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Pragmatism-How America Was Corrupted by William James

Pragmatism-How America Was Corrupted by William James

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Pragmatism was created by William James at Harvard as a very important part of the "New Age" move­ment begun as a British inspired international effort at the end of the 1800s.
Pragmatism was created by William James at Harvard as a very important part of the "New Age" move­ment begun as a British inspired international effort at the end of the 1800s.

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THE NEW FEDERALIST March 16, 1992 Pages 6-7

American Almanac
Pragmatism: How America's Identity Was Corrupted
by New Age Psychologist William James
by Mary ouise !houri
EIRNS/Philip Ulanowsky
Econo!c co""a#se, hoe"essness, an$ %he $es%r&c%!on o' %he ne(% genera%!on
)* %he ra$!ca" co&n%erc&"%&re+ a"" %o"era%e$ )* %he Aer!can #o#&"a%!on as
#ar% o' ,)e!ng #rac%!ca"-,
As a #s*cho"og!s%, I ha.e o'%en /on$ere$ /he%her #erha#s %here e(!s%s soe
#ec&"!ar c&"%&ra" an$ !$eo"og!ca" a(!o, e)e$$e$ !n %he #s*che o' Aer!-
cans, %ha% !s "arge"* res#ons!)"e 'or o&r a)erran% )eha.!or as a na%!on- A'%er a
grea% $ea" o' research, I ha.e )ecoe con.!nce$ %ha% #raga%!s !s 0&s% s&ch
a '"a/-
As F&n1 an$ Wagna""s $!c%!onar* $e'!nes #raga%!s, !% !s ,%he #h!"oso#h*
%ha% !$eas on"* ha.e .a"&e !n %ers o' %he!r #rac%!ca" conse2&ences-, The*
g!.e ,#rac%!ca", as !%s s*non*, an$ re'er %o %he 3ree1 /or$ pragma, ean-
!ng ,%h!ng $one,, as !%s $er!.a%!on-
Aer!cans ha.e a"/a*s )een #rac%!ca" #eo#"e, 1no/n 'or ha.!ng a ,can-$o,
a%%!%&$e %o/ar$ ge%%!ng %h!ngs $one no a%%er /ha% %he o)s%ac"e- Peo#"e ha.e
coe %o acce#% #raga%!s as soe%h!ng reasona)"e an$ a""-Aer!can-
Ho/e.er, !' one acce#%s %he !$ea o' )e!ng #raga%!c, he !s !#"!c!%"* acce#%-
!ng a"" 1!n$s o' $angero&s &n$er"*!ng ass&#%!ons he /o&"$ #ro)a)"* no%
acce#%, /ere he cogn!4an% o' /here %hese ass&#%!ons co&"$ "ea$ h!-
Praga%!s /as crea%e$ as a .er* !#or%an% #ar% o' %he ,Ne/ Age, o.e-
en% )eg&n as an !n%erna%!ona" e''or% a% %he en$ o' %he "as% cen%&r*- The Ne/
Age /as an e(!s%en%!a"!s% o.een% /h!ch H!%"er an$ M&sso"!n! )ro&gh% %o
#o"!%!cs, an$ e.en%&a""* %he roc1-$r&g-se( co&n%erc&"%&re )ro&gh% %o Aer-
!ca- As %he Aer!can 'ace% o' %h!s, %he #h!"oso#h* o' #raga%!s /as
concoc%e$ )* Ang"o#h!"e W!""!a 5aes a% Har.ar$ 61761-19879- I% /as a
con%!n&a%!on o' 3rea% :r!%a!n;s h!s%or!ca" co!%en% %o s%a# o&% <hr!s%!an
re#&)"!can .a"&es !n Nor%h Aer!ca, as a #recon$!%!on 'or res%or!ng a one-
/or"$ e#!re o$e"e$ on #agan !#er!a" Roe- S#a/ne$ ear"!er !n %he
E&ro#ean sa"ons o' Ma$ae $e S%ae", %he Ne/ Age s%ra%eg* /as %o #roo%e
,Roan%!c!s-,
Th!s #a.e$ %he /a* 'or %he #h!"oso#h* o' Fr!e$r!ch N!e%4sche, %he en%or o'
%he Na4!s, an$ 'or an* o%her 'ors o' !rra%!ona"!s- Praga%!s a##eare$
!n Aer!ca aro&n$ %he sae %!e %ha% %he ,Ne/ Age, /as s#rea$!ng
Dar/!n!s, e&gen!cs, an$ genera" c&"%&ra" #ess!!s- 5aes /as a s%r!c%
Dar/!n!an, /ho a##"!e$ %he "a/ o' %he 0&ng"e=,s&r.!.a" o' %he '!%%es%,=%o
h&an )e!ngs, an$ a$$e$ %he no%!on %ha% %he en$ 0&s%!'!es %he eans- Th&s,
#raga%!s, as a 'or o' Soc!a" Dar/!n!s, he"#e$ Aer!cans )ecoe ore
aena)"e %o %he !$ea %ha% cer%a!n races o' en are ore ,'!% %o s&r.!.e, %han
o%hers, an$ sho&"$ %here'ore ,na%&ra""*, r&"e o.er %he !n'er!or ones-
In %he e*es o' %he ar!s%ocrac*, %hese ,"o/er races, as 5aes ca""e$ %he,
sho&"$ on"* ser.e as s&)0ec%s or s"a.es, or e.en )e%%er, )e c&""e$ 'ro %he
h&an her$ en%!re"*-
Mussolini's Pragmatism
The #h!"oso#h* o' %he 'asc!s%s /as e(ac%"* %he sae Soc!a" Dar/!n!s 6%he
,as%er race,9 an$ ,/ha%e.er /or1s, a##roach- As W!""!a >an$e"" E""!o%%
$oc&en%s !n h!s Pragmatic Revolt in Politics+ ,The o)ser.ers /ho ha.e
coen%e$ &#on Fasc!s ha.e agree$ &#on one %h!ng a% "eas%, %ha% !%s
e%ho$ !s essen%!a""* #raga%!c- M&sso"!n! a%%r!)&%es h!s o/n !n%e""ec%&a"
sha#!ng %o W!""!a 5aes- - - - For #raga%!s, a *%h !s %r&e so "ong as !%
/or1s- M&sso"!n! o''ers h!se"' as %he ne/ <aesar, %o "ea$ I%a"* once ore
%o %he $a* /hen Roe /!"" )ecoe ;%he cen%er o' %he /or"$-; I' he can
ca#%&re %he !ag!na%!on o' I%a"!ans an$ !n'"ae %he /!%h h!s $rea, he 'ee"s
%ha% he can go.ern /!%h consen%-,
M&sso"!n! "o.e$ %o &se %he /or$ 'orce !n e(#"a!n!ng h!s #rogra? he as-
ser%e$ %ha% %he &se o' 'ear an$ 'orce are 0&s%!'!e$ )* na%!ona" econo!c
necess!%*- Th!s !s ere"* #raga%!s;s ,%he en$ 0&s%!'!es %he eans, as
5aes s%a%e$+ ,To $e.e"o# a %ho&gh%;s ean!ng, /e nee$ on"* $e%er!ne
/ha% con$&c% !% !s '!%%e$ %o #ro$&ce? %ha% con$&c% !s 'or &s !%s so"e s!gn!'!-
