CODES FOR VESSELS/HEAT

EXCHANGERS
Avinash Nayak. (46)
Shrikantkumar Padhy (47)
Jitendra Patil (48)
Manoj Patil (49)
Ganeshprasad Pavaskar (51)
History of pressure vessel codes
• Boiler explosion on March 20, 1905 in Brockton,
Massachusetts.
• 58 killed and 117 injured.
• Need of legislative rules and regulation for
construction of boilers.
• The first Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code was
published in 1915.
• Necessary changes made and new sections added
as need arose.

What is a Code?
• A code is a standard that has been adopted by
one or more governmental bodies and has the
force of law, or when it has been incorporated
into a business contract.
• Codes specify requirements of design,
fabrication, inspection and testing of pressure
vessels.
• Number of national codes have been developed
for pressure vessels by different countries.
• In India, the code for pressure vessels is IS-2825

WHAT ARE ASME CODES?
• It is a standard that provides rules for the
design, fabrication, and inspection of boilers
and pressure.
• This establishes and maintains design,
construction and inspection standards
providing for maximum protection of life and
property.

ASME Codes - Manufacturer
• A manufacturer obtains permission to use one of the
stamps through the ASME conformity assessment process.

• The manufacturer’s quality control system is reviewed by
an ASME team.

• If it meets ASME requirements and the manufacturer
successfully demonstrates implementation of the program,
the manufacturer is accredited by ASME.

• The manufacturer then may certify the product as meeting
ASME standards and apply the stamp to the product.
Why follow ASME codes?
• Excessive elastic deformation including elastic
instability
• Excessive plastic deformation
• Brittle fracture
• Stress rupture or creep deformation (inelastic)
• Plastic instability and incremental collapse
• High strain and low cycle fatigue
• Stress corrosion
• Corrosion fatigue
ASME Codes - User
• ASME Publications Catalog,
• The ANSI Catalog of American National
Standards,
• the US government’s OSHA General Industry
Standards,
• contact a standards organization directly.
• http://www.asme.org/catalog



ASME Codes – User
• Insurance

• Replacement

• Proper Compliance
- Size specific
- Jurisdiction

• Proper ASME stamps

The organization of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is
as follows:
1. Section I: Power Boilers
2. Section II: Material Specification:
i. Ferrous Material Specifications – Part A
ii. Non-ferrous Material Specifications – Part B
iii. Specifications for Welding Rods, Electrodes, and Filler Metals –
Part C
iv. Properties – Part D
3. Section III Subsection NCA: General Requirements for Division 1
and Division 2
i. Section III Division 1:
a. Subsection NA: General Requirements
b. Subsection NB: Class 1 Components
• Subsection NC: Class 2 Components
d. Subsection ND: Class 3 Components
e. Subsection NE: Class MC Components
f. Subsection NF: Component Supports
g. Subsection NG: Core Support Structures
h. Appendices: Code Case N-47 Class 1:
Components in Elevated Temperature Service
• Section III, Division 2: Codes for Concrete Reactor
Vessel and Containment
• Section IV: Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers
• Section V: Nondestructive Examinations

• Section VI: Recommended Rules for the Care and
Operation of
Heating Boilers
• Section VII: Recommended Guidelines for Care of Power
Boilers
• Section VIII
i. Division 1: Pressure Vessels – Rules for
Construction
ii. Division 2: Pressure Vessels – Alternative Rules
• Section IX: Welding and Brazing Qualifications
• Section X: Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
• Section XI: Rules for In-Service Inspection of Nuclear
Power Plant Components
Stamps
Nomenclature
Example
• A heat exchanger qualifies as a UM stamped
pressure vessel if:
- Design pressure < 15psig
- Internal volume < 1.5 cubic ft. for 150<P<600
psig
- Internal volume < 5 cubic ft. for design P upto
250 psig


Example
• A heat exchanger qualifies as a U stamped
pressure vessel if:
- Design pressure > 600 psig
- Internal volume > 1.5 cubic ft. for 150<P<600
psig
- Internal volume > 5 cubic ft. for design P upto
250 psig

Comparison of pressure vessels
Item IS-2825 ASME Code
Section VIII
BS-5500 AD-
Merkblatter
Scope •Unfired fusion
welded pressure
vessels
•Pressure < 20
N/mm2
•Do/Di < 1.5
•Di > 150 mm
•Water capacity >
50 litres
•Welded, riveted,
forged and brazed
vessels
•Water capacity>120
gal
•Operating pressure >
15 psi
•Di>6”
• Unfired fusion
welded pressure
vessels
•Medium and
high pressure
storage vessels
•Excludes
transportable
vessels.
•Do/Di < 1.7
•Vessels and
vessel parts
predominantly
under static
load.

materials •Carbon and low
alloy steels, high
alloy steel, Cu and
Cu alloys, Al and
alloys, bolting and
casting alloys
•Same as IS-2825
•Cast iron, lined
material cast iron,
ferritic steel
•Carbon, ferritic
alloy(low and
high) and
austenitic steels
All metallic
materials and
graphite, glass.
Comparison of pressure vessels
Item IS-2825 ASME Code
Section VIII
BS-5500 AD-
Merkblatter
Design
pressure
Maximum working
pressure including
static head + 5%
maximum working
pressure.
Maximum
pressure at most
severe conditions
Maximum
pressure at
most severe
conditions

Based on
permissible
service pressure
Design
tempera
-ture
Highest metal
temperature
expected under
operating conditions
Actual metal
temperature
expected under
operating
conditions

Actual metal
temperature
expected
under
operating
conditions +
margin for
uncertainties

Highest wall
temperature
expected under
working
conditions
Comparion of pressure vessels
National code U.T.S Yield strength Sr(rupture
stress)
Creep stress
ASME: VIII
Div: 1
4 1.6 - 1
ASME: VIII
Div-2
3 1.5 - -
BS-1515 4 - - -
BS-1515
Part II
2.5 1.5 1.5 1
BS-5500 2.35 1.5 1.3 1
ANCC - 1.5 1.5 -
IS-2825 3 1.5 1.5 1
Explosions
• In spite of some of the most rigorous, well-
conceived safety rules and procedures ever put
together, boiler and pressure vessel accidents
continue to occur.
• In 1980, for example, the National Board of Boiler
and Pressure Vessel Inspectors reported:
- 1972 boiler and pressure vessel accidents, 108
injuries and 22 deaths.
• The pressure vessel explosions are of course rare
nowadays and are often caused by incorrect
operation or poorly monitored corrosion.
• Safety in boiler and pressure vessels can be
achieved by:
Proper design and construction
Proper maintenance and inspection
Proper operator performance and vessel operation

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