“Instill the love and passion you have for this sport into each and every student you teach.”

Principal Author Neil E. Bussiere Technical Director, Mountain High Winter Sports School Mountain High Resort, Wrightwood, CA AASI-Western Clinician/Examiner PSIA/AASI-W Executive VP PSIA/AASI-W Board of Directors Contributing Author Ken Mattson Assistant Director, Mountain High Winter Sports School Mountain High Resort, Wrightwood, CA AASI-Western Clinician/Examiner PSIA/AASI-W Board of Directors 3rd edition  Copyright 2005 by Neil E. Bussiere
All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Neil E. Bussiere. AASI-W exam criteria and the associated handbook content are subject to change without notice. The author assumes no responsibility for the correctness and/or accuracy of the exam criteria and content as presented. The author shall not be held accountable or liable for any errors or changes in the content, or for any actions taken in reliance thereon. The Snowboard Teaching System and its contents are a registered trademark of the American Association of Snowboard Instructors, Inc.

This Snowboard Certification Handbook is dedicated to the teaching membership of AASI-Western, both past and present. It is the author’s intent to ensure that such friendship, dedication, and professionalism are the hallmarks of our division for many years to come. Thanks to all of you who have inspired me along the way. Neil E. Bussiere

Welcome to the American Association of Snowboard Instructors (AASI) Western Division Certification Training Program. This handbook has been developed to be both your guide and an invaluable informational aid in your pursuit of the coveted AASI Snowboard Certification Pin. This handbook outlines the overall certification process, the respective standards for each of the certification levels, and their associated prerequisite requirements. The informational sections which follow are intended to be used in conjunction with weekly snowboard training clinics. These clinics should be both informational and developmental in nature. They must also be scheduled as to achieve optimal preparation for each of the relevant AASI certification events as they arise, ultimately culminating in the certification exam. Your feedback on this handbook and the training content is welcome and highly valued. We look forward to another great season on the snow. The membership of AASI-W thanks you for your participation!

1.0 Orientation 2.0 Certification Guidelines 2.1 Administration / Eligibility 2.2 Educational / Preparatory Clinics 2.3 Certification Exam Format 2.4 Certification Standards 3.0 Safety 4.0 Training Topics 4.1 The Snowboard Teaching System - Service Concepts - Riding Concepts - Teaching Concepts 4.2 Movement and Performance Concepts 4.3 Demonstrations 4.4 Required Riding 4.5 Physics 4.6 Kinesiology/Biomechanics 4.7 Equipment 4.8 Movement Patterns/Turn Mechanics 4.9 Movement Analysis 4.10 Action Plan Building 4.11 Teaching Methodology 5.0 Advanced Action Plans 6.0 Summary & Review p. 1 p. 3 p. 4 p. 9 p. 12 p. 15 p. 34 p. 37 p. 38 p. 38 p. 40 p. 43 p. 47 p. 51 p. 57 p. 60 p. 66 p. 75 p. 84 p. 91 p. 96 p. 99 p. 102 p. 107

APPENDIX A - Teaching Children APPENDIX B - Study Questions APPENDIX C - Notes p. 110 p. 116 p. 134

SCH Page 1 Orientation

THE CERTIFICATION PIN: This is your goal. It will take a lot of hard work and study, but it will be well worth it. Pass or not, you will become a more knowledgeable, well-rounded instructor. Any certified instructor must first acknowledge their role as a teacher and coach. The ability to teach effectively and convey information can not be understated. Level I candidates will find this handbook useful in familiarizing themselves with the certification process and obtaining the Bronze Pin. Level II candidates are encouraged to use this handbook to solidify their knowledge base in their quest for the Silver Pin. Level III candidates in search of the Gold Pin are further encouraged to study the supplemental sections denoted by the italicized print in order to augment and complement their existing knowledge. Incidentally, you must be a PSIA or AASI member to undertake the certification process. If you are not get an application from your snowboard school office ASAP. CERTIFICATION GUIDELINES: Read and review the guidelines provided in this handbook well in advance of the exam or any formal preparatory clinics. The guidelines not only identify all the administrative details pertaining to the certification process such as eligibility requirements and deadlines but also cover the expectations of the candidates at the various certification levels. Be smart and take advantage of the guidelines presented, plan out your season, and get the paperwork details out of the way early. One should note that AASI has approved and adopted a curriculum option which allows Level I candidates to complete their certification at their home area. Such certification occurs under the direction of an AASI-accredited trainer who has attended AASI-W Educational Core training. This alternate means of certification is explained in more detail in the coming sections. CLINIC PREPARATION: Make a habit of reading relevant training material the night before any given clinic. You will take home more from a clinic if you bring something to it. Not even an over zealous Examiner can stump a prepared instructor come exam time!

SCH Page 2 Orientation

STUDY GROUPS: Develop a study group. It’s a team effort. You must look at it this way. If you all work together, you will knock them cold at the exams! Study groups have always proven highly successful. STUDY MATERIALS: There is a wealth of study material available to aid you in your quest for the pin. In addition to the standard reference manuals and texts available through AASI and PSIA, there are numerous, invaluable handouts which seem to migrate seasonally from one instructor to the next. Find them! SUPPLEMENTAL TEXTS: The recommended supplemental texts are listed here for your convenience. At a minimum, you should have these texts in your possession or access to them. These texts are excellent cross-reference tools with loads of additional information. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. AASI Snowboard Manual - National (green/graphics,1998) AASI Movement Analysis Handbook (green/graphics, 2003) PSIA/AASI Core Concepts Manual (maroon/graphics, 2001) PSIA Alpine Technical Manual (white/green graphics, 2001) PSIA Children’s Instruction Manual (lime green, 1997) PSIA/AASI Children’s Ski & S/B Movement Guide (new, 2004) Pathways to Superior Lessons: Tiny Bubbles (on-line, 2004) Vail & Beaver Creek Snowboard Handbook (blue, 2001)

These are just a few of the many outstanding texts now in publication. Further material references and certification information can be obtained at the PSIA/AASI Western Division Website at or the AASI National Website at




These are the three Core Values of AASI. Now that you’ve got your bearings, remain safe, have fun, and strive to give yourself and ultimately your students that added bonus of learning something in the process.

SCH Page 3 Certification Guidelines

The pages that follow provide important exam guidelines, all of which are crucial to timely, complete and proper preparation for the exam. CERTIFICATION GUIDELINES: The certification guidelines not only explain the eligibility requirements, but also identify critical deadlines, all of which must be adhered to by all candidates. No exceptions! The guidelines also lay out the scope of the preparatory clinics and the actual format of the exam. Understanding the exam format and each facet of the overall process cannot be stressed enough. Additionally, the standards, which comprise each of the certification levels, are provided for your benefit and enlightenment. These standards correlate directly to the Examiners’ expectations of the candidates on exam day. Simply put, consider it a great advantage to know what is expected of you and use that as a baseline in your preparation and study. The certification guidelines are very comprehensive and somewhat detailed. Therefore, they are divided into four distinct sections which are expanded upon in the coming pages. Section 2.1 - Administration / Eligibility Requirements Section 2.2 - Educational / Preparatory Clinics Section 2.3 - Certification Exam Format Section 2.4 - Certification Standards Scrub the requirements, memorize the format and know the standards by which you are going to be judged! Strong preparation and unrelenting persistence is the key to undertaking and completing any ambitious endeavor. All candidates who plan to be successful in their quest for the certification pin will make it a point to be adequately prepared and “in the know”. Make sure you are one of them!

SCH Page 4 Administration/Eligibility

The administrative details and eligibility requirements are straightforward and self-explanatory. Take the high road and work out the logistics well in advance. Any pertinent questions you may have should first be directed to your PSIA/AASI representative or snowboard school office before contacting the busy-yet-helpful staff in the divisional office. SCHEDULES: Each fall AASI-W publishes a calendar of events for the coming season. This calendar is then maintained and updated throughout the season on the divisional website at The calendar is also sent to all member snowboard schools to be posted in a conspicuous place that is visible to all instructors. REGISTRATION DEADLINES: All deadlines for educational events and the exam are noted on the AASI-W calendar. These deadlines are typically two (2) weeks prior to the each event. Applications must be received in the divisional office by the posted deadline. No exceptions! FEES / LIFT TICKETS: The following general rules apply: 1. Fees are stated on the event and exam applications. 2. The fees for all AASI-W events include lift tickets, except where noted. 3. The divisional office can provide information on late charges and transfer fees. 4. All candidates must bring their event confirmation cards with them when attending an event. REFUNDS: The following refund rules and time constraints apply:

SCH Page 5 Administration/Eligibility

1. Injured or ill candidates may receive a refund with no penalty upon proof of injury or illness (i.e., doctor’s note). 2. A fifty percent (50%) refund will be issued if the AASI-W office is notified 7-14 days prior to an exam or educational event. 3. No refunds will be issued six (6) days or less prior to an educational event or exam. Again, No Exceptions! 4. A full refund will be given upon the cancellation of a scheduled event (i.e., lack of necessary sign-ups). LATE SIGN-UPS: Should space permit for late sign-ups a late fee will be added to all those who sign-up after the deadline date. It is generally the policy of AASI-W that no candidate will be added to an event or exam in a “walk-on” status. All names must appear on the official participant list provided by the divisional office. The final decision, however, rests with the event coordinator or captain. EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS: Candidates applying for the certification exams must fulfill the following educational requirements: Level I 1. Must have attended a one (1) day educational or certification preparatory clinic. The educational event must be at a level consistent with the certification exam. Level II 1. Must have attended two (2) days of educational or certification preparatory clinics. The educational event must be at a level consistent with the certification exam. 2. Must be current in overall educational requirements (twelve (12) hours of AASI-W sanctioned events in last two years).

SCH Page 6 Administration/Eligibility

Level III 1. Must have attended a minimum of one (1) day of educational or certification preparatory clinics. The educational event(s) must be at a level consistent with the certification exam. 2. Must be current in overall educational requirements (twelve (12) hours of AASI-W sanctioned events in last two years). EXAM ELIGIBILITY: The minimum eligibility requirements for the respective exam certification levels are presented here. Level I 1. 2. 3. 4. Registered member for at least part of one season; and Has submitted a completed exam application; and Has attended the appropriate Level I Prep/Educational event; and Is current in dues.

Level II 1. Level I for one complete season; and 2. Employed by a PSIA/AASI-W member school; and 3. Has written approval from their snowboard school director via a completed exam application; and 4. Has attended the appropriate Level II Prep/Educational event; and 5. Is current in educational requirements; and 6. Is current in dues. Level III 1. Level II for one complete season; and 2. Employed by a PSIA/AASI-W member school; and 3. Has written approval from their snowboard school director via a completed exam application; and 4. Has attended the appropriate Level III Prep/Educational event; and

SCH Page 7 Administration/Eligibility

5. Is current in educational requirements; and 6. Is current in dues. PETITION CHALLENGE: A provision does exist which allows limited modification of exam prerequisites on a case-by-case petitioned basis. While the traditional educational requirements for a given certification level still apply any member in good standing may petition to move directly to challenge any level of exam given certain approvals. Those approvals consist of an AASI-W Accredited Educator and the Snowboard Vice President. It should be noted that this provision is intended to accommodate unique individuals and circumstances, and the existing published prerequisites are still encouraged as the preferred track. INSTRUCTORS FROM OTHER DIVISIONS: Instructors from other AASI divisions may take AASI-W exams provided they fulfill the following requirements. These candidates: 1. Must be current members in good standing in their division and AASI; and 2. Must fulfill the requirements of their division; and 3. Must apply through their divisional office to AASI-W; and 4. Must pay all required fees; and 5. Must have written approval from the Certification Chair of their division; and 6. Must have the approval of the AASI-W Snowboard VP. FOREIGN-CERTIFIED INSTRUCTORS: Foreign instructors with certified credentials in an ISIA-recognized instructor’s association may join AASI as a registered member and may forego the Level I and Level II exam and take the Level III exam in the same season, subject to the following guidelines. These candidates: 1. Must submit proof that they are certified in their organization and are a current member in good standing; and 2. Must pay Registered membership dues; and

SCH Page 8 Administration/Eligibility

3. Must attend the appropriate Preparatory/Educational events within one calendar year of the specific year. If the instructor does not pass the Level III exam then they will maintain a Level II certified membership status. CERTIFICATION TRANSFER: AASI-W instructors taking exams in other divisions may transfer that certification to AASI-W provided they fulfill the following requirements: 1. Must be current members in good standing in AASI-W; and 2. Must fulfill AASI-W requirements of the exam; and 3. Must fulfill the requirements of the division in which they are taking the exam; and 4. Must pay all required fees; and 5. Must have written approval from the AASI-W Snowboard VP, and 6. Must have the approval of the Certification Chair of the division in which they are taking the exam.

SCH Page 9 Educational / Preparatory Clinics

As mentioned all candidates must fulfill their prerequisite educational requirement by attending either AASI-W sanctioned Educational Events or Preparatory Clinic(s) for the given certification level. All candidates must complete this educational requirement within the guidelines of the respective pending exam (see Educational Requirements, page 5). PREPARATORY CLINICS: The specific purpose of the Preparatory Clinics is to familiarize the candidate with the standards and information that will be covered during the exam. The preparatory clinics are not pretests. Their function is to educate, not evaluate, by fostering an informal, relaxed and interactive environment conducive to learning. Educational events are similarly designed to cover and convey information that will be of benefit to AASI-W members for the course of their instructional career as well as aid them in preparation for exams. Educational events will traditionally cover a specific selected informational topic, the details of which can usually be found on the divisional website at CLINIC DAY CONDUCT: The clinics will be conducted according to certification level. The Level I clinic is a one-day clinic. Correspondingly, the Level II clinic is a two-day clinic while Level III is a one to three day clinic (as offered). The clinics are led by one Examiner or Clinician each day with group sizes limited to approximately 7-9 candidates per group per day. Participants will be provided with a verbal outline of the day’s activities upon arrival at the clinic. The Preparatory Clinics are designed to give an overview of the types of situations that will be presented at the exam. There are three separate disciplines that will be covered at the preparatory clinics. These three disciplines correspond directly to the three major scored sections of the certification exam, namely Riding, Teaching, and Professional

SCH Page 10 Educational / Preparatory Clinics

Knowledge (see Certification Exam Format and Certification Standards in the coming sections). RIDING: The Riding portion represents the realm of required snowboarding maneuvers and movement patterns. These pathways are characterized by the breadth of snowboarding movements and styles, from freestyle, to carving, to the required and more structured AASI Demonstration Forms. The riding part of the preparatory clinics will cover the demonstration forms, required riding, and riding improvement as defined by the Riding Concepts. The Clinician or Examiner will present the demonstrations forms and specific examples of the riding and freestyle elements corresponding to that level of certification. TEACHING: The Teaching portion of the exam covers the full range of teaching-related aspects. The Clinician will present and analyze sample teaching situations and Action Plans for the benefit of the participants. Those in attendance are expected to participate through teaching involvement and follow-up discussion. The clinic will also address aspects of student/instructor interaction, Movement Analysis, and Teaching Concepts, along with other teaching-related topics. PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE: The Professional Knowledge portion of the preparatory clinic will include a question and answer session involving the participants. Led by the Clinician, the questions are intended to promote thought and spur discussion about all facets of snowboarding, including teaching, fundamental ideas, and terminology as related to the areas of Kinesiology/Biomechanics, Physics, Equipment, Industry Trends, and Movement Patterns/Turn Mechanics. EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK: In keeping with the educational vein of the clinics, no written evaluations of the participants will be given. This allows the Clinician or Examiner to focus on educating the participants rather than evaluating them. The absence of written evaluations also takes the “pressure of performing” off of those in

SCH Page 11 Educational / Preparatory Clinics

attendance. Event Feedback Sheets are requested from the participants to help improve the structure of the AASI-W program and the training of our educators. As with all clinics, sanctioned or not, you will bring home more from the clinic if you arrive with some level of preparation. Make use of this handbook and get a great headstart. Remember to have fun too!

SCH Page 12 Certification Exam Format

In order to improve your chances of passing the exam you must become familiar with the exam format itself. Learn the detailed content of each of the exam sections. By doing so, you will be able to structure your studying for success. Also, as a result, you may discover where those weaker, more vulnerable spots in your “AASI armor” lie. THE EXAM FORMAT: The certification exam will be structured according to the format presented here. Level I candidates who choose to pursue the alternate in-house exam format and curriculum should consult the content outline at the end of this section. To best utilize the supplemental training material contained in this handbook it is organized by topic, with clinic training topics corresponding to selected exam-scored sections as outlined below. THE AASI CERTIFICATION EXAM FORMAT 1. RIDING a. Demonstrations (Required Forms) b. Required Riding (Situational Riding, Carving, Freestyle) 2. TEACHING a. Movement Analysis (Preparation, Observation, Evaluation, Intervention) b. Action Plan (Theory, Derived and Alternative Plans, Advanced Action Plans) c. Teaching Methodology/Concepts (Applying S.T.S., Presentation, Communication, Class Handling) 3. PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE a. Physics & Kinesiology/Biomechanics b. Industry Trends c. Equipment d. Movement Patterns/Turn Mechanics

SCH Page 13 Certification Exam Format

EXAM DAY CONDUCT: The exams will be conducted according to certification level. Similar to the preparatory clinics, the Level I Exam is a one-day event and the Level II Exam is two days. New for 2005, the Level III Exam is a four-day interactive exam with a two day Riding module and a two day Teaching / Professional Knowledge module. The exams are led by one Examiner each day and cover the aforementioned format each day. Group sizes will be limited to five (5) candidates per Examiner group per day. Candidates will be evaluated on fundamental mechanics for the demonstrations and tasks on appropriate terrain. The candidates will be scored on the demonstrations as well as on their ability to adapt to the situational tasks that are listed in the Certification Standards section. Each demonstration will be performed two times, although tasks and situational conditions may be limited to one opportunity and score. Candidates taking the Level I Exam will be given one teaching assignment each. Level II and Level III candidates will be given two teaching assignments each day; one derived from watching an actual snowboarder, the other from a hypothetical situation given by the Examiner. During the day all tasks will be scored on each Examiner’s notepad along with relevant comments for each of the categories as listed in the Certification Standards. The scores will be placed on the Examiner’s scorecard at the end of the day and will be derived from the scores and notes compiled during that day. The Examiners or Event Captain will then transpose those numbers on to a Final Scorecard for the comprehensive Pass/Fail tally. WRITTEN EXAM: A written exam will be administered usually at the completion of the first day’s on-snow activities. The exam will consist of either 20, 30, or 40 questions corresponding to the ascending levels of certification. The written exam will cover all aspects of snowboarding and will be factored into the Professional Knowledge score on the exam.

SCH Page 14 Certification Exam Format

SCORING: All final exam scoring will be done numerically with totals in each individual discipline equating to a pass or fail score. These three major scored areas, Riding, Teaching, and Professional Knowledge will be totaled individually and each assessed against the pass/fail criteria for that discipline. To derive such a score, the subsections of these disciplines will be scored on a scale from one to ten (1-10). 1 - Lowest Score 10 – Highest Score The total cumulative passing scores are predicated on an average score across each scored item although individually scored items can vary. However, candidates must concurrently pass all three disciplines (Riding, Teaching, and Professional Knowledge) to achieve the level of certification sought. RESULTS / NOTIFICATION: Candidates will receive copies of the Examiner’s scorecards including relevant comments and feedback and a Final Scorecard within two to three weeks of the exam. They will not, however, receive a copy of the Examiner’s personal notes. In some cases, scorecards will be sent to the appropriate snowboard school for distribution. LEVEL I “IN-HOUSE” CERTIFICATION: Level I candidates may have the option of undertaking an in-house certification process if offered at their local mountain in lieu of attending an actual certification exam. The process consists of the completion of a candidate portfolio and specified curriculum under the direction of a resident AASIaccredited trainer who has attended AASI-Western Educational Core Training. Upon completion of the portfolio curriculum an evaluation clinic is administered by an AASI Examiner as a means of final validation. Level I candidates who choose to pursue this alternate inhouse certification format should consult their resident snowboard school management for more information.