cance-, @r as he "a%er sa*s !n Pragmatism, %r&%h !s re"a%!.e+ ,:&!"$ %here'ore
*o&r o/n /or"$-,
Accor$!ng %o 5aes, %he 'asc!s%-s*n$!ca"!s% s%a%e, as M&sso"!n! ca""e$ !%, ,ha$
se!4e$ on %he #raga%!c %es% o' e''!c!enc* - - - an$ re#&$!a%e$ a"" res#ons!)!"-
!%* %o re#resen%a%!.e $eocrac*-, Wages, ho&rs, #r!ces, e%c-, ,/ere s&)or$!-
na%e$ %o %he co""ec%!.e ;necess!%*; as !% !s !n%er#re%e$ )* a s%rong-/!""e$
Fasc!s% o"!garch* /h!ch recogn!4es no r!gh%s an$ !#oses a"" $&%!es-, In
1927, E""!o%% /ro%e %ha% ,'asc!s has coe %o ean %o %he #o#&"ar !ag!na-
%!on 0&s% %h!s a##"!ca%!on o' #raga%!s %o #o"!%!cs-,
S!nce %r&%h, 'or %he #raga%!s%, !s ,re"a%!.e, %o /ha%e.er /or1s 'or %he
gra%!'!ca%!on o' one;s !n$!.!$&a" )!o"og!ca" s&r.!.a", %he $oor !s o#en %o
!rra%!ona"!s !n e.er*%h!ng=econo!cs, re"!g!on, ar%, e%c- W!%h %he
!n%ro$&c%!on o' #raga%!s, %he ,'ree en%er#r!se, s*s%e o' :r!%a!n;s A$a
S!%h co&"$ a"so )e so"$ %o Aer!cans as on"* ,)e!ng #rac%!ca", a)o&% ho/
%o #ros#er-
,:e!ng #rac%!ca", /as #er.er%e$ %o ean $o!ng an*%h!ng !n %he nae o'
a1!ng one*, !n %he ser.!ce o' one;s #e%%*, he$on!s%!c /!""- Praga%!s
/as a #er'ec% echo o' /ha% A$a S!%h ha$ sa!$ ear"!er a)o&% %he econo*,
%ha% an sho&"$ concern h!se"' on"* /!%h #&rs&!ng #"eas&re an$ a.o!$!ng
#a!n, an$ "e% 3o$ /orr* a)o&% %he conse2&ences 'or o.era"" soc!e%*-
William James "right# and younger brother Henry loo$ o%er a gallery o& their
cothin$ers "le&t to right#: 'homas Hu(ley) *ertrand +ussell) Adol& Hitler)
,riedrich Niet-sche) and .atanist Aleister Crowley/
Praga%!s !s a"so e(#"!c!% !n !%s #ra!se o' 3nos%!c!s- I% es#o&ses %he &se
o' a"coho" an$ $r&gs 'or ga!n!ng ,*s%!ca", e(#er!ences- Sa%an!s% A"e!s%er
<ro/"e*;s an&a", Magik in Theory and Practice, an$a%es W!""!a 5aes;s
arieties o! Religio"s E#perience as re2&!re$ rea$!ng 'or a"" se"'-res#ec%!ng
Sa%an /orsh!##ers- I% /as <ro/"e* /ho recoen$e$ %ha% ,a a"e ch!"$ o'
#er'ec% !nnocence an$ h!gh !n%e""!gence !s %he os% sa%!s'ac%or* an$ s&!%a)"e
.!c%!, 'or h&an sacr!'!ce 'or ga!n!ng ag!ca" #o/er- A'%er a"", as 5aes
#ro'esse$, !' *o& ,/!""e$ %o )e"!e.e, !n s&ch ag!ca" #o/ers !n or$er %o ga!n
/ha% *o& nee$, %hen *o&;re #er'ec%"* 'ree %o choose so-
W!""!a 5aes;s #roo%!on o' !rra%!ona"!s !n %he g&!se o' 0&s% )e!ng #rag-
a%!c, $!$ %he os% %o so'%en &# Aer!cans %o acce#% :r!%!sh ra$!ca" "!)era"-
!s o' %he :en%ha!%e .ar!e%*- In $!rec%"* a%%ac1!ng na%&ra" "a/, or &n!.ersa"
%r&%h, h!s "!'e;s /or1 /as $e$!ca%e$ %o "eg!%!!4!ng e.er* 'or o' #er.ers!on
'ro #s*ch!c research an$ $r&g e(#er!en%a%!on, %o a"" .ar!e%!es o' Sa%an!c
3nos%!c!s-
James's *ac$ground
:orn !n%o a %reen$o&s"* /ea"%h* 'a!"* /h!ch /as a"rea$* $ee#"* !n.o".e$
!n %he *s%!ca" Transcen$en%a" Mo.een% o' Ne/ Eng"an$, W!""!a 5aes
na%&ra""* )ecae a 1oo1 o' %he /ors% 1!n$- The 5aes 'a!"* ha$ a"/a*s
)een %he #o"!%!ca" an$ soc!a" a""!es o' %he :r!%!sh e#!re, an$ )e"onge$ %o %he
)"&e)"oo$ c!rc"es o' <a)r!$ge an$ :os%on-
W!""!a 5aes;s 'a%her, Henr*, Sr-, ha$ s&''ere$ a co#"e%e ner.o&s )rea1-
$o/n res&"%!ng 'ro h!s $ee# !n.o".een% /!%h :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence /h!"e !n
Eng"an$- L!1e h!s 'a%her, W!""!a ha%e$ o$ern !n$&s%r* an$ sc!ence, an$
a$.oca%e$ a re%&rn %o %he #r!!%!.e na%&re-/orsh!##!ng 'ors o' soc!e%*- He,
%oo, /as #"ag&e$ con%!n&a""* /!%h )o&%s o' s&!c!$a" $e#ress!on-
D!sco&n%!ng %ha% he ha$ %a1en ha""&c!nogen!c $r&gs s!nce he /as 1A, 5aes
a%%r!)&%e$ h!s $e#ress!on %o %he 'ac% %ha% he ha$ no% *e% ,'o&n$, h!se"' or
/ha% he /as s&##ose$ %o $o !n "!'e- He c"a!e$ %o ha.e so".e$ %h!s #ro)"e
)* asser%!ng %he #re-e!nence o' h!s ,!rra%!ona" /!""-,
W!""!a 5aes;s #a%erna" grea%-gran$'a%her, ,W!""!a o' A")an*,, ha$
a"!gne$ h!se"' /!%h %he #a%roons o' %he D&%ch Wes% In$!a <o#an*- A"ong
/!%h ,Pr!nce, 5ohn Ban :&ren 6/ho arr!e$ A")an*;s $a&gh%er9, %he Roo-
se.e"%s an$ %he M&ens%er)ergs, %he* /ere %he #o"!%!ca" an$ soc!a" a""!es o' %he
:r!%!sh e#!re, es#ec!a""* %he :a"'o&rs 6<ec!" 'a!"*9 /ho $o!na%e$ &ch
o' :r!%!sh go.ernen%, !"!%ar*, an$ !n%e""!gence !ns%!%&%!ons- The 5aes
'a!"* )ecae es%a)"!she$ !n %h!s co&n%r* %hro&gh "an$ gran%s 'ro %h!s
Ang"o-D&%ch )an1!ng e#!re-
W!""!a;s 'a%her, Henr* 5aes, Sr-, /as an e(%ra.agan% eccen%r!c /ho
#ro'esse$ %o )e a here%!c an$ *s%!c- He /as a 'o""o/er o' &%o#!an soc!a"!s%
<har"es Fo&r!er, %he 'orer&nner o' %he !$ea %ha% soc!e%* sho&"$ )e co#r!se$
o' sa"", !n$e#en$en% soc!a"!s% co&n!%!es !n an !$*""!c s%a%e o' ,na%&ra"
an$ &ns#o!"e$ $!.!n!%*,, &ch "!1e %he h!##!e co&nes o' %he 1968s-
Henr*, Sr-;s os% !n%!a%e 'r!en$ /as Ra"#h Wa"$o Eerson, %he os%
