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Dave Michael C. Marimon BMLS 2H

Literature (from Latin litterae (plural); letter) is the art of written work and can, in some circumstances, refer
exclusively to published sources. The word literature literally means "things made from letters" and the pars pro toto
term "letters" is sometimes used to signify "literature," as in the figures of speech "arts and letters" and "man of
letters." Literature is commonly classified as having two major formsfiction & non-fictionand two major
techniquespoetry and prose.
Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original
imagination, such as polemical works as well as autobiography, and reflective essays as well as belles-lettres. Literature can
be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. The concept of genre, which earlier was
limited, has broadened over the centuries. A genre consists of artistic works which fall within a certain central theme,
and examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others.
Important historical periods in English literature include Old English, Middle English, the Renaissance, the 17th
Century Shakespearean and Elizabethan times, the 18th Century Restoration, 19th Century Victorian, and 20th
Century Modernism. Important intellectual movements that have influenced the study of literature include feminism, post-
colonialism, psychoanalysis, post-structuralism, post-modernism, romanticism, and Marxism.

A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has also been used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems
make use of the aesthetic qualities of language to suggest differential meanings and to evoke emotive responses. Poems
rely heavily on imagery and metaphor; they may have a rhythmic structure based on patterns of stresses (metric feet) or on
patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilize rhyme. Due to the diversity
of poetic forms and structures, poetry can be difficult to define and characterize. Typically though, poetry as a form of
literature makes use of the formal properties of the words it uses the properties of the written orspoken form of the
words, independent of their meaning. For example, rhythm can be established by the number of syllables in the words
or how these syllables are stressed; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of the words.
Arguably, poetry pre-dates other forms of literature. Early examples include the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh (dated
from around 2700 B.C.), parts of the Bible, the surviving works of Homer (the Iliad and the Odyssey), and the Indian
epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. In cultures based primarily on oral traditions the formal characteristics of poetry often
have a mnemonic function, and important texts: legal, genealogical or moral, for example, may appear first in verse form.
Some poetry uses specific forms. Examples include the haiku, the limerick, and the sonnet. A traditional haiku written in
Japanese relate to nature, contain seventeen onji (syllables), distributed over three lines in groups of five, seven, and
five, and should also have a kigo, a specific word indicating a season. A limerick has five lines, with arhyme scheme of
AABBA, and line lengths of 3,3,2,2,3 stressed syllables. It traditionally has a less reverent attitude towards nature. Poetry
not adhering to a formal poetic structure is called "free verse".
Language and tradition dictate some poetic norms: Persian poetry always rhymes whilst Greek poetry rarely
does. Some languages contain more rhyming words than others. Italian, for example, has a rich rhyming structure
permitting use of a limited set of rhymes throughout a lengthy poem. The richness results from word endings that follow
regular forms. English, with its irregular word endings adopted from other languages, is less rich in rhyme. Perhaps the
most paradigmatic style of English poetry, blank verse, as exemplified in works by Shakespeare and Milton, consists of
unrhymed iambic pentameters. Some languages prefer longer lines; some shorter ones. Some of these conventions result
from the ease of fitting a specific language's vocabulary and grammar into certain structures, rather than into others;
For example, this may occur when a language typically has longer words than other languages, such
us Greek and German. Other structural conventions come about as the result of historical accidents, where many
speakers of a language associate good poetry with a verse form preferred by a particular skilled or popular poet.

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An essay consists of a discussion of a topic from an author's personal point of view, exemplified by works
by Michel de Montaigne or by Charles Lamb.
"Essay" in English derives from the French word for "to attempt," essayer. Thus, one can find open-ended,
provocative, and inconclusive essays. The term "essays" first applied to the self-reflective musings of Michel de
Montaigne, who has a reputation as the father of this literary form.

Other prose literature

Philosophical, historical, journalistic, and scientific writings are traditionally ranked as literature. They offer
some of the oldest prose writings in existence; novels and prose stories earned the names "fiction" to distinguish them
from factual writing or nonfiction, which writers historically have crafted in prose.