SCH Page 15 Certification Standards

LEVEL I RIDING GENERAL LEVEL I RIDING PROFICIENCY “A Certified Level I snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. 2. 3. 4. Complete basic turns on green and easy blue terrain. Link turns consistently with sustained rhythm. Maintain consistent speed by controlling the shape of the turn. Maintain a functional, balanced stance and show a blending of movements throughout a series of turns. 5. Show the ability to ride in a variety of shaped turns (short and medium) while maintaining speed control on groomed blue terrain.

LEVEL I DEMONSTRATIONS AND REQUIRED RIDING Basic Skidded Turns 1. Ride on easy green terrain demonstrating a series of turns. 2. From a skidded traverse, an extension occurs at the hips, knees, and ankles while utilizing a forward movement across the board and plantar-flexion of the front foot to release the edge. Use the whole body as the turning power. 3. Edge change should occur at the fall-line. 4. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate leg steering to guide the board out of the fall-line. 5. As the board crosses the fall-line a gradual increase in flexion occurs at the hips, knees, and ankles. 6. A skidded traverse is resumed in the new direction with the rider in a comfortable, flexed position.

SCH Page 16 Certification Standards

Switch Skidded Turns 1. Ride on easy green terrain demonstrating a series of turns. 2. From a skidded switch traverse, an extension occurs at the hips, knees, and ankles while utilizing a forward movement across the board and plantar-flexion of the new front foot to release the edge. Use the whole body as the turning power. 3. Edge change should occur at the fall-line. 4. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate leg steering to guide the board out of the fall-line. 5. As the board crosses the fall-line a gradual increase in flexion occurs at the hips, knees, and ankles. 6. A skidded traverse is resumed in the new direction with the rider in a comfortable, flexed position. Skidded Turns 1. Demonstrate skidded turns on green or easy blue terrain. 2. From the previous turn an extension occurs at the hips, knees, and ankles while utilizing a forward movement across the board and plantar-flexion of the front foot to release the edge. 3. The edge change occurs before the fall-line. 4. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate leg steering as the primary turning power to continue to guide the board. 5. Turns should be linked, of consistent size, shape and speed. Freestyle 1. Basic Air - Demonstrate a movement into the air. Movement patterns must show a balanced position in the air and upon landing (i.e., Straight Line Jump, Ollie, Nose Roll 180°, Air/Hop 180°)

SCH Page 17 Certification Standards

Situational Riding 1. Situational Riding may include Tasks which elicit Tilt, Twist, Pivot, and Pressure as resulting Performance Concepts from the snowboard. LEVEL I TEACHING GENERAL LEVEL I TEACHING KNOWLEDGE “A Certified Level I snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Identify the main components of the AASI Riding and Teaching Concepts, and the philosophy and principles of the Snowboard Teaching System (S.T.S) as well as discuss how to use the system when teaching up through S.T.S. Rider Levels 1-3. 2. Recall your Responsibility Code and discuss how to introduce it when teaching Rider Levels 1-3. 3. Discuss how to use the Riding and Teaching Concepts when teaching through linked skidded turns. 4. Identify visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities and give examples of how to recognize a student’s learning preference. 5. Identify four styles of teaching. Understand styles of teaching and explain how they are used in a lesson. 6. Compare (using the CAP Model) the differing student profiles of adults/children and describe similarities/differences in teaching basic through linked skidded turns a. Demonstrate knowledge that children think differently from adults and other children of different ages. b. Demonstrate knowledge that children of different ages are motivated and behave differently in learning situations. c. Demonstrate knowledge that children grow and develop physically in ways that can affect snowboarding performance.

SCH Page 18 Certification Standards

LEVEL I APPLICATION OF TEACHING “A Certified Level I snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Show effective use of each key component of the AASI Teaching Concepts. 2. Teach the riding public up to Rider Level 3, linked skidded turns (this includes chairlift use, straight run to a J- turn, climbing and skating, basic turns on toe and heel, sideslipping, falling leaf.) LEVEL I MOVEMENT ANALYSIS “A Certified Level I snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Describe the basic fundamental movements in Rider Levels 1-3. 2. Determine the cause and effect relationships related to stance and the Movement /Performance Concepts in Rider Levels 1-3. 3. Prescribe what a student should work on by prioritizing movement needs in Rider Levels 1-3. 4. Prepare a movement-based developmental lesson plan for riders in Rider Levels 1-3. Include exercises and tasks that target the rider’s needs and change their performance. 5. Prescribe a corrective exercise or task for a student where performance is observed to be inconsistent with effective movement application and blending. LEVEL I PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Level I Professional Knowledge will be evaluated in a written exam consisting of ten (10) teaching and ten (10) understanding questions. Practical application of these concepts will be observed in the Teaching portion of the exam. A numerical score will be given to the written exam. The number of correct answers on the written test will be factored into the Professional Knowledge score for pass/fail purposes. “A Certified Level I snowboard instructor is knowledgeable of and can...”

SCH Page 19 Certification Standards

Terminology/Industry Trends/Movement Patterns 1. Define and explain basic snowboarding terminology as described in the AASI National Snowboard Manual and other resources. 2. Describe the Snowboarders’ Responsibility Code. 3. Describe the different pathways for riders and how a rider can determine what pathway to take. 4. Describe snowboarder services and activities at one’s home area which enhance the enjoyment of the students and other guests. 5. Identify the fundamental movements and relate them to snowboarding in the various turn phases. Equipment 1. Identify the equipment needs of snowboarders capable of snowboarding through linked skidded turns. 2. Describe the characteristics of boots and boards for riders in Rider Levels 1-3. Basic Physics 1. Define gravity, friction, and centrifugal and centripetal forces. Basic Kinesiology/Biomechanics 1. Understand the skeletal system, muscular system, types of joints and how they work and the differences between adult’s and children’s skeletal and muscular systems.

SCH Page 20 Certification Standards

LEVEL II RIDING GENERAL LEVEL II RIDING PROFICIENCY “A Certified Level II snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Exhibit efficient and effective snowboarding on blue and easier black terrain up to S.T.S. Rider Level 4. 2. Demonstrate appropriate movement application and blending as dictated by terrain and assigned tasks. 3. Maintain a balanced stance and control speed by adjusting turn shape throughout a series of turns on blue and easy black terrain. 4. Link turns of consistent rhythm and shape, such as a series of short or long turns. Demonstrate Versatility: 1. Demonstrate a variety of turn shapes on blue and easy black terrain; 2. Link turns in or near the fall-line for the entire length of the run; some line change may be expected but without major traverses. 3. Apply appropriate movement applications and tactics in a variety of conditions (i.e. powder, hard snow, crud) on blue and easy black terrain. 4. Demonstrate the ability to brake or glide in a series of turns dictated by pitch, snow conditions. LEVEL II DEMONSTRATIONS AND REQUIRED RIDING Linked Medium Radius Skidded Turns 1. Ride on easy blue terrain demonstrating a series of similar-sized and shaped skidded turns emphasizing a finished turn shape for speed control.

SCH Page 21 Certification Standards

2. From the previous turn, utilize an upward forward movement of the body across the board with a simultaneous plantar-flexion of the front foot to release the edge 3. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate leg steering to guide the board through the fall-line. 4. Edge change should occur before the fall-line. 5. Demonstrate dynamic flexion/extension and lower body rotary movements to control the board through the turn. 6. As the turn is completed the rider is in a balanced, flexed position. Linked Short Radius Skidded Turns 1. Same movement pattern as the medium radius turn with Timing, Intensity, and Duration changes to produce turns that are distinctly smaller than that of the medium turn. Linked Switch Skidded Turns 1. Ride on green or easy blue terrain demonstrating a series of similar sized and shaped skidded switch turns emphasizing a finished turn shape for speed control. 2. From the previous turn, utilize an upward forward movement of the body across the board with a simultaneous plantar-flexion of the front foot to release the edge. 3. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate leg steering to guide the board to the fall-line. 4. Edge change should occur before the fall-line. 5. Demonstrate dynamic flexion/extension and lower body rotary movements to control the board through the turn 6. As the turn is completed the rider is in a balanced, flexed position. Carving 1. Demonstrate linked, carved turns on groomed green or easy blue terrain.

SCH Page 22 Certification Standards

2. Board design should be the primary turning power with no skidding. 3. A finished turn shape should be emphasized for speed control. Park / Pipe Freestyle 1. Half-Pipe - Functional half-pipe riding showing smooth flexion and extension through the transitions. Moves may include the Alley-Oop, switch moves, sustained grabs front or back, etc., and should be above the lip in a small pipe (10 to 12 ft walls) or at the lip in a super pipe (13 to 20 ft). 2. Park – Rider should be able to jump a tabletop of approximately ten (10) feet landing in the transition. Demonstrate a balanced, flexed stance at take-off and landing. Beginner park elements should be expected including small boxes, rails, and spines. Air -to-Switch 1. Demonstrate on green or easy blue terrain a jump with rotation of the body and board 180 degrees, landing in a flexed and balanced position. 2. The move should be performed off a small feature such as a spine, roller, or cat track, traveling approximately two board lengths. Situational Riding 1. Demonstrate balanced and functional riding in a variety of situations common to S.T.S. Rider Level 4 (bumps, crud, corridor). 2. Candidates may also be asked to perform different riding tasks (leapers, hourglass turns, funnel turns, short-to-medium, etc.) that demonstrate their overall adaptability and versatility. The Event Captain and Examiners select the tasks on the day of the exam.

SCH Page 23 Certification Standards

LEVEL II TEACHING GENERAL LEVEL II TEACHING KNOWLEDGE “A Certified Level II snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Identify the main components of the AASI Riding and Teaching Concepts, and the philosophy and principles of the Snowboard Teaching System (S.T.S) as well as discuss how to use the system when teaching up through Rider Level 4. 2. Discuss how to integrate the Snowboarders’ Responsibility Code when teaching up through Rider Level 4. 3. Identify visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles and give examples of how to recognize a student’s learning preference. 4. Identify learning styles of students and adjust teacher behavior to accommodate these different learning styles. 5. Describe command (direct), task, reciprocal and small group teaching styles and be able to use them during a lesson. 6. Describe the cognitive, affective and physical development of students, Rider Levels 1-4. LEVEL II APPLICATION OF TEACHING “A Certified Level II snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Teach the snowboarding public through Rider Level 4. 2. Demonstrate a working knowledge of the Teaching Concepts by effectively applying them to students through Rider Level 4. 3. Show effective use of each key component of the AASI Teaching Concepts. 4. Modify the lesson content to meet the needs of children at various stages of development by using the CAP Model. a. Present information for children in an age-appropriate way. b. Demonstrate, through a teaching presentation, knowledge of what motivates children of different ages and what to expect from them in social situations.

SCH Page 24 Certification Standards

c. Demonstrate an understanding of child development by showing what to expect from children of different ages in teaching situations. LEVEL II MOVEMENT ANALYSIS “A Certified Level II snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Describe the fundamental movements in riders through Rider Levels 1-4. 2. Determine the cause and effect relationships as related to stance and Movement Concepts in riders through Rider Level 4. 3. Describe and justify movement applications and prioritize needs for riders through Rider Level 4. 4. Prepare a movement-based developmental lesson plan focusing on exercises and tasks that target a rider’s needs and change their performance. 5. Prescribe corrective exercises or tasks for riding up through Rider Level 4 where performance is observed to be inconsistent with effective movement application and blending. LEVEL II PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Level II Professional Knowledge will be evaluated in a written exam consisting of fifteen (15) teaching and fifteen (15) understanding questions. Practical application of these concepts will be observed in the Teaching portion of the exam. A numerical score will be given to the written exam. The number of correct answers on the written test will be factored into the Professional Knowledge score for pass/fail purposes.

SCH Page 25 Certification Standards

“A Certified Level II snowboard instructor is knowledgeable of and can...” Terminology/Industry Trends/Movement Patterns 1. Define and explain basic snowboarding terminology as described in the AASI Snowboard Manual and other resources and apply it to personal riding and to teaching students through Rider Level 4. 2. Describe and explain your Snowboarders’ Responsibility Code. 3. Relate terminology to students in a simple, easy to understand way. 4. Describe several skier/snowboarder services and activities at one’s home area which enhance the enjoyment of students and guests. 5. Describe the Movement and Performance Concepts in riders through Rider Level 4. 6. Describe the different pathways for riders and how a rider can determine what pathway to take. 7. Discuss how to change the blending of movements to produce variations in the pathways. 8. Describe the forces acting on a snowboarder in a turn, relating them to the phases of a turn. Discuss how a rider uses muscular effort and movements to manage these forces. 9. Explain and describe the turn mechanics in each turn phase for selected maneuvers for Rider Levels 1-4. 10. Identify and explain: Command (Direct), Task, Group and Reciprocal teaching styles. Equipment 1. Identify the equipment needs of riders through Rider Level 4. 2. Describe the characteristics of boots and boards for Rider Levels 1-4 in relation to the various pathways and how these characteristics affect performance (i.e., camber, side-cut, flex, etc.). 3. Understand the purposes of tuning and waxing.

SCH Page 26 Certification Standards

4. Understand the function of different types of boards, boots and bindings. Be able to make equipment recommendations for boarders up to Rider Level 4. Physics 1. Define and explain gravity, friction, centrifugal and centripetal forces and how they relate to riding. 2. Define and explain turning powers and turning forces. 3. Define and explain friction and the concept of Differential Friction. 4. Discuss basic physics relative to the Riding Concepts for Children/Adults. Kinesiology/Biomechanics 1. Be able to explain the purpose of the skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, types of joints and how they work. Discuss the differences between adults and children. 2. Discuss the information in the Teaching Children appendix as it applies to movement patterns in teaching and riding, Rider Levels 1-4. 3. Understand biomechanics as it relates to the fundamental movements and to managing forces when riding.

LEVEL III RIDING GENERAL LEVEL III RIDING PROFICIENCY “A Certified Level III snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Exhibit efficient, athletic and effective dynamic snowboarding on all mountain terrain.

SCH Page 27 Certification Standards

2. Show appropriate movement application and blending on all mountain terrain except the MOST extreme. 3. Reduce, maintain or generate speed without interrupting overall flow or rhythm. Demonstrate Versatility: 1. Ride in a variety of turn shapes and speeds and apply them to different situations on the mountain. 2. Rhythmically link turns in the fall-line showing speed control through turn shape and size. 3. Demonstrate appropriate tactical choices as dictated by terrain. 4. Demonstrate solid movement application and blending upon request in specific exercises, maneuvers, tasks, etc. 5. Demonstrate freestyle tactics in the park or pipe. 6. Demonstrate basic racing technique and tactics. LEVEL III DEMONSTRATIONS AND REQUIRED RIDING Linked Dynamic Skidded Turns 1. Demonstrate linked skidded dynamic turns on groomed terrain utilizing crossunder, front foot pressure, and lower body movements as the primary turning power. 2. Demonstrate smooth edge to edge movements and resulting board twist with the edge change occurring well before the fall-line. 3. Demonstrate dynamic flexion (retraction) and progressive rotary movements to control the turn shape and speed. 4. Turns should be of a smaller consistent size, shape and speed as set by the Examiner. Linked Dynamic Carved Turns 1. Demonstrate carved turns on groomed blue terrain that exercise the design of the board with a series of similar-sized and shaped linked carved turns.

SCH Page 28 Certification Standards

2. Use a blend of crossunder and pressuring movements as the primary means for edge change. Utilize a dynamic pressuring movement of the feet to release the edge. 3. Edge change should occur well before the fall-line. 4. With a quiet upper body, demonstrate board twist and leg steering to guide the board to the fall-line. 5. As the board crosses the fall-line a gradual increase in flexion occurs at the hips, knees and ankles to achieve a pure carved turn and higher edge angle. 6. A carved finish is achieved in the new direction with the rider in a comfortable, flexed position. Steeps 1. Demonstrate shorter linked dynamic fall-line turns on steeper black terrain utilizing an appropriate blend of lower body movements as the main turning power. 2. Demonstrate control with the edge change occurring well before the snowboard enters the fall-line. 3. Demonstrate dynamic flexion/extension and rotary movements to control the turn shape and speed while keeping a quieter, balanced upper-body. 4. Turns should be of consistent size, shape and speed in the fall-line as set by the Examiner. Functional Air 1. Demonstrate controlled jumps of at least three (3) board lengths in a variety of situations including straight jumps, tables, and gaps. 2. Jumps should include rotation and grabs where deemed appropriate by the Examiner, which may include rotation up to 360 degrees. 3. Any Functional Air should include landing in a dynamic, balanced position. 4. No inverted air maneuvers are permitted.

SCH Page 29 Certification Standards

Park / Pipe Freestyle 1. Park - Demonstrate advanced moves on advanced park freestyle and slopestyle terrain (jumps, spins, grabs, transitions, etc.) 2. Half-Pipe - Functional half-pipe riding inclusive of all moves in the Level II Standards with the addition of riding that is above the hit or lip of the pipe. Two (2) different tricks must be demonstrated while in the air including grabs and at least one (1) rotation of no less than 180 degrees. No inverted air is permitted. Situational Riding 1. Demonstrate balanced and functional riding in a variety of situations common to advanced riders (bumps, crud, corridor, etc.). 2. Candidates may be asked to perform different riding tasks (Switch Carving, Advanced Bumps, Switch Bumps on blue terrain, offpiste, freestyle, etc.) that demonstrate their overall adaptability and versatility. The specific tasks are selected by the Event Captain and Examiners on the day of the test. LEVEL III TEACHING GENERAL LEVEL III TEACHING KNOWLEDGE “A Certified Level III snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Identify the main components of the AASI Riding and Teaching Concepts, and the philosophy and principles of the Snowboard Teaching System (S.T.S) as well as discuss how to use the system when teaching all levels. 2. Discuss how to integrate your Snowboarders’ Responsibility Code when teaching up through Rider Levels 5 and 6. 3. Identify visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities and give examples of how to recognize a student’s learning preference.

SCH Page 30 Certification Standards

4. Identify the various learning styles and adjust teaching behavior to accommodate different learning styles. 5. Describe guided discovery and problem solving teaching styles and be able to use them during a lesson. 6. Describe the cognitive, affective and physical development of students up to Rider Levels 5 and 6. LEVEL III APPLICATION OF TEACHING “A Certified Level III snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Teach the snowboarding public up through Rider Levels 5 and 6. 2. Demonstrate a working knowledge of the Teaching Concepts by effectively applying them to the needs of students through Rider Levels 5 and 6. 3. Modify the lesson content using the CAP Model to meet the needs of children at various stages of development: a. Present information in an age-appropriate way at all Rider Levels. b. Demonstrate, through a teaching presentation, knowledge of what motivates children of different ages and what to expect from them in social situations. c. Demonstrate an understanding of child development principles by showing what to expect from children of different ages in all teaching situations. d. Present a series of children’s exercises that develop proficiency in a specific fundamental movement. LEVEL III MOVEMENT ANALYSIS “A Certified Level III snowboard instructor is able to...” 1. Describe the desired fundamental movements at all levels of riding relative to the Riding Concepts. 2. Describe the cause and effect relationships in the phases of a turn as related to the Movement and Performance Concepts.

