
the wind power industry is still de-
veloping in many ways. Unlike more
traditional power generation sources,
wind turbine O&M providers are con-
stantly finding new ways to improve
their services.
“There’s definitely an extremely
stark contrast between the O&M strat-
egies that already exist in more mature
industries than what we have on the
wind side,” Haley said. “The wind side,
what we see is it’s still a very kneejerk
reaction. Other industries that are a
little older and have a little more ex-
perience have been able to handle and
shape schedules more on predictive
maintenance. The industry is evolv-
ing, but we’re still stuck in this kind
of knee-jerk reaction mentality when
it comes to O&M, where people think,
‘We’ll fix it when it breaks’ instead of,
‘We’ll do something to prevent it from
breaking.’”
Haley said he was surprised at
the lack of conditioning monitoring
equipment when he first entered the
wind industry. As an engineer in the
Navy, he was accustomed to condition
monitoring on ships that were 50 years
old.
“Everything in the engineering plan
of a ship has condition monitoring,”
he said “Every single component has
some sort of measurement that we can
track in a data logger. It’s still kind of
an emerging technology, I think. Not
from an industrial standpoint – con-
dition monitoring has been around
forever – but it’s just now getting to a
point where it’s more accepted in the
wind, and I think it’s vital for watching
these multimillion dollar assets.”
THE FUTURE OF ISPS
With OEMs already subcontracting
work to ISPs, it’s natural to think the
business will continue to expand and
be able to provide even more benefits
to wind project operators as the indus-
try continues to evolve. Haley said the
company is already looking at predic-
tive modeling and mathematical mod-
eling so turbines can predict where the
turbine will predict where the wind
will be instead of reacting to a change
after it has already happened. That can
help reduce stress on the unit and ex-
tend its lifetime.
With an ability and willingness to
embrace that new technology, ISPs
could be the quickest to adopt changes
that could prove a major benefit to
wind power projects.
“Emerging technology items are re-
ally a key component as we move into
the next generation of the industry,”
Haley said. “I think that’s a huge ad-
vantage for us.”
ISPs will often have the same equipment
as an OEM to enable them to make repairs
to turbines in isolated locations or harsh
conditions. Photo courtesy of Gemini.
1405pe_55 55 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
56
15 expansion stages and was one of the
first steam turbines to be connected to
an electric generator for the generation of
electricity. At the turn of the 20
th
century,
steam turbines were designed for an inlet
pressure of about 200 psi and a tempera-
ture of 500 F. Today, steam turbines are
available with steam conditions of 4,500
psi, inlet temperatures of 1,200 F and re-
heat temperatures of 1,250 F.
Most of the electricity in the U.S. is
produced by steam turbines. What’s
more, most of the nation’s new capac-
ity will be generated by combined cycle
power plants, which feature gas and
steam turbines. The trend in power plant
design is the combined cycle, which in-
corporates a steam turbine in a bottom-
ing cycle with a gas turbine. Steam gener-
ated in the heat recovery steam generator
(HRSG) of the gas turbine is used to drive
a steam turbine to yield additional elec-
tricity and improve cycle efficiency.
Most, if not all, of the nation’s new
gas-fired capacity will be met by com-
bined cycle power plants. Combined
cycle plants are expected to account for
50.5 percent of U.S. power production
by 2038, up from 25 percent this year,
according to a report released earlier this
year by Black & Veatch.
Although a large chunk of U.S. coal-
fired generation will be retired amid
T
he transition to more gas-
fired generation and the
need to preserve much of
America’s coal-fired pow-
er means there will be a
lasting demand for the rehabilitation of
steam turbines in the U.S.
Since the late 19
th
century, steam tur-
bines have been used for the generation
of electricity. A prototype steam turbine,
designed by Charles Parsons in 1890, had
Full Steam
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
A steam turbine rehabilitation can restore
the efficiency and performance of aging
power plants.
Most of the electricity in the U.S. is produced
by steam turbines. Worn and tattered after
decades of operation, many of the rotating
components in a steam turbine must be
replaced to extend the life of the unit.
1405pe_56 56 5/9/14 11:07 AM
*Superbolt, Inc. is part of the Nord-Lock Group.
Your trusted partner for bolted joints
With Superbolt tensioners you no longer need
high powered tooling. Any size tensioner can be
installed or removed with hand tools.
Discover safe and easy bolting for your
critical applications today!
www.superbolt.com
INCREASE YOUR
BOLTING KNOWLEDGE:
www.bolted.com/subscribe
Bolting tips & case studies from
the bolting experts.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 32
“If you have additional available steam
flow, you can add that on top of the ef-
ficiency gain.”
The failure of components in high
pressure (HP) turbines is responsible for
the greatest loss of capacity and de-rating
of the units. On the other hand, low pres-
sure turbines (LP) contribute to more
forced outages.
The incentives for upgrading most
steam turbines are longer life, increased
output, greater efficiency, and improved
reliability, including improved solid-par-
ticle erosion capability.”
“When you do these steam path ret-
rofits, you’re really making things new
again,” Ray said.
To justify the expense, an improve-
ment in performance must be realized.
Any upgrade should focus on optimizing
the entire design system, including bal-
ance of plant.
“Most of the efficiency gains are de-
rived from managing the flow in the tur-
bine,” Ray said. “The larger the unit, the
stricter emission standards for air and
water, the majority of America’s coal-fired
generation will survive as power produc-
ers spend billions to bring these aging
coal-fired units into compliance with
new and pending emission limits on a
wide range of pollutants.
Coal will remain the dominant source
of power generation in the U.S. through
2035, according to the Department of
Energy. To remain online for another 20
years, many of these coal-fired plants will
require a steam turbine rehabilitation.
Worn and tattered after decades of opera-
tion, many of the rotating components in
the steam turbine must be replaced to ex-
tend the life of these coal-fired units.
“With the modern design tools, manu-
facturing practices and sealing practices,
you can redesign the steam path and op-
timize the HP or IP steam path to gain
an additional 3 to 5 percent in design ef-
ficiency,” said William Ray, vice president
of Sales Service and Marketing for Mit-
subishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas.
1405pe_57 57 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
58
mechanisms cause the degradation of
rotating machines. Fouling is caused by
the adherence of particles to flow path
surfaces. Corrosion is
the loss or deterioration
of machine component
material exposed to flu-
ids. Erosion is the abra-
sive removal of material
from the flow path by
hard or incompressible
particles impinging on
flow surfaces. Abrasion
is caused when a rotat-
ing surface rubs on a
stationary surface.
“One of the things
in designing the new
steam paths, especially for an impulse
machine, is that you’re able to manage
the solid particle erosion much better,”
Ray said. “There are some inherent design
changes that go into it that make it more
tolerant to erosion and therefore makes
the steam path sustain its efficiency over
a greater period of time.”
Three major effects determine the per-
formance deterioration of rotating ma-
chines:
t Increased clearances,
t Changes in rotating part geometry
t Changes in flow path surface quality
The first two effects typically lead to
non-recoverable degradation. The latter
effect can be partially reversed by some
corrective processes such as online wash-
ing. Degradation will force all stages to
work at off-optimum efficiencies. Deg-
radation also limits the operating range.
Corrosion and erosion tends to alter
the flow path of steam turbines in two
ways. It increases the surface roughness,
but it may also remove material at lead-
ing edges, trailing edge, and nozzles.
Increased surface roughness can cause
to minimize the differential expansion
between the rotating blades and the sta-
tionary parts. Large steam turbines can
take over ten hours to
warm up.
One maintenance
issue with steam tur-
bines is borne from
solids carried over
from the boiler that
deposit on turbine
nozzles and other
internal parts. This
degrades turbine ef-
ficiency and power
output. Some of these
solids are water solu-
ble but others are not.
Three methods are employed to remove
such deposits:
t Manual removal
t Cracking off deposits by shutting the
turbine off and allowing it to cool
t For water soluble deposits, water
washing while the turbine is run-
ning
Steam turbines have many stages
and components. Degradation of each
stage or component affects subsequent
stages and other components. Several
greater those advantages are. A 900-MW
unit will see a greater efficiency change
than a 250-MW unit.”
The most common problem with aging
coal-fired units involves erosion of the
steam turbine’s blade path. More efficient
blading will increase the steam output
and improve the unit’s overall heat rate.
“The heat rate trails the output,” Ray
said. “When you make a more efficient
HP section, that steam has a lower energy
content. It goes back to the reheater and
is going to draw more heat to get it back
up to design reheat temperature. That ex-
tra energy absorbed in the reheat section
makes the heat rate go up.”
Although the market for new steam
turbines in conventional coal-fired gen-
eration is suppressed, the need for new
steam turbines in combined cycle con-
figuration is increasing.
When properly operated and main-
tained (including proper control of boiler
water chemistry), steam turbines are ex-
tremely reliable.
Because of the high pressures used in
steam turbines, the casing is thick. Con-
sequently, steam turbines exhibit large
thermal inertia. Steam turbines must
be warmed up and cooled down slowly
Installation of integrally shrouded IP blades at Mitsubishi
Hitachi’s Savannah Machinery Works. Photo courtesy of
Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Americas.
“Most of the
efficiency gains
are derived from
managing the
flow in the turbine.
The larger the unit,
the greater those
advantages are.”
- William Ray, Mitsubishi
Hitachi Power Systems
Americas
1405pe_58 58 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
59
Toll-Free in the USA 800-959-4464
Email imi@pcb.com
Website www.imi-sensors.com
www.imi-sensors.com/NOxReduction
It’s Required.
Reducing NOx Emissions Isn’t Just Desired.
Keep Your NOx Emissions Low
Without Causing Turbine Damage
Visit www.imi-sensors.com/NOxReduction
To Download our FREE Ebook:
4 Techniques to Monitor Combustion Instability
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 33
manufacturers now provide bowed blade
designs in the name of greater efficiency
and reduced erosion, Ray said.
These designs “manage the steam flow
to minimize sidewall losses,” he said.
“You’re directing more steam flow into
the body of the blade, which minimizes
those losses.”
Power producers are installing a
range of pollution control equipment
to comply with stricter emission lim-
its and preserve their coal-fired assets.
Adding emission control technology
to a coal-fired power plant can cause
a meaningful reduction in output,
as much as 20 percent in some cases.
Much or all of that lost output can be
recovered through efficiencies achieved
with a steam turbine rehab.
thicker boundary layers on moving com-
ponents such as blades, impellers and
stationary components, and thus reduce
the flow capacity. Changes in the flow
capacity of the rotating machine will sub-
sequently alter the operating point. Cor-
rosion and erosion will affect total perfor-
mance of the steam turbine.
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
occurs in areas subjected to high stress
and when corrosive ions are present.
Blade root fastenings, where corrosive
compounds can accumulate between
the blade root and the wheel, are very
susceptible to SCC. As the fleet of
U.S. steam turbines gets older, plant
operators are discovering SCC in many
of their LP turbine rotors. Solutions
include:
t Removal of the first stage blading
t Weld repair
t Installation of new rotors
t Complete upgrade of the steam path
t Longshanking
The aerodynamic performance of the
steam turbine blade is crucial to achiev-
ing acceptable performance. Turbine
The most common problem with aging coal-fired units involves
erosion of the steam turbine’s blade path. More efficient blading will
increase the steam output and improve the unit’s overall heat rate.
1405pe_59 59 5/9/14 11:07 AM
www.power-eng.com
60
examines the recent development of
an intelligent system to provide au-
tomation for water/steam chemistry
monitoring and chemical feed control.
As with any process, some human in-
teraction is always required, but the
technology outlined below offers
plant operators and engineers a much-
increased comfort level when it comes
to dealing with the sometimes very
complex issue of water/steam chemis-
try and proper treatment. The rewards
are improved system performance and
reliability, and bottom-line.
A BRIEF REVIEW OF
WATER/STEAM CHEMISTRY
FUNDAMENTALS
The primary material of construc-
tion for condensate/feedwater piping,
economizers and boiler waterwall tubes
is mild carbon steel. Carbon steel will
suffer from general corrosion in either
acidic or strongly basic conditions. Thus,
steam generators are typically operated
in a mildly alkaline environment, with a
condensate/feedwater pH range of 9.2 to
9.6, and a boiler water pH range of typi-
cally 9.0 to 9.8 depending upon the de-
sired chemistry. The recommended con-
densate/feedwater program for today’s
steam generators consists of ammonia or
perhaps an amine feed to maintain pH
within the desired range. Oxygen scav-
engers are not recommended unless the
feedwater system contains copper-alloy
feedwater heater tubes, as this chemistry
induces the potential for flow-accelerated
corrosion (FAC). FAC-induced failures
have killed a number of plant personnel
in the last three decades, with many other
units, including HRSGs, suffering from
severe FAC issues.
For boiler water control, EPRI’s phos-
phate continuum program is still the
most popular choice, in which only tri-
sodium phosphate (Na
3
PO
4
) is utilized,
with perhaps a bit of caustic (NaOH) at
unit startup if the boiler water pH is be-
low 9. Some plant chemists solely use
caustic for boiler water pH control, but in
either case, the free caustic concentration
must be maintained below 1 part-per-
million (ppm) to minimize the potential
for under-deposit caustic corrosion.
Complicating any water/steam chem-
istry program is the potential for contam-
inant introduction from such sources as
leaking condenser tubes, a malfunction-
ing makeup water treatment system or
contaminated chemical feed. Even small
condenser tube leaks will introduce very
problematic impurities, such as chloride,
to condensate. Impurities can then con-
centrate under deposits and in crevices
in the boiler to cause pitting, hydrogen
damage, crevice corrosion and corrosion
fatigue.
In addition to these difficulties,
poor chemistry control of condensate/
A
century-plus of steam-
generated power pro-
duction has shown the
importance of water
and steam chemistry.
Just one boiler tube failure in a con-
ventional unit or heat recovery steam
generator (HRSG) can cost a power
producer many thousands of dollars in
lost production and materials replace-
ment. Some failures have even caused
fatalities, which is the ultimate price.
Yet at many plants, and especially new
facilities, the philosophy is to operate
with minimal staff. Often, operators
handle many of the technical duties
at the plant including makeup water
production and water/steam chemistry
monitoring. But even small chemistry
upsets, if chronic or undetected, can
cause major problems in high-tem-
perature steam generators. This article
An Intelligent
System for
Improved Water/
Steam Chemistry
Control and
Plant Reliability
BRAD BUECKER AND DAN MCGEE, KIEWIT POWER ENGINEERS
A modern sample panel arrangement. Photo courtesy:
Swan Analytical Instruments
1405pe_60 60 5/9/14 11:08 AM
Covering every aspect of the power generation industry, POWER-GEN International, NUCLEAR POWER International, Renewable Energy
World Conference & Expo North America, POWER-GEN International Financial Forum and the GenForum converge in 2014 to form Power
Generation Week. Beneft from fve days packed with pre-conference workshops, technical tours, over 70 conference sessions, panel
discussions, three exhibition days and multiple networking events. Gain access to nearly every facet of the market – all under one roof.
Learn more at www.powergenerationweek.com
>> DECEMBER 7-11, 2014 >> ORANGE COUNTY CONVENTION CENTER, WEST HALLS >>
>> ORLANDO, FL, USA >> WWW.POWERGENERATIONWEEK.COM >>
Owned & Produced by Presented by Supported by
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 34
1405pe_61 61 5/9/14 11:08 AM
www.power-eng.com
62
chemistry control and chemical feed
in a steam generator.
In today’s climate, where capital
funds may be tight, plant designers of-
ten cannot select a sample panel and
system with all of these analyses. The
following discussion outlines the most
important on-line analyses, and why
they are so important.
CONDENSATE
PUMP DISCHARGE
The condensate pump discharge
(CPD) is a critical monitoring point, as
steam surface condensers are the most
likely source for major contamination.
Condenser tube leaks on unpolished
systems have been known to cause
boiler tube failures within days, some-
times even hours.
Recommended on-line analyses are:
Core On-Line
t Degasified Cation Conductivity
(D.C.C.)
t Sodium
t Dissolved Oxygen (D.O.)
Degasified cation conductivity is a
method to quickly detect contaminant
in-leakage from failed condenser tubes.
In drum-type steam generators, the cat-
ion conductivity should be maintained at
less than 0.2 µS/cm.
Sodium monitoring is an excellent
and recommended complement to
D.C.C. In a condenser with no leaking
tubes, sodium levels in the condensate
should be very low (<3 ppb), and in
many cases less than 1 ppb.
Dissolved oxygen analyses are impor-
tant for monitoring air in-leakage to the
condenser. Ideally, if the condenser air
removal system is operating at maximum
feedwater and boiler water can lead
to carryover or direct introduction of
impurities to steam. Contaminants
such as silica, chloride and sulfate
may cause scale formation in the tur-
bine, or induce pitting, stress corrosion
cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue
in turbine blades and rotors.
Additional information regarding the
extreme importance of proper chemistry
monitoring and control may be found
in many references, but the heart of this
discussion outlines technology that can
guide operators and technical personnel
along the correct path.
STATE-OF-THE-ART
MONITORING
Figure 1 shows a list of the most
important parameters in which on-
line monitoring provides for proper
Source:
Core Parameter X Optional Parameter O
Sample Point
p
H
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
D
e
g
a
s
s
e
d