Natural science
As advances and specialization have made new scientific research inaccessible to most audiences, the "literary"
nature of science writing has become less pronounced over the last two centuries. Now, science appears mostly
in journals. Scientific works of Aristotle, Copernicus, and Newton still possess great value, but since the science in them
has largely become outdated, they no longer serve for scientific instruction. Yet, they remain too technical to sit well in
most programmes of literary study. Outside of "history of science" programmes, students rarely read such works.

Philosophy, too, has become an increasingly academic discipline. More of its practitioners lament this situation
than occurs with the sciences; nonetheless most new philosophical work appears in academic journals. Major
philosophers through historyPlato, Aristotle, Socrates, Augustine, Descartes, Kierkegaard, Nietzschehave become as
canonical as any writers. Some recent philosophy works are argued to merit the title "literature", such as some of the
works by Simon Blackburn; but much of it does not, and some areas, such as logic, have become extremely technical to a
degree similar to that of mathematics.

A great deal of historical writing ranks as literature, particularly the genre known as creative nonfiction. So can a
great deal of journalism, such as literary journalism. However these areas have become extremely large, and often have
a primarily utilitarian purpose: to record data or convey immediate information. As a result the writing in these fields
often lacks a literary quality, although it often and in its better moments has that quality. Major "literary" historians
include Herodotus, Thucydides and Procopius, all of whom count as canonical literary figures.

Law offers a less clear case. Some writings of Plato and Aristotle, the law tables of Hammurabi of Babylon, or
even the early parts of the Bible could be seen as legal literature.Roman civil law as codified in the Corpus Juris
Civilis during the reign of Justinian I of the Byzantine Empire has a reputation as significant literature. The founding
documents of many countries, including Constitutions and Law Codes, can count as literature; however, most legal
writings rarely exhibit much literary merit, as they tend to be rathergarrulous.

A play or drama offers another classical literary form that has continued to evolve over the years. It generally
comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic / theatrical performance (see theatre) rather
than at reading. During the 18th and 19th centuries, opera developed as a combination of poetry, drama, andmusic.
Nearly all drama took verse form until comparatively recently. Shakespeare could be considered drama.Romeo and Juliet,
for example, is a classic romantic drama generally accepted as literature.

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A literary technique or literary device can be used by authors in order to enhance the written framework of a
piece of literature, and produce specific effects. Literary techniques encompass a wide range of approaches to crafting a
work: whether a work is narrated in first-person or from another perspective, whether to use a traditional linear
narrative or a nonlinear narrative, or the choice of literary genre, are all examples of literary technique. They may
indicate to a reader that there is a familiar structure and presentation to a work, such as a conventional murder-mystery
novel; or, the author may choose to experiment with their technique to surprise the reader.

In this way, use of a technique can lead to the development of a new genre, as was the case with one of the first
modern novels, Pamela by Samuel Richardson. Pamela is written as a collection of letter-writing correspondence, called
"epistolary technique"; by using this technique, Pamela strengthened the tradition of the epistolary novel, a genre which
had been practiced for some time already but without the same acclaim.

Literary technique is distinguished from literary device, as military tactics are distinguished from military
strategy. Devices are specific constructions within the narrative that make it effective. Examples
include metaphor, simile, ellipsis, narrative motifs, and allegory. Even simple word play functions as a literary device.
The narrative mode may be considered a literary device, such as the use of stream-of-consciousness narrative.

Literary criticism implies a critique and evaluation of a piece of literature and, in some cases, it is used to
improve a work in progress or a classical piece, as with an ongoing theatre production. Literary editors can serve a
similar purpose for the authors with whom they work. There are many types of literary criticism and each can be used to
critique a piece in a different way or critique a different aspect of a piece.

Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and
the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish
period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is written
in Spanish, English, Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages.

Early works

Doctrina Christiana, Manila, 1593, is the first book printed in the Philippines.