SCH Page 31 Certification Standards

3. Describe movement-based developmental needs for any level of rider. 4. Prescribe corrective exercises and tasks through effective movement application and blending for riding up through Rider Levels 5 and 6 where performance is observed to be inconsistent. LEVEL III PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE Level III Professional Knowledge will be evaluated in a written exam consisting of twenty (20) teaching and twenty (20) understanding questions. Practical application of these concepts will be observed in the Teaching portion of the exam. A numerical score will be given to the written exam. The number of correct answers on the written test will be factored into the Professional Knowledge score for pass/fail purposes. “A Certified Level III snowboard instructor is knowledgeable of and can...” Terminology/Industry Trends/Movement Patterns 1. Define and explain basic snowboarding terminology as described in the AASI National Snowboard Manual and other resources and apply it to personal riding and to teaching students at all levels. 2. Explain how you integrate the Snowboard Responsibility Code into lessons of all levels. 3. Describe several skier/snowboarder services and activities at one’s home area which enhance the enjoyment of students and other guests. 4. Relate specific snowboarding terminology to students through use of simple language. Also, relate the terminology to achievable movement patterns and feelings. 5. Describe movement application and blending and how it relates to different situations, terrain, snow conditions.

SCH Page 32 Certification Standards

6. Describe how movement application and blending relates to different populations of snowboarders (seniors, women, children, adaptive and top athletes). 7. Be able to explain and describe the turn mechanics at all levels of riding. 8. Explain and describe how movement application and blending is utilized in the phases of a turn. 9. Demonstrate effective use of the key components of the AASI Teaching Concepts. 10. Describe the components and give examples of guided discovery and problem solving teaching styles. 11. Identify the required movement application and blending for any level of riding and explain intensity and riding characteristics that create balance, turn shape, and speed control at these levels. 12. Relate how the forces affect a rider’s tactics in various situations (bumps, steeps, powder, freestyle, etc.). 13. Be able to explain the characteristics of and how to recognize all the different learning styles. 14. Relate movement application and blending to internal and external forces generated in a variety of riding situations. 15. Discuss the information in the Teaching Children appendix with regard to managing forces while riding. Equipment 1. Understand and prescribe equipment needs for all levels and profiles of snowboarders. 2. Understand various equipment issues such as the different types of bindings (hard vs. soft), hard vs. soft boots, cants, waxing and types of boards/construction (freestyle, freeride, alpine). Physics 1. Discuss the interrelationship between gravity, friction, centrifugal and centripetal forces and how these affect various turn shapes, sizes and speed.

SCH Page 33 Certification Standards

2. Describe how the Friction/Gravity Principle is used in teaching. 3. Discuss how physics can change a lesson plan for Children/Adults and what adjustments need to be made. Kinesiology/Biomechanics 1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding in all areas of kinesiology and biomechanics as related to snowboarding. 2. Describe how biomechanics allows a student to adapt to changing conditions and situations while riding. 3. Explain biomechanically how a children’s lesson is different from an adult lesson.

SCH Page 34 Safety

Safety is not a part-time endeavor. It applies to all facets of snowboarding, both in and out of clinics, and especially when dealing with the snowboarding and skiing public. As instructors it is our responsibility to be safe and set the example for others to emulate. Every snowboarder, regardless of their status, should know and obey their Snowboarder’s Responsibility Code. THE SNOWBOARDER’S RESPONSIBILITY CODE 1. Control - Each individual is responsible for their own safety and those around them. All snowboarders must ride in control. 2. Overtaking - When overtaking another person from behind, snowboarders are responsible for that person and themselves. They must anticipate sudden changes in direction and be prepared to avoid collisions. 3. Visible - When stopping to rest, snowboarders must learn to stop at the side of the trail or in a protected area where they are not obstructing the run and they are visible from above. Also, when riding into areas of limited vision, they should be alert for potential problems. 4. Entering - Before entering a trail or resuming riding after a stop, snowboarders should look uphill and yield accordingly. 5. Retention - Snowboarders at every level should wear a retention device to prevent runaway boards. When their board is unattached, they can reduce the risk of a runaway snowboard by positioning the board on the snow upside-down. 6. Signs - Everyone must observe all trail signs. “Slow Area” signs need to receive particular reinforcement from instructors.

SCH Page 35 Safety

7. All Lift Lines - Snowboarders should be considerate and not block any lift line entrance or off ramps when disengaging or engaging the rear foot binding. Also, the snowboarder should be versed in proper use of the lift and the terrain covered by that lift. Code Memorization Aid (first letters spell): C O V E R S A L L SAFETY CHECKS: A Safety Check is an essential safety element that should precede all snowboarding activity on the mountain. It is the responsibility of each instructor to assess each student’s knowledge, preparedness, equipment, and behavior prior to and during the lesson. This philosophy should be deeply rooted, as evidenced by our own dedication to individual safety checks and proper equipment maintenance. We should always keep a watchful eye open for all safety concerns, namely any potential problems that reside with ourselves or the other snowboarders around us. A basic Safety Check for the benefit of our students should consist of the following elements: 1. Conduct / Behavior - State that all conduct should be consistent with the Snowboarder’s Responsibility Code as outlined on the previous page. 2. Retention Device - Check to make sure a retention device (leash) is attached to the snowboard and the front leg. Should the snowboarder be using it improperly you should make them aware of it. 3. Proper Binding / Snowboard Function - Bindings should appear robust and function as designed. No duct tape or makeshift parts please. Check to make sure the boots are positioned correctly in the bindings. The snowboard should possess no visible delamination or cracks and no sharp or hazardous protruding parts (edges, p-tex, etc.). 4. Stretching / Warming Up - Encourage limited-range activities to increase the blood circulation within the body. Only then can safe stretching be performed to fully and properly prepare for the full range of movements required for snowboarding.

SCH Page 36 Safety

5. Proper Head / Wrist Protection - All snowboarders should have adequate head and hand protection, namely helmets and gloves, to prevent injury. Protect the noggin! Special gloves are available which provide significant wrist support to minimize the chance of wrist injury in the event of a fall. The primary safety function of a glove, besides warmth, is to protect the hands from the sharp edges of the snowboard. Please make your students aware of those nasty edges. 6. Proper Eye / Skin Protection - Self-evident. Glasses or goggles depending on the weather. Also, remind your students to apply sunscreen to vulnerable, exposed skin areas even if the sun is lurking behind the clouds. (UV rays!) 7. Falling / Getting Up - Instruct your students on how to fall prudently since it is an inevitable event. Sitting down on the butt works well for heel-side falls. For toe-side falls, falling flush on the forearms without straightening the arms will reduce the chances of wrist injury. While down, be aware of your arms and hands in relation to other snowboarders. Falls can happen at any time. All snowboarders should know their limits. Also, instruct your students on the various ways to get up. Getting up may even require unbuckling the rear foot binding in some cases. With all that having been addressed, let’s get on with the training!

SCH Page 37 Training Topics

These training topics are presented for the benefit of both you and your resident Clinician or Staff Trainer. The material presented is intended to be both informational and developmental in nature. With an understanding of the exam format already established, a candidate can use this material to gain insight into each area of the certification exam. Those fortunate enough to have a formal training program at their local hill should encourage their Trainer or Clinician to draw upon this information when developing training clinics. These clinics and training sessions should be scheduled as to achieve optimal preparation for each of the relevant AASI certification events as they arise, ultimately culminating in the certification exam. The initial training topics presented in this handbook address the underlying foundations of snowboard instruction, in particular the concepts, reasoning, and ideas upon which the AASI Snowboard Teaching System is based. The topics that then follow explore the deeper aspects of Riding, Teaching, and Professional Knowledge. Remember to make a habit of reading relevant training material the night before any given clinic. You truly will take home more from a clinic if you bring something to it. Incidentally, as an Examiner, the author recognizes and respects the individuality and opinions of each instructor and welcomes any constructive criticism you may want to offer regarding the content of this handbook and the training content contained herein. Your feedback is welcome, valued and most appreciated.

SCH Page 38 Snowboard Teaching System

The Snowboard Teaching System (S.T.S.) is a student-centered, outcome-oriented, experiential, and guest service-driven teaching and learning process designed to completely assess the student, address their needs, and deliver a fulfilling and rewarding snowboarding experience. The S.T.S. is comprised of three major components, those being the Service Concepts, the Riding Concepts, and the Teaching Concepts. Together these three components determine the resulting Learning Pathways and student experience as illustrated in the following diagram.

The Snowboard Teaching System THE SERVICE CONCEPTS: The Service Concepts explain why we teach. The Service Concepts were developed by AASI to promote the idea that great teaching starts with great customer service. Any customer or guest will be encouraged to return for additional lessons should they receive the proper attention, respect, and lesson value they deserve as paying customers.

SCH Page 39 Snowboard Teaching System

Often instructors are the primary interface between the student (i.e., “guest”) and the ski area, spending more time with the customer than any other function on the mountain. As instructors, it is our responsibility to deliver an encouraging, rewarding, and beneficial snowboard experience, while developing a strong rapport with our students. By doing so, the student, instructor, and resort alike benefit through enhanced abilities, return business, and increased revenues, respectively. The Service Concepts provide the instructor with the tools to foster this intangible, yet invaluable, student/instructor relationship. The Service Concepts - This outline can be used to make informed service-oriented professional decisions regarding the needs and wishes of the student. The outline is rather simplistic and begins appropriately with the instructor and the student. 1. Recognize Instructor / Student Experiences - Each party brings a set of experiences that shape them. Given the two parties involved each set of experiences will influence and guide all decision-making in the remaining steps of this outline. 2. Assess the Student’s Situation - The Instructor should initially take a little time to get to know their student, their background, and their desires. 3. Propose the Plan - Once you feel you have an adequate handle on the needs of the customer, do the following. Confirm and restate the needs and wishes of the customer, as you perceive them. Upon concurrence formulate a plan that addresses these needs and present it to the customer. Reach a consensus on the benefits of such a plan before proceeding. 4. Provide the Service - Deliver your product, namely the lesson, as you so often adeptly do. The Riding and Teaching Concepts will address this topic further.

SCH Page 40 Snowboard Teaching System

5. Close the Transaction - Toward the end of the lesson review key services and benefits which you have provided while checking for any unaddressed needs. 6. Follow-Up - Assess the student’s reaction to the overall experience and provide feedback to your area management to assure continued or improved service in the future. THE RIDING CONCEPTS: The Riding Concepts represent what we teach and are comprised of the following elements: 1. The Riding Pathways / The “Y” Model - The Riding Pathways are a framework or reference point for presenting and developing fundamental movements. These pathways are depicted by the realm of snowboarding maneuvers and movement patterns. The AASI Demonstration Forms are an instrumental part of these images and are used by the instructor to illustrate specific movement patterns. The “Y” Model serves as a reference when judging respective riding styles and overall riding proficiency. AASI has graciously developed this graphical “Y” representation which illustrates the realm of snowboarding maneuvers from Alpine Carving to Freestyle. (See The “Y” Model, Figure 1.2 , next page) The model reflects the origins of all riding in a Basic Turn with the eventual development of the Dynamic Turn as the basis for advanced riding. Riders begin by learning simple concepts and combine them to form Basic Turns. Given added teaching, experience, and practice riders begin to explore the Dynamic Turn in which there is a distinct offset between the board and body. The “Y” Model represents the general evolution of snowboarding and the common origins of the whole lot.

SCH Page 41 Snowboard Teaching System

The “Y” Model 2. Movement and Performance Concepts - Snowboarding involves movement. The Movement and Performance Concepts are based on the idea that for every action there is a reaction. Snowboarding is the combination of fundamental body movements and the resulting performance reaction of the snowboard. This combination of body movements and snowboard performance comprises the patterns seen in everyday snowboarding. A complete explanation of these ideas is found in the Movement / Performance Concepts and Movement Patterns / Turn Mechanics sections.

SCH Page 42 Snowboard Teaching System

3. S.T.S. Rider Levels - The S.T.S. Rider Levels serve as a reference when judging riding development and evaluating the respective levels of student achievement. The skilled movement patterns associated with these levels can be reinforced through repetitive practice aimed at solidifying muscle memory and achieving consistent, predictable performance. Rider Level 1 - A first time snowboarding experience. The snowboarder can perform basic maneuvers, skidded traverses on both heel-side and toe-side and can stop when necessitated. Rider Level 2 - The snowboarder can perform skidded traverses and garlands in both directions with confidence and is starting to make skidded turns in both directions on beginner (green) terrain. The rider is familiar with lift operation and able to use the chairlift. Rider Level 3 - The snowboarder can link turns with speed control in both directions on beginner (green) terrain. The rider is beginning active use of the fundamental movements and blending of those movements. The rider may begin to experiment with basic freestyle maneuvers, including switch riding and spins. Rider Level 4 - The snowboarder is comfortable on all intermediate (blue) terrain. Rhythm is evident in their timing of movements and they can comfortably control speed through turn shape while making skidded turns of varying radii. The rider is beginning to carve turns, seeking proficiency in a breadth of freestyle maneuvers, and can ride most obstacles in the park, including the pipe. The snowboarder is seeking more challenging terrain, including bumps and varying or transitional snow conditions.

SCH Page 43 Snowboard Teaching System

Rider Level 5 - The snowboarder is comfortable performing turns on advanced (black) terrain. The rider is refining all turns and techniques, including carving, in all snow conditions and terrain, including the park and pipe. The rider is proficient in a breadth of freestyle maneuvers and can ride the park and pipe with confidence. Rider Level 6 - The snowboarder can ride the entire mountain with confidence and ease, working on the fine points of efficiency and turn shape and exploring the extremes of snowboarding. THE TEACHING CONCEPTS: The Teaching Concepts represent how we teach through the development of a Learning Partnership. The partnership between the student and the instructor results primarily from the interaction of two sets of behaviors as follows: LEARNING PARTNERSHIP / \ TEACHING PATHWAYS LEARNING PATHWAYS / \ Instructor Behavior Student Behavior THE TEACHING PATHWAYS: The Teaching Pathways are characterized by the instructor’s behavior and their use of The Teaching Pattern. This pattern is a strategy employed by the instructor geared toward the facilitation of learning. The instructor can also employ a variety of Teaching Styles in their lesson plan. The Teaching Pattern - The Teaching Pattern is an all-encompassing tool used by the instructor for delivering the complete lesson. The pattern is represented by the following elements. The first and last few steps are commonly undertaken at the onset and completion of the lesson while the middle four elements can be interchanged as needed.

SCH Page 44 Snowboard Teaching System

1. Introduce the Lesson - Deliver a brief outline and establish a rapport. 2. Determine Goals - Assess levels of ability and set/state goals. 3. Plan Lesson Objectives - Generate a logical action plan and determine pacing for the lesson. Select appropriate terrain. 4x. Present Information - Present material relevant to the lesson and explain the relevant concepts. 4x. Demonstrate - Perform movement patterns for benefit of your students making sure to highlight significant/important points. 4x. Practice - Set and guide initial practice and give immediate feedback. Try to reinforce success and correct errors. 4x. Feedback /Check for Understanding - Assess your student’s physical response to the tasks. Provide feedback and question them verbally to confirm an understanding. 8. Summarizing - Review and convey accomplishments. Preview the next lesson. 9. Teaching for Transfer - Relate the lesson to other student sports and experiences. 10. Extended Thinking Options - Employ additional and advanced techniques such as psychological tools to enhance the learning process. Teaching Styles – Teaching is either very direct or guided in some way by the instructor. The five major Teaching Styles promoted and used by AASI are as follows.

SCH Page 45 Snowboard Teaching System

1. Command / Direct- Explain and demonstrate each exercise. Allow the student to execute these exercises and evaluate them. 2. Task - Explain and demonstrate. The students execute the exercises at their own pace while the Instructor roams and provides feedback. 3. Reciprocal (Group, Individual) - Explain and demonstrate. The students perform the exercises in pairs. These pairs subsequently provide feedback to each other. Group and Individual are variations in which a group or the student him/herself provides the feedback. 4. Guided Discovery - Instructor sets the goals and provides the clues, which lead the students to a specific, given, answer. 5. Problem Solving - The Instructor poses a problem and works as team with the students to seek answers. Often, there is more than one possible answer. THE LEARNING PATHWAYS: The student defines their Learning Pathways. The student brings to this partnership a vast conglomeration of experiences and attributes, which shape their personal learning requirements and environment. They are grouped into these categories: 1. Individual Characteristics and Backgrounds - These characteristics describes such attributes as knowledge, attention span, past experiences, nationality, sex, age, and physical abilities. 2. Learning Preferences - This category identifies the type of learner the student tends to be. They may be a Thinker, Doer, Watcher, or Feeler, and consequently rely on one of these four modes as their preferred way of learning. Learning itself can be broken into five distinct components, those being Exposure, Repetition, Understanding, Motivation, and Application.

SCH Page 46 Snowboard Teaching System

3. Motivation - Motivation refers to those inputs which drive and inspire the student. Some students are motivated by the social interaction found in the snowboarding environment. Others are striving to reach a new level of achievement and are result-oriented. Abraham Maslow devised a model for human motivation known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs based on our initial primordial need for Sustenance, followed by Safety, Social Recognition, Self-esteem, Self-actualization, and finally Transcendence. 4. Attitudes and Values - A student’s willingness to receive information and the importance they place on that information are among those items which contribute to their attitudes and values. The attitudes of the student can change often depending on daily fluctuations in behavior while one’s value system tends to be more ingrained. TEACHING CHILDREN: The ability to teach both adults and children is essential for the certified instructor. Certain instructors thrive on the opportunity to teach children on a regular and recurring basis. While teaching children is not that fundamentally different from adults PSIA/AASI has supplemented our teaching tools with additional children’s specialty materials and literature. These include the Children’s Instruction Manual, Children’s Ski & S/B Movement Guide (new), and the Study Guide: Teaching Children (included as Appendix A in this Handbook). The CAP Model is one example of such a tool. CAP MODEL: From the time we are children and as we grow we pass through stages of development that are not only physical (how we move) but cognitive (how we think) and affective (how we feel). The Cognitive, Affective, Physical or CAP Model was developed to help instructors construct accurate student profiles and understand how a student develops in these areas. Please consult the children’s reference materials for more information regarding the CAP Model.

SCH Page 47 Movement and Performance Concepts

The Movement and Performance Concepts are central to the Snowboard Teaching System, in particular the Riding Concepts. One’s snowboarding ability is based directly on how well they employ these riding concepts. These concepts and their associated movements are developed through practice and experience and reflect the core building blocks which AASI instructors should target for student development. MOVEMENT AND PERFORMANCE CONCEPTS: Movement and Performance Concepts are based on the idea that snowboarding actions are the combination of balance, fundamental movements of the body and the resulting performance reaction of the snowboard. This combination of body movement input and resulting snowboard performance defines the riding output. MOVEMENT CONCEPTS: Movements are either rotational or linear in nature. The Fundamental Movements used in snowboarding are Rotation and Flexion/Extension. The application of these movements is present in all levels of snowboarding. Rotation - These are the movements that involve rotation, or a tendency toward rotation, of either the body as a whole, or of one part of the body relative to another. Rotary movements may be subtle or quite strong, fully developed or blocked, and active or reactive (countered) depending on the snowboarder’s wishes. For efficiency and stability, it is generally desirable to use the lower body to generate rotary movements. Common Rotary Movements are as follows: 1. The rotary movements of the rear leg enhance the actions of the front leg and vice-versa. 2. The rotary movements are used to support active guidance of the snowboard throughout the turn. 3. The rotary movements are used to complement flexion and extension movements.