'ao&s %ranscen$en%a"!s% o' %he %!e, /ho #ra!se$ Henr* as ,%he )es% an !n
Ne/ >or1 <!%*-, I% /as Eerson /ho !n 17C2 /en% %o %he 5aes hoe %o
g!.e h!s )"ess!ng a% W!""!a 5aes;s )!r%h, )eco!ng W!""!a;s go$'a%her-
Henr*;s 'r!en$s /ere %he !$eo"og!ca" #re$ecessors o' %he ,one-/or"$ers, o'
%he Ne/ Age o.een% %o$a*- In 17CC, Henr*, Sr- ha$ gone %o Eng"an$ %o
.!s!% 5ohn S%&ar% M!"" an$ o%hers o' %he :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence co&n!%* /here
he /as ,.as%a%e$,, h!s e&#he!s 'or )ra!n/ashe$- Dr- 5-5- 3ar%h 6an Ar*an
as%er race %heor!s%9 he"#e$ Henr* Sr- o.ercoe h!s ner.o&s )rea1$o/n )*
!n%ro$&c!ng h! %o s#!r!%&a"!s% Ean&e" S/e$en)org;s ,"!.e /!%h %he
an!a"s, #h!"oso#h*-
The 5aes 'a!"* /as #ar% o' a h!gh-"e.e" :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence o#era%!on %o
!n0ec% s&#ers%!%!on an$ !rra%!ona"!%* !n Aer!ca- The :r!%!sh connec%!ons
con%!n&e$ an$ $ee#ene$ /!%h W!""!a an$ h!s *o&nger )ro%her Henr*- For
W!""!a, %a1!ng $r&gs, e$!&!s%!c %rances, an$ seances /!%h %he $ea$ /ere
s%an$ar$ 'are- The 5aes 'a!"*;s acce#%ance )* ,a"" %he '!nes% 'a!"!es o'
:os%on an$ <a)r!$ge,, !n$!ca%es %ha% %he Ang"o-Aer!can )"&e)"oo$s /ere
#roo%!ng s&ch co&n%erc&"%&ra" !$eas 'ro %he )eg!nn!ng-
:r!%!sh ar!s%ocra% :er%ran$ R&sse"", %he 'oreos% genoc!$a"!s% o' %he 28%h
cen%&r*, en%h&s!as%!ca""* en$orse$ W!""!a 5aes as %he ,na%&ra" ar!s%ocra%-,
,D!r%* :er%*;s, '!rs% /!'e /as 'ro a /ea"%h* 'a!"* 6Logan Pearsa"" S!%h9
c"ose"* a""!e$ /!%h W!""!a 5aes-
5aes /as es#ec!a""* $e#resse$ /h!"e s%&$*!ng Dan% an$ s%r&gg"!ng /!%h %he
#h!"oso#h* o' h!s 'a%her, /ho he !$o"!4e$ an$ ha$ $!''!c&"%* &n$ers%an$!ng-
,I ha.e gro/n &#,, he /ro%e, ,'ro %he e(a#"e o' * Da$ - - - E/!%hF a .er*
non-o#%!!s%!c .!e/ o' na%&re- - - - I ha.e regar$e$ %he a''a!rs o' h&an "!'e
%o )e on"* a #han%asagor!a, /h!ch ha$ %o )e !n%er#re%e$ e"se/here !n %he
Dosos !n%o !%s rea" s!gn!'!cance- - - - When I 'e"% "!1e %a1!ng a 'ree !n!%!a%!.e,
s&!c!$e seee$ "!1e %he os% an"* 'or %o #&% * $ar!ng !n%o-,
5aes a"so )ecae !n.o".e$ !n %he 3a!a c&"%=no/ #o#&"ar aong ra$!ca"
en.!ronen%a"!s%s=/h!ch asser%s %ha% %he Ear%h !s a "!.!ng )e!ng=Mo%her
Ear%h- 5aes /ro%e+ ,>o&r !n$!.!$&a" /!"" )ecoes so haron!4e$ %o
na%&re;s /!"" as cheer'&""* %o ac2&!esce !n /ha%e.er she ass!gns %o *o&,
1no/!ng *o& ser.e soe #&r#ose - - - /h!ch /!"" ne.er )e re.ea"e$ %o *o&-,
He a"so a$!re$ %he #h!"oso#h* o' <har"es Pe!rce, /r!%!ng ,a an;s ha##!-
ness $e#en$s on h!s 'ee"!ngs - - - %he o)0ec%!.e s!gn!'!cance o' h!s os%
#"eas&ra)"e 'ee"!ngs-,
5aes a%%ac1e$ %he 3eran c"ass!ca" #oe% an$ $raa%!s% Fr!e$r!ch Sch!""er
'or )e"!e.!ng %ha% an, !' r&"e$ )* h!s sens&a" 'ee"!ngs, co&"$ ne.er ach!e.e
%r&e 'ree$o- In h!s concen%ra%!on on h!se"' an$ h!s o/n 'ee"!ngs, 5aes
a$!%s %ha% he ha$ )ecoe ca""o&s %o %he 'ee"!ngs o' o%hers- He /ro%e+
,Na%&re an$ "!'e ha.e &n'!%%e$ e 'or an* a''ec%!ona%e re"a%!ons /!%h o%her
!n$!.!$&a"s - - - I a* no% s%&$*, a1e, or en0o*=)&% I can will$, Wh!"e
'!gh%!ng o'' ano%her ner.o&s )rea1$o/n !n 1767, he sa!$ %ha% aong %hose
/ho ha$ ha$ %he os% #ro'o&n$ e''ec% on h! /ere %he rac!s% @"!.er Wen$e""
Ho"es- W!""!a ha$ rece!.e$ h!s M-D- !n 1769 /hen Ho"es #asse$ h!
%hro&gh h!s e(a /!%h on"* one 2&es%!on-
In ear"* 1778, 5aes /ro%e %o h!s )ro%her %ha% h!s e*e"!$s /ere !n'"ae$ ,)*
an o.er$ose o' ch"ora", a ne/ h*#no%!c ree$* /h!ch I %oo1 'or %he '&n o'
!%-, These /ere %he e.en%s s&rro&n$!ng %he )eg!nn!ng o' h!s #s*ch!ca"
research- He c"a!e$ %o ha.e '!na""* go%%en soe re"!e' 'ro h!s $e#ress!on
&#on rea$!ng Reno&.!er, an$ asser%!ng %he ,!rra%!ona" /!"", as %he so"&%!on %o
%he #ara$o( )e%/een $e%er!n!s an$ 'ree /!""- He e)race$ Reno&.!er;s
asser%!on o' 'ree /!"" as %he ,s&s%a!n!ng o' a %ho&gh% )eca&se I choose %o
/hen I !gh% ha.e o%her %ho&gh%s-,
A% a)o&% %h!s sae %!e, W!""!a an$ h!s 'r!en$s 'ore$ %he Me%a#h*s!ca"
<"&) a% Har.ar$ /h!ch, %ho&gh !% /as s&##ose$ %o re#resen% a"" #o!n%s o'
.!e/, /as hea.!"* $o!na%e$ )* E#!r!c!s%s- The on"* $!''erence /as %ha%
5aes an$ a 'e/ o%hers arg&e$ !n 'a.or o' !nc"&$!ng %he s#!r!% /or"$ as an
e#!r!ca" #henoenon %ha% h&an #h*s!ca" senses can #erce!.e, %ho&gh !% !s
no% s&sce#%!)"e %o ra%!ona" e(#"ana%!on- Th!s "e$ %o a '!(e$ $e)a%e )e%/een
E#!r!c!s an$ E#!r!c!s /!%h ag!c-
James at Har%ard
D&r!ng %h!s #rocess, %he $!s%!""a%!on o' W!""!a 5aes;s !$eas )ecae
#o#&"ar!4e$ as %he ho&seho"$ Aer!can /or$=Praga%!s-
A##o!n%e$ #ro'essor o' #h*s!o"og* a% Har.ar$ !n 1772, he rea!ne$ %here 'or
%he res% o' h!s career &n%!" 1987- In 1777, he /as !n.!%e$ %o 5ohn Ho#1!ns
Gn!.ers!%* )* Dr- D-<- 3!"an %o "ec%&re on %he ,)ra!n an$ %he !n$-,