C
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
D
i
s
s
o
l
v
e
d

O
x
y
g
e
n
S
o
d
i
u
m
O
R
P
C
h
l
o
r
i
d
e
I
r
o
n

a
n
d

C
o
p
p
e
r

(
i
f

p
r
e
s
e
n
t
)
C
a
r
r
y

O
v
e
r
S
u
l
f
a
t
e
S
i
l
i
c
a
P
h
o
s
p
h
a
t
e
A
m
m
o
n
i
a
T
o
t
a
l

O
r
g
a
n
i
c

C
a
r
b
o
n
Main Steam or Reheat Steam - - X - X - X1 - - O O - - O
Saturated Steam - - - - - - - - X
2
O - - -
Boiler Blow Down or Drum X X X - X - X - X
2
O O O
4
O -
Boiler Downcomer - - - X
5
- - - O - - - - - -
Economizer Inlet X X X X X - - X
7
- - - - O -
Deaerator Inlet - - - - - X
6
- X
7
- - - - - -
Condenser Polisher Effluent - - X - X - O - - O O
Condensate Pump Discharge X X - X
8
X
9
- O X
7
- O O - O O
HP/LP Heater Drains O O O O - O - X
7
- - - - - -
Condenser Leak Trays - - - - O - - - - - - - - -
Condensate Storage Tank - O O O - - - - - - - -
EPRI Core and Optional Monitoring
1
Check daily or weekly
2
Check every three to six months
3
Not applicable for once-through units
4
Only relevant for PT
5
Only core for drum units on OT
6
Only core for mixed metallurgy on AVT(R)
7
Check EI at least weekly, every six months check all
feedwater/condensate sample points
8
For units with pump forward LP Heater Drains, DO
monitoring of the DAI is core
9
Not applicable for units with Air Cooled Condensers
Red Highlight indicates grab sample analyses
1405pe_62 62 5/9/14 11:08 AM
TM
OWNED &
PRODUCED BY: PRESENTED BY:
TM TM
A U G U S T 2 0 – 2 2 , 2 0 1 4 | N A S H V I L L E , T E N N E S S E E
MU S I C C I T Y C E N T E R , H A L L B
WWW. C OA L - G E N . C O M
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 35
1405pe_63 63 5/9/14 11:08 AM
www.power-eng.com
64
conductivity and sodium supplement the
condensate pump discharge analyses to
ensure that excessive impurities are not
reaching the steam generator. It is also
important to ensure that impurities are
not being introduced to main and reheat
steam via attemperator sprays.
Iron sampling is quite important to
ensure that the chemical treatment pro-
gram is operating effectively. Ideally, the
iron concentration should remain below
2 ppb.
An emerging trend in the industry is
use of online particulate monitoring to
keep track of steel corrosion and iron ox-
ide transport to the steam generator. For
those units with copper-alloy feedwater
heater tubes in which an oxygen scav-
enger/metal passivator is required, the
combination of iron and copper analy-
ses are quite important to control feed of
the reducing agent.
efficiency, dissolved oxygen levels should
be below 10 ppb. A sudden increase in
dissolved oxygen may indicate a problem
at or near the condenser, which allows
excess air, including carbon dioxide, to
enter the system. Condensers may have
as many as 400 penetrations, so the po-
tential for air in-leakage is great.
FEEDWATER/
ECONOMIZER INLET
Feedwater chemistry can have a sig-
nificant impact on boiler operation for
several reasons. First, excessive feedwa-
ter contamination will reduce the boiler
cycles of concentration and require in-
creased blowdown. Second, improper
control of feedwater chemistry may cause
corrosion of feedwater piping and heat
exchanger tubes, which will introduce
iron oxide particles and copper corrosion
products to the boiler. Third, in many
steam-generating systems feedwater is
sprayed into main and reheat steam for
temperature control. Contaminants are
directly introduced to the superheater
and turbine via spray attemperation.
Recommended feedwater analyses
include:
Core On-Line
t pH
t Dissolved Oxygen
t Specific Conductivity
t Degassed Cation Conductivity
t Iron (particulate)
t Sodium
The optimum feedwater pH for sys-
tems containing mixed copper and iron
metallurgy is 9.0 to 9.3, while for strictly
iron-based systems the range is higher at
9.2 to 9.6. The pH is controlled by ammo-
nia feed, which in turn is typically con-
trolled by specific conductivity.
Measurement of degassed cation
HRSG Schematic
Makeup
System
Deaerator (DA)
DA Pump
Legend
Preheater
LP Drum
LP Blowdown
pH
S.C.
D.C.C.
Phos
pH
S.C.
D.C.C.
Phos
pH
S.C.
D.C.C.
Phos
Economizer
D.C.C
Sodium
D.C.C
Sodium
D.C.C
Sodium
LP SH Steam
IP SH Steam IP SH Steam
Steam Injection to CT (if used)
HP SH Steam
FW Pump
IP Drum
IP Blowdown HP Blowdown
Superheat
or
Reheat
pH
Diss Oxygen
S.C.
D.C.C.
Sodium
HP Drum
Reheater
Attemperation
Water
Steam
from IP
(if used)
Combustion
turbine
Crossover
IP HP
Steam turbine
CT exhaust
LP
Condensate
Storage
Condensate
Pump
D.C.C.
Sodium
Diss Oxygen
1405pe_64 64 5/9/14 11:08 AM
Orange County Convention Center – West Halls // Orlando, Fl // www.renewableenergyworld-events.com
REGISTER BY OCTOBER 6 AND SAVE $105
Register @ RenewableEnergyWorld-events.com
We’re breaking out of the vertical energy mindset and dividing up
the renewable energy market by size, application and region.