SCH Page 48 Movement and Performance Concepts

Flexion/Extension – Flexion/Extension Movements are used to adjust angles of the body and regulate the pressure that the snowboard exerts on the snow as it moves on or through the snow. Such flexion/extension movements or combination of movements can result in fore/aft leverage changes, lateral weight shifts from one edge of the snowboard to the other, or changes in weighting through relative vertical movements of the body. Common Flexion/Extension Movements are as follows: 1. The movements of the knees, ankles, hips, and other major joints made to shift pressure distributions on the snowboard with the engagement being smooth and progressive. 2. Flexion/extension movements complement other actions in the control of turn shape. PERFORMANCE CONCEPTS: The Performance Concepts describe the performance reaction of the snowboard to the Fundamental Movements. The snowboard’s performance can be characterized in four different ways as follows: Edge Angle (Tilt), Torsional Flex (Twist), Rotation (Pivot), and Pressure Distribution. Edge Angle - Edge Angle defines the way the edges of the board contact the snow surface. Instructors introduce the concept of Edge Angle so the students will clearly recognize that the forces that ultimately turn their snowboard come from the snowboard to snow interaction and that the edges are the active interface between the snowboarder and the snow. When the snowboard is guided onto edge subsequent edge adjustments can assist in achieving the desired turn shape. Torsional Flex (Twist) - Torsional Flex is the amount of twist along the length of the snowboard or the difference in edge angle between the tip and tail of the snowboard. For example, at the start of a turn by pressing down with the front toes and relaxing the rear leg the rider can create this relative twist in the snowboard. This

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relative twist helps release the front heel edge of the board and helps initiate a turn. Rotation (Pivot) – The resulting rotation of the snowboard refers simply to the direction which the board is pointing with respect to the direction of travel. Rotation can be described in relation to a pivot point on the snow about which everything is turning. Pressure Distribution - Pressure Distribution defines the way that the snowboard exerts weight on the snow. Resulting pressure can be distributed over various parts of the snowboard through the relative flexion/extension of various joints within the body. As mentioned the result can be varying tip-to-tail (fore/aft), side-toside (lateral), and vertical (up/down) pressure distributions. Reactions to terrain variations also contribute to the distribution of pressure. Movements which shift pressure on the board should be smooth and progressive. BALANCE / THE BASIC ATHLETIC STANCE: In order to facilitate the development of fundamental movements AASI advocates the use of the Basic Athletic Stance. This stance characterizes the general overall position of the body while in motion. This is one in which the snowboarder is flexed at the ankles, knees, and hip, with the arms up and out. A flexed position allows for a greater range of motion and puts the snowboarder in a more stable position with the muscles in a ready and reactive state. The goal is a state of balance as described below. Balance – Balance is achieved through movements required to keep the body in equilibrium (either static or dynamic) when it is acted upon by external forces. These external forces may be the result of deliberate actions on the snowboarder’s part (turning the snowboard or adjusting edge angles), or they may result from reaction to disturbances (uneven snow surfaces or changes in terrain). The balance movements may involve relatively gross body adjustments or small imperceptible adjustments, depending

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on the circumstances. follows:

Good balance can be characterized as

1. A flexed but fairly tall relaxed stance for muscular and skeletal efficiency in which the upper body is disciplined and dynamic (never static) with the board. 2. Balance actions involve the whole foot thus developing the ability to work the entire snowboard. TIMING/INTENSITY/DURATION (TID): When dealing with movement the interaction of Timing, Intensity, and Duration of these movements can have a profound effect on resulting outcomes. Each movement needs the correct starting point. A student may ask when to begin a movement, how aggressively to perform that movement, and for how long. As an instructor one must realize that these factors are interrelated, and we must coach our students accordingly. For instance, “At the top of your turn, press lightly on the forward toe and hold for a count of two…” An overall understanding of the Movement and Performance Concepts is the foundation for developing your student’s abilities. Review and reinforce these concepts before proceeding. Additional specifics on these concepts including fundamental movements and the resulting performance reactions are explored in more depth in the Movement Patterns / Turn Mechanics section.

SCH Page 51 Demonstrations

The AASI Demonstration Forms are an instrumental part of the visual forms which comprise the Riding Concepts. The mandatory demonstrations for each of the certification exams are detailed in the next few pages. Each demonstration is characterized by a set of Objectives and accompanied by those Mechanical Priorities which need to be reinforced in order to achieve the desired movements. Incidentally, when conducting an on-snow clinic, especially one addressing the Demonstration Forms, the use of video proves to be an invaluable feedback tool. LEVEL I DEMONSTRATIONS: The three Level I Demonstration Forms are listed here for your benefit. These three forms along with Freestyle and Tasks account for the five scored areas of the Riding portion of the Level I exam. 1. Basic Skidded Turns 2. Switch Skidded Turns 3. Skidded Turns Basic Skidded Turns Objectives: Enter each turn from a slow skidded traverse. Each turn is led with a whole body movement, including the feet. There is a distinct forward plantar-flexion of the front foot. The snowboard is skidded throughout the turn. Each turn is not rushed. Turns are accomplished in both directions. Mechanical Priorities: Rotation comes from the whole body including the legs. Pressure shifts gradually from the front foot to both feet as the turn progresses.

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The snowboard is edged only enough for a skidded direction change. Switch Skidded Turns Objectives: Turns are led with the tail of the snowboard. Each turn is led with a whole body movement, including the feet. A distinct movement in the direction of the new turn accompanies a plantar-flexion of the new downhill foot. The snowboard is skidded throughout the turn. Each turn is not rushed. Turns are accomplished in both directions. Mechanical Priorities: Rotation comes from the whole body including the legs. Pressure shifts gradually from foot to foot as the turn progresses. The snowboard is edged only enough for a skidded direction change. Skidded Turns Objectives: Speed is higher and more consistent than the Basic Skidded Turn. Turns are linked rhythmically across the fall-line with little/no traverse. Turns have a rounded shape. Turns are skidded and completed without an edge set. Mechanical Priorities: Turn is initiated with plantar-flexion of the front foot, minimal rotary input from the body and completed using strong rotary input from the hips and legs.

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Pressure is on the front foot during the initiation phase and shifts gradually to both feet by the completion of the turn. Flexion and extension movements add rhythm and aid in pressure control. The edge change is made sooner, before the fall-line with edge control improving the rounded turn shape. LEVEL II DEMONSTRATIONS: There are three Level II Demonstration Forms as listed below. The addition of Carving, Park/Pipe Freestyle, Air-to-Switch, and Situational Riding make for a total of seven scored riding disciplines at this level. 1. Linked Medium Radius Skidded Turns 2. Linked Short Radius Skidded Turns 3. Linked Switch Skidded Turns Linked Medium Radius Skidded Turns Objectives: Speed is higher and more consistent than the Basic Skidded Turn. Turns are linked rhythmically across the fall-line with no traverse. Turns have a rounded shape. Turns are skidded and completed without an edge set. Mechanical Priorities: Turn is initiated with plantar-flexion of the front foot, minimal rotary input from the body and completed using strong rotary input from the hips and legs. Pressure is on the front foot during the initiation phase and shifts gradually to both feet by the completion of the turn. Flexion and extension movements add rhythm and aid in pressure control. The edge change is made sooner, before the fall-line, with edge control improving the rounded turn shape.

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Linked Short Radius Skidded Turns Objectives: Short skidded turns have a distinctly smaller radius than skidded medium turns. Speed is higher and more consistent than the Basic Skidded Turn. Turns are linked rhythmically across the fall-line with no traverse. Turns have a rounded shape. Turns are skidded and completed without an edge set. Mechanical Priorities: Turn is initiated with plantar-flexion of the front foot, minimal rotary input from the body and completed using strong rotary input from the hips and legs. Pressure is on the front foot during the initiation phase and shifts gradually to both feet by the completion of the turn. Flexion and extension movements add rhythm and aid in pressure control. The edge change is made sooner, before the fall-line, with edge control improving the rounded turn shape. Linked Switch Skidded Turns Objectives: Turns are linked and led with the tail of the snowboard. A distinct movement in the direction of the new turn accompanies a plantar-flexion of the new downhill foot. The edge change occurs before the fall-line. The snowboard is skidded throughout the turn. The turn is not rushed. Each turn is linked repeatedly, the result being turns in both directions.

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Mechanical Priorities: Rotation comes primarily from the lower body, legs and feet. Pressure shifts gradually from foot to foot as the turn progresses. Flexion and extension movements are encouraged to add rhythm and aid in linking turns. While skidding, the snowboard is edged as appropriate for speed and terrain. LEVEL III DEMONSTRATIONS: There are two Level III Demonstration Forms which complement the four required riding scores in the disciplines of Steeps, Functional Air, Park/Pipe Freestyle, and Situational Riding. The two Level III Demonstrations Forms are: 1. Linked Dynamic Skidded Turns 2. Linked Dynamic Carved Turns Linked Dynamic Skidded Turns Objectives: These linked dynamic skidded turns have a distinctly smaller radius than skidded medium turns. Speed is higher and more consistent than the Basic Skidded Turn. Turns are linked rhythmically down the fall-line with no traverse. Turns have a rounded shape. Turns are skidded and completed without an edge set. Mechanical Priorities: Turn is initiated through crossunder using strong rotary from the feet and legs with minimal rotary from the upper body. A quiet, stable upper body is maintained throughout. Dynamic flexion (retraction) movements and progressive rotary movements add rhythm and improve turn shape through pressure control.

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The edge change is made early, well before the fall-line with board twist and consistent edge control improving turn shape and controlling speed. Linked Dynamic Carved Turns Objectives: Turns should be rounded and of consistent radius. Speed should remain the same throughout the demonstration. The snowboard is carved with optimum use of board design. A fluid carved turn with higher edge angle is preferred. The snowboard should remain on the snow. Mechanical Priorities: The carved turn is initiated using crossunder and dynamic front foot pressuring movement to release the edge. A quiet, stable upper body is maintained through the turn. Excessive movements of the upper body and arms are inappropriate. Crossunder movement is distinct providing a quick and effective edge change. An angulated (offset) position with higher edge angle characterizes this turn. Demonstration of active pressure control movements through the use of flexion and leverage lead to effective guiding of the snowboard and result in a pure carved turn. A carved finish is achieved in the new direction with the rider in a comfortable, flexed position.

SCH Page 57 Required Riding

Required Riding encompasses the remaining collection of required snowboarding maneuvers and situations (not covered by the Demonstration Forms). This clinic should attempt to maximize riding time and introduce a number of possible exam scored situations. As mentioned in the Demonstrations section, the use of video as an analytical tool can not be understated. If at all possible, obtain video footage during your clinics. Even more important and paramount to the success of the clinic is the need to initially view the videotape immediately following the clinic. Immediate viewing reinforces ideas brought forth during the on-snow portion of the clinic. Besides being extremely beneficial to student, instructor, and candidate alike, Video is a simple and cost-effective way to document, review, retrieve, and reinforce those elements of success so crucial in any pursuit of perfection. WORK ON FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENTS: Be sure to practice exercises pertaining to Movement and Performance Concepts (Rotation, Flexion/Extension, Edge Angle, Torsional Twist, etc). Remember, these movements form the foundation of the more complex and advanced maneuvers. Basic exercises such as sideslipping, garlands, and leapers can develop the required performance movement patterns through movement blending and repetition. Sample Exercises - Here are some sample exercises for developing, improving, and blending the Fundamental Movements. They include: Sideslipping Traverses Garlands Basic Half-pipe Grounded 360°s Leapers Ollies/Hops Carving Air-to-Switch Linked Switch Turns

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SITUATIONAL RIDING /TASKS/ FREESTYLE: Situational Riding, Tasks, Functional Air, and Park/Pipe Freestyle are scored during the exams. Situational Riding can include varying snow conditions, varying turn radii, and the infamous “conditions of the day”. Freestyle moves cover the realm from rail grabs and functional air tricks to slopestyle park runs and half-pipe maneuvers. An experienced Examiner will have a bevy of possible tasks and situations at their disposal and the ability to expose your potential weaknesses in performing them. Make effective use of your free time and lay out a practice plan when you are not clinicing. While clinicing, a major chunk of the freeriding time should be devoted to these categories. With the majority of the snowboarding public found in and around your local snowboard park, freestyle tasks deserve added consideration when preparing for the certification exam. Trust me! STEEPS: Steeps, namely shorter controlled turns on a steeper face, are a possible Level II situational riding task and are required riding at Level III. Work on developing short radius turns by committing the Center of Mass to the turn, promoting earlier edge engagement, and more active flexion (retraction) and extension movements. Gradually quicken the pace of all movements in an effort to narrow the corridor in which the turns are being made. CARVING: The Level II and Level III Exams include forms of carving. Proper carving technique is best developed progressively. Traverse on an edged board and concentrate on bending the knees and maintaining fore/aft balance while emphasizing the reduction of slipping motions. Move into single garland carved turns in the fall-line. Match the amount of edge angle, angulation, and speed to the shape of the turn. Garlands should work towards a rounder, controlled shape. Link several single garland carved turns together. When linking complete turns, experiment with pressure distribution on the board during the turn and its effect on the carve. Be sure to work progressively through the snowboard’s length, from tip to tail, and concentrate on both heel-side and toe-side carving development.

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MODERATE BUMPS: While Bumps have been dropped as a mandatory requirement for the exams, they remain a possible task or situational condition. Things to focus on while freeriding in the bumps are developing absorption in legs, good body position, and fore/aft balance. Introduce turning on the top of the bump. Initiate the turn by facing down the fall-line and apply weight to the front foot. Pivot and slide the snowboard through the turn then increase the edge angle at the end of turn to control speed build-up. Complete overall proficiency in all the areas of required riding can only be obtained through dedication, focus, and time on the snow. Strengthen those weaker areas of your riding and develop the repertoire you need to succeed!

SCH Page 60 Physics

This isn’t intended to be the complicated physics you took in high school or college. Instead it will help you understand just how and why we can make a board under our feet do all the things it does. If you understand the basic physics concepts and are familiar with some of the more in-depth explanations offered here, you are well on your way to passing the Professional Knowledge portion of the exam. NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION: Everything and everyone in the Universe is subject to Newton’s Laws of Motion, even snowboarders. The relevance of each of these laws to snowboarding will become more apparent with each of the physics concepts that subsequently follow. The First Law of Motion - A body in motion will continue along its path unless acted on by another force. The Second Law of Motion - The change in motion of a body is proportional to the magnitude of the force acting on it, F = ma. The Third Law of Motion - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. EQUILIBRIUM: The state in which all opposing forces acting on a body are instantaneously equal. The state of equilibrium as it relates to snowboarding refers to the act of maintaining balance by compensating for all surrounding forces, whether stationary (static balance) or while in motion (dynamic balance). A prudent snowboarder is always striving to achieve equilibrium. CENTER OF MASS: Mass is the quantity of matter in a body. A snowboarder has a Center of Mass or a point at which their mass is considered to be concentrated for analytical purposes. The Center of Mass moves as the snowboarder changes position, flexes, and extends.

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As a general rule, the Center of Mass resides in the abdominal area although it can reside outside the body through creative manipulation of the body and limbs. VELOCITY: The speed and direction of a body denoted by the symbol, v. Velocity is referred to as a vector because it has a direction associated with its magnitude. Speed, on the other hand, is referred to as a scalar since it has only a magnitude, no direction. ACCELERATION: The rate at which the velocity of a body changes with respect to time. Acceleration is denoted by the symbol, a, and is also a vector quantity. FORCES: A force is push or pull which changes the velocity of a body. The force acting on a mass is proportional to the acceleration causing it and is expressed as, F = ma. The forces in snowboarding are Gravity, Friction, Centrifugal Force, and Centripetal Force. Incidentally, Pressure is not a Force. Pressure is an applied force divided by the area over which it acts. Please do not use the two terms, Pressure and Force, interchangeably! You may insult a physicist or rocket scientist in doing so who just happens to be a part-time AASI Examiner. Oops! Gravity - A force resulting from the inherent attraction of one body for another. Gravity exerts itself as an acceleration that pulls the snowboarder’s Center of Mass toward the center of the earth. The effect of this acceleration on our mass is a resulting force equal to our weight, W = mg. The Center of Gravity is located at the same point as is the snowboarder’s Center of Mass. The acceleration quantity, g, is essentially a constant and varies insignificantly with altitude. In the physics of snowboarding, it is the two components of the resultant gravity that are of particular interest. Gravity can be divided into a normal and parallel component. The normal component is perpendicular to the surface of the slope (like a pole)

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while the parallel component is oriented along the slope or fallline. This parallel component of gravity increases with the pitch of the slope and is responsible for increased velocity. Friction - A force which opposes motion or the resistance from two opposing surfaces. Friction is present while in motion as well as at rest. The friction present while a body is in motion is referred to as dynamic friction and is always less than friction while at rest, or static friction. The amount of friction is proportional to normal (perpendicular) force applied to the surface, hence the equation, F = uN, where u is the coefficient of friction. As the pitch of the slope increases the normal component of gravity decreases, hence friction is reduced. In snowboarding, we are primarily concerned with dynamic friction while in motion. Three types of dynamic friction are snow-to-snowboard friction, air-to-body friction, and snow-to-body-friction, found with deeper snow. The Gravity - Friction Principle: Simply put, the GravityFriction Principle states that “When friction is greater than gravity, speed decreases, and when gravity is greater than friction, speed increases”. Accordingly, the Gravity-Friction Principle defines the relationship between a standing snowboarder’s leverage and edging. When a snowboarder levers on their front toes the resulting board twist begins to release the front heel edge. The applied weight (gravity) overcomes the edging friction, and the front of their board will then seek the fall-line. Similarly, were the snowboarder to lever backward, the tail of the board would seek the fall-line. This understanding can be extended as follows. When moving, if the front of the board is engaged by a sufficient amount of snow, and the friction at the front of the snowboard increases relative to the rest of the board, the front of the board will deflect. This will produce a turning of the snowboard. This behavior is an example of Differential Friction. Aided by board design, Differential Friction is largely responsible for pure turning of

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the snowboard. Those concepts relating to board design will be presented in the Equipment section. Centrifugal Force - A force that tends to pull a body which is in curved motion to the outside of a turn. This force acts on the snowboarder’s Center of Mass and is instantaneously equal and opposite to the centripetal force responsible for keeping the snowboarder moving in the arc of the turn. Centrifugal Force is directly proportional to the square of the velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of the turn and is expressed by: F = m v2 /r. Centripetal Force - As mentioned, Centripetal Force is the force responsible for keeping the snowboarder turning or moving in an arc. This force results primarily from edge angle, the snowboard’s interaction with the surface and the reaction of the snow pushing back toward the center of the turn. The effect of the snow’s reaction is passed up through the snowboarder’s body and becomes markedly more pronounced as turn velocity increases. Without Centripetal Force, the snowboarder would fail to move in an arc or turn. INERTIA: Simply stated, Inertia is the characteristic of a body in motion to stay in motion or a body at rest to stay at rest unless acted on by another force. The inertia of a body is proportional to its given mass. The concept of Inertia relates closely to Newton’s First Law. When speaking of curvi-linear motion, we refer to the Moment of Inertia of a given mass. As more mass is placed further from the center of rotation, the Moment of Inertia increases. As mass is brought toward the center of rotation the Moment of Inertia is decreased. MOMENTUM: Momentum is a property of mass in motion. Momentum can be referred to as either Linear Momentum or Angular Momentum depending on the type of motion involved.