Tomas Pinpin wrote and printed in 1610 Librong Pagaaralan nang mga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla, 119
pages designed to help fellow Filipinos to learn the Spanish language in a simple way. He is also credited with the first
news publication made in the Philippines, "Successos Felices", Classical literature in Spanish (19th Century)

On December 1, 1846, La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper, was published in the country. Other early
newspapers were La Estrella (1847),Diario de Manila (1848) and Boletin Oficial de Filipinas (1852). The first provincial
newspaper was El Eco de Vigan (1884), which was issued in Ilocos. In Cebu City "El Boletn de Ceb" (The Bulletin of
Cebu), was published in 1890.

On 1863, the Spanish government introduced a system of free public education that had an important effect on
the ability of the population to read in Spanish and further in the rise of an educated class called the Ilustrado (meaning,
well-informed). Spanish became the social language of urban places and the true lingua franca of the archipelago. A
good number of Spanish newspapers were published until the end of the 1940s, the most influential of them being El
Renacimiento, printed in Manila by members of the Guerrero de Ermita family.

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Some members of the ilustrado group, while residing or studying in Spain, decided to start a literary production
in Spanish with the aim of serving the autonomy and/or independence projects. Members of this group included Pedro
Alejandro Paterno, who wrote the novel Nnay (first novel written by a Filipino); the Philippine national hero, Jos Rizal,
who wrote excellent poetry and two famous novels in Spanish: Noli Me Tangere(Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo.

A potent tool in promoting Filipino nationalism in Spanish was the foundation of La Solidaridad (more fondly
called La Sol by the members of the propaganda movement) in 15 February 1885. With the help of this organ, Filipino
national heroes like Jos Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, etc. were able to voice out their sentiments.

Poetry and metrical romances

Ladino Poems Were natives of first Tagalog versifiers who saw print: highly literate in both Spanish and the vernacular.

Corridos Were widely read during the Spanish period that filled the populace's need for entertainment as well as
edifying reading matter in their leisure moments.

Awit like corridos, these were also widely read during the Spanish period as entertaining, edifying, reading manner in
their leisure time. It is also a fabrication of the writers imagination although the characters and the setting may
be European. The structure is rendered dodecasyllabic quatrains.

The prose works of the Spanish Period consisted mostly of didatic pieces and translations of religious writings in
foreign languages.


Religious drama
The Panunuluyan Literally, seeking entrance, the Tagalog version of the Mexican Las Posadas. Held on the eve
of Christmas, it dramatizes Joseph's and Mary's search for Bethlehem.

Cenaculo Was the dramatization of the passion and death of Jesus Christ.

Salubong An Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and His Mother.

Moriones Refers to the participants dressed roman soldiers, their identities hidden behind colorful, sometimes
grotesque, wooden masks.

The Santacruzan Performed during the month of May which have the devotion for the Holy Cross. It depicts St.
Elena's search for the cross on which Christ died.

Pangangaluwa An interesting socio-religious practice on All Saint's Day which literally means for The Soul.

Secular dramas
These were generally held during the nine nights of vigil and prayers after someone's death, on the first death
anniversary when the family members put away their mourning clothes.

The Karagatan comes from the legendary practice of testing the mettle of young men vying for a maiden's
hand. The maiden's ring would be dropped into sea and whoever retrieves it would have the girl's hand in marriage.

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The Duplo A forerunner of the balagtasan. The performances consist of two teams; One composed of young
women called Dupleras or Belyakas; and the other, of young men called Dupleros or Belyakos.

The Comedia It is about a courtly love between, a prince and a princess of different religions. It is about a Christian-
Muslim relationship.