Large-scale Renewables Track: covering baseload and multi-
megawatt-scale renewable energy projects and applications

Distributed Generation Track: looks at smaller commercial and
behind-the-meter applications of renewable energy

Utility Integration Track: covers all permitting and interconnection
issues – including integrating energy storage with renewables, net-
metering, and more

Renewables and the Global Market Track: examining how
renewables are impacting emerging markets and how they are
solving energy issues worldwide

Innovative Energy Partnerships Track: looking at how renewable
energy and fossil fuels can work together
December 9–11, 2014
NEW FOR 2014!
Owned &
Produced by
Presented by Supported by Media Sponsor
5 EVENTS + 5 DAYS
www.powergenerationweek.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 36
1405pe_65 65 5/9/14 11:08 AM
www.power-eng.com
66
Although EPRI lists silica as an option-
al analysis, it could easily be placed in the
core analysis category.
Silica must be held below pressure-
dependent limits, as silica will vaporize,
carry over with steam, and precipitate in
the turbine.
This effect becomes dramatic as pres-
sure increases. For example, in a 900
psi boiler the recommended maximum
drum water silica concentration is 2.8
ppm. In a 2,400 psi boiler, the recom-
mended maximum is 0.21 ppm. Boiler
water silica readings, and also those of
other impurities, can be compared to
steam sample analyses, as described
below, to determine threshold limits
of boiler water impurity concentra-
tions.
MAIN AND REHEAT STEAM
Main and reheat steam analyses indi-
cate not only what impurities exist due to
carryover from the boiler water, but also
those impurities introduced via spray at-
temperators.
For new units, the primary sampling
criteria is cation conductivity, where a
common turbine manufacturer limit for
warranty issues is ≤0.2 µS/cm.
Recommended analyses include:
Core On-Line
t Degassed Cation Conductivity
t Sodium
Optional On-Line
t Silica
Although silica is shown as an op-
tional parameter, it is the authors’ be-
lief that it belongs in the core parame-
ter category. The recommended limit is
≤10 ppb, as silica in higher concentra-
tions can precipitate on turbine blades
and influence the aerodynamics of the
turbine.
Sodium is a measurement that is
typically utilized to track mechanical
carryover of impurities in the steam.
Now, the topic turns to a core con-
cept of this article, discussion of a
method to maximize the ability of
plant personnel to monitor chemistry
and to provide, within practical limits,
automatic chemical feed and control.
AUTOMATED
DATA EVALUATION
A key to the successful implementa-
tion and operation of the chemistry
monitoring and chemical feed systems
is ensuring that the data is acted upon
promptly to prevent chemistry upsets
and to keep conditions within proper
control parameters.
The system that is being developed is
designed to accept continuous on-line
readings and, via algorithms incorpo-
rated into the plant distributed control
system (DCS), perform several functions.
First, a properly designed system will pro-
vide continuous, real-time readouts of
system chemistry from the condensate/
feedwater system through the boiler,
superheater and into the steam turbine.
This data gives operators and technical
personnel instantaneous access to com-
plete steam generator conditions.
Figure 2 shows a basic schematic of a
three-pressure HRSG with analytical data
displays that can be readily incorporated
into DCS logic and displayed on screens
in the control room and anywhere else
throughout the plant.
This represents only part of the solu-
tion. All systems can be configured to im-
mediately alarm plant personnel if any
sample exceeds recommended chemistry
guidelines.
In many cases, chemistry excursions
may be minor and easily correctable.
However, some alarms are vital.
If boiler water pH drops below 8.0,
immediate unit shutdown is necessary
unless an error is discovered in the in-
strument.
If condensate pump discharge de-
gassed cation conductivity and sodium
on rise above normal limits of 0.2 µS/
cm and 3 parts-per-billion (ppb), re-
spectively, unit shutdown within four
hours may be required. (Such readings
indicate a major condenser tube leak, in
BOILER WATER
Along with condensate pump dis-
charge, the boiler water sample is the
most important of all, especially for
drum-type units. This is due to high
temperatures and the concentrating ef-
fect caused by recirculation of the boiler
water.
These factors greatly influence poten-
tial corrosion and scaling mechanisms.
Furthermore, high concentrations of
dissolved solids in the boiler water can
introduce excessive contaminants to the
steam, where they may form deposits
and/or corrode superheater tubes and
turbine components.
Recommended boiler water analyses
include:
Core On-Line
t pH
t Specific Conductivity
t Degassed Cation Conductivity
t Phosphate (for those units on phos-
phate treatment)
Optional On-Line
t Silica
The most important analysis is pH.
It must be maintained within a fairly
narrow range (typically 9.0 to 10.0) to
prevent corrosion. This measurement is
the one criteria that, if the reading drops
below 8.0, calls for immediate unit shut-
down, provided the value is accurate and
not caused by instrument error. A sud-
den drop in pH, most likely preceded by
a sudden rise in CPD cation conductiv-
ity and sodium, is a quick indicator of a
condenser tube leak. Also, pH analyses
combined with those of phosphate and
ammonia (typically by grab sampling)
can provide a direct indication if the
phosphate treatment program is with-
in guidelines.
Specific and degassed cation con-
ductivity analyses provide direct indi-
cation of the amount of impurities in
the boiler water, and with some math-
ematical manipulation can be utilized
to calculate the concentration of the
harmful corrosive agents sulfate and
particularly chloride. CONTINUED ON PAGE 71
1405pe_66 66 5/9/14 11:08 AM
S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

|

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M

www.power-eng.com
67
S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

|

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M

www.power-eng.com
67
Why Should You
Filter Your Water?
2óZ2 5 Io Cienego ßlvd, Ios Angeles, CA º0034 U5A
(800) 22ó·Tº42 (3T0) 83º·2828 Fo× (3T0) 83º·ó8Z8
www.|ekleen.com inlo©|ekleen.com
The Best Engineered Water
Filteration Solution Always
Costs Less
Scale formation reduces the heat
transfer rate and increases the water
pressure drop through the heat
exchanger and pipe. Dirty water is also
causing to unscheduled shut down for
maintenance for cleaning and replacing,
pump seals, packing, shaft, turbine,
spraying nozzles and many more. The
Tekleen filter is a proven and working
solution.
Automatic Filters Cooling Tower Fill
Polork ollers a lull-line ol eleclric and
pneumalic damper conlrol solulions lor lhe
isolalion and conlrol ol combuslion air and
llue gas. Our producls improve lhe elliciency
and reliabilily ol large and small boilers,
lurnaces, process healers and olher
demanding processes while minimizing
emissions and reducing inslallalion cosls.
Polork is a markel leader in valve aulomalion
and llow conlrol wilh lhousands ol successlul
damper-drive inslallalions worldwide.
ih!o©roIork.com 585 247 2304

Damper Drive Solutions
SOLVAir Solutions was formed
to help customers address the
problems of SO
X
, HCl and other
stack emissions, as well as help
with the changing EPA regulations.
SOLVAir Solutions is the market
leader in providing sodium
sorbents for use in DSI systems.
Access our brochure on our
Library page at www.solvair.us
Contact Rosemary Dunn
ardunadv@gmail.com
713.521.7450
Emission Control
m
s
TM
DuPont™ Krytox
®
Oils and Greases.
These high-performance fluorinated lubri-
cants are derivatives of Teflon
®
and offer the
following advantages: Chemically inert. Wide
temperature range (-103°F to 800°F).
Compatible with plastics, rubber, ceramics, &
metals. Nonflammable. Insoluable in com-
mon solvents. No silicones or hydrocarbons.
Krytox
®
is applied to gearboxes, dampers,
ductwork valves, steam valves, gaskets,
seals, compressors, bearings, boilers,
pumps, and Turbine Auxiliary systems.
For more information and sample call
800.992.2424 or 203.743.4447
DuPont
TM
Krytox
®
Channel Partner Since 1991
Krytox Fluorinated Lubricants
®
supportPE@mschem.com
www.miller-stephenson.com
DuPont™ Krytox®
POWER PLANT
Demolition, Environmental Remediation,
Decommissioning, Retrofitting
(800) 932-2869 | www.brandenburg.com
Brandenburg
®
Brandenburg is the premier demolition and
environmental remediation contractor for
power plant decommissioning and retrofit-
ting. Brandenburg services utility companies
throughout the U.S. by performing demo-
lition and repurposing projects ranging from
selective removal of obsolete equipment
to complete closure of power plant facilities.
Demolition/Decommissioning
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#300 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#302 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#301
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#305
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#304
1405pe_67 67 5/9/14 11:08 AM
S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M



|

S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E
www.power-eng.com
68 68
S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M



|

S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E
The stainless steel housed FLUXUS
7407.316SE gas and liquid clamp-on flow
meter allows for an inherently precise
bi-directional, highly dynamic flow
measurement of volume and mass flow
rates of virtually any gaseous and liquid
media.
FLEXIM Americas
salesus@flexim.com
Flowmeter, Clamp-on
The global language of insulation
is now written in stone.
Introducing ProRox
®
and SeaRox
®
The new Gl obal assor t ment f or
Per f or mance Dr i ven Sol ut i ons
Unlock the future of insulation at:
www.roxul.com | 800.265.6878
Insulation: High Temperature
S
o
l
u
t
i
o
n

f
o
r

E
x
i
s
t
i
n
g

&
E
v
o
l
v
i
n
g

E
n
e
r
g
y

N
e
e
d
s
f
o
r

a
n
d

i
n

t
h
e

A
m
e
r
i
c
a
s
N
O
W
w
w
w
.
m
h
p
o
w
e
r
s
y
s
t
e
m
s
.
c
o
m
Power Systems
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#306
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#308
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#307
Industry Leading Program for the
Design, Estimating & Planning of Scaffold
Brand Energy & Infrastructure Services creates
exceptional value for its clients through
BrandNet™, its state of the art scaffold scoping,
estimating, materials management and planning
tool. BrandNet™ utilizes a computer aided design
approach to typical or non-typical scaffolds,
providing clients 2D and 3D drawings, budgets,
bill of materials, Gantt chart schedules, resource
loading and more.
Visit www.beis.com or email info@beis.com
Scaffolding System
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#309
Silo and Bin
Cleaning Services
and Equipment
Call 800-322-6653
or visit
www.molemaster.com
Silo and Bin Cleaning Sevices
CONDENSER TUBE CLEANING & MAINTENANCE
Conco’s 2014 Catalog showcases our
complete line of products and services for
the Power Generation Industry, highlighting
our unique and exclusive technologies for
Condenser Tube Cleaning, Non-destructive
Testing and Leak Detection Services. Call to-
day to request a catalog 1-800-345-3476 or
visit us online at www.concosystems.com.
Tube Cleaning & Maintenance
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#310
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#311
1405pe_68 68 5/9/14 11:08 AM
S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

|

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M

www.power-eng.com
69
S
U
P
P
L
I
E
R

S

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

|

S
H
O
W
C
A
S
E

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M

69
PARTS | SERVICES | REPAIRS
Mechanical Dynamics & Analysis
19 British American Blvd. | Latham, NY 12110
ph.518-399-3616 | www.MDAturbines.com
For over three decades Mechanical Dynamics & Analysis has
proudly offered a vast range of products and services for power
generators. We provide complete project management, overhaul
and reconditioning of your rotating equipment, as well as, parts
solutions.
POWERFUL
SOLUTIONS
ONE CALL
ONE SOURCE
Turbine-Generator Repair
REMARKABLY
SIMPLE
TIER 4 FINAL READY
PROVEN SCR TECHNOLOGY
NO DPF REQUIRED
NO DOC REQUIRED
NO REGENERATION NECESSARY
DE-TIER CAPABILITY
WWW.VOLVOPENTA.COM
1.757.436.2800
Volvo Engines
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#312 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#313
Light up your
ad with a little
COLOR!
Call Jenna Hall
at 918-832-9249
ESI Boi l er Rent al s, LLC
RENTAL EQUIPMENT
- Rental Boilers - Economizers - Deaerator Systems - Water Softener Systems -
24/7 On-Call Service
1-800-990-0374
w w w . r e n t a l b o i l e r s . c o m
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 450
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 451
REACH YOUR
AUDIENCE
ADVERTISE your career opportunities,
equipment, services, and training
programs in Power Engineering’s
Classifed Section.
GET RESULTS
Put your message in front of North
America’s most qualifed circulation with
Power Engineering’s classifeds.
CALL NOW FOR DETAILS:
JENNA HALL
Phone: 918.832.9249
Email: jennah@pennwell.com
1405pe_69 69 5/9/14 11:08 AM
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M


|

C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
S
Add some
COLOR!
Call Jenna Hall
at 918-832-9249
WE ARE
BUYING!!!
ARE YOU SELLING?
VALVES
INSTRUMENTATION
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS
PROCESS EQUIPMENT
PROCESS CONTROLS
PLANT MACHINERY
PSA SNUBBERS, ETC.
VISIT
www.FerncroftManagement.com
email:vavlebuyer@ferncroftmanagement.com
T. 978-815.6185 Fax. 603-814.1031
Ferncroft
Management,LLC
LIMITORQUE OPERATORS WANTED
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 452
24 / 7 EMERGENCY SERVICE
BOILERS
20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr.
DIESEL & TURBINE GENERATORS
50 - 25,000 KW
GEARS & TURBINES
25 - 4000 HP
LARGEST INVENTORIES OF:
Air Pre-Heaters • Economizers • Deaerators
Pumps • Motors • Fuel Oil Heating & Pump Sets
Valves • Tubes • Controls • Compressors
Pulverizers • Rental Boilers & Generators
847-541-5600 FAX: 847-541-1279
visit www.wabashpower.com
FOR SALE/RENT
POWER
EQUIPMENT CO.
444 Carpenter Avenue, Wheeling, IL 60090
wabash
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 454
CONDENSER & HEAT EXCHANGER TOOLS
CLEANERS, PLUGS, BRUSHES
John R Robinson Inc
PH # 800-726-1026
e-mail: jrrinc@earthlink.net
www.johnrrobinsoninc.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 457
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 458
GEORGE H. BODMAN, INC.
Chemical cleaning advisory services for
boilers and balance of plant systems
George H. Bodman
Pres / Technical Advisor
P.O. Box 5758 Office (281) 359-4006
Kingwood, TX 77325-5758 1-800-286-6069
email: blrclgdr@aol.com Fax (281) 359-4225
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 455
CHEAP
SOLAR POWER
24/7 412-244-1896
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 456
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 453
Burner Management
System Logic Review
Exothermic Engineering, LLC
Complete BMS Services
We are also experts at solving ancillary
problems with flame scanners, igniters
and other BMS I/O equipment.
Begin with a conference call
No cost, No obligation.
Call Bill Smith:
Has your Burner Management System
been reviewed for compliance with
current NFPA code?
The Code is revised approximately
every 4 yrs, and our staff of NFPA 85
experts has performed more BMS
reviews than anyone.
Our staff actively maintain seats on key
NFPA 85 technical committees,
averaging over 30 yrs of experience.
·ßH8 |nterna| Log|c Rev|ews and 0es|gn
·ßH8 Externa| 6omponent & w|r|ng
Log|c Rev|ews
·ßH8 troub|eshoot|ng, startup and check
out services
·ßH8 purchas|ng spec|f|cat|on deve|opment
and contract administration
Exothermic Engineering, LLC
(816) 415-8888
www.ExoEng.com
1405pe_70 70 5/9/14 11:08 AM
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D
S

|

C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
E
D

A
D
V
E
R
T
I
S
I
N
G

C
O
N
T
A
C
T

J
E
N
N
A

H
A
L
L
:

9
1
8
-
8
3
2
-
9
2
4
9
,

J
E
N
N
A
H
@
P
E
N
N
W
E
L
L
.
C
O
M

Tur bine Controls
Woodward, GE, MHC
Parts and Service
Obsolete Parts Inventory
Control System, Modernization
Training, Troubleshooting
(610) 631-3480
www.turbogen.net
info@turbogen.net
TurboGen Consultants, Inc.
Get a thorough mix with:
Pugmill Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 60
Columbia, TN 38402 USA
Ph: 931-388-0626 Fax: 931-380-0319
www.pugmillsystems.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 459
1319 Macklind Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110
Ph: (314) 781-6100 / Fax: (314) 781-9209
www.ampulverizer.com / E-Mail: sales@ampulverizer.com
Quality and Service Since 1908
Ring Granulators, Reversible Hammermills,
Double Roll Crushers, Frozen Coal Crackers
for crushing coal, limstone and slag.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 460
CONDENSER OR GENERATOR AIR COOLER TUBE PLUGS
THE CONKLIN SHERMAN COMPANY, INC.
Easy to install, saves time and money.
ADJUSTABLE PLUGS - all rubber with brass insert.
Expand it, install it, reverse action for tight fit.
PUSH PULL PLUGS - are all rubber, simply push it in.
Sizes 0.530 O.D. to 2.035 O.D.
Tel: (203) 881-0190 Fax: (203) 881-0178
E-mail: Conklin59@aol.com www.conklin-sherman.com
Just Plugging Along
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 461
Get a BoiIer RentaI Quote within one hour at
www.wareinc.com/equipment or caII 800-228-8861
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 462
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 464
For sale or rent
The world’s very
best portable end
prep tools and
abrasive saws
800-343-6926
www.escotool.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 463

readings are invalid due to an instrument
error. Also, in some cases, multiple in-
strument readings can be integrated into
chemistry evaluations. For example, if
boiler pH begins to rapidly decrease, the
primary reason would be cooling water
in-leakage at the condenser or malfunc-
tion of the makeup water treatment sys-
tem. If the condensate pump discharge
cation conductivity and sodium moni-
tors indicate no contamination, the pH
meter is almost certainly in error.
AUTOMATED CHEMICAL
FEED CONTROL
As the initial discussion outlined,
for utility steam generators the primary
chemical feeds are ammonia or an amine
for pH control in the condensate/feedwa-
ter system and tri-sodium phosphate (or
in some cases caustic) for boiler water pH
conditioning. The standard technique
for ammonia feed is to calibrate the feed
control based on specifc conductivity
readings, which are very straightforward
and reliable. Much more complicated is
control of the tri-sodium phosphate feed.
Drum boilers, by their very nature, “cycle
up” impurities, even when they enter in
trace amounts. These impurities typically
will include chlorides, which can be very
detrimental if not properly controlled by
chemistry.
Furthermore, any ammonia that en-
ters the boiler will infuence the pH of
cooled samples, but has little effect at the
temperatures in the boiler. However, al-
gorithms have been developed that allow
for accurate calculation of system chemis-
try, and subsequent chemical feed, based
on standard on-line readings including,
specifc and degassed cation conductiv-
ity, pH, and phosphate.
The upshot is that this technology can
incorporate chemical feed capabilities
into the monitoring and data display
functions to provide as much as possible
a complete, automated system.
which the impurities can rapidly cause
hydrogen damage and other corrosion in
the steam generator.)
Excursions in main or reheat steam
chemistry can indicate one of several
serious problems including failed drum
moisture separators, excessive fring, or
poor boiler water chemistry control.
INSTRUMENTATION CAPA-
BILITIES
The revolution in electronics over the
last several decades has not been lost in
the analytical chemistry feld. Instru-
ments now can detect impurities at ex-
tremely low concentrations, and reliabil-
ity is much improved.
Furthermore, many instruments have
self-diagnostic capabilities. This can be
extremely important. Consider the most
critical case, in which unit shutdown is
called for if the boiler water pH drops
below 8. A self-diagnostic pH meter can
alert plant technical personnel if the
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 66
– An Intelligent System for Improved Water/Steam Chemistry Control and Plant Reliability
www.power-eng.com
71
1405pe_71 71 5/9/14 11:08 AM
www.power-eng.com
72
INDEX
RS# COMPANY PG# SALES OFFICE RS# COMPANY PG#
1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-835-3161, Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: pe@pennwell.com
Sr. Vice President North
American Power Group

Richard Baker
Reprints

Foster Printing Servive
4295 Ohio Street
Michigan City, IN 46360
Phone: 866-879-9144
e-mail: pennwellreprint@fosterprinting.com
National Brand Manager

Rick Huntzicker
Palladian Professional Park
3225 Shallowford Rd., Suite 800
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone: 770-578-2688, Fax: 770-578-2690
e-mail: rickh@pennwell.com
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO,
MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Brand Sales Manager

Dan Idoine
806 Park Village Drive
Louisville, OH 44641
Phone: 330-875-6581, Fax: 330-875-4462
e-mail: dani@pennwell.com
CT, DE, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY,
OH, PA, RI, VT, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Ontario
International Sales Manager

Natasha Cole
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, Texas 77027
Phone: 713.499.6311; Fax: 713.963.6284
e-mail: natashac@pennwell.com
AK, AZ,CA,CO,HI,IA,MN,MT,ND,NE,NM,NV,
OK,OR,SD,UT,WA,WI,WY,AB,BC,SK, Manitoba,
Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory
International Sales Mgr

Anthony Orfeo
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 609, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: anthonyo@pennwell.com
Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe,
Middle East, South America
European Sales

Asif Yusuf
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 631, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: asify@pennwell.com
Europe and Middle East
Classifieds/Literature Showcase


Account Executive

Jenna Hall
1421 S. Sheridan Rd.
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-832-9249, Fax: 918-831-9834
email: jennah@pennwell.com
38 ProEnergy Services LLC C4
www.proenergyservices.com
36 Renewable Energy 65
World Conference
www.renewableenergyworld-
events.com
37 RES Americas Inc C3
www.res-americas.com
3 Robinson Fans 5
www.robinsonfans.com
15 Rolls Royce 27
Energy Systems
www.rolls-royce.com
18 Roxul Inc 31
www.roxul.com
30 Structural Integrity 53
Associates
www.structint.com/power-eng
7 Sulzer Turbo Services 12-13
www.sulzer.com
9 Terrasource Global 17
www.terrasource.com
31 TMEIC 55
www.tmeic.com
24 United Rentals Inc 41
www.unitedrentals.com/futures
26 Universal Acoustic 45
& Emission Technologies
www.universalaet.com
14 Victory Energy 26
Operations LLC
www.victoryenergy.com
20 Volvo Penta of 34
the Americas
www.volvopenta.com/industrial
2 Westinghouse Electric Co 3
1 Zeeco Inc C2
www.zeeco.com
Advertisers and advertising agencies
assume liability for all contents (includ-
ing text representation and illustrations)
of advertisements printed, and also as-
sume responsibility for any claims aris-
ing therefrom made against the pub-
lisher. It is the advertiser’s or agency’s
responsibility to obtain appropriate
releases on any items or individuals pic-
tured in the advertisement.
12 Aegion 23
www.fibrwrap.com
www.corrpro.com
6 Amec E&C Serv 11
www.amec.com/power
11 AREVA INC. 21
www.us.areva.com
13 Asco Valve 25
www.ascovalve.com/rightnow
23 Buckman 39
www.buckman.com
10 CB&I 19
www.cbi.com
35 COALGEN 2014 63
www.coal-gen.com
29 Dresser-Rand 51
www.dresser-rand.com
25 Elster 43
www.elster-instromet.com
8 Fluor Corp 15
www.fluor.com
17 GE 29
www.ge-mcs.com
28 Hydratight 49
www.hydratight.com
33 IMI Sensors 59
www.imi-sensors.com/
NOxreduction
16 JASC Jansens Aircraft 28
Systems Controls Inc
www.jasc-controls.com
21 Kiewit Power Inc 35
www.kiewit.com
27 Lapeyreb Stair 47
www.lapeyrestair.com
4 Mitsubishi Power 6-7
Systems Americas, Inc.
www.mhpowersystems.com
32 Nord-Lock Inc 57
www.superbolt.com
5 Nuscale Power Inc 9
www.nuscalepower.com
22 Orion Instruments 37
www.orioninstruments.com
34 Power Generation Week 61
www.powergenerationweek.com
19 POWER-GEN International 33
www.power-gen.com
1405pe_72 72 5/9/14 11:08 AM
Renewable Energy Systems Americas Inc.
11101 W. 120th Ave. | Suite 400
eld, CO 80021 | 303.439.4200
res-americas.com
99MW Greenwich Wind Project
Powering Change
DEVELOPMENT | ENGINEERING
Since 1997, RES Americas has been providing solutions
to the North American renewable energy, transmission,
and energy storage industries.
Experience
Wind and Solar: Construction portfolio of >7,000 MW,
of which:
3,300 MW developed by RES
5,000 MW built for utilities
3,900 MW constructed for third-parties
Transmission: 534 miles of lines built (up to 345kV).
Energy Storage: 8 MW (16 MW range) constructed/
under construction & 100 MW in development.
Services
- Dperate and maintain 260 MW of utility-scale
renewable energy and energy storage projects.
- Customized development, ñnancing, engineering,
construction, and operations solutions tailored to meet
the unique needs of our clients.
...............
Committed to everyone going home safe, every day.
CONSTRUCTION | OPERATIONS
4 MW Ohio Energy Storage Project
Please visit us at these events:
WINDPOWER 2014 in Las Vegas
May 5-8 – Booth #4629
APPA’s National Conference in Denver
June 13-18 – Booth #807
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 37
1405pe_C3 3 5/9/14 11:08 AM
Industry-leading
SPEED
Unmatched
FLEXIBILITY
Proven
EXPERTISE
US Corporate Office | 660.829.5100
proenergyservices.com
Providing innovative service
and equipment solutions
to the Power Generation
industry worldwide.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 38
1405pe_C4 4 5/9/14 11:08 AM
ORGANIZATIONAL INSIGHTS
Military Friendly Energy
Industry Employers
For t he i ndus t r y ’ s c ar eer - mi nded pr of e s s i onal s SPRING 2014
A suppl ement t o PennWel l publ i c at i ons | www. PennEner g yJ OBS. c om
Bridging the Gap:
Women in Energy
Energy to Serve: Veterans
find new direction in
the energy industry
Attracting and Retaining
Women in Oil and
Gas Engineering
TRAINING INSIGHTS:
1404PEJEW_C1 1 4/21/14 2:20 PM
1404PEJEW_C2 2 4/21/14 2:20 PM
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
2 EDITOR’S LETTER
Women and Veterans in Energy
Hilton Price, PennWell
3 Bridging the Gap: Women in Energy
Dorothy Davis Ballard, PennWell
6 Attracting and Retaining Women in
Oil and Gas Engineering
By Neil Tregarthen, NES Global Talent
8 Women in Energy Spotlight: Christi Gell
10 Women in Energy Q&A: Sarah Cridland
12 TRAINING INSIGHTS
Energy to Serve: Veterans find new
direction in the energy industry
Hilton Price, PennWell
16 ORGANIZATIONAL INSIGHTS
Military Friendly Energy Industry Employers
PennEnergy.com
18 INDUSTRY INSIGHTS
Employee Innovations Address Environmental
Concerns of CO2 Storage and Carbon Ash
Dan Patel & Gerry Klemm, Southern Company
w w w . P e n n E n e r g y J O B S . c o m
SPRING 2014
A PENNWELL PUBLI CATI ON
Dorothy Davis Ballard, Content Director
dorothyd@pennwell.com
Hilton Price, Editor
hiltonp@pennwell.com
Cindy Chamberlin, Art Director
cindyc@pennwell.com
Daniel Greene, Production Manager
danielg@Pennwell.com
Tommie Grigg,
Audience Development Manager
tommieg@pennwell.com