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Linear Momentum - The product of mass times velocity, M = mv, moving in a straight line. In snowboarding, a snowboarder will carry more momentum as their velocity increases as will a heavier snowboarder with more mass. Angular Momentum - The product of Moment of Inertia times angular velocity. For angular momentum to be conserved, the product of the Moment of Inertia and angular velocity must remain constant. A snowboarder has a certain amount of Inertia in a turn based on the radius of that turn. If that radius were to suddenly tighten or shrink, for angular momentum to be conserved, a decrease in radius must be accompanied by an apparent increase in velocity around that center point. The best, perhaps classic, example of this idea is the spinning ice skater. ENERGY: Energy is a force acting over a given distance and can be thought of as the amount of work expended in the performance of a task. A snowboarder receives a certain amount of Potential Energy when placed atop the mountain by the lift. This Potential Energy is then converted into Kinetic Energy (movement down the hill), Mechanical Energy (displacing snow), and Heat Energy (friction, melting snow). By the time they reach the bottom of the lift all the Potential Energy previously delivered by the lift has been expended, resulting in a closed loop system or Conservation of Energy. TORQUE: Torque is the result of a force acting at a distance, creating a lever arm. For a given force the longer the lever arm, the greater the torque. Torque generated by various muscular actions is the source of the Turning Powers which are responsible for the Rotary Movements used in snowboarding. These detailed concepts relating to torque and rotation are presented in the Movement Patterns / Turn Mechanics section. PHYSICS AND CHILDREN: Contrary to popular belief, the same physics laws apply to children as to adults. The difference with children is that they are physically smaller. Things like gravity, friction, inertia,

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etc., still affect them in the same way, however, the effect is relative to a person’s size. A child has a higher relative Center of Gravity and Center of Mass in proportion to an adult due to the fact that more of their mass is concentrated in the upper part of their bodies during the growth years. Also, for a given velocity, the adult or heavier snowboarder will carry more momentum down the hill and tend to travel farther than the child (neglecting abnormally large frictional effects). Consult the Appendix, Teaching Children, in this handbook for additional information regarding children.

SCH Page 66 Kinesiology / Biomechanics

Kinesiology/Biomechanics is study of the body and how it moves. To become an effective as well as safe snowboard instructor it is essential to understand the composition of the human body, its internal function, and its governing limitations. The focus of this section should not be the memorization of the material presented but rather developing the ability to apply it in relevant snowboarding and teaching situations. BONES: Bones are hard, dense calcified tissue. They are the support system which comprises the skeletal stack, and they allow for articulation of the various body parts. Bones also serve as attachment points for tendons and ligaments, and they manufacture red blood cells. The bones of the skeleton also store toxic salts harmful to the body, and together they protect internal organs from damage. Of the 206 bones in the human body, half are in the hands and feet. Informational Handouts: Obtain a handout detailing the bones of the human body and become familiar with the major bone groups. Keep it simple though. Don’t go overboard and start a Sports Medicine Clinic in the Snowboard School office, okay! MUSCLES: Muscles are bands of connective tissue that have the ability to contract or extend (relax), thereby creating movement or locomotion. For safety reasons it is important to warm-up and stretch the muscles within the body before snowboarding. Warming-up makes our muscles warm and more pliable for stretching. Only then should we stretch to increase our range of motion to safely prevent injury. Muscles also provide sensory feedback to the brain in addition to generating heat and regulating body temperature. MUSCLE CONTRACTION: Muscle contraction corresponds to a shortening of muscle length through muscular effort. Muscle extension refers to a relaxation of the muscle to allow for relengthening of the connective tissue bands to their original length. A snowboarder usually contracts their muscles to get into a stronger position. They can then

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subsequently relax the muscle and extend to move into a new position. This extension will involve the contraction of other muscle groups for the extension to be accomplished. Muscle contraction can be categorized as either an Isotonic Contraction or an Isometric Contraction. Isotonic Contraction - A contraction or extension which results in a change of muscle length. There are two types of Isotonic Contractions Concentric Contraction - The muscle is shortened and pulled to the middle overcoming any opposing resistance. Eccentric Contraction - The muscle is lengthened by resistance or lengthened in conjunction with forceful flexion on the opposite side of the joint. Isometric Contraction - A static contraction in which the opposing force equals the force generated by the muscle. The net effect is no change of muscle length. OPPOSING MUSCLE GROUPS: Muscles produce actions in groups. Very seldom does a single muscle ever contract alone. While a muscle or group of muscles is acting as a Synergist, another muscle or group is acting as an Antagonist to its actions. The antagonist is usually located on the opposite side of the joint, one example being the biceps versus the triceps. When properly engaged the synergist and antagonist can act to produce a state of Co-Contraction where both opposing muscle groups are contracted to achieve a common goal. Such is the case in snowboarding with the flexed stance resulting from the opposition of the quadriceps and hamstring groups. MUSCLE MEMORY: Muscles essentially have the ability to remember specific motions by repetitively conditioning the neural pathways which control their movement. Theoretically, an action has to

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be repeated at least 80-100 times before muscle “memory” begins to be achieved. In snowboarding, the more practice the student is given at a certain task, the greater the muscle memory, the smoother the task will be performed. A practical example of this is tying our shoes without any conscious effort. TENDONS: Tendons are the tissue that attaches the body of the muscle to the bone. The tendon is comprised of non-contracting tissue at each end of the muscle and is oftentimes stronger than the bone to which it attaches. Tendons are quick to heal in relation to ligaments due to their large blood supply. LIGAMENTS: Ligaments connect bone to bone. Ligaments are crucial to maintaining the relationship of the bones at joints. They provide stability for the given joint and determine the limits on range of motion for that joint. Once injured, ligaments are extremely slow to heal due to their limited blood supply and often require reconstructive surgery and extensive rehabilitation to effect any repair. The ligaments of the knee and ankle are often the focus of injuries. CARTILAGE: Cartilage is the dense bloodless tissue found between two bone surfaces at a joint. The cartilage is attached to the bone ends, usually rides on opposing cartilage and, like ligament tissue, is extremely slow to heal. Articular Cartilage - The teflon coating which provides a gliding surface to allow for friction-free movement. Fibro-cartilage - The fibrous kind of cartilage that acts as a spacer and shock absorber. It is also known as meniscus. SYNOVIUM: The membranous lining of a joint that secretes fluid. Synovial fluid acts like the oil in a car engine, lubricating the joint.

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CARDINAL PLANES: Before discussing the joints of the body and their associated three-dimensional motion it is necessary to define a reference system. For orientation in structural, anatomical, and kinetic terms, three primary Cardinal Planes can be defined. Frontal Plane - Divides the body into front and back sections. Sagittal Plane - Divides the body into right and left halves. Transverse Plane - Divides the body into top and bottom sections. RANGES OF MOVEMENT: The motions of the body can be divided amongst the cardinal planes as follows: Medial - Movements in the frontal plane toward the mid-line. Lateral - Movements in the frontal plane away from the mid-line. Flexion - Refers to a decrease in joint angle. Extension - Refers to an increase in joint angle. Adduction - Movements toward the body’s center-line. Abduction - Movements away from the body’s center-line. Circumduction - Refers to a combination of movements resulting in a circular motion around a given axis. Internal Rotation - Rotation of an extremity toward the mid-line. External Rotation - Rotation of an extremity away from the midline. ANATOMICAL REFERENCES: The relative position of body parts can be described using the following terminology: Anterior - Toward the front of the body. Posterior - Toward the back of the body. Medial - Toward the mid-line of the body. Lateral - Away from the mid-line of the body. Cranial - Toward the head. Caudal - Toward the feet. Proximal - Refers to the part of the limb closer to its origin. Distal - Refers to the part of the limb further from its origin.

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JOINTS: Joints are the junctions within the body where bones meet. Depending on the location and type of joint, there are various ligaments, tendons, and cartilage to stabilize the joint and provide the smooth, efficient movement (flexion/extension) and articulation that is needed for the sport of snowboarding. Lubricated by synovial fluid, there are six major types of synovial joints within the body. Ball and Socket - The ball-like head of one bone fits into the socket-like head of another, permitting all movements. Examples: Hip, shoulder Hinge (Mortise) - The shaped surface of one bone swings about the rounded surface of another. Examples: Knee, elbow Saddle - The concave surfaces of two bones articulate with one another. Example: Thumb Ellipsoid - This is a reduced ball and socket configuration in which rotation is not permitted. Example: Radiocarpal Wrist Pivot - A ring of bone moves about a process of bone allowing rotation. Example: Neck Gliding -Two opposed flat surfaces of bone glide across one another. Example: Intercarpal Wrist THE HIP: The hip is a true ball and socket joint where the upper head of the femur fits into the socket provided by the pelvis. This arrangement allows for limited articulation in all directions. The resulting ranges of movement are flexion/extension, adduction/abduction (40° inward / 90° outward), internal/external rotation (60° in /100° out), and circumduction. The hip is the strongest of the joints in the lower half of the body and provides nearly all the rotation seen in the lower body. THE KNEE: The knee is a hinge joint. The knee allows primarily for flexion and extension movements but, when flexed, does allow for additional minor rotation (20° in / 40° out). The condyles at the head of the femur rest on the two shallow menisci of the tibia protected by cartilage with the whole package being stabilized by the four main structural knee ligaments. When the knee is extended, the ligaments are

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tight. When flexed it is the loosening of these ligaments which allows for the potential of slight rotation. The ligaments of the knee are: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) - This ligament connects to the condyle of the femur to the interior of the tibia and stabilizes the knee in the forward direction. Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) - This ligament connects to the condyle of the femur to the exterior of the tibia and stabilizes the knee in the backward direction. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) - This ligament stabilizes the knee from side to side along the inside of the knee. Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) - This ligament stabilizes the knee from side to side along the outside of the knee. THE ANKLE: The ankle actually consists of two separate joints that together act functionally as a compound or complex joint. The resulting arrangement of the ankle joint requires unique terminology to describe its ranges of movement. The hinge or mortise joint is between the tibia/fibula and the talus allowing for Dorsi-Flexion and PlantarFlexion. The gliding joint, located in the sub-talar region of the ankle, is formed by the junction of the talus (above) and the calcaneus (below). This part of the ankle joint allows for Inversion and Eversion. Dorsi-Flexion - Movement resulting in a decrease of angle of the ankle joint. Plantar-Flexion - Movement resulting in an increase of angle of the ankle joint. Inversion - Movement where the foot bed is turned medially or inward resulting in Supination, or weight bearing on the foot’s lateral aspect. Eversion - Movement where the foot bed is turned laterally or outward resulting in Pronation, or weight bearing on the foot’s medial aspect.

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Dorsi-Flexion of the ankle aids in keeping the snowboarder’s Center of Mass over his feet when their knees are flexed. Plantarflexion is seen in movements involving pressure changes and is important in maintaining board contact with the snow. Inversion and Eversion is used for refined control movements such as modifying edge angle as well as pressuring different sections of the board. The terms Supination and Pronation are sometimes used interchangeably with Inversion and Eversion. Although the terms are related they refer only to the relative location of weight bearing under the foot and not to the foot’s actual orientation. THE TRUNK: Trunk movements result from the interaction of many muscle groups. The major muscle groups of the trunk are the abdominals, the obliques, and the spinal extensors. In order to make turns in snowboarding, it is at times necessary to place the upper and lower body in a twisted, opposed relationship. For this to occur, these muscle groups must act in the aforementioned synergist and antagonist relationship to produce the twisted state of the upper and lower torso. VAK: VAK refers to the three sensory modalities which comprise our state of spatial awareness and balance: Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic input. The combination of these sensory modalities creates the state of balance and awareness which governs our subsequent actions. If one of the modalities was to be diminished in any way, the others are available to compensate for the resulting reduction of input. A good example of this is snowboarding in a whiteout situation where our kinesthetic awareness or sense of feel would have to take over in lieu of our impaired vision. Visual - Eyes provide feedback on balance effects due to relative position of other objects. (ground, snow, trees) Auditory - Ears provide information for determining the balance effects due to surroundings. (wind noise, edge noise) Kinesthetic - Proprioceptors provide balance feedback from the various parts of the body. (feet, joints, skin)

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The VAK philosophy encompasses components that the instructor should consider in a lesson. Demonstrations will help students who learn visually, namely the watcher. Explanations will help those students who learn auditorally, like the thinker. Performance or repetition will help those who learn kinesthetically such as the doer and feeler. The instructor should tailor their lesson accordingly to optimize the student’s ability to grasp the information being presented and ultimately enhance their learning experience. PROPRIOCEPTORS: Proprioceptors are the nerve endings located in the muscles, tendons, joints, skin, middle ear, and eyes that provide the human body with its inborn awareness of position, motion, and feel. Muscle proprioceptors sense muscle tension. Joint proprioceptors sense forces acting on our joints. Skin proprioceptors comprise our tactile sense. The foot has seven proprioceptors, five on the inside of the foot, and two on the outside. As a result the inside of the foot is more sensitive and better suited for balancing on as opposed to the outside of the foot. It is also longer and physically stronger than the outside length of the foot. INNER EAR AND EYES: The inner ear or Vestibular System consists of fluid-filled canals that detect relative movements of the body. The eyes, in conjunction with the Vestibular System, allow us to stay in balance. Before our inner ear can function properly, our eyes must be able to focus on a horizon. Once this is achieved, the liquid in the inner ear allows us to adjust for balance. If the liquid is in a state of disruption (spinning quickly, ear infections) achieving balance can be difficult. Specifically, the inner ear’s semicircular canals detect rotary changes about any axis of the body through movement of fluid within the canals. The straighter Utricle canal contains fluid and small ear stones, called otoliths, which pass over the small hair-like silia to register linear acceleration but not the actual speed being achieved.

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BIOMECHANICS AND CHILDREN: As mentioned in the Physics section relating to children, the primary difference in children is that they are physically smaller, hence still developing, and they often need to compensate biomechanically to achieve many of the movements adults take for granted. In fact, lack of development, especially muscular development, often totally precludes children from performing certain tasks while snowboarding. Without beginning a dissertation on the growth principles governing the development of children, suffice it to say that they are different and move differently in accordance with their current stage of development per the CAP Model. Concepts dealing with the development of the child as it relates to snowboarding are well covered in the Appendix entitled Teaching Children and the aforementioned Supplemental Texts. These sources contain thorough and detailed information on both their cognitive and biomechanical development.

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Unlike our skiing counterparts who have chosen to meld this topic into other areas of their exam, Equipment remains a separate entity within the Professional Knowledge portion of the certification exam. As a result, any possible question relating to Equipment is more than fair game for the Examiners should they wish to “grill you at will” in this area of subject matter. Equipment questions may also be found on the written portion of the exam. The complete instructor is properly versed in equipment terminology, composition, suitability, and function. THE SNOWBOARD: The snowboard is our constant companion on the mountain. While snowboards come in all shapes and sizes, they do not all ride alike. The riding characteristics of our snowboards are determined primarily by the board’s internal composition and its external characteristics. SNOWBOARD COMPOSITION: A number of features define the composition of the snowboard. The major parts of the snowboard and their composition are: Deck - The Deck or top of the board as well as the side walls are often made of plastic or ABS, a durable and scratch resistant plastic that is strong and easy to silk-screen. Boards are either laminate or cap design. Laminate boards are constructed in pressed layers while cap boards possess a capped, side-walled deck for strength and structural stiffness around an independent inner core. Core - The Core of the board is usually comprised of either wood or foam. Foam cores are commonly used because they are easy to manufacture, are very durable, and are low in cost. Conversely, the construction of the more expensive laminated wood core board is more involved and comes in one of two configurations, either a vertical or horizontal construction. Generally vertical construction is desirable. The side-by-side vertical arrangement of the wood strips lengthwise along the longitudinal axis gives the board more

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rigidity. The result is a stiffer, more responsive, and higher performance snowboard. Base - The Base of a modern snowboard consists of some grade of polyethylene or p-tex. Polyethylene is a polymer-based plastic which is highly moldable and yields a slippery surface. The bases of less expensive boards rely on extruded low grade p-tex with molecular chains about one million atoms long. Tougher sintered bases have chains from two to ten million atoms in length and prove to be very fast and much more durable. A sintered base is produced by subjecting p-tex powders to extremely high pressure and slowly elevating the temperature to produce a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is then allowed to cool before being cut. The cooled billets are cut into strip-like sheets by a lathe, and the sheets are then used in forming the final base shape. Edges - The edges of our snowboards are made from hardened steels. The preparation of the edge is perhaps its most important feature and will be discussed shortly under the topic of Tuning. CAMBER: Camber is the amount of bow in the board when it is lying flat. Camber controls the pressure distribution along the length of the board. A relatively flat board is said to have “little camber”. The term “reverse camber” refers to a snowboard which is bowed and deforms under loading. SIDE-CUT: The side-cut is characterized by the hour-glass shape of the board. The side-cut relates directly to the theoretical turning radius of the snowboard. In other words, if the board was placed on edge in a perfect turn, the resulting radius of that turn would be equal to the sidecut radius of the snowboard. Board design, namely the fact that most boards are wider at the tip and tail than at the waist and consequently achieve more relative friction there, allows the board to turn using the aforementioned concept of Differential Friction.

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FLEX: Flex describes the bending characteristics of a snowboard along its longitudinal length. The flex pattern, determined primarily by the core composition and construction, is largely responsible for the board’s performance. Boards that exhibit a large amount of flex are termed “soft”. Snowboards that are extremely stiff in bending are capable of delivering higher performance, yet tend to be much less forgiving than their softer counterparts. These stiffer boards transmit the snowboarder’s movements to the snow very quickly, without discretion, and thus require a higher level of skill development to avoid problems. TORSIONAL RIGIDITY: This term describes the resistance of the snowboard to twist along its longitudinal axis. For a board to resist the forces which build up in higher speed turns, it must be torsionally rigid enough to handle the centripetal forces required to complete the turn without deforming appreciably under the load. SNOWBOARD SIZING / TYPE: Among the important parameters to consider when personally purchasing, recommending, or matching students to equipment are the Snowboard Sizing and Snowboard Type. Snowboard Sizing - Snowboard Sizing is determined by a combination of the snowboarder’s physical attributes and personal preferences. In general, the larger the snowboarder, the larger the board. Some snowboarders will prefer a shorter board for ease of turn. Others will seek a longer board better suited to making longer, higher speed turns. Also, depending on the style and level of performance being sought, length and width dimensions will change in accordance with the performance requirements of the snowboard. The desired sizing characteristics of both beginner and performance boards are included with the description of each board type below. Snowboard Types - Although there are many ways to categorize snowboards, let’s keep it simple.