Modern literature (20th and 21st century)

The greatest portion of Spanish literature was written during the American period, most often as an expression
of pro-Hispanic nationalism, by those who had been educated in Spanish or had lived in the Spanish-speaking society of
the big cities, and whose principles entered in conflict with the American cultural trends. Such period of Spanish literary
productioni.e., between the independence of Spain in 1898 and well ahead into the decade of the 1940sis known
as Edad de Oro del Castellano en Filipinas. Some prominent writers of this era were Wenceslao Retana and Claro Mayo
Recto, both in drama and essay; Antonio M. Abad and Guillermo Gomez Wyndham, in the narrative;Fernando Mara
Guerrero and Manuel Bernab, both in poetry. The predominant literary style was the so-called "Modernismo", a
mixture of elements from the FrenchParnassien and Symboliste schools, as promoted by some Latin American and
Peninsular Spanish writers (e.g. the Nicaraguan Rubn Daro, the Mexican Amado Nervo, the Spaniard Francisco
Villaespesa, and the Peruvian Jos Santos Chocano as major models).

History of Philippine Literature
Philippine literature has evolved from fables and prehistoric tales, to profound work on socio-political issues.
The transition has been a part of the development of Hispanic writing systems and the integration of various languages
in the pursuit of excellence.

Philippine literature had evolved much before colonization. It is full of legends and tales of colonial legacy.
Mexican and Spanish dominance over the land and the people, over varying periods of time, witnessed the
incorporation of English, Spanish, Filipino and native languages, to express ideology and opinion. Literature in the
Philippines developed much later than in most other countries. Evidence reveals the use of a script called Baybayin that
flourished in 1521. Baybayin was used to write about legends, in Luzon, during Spaniard domination.

Philippine Literature in Filipino

The literature of the Philippines before the advent of the Spaniards was predominantly a reflection of the
indigenous culture and traditions of the land. The people of Manila and native groups within the Philippines used to
write on bamboo and the arecaceae palm. They used knives for inscribing the ancient Tagalog script. The literature thus
preserved was limited to the seventeen basic symbols of the language. With just three vowels and consonantal symbols
that had predetermined, inherent sound, the literature handed down was in a 'raw' state and needed to be developed.

The Tagalog language script that was used initially to preserve and hand down literature, was limited to a
diacritical mark or 'kudlit' that further modified pronunciation and writing. The dot, line or arrow head was either placed
above or below the symbol. The literature thus preserved has played a very important role in the public schooling arena
and the rise of the educated class. The colonization by Spain breathed a different kind of life into vernacular and Filipino
literature. Spain brought about liberal ideas and a sense of internationalism to the people of Philippines, which was
reflected in the popularity of chivalric heroic poems called 'awit' and religious poems called 'corridos'. Religious
literature, biography of saints and folktales became the mainstay of vernacular literature during the early period of

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Philippine Literature in Spanish

Philippine literature in Spanish can be broadly categorized into three stages or phases. The first phase was the time
period when religious works as instructed by the colonial masters were spread throughout the land. In the early 17th
century Tomas Pinpin published a book that attempted to translate Spanish to local Tagalog language. Thus paving the
way for Filipinos to learn and understand the ways of the colonialists. This small event marked the beginning of
increased learning and use of Spanish by local writers and authors. By the early 1800s many writers began to recognize
the Philippines a separate entity from Spain and subsequently expressed their views and ideas through their works.
Some prominent works of the time were, El Paranaso Filipino, Mare Magnum.

Literature in the Philippines was developed and preserved by native Filipino intellectuals. Isidro Marfori, Enrique
Fernandez Lumba, Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jess Balmori, Flavio Zaragoza Cano and Francisco Zaragoza
played a major role in the preservation of the stories handed down in time. Writers such as Castrillo, Fernandez, Rivera,
Licsi and Estrada also spent a major part of their lives in the documentation of 'by-word-of-mouth' hand-downs.
Columns and articles in newspapers such as El Renacimiento, La Vanguardia, El Pueblo de Iloilo, La Democracia and El
Tiempo kept the legacies alive in Spanish. In the later half of the 19th century, strong nationalistic and patriotic ideas
began to flow around all of Philippines and an idea of a free Philippines, distinct from Spain was expressed by many
writers and publications of that time. It was ironic that nationalism was propagated more through Spanish language
instead of the local vernacular tongue. This era (1870 to 1903) saw the rise of national heroes like Jose Rizal, Graciano
Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Pedro Paterno who contributed to important Spanish literary work in the
Philippines by the way of various historical documents, revolutionary propaganda and nationalist articles. Philippine
literature in Spanish was preserved well through private publications like 'Plaridel' and the first Spanish newspaper 'El
Boletn de Ceb' and 'Flora Sentino', by Orlando Agnes.