PennWell Corporation
1421 South Sheridan Road
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74112
918 835 3161
PennWell.com
Recruitment Advertising Sales:
Courtney Noonkester
Sales Manager
918 831 9558
courtneyn@pennwell.com
Adv er t i s er s’
I ndex Chevron .............................................................................................................. C2
Map search .................................................................................................. 13, 19
Pennenergy.com ................................................................................................ 15
Pennenergy Jobs Books ..................................................................................... 11
Pennenergy Jobs ......................................................................................5, C3, C4
1404PEJEW_1 1 4/21/14 2:19 PM
2 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
Edi t or ’ s
Let t er
H
ELLO everyone and a big thank you to Dorothy Davis! Dorothy has handed the
reins of PennEnergy Workforce over to me, and I couldn’t be more excited. We
have a fantastic issue dedicated to a topic I’m very passionate about: Putting people to
work, specifically people who may be overlooked or marginalized.
For women, the fight for true equality is ongoing, and that is often very clear in the
“boys club” world of the energy industry. A new survey looks at the hard data on women
engineers. To see some of their findings, head to page 6.
We wanted to share some women’s individual experiences, too. To see an
autobiographical look at what the experience was like for one engineer, head to page
8, and for an in-depth
questionnaire with another
prominent woman in the
industry, head to page 10.
Our nation’s fighting
men and women are often
overlooked when they return
home from duty. However,
the industry is working to find
them a new career here at
home. For an overview of veteran’s experiences returning to work, head to page 12.
Many energy companies are showing great success in veteran hiring. For a look at
some of the companies that employ returning soldiers, head to page 16.
It’s an expansive energy industry and there’s room to employ so many, from so many
backgrounds and walks of life. I’m excited to share these stories with you.
Let’s get to work!
—Hilton Price
Starting Point
“It’s an expansive energy industr y and
there’s room to employ so many, from so
many backgrounds and walks of life.”
1404PEJEW_2 2 4/21/14 2:19 PM
Cover STORY
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 3
Bridging the Gap:
Women in Energy
By Dorothy Davis-Ballard
A
S baby boomers are gradually
exiting the workforce, energy
companies are continuing to
ramp up their efforts to recruit women
for roles that have traditionally been
held by men. As a growing number of
women are pursuing STEM (science,
technology, engineering and mathe-
matics) educations and careers, they are
emerging as a driving force in the suc-
cess of the energy industry. The energy
sectors are not only essential, but also
offer numerous opportunities to operate
and develop new and innovative tech-
nologies. Advancing the responsible
productivity of oil and gas, renewables
and efficiency is more important than
ever as global demand continues to
rise sharply and access to resources be-
comes increasingly complex.
Encouraging pursuit of STEM careers
In order to fill many of the positions at
oil and gas and renewable energy firms
and facilities, companies must look to
improving access to STEM education-
al programs and career opportunities
for women.
While women account for half of
the U.S. workforce overall, less than 25
percent of women are in STEM jobs,
according to the U.S. Department of
Commerce’s Economics & Statistics Ad-
ministration (ESA). Further, many of
the jobs in the energy industry demand
a background or degree in a STEM
field, which also opens women to high-
paying positions. Women with STEM
jobs are paid 33 percent more than wom-
en in non-STEM jobs, the ESA said.
As an example, the position of reser-
voir engineer, which ranked in the No.
10 spot in CNNMoney/PayScale’s list of
Best Jobs in America, usually requires a
degree or background in petroleum or
chemical engineering. Reservoir engi-
neers earn a median pay of $179,000,
with top earners getting paid $254,000
to hold a low stress job that boasts a high
level of personal satisfaction, according
to the survey.
“Because no two oil and gas fields
are the same, I’m constantly expanding
my knowledge of the industry, which
makes the job fulfilling and enriching,”
Kristen O’Connor, a reservoir engineer
with Marathon Oil in Houston, told
CNNMoney.
Industry works to include more women
Encouraging women to pursue STEM
educations and careers is an evolving
priority for many energy companies
that understand the need to diversify
their workforce to increase innovation
in the industry and competitiveness in
the global marketplace.Many in the in-
dustry are recognizing more needs to be
done to attract and retain women in the
energy sector and at the same time, fill a
large skills gap anticipated to be left by
the exiting workforce of baby boomers.
Leading companies such as ExxonMo-
bil are actively addressing the problem
of filling the gender gap through fund-
ing to organizations that are committed
to expanding the number of women in
STEM careers.
“Companies have to think of recruit-
ing in a different light now and have in-
novative or new recruitment strategies,”
said Carolyn Stewart, regional business
development manager in Houston for
recruitment firm NES Global Talent.
BP’s Global Diversity and Inclusion
Report shows more U.S. oil and gas pro-
fessionals were optimistic about hiring
and advancement for women in the oil
and gas industry with 75 percent express-
ing a positive outlook, which is 4 per-
cent higher than the 71 percent mea-
sured globally. More than 60 percent of
respondents believe more women will
1404PEJEW_3 3 4/21/14 2:19 PM
4 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
join the industry as either workers who
are newly entering the sector or workers
in the early stages of their career, accord-
ing to BP’s report.
“We want women to know that the oil
and gas industry has made tremendous
strides in recent years and that it offers op-
portunities not provided by other sectors,”
said Kirsty Bashforth, group head of or-
ganizational effectiveness at BP. “Wheth-
er working internationally or domestical-
ly, onshore or offshore, the possibilities
are endless.”
Women accounted for almost 32 per-
cent of new hires at BP, as the company
hopes to appeal to top talent in the indus-
try and grow diversity within the firm,
according to Bashforth. She said boost-
ing diversity and inclusion at BP helps
to increase its competitiveness, saying
these qualities are a ‘must have,’ not a
‘nice to have.’
Women have also grown represent a
large amount of the workforce in renew-
ables. The solar industry has women rep-
resenting 19 percent of the workforce in
2014, or 26,738 staff, according to data
from The Solar Foundation’s National
Solar Jobs Census 2014.
Building support for women in energy
While great strides have been made over
the past two decades to increase oppor-
tunities for women in energy, the reali-
ties of working in traditionally male dom-
inated sectors can still be a challenging.
In addition to the issue of gender ste-
reotyping, many women cite not having
enough role models as a barrier in enter-
ing and becoming successful in STEM
fields. However, more companies are es-
tablishing mentoring programs and hav-
ing more women chair recruitment ad-
visory boards.
By investing money into professional
organizations devoted to providing wom-
en with support throughout their career
development and advancement, the en-
ergy industry helps provide women with
role models needed to encourage other
women to pursue STEM fields.
Organizations such as Women of
Wind Energy (WoWE), offer women
an opportunity to connect with a men-
tor who can offer them advice and guid-
ance through the lens of their personal
experiences. Through the organization’s
mentoring program, mentors and men-
tees can contact each other anywhere
they have an Internet connection.
“I fundamentally believe that the suc-
cess of renewable energy in the U.S. and
around the world depends on our abili-
ty to bring together the best minds from
as many diverse backgrounds as possi-
ble to solve the critical problems of our
day,” Kristen Graf, executive director of
WoWE, said in an interview with the
Union of Concerned Scientists. “Reports
continue to show that having more wom-
en on teams leads to better decisions and
better financial performance as well, so
we know we need them there.”
The cultivation and support of wom-
en in the energy sectors has also been
long supported by professional organiza-
tions such as the Women’s Energy Net-
work (WEN) and the Society of Women
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
1404PEJEW_4 4 4/21/14 2:19 PM
FREE • CONFIDENTIAL • ALL JOB TYPES & EXPERIENCE LEVELS
Top Oil & Gas Industry Employers are
RECRUITING
NOW!
Don’t miss another
CAREER OPPORTUNITY
Visit PennEnergyJobs.com to UPLOAD YOUR RESUME to the database today.
with PennEnergy Jobs
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 5
Engineers (SWE). These organizations
have committed themselves to the sup-
port of women in what have long been
perceived as “non-traditional” careers
paths. Through networking events, men-
toring opportunities, and scholarships
these organizations have been success-
fully fostering professional advancement
for women in STEM fields for decades.
The U.S. government is also taking
steps to establish a viable path to success
for women in STEM careers. In 2011, the
Obama administration unveiled a cam-
paign to encourage the participation of
women and girls in STEM fields through
increasing education and career oppor-
tunities through its $4.35 billion Race to
the Top competition.
In 2012, the Department of Energy
(DOE) launched the U.S. Clean En-
ergy, Education, and Empowerment
(C3E) program to advance the careers
and leadership of women in clean ener-
gy fields. Led by the DOE in partner-
ship with the MIT Energy Initiative, the
new program includes an ambassador
network, annual symposium and the
C3E Awards program.
DOE has also put in place an ongoing
series celebrating the successes of women
in energy through its Women @ Energy
initiative, which profiles leading women
in the federal workforce.
“We hope that the stories of these,
and many more, women in STEM can
inspire others as they think about the fu-
ture,” said the DOE on its website. “Only
24 percent of the STEM workforce is fe-
male, an alarming gap as over 51 percent
of the workforce overall is female. We
can and should share our own STEM
stories to help engage others and offer
our voices on how our STEM careers
have impacted us.”
As industry and governments become
increasingly engaged in seeing wom-
en representing a larger portion of the
STEM workforce, these efforts may sig-
nal a lasting shift toward a robust and
thriving economy of diversity for the en-
ergy sectors. ⊗
1404PEJEW_5 5 4/21/14 2:19 PM
6 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
T
HE global focus on attract-
ing more women into the
oil and gas industry is not
just about creating a more di-
verse workforce, it is of vital im-
portance if we are to continue to
serve the world’s growing energy
needs. With demand for engi-
neering expertise far outstrip-
ping supply and half the expe-
rienced engineering workforce
set to retire in the next decade,
the sector is facing a crippling
skills shortage. In order to power
future energy projects, the oil
and gas industry must act now to
fully tap into this enormous po-
tential talent pool.
It has been widely report-
ed that women have tradition-
ally been underrepresented in the oil
and gas engineering sector and while a
great deal is being done to encourage
young women to study science, tech-
nology, engineering and mathematics,
the STEM subjects, this gender dispar-
ity continues to exist.
So, what should the sector be doing to
solve this problem? The industry needs
to find creative ways to attract women,
not just at primary and secondary school
level, but at an undergraduate and grad-
uate level. It must also continue to work
to attract women working in other indus-
tries to oil and gas engineering, shining
a spotlight on what a welcoming and
rewarding career it can be and highlight-
ing the opportunities.
NES Global Talent is focused
on solving the staffing issues
that keep our clients awake at
night. We are committed to
sourcing and placing the female
talent our clients so desperately
need. We conducted this survey
to find out more about women
working in the oil and gas indus-
try, their career path and the
challenges and opportunities of
working in the sector, in a bid to
help highlight what the indus-
try could be doing to attract and
retain female employees.
Our survey flags many inter-
esting points for further discus-
sion. For instance, while it is
great to hear that the majority
of women feel welcome in the
industry and would encourage other
females to join, 45% say they do not get
the same recognition as men. Under-
standably, this perception needs to
change if the sector is to become more
attractive to women.
Our survey also reveals that while
a huge majority (95%) view mentors
as important for career advancement,
Attracting and Retaining Women
in Oil and Gas Engineering:
A survey examining the gender talent gap
It’s not just a talent gap; it’s a gender gap
By Neil Tregarthen, CEO at NES Global Talent
1404PEJEW_6 6 4/21/14 2:19 PM
Do you feel you get the same recognition
for your work as male peers?
45%
55%
Yes No
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 7
a large proportion (42%) said they were
neither a mentor nor a mentee. In order
to help women progress to senior posi-
tions in the oil and gas industry and
become the role models of tomorrow,
this also needs to change.
As a business, we understand the
need to promote diversity within our own
workforce. We recently launched a glob-
al graduate recruitment
scheme – the NES Glob-
al Talent Futures Academy
– where graduates will be
mentored to become expert
consultants. By providing
inspiring role models com-
panies can retain and nur-
ture talent. After all, men-
toring is important for all employees,
both female and male.
Creative recruitment techniques exe-
cuted with women in mind will also help
with attraction, but it has to be more
than the token ‘women in hard hats’
images that we so often see. Tapping into
women’s networks and using positive
role models to give speeches at schools
and universities will help
to encourage more females
to enter the sector. The
industry needs to show that
there is nothing stopping
women with the right skills
and qualifications from
enjoying a successful engi-
neering career.
Engineering is an exciting and
dynamic profession and we look forward
to supporting our clients and welcoming
more women into the oil and gas indus-
try in the future. ⊗
Key Findings
: Three quarters (75º) cf the wcmen that respcnd-
ed tc the survey sald they felt welocme wcrklng ln
the cll and gas lndustry yet almcst half (45º) sald
they dc nct feel they get the same reocgnltlcn as
thelr male oclleagues.
: 89º sald they wculd enocurage a female frlend
tc pursue a oareer ln the lndustry ncw, wlth 82º
saylng they wculd reocmmend a oareer ln the seo-
tcr tc scmecne whc ls due tc flnlsh thelr studles
ln a deoade`s tlme. Scme respcndents sald cth-
er energy lndustrles suoh as nuolear and renew-
ables oculd jcln cll and gas as attraotlve cptlcns
ln the future.
: 95º sald mentcrs were lmpcrtant fcr oareer
advanoement, wlth 74º saylng lt was very lmpcr-
tant and 21º saylng lt was sllghtly lmpcrtant,
yet 42º sald they were nelther a mentcr ncr a
mentee.
: Respcndents prcvlded a dlverse range cf sugges-
tlcns when asked what ocmpanles oculd be dclng
tc attraot and enocurage wcmen emplcyees suoh
as: eduoatlng wcmen early (ln seocndary sohccls)
abcut oareers ln the cll and gas lndustry; glvlng
wcmen a ohanoe tc take cn mcre ohallenglng cff-
shcre rcles; and prcvldlng equal beneflts and
cppcrtunltles.
: 39º sald they wculd ocnslder taklng less mcney
ln return fcr mcre wcrk flexlblllty, wlth many oltlng
a better wcrk llfe balanoe and spendlng mcre tlme
wlth the famlly as the maln reascns.
: 0ver fcur flfths (82º) sald they planned tc stay ln
the lndustry fcr the next 2 ÷ 5 years.
1404PEJEW_7 7 4/21/14 2:20 PM
8 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
I
STARTED my career in 1998 as an ex-
ploration geologist at Marathon Oil
Company and worked offshore Gulf
of Mexico (GoM) in the Lease Group.
My primary role was undertaking seis-
mic and geologic interpretations in or-
der to determine what leases we were
going to bid on at the next GoM lease
round. It was not a great time in the
oil and gas industry, as oil was around
$9-10/barrel, therefore expensive GoM
exploration wells were being drilled,
primarily only on prospects that were
already in our portfolio. Subsequently,
I decided it would be a good time to
make a switch in my career.
My next role was a technical con-
sultant for Landmark Graphics, bought
over by Halliburton. Here, I worked
with oil and gas companies on learn-
ing what software they had, mentoring
users and giving presentations. During
this time, I worked closely with geol-
ogists and geophysicists to help them
create accurate maps, correlate logs and
make seismic interpretations. It was a
great role for me because I still used my
technical skills daily, but gained experi-
ence on a wide range of projects.
One of my most impactful work
experiences to date was working in
business development for Landmark’s
geoscience applications in Asia Pacif-
ic. Again, it meant I could apply my
technical skills when explaining the
software across many cultures, coun-
tries, and resource plays. There were
regions such as Australia where Coal
Bed Methane (CBM) was dominant,
which I had not encountered previous-
ly in the U.S. It is not straight-forward
to give an offshore deepwater overview
of software to a geologist who is work-
ing CBM. You have to be specific in
what types of properties they look for in
a reservoir, how they produce wells and
how the rocks behave differently than
unconsolidated sandstone.
Landmark had also acquired a com-
pany that had a 3D visualization and
interpretation application, which was
very cutting edge. Companies were
building large visualization centers
in order to get ‘in’ to their data in 3D.
This meant I could expand my techni-
cal skills because not only was I help-
ing geoscientists use the 3D world to
find better prospects and look at larg-
er amounts of data, I was now work-
ing on the technical computing side in
designing and building these visualiza-
tion centers in which the 3D applica-
tions would work. There is a whole oth-
er area around understanding graphics
pipes, CPU usage, different types of
projectors and the benefits and pit-
falls of each; passive v. active seismic,
rear projection v. front projection and
curved or flat screens.
Returning from Asia, I spent three
years in Halliburton’s production opti-
mization global business development
and marketing group, learning a com-
pletely new set of products. Instead of
software, I worked with chemicals and
production enhancement techniques
such as fracing, acidizing, and com-