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Beginner Boards - The beginner needs a shorter board with a soft flex pattern and little camber for easy turn initiation. The board should have a “kick” on each end to allow the snowboarder to ride switch, or backwards. Performance Boards - Performance boards continue to become even more highly specialized to suit the variety of specific disciplines now developing within the snowboard industry. As a result, the characteristics of performance snowboards are best detailed in sub-categories as listed below. Freestyle/Half-Pipe Boards - These boards have more flex, lower camber, a moderate side-cut, and a pronounced nose and tail kick. These characteristics allow the snowboarder to perform a variety of tricks and movements by creating an agile, yet forgiving platform. Freeride/All-Mountain Boards - These boards are designed for cruising, powder, and versatility. They usually have a wider surface area and a moderate kick for versatility in all conditions. While they can be used in the half-pipe, they will not perform as well as a freestyle board because of their stiffer flex pattern and higher amount of camber. These boards are suited for general, all-mountain use. Alpine/Race Boards - These boards are usually narrow and longer, with very stiff flex patterns. These boards are often high in camber and are easily recognized by their deep, radical side-cuts. These features are essential to a snowboarder who wishes to make quick, higher speed turns and pushes the envelope of speed and performance. TUNING: Often neglected, tuning is paramount to obtaining and maintaining the peak performance of a snowboard. Even the beginning snowboarder can benefit from proper tuning and those “tricks of the trade” employed by the better technicians. Every instructor is

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encouraged to delve into this surprisingly specialized area through additional study and some dabbling of their own. Believe it or not, there is a master technician waiting to be born in all of us. Among the important facets of snowboard tuning are correct Base Repair, Sharpening, Beveling, Waxing and Structuring. Base Repair - Most base repair methods include small hot irons that melt the repair material onto the base of the snowboard. More effective yet are extruding machines which actually melt the repair material internally and then bond the molten repair to the base. A hand-held file, belt sander, or stone grinder is then used to obtain an even, flat base. Sharpening - The relative sharpness of the edge is again a matter of personal preference although general rules do apply. For instance, dull or burred edges do not hold well on hard pack or ice and will decrease the snowboard’s ability to carve. However, too sharp an edge may result in undesired hooking and grabbing of the board. Additional preparation of the edges, called beveling, reduces this problem. Beveling - Beveling refers the fine angular preparation of the edges, often as little as a one or two degree deviation from square. Beveling is responsible for refinements in the board’s ease of turn and its edge grip. The board’s ease of turn and edge grip are not mutually exclusive. Both can be improved through proper understanding and execution of the beveling technique. The technique is comprised of two parts, those being, Base Beveling and Side Beveling. Base beveling increases the snowboard’s sliding and gliding properties and reduces the tendency of the board to grab, without having to detune the edges. It also makes for a more progressive edge engagement, similar to rolling onto an edge.

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Side beveling is a strong complement to the base bevel. It improves edge hold without hindering the board’s ease of turn. Side beveling leaves a pronounced, yet manageable edge. Waxing - Waxing allows a board to slide over the snow with less friction. This improves overall speed and allows the snowboarder to initiate turns with less impedance, thus creating smoother transitions. Waxes are designed for specific temperature gradients and are usually distinguished by their color, with the darker colors corresponding to increasingly lower temperatures. As far as application goes, the most commonly used waxes are melt-on types. Racers, however, sometimes use rub-on or spread-on graphite waxes (carbon) because of their extremely low coefficients of friction. The reduction of friction by the applied wax is primarily accomplished in one of two ways. In colder, harder snow, it is desirable to use hydrophilic wax which tends to attract water molecules and create a viscous layer on which the board can ride across the sharp protruding snow crystals. For softer, warmer snow, the idea is to break the unwanted suction between the board and snow using a coarser, hydrophobic wax which tends to repel water. In general, waxes also reduce the minor friction caused by the electrostatic attraction, or sharing of electrons, occurring between the snowboard and the surface of the snow. Structuring - Structuring of the snowboard base refers to the creation of a textured pattern on the polyethylene base. The pattern is oriented longitudinally along the board. By inducing this textured pattern, the glide potential of the snowboard is increased due to the effective reduction of surface area (friction) associated with a nominal flat base. Structuring is a complex skill usually employed by serious racers. Any subsequent application of wax also requires structuring with a rilling tool to preserve the original intent of a structured base.

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BINDINGS: Plate Bindings are flat bindings with a bail at the front and back of the binding. The bails attach to the welt of the boot. They are used with hard boots and are relatively easy to get in and out of compared to Buckle Bindings. Buckle Bindings will have two or three quick release plastic buckles which surround the soft boot in its entirety. They are often more cumbersome to deal with than the plate binding, especially in adverse conditions. Buckle bindings are further divided into High, Mid, or Low Back varieties as a matter of support and preference. Consistent with technological advances, the snowboard industry is now replete with newer spring-activated, Step-in Bindings. As with other types of bindings though, manual release is still required. Sorry to disappoint you, but it’s safer! BOOTS: Boots come in either the soft or hard variety, the latter being somewhat similar to the modern ski boot. In general, the consensus choice of most freestyle and half-pipe snowboarders is the soft boot because of its flexibility. Some back country and alpine snowboarders prefer to wear hard boots because of the support they provide when making extreme moves on steep, hard ground. An absolute beginner should use soft boots. They are a more flexible and familiar boot that won’t instantly transmit those erroneous movements which often plague the first timer. A rapidly progressing student may consider the hard boot or many of the soft/hard hybrids which have emerged. ORTHOTICS: Orthotics are corrective foot beds located inside the boot. Orthotics are intended to provide support to those of us with imperfect feet. By creating a snug, comfortable fit the orthotics improve the transmission of movements to the snowboard. They do not, however, correct for misalignment of the lower leg or provide the means for pressuring certain parts of the snowboard. This is accomplished through the process of Canting. CANTING: Canting is used to obtain the desired pressure platform under foot while allowing for the correction of biomechanical inconsistencies.

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Corrective (Boot) Canting - This type of canting refers to the adjustment of the upper cuff to achieve proper boot-leg alignment. The more advanced hard boots have this cuff adjustment to correct for misalignment, often responsible for pronation or supination. Further correction may be needed through either grinding of the boot sole or corrective wedge placement. The idea of any corrective canting is to obtain an even, uniform pressure platform. Performance Canting - Once any necessary inconsistencies are corrected as mentioned above, performance cants or wedges under the bindings are used to enable the snowboarder to pressure the center of the board and take advantage of inside foot proprioceptors for improved balance. These types of cants are common on race and performance-type boards. FOOT STANCE: Foot stance is defined as “regular” if the left foot is forward and “goofy” if the right foot is forward. The width of the stance, like many aspects of snowboard equipment, is a matter of preference yet strongly influenced to a degree by the type of snowboarder. In general, a freestyle snowboarder will want a wide stance for stability. A racer will want a narrow stance so they can pressure the center of the board and maintain the arc of the turn. One problem encountered by the beginning snowboarder is their inability to determine the proper lead foot. The preferred method of determining the lead foot is to relate the snowboard stance to the prescribed footwork dictated by other sports. For example, pose the question, “Which foot would you lead with in a cartwheel, while waterskiing, or when sliding into a base?” If the student is limited in their other athletic endeavors, try the simple approach. “Stand still, close your eyes, and fall forward.” This will usually identify the lead foot. FOOT ANGLES ON THE BOARD: A freestyle snowboarder usually wants the angle of his bindings to be relatively perpendicular to the length of the board. This arrangement lends itself to a versatile platform

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from which the snowboarder can easily switch between riding forward and backward. The snowboard racer will want an aggressive stance, so that they are facing more downhill and moving their Center of Mass toward its desired goal. If one had to quantify an aggressive stance, roughly any angle greater than 45 degrees forward would qualify. Also, since race boards tend to be much narrower at the waist, the aggressive stance is necessitated in order to avoid the dreaded “toe drag” which would occur if the feet were placed across the snowboard. Incidentally, the forward foot stance angle led to the development of the asymmetric snowboard. At the time, the school of thought in snowboard design was that the toe and heel had to reside at the same point along the edge. Since the toe was ahead of the heel this required the toe-side edge to be ahead of the heel-side edge, hence the asymmetric design. With the advent of even narrower snowboards, the race stances being realized are nearly in-line with the longitudinal axis of the board. Since the toe and heel are approaching the in-line stance seen in water skis, the symmetric snowboard now dominates current designs. EQUIPMENT AND CHILDREN: If picking the proper equipment for children is half the battle the other half of the battle is monitoring them while they are using it. More so than skiing, snowboard equipment can impede the ability of children to move about freely and can quickly become their nemesis. Too often, the child is unable to get him or herself moving or is unable to clear imposing terrain features due to either apprehension or lack of body weight (momentum). Also, many find themselves helpless to deal with the complex buckle binding. The idea put forth here is to anticipate potential problems and be aware of a child’s abilities and limitations in dealing with this cumbersome equipment.

SCH Page 84 Movement Patterns / Turn Mechanics

A rider’s Movement Patterns and the associated Turn Mechanics encompass a breadth of concepts which collectively describe how a snowboard turn happens by breaking down the turn from start to finish, highlighting the Movement and Performance Concepts involved, the blending of these movements, and all the subtle nuances in between. PHASES OF A TURN: The snowboard turn is divided into three distinct phases to facilitate the study of the mechanics involved. The delineation of the three phases will aid in the understanding of the governing turn mechanics and associated movements. The Initiation Phase - The Initiation Phase is the phase in which the snowboarder is setting up to start the new turn. The rotary input of the former turn has been reduced and the snowboarder begins to move the body in the direction of the new turn. The Initiation Phase is marked by the flattening of the board and the corresponding edge change. At that point, the initial rotary input is given for the new turn. As mentioned in the Kinesiology / Biomechanics section, the muscles of the abdominal area are used and the resulting wind-up or twisted relationship of the upper body will aid in starting the new turn. The Shaping (Control) Phase - Once started, the snowboarder proceeds to shape and control the turn. Control of a turn will require varying actions each and every time depending on a number of circumstances including speed, turn radius, and terrain. In general, control of the turn is governed by the subtle interaction of the rotary input, pressure distribution, and edge angle. Based on these inputs, the turn is guided through its intended arc. The Shaping (Control) Phase is perhaps the longest phase in terms of elapsed time and distance traveled. The Finish (Completion) Phase - If connecting turns without a traverse, the Initiation and Finish Phases are the same. Otherwise,

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the Finish Phase is one which leads to a total reduction of rotation and results in a traverse or stop. ROTATION / ROTARY MOVEMENTS: The rotary movements used to initiate and control rotation in a turn are called Turning Powers. Turning Powers are the rotary inputs from the body which produce the turn. They are the result of muscular effort and require the expenditure of internal energy. Terms such as Counter-Motion and Anticipation Release are not Turning Powers in the strict sense of the word although they do reside within the realm of Rotary Movements. Turning Powers - Turning Powers are grouped into these three major categories. Rotation - Rotation is movement around the body’s vertical axis. Upper body rotation is characterized by a lead of the upper body and the lower half following or reacting in the same direction. Through contraction of the abdominal muscle groups, the torque generated by the upper body is transmitted to the lower body. Whole body rotation refers to a more homogenous effort involving the hips as well. In general, Rotation is the strongest but slowest of the Turning Powers. Counter-Rotation - For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Therefore, when the body is unweighted, an upper body movement in one direction will result in a simultaneous lower body twist in the opposite direction. Counter-Rotation is a relatively weak move but extremely quick. Being quicker, it is often used to effect recoveries. Leg Steering - Leg Steering is the use of the major muscle groups of the leg (Quadriceps, Hamstrings, Soleus, etc.) to actively guide the snowboard. Leg Steering is a strong complement to Rotation.

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Turning Powers should not be confused with Turning Forces which are external to the body and result from the physical laws governing the Universe. The major Turning Forces have been discussed in the Physics section. (Centrifugal Force, Centripetal Force, Friction, and Gravity) Counter-Motion - This term describes the general movement of the upper and lower body in opposing directions, as in flailing your arms against the current direction of motion in an attempt to induce a turn, commonly referred to a “Pushing Air”. Anticipation Release - Anticipation Release is not a Turning Power but rather a turn enhancer which still requires rotary input. The term Anticipation best describes the position created when the upper body and lower body are brought into a twisted relationship in preparation for turning. It is the release of this stored muscular energy that facilitates the turn. To reiterate, Anticipation describes the position obtained in preparation for turning while Anticipation Release is termed a turn enhancer (not a turning power) which still requires rotary input. EDGE ANGLE: Edge Angle adjustments occur in all phases of the turn and are used to both obtain and maintain an edge. They may be large gross movements or very subtle in nature. Edge Angle itself is achieved by creating an inclinated position. Inclination refers to a deviation from vertical of the body with respect to the snow. Specifically, this inclinated position can be accomplished by either Banking or Angulation. Banking - Banking allows the snowboarder to engage the edge of the snowboard by aligning their skeletal stack, creating a strong, yet restricted position from which to effect edging adjustments. While valuable in certain situations, Banking is generally considered less of a tool and is usually characterized by a “stiff” look.

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Angulation - Angulation on the other hand refers to flexing or extending in an offset position or plane. Angulating and angulation implies bending or extending movements in the feet, knees, hips, and spine. Angulation in the feet is used to make subtle edge control and corrective balance maneuvers. Knee angulation lets the snowboarder keep a flexed and reactive stance by positioning their Center of Mass in line with the forces generated during the turn. Hip and spine angulation characterize an effective edging position in which the body is able to resist the build-up of forces in the turn. Poor angulation technique is often exposed in making heel-side turns where chatter and loss of snow contact result from lack of angulation. PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION: Pressure Distribution can be thought of in the three planes, those being fore/aft, lateral, and vertical. These three distributions are termed Leverage, Side-to-Side (Lateral) Transfer, and Unweighting respectively. Leverage: Leverage is the use of fore/aft body position to distribute pressure over the length of the snowboard in an effort to elicit certain responses. When levering forward on a flat board, the associated pressure will overcome friction, and the tip will slowly seek the fall-line as stated in the Gravity-Friction Principle. If leverage is applied to an edged tip, the board will tend to deflect and increase the turning intensity. Similarly, if the body levers back slightly, a loaded tail will slow the intensity of turning. Side-to-Side (Lateral) Transfer: Lateral Transfer refers to the shift of applied pressure across the board from one side to the other. A lateral weight transfer may or may not result in an edge change.

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Unweighting: Vertical flexion/extension movements allow the snowboarder to weight and unweight the snowboard. Unweighting is used as required in a variety of circumstances to manipulate the pressure the snowboard exerts on the snow. There are four major types of Unweighting: Up-Unweighting, DownUnweighting, Rebound-Unweighting, and TerrainUnweighting. Up-Unweighting - Up-Unweighting is the process of slowing or stopping an extension. Intensity of the lightness depends upon the rapidity of the extension and the speed with which movement is slowed or stopped. The unweighting occurs at the top of the extension, at the very start of the drop. UpUnweighting is simple, easy to learn, lasts relatively long, and is commonly used to initiate basic turns. Down-Unweighting - Down-Unweighting is the process of lowering the Center of Gravity by flexing. The intensity of unweighting will be determined by how rapidly one relaxes the leg muscles. The duration of the unweighting will depend on the amplitude of the flexion. Down-Unweighting can also be the result of an active muscular leg retraction. The unweighting happens at the beginning of the flexion and lasts approximately one sixth of a second. Down-Unweighting is quicker and maintains snowboard to snow contact making it a good recovery movement. However, it requires sinking and turning at the same time, which is a little harder to learn. The act of maintaining an even pressure application on the snow while compensating for terrain variations is called Absorption. Absorption is a down-unweighting tactic which results in an unweighted state, essentially bringing the center of mass and feet closer together. Absorption is useful in maintaining control in challenging terrain and can be accomplished either through a guided relaxation or more active retraction of the legs.

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Rebound-Unweighting - Rebound-Unweighting can result from the muscularly regulated unloading of a decambered snowboard. The rebound can be directed forward by relaxing the quad and abdominal muscles for a split second. ReboundUnweighting is a performance move that can facilitate crossunder and edge change if done properly. Terrain-Unweighting - Terrain-Unweighting is caused by making use of the terrain to create an instantaneous state of weightlessness. Pronounced changes in terrain such as moguls, drop-offs, and ridges are effective in producing this type of unweighting. In general, pressure distributions vary as a turn develops. The overall applied pressure is lessened at the beginning of the turn as the snowboarder releases the edge. Pressure is also changed laterally when we move to the new edge. As we cross the fall-line with our snowboard, pressure begins to increase as a function of centrifugal force. As the turn proceeds, pressure will build up on the new edge and become greatest toward the bottom of the turn. There is also a slight change of longitudinal front-to-back pressure as the snowboarder works through the board. The slight increase of pressure up front to initiate the turn lends way to increased pressure toward the tail of the board to in order to finish the turn. CROSSUNDER VS CROSSOVER: These two terms describe the relative movement of the body during the Initiation Phase of the turn, specifically when the change of edge occurs. If the edge change occurs as the result of the feet moving under the snowboarder’s Center of Mass from the outside of one turn to the outside of the next turn, this is referred to as Crossunder. Conversely, if the snowboarder’s Center of Mass moves forward and over the snowboard from the inside of one turn to the inside of the next, a Crossover movement has occurred. Crossover is commonly seen in combination with angulation of the hip, knee, and spine to counteract the larger forces generated by higher

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speed turns. Crossunder is geared to shorter radius turns where active retraction and pronounced knee and foot angulation help to produce quick, snappy turns while the Center of Mass remains relatively stable. SKIDDING VS CARVING: In one form or another, a turn is either skidded, carved, or an alternating mix of the two. Skidding is the combined result of both sliding in the forward direction and slipping in the lateral direction. Checking is the action of slowing or stopping a skid and is therefore useful in controlling speed. Carving describes a turn in which the tip and the tail pass through the same line of action. Carving is a more complex combination of movements that the advancing snowboarder often strives to achieve. Carving allows the snowboarder to carry their speed through a turn in a more efficient manner.

SCH Page 91 Movement Analysis

Movement Analysis is the first of the three scored sections of the Teaching portion of the certification exam as well as an essential part of all snowboarding instruction. Without accurately describing and evaluating a student’s performance on the snowboard, it is nearly impossible to develop an effective prescription for improvement. With a solid technical understanding of the fundamental Movement and Performance Concepts, the completion of a Movement Analysis will allow you to develop a “complete picture” of the snowboarder in question. New for 2005, the recent publication of the AASI Snowboard Movement Analysis Handbook has resulted in an evolved, modified approach to Movement Analysis. The result is a more structured, yet humanistic approach to analyzing the student, their movements, and providing a prescription for improvement. As mentioned in the Orientation section please consult the aforementioned references, the AASI Snowboard Movement Analysis Handbook and the PSIA/AASI Children’s Ski and Snowboard Movement Pocket Guide, for more detailed information and in-depth discussion. In the meantime here are the basics of the evolved Movement Analysis format. THE FOUR MAIN STEPS: Movement Analysis can be divided into four (4) steps: 1. Preparation 2. Observation 3. Evaluation/Diagnosis 4. Intervention PREPARATION: This step involves bringing together all your snowboarding knowledge, tools, and experience in Preparation for a Movement Analysis. This step includes a basic understanding of the student’s physical and psychological profile, the basics of Student / Instructor interaction, and an understanding of the Learning Partnership that must materialize for student learning to ultimately occur. The

SCH Page 92 Movement Analysis

profile of the snowboarder may include their age, physical fitness, perceived experience, level of comfort (fear/aggression), suitability of the terrain, type and quality of their equipment, and, if at all possible, their desired outcomes and goals. Moreover, the Preparation step acts as a starting point from which to move into formal Observation of the student. OBSERVATION: This step involves observing and checking the student’s level of proficiency while snowboarding. Observation is the step in which you actively watch your students snowboard in order to determine the movement patterns they utilize and rely upon to create turns and move down the mountain. Remember to first allow yourself to watch your student at length before you formally organize your thoughts. Observation should proceed using one of the following selfdescriptive approaches: 1. Core-Out (from the body outward) 2. Board-Up (start with the board and feet and move upward) 3. Top-Down (there’s no place like the noggin to start) EVALUATION / DIAGNOSIS: The Evaluation begins by describing any initial observations to yourself. An effective, non-judgmental evaluation will now focus on the riding, not the rider, and include information on strengths and weaknesses and how such movements compare to those required to achieve desired outcomes. Here are some areas of focus to facilitate your evaluation. Turn Type - What kind of turn is the student making? Establish the type of turn, assess the phases, shape, whether skidded or carved, shorter or longer radius. Address the symmetry of the turn with respect to both the toe-side and the heel-side. It is possible and quite common to have different things happening on the toeside versus the heel-side. Are the turns linked or do they occur haphazardly and abruptly? Are the turns directed down the fall-

SCH Page 93 Movement Analysis

line or across the hill? These are all descriptive facets to consider. A sample turn type analysis could go something like this. “The student is making linked shorter radius turns in the fall-line which are slightly more skidded on the heel-side than on the toe-side”. Turning Powers - Turning Powers are the rotary inputs from the body which produce the turn. They are the result of muscular effort and require the expenditure of internal energy. The three major turning powers are Rotation (whether whole body or upper body), Counter-Rotation, and Leg Steering. In some cases, the turn may be initiated with one type of turning power and completed with another. It is also possible to use a combination of powers. For example, “The student is initiating the turn with whole body rotation and is using strong leg steering to complete the turn”. Synopsis of Movements - The Synopsis of Movements should touch on the Movement and Performance Concepts (Rotation, Flexion/Extension, and then Edge Angle, Torsional Twist, Pressure Distribution, and Balance) and their range of motion. Are body position and balance correct? Where is the rotary input coming from and how is it delivered to the board? The pressure distribution should be addressed in all three planes. Is the start of the turn accompanied by a movement forward and an unweighting? Is there a corresponding lateral weight shift and reweighting of the board through the shaping phase of the turn? Note the toe-side and heel-side behavior of each movement. Is the edging obtained the result of proper angulation techniques (feet?, knees?, hip?, etc.) or that of a stiff locked-leg position? Address each movement pattern and highlight the pertinent points. You may refer to the reference alignment of the center of mass, body, and limbs with respect to the snowboard. Also, be sure to mention any major erroneous movement patterns you may observe.

SCH Page 94 Movement Analysis

Cause and effect relationships become paramount during the Evaluation/Diagnosis step of the Movement Analysis and your ability to recognize them goes a long way to effectively understanding your student and developing their true potential as quickly as possible. INTERVENTION: The Intervention step is where the prudent instructor combines information and observation into a prescription for how to best help their student. The ultimate success of the Intervention step can and often does hinge on the initial presentation of the observed feedback to the student. The feedback must be presented in a way that encourages the student to improve. John Mohan, author of Teaching People Skiing and Boarding, recommends the CAGE approach, for Compliment, Analyze, Goal, and Exercise. As you prepare and present the information to your students or for the Examiner during the Certification Exam you may employ the CAGE method to deliver the information succinctly. ARE YOU READY? Remember The Four Main Steps of Movement Analysis….. 1. 2. 3. 4. Preparation Observation Evaluation/Diagnosis Intervention

In summary, this overall comprehensive approach to conducting a Movement Analysis is a useful tool whether in a teaching situation or performing MA for the Examiner. In the case of the Certification Exam, for your own benefit as well as that of the Examiner and other candidates, keep it short and simple. Watch the student, gather your thoughts, and be sure to deliver the information without rambling! Based on your movement analysis, you will be asked by the Examiner to take that information and formulate an action plan applicable to that

SCH Page 95 Movement Analysis

student. Remember to draw on your Action Plan Building experiences and Intervention tools described herein.

SCH Page 96 Action Plan Building

The second of the three scored areas of the Teaching portion of the exam relates to Action Plans and Action Plan Building. Action Plans are the organization and presentation of snowboarding maneuvers in a connected series or sequence for the purpose of facilitating learning. Developing adequate and appropriate plans or progressions that meet the needs of the student is often one of the biggest stumbling blocks encountered in snowboard instruction. This is a step by step process that must build on existing movements while being mechanically sound for progress to be achieved. BUILDING ACTION PLANS: A sound technical understanding is necessary to develop logical, applicable action plans that enhance the learning process for the student. One measure of a good instructor is how well they can devise plans which are suitable to a given situation. Building Action Plans pertains to the first few elements of the Teaching Pattern where the goals are determined and lesson objectives are planned. Also, a thorough understanding of the remaining components of the Riding Concepts (“Y” Model, Movement Concepts, Performance Concepts, etc.) is both essential and beneficial to the development of logical action plans that enhance the learning process. THE SEQUENCING CYCLE: The Sequencing Cycle is a technique promoted by PSIA/AASI for ordering movements into an action plan to facilitate learning. The goal of sequencing is to foster a logical action plan of exercises that leads to development of efficient, widely applicable, and integrated movement patterns. In order to do so, the action plan moves the student through ordered steps of development, from the easier to more complex aspects of the movement. The Sequencing Cycle is represented by six steps: 1. Identify Competencies – Based on a Movement Analysis select one facet of your student’s snowboarding that you wish to focus on. This choice could consist of a particular movement, habit, part

SCH Page 97 Action Plan Building

of a turn, or even the elimination of a mental barrier such as fear. Be sure to choose a topic which is specific enough to target. Overly broad choices increase the chances of the plan going astray somewhere along the line and losing its intended focus. 2. Isolate Difficulties - This step requires that the instructor determine what is actually happening with the student and whether the action plan will be developmental or corrective in nature. Begin by looking at the level of student and the movement mechanics involved. Are the mechanics sound or does something need correcting? If so, what and to what extent? The answers to these questions will provide the instructor with a reasonable idea where the lesson is headed and its desired outcome. 3. Divide Movements into Mechanics - Select exercises to target the facet chosen. These exercises should address the movement mechanics, habit, or concern. As instructors, we should feel confident in our ability to demonstrate and perform these exercises. 4. Incorporate Variations - From the exercises chosen, think of ways to tailor each exercise to the student and their needs. For example, if you are working on a weak heel-side edge by using an edged traverse, prepare to emphasize proper flexion and angulation techniques and perform a majority of heel-side moves. Remember those teaching and learning styles. 5. Organize Movements, Mechanics, and Variations into Plan Now that you know what you want to accomplish and what exercises can accomplish it, you need to place these exercises in a logical order. Place what you believe are the easiest exercises first, then those involving more proficiency in ascending order of difficulty.

SCH Page 98 Action Plan Building

6. Evaluate the Action Plan - The following checklist is useful for evaluating, refining, and, if necessary, reordering the plan: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Is the action plan clear, exact, logical, and appropriate? Does the plan move from simple to complex? Does the plan move from familiar to unfamiliar? Does the plan move from gross to fine movements? Does the plan evolve from stationary to moving? Does the plan provide for adequate practice time? Does the plan stimulate VAK awareness?

SCH Page 99 Teaching Methodology

In the case of snowboarding instruction the teaching methodology employed by AASI is the Snowboard Teaching System and the prescribed process is the Teaching Pattern. AASI instructors are encouraged to use the S.T.S. and its integral teaching components (the Teaching Concepts, Teaching Pattern, The Sequencing Cycle, etc.) to promote and teach proper movements and mechanics. EMPLOYING S.T.S.: The third section of the Teaching portion of the exam addresses Teaching Methodology. The Examiner uses this opportunity to score the candidate’s ability to employ proper teaching techniques, particularly those advocated by the S.T.S. By utilizing the S.T.S. methodology and adapting the Teaching Pattern as needed, a more effective instructor is born. The refinement of this methodology is characterized by the instructor’s teaching presence, their skilled presentation of the information (both verbally and visually), and the manner in which they choose to handle the class. Together, the combination of Presence, Communication, Demonstrations, and Class Handling act to characterize and complete the overall teaching methodology. Within each of these facets, AASI advocates the adaptation of teaching styles to accommodate the respective student learning styles and their preferred VAK stimulus. Presence - The instructor should hold the attention of the group and deliver the information with conviction. They should also display their confidence (not arrogance), knowledge, and sensitivity along the way. Communication - Communication as it relates to the spoken word should always be clear, concise, and understandable. As instructors, the most important facet of verbal communication is the comprehension level at which we choose to convey the information. Who are your students? Talk to them in a practical manner which they can relate to and understand. A majority of the time simple, clear, and meaningful explanations will suffice. In

SCH Page 100 Teaching Methodology

some cases, you may be faced with a class of budding scientists and may choose to increase the technical content of your discussion, as a Staff Trainer may be inclined to do with instructors. In the presence of children, nonverbal communication such as body language and genuine concern also become important and go a long way to building trust and allaying fears. Demonstrations - The ability to effectively and competently demonstrate what you have described can not be underestimated. It is from these visual images that the student will draw their mental picture of perfection. Key elements of good demonstrations are speed control, correct fundamental movements which are properly blended, examples toward and away from the class, and considerations for the prevailing snow conditions, among others. Class Handling - There are a number of things to consider in reference to class handling. Along with weather and climatic considerations, the overall safety of your class remains the omnipresent and overlying concern. Proper positioning of the class and frequent reminders regarding the Responsibility Code are a must. When moving the class, do so in a safe and prudent manner which minimizes the associated risks. The class is your responsibility! Class arrangement and organization also impacts the learning process. There are many formations which can be used, each with different benefits for the student and instructor alike. Some sample arrangements follow: 1. 2. 3. 4. Line-up - Line formation, good for basic instruction. Semicircle - Improved vision, closer interaction. Circle around Instructor - Easy access to students. Instructor-included Circle - Lowers barriers, creates equality. 5. Huddle - Creates excitement, less rigid, relieves tension.

SCH Page 101 Teaching Methodology

6. Follow Me - Good for moving the class and reinforcing patterns. 7. Call Down - Allows Instructor to observe and critique the class. 8. Free Practice - Students practice and Instructor observes. 9. Micro-teaching - Instructor roams amongst smaller groups. 10. Demonstration - Instructor demonstrates for class. As mentioned, besides the notion of how best to move and align the class, weather and climatic concerns need to be addressed. The weather may dictate a need for increased movement or even periodic shelter. While the terrain being used should always be appropriate, it also needs to be assessed relative to conditional changes which the mountain may experience throughout the day. For example, sunny days will require the instructor to position the class accordingly, facing away from the sun. Although simple and obvious, these considerations are vital to the student’s learning success.

SCH Page 102 Advanced Action Plans

Take the time and place yourself in situations where you are required to develop and effectively teach advanced snowboarding topics such as Carving, Bumps, Steeps, Powder, Freestyle, Half-pipe, etc. Some sample action plans follow which may help spur ideas and foster further thinking. As mentioned in the clinic dealing with Action Plan Building the ability to incorporate variations and fine tune plans is paramount to skilled instruction. INTRODUCTION TO CARVING: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. On very flat terrain, statically tip board edge to edge Straight run Straight run tipping board edge to edge Experiment with fore/aft leverage while tipping Develop turn shape through fore/aft leverage

INTRODUCTION TO CARVING: 1. 2. 3. 4. Alternate diagonal sideslips with edge lock traverses Reduce slipping to promote only a carved traverse Fan progression, OK to over-carve turns Mileage

IMPROVING CARVING: (Holistic/Tactical Approach) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Carved Single Turn on shallow terrain Assess/emphasize angulation (knees, hip position) Experiment with fore/aft leverage as turn develops Check/Promote proper hand position with respect to terrain Rail grab turns

SCH Page 103 Advanced Action Plans

INTRODUCTION TO STEEPS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Review short turns with speed control on moderate terrain Sideslip to an edge set, hop, repeat (toe-side and heel-side) Hop and turn board in air, skid to an edge set Hop while retracting and actively steer rear leg Decrease amount of hop in effort to maintain snow contact Gradually work toward steeper terrain

INTRODUCTION TO STEEPS: (Holistic/Tactical Approach) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Turn shape with earlier edge and pressure Concentrate on anticipation release Make turns in a corridor Funnel turns Quiet hands and upper body Emphasize rear leg steering

IMPROVING STEEPS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Edge set garlands (toe-side and heel-side) Add crossunder movement to garland Quicken pace of crossunder garlands Edge set to a Single Turn w/crossunder Linked turns with active crossunder movement

INTRODUCTION TO BUMPS: 1. Review short skidded turns with speed control on steeper smooth terrain 2. Skidded diagonal sideslip through bumps 3. Look for turn spots on top of bumps while traversing 4. Garland through moguls 5. Single turn around mogul 6. Link skidded turns in moguls

SCH Page 104 Advanced Action Plans

IMPROVING BUMPS: (Holistic/Tactical Approach) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Promote Anticipation in preparation for turning Keep hands forward Active absorption Maintain board to snow contact Move Center of Mass down the hill Emphasize active rear leg steering Promote Extension/Retraction

INTRODUCTION TO SOFT SNOW / POWDER: 1. 2. 3. 4. Straight run in powder allowing board to resurface Straight run with retraction and extension Garlands initiated with retraction, completed with extension Single turn completed with extension move allowing board to resurface

IMPROVING SOFT SNOW / POWDER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Straight run with flexion and extension Flex (retract) and redirect board Crossunder garlands with active flexion (retraction) Emphasize active flexion and extension to link turns Powder 8 contests pairing comparable students Analyze tracks

INTRODUCTION TO TRICKS: (Tactics for Air) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Straight run with hops maintaining centered stance Use flexed stance to land snowboard flat with little or no edge Select/utilize terrain features to create minor air, maintain stance Approach but avoid prepared jumps to assess speed, repeat Once comfortable with approach, use side of ramp for initial attempts 6. Gain confidence and cautiously attempt a straight run jump

SCH Page 105 Advanced Action Plans

IMPROVING TRICKS: (Functional Air w/Rail-Grab) 1. Straight run w/pumpers on flatter terrain reaching for heel-side edge 2. Select/utilize terrain features to create minor air, lower stance 3. Simulate heel-side rail-grab over terrain features 4. Use side of ramp for first attempt, increased speed 5. Active extension movement at takeoff to augment hang time needed for grab 6. Flex knees and retract legs to bring heel-side edge within range INTRODUCTION TO HALF-PIPE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Review switch riding Hop to switch, return to forward on smoother terrain Switch riding on natural rolls On the toe-side edge, ride up wall of pipe, back down switch Repeat heel-side Link hop turns in the transition Link hop turns mid-wall, above the transition

IMPROVING HALF-PIPE: (Functional Air) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Work lower section of pipe, increased speed Link turns higher on wall with board leaving the snow surface Drop in from start of half-pipe Choose “hits” or places to maneuver in advance Repeat same line for confidence Mix switch and forward hits with hop turns

These action plans are merely suggestions from which you may draw ideas. Employ the tools of S.T.S. to modify and tailor the exercises you choose to form the specific developmental plans which your students need. Remember to incorporate those aspects of student behavior which will maximize their learning potential and overall snowboarding

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experience. Above all, remain safe, have fun, and strive to give your students that added bonus of learning something in the process.

SCH Page 107 Summary & Review

Remember, practice makes perfect, or close to it. You have come this far, the rest is up to you. Hit the books again, study hard, and make the most of your remaining time on the snow. Evaluate your strengths and your respective weaknesses and tailor your studying to develop that “complete package” that the Examiner wants to see. Think success! Are you prepared to answer questions similar to those found in the Appendix of this handbook? Can you adequately demonstrate and perform the maneuvers pertaining to your exam? Level I Basic Skidded Turns Switch Skidded Turns Skidded Turns Basic Air/Freestyle Situational Riding Level II Linked Medium Skidded Turns Linked Short Skidded Turns Linked Switch Skidded Turns Carving Park / Pipe Freestyle Air-to-Switch Situational Riding

Level III Linked Dynamic Skidded Turns Linked Dynamic Carved Turns Steeps Functional Air Park / Pipe Freestyle (Advanced Grabs, Half-pipe, etc.) Situational Riding Are you ready to discuss these topics? Safety The Snowboard Teaching System Service, Riding, and Teaching Concepts Movement and Performance Concepts

SCH Page 108 Summary & Review

Objectives/Mechanics of the Demonstrations Physics Kinesiology/Biomechanics Industry Trends Equipment Movement Patterns/Turn Mechanics Teaching Children/Child Development Do you understand the elements of? Movement Analysis Action Plans (Building Action Plans, Derived/Alternative Plans) Teaching Methodology Can you effectively teach? Action Plans for the Demonstrations Action Plans from Movement Analysis Alternative Action Plans Action Plans for Children Selected Improvement (Rotation, Flexion/Extension Movements) Introduction/Improvement of Skidded Turns Introduction/Improvement of Carved Turns Introduction/Improvement to Freestyle (Rolls, 360°s, Tricks, etc.) Action Plans for Situational Riding/Tasks Introduction/Improvement of Dynamic Turns Additional Advanced Action Plans (Bumps, Steeps, Powder, Freestyle, Park/Pipe, Racing, etc.) GOOD LUCK ♣.....With a strong handle on a majority of these items, you should have a solid base of knowledge going into the Certification Exam. There is, however, no substitute for experience, both on the snow and in front of people. Get out there and teach. Love every minute of it and remember that only a handful of people are fortunate enough to have one of the greatest jobs in the world, and you are one of them!.........

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And remember, despite the outcome, Success is defined by the individual.…. To laugh often and much; to win the respect of intelligent people and the affection of children; to earn the appreciation of honest critics; to appreciate beauty, to find the best in others; to leave the world a bit better; to know one life has breathed easier because you have lived. This is to have succeeded... Ralph Waldo Emerson

SCH Page 110 APPENDIX/Teaching Children

The material contained in this Appendix is reprinted from the PSIA-W Study Guide entitled Teaching Children, 1993. CHANGING PERCEPTIONS: During the past several years, ski areas have experienced an increased demand for ski and snowboard services offered to children. This has initiated the specialty area of children’s ski and snowboard school with instructors who work exclusively with children. In recognition of the importance of providing quality ski and snowboard lessons to all students, PSIA/AASI is including information related to teaching children into the Certification Exam format. The written test will include questions on teaching children and the on-hill portion will include discussions on working with children as well as adapting teaching situations to children. The following information from the PSIA manual Child Centered Teaching provides a quick reference for material directly related to the children’s ski and snowboard school as well as more general information on child development. MARIA MONTESSORI (1870-1952): Maria Montessori devoted her life to the study of children’s physical, psychological, intellectual, and spiritual development. The work of Montessori was selected as the theoretical and philosophical foundations of the Snowboard Teaching System for children because it focuses on the development of the whole child. The term “Child-Centered Teaching” was chosen because it reflects this concept of considering the whole child in the ski and snowboard teaching methodology. The child is the center of focus and the lesson is tailored to best suit the abilities and interests of the child. THE PREPARED ENVIRONMENT: The success of the lesson depends on the learning environment; it either ensures the success or dooms the lesson to failure. When working with children, in a high risk sport such as skiing and snowboarding, the prepared environment is a necessity, not a luxury. It can be described as any specifically prepared

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environment designed to ensure success when learning new skills. The environment may include an indoor pre-snow facility, an on slope presnow station and/or skill stations. Benefits of a well prepared environment include minimal adult/instructor intervention. The area can facilitate ease of movement and safety while new skills are being taught and can encourage error prevention rather than correction. A terrain garden can be considered a form of a prepared environment. PSIA guidelines for a terrain garden state “... a controlled practice environment offering manicured terrain features and skill developing conditions to help children learn”. A terrain garden can also offer a visually appealing and exciting environment for the student, such as adding brightly colored flags, poles to move around, etc. SKILL STATIONS: The skill station concept allows a child to learn basic movements at his/her own rate. One skill station model may include several on-hill snow areas, each with a specific focus. the child is allowed to progress from one station to the next based on individual development. Station groups are split according to age and ability to create more compatible situations. Each station introduces a specific movement and when the skill is sufficiently learned, the student may progress to the next skill level. This concept can successfully motivate a child by helping to set attainable goals and reducing stress and anxiety in the lesson. CHILDREN VIEW THE WORLD DIFFERENTLY THAN ADULTS: Children do not simply possess less knowledge than adults, they process information differently. How children view the world is very important to understand so that we can communicate with them on a level that they can understand. The theory of cognitive development can offer explanations on what children are capable of at certain stages of mental development. This can help the instructor better plan his lesson and set realistic, attainable goals for the student.

SCH Page 112 APPENDIX/Teaching Children

PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: With the work of Swiss theorist Jean Piaget, we now have a glimpse into the working of the child’s mind. Piaget spent more than 60 years observing, studying, researching, and writing about children’s cognitive (mental) development. Piaget proposed four major stages of cognitive development that are experienced by children. The first stage is called the Sensori-Motor Stage, the period from birth to approximately two years of age. This infant relies on touching, feeling, seeing, and using her senses to find out about the world. Her world is her immediate environment and she interacts with it on a motor level. During this stage, a child learns to differentiate herself from others and the environment and learns that things and even people continue to exist when she is not interacting with them. When a child begins to use language, she enters the Pre-Operational Stage, the second stage of mental development. This child can now interact with the world verbally as well as on a motor or physical level. The child differentiates between thought and action. This is a time of make-believe play. During the Pre-Operational Stage, which continues until seven or eight years old, a child reasons and explains events based on how things look to her. Everything is seen from her point of view; in fact the child is not aware that others may have a different point of view. The stage of Concrete Operations occurs from approximately age seven until adolescence or beyond. It is characterized by the ability to differentiate appearance from reality. At this stage however, the child can not yet reason about abstract concepts. The stage of Formal Operations is marked by the potential for thinking in terms of concepts and abstractions, rather than relying on concrete or real objects or events. The stage of development determines what and how a child learns. As instructors we should understand the basic principles of children’s thinking.

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The late Pre-Operational Stage between (four and seven year old) coincides with the age children may first be exposed to snow instruction. It is important to understand that stages represent levels of development, not chronological age. Many five year olds will demonstrate abilities normally observed in older children; and many eight, nine, and ten year olds can be seen operating on a level typically identified with children as young as four or five. Therefore, the best age to introduce a child to skiing and snowboarding is when he/she is developmentally ready to handle the experience, both mentally and physically. PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT: It is important to understand the basic motor abilities involved when we are helping a child learn a physical skill such as this. The development of controlled movement depends on the sensory input, perceptual and motor systems, and their integration. The Fundamental Movements are the basis of all skill development. The majority of children under the age of six have not developed mature movement skills (running, galloping, hopping, skipping, sliding, jumping, and so on). Sensory input refers to the information that comes to a person through her senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. We also receive information at an unconscious level from the vestibular system (information from the inner ear about movement and space) and the proprioceptive system (nerve endings in the muscles, joints, and tendons). When any of the sense systems or organs are given information, it is relayed to the brain where it is organized and given meaning. Information children receive from the senses is lost at a faster rate than adults (within 1-5 seconds after the stimulus, children lose 50% or more of the information). Perception refers to the brain’s interpretation of received information. The sensory modalities are the means by which information is brought in and processed by the brain. They are channels for information. When we use the term modality - i.e. kinesthetic modality, visual modality, and auditory modality, both the sensory input (or reception)

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and the brain’s interpretation are included. The kinesthetic modality is our primary source of information and movement. All other modalities relate to the kinesthetic system. Actions are Motor Responses based on our interpretation of information received through our senses. The development of motor responses (physical development) is an orderly and predictable process. Both growth and function follow a two directional pattern. Before and after birth, the body gains control of its muscles from the head to the feet. The nervous system develops from the brain down the longitudinal axis of the body. The body also gains control from the center out. Relative to skiing and snowboarding, children will: 1. 2. 3. 4. Control the head before the trunk Control the trunk before the legs Control the arms before the hands and fingers Control the hips before the legs, feet, or toes

Control of the large (gross) muscles of the body occurs before control of the small (fine) muscles. Therefore, each maneuver must be well learned before refinement begins. The connection between the nervous system and muscular system evolves. As a child develops, he may experience a large growth spurt in a relatively short period of time. Muscle and bone growth may exceed nerve development, in that nerve growth occurs at a slower rate. The child may experience a lack of coordination until the nervous systems can catch up to the muscle and bone growth. Efficiency in movement depends on the development of many abilities: spatial orientation, body image, balance, laterality, and directionality. COMMUNICATION: As instructors, our communication skills are a critical factor in effective teaching. A skillful communicator listens carefully and talks with children on their level. Though verbal communication is important, it is not as important as nonverbal

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communication (or body language) to children. Observing our body language, children receive thousands of nonverbal messages. By watching and listening, they can sense how we really feel about them. The instructor must also be aware of the child’s body language. This will help give feedback on the lesson and determine if the child is comfortable in the teaching environment. Other guidelines to follow when working with children include giving verbal explanations with the demonstrations, using an effective tone of voice (the child could sense a hostile attitude even if the instructor’s actions do not appear negative), treating the child with respect and concern and accepting the child as he or she is. Children are very sensitive to the world around them. It is important for the instructor to provide an environment that will enhance a positive learning experience.

SCH Page 116 APPENDIX/Study Questions

These Study Questions are provided for the purpose of reviewing and reinforcing the material presented and promoting additional study on certain topics. Don’t be surprised to find some advanced questions which are geared toward stimulating deeper, extended thinking in certain areas. We’ll start with something simple. Are you aware of all exam dates and deadlines? Remember the website. Level I – TEACHING 1. What are the Three Core Values of AASI? 2. Recite the Snowboarder’s Responsibility Code. 3. What constitutes a safety check for a beginner class? 4. Why learn everyone’s name in a snowboard lesson? 5. What is the correct way to position an unattached snowboard on the hill to prevent it from sliding away? 6. What is the S.T.S. and describe its guiding philosophies? 7. Describe the Service Concepts. 8. List the components of the Riding and Teaching Concepts. 9. How many Rider Levels are there according to the S.T.S.? 10. What does student-centered teaching mean? 11. Describe the Movement and Performance Concepts.

SCH Page 117 APPENDIX/Study Questions

12. What is the purpose of the “Y” Model? 13. What is T.I.D? 14. How does an instructor check for understanding? 15. Which are more effective; wordy explanations or demonstrations? 16. Describe a couple of key points an instructor would use in summarization. 17. List five teaching styles. 18. What teaching style would be most effective with a group of beginners? 19. What types of learners are there? 20. What is the difference between Task and Command style teaching? 21. List two common mistakes made at S.T.S. Rider Levels 1 - 3. Name two exercises that might help remedy these mistakes. 22. True or False. A good snowboard instructor will use a variety of exercises depending on the level of student. 23. True or False. All snowboard lessons should begin with a fast run down a steep slope. 24. True or False. Having fun in a lesson is important in learning. 25. True or False. Exercises should help a student achieve their goals. 26. True or False. A student who learns best by thinking relies primarily on kinesthetic sense.

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27. How does an instructor help students who may be fearful in a first time lesson? 28. What are two types of motivation? 29. Explain the CAP Model. 30. Define fall-line. 31. Define traverse. 32. Name two occasions when a snowboarder would have the rear foot unsecured. 33. Describe the basic steps of a Movement Analysis. 34. Define VAK. 35. True or False. Children learn best with lengthy and detailed instructions. 36. Adult or Child. Can follow one or two directions at a time. 37. Adult or Child. Can generally reverse directional instructions. 38. Adult or Child. Acts first and deals with results later. 39. Adult or Child. Tends to have a heavy emphasis on winning. 40. Adult or Child. Easily follows rules. 41. Adult or Child. Seems interested in the outcome. 42. Adult or Child. Seems only interested in the process.

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43. True or False. Instilling a good image of the task is critical to the teaching/learning process. 44. What are the best conditions in which to learn to snowboard? 45. What are the benefits of Skill Stations? 46. List exercises that enhance edge angle control at a beginner level. 47. List five characteristics that students like in instructors. 48. When do you feel that you have given a good lesson? 49. Besides helping someone snowboard better, what other roles do we have as instructors? 50. How do you know when your students are ready to use the beginning chairlifts? Level II – TEACHING 51. List four things that you would teach in a lesson on a very cold day. 52. List some of the symptoms of fear and methods to deal with a fearful student in a group lesson. 53. What are some considerations we must evaluate when determining goals for a group of students? 54. What considerations should be made when designing practice periods for our students? 55. True or False. Moving to new terrain can be a part of an action plan. 56. Relate the parts of the Teaching Concepts to your last lesson.

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57. What is an example of experiential teaching? 58. What is enough practice time when learning a given movement? 59. Peer evaluation is an example of the ________________ teaching style. 60. A summary at the end of the lesson serves what function? 61. What is the difference between an Action Plan and an exercise? 62. Feedback is most effective when given __________. Why? 63. True or False. Too much verbal information is common cause of lesson failure among children. 64. Why is immediate feedback important? 65. How can an instructor facilitate correct repetition with his or her students? 66. What do the students’ goals have to do with lesson planning? 67. True or False. Experiential teaching relies heavily on instructor explanations. 68. True or False. Outcome-based teaching is determined in part by instructor behavior. 69. True or False. People tend to teach in the same way they learn or were taught. 70. True or False. Intrinsic feedback in a learning situation may be provided by the instructor.

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71. List the elements of the Teaching Pattern. Provide two points regarding the instructor’s role in each element. 72. True or False. Introducing a movement statically before trying it while moving can be part of an action plan. 73. True or False. Communication is an element of your Teaching Methodology. 74. True or False. Class Handling is important to the learning success of the student. Level III – TEACHING 75. What is Teaching for Transfer? 76. How would you teach a student who does not speak your language or is hearing impaired? 77. How can you use speed, terrain, snow conditions and pacing to help students develop linked carved turns? 78. How does a linked carved turn feel different from a linked skidded turn? How would you teach this based on the feelings in your feet? 79. List five characteristics of effective demonstrations. 80. List the things you consider when selecting terrain for your students. 81. What are the components of an effective lesson summarization? 82. List three safety issues that you would include in a lesson on a deep powder day.

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83. Describe how you would alter a lesson plan to suit the needs of children ages six to twelve versus that of adults. 84. What is the difference between guided discovery and problem solving? 85. Describe the two types of motivation. 86. Describe how you use VAK in your teaching. 87. Developmental and Corrective describe two types of __________ used in snowboard instruction. 88. What is The Sequencing Cycle? 89. What are the steps of The Sequencing Cycle? 90. List three advantages of using a task-oriented teaching style. 91. List the five basic components of learning. 92. Describe how childrens’ motor skills develop. 93. Fill in the appropriate ages for each of the following stages of child development. Sensori-motor Pre-Operational Concrete Operational Formal Operational __________ __________ __________ __________

94. Describe how you would alter a beginning lesson when working with children under 6 years old. 95. The choice of movement and class control options available to the instructor relates to different types of _____________.

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96. List Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. 97. Describe three different ways to check for students’ understanding. 98. True or False. Producing student dependency on the instructor is a main goal of the Snowboard Teaching System. 99. State a developmental action plan for Bumps. 100. State a developmental action plan for Improving Carving. 101. State a developmental action plan for teaching half-pipe maneuvers. Level I – PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE 102. List the Fundamental Movement Concepts in learning to snowboard. 103. True or False. A fairly low stance improves muscular and skeletal efficiency. 104. What force holds the snowboarder to the mountain? 105. What forces act against gravity’s pull in a straight run? 106. State the Gravity-Friction Principle. 107. What force causes higher speeds to occur on steeper terrain? 108. List the phases of a turn. 109. True or False. The balance point describes the point in the body where the body’s mass is roughly considered to reside. 110. What is the center of mass?

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111. Name two types of friction affecting the snowboarder. 112. What are the three Turning Powers? 113. ______________ describes movement about a vertical axis. 114. A professional basketball player over 7 feet tall with very large feet asks you what board he should learn on. What is your recommendation? 115. A woman less than five feet tall with small feet asks you what board she should learn on. What is your recommendation? 116. Describe the flex pattern of an average rental board. 117. Describe your snowboard and why you like it. 118. Describe your boots and why you ride in them. 119. Adult or Child. They possess a short attention span. 120. Adult or Child. Head is smaller in proportion to the body. 121. Adult or Child. Egocentric or self-centered. 122. Adult or Child. Less competitive. 123. Adult or Child. Muscles are well developed. Level II – PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE 124. Describe specifics of the Movement Concepts for Rider Levels 1-4? 125. True or False. The purpose of camber in a snowboard is to distribute pressure over the length of the snowboard.

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126. True or False. The center of mass is roughly centered around the shoulders. 127. True or False. Rotation of the snowboard is always greatest at the initiation phase. 128. True or False. The pressure on the snowboard is greatest at the Initiation Phase. 129. Explain the Gravity-Friction Principle. 130. Define equilibrium. 131. True or False. Equilibrium can be controlled by the rider’s thought process. 132. True or False. The soles of the feet are valuable in balance. 133. True or False. Checking describes the action of slowing or stopping of a skid. 134. True or False. Asymmetrical snowboards have offset toe and heel edges. Explain. 135. True or False. Centripetal force involves edge angle and the push of the snow against the base of the snowboard to maintain turning. 136. Describe Counter-Rotation. 137. Describe the differences between Rotation and Counter-Rotation. 138. The imaginary line that follows the greatest angle of the slope is called _______________. 139. Pressure Distribution from the front to back of the snowboard is called ____________.

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140. Turning the snowboard with minimal lateral slippage is called ____________. 141. Name the phase of the turn when the edge change occurs. 142. True or False. Anticipation is a movement in preparation for turning. 143. List three reasons snowboarders use flexion and extension movements. 144. The hip joint is, A) a hinge joint, B) a compound hinge joint, or C) a ball and socket joint. 145. _______________ connect bone to bone. 146. _______________ connect muscle to bone. 147. Why is there less fatigue in a taller position than in a lowered body position? 148. What is a bevel? 149. What stance angles do you prefer? Why? 150. Describe the perfect boot fit. 151. What is side-cut? Level III – PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE 152. True or False. Velocity is a type of acceleration. 153. True or False. Wax helps the snowboard to slide by creating a layer of water beneath the base.

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154. True or False. Harder wax is best in wet spring snow conditions. 155. True or False. If a long turn is made shorter while maintaining the same velocity then centrifugal force is increased. 156. True or False. The knee joint has four primary ligaments. 157. True or False. The knee can rotate. Explain your answer. 158. Lactic acid creates which of the following, A) hunger, B) fatigue, C) dehydration, or D) irritability? 159. Describe the two primary functions of cartilage. 160. Why structure or rill the base of a snowboard? 161. Mass times velocity is the equation for _______________. 162. Name the three Cardinal Planes of the body. 163. _______________ describes the connective tissue that has the ability to contract and move bones. 164. How do muscles work? 165. True or False. An Isometric Contraction involves a change of muscle length. 166. Where in the body is the meniscus found? 167. What is synovial fluid? 168. What causes bone spurs? 169. Describe the function of the ankle joint.

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170. Name the four planes of motion of the ankle joint. 171. Which muscles are found on the front of the thigh? 172. Which muscles are found on the back of the thigh? 173. Name the three muscle groups found in the trunk. 174. What fuel do the muscles use in anaerobic activity? A) blood sugar, B) free-fatty acids, C) carbohydrates, or D) glycogen. 175. The hip joint is a _______________ joint. 176. Name two types of base material used on snowboards. 177. What are the differences between the two materials? 178. List two types of beveling. 179. What is the purpose of these two types of beveling? 180. What are toe and heel lifts used for? 181. What parts of your board are made of metal? Why? 182. Explain canting. 183. Who needs cants? 184. What is your stance width? Why have you chosen it? 185. What type of rider and what kind of snow would suit a torsionally rigid snowboard? 186. Why is the tip of a snowboard wider than the waist?

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187. List three reasons for riding a longer snowboard. 188. List three reasons for riding a shorter snowboard. 189. Define inertia. 190. Angular momentum is, A) a force present in a straight run, B) a measure of speed and direction, C) a measure of inertia in a turn, or D) a force which works towards the center of an object in a turn. 191. Diagram a turn and show the forces affecting a rider. Level I – RIDING 192. Can you list the mechanics of each of the Demonstrations? 193. True or False. All the various riding disciplines within the “Y” Model are the same in their mechanics. If you can do one you can do them all. 194. True or False. A snowboard can carve a traverse in a perfectly straight line. 195. Explain the signs used for trail/slope markers. 196. What is the primary function of flexing and extending movements of the hips, knees, and ankles? 197. Which of the following is not a phase of a turn, A) Shaping, B) Crossover, C) Finish, or D) Initiation? 198. Is Torsional Twist a Movement or Performance Concept? Explain. 199. True or False. Flexion and Extension movements can aid in an edge change.

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200. True or False. In a falling leaf maneuver fore/aft pressure can regulate the resulting direction. 201. List three self-propelling movements. 202. True or False. The goal for the S.T.S. Rider Level 1 student is a straight glide with one directional change. 203. Briefly describe skidded versus carved turns. 204. The change of pressure from fore to aft on the snowboard is called _______________. 205. A slipping motion straight down the fall-line is called _______________. 206. Name three exercises that modify edge angle with the rear foot unattached. 207. Name three exercises that work on balance with the rear foot unattached. 208. True or False. Too much edge can make maintaining balance difficult. 209. Which Movement and Performance Concepts are used in a sidestep? 210. Does pressure distribution only change fore to aft on the board? 211. What do you do when your students’ binding straps are too big? Level II – RIDING 212. Can you list the mechanics of each of the Demonstrations?

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213. How does the line that the body takes (offset) vary from the line of the snowboard in reference to short, medium, and long radius turns? 214. True or False. Angulation improves a rider’s balance. Explain. 215. True or False. Pressure Distribution can change by raising and lowering the center of mass. 216. True or False. Active rotation of the snowboard is best accomplished with arm and shoulder movements. 217. Which of the following are elements in mogul riding, A) unweighting, B) speed control, C) tactics, or D) all of the preceding. 218. A slight rising or extension of the legs at the beginning of the turn is referred to as __________. 219. How can you teach speed control at S.T.S. Rider Level 4? 220. True or False. An edge release can be the result of the center of mass moving towards the new turn. 221. Deflection describes the action of which of the following, A) steering the feet, B) flattening the snowboard, or C) snowboard being redirected by the snow. 222. Absorption can involve which of the following A) active retraction of the legs, B) up-unweighting, C) equalizing the pressure applied to the snowboard, or D) all of the preceding. 223. In more advanced riding, enhanced rotary movements can refer to, A) counter-rotation, B) leg steering, C) whole body rotation, or D) all of the preceding. 224. What types of movements are required to keep the body in equilibrium?

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225. True or False. There may be crossover in a basic skidded turn. 226. Why do we skid the snowboard? 227. When is anticipation used? 228. List one advantage and one disadvantage of using whole body rotation. 229. List one advantage and one disadvantage of using counter-rotation. 230. Which happens first in a turn, centripetal or centrifugal force? Level III – RIDING 231. Can you list the mechanics of each of the Demonstrations? 232. What movements found in the falling leaf maneuver are also found in linked carved turns? 233. List and describe three exercises which produce pressure distribution changes. 234. Which is the preferred turning power in bumps, A) rotation, B) counter-rotation, C) lower leg steering, or D) both B and C. 235. _______________ describes any movement resulting in an increase of joint angle. 236. _______________ describes the movement of the body’s center of mass forward and over the board from the inside of one turn to the inside of the next. 237. _______________ describes the movement of the feet and snowboard under the Center of Mass from the outside of one turn to the outside of the next.

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238. _______________ describes the composite result of the snowboard sliding forward and slipping sideways. 239. Describe a good angulated position on the toe-side? 240. Describe a good angulated position on the heel-side? 241. What benefit does rotation serve for the advanced rider? 242. What are three common problems riders have in moguls? 243. Pressure Distribution relates to which planes of motion? 244. What do linked skidded turns and linked carved turns have in common? 245. How does one accomplish each type of unweighting? 246. Describe how the mechanics of freestyle snowboarding relate to and differ from those of freeriding and alpine riding.

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