At the start of the 20th century the American control introduced English to the islands that brought about a
significant change in the use of Spanish in Philippine literature. Further more, Japanese occupation during World War II
and Commonwealth membership brought about a slow demise of Spanish and an emergence of English in the country's

Philippine Literature in English

The emergence of Philippine literature in English can be traced back to the early 1900s after the Philippine-
American War as English became the medium of teaching in educational institutions across the Philippines. The advent
of missionaries and English educators led to the establishing of English newspapers and magazines which were short-
lived. But the real impetus to English literature was provided by the founding of the magazines Philippines Herald and
Manila Tribune. These publications helped introduce authors like Loreto Paras, Jose Garcia Villa, Casiano Calalang to the
reading public. The first quarter of the twentieth century proved to be the most favorable period for English literature in
the Philippines and some of the famous publications of those times were: A Child's Sorrow, Many Voices, The Wound
and the Scar, Literature and Society.

The advent of the Second World War and the subsequent Japanese occupation led most writers and authors to
either go underground or write in Tagalog. Writing in English regained its earlier fervor and enthusiasm once the war
was over and produced some famous writers like Carlos Bulosan, Alejandro Roces, Francisco Arcellana, Nick Joaquin.
Later on in the 1960s the Philippine government also recognized writers in the form of awards and felicitations which
still continue today.

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Literary work now available includes articles on Spanish conquest, native cultural heritage, pre-colonial
literature and traditional narratives. Another very interesting segment of Philippine literature includes inspiring
speeches and songs. This segment has effectively maintained the mystifying characteristic of Philippine epics and folk
tales. The narratives and descriptions of various magical characters, mythical objects and supernatural are surreal,
distinctly adhering to the ideologies and customs of the natives.

Ethno-epics such as Biag ni Lam-ang or the Life of Lam-ang, Agyu or Olahing, Sandayo of Subanon, Aliguyon, the
Hudhud and Labaw Donggon are great examples of assimilated styles and language variations. Today, Philippine
literature reflects national issues through political prose, essay writing and novels. Novels by Jose Rizal, El Filibusterismo
and Noli Me Tangere patronize the revival of the rich folk traditions. Philippine literature is a uniting element among its
people that encompasses a way of life and values cherished by the locals and will continue to evolve as enriched by
modern changes.

Philippine Literary History: The Early Period - 1900 to 1930

On August 13, 1898, the American forces occupied Manila. A few years later, in April of 1900, President William
McKinley directed the Philippine Commission to make English the official medium of instruction for all public schools.
The first teachers of English were members of the United States Army. In August of 1901 six hundred American teachers
arrived on the transport Thomas. They replaced the soldiers as teachers. In that year, 1901, the Philippine Normal
School was founded. Its purpose was to train Filipino in the art of teaching so that they could eventually take charge of
elementary education.

The students and the people in general learned English quickly. Even in 1899 there were English newspapers
such as The Courier, Insular Press, and Manila Freedom. In 1900 the Daily Bulletin was founded, while The Cablenews
started in 1902. The Philippines Free Press began in 1905, edited by F. Theodore Rogers. At first it was a bilingual weekly
in English and Spanish. In 1908 it published the first Filipino short stories in English.

In that same year, 1908, the University of the Philippines was founded. This school became the forerunner in the
use of English for higher education. In October of 1910 the University of the Philippines' College Folio was published.
This magazine printed the works of the first promising writers in English. These early selections were mostly ghost
stories or folk tales explaining natural phenomena. Often the authors taught a moral message which was evident even at
a first reading.