Women in Energy
Spotlight: Christi Gell
By Christi Gell
1404PEJEW_8 8 4/21/14 2:20 PM
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 9
pletion tools. I was giving presentations
on asphaltene and paraffin control, and
surfactants for increasing regained per-
meability after a frac. This was not far
from my technical realm because my
master’s degree in Geology was focused
on hydrogeology and hydrochemistry.
From this I was able to grow my knowl-
edge of the industry from geoscience, to
production and engineering.
Prior to joining Expro, I was again
involved more in business development
and sales for Landmark (back to soft-
ware). I worked a project that required
quite a bit of research and development
(R&D) and was able to learn about the
R&D process of software. It is a totally
different skillset than being a geologist,
but the R&D people need the technical
support to help them understand how
the software should work - they cannot
be separated.
Therefore, when I joined Expro
in 2013 as a product line manager for
SafeWells in North America, it almost
seemed like a natural progression to
what I had done in the past. SafeWells
is a software solution specifically devel-
oped by Expro as an effective well
integrity data management system. It
monitors and reports on well integrity
performance and has been successful-
ly deployed by major operators globally.
My role in SafeWells is to set up and
grow the business within my region. By
taking a strategic approach and combin-
ing other Expro PLs/services, we can sell
more holistically into a customer rather
than just as a point product. I spend a lot
of my time understanding well integrity
regulations and how those can be incor-
porated into our software. These can
differ from country to country, region to
region, and even state to state.
Although having a successful career
in oil and gas is dependent on your
skill and attitude, and not necessarily
whether or not you are male or female,
I believe being a female has had a pos-
itive impact on my career. There have
been many occasions when I have not
needed to work around the gender issue.
For instance, on a past project we
were drilling an offshore well using a
drill ship. It is tight quarters on any off-
shore rig, so getting the experience of
being on the rig meant waiting until we
could get an open spot for me and one
other female in order to share a room. It
was a logistics thing; a female would not
be put in a room with three males, shar-
ing bunk beds. That said, once we were
out there, it was just learn, learn, learn.
Ask questions. See everything. I
was in awe the first time I was
on a rig – and I am still often
gobsmacked by what we do in
this industry because it is just so
technically complicated.
Another instance of when
the gender issue came to the
fore, was when I had my two
children, as I was anxious about
taking time off after they were
born. I questioned what kind
of traction I would lose at work
and whether or not the value I
brought to the group would be
lost when other people start-
ed picking up the slack. Some
team members were also anx-
ious about it, which did not help
my situation. But after children
comes the whole ‘work-life bal-
ance’. The hard part is making
sure that one does not dominate the oth-
er overall. I was fortunate to have a job at
the time that did not require much trav-
el so I was able to work and be a new par-
ent fairly stress-free. Now that my kids
are a little older and more self-sufficient,
I am able to have a job that I can travel a
few days out of the month.
I have worked in cultures where it
was obvious that a more male-dominat-
ed approach was upheld and I had to fig-
ure out creative ways to be effective in
my job and have my voice heard. But
then, there have also been times when
being a female has worked in my favor.
At the end of the day, I rely on my
technical skills, business expertise, and
positivity to get things done and progress
my career. I think that’s what everyone
should do, whether male or female. ⊗
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
1404PEJEW_9 9 4/21/14 2:20 PM
10 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
S
ARAH Cridland is Global Prod-
ucts Manager with DUCO
Limited. With 20 years’ expe-
rience in the industry, Cridland has
delivered numerous projects for oil
and gas clients, including majors Roy-
al Dutch Shell, Petrobras, and Total.
She took some time to answer some
questions for PEJEW.
What were some of your fondest expe-
riences during your education at the
University of Strathclyde
SC: Manufacturing Sciences &
Engineering combined Mechani-
cal, Production and Electrical Engi-
neering with Management Studies
(Law, Finance, and Economics) and
an emphasis on work placements.
The course had been developed with
the aim of developing engineers who
were managers; an aim which has
been achieved. Whilst many courses
had a low percentage of female appli-
cants, we had over 40% of girls in my
year and the top five graduates were
all female. During the whole of the 5
years at Strathclyde no differentiation
was made by the lecturers or my fel-
low students of my being women in
engineering, and this gave me a good
grounding for career after university.
You’ve been Project Manager on sev-
eral projects and also Department
Manager. What draws you to leader-
ship roles?
SC: I am drawn to leadership roles
as it allows me to play to my strengths,
specifically strategic decision making
and the ability to persuade and influ-
ence people. I enjoy the ability to
engage with and motivate people at all
levels in the organization.
If you could return to your early days
in the industry, what advice would
you give yourself?
SC: Don’t feel that you can’t retain
your feminine side in a male environ-
ment and still get taken seriously.
Do you have prominent memories of
how your gender was perceived dur-
ing your educational years? Was your
pursuit of a degree in science and
engineering hindered or helped by
your gender?
SC: The attitude within the engi-
neering department at Strathclyde was
very much that women in engineer-
ing were a ‘normal’ everyday occur-
rence. I think this matter of fact accep-
tance gave me a great grounding for my
career; it just never occurred to me that
I couldn’t or shouldn’t be an engineer
Since entering the industry, how do
you feel your gender has affected the
way you were treated by colleagues?
SC: As a woman in engineering
within the oil and gas industry you are
in a minority and as such you stand
Women in Energy Q&A:
Sarah Cridland
1404PEJEW_10 10 4/21/14 2:20 PM
Books, Books…
So Many Books
Check out over 50,000 energy industry titles at
www.PennEnergy.com
PennEnergy.com is your best source
for the largest and most comprehensive
compilation of books related to the
energy industry.
t Oil & Gas
t Power Systems
t Renewable Energy
t Business Management
t Mechanical & Chemical Engineering
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 11
out. This means that good work/attitude
is noticed but also any mistakes, which
gives a good incentive to not make too
many! In general, I’ve been well accept-
ed by colleagues, whether it has been off-
shore on our installation vessels or on the
Executive Committee at DUCO (Tech-
nical Umbilical Systems).
You’ve held several roles of leadership
during your time in the industry. How
has that leadership been affected by
your gender? Do you feel subordinates
were more or less willing to comply based
on assumptions raised by your gender?
SC: Whilst it is a generalization,
women bring different character traits
to the management role and I’ve found
that sub-ordinates appreciate this dif-
ference. Provided that you have the
respect of your team then they are will-
ing to follow you as a leader rather than
simply complying with the instruction
of a manager. I have on previous occa-
sions had to request some more mature
sub-ordinates to refrain from referring
to me as ‘young lady’. However, as I’ve
aged this has become less of an issue!!
Have you ever felt a company or rep-
resentative was hostile to you because
you are a woman? Have you ever felt
you were given special consideration
because you are a woman?
SC: I have encountered a few per-
sonnel during my career who were hos-
tile to me as a woman, but I do not let
these situations phase me. As I said earli-
er, you do stand out as a minority within
the industry and as such, when you per-
form well this can be more visible.
What advice would you give to young
women entering the industry today?
SC: Join the oil and gas industry!!
Don’t wait for someone to develop your
career, push for everything you want.
Never believe that you can’t do some-
thing and don’t be afraid to ask. ⊗
“As a woman in engineering within the oil and gas
industr y you are in a minorit y and as such you stand out.”
1404PEJEW_11 11 4/21/14 2:20 PM
12 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
TRAINING Insights
M
ILITARY service is a selfless
commitment undertaken by
a dedicated few. Thanks to
their selflessness, the United States is
able to protect and defend its interests
around the world. However, for many in
the armed services, time spent enlisted
is only part of their story. Once their
enlistment ends, they will return to the
civilian world as veterans, and for some
that is where the real challenge begins.
In 2012, there were 21.2 million
veterans living in the United States.
Although many of these men and wom-
en acclimate back into civilian life with
no problems, for others it is a unique
challenge. One area where some vet-
erans struggle to return to normal-
cy is with employment. The tenacity,
humility, and perseverance required of
serving men and women should make
them an ideal type of potential employ-
ee, but many veterans still have diffi-
culty finding employment when they
return home.
A seasoned soldier who is com-
fortable on the battlefield may be lost
when trying to re-establish themselves
as a civilian. It’s prevalent enough that
780,000 veterans were unemployed as
of March 2013, including more than
200,000 who’ve served since 9/11.
Luckily, there are tools to aid in this
reintegration, many specifically target-
ed at the unique challenges for veter-
ans. There are numerous job place-
ment organizations aimed strictly at
veterans, and foundations focused on
all manner of veteran care often fea-
ture sections highlighting employment
assistance. Of course, the Internet has
made this process more accessible for
everyone. In some cases, job placement
for a veteran may now begin and end
with a google search
Certain corners of the energy indus-
try have recognized the unique skills
possessed by veterans and taken the ini-
tiative in hiring them. Their philoso-
phy is simple: who better to handle the
harsh environments often encountered
in energy exploration and production
than the men and women who have
fought for freedom across the globe?
This targeted employee search isn’t
just limited to roles at existing compa-
nies. In recent years, whole new com-
panies have been formed by harness-
ing the skills of military personnel and
applying them to the energy industry.
This recognition of these transferrable
skills is not only aiding in the employ-
ment of veterans, but in meeting the
growing the talent shortages across the
energy industry.
From the land to the sea to the air,
military men and women have commit-
ted their lives to service. From onshore
Energy to Serve: Veterans find new
direction in the energy industry
By Hilton Price
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
1404PEJEW_12 12 4/21/14 2:20 PM
ALWAYS COMPREHENSIVE
Comprehensive coverage of trans-
mission, gathering, and distribution
pipelines for petroleum and natural
gas and all associated facilities.
ALWAYS CURRENT
Regular updates keep you informed
of the latest pipeline developments.
ALWAYS COMPLETE
The MAPSearch Research staff’s
unyielding attention to detail along
with long-standing relationships
within the energy industry enable us
to provide the most complete and
accurate information available.
ALWAYS SUPPORTABLE
MAPSearch provides up-to-date
maintenance and support.
MAPSearch provides you with the latest maps and data related
to pipeline systems in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and offshore Gulf
of Mexico. We bring you hard-to-find information collected from
pipeline operators, government, and regulatory agencies on more
than 1,000,000 miles of pipeline, over 33,000 facilities and 4,500
interconnects — offshore and on.
Our pipeline-related products bring you
• A choice of formats — printed map products or digital data in
GIS format
• In-depth information — including commodity transported,
pipeline diameter, owner/operator, direction of flow, facility/
pipeline interconnections and more
• Complete coverage — Crude Oil, LPG/NGL, Natural Gas,
Petrochemicals, Refined Products, Specialty Gases and 30
types of facilities
• Semi-Annual updates sent to GIS clients
Get the Job Done with MAPSearch
®
For more information on PennWell’s
MAPSearch North American Pipeline offering:
Call 800.823.6277 | Email sales@mapsearch.com | Visit www.MAPSearch.com
GI S Dat a f or t he Ener gy I ndust r y
Offshore and Onshore Pipeline Systems and Facilities
1404PEJEW_13 13 4/21/14 2:20 PM
14 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
exploration to offshore drilling to solar
and wind, the energy industry is welcom-
ing soldiers home with open arms and
opportunity once their time serving ends.
Commanding Resources
There is a wealth of options for veterans
looking to re-enter the workforce at the
end of their service. Specifically in the
energy industry, a myriad of organiza-
tions exist solely to help place these for-
mer warriors in roles suiting their train-
ing, experience, and skill.
Websites like “Veterans to Energy”
(http://www.veteranstoenergy.org/) and
“Troops to Energy Jobs” (http://www.
troopstoenergyjobs.com/) specialize in
industry placement for veterans. Both
sites offer online analysis of a potential
applicant’s military service skills and
training. They can then highlight ener-
gy industry careers where these skills
are most applicable. When additional
education and training is needed, they
can show veterans where to best acquire
this supplemental information. The
whole process is handled on each orga-
nization’s website, streamlining the job
search and compatibility checks.
These websites are built from a mil-
itary perspective, employing codes and
categorization familiar to enlisted per-
sonnel. For instance, jobs are often
listed with relevant career field cate-
gorization from various mil-
itary branches. So, wheth-
er a potential applicant is
Army, Navy, Marines, Coast
Guard, or Air Force, they
can easily determine wheth-
er the training from their
military service is applicable.
Other websites, like
“Battlefields to Oilfields”
(http://battlefieldstooilfields.
com/) takes a comprehen-
sive approach to veteran job
placement. The site offers a
program that provides train-
ing through combination of
classroom work and practi-
cal, hands-on experience.
Once training is complet-
ed, B2O offers job placement
culled from a network of sup-
port groups. B2O walks potential appli-
cants through the resume-building pro-
cess, then puts them in direct contact
with hiring personnel and recruiters
from oil and gas companies, specifically
choosing paths based on the applicants
military training and experience.
These websites share a common ele-
ment; a deep understanding of the mili-
tary experience. By working closely with
military personnel and reflecting an
intricate knowledge of military training,
they can provide a thorough job place-
ment experience, akin to those available
to students from major educational insti-
tutions. And like post-college job place-
ment, they are aiming not to simply pro-
vide jobs, but to help launch careers.
Renewable Battalions
One renewable energy industry is show-
ing notable success in employing veter-
ans. The solar industry employs more
than 13,000 veterans of the US armed
forces, more than 9% of the total US
solar workforce, according to a recent
report. Of that number, 39% are work-
ing in solar installation, and another
27% in solar manufacturing. These are
typically positions with competitive sala-
ries and opportunities for advancement.
The same report shows compa-
nies hiring veterans consistently report
strong worker satisfaction and are opti-
mistic about future growth. 62% of the
companies surveyed planned to add
additional solar workers within the fol-
lowing 12 months. Even more surpris-
ing, only 2% reported expectations to
reduce their workforce.
The solar industry is also seeing
impressive growth year over year. Since
2008, the amount of solar in the US has
grown by more than 500%. This growth,
coupled with strong support of veteran
employment, suggests the industry will
remain a reliable source of jobs for for-
mer servicemen for years to come.
Pinpoint Strike
General Electric, Southern Company,
and many other companies in the ener-
gy industry are hiring veterans. Through
the organizations mentioned earlier,
state and federal agencies, and classic
networking, these companies are reach-
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
1404PEJEW_14 14 4/21/14 2:20 PM
PennEnergy.com was created by PennWell, a leader in
the coverage of the global petroleum and power industries
since 1910, to serve as the broadest and most complete
source of energy-related news, research, and insight.
Including content from all PennWell award-winning energy-
related brands, PennEnergy.com delivers original news,
financial market data, in-depth research materials, books,
equipment, and service information all in one easy-to-
navigate website.
Your Source for Energy News, Research, and Insight.
Make PennEnergy a part of your day and know what is happening in the world of energy.
We’re In Great Company…
PennEnergy.com P E
A FEW OF OUR PENNWELL FRIENDS:
UTI LI TY
PRODUCTS
conference & exposition
®
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 15
ing out to former soldier. But employ-
ment through existing companies isn’t
always the only path for veterans looking
for new careers.
Instead of finding the best applicable
jobs for a former soldier with a specif-
ic set of skills, what if a company was
built around those skills? It’s becoming
increasingly common. One example is
Check 6, a training and logistics com-
pany built from a request to apply mili-
tary training to the oil and gas industry.
Company founder Brian Brurud is a
former Navy pilot, and nearly his entire
staff consists of former personnel from
almost every military branch. With
employees who’ve received real-world
training in some of the world’s harshest
environments, Check 6 can offer expe-
rience that is difficult for other compa-
nies to emulate.
Check 6 isn’t alone employing this
strategy, but with its growing recognition
nationally, the company is exemplifying
how employers can re-think the hiring
process when it comes to veterans.
Worldwide heroes
The choice to enlist in military service
is not one made lightly. Often, these
men and women endure grueling chal-
lenges in harsh environments as they
follow the orders of supervising offi-
cers. When their time enlisted ends,
they face additional challenges in their
return to civilian life. Thanks to the
appreciation of their skills and training
by the energy industry, veterans have a
place to turn to begin the subsequent
chapters of their lives. ⊗
P
h
o
t
o