D&r!ng %h!s "ec%&re ser!es, 5aes '&r%her e"a)ora%e$ on h!s .!e/ o' %he h&an
/!""+ ,The /!""!ng $e#ar%en% o' o&r na%&re $o!na%es )o%h %he conce!.!ng
an$ %he 'ee"!ng, or !n #"a!ner Eng"!sh, #erce#%!on an$ %h!n1!ng are on"* %here
'or )eha.!or;s sa1e-,
A% %h!s %!e, W!""!a;s *o&nger )ro%her, Henr*, 5r-, /as "!.!ng !n Lon$on,
/r!%!ng #ornogra#h!c no.e"s an$ #"a*s, an$ $e)a&ch!ng /!%h #a%r!c!an
Thoas H&("e*- H&("e* %oo1 cre$!% 'or crea%!ng <har"es Dar/!n, an$ h!s
gran$son, A"$o&s H&("e*, )ro&gh% %he LSD co&n%erc&"%&re %o <a"!'orn!a-
Henr*, 5r- /as 'ao&s 'or "o.!ng ,'e&$a" 'a!"!es, o"$ cas%"es, an$ 'ora"
anners,=ano%her na%&ra" ar!s%ocra%H
S!s%er A"!ce /as no "ess a %*#!ca" 5aes 'a!"* e)er- As a #s*cho%!c
"es)!an, $*!ng !n Lon$on !n 1792, she rece!.e$ a$.!ce 'ro 5aes %ha%
/o&"$ )e echoe$ reso&n$!ng"* !n %he ,Hos#!ce, o.een% o' %o$a*+ ,Sa.e
*o&rse"' 'ro )o$!"* #a!n, !' !% can )e $one- >o&;.e ha$ %oo &ch o' %ha%-
Ta1e a"" %he or#h!a, or o%her 'ors o' o#!& !' %ha% $!sagrees, *o& /an%,
an$ $on;% )e a'ra!$ o' )eco!ng an o#!&-$r&n1ar$-,
In 177I, 5aes;s ner.o&s !ns%a)!"!%* 'orce$ h! %o %e#orar!"* "ea.e Har.ar$
%o s%&$* /!%h He"ho"%4, Her!ng, an$ W&n$% !n 3eran*, a"" %he /h!"e
rea!n!ng &n$er %he !n'"&ence o' #s*cho%ro#!c $r&gs-
W!""!a e% h!s /!'e, A"!ce 3!))ons, !n 1776, /h!"e a%%en$!ng %he ,Ra$!ca"
<"&),, a Gn!%ar!an !n!s%ers assoc!a%!on 'ore$ %o ,'!n$ /a*s %o a1e %he
re"!g!o&s e(#er!ence ore s#!r!%&a"-, Gn!%ar!an!s, 'o&n$e$ !n %he "a%e
se.en%een%h cen%&r*, #roo%e$ #"&ra"!s an$ a%%ac1e$ %he conce#%!on o'
&n!.ersa" %r&%h-
The en%!re 5aes 'a!"* ha$ a or)!$ #reocc&#a%!on /!%h $ea%h- Ro)er%son
5aes, ano%her )ro%her, sa!$ o' %he!r o%her;s $ea%h+ ,We ha.e a"" )een
e$&ca%e$ )* Fa%her %o 'ee" %ha% $ea%h /as %he on"* rea"!%*, an$ %ha% "!'e /as
s!#"* an e(#er!en%a" %h!ng, an$ 'or %h!s reason - - - /e ha.e %a1en Mo%her;s
go!ng as s&ch an or$er"* %rans!%!on- None o' &s /o&"$ reca"" her 'or /e 'ee"
%ha% /e are ore near %o her no/ %han e.er )e'ore, s!#"* )eca&se she !s
a"rea$* a% %he goa" 'or /h!ch /e a"" cheer'&""* )en$ o&r s%e#s-, The!r 'a%her
s%ar.e$ h!se"' %o $ea%h a% %h!s #o!n%, sa*!ng he /as %!re$ o' %h!s "!'e an$
/an%e$ %o )ecoe ,a"" s#!r!%,, an$ o' co&rse none o' h!s ch!"$ren %r!e$ %o s%o#
h!-
In 1772, 5aes re%&rne$ %o E&ro#e aga!n, /here he s%&$!e$ /!%h %he
#ro!nen% #s*cho"og!s%s o' %he $a*+ Re*, De")oe&', S%&#', M&n1,
L&$/!g, an$ Her!ng- Wh!"e !n Lon$on, he 0o!ne$ %he ,Scra%ch E!gh%, 6,@"$
Scra%ch, eans Sa%an9 a #h!"oso#h!ca"-#s*cho"og!ca" gro&# 'o&n$e$ )*
E$&n$ 3&rne*- 3&rne* an$ S!$g/!c1 6e)ers o' :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence;s
<a)r!$ge A#os%"es gro&#!ng9 ha$ 'o&n$e$ %he Soc!e%* o' Ps*ch!ca"
Research /h!ch #rac%!ce$ e.er* 'or o' s#oo1er* !ag!na)"e- Pre-Ra#hae"-
!%e 'e&$a"!s% 5ohn R&s1!n, rac!a" #&r!'!ca%!on %heor!s% 6/ho co!ne$ %he %er
,gene%!c,9, W!""!a :a%es%on, an$ <a)r!$ge A#os%"e S!r W!""!a Po""oc1,
/ere a"" e)ers o' %he Ps*ch!ca" Research Soc!e%*- :a%eson;s son 3regor*,
/o&"$ a"so )ecoe a #r!e o.er !n %he '&%&re <a"!'orn!a LSD c&"%&re-
Po""oc1 an$ S&#ree <o&r% 5&s%!ce @"!.er W- Ho"es /ere %he a!n 'orces
)eh!n$ es%a)"!sh!ng :r!%!sh 'reeasonr* !n Aer!ca- Po""oc1 /as g!.en h!s
%!%"e )* %he :r!%!sh cro/n 'or ser.!ces ren$ere$ !n s&##or% o' %he <on'e$erac*
$&r!ng %he Aer!can <!.!" War-
A% %he !n.!%a%!on o' R!char$ Ha"$ane, 5aes a"so )ecae assoc!a%e$ /!%h %he
Ar!s%o%e"!an Soc!e%*- I% /as $&r!ng %h!s %!e %ha% he $e.e"o#e$ %he conce#%
o' %he ,s%rea o' consc!o&sness,=%ha% one;s consc!o&sness !s a cons%an%"*
'"o/!ng r!.er o' 'ee"!ngs- ,Fee"!ngs are %he ger an$ s%ar%!ng #o!n% o' cogn!-
%!on, %ho&gh%s %he $e.e"o#e$ %ree,, 5aes /ro%e-
In 177C, 5aes 'o&n$e$ %he Aer!can Soc!e%* o' Ps*ch!ca" Research
6ASPR9, /!%h R!char$ Ho$gson as secre%ar*- @n ass!gnen% !n In$!a,
Ho$gson /as %rans'erre$ )* :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence %o $!rec%"* ,anage, %he
a''a!rs o' )o%h ASPR an$ 5aes- In 1798, Har.ar$ co!ss!one$ 5aes;s
Principles o! Psychology$ :* 179I, he /as e"ec%e$ #res!$en% o' %he :r!%!sh
Soc!e%* 'or Ps*ch!ca" Research, an$ #res!$en% o' %he Aer!can Assoc!a%!on
o' Ps*cho"og!s%s- So %he :r!%!sh /ere con%ro""!ng ,a!ns%rea, #s*cho"og*
!n Aer!ca, no% 0&s% %he ,s#oo1!er, en$ o' !%-
:* %he !$-1798s, #s*ch!ca" research /as 5aes;s a!n #reocc&#a%!on- H!s
ch!e' #ro0ec% /as co#"e%!ng a <ens&s o' Ha""&c!na%!ons !n %he Gn!%e$ S%a%es
'or %he :r!%!sh Soc!e%* o' Ps*ch!ca" Research- As %he '!rs% ass #ro'!"!ng
o#era%!on con$&c%e$ on %he Aer!can #eo#"e, !% se% %he s%age 'or %he
!n%ro$&c%!on o' %he MD-G"%ra ca#&s LSD e(#er!en%s o' %he <IA an$
:r!%!sh In%e""!gence !n %he 1968s-
Cloc$wise &rom top le&t: James's top student)
0ertrude .tein) poses with lesbian lo%er Alice */
'o$las) in%entor o& the mari1uana brownie) at a
New Age cult center in ,rance2 sel& portrait o&
Pablo Picasso) disco%ered and promoted by .tein2
another o& Picasso's Modernist e&&orts at portrai3
ture2 a closer loo$ at .tein2 transcendentalist
+alph Waldo 4merson) god&ather o& William
James/
@ne o' 5aes;s s%&$en%s, 3er%r&$e S%e!n, he"#e$ h! $o h!s #ro'!"!ng )*
,%es%!ng %he reac%!on o' %he a.erage co""ege s%&$en% !n a s%a%e o' nora"
ac%!.!%*, an$ !n %he s%a%e o' 'a%!g&e !n$&ce$ )* %he!r e(a!na%!ons-, 5aes
#rac%!ce$ /ha% he #reache$ a)o&% %he #r!ac* o' %he 'ee"!ngs- When 3er-
%r&$e S%e!n re'&se$ %o %a1e her '!na" e(a )* s%a%!ng+ ,Dear Pro'essor, I a
so sorr* )&% rea""* I $o no% !eel "!1e an e(a!na%!on #a#er !n #h!"oso#h*
%o$a*,, he ga.e her %he h!ghes% ar1 !n %he c"assH 3er%r&$e S%e!n )ecae %he
Aer!can .ers!on o' Ma$ae $e S%ae", #roo%!ng a"" %he Ne/-Agers !n ar%
an$ "!%era%&re 6P!casso, T-S- E"!o%9? an$ she cre$!%s 5aes as her en%or-
S%e!n a"so )ecae a c&"% !$o" 'or %he 1968s se(&a" re.o"&%!on )eca&se o' her
"!'e-"ong "es)!an re"a%!onsh!# /!%h A"!ce :- To1"as=/ho !n.en%e$ %he ar!-
0&ana )ro/n!e- Aong 5aes o%her s%&$en%s /ere W-E-:- D&:o!s, an$ no%
s&r#r!s!ng"*, Te$$* Roose.e"%-
D&r!ng h!s "as% %r!# %o E&ro#e, near %he en$ o' h!s "!'e, 5aes e% /!%h :er-
%ran$ R&sse"", H-3- We""s, <ar" 5&ng, an$ S!g&n$ Fre&$- A"" )&% Fre&$
/ere &n$en!a)"* 1no/n %o )e rac!a" #&r!s%s, genoc!$a"!s%s, an$ Na4!s !n %he!r
o/n %!e-
W!%h s&ch an !rra%!ona" e.!" )e"!e' s%r&c%&re, !% !s no s&r#r!se %ha% 5aes /as
a% %he )r!n1 o' s&!c!$e os% o' h!s "!'e, %oo1 $r&gs, a$ore$ %he #s*cho#a%h!c
#ersona"!%*, %a"1e$ /!%h %he $ea$, an$ #ar%!c!#a%e$ !n seances /!%h $ar%!ng
%a)"es '"*!ng aro&n$ %he roo- Nor !s !% shoc1!ng %ha% he an$ h!s en%!re c!rc"e
o' 'a!"* an$ 'r!en$s /ere har$ core rac!s%s, s!nce soc!a" Dar/!n!s /as an
a%%e#% %o #ro.!$e ,sc!en%!'!c, a##ro.a" 'or rac!s an$ aga!ns% %he sanc%!%* o'
h&an "!'e-
A% Har.ar$, 5aes erge$ %he $e#ar%en%s o' #h*s!o"og* an$ #h!"oso#h*,
na!ng %he ne/ $e#ar%en% #s*cho"og*- In 1798, he /ro%e Aer!ca;s '!rs%
%e(%)oo1 !n #s*cho"og*, The Principles o! Psychology, !n /h!ch he "a!$ o&%
h!s a0or %hes!s=%ha% an !s no%h!ng ore %han a c"e.er )eas%-
Thro&gho&% h!s %en&re a% Har.ar$ an$ h!s n&ero&s %r!#s %o E&ro#e, 5aes
co""a)ora%e$ /!%h %he rac!s%s an$ Sa%an!s%s o' %he Ang"o-Aer!can es%a)"!sh-
en%- He /or1e$ c"ose"* /!%h :r!%!sh !n%e""!gence %o "a&nch #s*ch!ca" re-
search !n Aer!ca, an$ he con$&c%e$ Aer!ca;s '!rs% ass #s*cho"og!ca"
#ro'!"!ng o#era%!on- He %a&gh% h!s )ran$ o' ra$!ca" "!)era"!s an$ !rra%!ona"-
!s %o %he s%&$en%s /ho /o&"$ "a%er )ecoe %he "ea$!ng s#onsors o' en.!ron-
en%a"!s, Mo$ern!s, an$ %he roc1-$r&g-se( co&n%erc&"%&re !n genera"-
'he Philosophy o& Pragmatism
5&s% /ha% !s %he /or"$ o&%"oo1 /h!ch %he Aer!can #o#&"a%!on has s/a"-
"o/e$ !n %he g&!se o' ,)e!ng #rac%!ca",J
The #h!"oso#h* o' Praga%!s !s a co)!na%!on o' Soc!a" Dar/!n!s an$
E#!r!c!s- E#!r!c!s asser%s /e can 1no/ on"* /ha% o&r #h*s!ca" senses
#erce!.e- Soc!a" Dar/!n!s asser%s %ha% an !s 0&s% %he sar%es% o' %he
an!a"s, no%h!ng ore- In h!s Principles o! Psychology, 5aes s%a%es c"ear"*
%ha% an;s ne&ro"og!ca" '&nc%!on!ng, as /e"" as h!s consc!o&s a)!"!%!es, are
o%!.a%e$ so"e"* )* %he #rac%!ca" $es!re %o #&rs&e #"eas&re an$ a.o!$ #a!n-
He )e"!e.e$ an /as 0&s% a #h*"ogene%!ca""* ,ore co#"e(, c"aH 5aes
#ra!ses Ar!s%o%"e an$ Dar/!n !n $escr!)!ng an;s %h!n1!ng a)!"!%* as s!#"* a
se"ec%!ng agenc* 'or choos!ng /ha% he 'ee"s /!"" ee% h!s !ns%!nc%&a" nee$s-
Th!s !s /ha% 5aes %ers ,rea"!%*-, In o%her /or$s, %he )ra!n !s ere"* a
ore h!gh"* $e.e"o#e$ %oo%h or c"a/=ano%her )!o"og!ca" echan!s %o
ens&re an;s #h*s!ca" s&r.!.a"-
S!nce #raga%!s asser%s %ha% %r&%h $oes no% e(!s% as soe%h!ng &n!.ersa"
an$ 1no/a)"e, 5aes $ecr!e$ %he 'ac% %ha%+ ,Reason;s %as1 has )een %o a1e
%r&%h &n!.ersa"-, For 5aes, on"* an;s an!a"-"!1e &rges an$ eo%!ons are
1no/a)"e? %here'ore, %hese eo%!ons an$ &rges e(!s%, an$ h&an reason $oes
no%-
Th!s !s no% an or!g!na" conce#%- Ar!s%o%"e c"a!e$ %ha% an;s !n$ !s a ta%"la
rasa an$ %ha% 1no/"e$ge !s on"* %ha% /h!ch an !n$!.!$&a" ga!ns %hro&gh
#h*s!o"og!ca" sense #erce#%!on- Dno/"e$ge, %here'ore, !s ere"* %he s& o'
one;s $a* %o $a* e(#er!ences- There'ore, %he e(!s%ence o' ne/ !$eas created
)* %he h&an !n$ !s $en!e$, or a% "eas% *s%!'!e$-
To 5aes, %he %as1 o' #h!"oso#h* !s %o e$!a%e )e%/een $!''eren% o#!n!ons
a)o&% s&ch s%r!c%"* ,#r!.a%e, a%%ers as %he !$ea o' /ha% %r&%h !s- He regre%-
%e$ %ha% %h!s e$!a%!on re2&!re$ %he &se o' /or$s? he e.en "aen%e$ %ha%
#eo#"e /ere co#e""e$ %o s#e"" %he saeH
In 5aes;s s*s%e o' %h!n1!ng, %r&%h !%se"' !s re"a%!.e- There'ore, !' one nee$s
%o )e"!e.e !n a h&an so&" or !n$, he can $o so, )&% on"* %hro&gh /ha%
5aes $escr!)es as a Dan%!an ,)"!n$ "ea# o' 'a!%h-,
These !$eas ha.e )een !n $!rec% o##os!%!on %o %he #h!"oso#h!ca" %ren$ o' %he
grea% h&an!s% an$ <hr!s%!an %h!n1ers s!nce %he %!e o' P"a%o- <hr!s%!an
h&an!s% %ho&gh% recogn!4es %he crea%!.e #o/ers o' %he h&an !n$ as %he
cr&c!a" $!s%!nc%!on )e%/een an an$ )eas%- The #roo' o' %he asser%!on %ha%
an e(erc!ses crea%!.e #o/ers, an$ %here)* !#ro.es &#on %he &n!.erse "!es
!n %he 'ac% %ha% h&an soc!e%* has )een a)"e %o s&s%a!n an e.er-!ncreas!ng
#o#&"a%!on=/h!ch no an!a" s#ec!es can $o- I' %he h&an !n$ /ere no%
$!s%!nc%"* crea%!.e, an /o&"$ s%!"" )e h&n%!ng an$ ga%her!ng !n co#e%!%!on
/!%h %he s%ronger an$ 'as%er )a)oons-
The <hr!s%!an conce#% o' imago viva &ei=%ha% a"" h&an )e!ngs are crea%e$
!n %he !age o' %he "!.!ng 3o$=e(#resses %h!s '&n$aen%a" $!''erence
)e%/een an an$ an!a"? /e are crea%!.e, as !s o&r <rea%or? an!a"s are
no%- S&ch an e%erna" an$ $!.!ne 2&a"!%* !n an eans %ha% e.er* !n$!.!$&a"
h&an "!'e !s sacre$? %he goo$ %ha% an !n$!.!$&a" acco#"!shes e''ec%s
co&n%"ess genera%!ons %o coe an$ g!.es ora" #&r#ose %o h!s "!'e- The
eo%!on o' "o.e 'or %he <rea%or an$ conse2&en%"* 'or an1!n$ as a /ho"e
'agape( !s %ha% /h!ch ena)"es an %o a1e %hese crea%!.e $!sco.er!es-
There'ore, one canno% e"!!na%e a h&an )e!ng )eca&se %ha% #erson !s
#h*s!ca""* or en%a""* $e'ec%!.e- I' one $en!es %he sacre$ 2&a"!%* !n an,
%hen one o#ens %he '"oo$ga%es %o a"" 'ors o' ens"a.een% o' %he ,/ea1er, )*
%he s&##ose$"* )!o"og!ca""* ,s&#er!or-, :* $en*!ng %he sanc%!%* o' h&an
"!'e, /asn;% !% #rac%!ca" 'or %he Na4!s %o /or1 11 !""!on ,&se"ess ea%ers, %o
$ea%h !n %he nae o' na%!ona" sec&r!%* an$ a Ne/ Wor"$ @r$erJ L!1e/!se,
%he Praga%!s%s o' %he :r!%!sh Ro*a" 'a!"* /o&"$ agree %o$a* %ha% genoc!$e
!n %he &n$e.e"o#e$ sec%or !s ere"* a ,#rac%!ca", so"&%!on %o %he #ro)"e o'
)r!ng!ng %oo an* #eo#"e !n %o a /or"$ /here %here are 'e/er reso&rces %o
s&##or% %he-
Tha% !s /h* %he :r!%!sh o"!garch* #ro$&ce$ %he crea%&re ca""e$ W!""!a
5aes=%o !n%ro$&ce %he!r )ran$ o' #h!"oso#h* !n Aer!ca, %o $es%ro* %he
<hr!s%!an h&an!s% #h!"oso#h* o' o&r Fo&n$!ng Fa%hers /ho &n$ers%oo$ %ha%
h&an crea%!.!%*, e)o$!e$ !n con%!n&e$ sc!en%!'!c an$ %echno"og!ca"
#rogress, /o&"$ a"/a*s $e'!ne %he e(#an$!ng "!!%s o' %he ,)o&n%* o'
na%&re,, an$ %here'ore s&##or% an e.er-gro/!ng h&an #o#&"a%!on-
In %ers o' econo!cs, #raga%!s a$e !% eas* 'or Aer!cans %o acce#% %he
#h!"oso#h* &n$er"*!ng A$a S!%h, %he .er* ,'ree %ra$e, #o"!c* /e 'o&gh%
%he Aer!can Re.o"&%!on aga!ns%H S!%h;s econo!c %heor* !s e(ac%"* %he
sae as 5aes;s s%a%een% %ha% %he ,#rac%!ca" $!''erence, )e%/een choos!ng
one )e"!e' o.er ano%her /as !%s ,cash .a"&e,, an$ %ha% %he ,cash .a"&e o'
a%%er !s o&r o/n #h*s!ca" sensa%!ons, o' #"eas&re or #a!n- Th&s, ca#!%a"!s
cae %o ean ,'ree$o, 'or $ereg&"a%!on o' .!r%&a""* e.er*%h!ng, %he "a/"ess
,a"" !s #er!%%e$, %ren$ o' $r&gs, &s&r*, an$ &n)r!$"e$ s#ec&"a%!on !n %he
econo*-
Pragmatism in 'heology
Th!s )es%!a" .!e/ o' an na%&ra""* "e$ 5aes %o asser% #"&ra"!s !n %heo"og*,
an$ %o s%ress !%s os% !rra%!ona" 'ors- Praga%!s !ns!s%s on %he 3nos%!c
)e"!e' %ha% %here !s no ra%!ona" connec%!on )e%/een %he s#!r!%&a" an$ #h*s!ca"
/or"$s- For 5aes, an*%h!ng s#!r!%&a" !s )* $e'!n!%!on &n!n%e""!g!)"e an$
*s%!ca"-
Praga%!s e2&a%es 'a!%h !n 3o$ /!%h !rra%!ona"!%*, /hereas %he <hr!s%!an
!$ea o' %he s#!r!%&a" !s s*non*o&s /!%h ra%!ona"!%*- >o&ng;s )nalytic
*oncordance re#or%s %ha% %he Ne/ Tes%aen% &ses %he sae 3ree1 /or$=
+ogos,%o ean )o%h Ho"* S#!r!% 6%he Wor$9 an$ Reason+ ,an$ %he Wor$
/as 3o$-, 65ohn 1+19? ,An$ %he Wor$ /as a$e '"esh an$ $/e"% aong &s,
65ohn 1+1C9,-
5aes c"asses Le!)n!4;s ,ona$, as a a%er!a" %h!ng, an$ %here'ore Le!)n!4
as a a%er!a"!s%- He sa!$ he /an%e$ %o con.!nce %he Le!)n!4!ans %o )ecoe
*s%!cs, h!s %ro&)"e /as h!s !na)!"!%* %o e(#"a!n ho/ %he ,)ra!n /or"$, an$
%he ,so&" /or"$, !n'"&ence one ano%her- So %o 1ee# h!s e(#er!ence )ase$
#s*cho"og* o&% o' e%a#h*s!cs, he #os!%s a ,#s*cho-#h*s!ca" #ara""e"!s,,
/here %he "!n1age /o&"$ 'ore.er rea!n a *s%er*-
Praga%!s e2&a%es Dan%;s ,"ea# o' 'a!%h, %o P"a%o;s )e"!e' !n a)s%rac% !$eas-
5aes a%%ac1e$ P"a%o 'or ,gr&$g!ng"* a$!%%!ng sensa%!on;s e(!s%ence )&%
/ho %ra#"e$ !% !n%o %he $&s% as soe%h!ng cor#orea", non-cogn!%!.e, an$
.!"e-,
@n %he 2&es%!on o' goo$ an$ e.!", 5aes asser%s %ha% goo$ !s acco#"!she$
,)* 'orce o' /!""-, He asser%s %ha% %he 2&es%!on o' ho/ re"!g!on ena)"es an
%o 'ace $!''!c&"%* or $ea%h !s an$ a"/a*s /!"" rea!n secre%- He #ra!ses %he
gro/!ng ,"!)era" Gn!%ar!an o.een%, 'or #roo%!ng %he !$ea o' ,non-
e(!s%en% e.!",, an$ no%es /!%h g"ee %ha% %h!s ,hea"%h*-!n$e$ness, o.een%
/as s/ee#!ng E&ro#e an$ Aer!ca 0&s% "!1e Dar/!n;s %heor* o' e.o"&%!on-
5aes c"ear"* &n$ers%oo$ %ha% h!s #raga%!s ser.e$ as %he )as!s 'or Ne/
Age o.een%s !n c&"%&re an$ re"!g!on- He en%!ons se.era" ,ne/ %ho&gh%,
an$ ,!n$-c&re, o.een%s /h!ch ha$ ,#o&re$ o.er Aer!ca+, 619 Eer-
son!an!s, 629 'a!%h hea"!ng an$ o%her Pen%acos%a" an!'es%a%!ons an$ 6I9
Ne/ Eng"an$ Transcen$en%a"!s, a"" o' /h!ch ha$ "e$ %o a ,re"!g!on o'
na%&re %ha% has en%!re"* $!s#"ace$ <hr!s%!an!%* 'or a "arge #ar% o' h!s
genera%!on-, The na%&re re"!g!ons 5aes #roo%e$ )e"!e.e$ %ha% !' *o&
co#"e%e"* %r&s%e$ *o&r #ersona" #"eas&re-#a!n g&!$e, %hen an*%h!ng an$
e.er*%h!ng !s ,A)so"&%e"* 3oo$-,
5aes ha$ ac%&a""* )eg&n h!s /or1 on re"!g!on /!%h a ser!es o' "ec%&res on
$eon!c #ossess!on- @ne o' h!s ore !ns#!re$ s%&$en%s on %h!s s&)0ec%,
A"e!s%er <ro/"e*, he"#e$ 'o&n$ %he :r!%!sh )ranch o' %he Sa%an!c Th&"e
Soc!e%*, %he @r$er o' The 3o"$en Da/n- For 5aes,,%he /or"$ !s a$e
r!cher 'or ha.!ng %he $e.!" !n !%-,
In 5aes;s o/n /or$s, %he #rac%!ca" a##roach %o e.!" !s no% %o ,reason a)o&%
!%,, )&%, %o $o as %he e.ange"!ca" <hr!s%!ans $o+ ,e.!" !s ere"* %o )e %ran-
scen$e$ an$ 'orgo%%en-, 5aes )e"!e.e$ %ha% %he L&%heran ,sa".a%!on )*
'a!%h, a"one, an$ ,!n$ c&re, )o%h e''ec% a change 'or %he )e%%er !n #eo#"e,
)* ,re.ers!ng %he r&"es "a!$ $o/n )* %he ;ora"!s%; /ho )e"!e.es !n ;/or1s-; ,
:* a1!ng %r&%h re"a%!.e, #raga%!s $es%ro*s an* &n!.ersa" s%an$ar$ o'
goo$ an$ e.!"- Th&s, %he <hr!s%!an !$ea o' ora"!%* %hro&gh /or1s !s e(#"!c-
!%"* a%%ac1e$ as o##ress!.e an$ a&%hor!%ar!an- I% !s no /on$er %hen, %ha%
5aes /o&"$ sa* !n h!s arieties o! Religio"s E#perience %ha% /h!"e o$ern
an a* %h!n1 an!a" an$ h&an sacr!'!ce !s a)horren%, once &#on a %!e !%
e% %he nee$s o' soc!e%*+ ,Men /orsh!##e$ go$s /ho re2&!re$ h&an or
an!a" sacr!'!ce )eca&se s&ch ;'r&!%s; /ere .a"&e$ an$ re2&!re$ )* %he-
The* /ere /or%h soe%h!ng %o %he #eo#"e #ersona""*-,
5aes;s e(#"ana%!ons o' %he s#!r!%&a" are a"so a $!rec% a%%ac1 on %he c"ass!ca"
!$ea o' %he &n!%* o' na%&ra" sc!ence 'Nat"rwissenscha!t( an$ ar% '-eisten.
wissenscha!t($ H!s !s a $!a)o"!ca" %/!s%!ng o' %he no%!on o' %h!s &n!on, )*
c"a!!ng %ha% )o%h sc!ence an$ ar% are ,e(#"a!ne$ as a na%&ra" o&%gro/%h o'
an!a" !n%e""!gence?, !-e- )o%h are #ro$&ce$ )* %he !ns%!nc%s-
For 5aes, ar%, s&ch as $raa an$ o#era, !s 0&s% a !"$er 'or o' *s%!ca"
e(#er!ence, o' eo%!ona" esca#!s- :&% s!nce %he #oor can;% a''or$ s&ch
en%er%a!nen%, 5aes enco&rages %he %o &se a"coho" an$ $r&gs- ,Dr&n1en-
ness !s %he grea% e(c!%er o' %he ;*es; '&nc%!on !n an,, he /r!%es- ,I% a1es
h! 'or %he oen% one /!%h %r&%h- - - - To %he #oor an$ &n"e%%ere$ !% s%an$s
!n %he #"ace o' s*#hon* concer%s an$ o' "!%era%&re-, I%;s no /on$er Aer!-
can c&"%&re has )een re$&ce$ %o )rea$ an$ c!rc&ses, "!1e anc!en% Roe-
5aes sa!$ a% one #o!n% %ha% &s!c an$ sc!ence, or ,so-ca""e$ c!.!"!4a%!on,
sho&"$ no% )e 'orce$ on%o %he ,"o/er races, 6s!c9 )eca&se %h!s !s ,%an%ao&n%
%o ear"* Is"a s#rea$!ng !%s re"!g!on )* &se o' %he s/or$-, Th!s !s e(ac%"*
/ha% %he "!)era" c&"%&ra" re"a%!.!s%s sa* %o$a*+ Don;% g!.e c"ass!ca" c&"%&re
an$ sc!ence %o %he "!%%"e #eo#"e o' %he Th!r$ Wor"$, !% /o&"$ $es%ro* %he!r
#r!!%!.e #agan c&"%&resH Dee# %he !n a )ac1/ar$, !-e- s%ar.!ng, #o/er"ess
s%a%e, an$ %e"" %he %he* can on"* )e %r&"* ha##* !n %h!s s&##ose$"* na%&ra"
con$!%!on-
Ar!s%ocra%s "!1e 5aes o' co&rse /o&"$ ne.er conce!.e o' e"e.a%!ng %he
&n"e%%ere$ %o a##rec!a%!on o' Sch!""er or :ee%ho.en- 3!.!ng %he s&ch
'ree$o o' !n$ /o&"$ a1e %he ca#a)"e o' crea%!ng a )e%%er "!'e 'or
%hese".es- Po.er%* !n an$ o' !%se"' !s recoen$e$ )* 5aes )eca&se !%
s&##ose$"* 1ee#s one h&)"e, #&re, an$ %here'ore ore s&sce#%!)"e %o
con%ro" )* %he ar!s%ocrac*-
A #r!e 'or o' en%er%a!nen% 'or %he "o/er c"asses, 5aes asser%s, !s
#s*cho%ro#!c $r&gs- Ne.er a%%e#%!ng %o h!$e h!s o/n $r&g a)&se, 5aes
&na)ashe$"* recoen$s ,n!%ro&s o(!$e an$ e%her, es#ec!a""* n!%ro&s o(!$e,
/hen s&''!c!en%"* $!"&%e$ /!%h a!r, s%!&"a%es %he *s%!ca" consc!o&sness !n
an e(%raor$!nar* $egree- De#%h )e*on$ $e#%h o' %r&%h see re.ea"e$ %o %he
!nha"er- Soe *ears ago I *se"' a$e soe o)ser.a%!ons on %h!s as#ec% o'
n!%ro&s o(!$e !n%o(!ca%!on-, I% /as so /on$er'&", sa!$ 5aes, %ha% soe
#eo#"e /o&"$ screa %o )e 1!""e$ ra%her %han )e a""o/e$ %o coe )ac1 'ro
s&ch a %r!#-
5aes $escr!)e$ *s%!c!s as a #s*cho%!c e(#er!ence o' ,$ee# 1no/"e$ge,
%ha% !s ,co#"e%e"* !nar%!c&"a%e, an$ /here one !s gras#e$ )* a h!gher
#o/er-, Th!s !s #&re gnos%!c!s- For 5aes, %he &"%!a%e e(#er!ence !s
$e.o!$ o' an* rea"!%* %es%!ng, or sense o' se"'- The s&#erna%&ra"!s %hese
s%a%es o''er !s /ha% he re'ers %o as ,%/!ce-)ornness, 'or %hose /ho e(#er!ence
!%- These ,)orn-aga!n, e(#er!ences ,)rea1 $o/n %he a&%hor!%* o' %he ra%!ona"
!n$, an$ o#en &# o%her or$ers o' %r&%h-,
In arieties o! Religio"s E#perience, 5aes #ra!ses %he a$.an%ages o' %he
,#s*cho#a%h!c #ersona"!%*, co&#"e$ /!%h a ,s&#er!or !n%e""ec%, as %he
,ha""ar1 o' re"!g!o&s gen!&s-, M*s%!ca" "!%era%&re, he sa!$, #ro.es %ha%
&s!c !s %he )es% e"een% )* /h!ch /e are s#o1en %o !n %h!s /a*- I% /o&"$
)e !n%eres%!ng %o see /ha% !n$-a"%er!ng rh*%hs are !n %hese *s%!ca"
/r!%!ngs, an$ !' %he* are s!!"ar %o %o$a*;s roc1 &s!c o' %he co&n%erc&"%&re
an$ '&n$aen%a"!s% sec%s-
To 5aes, %he os% !#or%an% s%e# 'or/ar$ !n #s*cho"og* an$ !n h!s #s*ch!c
research, cae /!%h %he $!sco.er* o' %he &nconsc!o&s !n 1776- ,I' %here )e
h!gher s#!r!%&a" agenc!es %ha% can $!rec%"* %o&ch &s,, %he #ossess!on o' %he
s&)consc!o&s /as %he ,$rea* s&)"!!na" $oor a0ar, %o a1e s&ch a %h!ng
#oss!)"e-
In #raga%!c %ers, an* )e"!e', re"!g!o&s or sec&"ar, !s 0&s% /ha%e.er *o&
,W!"" %o :e"!e.e, /h!ch /as %he %!%"e o' %he "ec%&re /h!ch ha$ a$e h!
/!$e"* acc"a!e$- A"" #er.ers!ons are 0&s%!'!e$ !n %he nae o' %he ar)!%rar*
/!"" %o '&"'!"" one;s an!a" nee$s- There'ore, #raga%!s &"%!a%e"* coes
)ac1 %o %he !ns%!nc%s as %he ,)o%%o "!ne, %o e.en %he a)!"!%* o' an %o asser%
h!s /!""+ ,Gn"ess /e ha.e $!.!n!%or* #o/er, /e canno% 'oresee /ha% o.e-
en% "!es /!%h!n o&r #o/er?, %here'ore ,No one can #er'or a .o"&n%ar* ac%
'or %he '!rs% %!e-,
@).!o&s"*, #raga%!s $oes no% so".e %he #ara$o( )e%/een necess!%* an$
'ree /!""- The grea% %h!n1ers o' /es%ern c!.!"!4a%!on recogn!4e %ha% 3o$;s
&n!.ersa" "a/s 6%r&%h9 e(!s%- To %h!s /a* o' %h!n1!ng, %he h&an /!"" !s no%
ar)!%rar*? an con'ors h!s /!"" %o %he /!"" o' %he <rea%or, a"/a*s /!%h %he
)e%%eren% o' '&%&re genera%!ons 'oreos% !n !n$- In %h!s /a* an !s %r&"*
'ree, )eca&se he %a1es 0o* !n #&rs&!ng %he #rogress o' an1!n$, an$ !n so
$o!ng %here)* a"so ee%s %he necess!%!es re2&!re$ 'or s&r.!.a" o' %he h&an
s#ec!es as a /ho"e-
:* #roo%!ng %he !rra%!ona" )es%!a"!%* o' #raga%!s, %he :r!%!sh ho#e$ %o
$egra$e %he !n$s o' Aer!cans, an$ %here)* e.en%&a""* sn&'' o&% %he os%
#o/er'&" 'orce 'or #rogress an$ 'ree$o !n %he /or"$- Aer!ca;s #h!"oso#h*
ha$ )een e#!%o!4e$ )* %he "!1es o' 3o%%'r!e$ Le!)n!4 an$ :en0a!n Fran1-
"!n, )o%h o' /ho #roo%e$ %he !$ea %ha% )* &s!ng, no% re0ec%!ng, one;s
#o/ers o' reason, one co&"$ $!sco.er &n!.ersa" "a/ as re'"ec%e$ !n sc!en%!'!c
#rogress, /h!ch co&"$ con%!n&a""* a1e %he /or"$ a )e%%er #"ace !n /h!ch %o
"!.e-
Conclusion
As %he Aer!can schoo" o' #s*cho"og*, #raga%!s )ecae %he %oo" )*
/h!ch %he :r!%!sh ho#e$ %o 'ore.er a!n%a!n soc!a" con%ro" !n %he Gn!%e$
S%a%es- :* acce#%!ng #raga%!s, Aer!cans cae %o %o"era%e a"" 1!n$s o'
$e.!an% )eha.!or !n %he!r go.ernen% an$ !n %hese".es-
<&rren%"* %he Ang"o-Aer!cans; '!nanc!a" e#!re !s ra#!$"* co""a#s!ng, an$
%he!r res#onse !s %o !#ose %he os% )r&%a" 'ors o' a&s%er!%*=!n %he nae
o' #raga%!s- In March 1991, Time aga4!ne;s co.er s%or* 'ea%&re$ ,The
Ne/ Praga%!s,=an ar%!c"e a)o&% go.ernen% )&$ge% c&%s- I% rea$ "!1e a
$ea%h /arran% 'or Aer!ca;s #oor, e"$er"*, an$ $!sa)"e$-
Praga%!s, )* !%s nega%!on o' %he #r!ac* an$ sacre$ness o' h&an "!'e,
has ra%!ona"!4e$ 'or Aer!cans %he .!o"a%!on o' na%&ra" "a/ an$ %he s#rea$ o'
s&''er!ng here%o'ore no% seen on %he g"o)e- An$, as h!s%or* has %a&gh% &s, a
soc!e%* %ha% $e#reca%es %he .a"&e o' h&an "!'e, "oses !% ora" '!%ness %o
s&r.!.e, an$ will not s"rvive$ So 'or %he sa1e o' o&r na%!on an$ h&an!%*, "e%
&s )e %r&"* #rac%!ca" )* %h!n1!ng !n a non-#raga%!c /a*+ The ne(% %!e %he
go.ernen%, or *o&r ne!gh)or, %e""s *o& !%;s on"* ,#rac%!ca", %o #&"" %he #"&g
on gran$a !n or$er %o sa.e on hea"%h cos%s, or %o %o"era%e !ncreas!ng
&ne#"o*en%, hoe"essness, an$ s%ar.a%!on !n %he nae o' )a"anc!ng %he
'e$era" )&$ge%, ree)er %ha% %illions are )e!ng s2&an$ere$ on )a!"!ng o&%
%he )an1ers- The ne(% %!e %he go.ernen% re2&es%s %ha% *o&r son g!.e h!s
"!'e %o res%ore a s"a.e-o/n!ng onarch* !n %he nae o' a ,Ne/ Wor"$
@r$er,, ree)er %he $eca$en% /or"$ or$er aga!ns% /h!ch %he Aer!can
Re.o"&%!on /as 'o&gh%- Re0ec% W!""!a 5aes;s e.!" #raga%!s an$ s%ar%
%h!n1!ng "!1e an Aer!can aga!n-

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