Among the famous early teachers of English might be mentioned Professors Dean S. Fansler and his wife
Harriott Ely Fansler, George Pope Shannon, Tom Inglis Moore, Harold P. Scott, and C. V. Wicker. In literature classes they
taught the works of Chaucer, Milton, Donne, Shakespeare, Irving, Hawthorne, Emerson, Thoreau, Poe, Longfellow,
Bryant, Harte, Holmes, Lowell, Shelley, Keats, Coleridge, Lamb, Joyce, Tennyson, Thackeray, Macaulay, and other famous

For composition themes they encouraged the students to write about folk tales and their own experiences. In
one college class of 1913 the students were asked to write speeches for these topics: The Building of a Modern Sanitary
Market; A Speech at the First Banquet of the Philippine Normal School; An Appeal to the Moral Sense-Cockfighting;
Primary Education in the Philippines; A Stump Speech before the People of a Certain Barrio; and The Unveiling of a
Monument Dedicated to Apolinario Mabini; The student themes were carefully corrected and when a grammatical
mistake was made students were required to write the corrected form five times. At the end of each theme, the student
wrote a statement of originality testifying that "...this is my own original work." The skill and dedication of the early
teachers was to produce rich results in the years to come.

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At first Filipino writing in English was quite formal and imitative. Influences from the Spanish language could be
seen in the use of Spanish expressions and in an ornate style. Grammatical expression was at times awkward and there
was some difficulty in the use of prepositions and pronouns. But gradually the quality of writing improved. Between
1908 and 1914 some students at the University of the Philippines collected and retold, in English, old Filipino tales.
These writings were gathered by Dean S. Fansler and published in Filipino Popular Talesin 1921. In 1912 the graduates of
the Manila High School published their English writings in The Coconut. The following year 1913, the Philippine Normal
School introduced its publication,The Torch.

Aside from student publications, newspapers and magazines provided an early outlet for writers. In 1920
thePhilippines Herald began publication. It was founded by Manuel L. Quezon and its magazine section was edited by
Paz Marquez Benitez. As distinguished writer herself, she helped to make familiar the names of Paz Latorena, Loreto
Paras, Jose Garcia Villa, Casiano T. Calalang, and others. In 1924 A.V.H. Hartendorp became the editor of the Philippine
Educator Magazine. Some four year later, he widened its content and renamed it thePhilippine Magazine. The high
quality of this magazine made it so popular that it became the most influential literary magazine in the country. It
published some of the best Filipino writing in English.

Filipino writers received further encouragement in 1925. In that year TheFree Press began paying for original
manuscripts and offered P1,000 for the best stories. The Manila Tribune was founded and, along with the Graphic,
theWoman's Outlook, the Woman's Home Journal, and the Philippine Collegian, offered further incentives to promising
writers. Also in 1925 the Philippine Writers Association was organized with Rizal G. Adorable as president. Among the
early members were: Paz Latorena, Loreto Paras, Jose Garcia Villa, Jose Panganiban, Remedios Mijares, Mercedes Grau,
Clemencia Joven, Casiano Calalang, Jose Dayrit, Sol H. Gwekoh, Arturo B. Rotor, D. H. Soriano, and Augusto C. Catanjal.

Perhaps an even more influential group was the Writer's Club founded in 1927 at the University of the
Philippines. This group published Literary Apprentice which became the leading college literary publication in the
country. The Writer's Club stimulated and encouraged an artistic consciousness among the literary circles of the

The first thirty years of Philippine Literature in English produced little in the fields of drama and the novel.
Drama was hardly written because vernacular plays and the zarzuela still dominated the stage. The first Filipino novel in
English was A Child of Sorrow, written by Zoilo M. Galang in 1921. He later wroteVisions of a Sower in 1924 and Nadia in
1929. Another novelist of this period was Ernest Lopez who published His Awakeningin 1929.

From 1900 to 1930 there was some significant writing of essays, short stories, and poems. In the following
paragraphs the development of these forms will be treated in more detail.

Essays. The essay was a popular form of expression for the early writers. Some essays were light or humorous, while
others dealt with more serious subjects such as education, history, politics, and social problems. As early as 1926
essayists expressed the need for a literature that was native and national. Many essays first appeared as newspaper
columns and later they were published in anthologies. In 1921 Zoilo M. Galang published Life and Success, the first
volume of essays in English. Another collection of Filipino essays appeared in 1924, entitled Thinking for Ourselves,
edited by Vicente M. Hilario and Eliseo Quirino. In that year Zoilo M. Galang also published another book of
essays,Master of Destiny. Among the early essay writers might be mentioned F. M. Africa, Francisco Benitez, Jorge
Bocobo, Amador Daguio, Leandro Fernandez, Zoilo M. Galang, Fernando Ma. Guererro, M. M. Kalaw, Pedro de la Llana,
I. V. Mallari, Ignacio Manlapaz, Fernando Maramag, Camilo Osias, Claro M. Recto, Carlos P. Romulo, and Eulogio B.

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Short Stories. Virginia R. Moreno has described the literary years 1910-1924 as "...a period of novices with their
experiences both in fiction-making and the use of the new language; 1925 to 1931 was the period of the phenomenal
growth among the practitioners in the art." It is true that the early short stories were the work of novices. The tales were
often romantic and the adventures, themes, and plots were sometimes imitated. There were difficulties in grammar and
at times there was a tendency toward sentimentalism. But gradually, certain writers appeared who showed that the
novitiate period was ending. Jorge Bocobo's "Horrible Adventure" in thePhilippine Review for May 1916, and Paz
Marquez Benitez's "The Siren of 34 Real" in the Philippine Review for July, 1917 were praised by critics for their high
literary quality. On September 20, 1925 The Philippines Herald published "Dead Stars" by Paz Marquez Benitez. This
story was quickly recognized as one of the best short stories yet written by a Filipino.

In 1925 Zoilo M. Galang published the first collection of short stories in book form under the title Box of Ashes
and Other Stories. Beginning with 1926, Jose Garcia Villa encouraged writers with his yearly selection of the best Filipino
short stories. In 1927 the first anthology of Filipino short stories was edited by Paz Marquez Benitez. It was entitled
Filipino Love Stories. In that same year, Jose Villa Panganiban published The Stealer of Hearts and Other Stories. In 1928
the best short stories were compiled by Jose Garcia Villa inPhilippine Short Stories: The Best 25 Stories of 1928.

By 1930 original and significant stories were being written. "Zita," written by Arturo B. Rotor around 1930, has
been called " of the finest love stories in Filipino Literature in English." Among the early short story writers were:
Paz Marquez Benitez, Jorge Bocobo, Amador T. Daguio, Pilar Hidalgo Lim, Paz Latorena, Tarcila Malabanan, Jose Villa
Panganiban, Arturo B. Rotor, Loreto Paras Sulit, L. B. Uichangco, and Jose Garcia Villa.

Poems. The first known Filipino poem in English is "Sursum Corda," by Justo Juliano. It appeared in the Philippines Free
Press in 1907. This poem, along with others of that period, has been criticized as being too artificial and overwritten in
order to achieve intensity. The early poems often borrowed images and similes from English or American poets. The first
collection of poems in book form was Reminiscences, by Lorenzo Paredes, in 1921. In 1922 Procopio Solidum published
Never Mind, a collection of Filipino poetry in English. Rodolfo Dato edited an anthology of Filipino poems in 1924 under
the titleFilipino Poetry. In 1926 he published his own poems in Manila.

Most critics agree that Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion was a leading poet of the early period. His Azucena was
published in New York in 1925. His poems reveal simple images with deep sensitivity and original thought. Some poets
who belonged to the early period of Philippine Literature were: Aurelio S. Alvero, Marcelo de Gracia Concepcion, Rafael
Zulueta da Costa, Luis Dato, Vicente L. del Fierro, Virgilio Floresca, Angela Manalang Gloria, Jose M. Hernandez, A. E.
Litiatco, Fernando M. Maramag, Natividad Marquez, Conrado B. Rigor, Juan F. Salazar, Abelardo Subido, Trinidad Tarrosa
Subido, Francisco G. Tonogbanua, L.B. Uichangco, and Jose Garcia Villa.