f
r
o
m

i
S
t
o
c
k
p
h
o
t
o
.
c
o
m
1404PEJEW_15 15 4/21/14 2:20 PM
16 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
W
HEN troops return to civil-
ian life, the energy industry
is there to welcome them
with fulfilling careers. As more service
members take advantage of transition
assistance programs as well as educa-
tion benefits offered by the Depart-
ment of Veterans Affairs, they can re-
turn home and use their transferable
skills to contribute  to companies. Ac-
cording to the newest report by the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the
unemployment rate for veterans who
served on active duty since September
2001 dropped to 9 percent in 2013. The
jobless rate for veterans overall also de-
creased to 6.6 percent in 2013 from 7
percent the previous year.
“I urge all employers to renew their
commitment to veterans, so that those
who served and sacrificed can real-
ize their highest dreams,” Secretary of
Labor Thomas E. Perez said in a state-
ment. “The best way to honor our vet-
erans is to hire them.”
Energy companies are answering
the call to provide employment for the
nation’s veterans in a big way.
Here are 10 of the top employers in
the energy industry:
Exelon Corporation
Chicago-based Exelon Corporation
operates in 47 states and Canada, mak-
ing it one of the biggest power genera-
tion companies in the U.S. The com-
pany not only participates in military
recruiting fairs to advertise Exelon’s
career opportunities for veterans, but
also works with Transition Assistance
Program (TAP) offices to facilitate
their transition from military to civil-
ian life. The appeal of Exelon to vet-
erans is undeniable as nearly 10 per-
cent of Exelon workers have a military
background. The company even has
an Employee Network Group spe-
cifically designed to join together
employees of all military affiliations
called the Exelon Militaries Actively
Connected (EMAC).
PPL Corporation
PPL’s companies provide electricity and
natural gas to more than 10 million cus-
tomers in the U.S. and U.K. The corpo-
ration’s power plants represent a diverse
power generation portfolio using coal,
natural gas, oil and uranium, among
other power sources. An estimated 15
percent of PPL’s workforce are military
veterans who work in a variety of posi-
tions, including nuclear generation and
10 Top Military Friendly Employers
in the Energy Industry
PennEnergy.com
ORGANIZATIONAL Insights
P
o
t
o

c
r
e
d
i
t
:

D
O
D

f
i
l
e

p
h
o
t
o
1404PEJEW_16 16 4/21/14 2:20 PM
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 17
energy delivery managers, plant opera-
tors and maintenance technicians.
Xcel Energy
Xcel Energy is the top ranked wind pow-
er provider in the U.S. with revenues
totaling $10.3 billion each year. As a
major electric and natural gas provider,
the company has the resources to offer
competitive benefits to its more than
1,400 employees with military experi-
ence. Xcel Energy created a Time Away
From Work Policy to cover active mili-
tary employees’ pay as well as their ben-
efits and pension. Like Exelon, Xcel
Energy also has a veteran employee net-
work group, Military Ombudsmen for
Veterans and Employees.
Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E)
PG&E generates power for more than 15
million California residents. The com-
pany has implemented military recruit-
ing and training programs, including
on-the-job training programs for veter-
ans as well as programs to train them to
work in management, which allow them
to utilize their leadership skills. Of the
20,000 employees for PG&E, more than
1,200 are veterans.
Southern Company
Southern Company was recently given
the distinction of top military friendly
utility by G.I. Jobs for the seventh year
in a row. In 2014, Southern Company
was ranked No. 8 out of 100. Last year,
12 percent of new hires were military
veterans, guardsmen or reservists with
veterans accounting for 11 percent over-
all of Southern Company’s workforce.
The company’s two flagship construc-
tion projects, Plant Vogtle in Georgia
and the Kemper County plant in Mis-
sissippi, both have a more than 20 per-
cent rate for new hires who are veterans.
MidAmerican Energy Holdings Company
MidAmerican Energy, based in Des
Moines, Iowa, serves almost 7 million
customers around the world and placed
in the top 50 military friendly employ-
ers for 2014 compiled by G.I. Jobs for
the fifth consecutive year. The compa-
ny participates in the Employer Support
of the Guard and Reserve Five-Star pro-
gram to help veterans make a smooth
transition into its workforce. As a way to
reach out to more veterans, the compa-
ny’s human resources department uses
hiring policies and initiatives specifical-
ly targeted to this group.
Dominion Resources, Inc.
As one of the first utilities to partner
with the Troops to Energy Jobs program
designed to connect veterans with ener-
gy careers, Dominion is a well-known
military veteran employer. Dominion
produces energy and provides energy-
related services for a customer base of
6 million across 15 states. The utility
also owns natural gas pipeline and stor-
age operations in the mid-Atlantic and
Northeast. The company hires military
veterans for jobs in engineering, admin-
istrative support and other areas to use
their problem-solving abilities and pas-
sion for teamwork to the fullest.
Devon Energy Corporation
Devon Energy Corporation, headquar-
tered in Oklahoma City, is an oil and nat-
ural gas exploration and production com-
pany that posted revenues of $9.5 billion
in 2012. In addition to being a Fortune
500 company, Devon Energy is also
ranked 36 out of 100 on G.I. Job’s list of
military friendly employers. Devon Ener-
gy previously set an ambitious hiring tar-
get to fill 6 percent of its positions with
military veterans, saying veterans have an
unparalleled level of dedication.
OutBack Power
Based in Arlington, Wash., OutBack
Power is a leading renewable ener-
gy technology manufacturer that was
featured in a report on veterans in the
solar industry, which was published by
Operation Free and The Solar Founda-
tion. More than 9 percent of workers in
the solar industry are veterans, which is
higher than the 8 percent rate for the
entire U.S. workforce. The solar sector is
expected to grow rapidly and many mil-
itary members who already have expe-
rience learning about solar at a service
academy or in the field have an advan-
tage over other workers.
FirstEnergy
First Energy in Ohio operates one of
the largest investor-owned electric sys-
tems in the U.S. with customers spread
throughout the Midwest and mid-
Atlantic regions. The company has an
energy portfolio that accounts for an
estimated 20 gigawatts of power gener-
ation using coal, natural gas and renew-
able energy sources. FirstEnergy has
more than 1,000 armed forces mem-
bers in its workforce and offers active
duty benefits including health insur-
ance coverage and 401(k) retirement
savings plan contributions. ⊗
1404PEJEW_17 17 4/21/14 2:20 PM
18 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
INDUSTRY
Insights
W
ITH AN EVER-INCREASING
focus on environmental is-
sues, Southern Company
employees have developed a number
of patented and patent-pending innova-
tions to address the capture and storage
of carbon dioxide and carbon ash. The
patent-pending innovation for Deep
Well Carbon Dioxide Sequestration,
and the patented Systems and Methods
for Particulate Filtration, were both de-
veloped by company employees solving
a business need.
Dan Patel, a Principal Engineer for
Southern Company, discovered a way
to stabilize carbon dioxide using water,
allowing for its safe
long-term storage deep
underground. Tradition-
al carbon capture and
storage involves separat-
ing and capturing car-
bon dioxide – a byprod-
uct of the coal-burning
process – and transport-
ing the material under-
ground or to a nearby
industrial facility. What
Patel discovered was a way to stabilize
the stored carbon dioxide, which allows
for safe long-term storage deep under-
ground. The innovation avoids use of
pipelines for long distance
transport of carbon diox-
ide, an important need for
power plants as they are
pressed to control costs.
Another important aspect
is that the innovation ben-
eficially uses plant waters,
helping to control the cost
of water treatment to meet
the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency’s (EPA) proposed surface
water eff luent limits.
“Once the carbon dioxide is cap-
tured, it is transported to underground
geological formations for storage, even-
tually in minerals” explained
Patel. “In the past, the pro-
cess of storing pure carbon
dioxide deep underground
posed a risk in that carbon
dioxide had the potential to
move from one area into oth-
er surrounding geological
formations underground.”
Deep saline formations are
also much more widespread
with respect to power plant
locations, than are geologic formations
suitable for long term storage of pure
carbon dioxide.
Current carbon dioxide sequestra-
tion processes pose pos-
sible migration risk into
surrounding geologic for-
mations or aquifers and
nearby layers of perme-
able rock, sand or gravel
through which ground-
water flows. Numerous
studies have been con-
ducted on injection of
carbon dioxide deep
underground, but the process that
Patel developed prevents any potential
migration of the gas once it has been
stored underwater in deep saline geo-
logic formations.
Patel’s innovation has been success-
fully tested at an independent test labo-
ratory facility with positive results.
Another innovation helping cap-
ture carbon was developed by Gerry
Klemm, a principal engineer for South-
ern Company; a low-cost option for
removing powdered activated carbon,
or (PAC) with electrostatic precipita-
tors, or (ESPs). ESP’s are not designed
to remove such particulate in the same
way as other control devices. There-
fore, a solution needed to be found to
enable ESP’s to not only remove PAC
from the gas stream, but also to retain
it. Fortunately, Klemm had previous-
Employee Innovations
Address Environmental Concerns
of CO
2
Storage and Carbon Ash
1404PEJEW_18 18 4/21/14 2:20 PM
MAPSearch® provides detailed pipeline and pipeline facility information for use in Merger and Acquisition Analysis such as:
• What pipeline assets does company “A” now own?
• What gathering, processing, and storage facilities do they operate?
• What local pipeline company owns assets that would be a complimentary acquisition?
• If these midstream assets were acquired:
• What would the combined assets look like?
• What new markets could they reach?
For more information, please:
Call 800.823.6277
Email sales@mapsearch.com
Visit www.MAPSearch.com
GI S Dat a f or t he Ener gy I ndust r y
The most trusted and utilized provider of GIS data to the pipeline industry for M&A and asset valuation analysis. The most trusted and utilized provider of GIS data to the pipeline industry for M&A and asset valuation analysis
GIS Energy Data for M&A Analysis
MAPSearch tracks interstate, intrastate, and gathering system pipelines and
pipeline facilities for all of North America and provides this information in a format
for users to conduct their own analysis.
How the carbon trap works
U.S. patent pending
No. 7,828,876
Precipitator
collecting
area
Carbon
trap
baffe
Collection bin
(hopper)
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Spring 2014 19
ly performed extensive studies on loss-
on-ignition (LOI) particulate behav-
ior in conjunction with other clean air
initiatives. LOI and PAC share sim-
ilar properties as both are very high
in electrical conductivity, which can
cause short circuits on the porcelain
insulators. They are also very light in
weight and tend to float right through
the ESP after it has done its job in mer-
cury removal without being captured.
PAC is a highly adsorptive materi-
al that is injected into the gas stream
where it is exposed to the oxidized mer-
cury in the flue gas. After being exposed
for a minimum length of time, the PAC
must then be removed from the gas
path. This is generally done by scrub-
bers or baghouses. In some cases it must
be done with ESPs, but depending on
their size, this may be a challenge. Oxi-
dized mercury exists in exceeding min-
ute concentrations so the PAC particle
size must be very small. This adds to the
difficulty in collecting the particulate.
Patented baffling designs were
developed by using laboratory physical
and computerized modeling as well.
The baffles were installed in the dust
hoppers where they produce the bene-
fit of retaining the PAC after it has
been collected.
1404PEJEW_19 19 4/21/14 2:20 PM
Carbonated FGD process
water, saturated with CO
2
Variable depth of injection
Annular space flled with water
for leak detection
CO
2
content
produced by process
at <1000psig ensures
no gas separation
(water is moving
up in pressure)
Increasing
pressure
temperature
U.S. patent pending No. 13/909,732
Injected water sinks
in well due to it being
cooler than water in
the aquifer
~3,500 ft
1500 psig static
pressure at realease point
P<1000psig
Ground elevation
Seal
Up to 10,000 feet or more
Temp rises
(increasing mineralization reactions)
Temp rises to aquifer
temerature, e.g., 200˚F
P
How the carbon baffe works
U.S. patent pending No. 8,313,566
ISO view
Detail view
Side view
End view
Top view
20 Spring 2014
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
The above innovations have been,
and are currently being installed in var-
ious Southern Company units. Field
testing has confirmed the successful
increased removal of carbonaceous
material and, as such, these designs
have been included in the Mercury
and Air Toxics Strategy (MATS) com-
pliance plans.
Based on the results, Klemm devel-
oped the Systems and Methods for
Particulate Filtration, which has been
patented by the United States Patent
and Trademark Office. “This innova-
tion is cost-effective and is easily ret-
rofitted into existing units capturing
fly ash particles before they enter into
the final flue gas stream. This patented
innovation is now operational at sever-
al plants in our system,” says Klemm.
“By looking at things in a different
way, they both were able to come up
with a great solution. It’s one of those
things that we could have just kept
doing the same way and nobody would
have thought much about it. But they
understood that we could create a much
more efficient and cost-effective pro-
cess to help address some of the envi-
ronmental concerns affecting our com-
pany and because of innovative thinkers
like them, our company continues to
be a leader in the electric utility indus-
try.” said Christopher Savage, Intellectu-
al Property manager for Georgia Power.
Southern Company has been grant-
ed a patent for Klemm’s Systems and
Methods for Particulate Filtration, and
has filed a patent for Dan Patel’s Deep
Well Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.
If you are interested in either of these
innovations, please contact Christo-
pher Savage at CHSAVAGE@South-
ernco.com or 404-506-7396 ⊗
1404PEJEW_20 20 4/21/14 2:20 PM
We’ve got people.
PennEnergy JOBS is the key to attracting the
energy industry professionals you need to hire to
meet your business goals. Our process puts your
recruitment message in front of the industry’s best
talent whether it’s online, in print, or at an event.
This approach offers you the fexibility to create
custom recruitment advertising campaigns best
suited to meet your budget and objectives.
|
Learn More
|
Visit: www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
Call: 1-800-738-0134
Got jobs?
1404PEJEW_C3 3 4/21/14 2:20 PM
PennEnergy Jobs offers employers and recruiters solutions to
fnding and attracting qualifed energy industry professionals:
ENERGI ZE YOUR
RECRUITING STRATEGY
• Search and choose the best qualifed candidates from
our Resume Database
• Post your job openings alongside trusted, relevant
energy content
• Brand your company as a career destination
• Gain exclusive access to attendees at leading
industry events
Visit www.PennEnergyJobs.com
or call (918) 831-9558 and let PennEnergy Jobs
customize a solution to meet your recruiting objectives. object obbjeec ct ng ob o ectives. s. ctiivve es..
1404PEJEW_C4 4 4/21/14 2:21 PM

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful