Internet Marketing Handbook Series

Sponsored by

1. Introduction 2. Why advertise on mobile? 3. The mobile consumer 4. The mobile advertising market in the UK 5. Understanding the mobile user experience, why it’s different to online and traditional media 6. Integration with other media 7. Briefing a mobile campaign 8. Planning and implementing a mobile campaign 9. Mobile creativity and how to get the most out of your media space 10. Evaluating and measuring the success of your mobile campaigns 11. The future of mobile 2 4 8 12 16

18 21 24 28 33 37


Why ‘now’ is the time for mobile
I remember my first ever experience of a mobile phone. It was grey, plastic, about 6ft in length, with an aerial that probably added an extra 3ft to its vital statistics – an aerial you weren’t actually supposed to touch because of the radiation risk. The ringtone was an irritating electronic beeping sound, and my calls cost me about 50 pence a minute. Little did the young Jon Mew know then, that some fifteen years later he’d be employed solely to wax lyrical about the numerous advertising opportunities available within this purely practical piece of tat. In fact, if you had told me then that we’d one day be referring to this sizeable communications tool as a marketing medium in its own right, I would have dismissed your statement as totally misinformed and utterly ridiculous.



02 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

But look at us now. An already established and fast-developing industry, mobile advertising is growing at an astonishing rate, much like online did in its early days. Brands are employing it as a key component of their communications plans, the results are great and over the past six months, the majority of my conversations have been about how marketers want to do even more. Mobile offers exceptional cut-through, and the ROI is strong. In May 2009, we found out for the first time, with help from our partners PricewaterhouseCoopers – just how much the market is worth. For the whole of 2008 mobile advertising expenditure hit £28.6 million, and actually doubled in size from the previous year, bucking the current media industry trends. This makes now the perfect time to get involved. We know it works, the marketplace is buzzing with excitement about this new channel and the audience is ready, waiting and willing to interact. Now is also a great time for testing the waters, to see how consumers react to your mobile messages so you can learn and enhance your campaigns as the medium becomes mainstream. The IAB Mobile Council boasts some of the best practitioners in the industry, and together we aim to help marketers find the best role for mobile media, to successfully reach and engage their consumers. Through a series of educational initiatives we plan to take mobile advertising out of the ‘too daunting’ box, and show you just how straightforward, and effective, it can be. This handbook is a great starting point, and we’ve covered every stage of the campaign process to make your lives just that little bit easier.

Does your brand want to be a leader or a follower?

why advertise on mobile


BY ALEX KOZLOFF, media research manager & JULIE FAIRCLOUGH, trade marketing manager,

The mobile phone has undoubtedly changed the way we now communicate with others. The way we use our mobiles to make plans with friends, conduct business, and message each other on the move has brought us into a whole new era of social interaction. But this is not where the mobile ends, 3G+ technology has allowed the mobile phone to become much more than a voice call and text tool. We can now use mobile media to be entertained.
04 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Such activities may involve music or games, gathering information through internet searches, or sending pictures of the baby to the grandparents - in fact a whole host of different things. However, is mobile media really something which is being used regularly by enough people to really justify its name as a true ‘media’? The answer is, most definitely! M:Metrics states that 15.4 million people are now active mobile media users, and its use is not only growing in numbers but also frequency. The recently launched Exposure 2 study by Orange showed that of those who use mobile media, 81% do so more than once a week, and a whopping 47% use it on a daily basis. And 9 out of 10 respondents used mobile media in the home, a place where there are plenty of other media choices which suggests it’s being favoured over other media available. Mobile is clearly an important part of daily life, so it’s important to understand how it’s perceived. Overall there were two main attitudes towards mobile media that clearly distinguished it from everything else, it was considered to be the most innovative and most personal medium. In fact no other media elicited such strongly held views. Considering the unique place mobile holds in the minds of its users, it comes as no real surprise that mobile media users aren’t scared of seeing new things on their phone, in fact 70% of mobile media users find new and innovative advertising formats appealing. So how can a marketer transform these unique opportunities into something that works for them? Perception map – Adjectives which users associate with different media
comprehensive information convenient for me trustworthy persuasive


internet on pc
personalised innovative

mobile media

entertaining fun creative

undemanding mood setter relaxing

Source; Exposure 2, Orange UK, March 2009


It was Steve Jobs who said ‘innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower’. It’s fairly obvious that users expect mobile media to be innovative, so it’s fair to assume they expect the same of the brands using mobile to advertise to them. To understand this further we asked specifically which formats users welcomed onto their phones and would be interested in, whether that be advertising formats or advertising for specific messages. The results were:
picture MMS ad 17%

SMS ad 16%

web display ads 13%

coupons 59%

SMS push to web site 28%
ads for tickets / reservations 25%

sponsored videos 22% video MMS ad 15%

sponsored games 37%
sponsored web pages 21%
Source; Exposure 2, Orange UK, March 2009

local information 32%

SMS sales alerts 32%

sponsored screen savers 27%

Overall, there were two main themes that came out: 1. There must be some perceived value in the message, whether that be a coupon to recoup, a game to play or a notification for a sale in a retail outlet. 2. That the message was relevant to them, for example notifying them to a sale for a retail outlet, some local information to find where they are or allowing them to download a screensaver to personalise their phone.

06 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

This should be used simply as a guide, for there are many different opportunities that mobile brings which are ready and waiting for brave marketers to make the most of them. And there are brands out there which are already doing this, and doing it exceptionally well. MobiAdNews (* reported a great example in an interview with Marc Mielau from BMW Germany, who prepared an MMS promoting specialist winter tyres to send out to BMW owners on the first day of snow. When the first flakes fell in October, the MMS was sent out to owners specifying the model of car, the recommended tyres, even the colour of the model that was owned. The fact this message was received at an appropriate time and was highly personalised meant it produced a sales conversion rate of 30%. Another popular example is that of the Nike PHOTOiD campaign, where mobile media users were invited to take a photograph of anything with colours they liked, send it to a shortcode and in return they would receive a picture of some trainers picking up the same colours which they could go on to purchase. Not only was this relevant and innovative, but highly engaging and fantastic fun. But don’t be fooled into thinking mobile is purely a direct response medium (a misconception which has dogged online since the early days), it’s also a fabulous branding mechanic. BBC3 ran a weekend takeover of the Orange World homepage to promote the launch of its new series ‘Being Human’. The campaign not only created an 11% uplift in brand awareness amongst those who saw the campaign, but those who saw it on Orange World were 160% more likely to attribute this to seeing this ad on the mobile internet. It appears that when people see advertising on the mobile they really do remember it… Mobile media is here, it’s now and it’s growing at a phenomenal rate in terms of numbers and frequency of usage. When the perception users have of mobile, being innovative and personalised, is respected and the media used to the best of its ability, some incredible results can be achieved. So the only remaining question is, does your brand want to be a leader or a follower?


Consumers are open to advertising so long as it’s compelling, relevant, entertaining and rewarding.

the mobile consumer
digital business manager for mobile and ticketing, BAUER


The power of mobile for marketers can be summarised in one simple fact: “No media device spends more time or is closer to the consumer than his or her phone. Media companies able to find a home on the phone of consumers, will be with them practically every moment of their waking day (Pollack Media group).”

08 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

The UK has seen a significant increase in mobile internet usage from 8.8 million in December 2007 to 11.0 million in December 2008, representing a 28% growth. This increase in activity is due to a number of factors including improved handsets, improved user experience, higher volume and quality of content available both on and off portal, faster data speeds and improved search functionality. The UK now boasts an unparalleled reach with a unique user base of 48 million (comScore Feb 09). Consumers are still predominantly using their mobile phones for voice calls and texting but increasingly they are carrying out a wide range of activities, and examples of mobile media include: • • • • • • Using the mobile internet (to browse, download or search) Using Bluetooth Playing games Watching videos Listening to music Watching mobile TV Table 1 Gender Female Male Mobile Media 6,517,146 (42.4%) 8,855,312 (57.6%)
comScore Feb 09

The great news for advertisers is that all of the above offer opportunities to make your brand stand out. For example, banner ads on mobile internet sites, in game advertising, pre-rolls on videos and so on. Who is accessing this media? As you can see in Table 1, 42% of mobile media users are female, thus dispelling any myths that this market is dominated by males! Table 2 shows the age breakdown of users of mobile media. Around 47% of consumers of mobile Media are aged between 18-34 (comScore, Feb 09) but let’s not forget the 21% aged 35-44yrs and a further 22% aged 45+.

Table 2
Age 13-17 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Grand Total Median Age Mobile Media 1,506,138 (10%) 3,264,847 (21%) 3,969,320 (26%) 3,255,451 (21%) 1,846,389 (12%) 1,530,311 (10%) 15,372,457 32.3
comScore Feb 09


Users are accessing content throughout the day and night, and when measured against TV, PC, radio and print, mobile was found to be the most accessed media channel from noon to 6pm. According to Orange UK, 87% of mobile media users use it at home, with a further, 73% when out and about, 48% at work, and 47% on transport. This data clearly shows that mobile is the most targetable medium. Advertisers can reach males and females of all ages wherever they are, whenever they want. The mobile internet Browsing the mobile internet is a key of part of the mobile media experience and a good mobile web experience is becoming crucial to the majority of users (65%) when choosing a phone (AKQA and dotMobi).There is no doubt that this requirement has been heavily driven by the ability to access social media sites such as Facebook and Bebo via mobile, in fact research from the IAB found that 44% of young people are now accessing social networks on their mobiles. Search, email, news and film are also some of the most viewed mobile internet pages although a high proportion (55%) of users browse with no specific agenda (Exposure 2: Orange Home UK, March 09). To encourage users to sign up to data tariff plans, mobile operators are driving high profile marketing campaigns. These plans give users greater freedom to browse the mobile web. Today, almost 8.5% of total users now have a data plan, which represents a year on year growth of 31% (comScore Feb 09). There are many opportunities for advertisers to take advantage of this audience, and throughout this book we’ll be presenting the ways in which you can do so, at every stage of the process. Giving consumers what they want Velti, the marketing firm that commissioned a poll of more than 1,600 UK mobile phone users in 2008, found that 79% agreed that mobile marketing and advertising was inevitable. However, this doesn’t

10 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

mean that they will automatically engage with your marketing messages, as with all forms of media, consumers are open to advertising so long as it’s compelling, relevant, entertaining and rewarding. It’s important to be mindful of how users spend their time on mobiles. Many consumers use their phone to ‘pass the time’ when commuting, on a lunch break or waiting for their favourite TV programme to start at home. These users are easily distracted therefore it’s necessary to adapt your marketing offering accordingly. If you’re going to give users content keep it ‘snackable’ and ‘bite-sized’. Don’t offer pages of text to scroll through. Include content that users can browse or download such as photo galleries or video content. Give them the opportunity to have their say or interact by including voting mechanics and competitions. Make it easy for users to interact, and for such a relatively new form of marketing, it’s important to be explicit within your promotional activity. It’s basic stuff but adding simple call to action words such as ‘Click here…’, ‘Win here…’ or ‘Free…’ can have a significant impact on click through rates for campaigns. Users will scan the content of a page until they see something that catches their eye. Make sure your content is the thing that stands out. 56% of respondents in the Velti study said that they would accept mobile campaigns if they were offered some form of reward. Ensure that you are rewarding users for engaging with your message, whether it be by replying to an SMS broadcast or clicking on a banner. Give them something for their time, a free download, a chance to win etc. The Orange Exposure 2 research found that in general, consumers viewed marketing formats with perceived value as the most appealing, such as coupons offering discounts and sponsored games available for free download.


the mobile
advertising market in the UK
business development director, PHONEVALLEY


There are many different ways you can use the mobile phone to communicate with a specific audience, making the most of its unique functions and targeting opportunities.

12 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Mobile internet advertising
In the main, when we talk about advertising on the mobile we are referring to mobile internet advertising. This can be split into three distinct categories: • On Portal - operator sites (O2, Orange, T-mobile, 3 and Vodafone) that are normally set as your default landing page. • Off Portal - sites that fall outside of the operator portal or walled garden (Facebook, The Sun etc). • Search - primarily used via search partners on portal sites, but like the internet can be accessed directly. The major players in this area Yahoo! and Google. The operator portals have the highest reach, and are critical for building 1+ coverage within mobile advertising campaigns, thus mass reach. This means that everyone sees your advert at least once, so for example, if you had 3+ coverage of 10 million, 10 million people would have seen your ad at least 3 times. However, with more and more big players entering the mobile arena, consumer interaction with off portal sites is growing. As an example Bebo, the most recent mobile social networking site to start accepting advertising, attracts 857 000 monthly unique users (Source M:Metrics).

Other mobile advertising
It is important, however, not just to view mobile as an extension of online, there are many other ways to advertise and market a product or service. Text for example is one the most used functions on a handset making SMS or MMS a great advertising and CRM opportunity. Blyk have managed to tap into this offering providing a free network for 16-24 year olds based on them accepting a set amount of text based advertising. Another noninternet opportunity is Bluetooth which works well with location based campaigns, both Bluepod and Breezetech offer strong site and mobile pod opportunities in this area.


Recent, significant developments
One of the major developments to occur within this area is the proliferation of high speed networks, with 3G penetration at 31% (source M:Metrics.) This linked with the growth of the multimedia handset has not only made the user experience faster and more engaging but has opened up creative opportunities, with the iPhone being a great example. Flat rate data packages have also taken away the worry of cost for many users and following in the steps of online several years ago has helped encourage people to surf not only for longer but also across a number of different sites. O2 for example have reported seeing a 300% increase in mobile surfing for those on their unlimited surfing package.

The formats available
Mobile internet advertising formats Mobile internet in many ways reflects a scaled-down version of the advertising opportunities available online: • Text links - offer a low cost and low risk entry method to mobile advertising especially for DR clients with them being bought on a CPC basis. • Banners and super banners - again like on the PC, and we are starting to see more opportunities for animations and creativity. • Ad funded content – as technology and demand has opened up the content on the mobile, so has the opportunity to advertise, and with there still being reluctance and misunderstanding in terms of data charges, sponsorship, which enables free or reduced cost content for the consumer, has increased. • Pre/post roll video – often linked to the above, usually 15 second video clips which can be supported by clickable banners making them great for both branding and DR.

14 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

• Search – basics are the same as online but results are more location based. Major benefits with search on the mobile over search on the PC is the less cluttered environment and lower CPC due to less advertisers bidding on keywords. Non internet advertising • SMS (text) MMS (picture) or VMS (video) advertising (which has been estimated at over 90% of mobile marketing revenue worldwide) - can either be sent out to own customer database or to a targeted opted in bought list. This can be a great form of CRM or due to the viral benefits of mobile a great way of distributing money off coupons or incentives. • Bluetooth – an alternative to WAP for broadcasting information. Generally installed at set locations such as cinemas or train stations and can distribute opted in content within a limited area. • Mobile games – often linked in with ad funding or sponsorship, can be as simple as a full page interstitial before the games, or a fully integrated branded experience. • There are also several emerging formats - Mobile TV, screen savers or the new mobile phone ad funded directory enquiries service, making use of the original purpose of the mobile ‘voice’.


Why it’s different to online and traditional media
Mobile isn’t so different to online or traditional media. In reality, all a consumer wants is to have information delivered to them in a way that is clear and intuitive. The main difference is that mobile devices are smaller, and the most important thing any brand or advertiser can do is recognise that a user is using a mobile device, and to cater for them accordingly.


the mobile user experience

media and mobile director, GRAPHICO

16 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

For instance, would you try to fit a six sheet poster advert into an MPU? You could resize it or worse still, crop it and it would physically fit, but then that would be like trying to establish the floor plan of a house by looking through the letter box. It’s broadly accepted that the overall message and the majority of content of the ad would be the same within both media, but the online ad would need significant reworking to be effective. However, in the current landscape brands rarely do this with mobile. A standard web page doesn’t work in a mobile browser, and a user on a mobile device doesn’t necessarily want reams of elaborate copy or huge dramatic images. A well-designed mobile site looks great and is easy to use. Usability should be at the heart of the mobile experience, and it is imperative to concern yourself with why a consumer is visiting your site, in order to deliver exactly what they want, in the hope that they return. The internet (fixed line or mobile) is not about the technology, it’s about information and content. You only have to look at the big traffic sites to realise this. The BBC, Facebook and YouTube all focus on the content and the delivery of that content rather than exotic design and waffle. Each one of these major players have optimised versions of their websites, setting an example which hopefully the remainder of the UK’s brands will follow. The best way to engage consumers through this medium is to recognise that they are using a mobile device. With Facebook, the key functionality remains the same on a mobile device but it is tailored to suit, and information (the reason for visiting) is delivered just the same as on the main website. Consumer engagement is different for every brand, so marketers should engage the consumer in the same way as they always do, but give the consumer the opportunity – and the information if necessary – to do it through mobile media. Brands can see mobile as a separate discipline, a different technology and a different pot of budget, but a consumer just sees ‘the brand’. If the consumer wants to interact with a brand through mobile, the experience needs to be tailored accordingly.




with other media

BY TIM HUSSAIN, head of mobile advertising, SKY

As we’ve already seen, mobile provides a fantastic opportunity for reaching a highly engaged audience. From social networking to search, and from display advertising to interactive applications, mobile creates a whole host of ways to engage a consumer. Is it quite easy to run a mobile only campaign? Absolutely. But mobile does not exist in its own universe, or more importantly, our customers do not. If mobile activity is to be used in the most effective way then it should be considered as part of a wider communication strategy.

18 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Why integrate mobile activity?
But why is it so important to integrate mobile activity alongside other, more traditional channels? There are three key reasons: Firstly, millions of people are accessing mobile content on a monthly basis. And this usage is not happening in isolation to their other media habits. It’s just one part of their day. They’re reading newspapers and checking content on their mobiles at the same time, watching TV and texting to vote. If mobile is not being integrated alongside other marketing then consumers may be exposed to contrasting advertising. Secondly, media owners are already producing integrated content offerings across many platforms, from newspapers to television stations. A user can watch a TV program or read a newspaper, or go onto the website to watch or read the same content. This same user behaviour we see in the online space is also occurring across mobile content. Users are doing a variety of tasks, such as updating their social networks, reading the latest sports and news information, and watching videos. This activity is happening regularly throughout the day, so as consumers and content owners are integrating their media then marketing can take advantage of these different touch points with an integrated approach. Thirdly, integration of mobile marketing across more traditional media improves the strength of the communication. As the saying goes “mobile makes traditional media interactive and online, mobile”. This is a powerful opportunity for advertisers. With mobile integrated into a campaign a customer walking past any outdoor advertising can use their mobile to interact and get information immediately. No more trying to remember the advertisement. Or as we’ve seen from TV voting on shows like X Factor, users can interact directly via their mobiles. Why not also do the same for TV advertising and allow people to get information immediately. Texting for more information is a lot quicker than switching on a PC and trying to remember a URL. If you’ve stayed with me so far you should have a better understanding of why integrating mobile is such a good idea. So how do we go about integrating a campaign?

A few pointers on mobile integration
To start with, if we want to get the most from integrating mobile into marketing activity it needs to be considered at the initial planning stages. Whilst mobile as a stand alone medium is a superb opportunity for advertisers it really comes into its own when we consider it as the glue that can enhance the different communication channels. Take a traditional one-way communication like print. If we incorporate a mobile element at the very earliest stages we can create a way for readers to immediately respond and engage with the print advertisement. This is unique for the medium. They could send a text to get more information, go to a mobile site and watch a video, or get a digital discount voucher and map to the nearest store. The creative opportunities are endless. The great thing is this works just as well for a radio campaign, outdoor, TV, and even online. By planning mobile at the beginning it is easy to increase the effectiveness of every pound spent on advertising, whichever medium it is across.

Moving forward
If you keep an eye out you’ll start to see that this approach of integrating mobile is already occurring. Automotive advertisers such as Audi and Citroen have been some of the earliest adopters. They’ve advertised across mobile internet sites and included mobile call-to-actions throughout their other media; making it easy for consumers to get more information or even book a test drive. We see brands like Coca Cola and Walkers integrating mobile marketing on the side of their products. And the COI are winning awards for their mobile campaigns for the Royal Navy. The opportunity for creating deeper relationships with your customers is ever present. It’s important to bear in mind that integrating mobile into your marketing activity does not have to be about creating a whole new focus for the activity. It can be about utilising the unique aspects of the mobile medium to strengthen and extend the core goals and themes of any planned activity, and it does this very well.

20 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Don’t jump on the bandwagon, but look to create one.

briefing a mobile campaign


deputy director of interactive services, COI

When I began to write this section, I asked myself ‘what makes for a great brief?’ Quite an easy question to pose but not necessarily an easy one to answer. Ultimately a great brief frames the communication need, and in a nutshell sets out very clearly what issue, challenge or questions need to be addressed. Should a mobile brief be any different from a ‘traditional digital brief’? It’s interesting that we’re beginning to use ‘traditional digital’ when referring to online disciplines which have only been around for some ten years, perhaps a reflection of the dynamism and innovative thinking this industry boasts.

The brief before the brief… Who decides when mobile has a role to play? Is it the advertiser, the digital/ mobile agency or the comms planning agency? Currently it’s all or any of the above but we need to consider who is best placed to make the recommendation. To help us decide that, let’s just for a moment put to one side the notion that ‘digital is at the heart’ of communications and instead consider that in fact ‘people’ are at the heart of how we communicate. Seems to make good sense. If we understand people, understand who they are, what they do, how we can engage with them and importantly how they want to be engaged, then we begin to understand whether mobile has a role to play. This thought puts the comms planning agencies in the driving seat to recommend whether mobile has a role and what that role is. The response to the comms planning agency brief will produce the mobile brief. Briefing mobile, in ten easy steps 1. Take time to craft the brief. It is the foundation that all activity is built upon so invest significant time up front to save yourself time down the line. 2. Think early – planning and implementation take time. You’ll get a better, more considered, planned response if you allow enough time between the brief being provided and the solution/response being presented. 3. Be clear on the communication requirement and articulate it. Be transparent about what needs to be achieved – avoid ambiguity and assumption. 4. Objectives and KPIs need to be defined, as does the evaluation metrics required to measure the performance against these. Ensure that all parties involved in taking the brief forward have signed up to and agree that the objectives are SMART and that the evaluation will be able to track effectively against the KPIs. Ask yourself what will success look like and how you’ll know when it’s been achieved. 5. As mobile is likely to play one part of the communications mix, you should encourage collaboration. Don’t treat mobile as a special case but consider what parts of the overall mix it will touch and bring those parts into the discussion. This could include media buying, CRM and PR, among others.

22 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

6. Invest both time and budget. Yes, the barriers to enter are lower but be realistic about what needs to be invested. Great mobile work doesn’t have to be expensive, but be flexible and invest accordingly. 7. Use a mobile specialist or those with specialist mobile experience - get the most of what can be achieved by using those who know how to maximise the potential. 8. Recognise the unique attributes of mobile. What other medium or channel plays such a large part of everyday life? As such, make sure that what is developed is both useful and timely. Both these elements are by-products of the mobile brief, but it’s worth reiterating that priority upfront. There are numerous examples of where simple pieces of useful mobile communications, delivered at the right time, produced outstanding results. 9. Be clear on the subject of data handling – this supports the importance of collaborative working as those handling the data are perhaps unlikely to be those building the mobile comms. 10. Consider whether the mobile activity is looking to build a relationship over time and therefore an on-going dialogue between brand and consumer, or if the activity is a one-off. Ways of working – Champion collaboration and insist that it happens. Use talent wherever it resides but be clear on roles and responsibilities. Avoid duplication or worse still inactivity. Share research. This is a relatively new area and as such the rules are still being written, so share what knowledge exists amongst all those involved. Think creatively – Be open to where the mobile idea will originate as it may not be from the obvious sources. Don’t be precious, as a great idea will need to be honed. And finally consider – Don’t jump on the bandwagon, a very easy thing to do in digital marketing, but look to create one. By doing this, of course there is a risk that you may make mistakes, but it’s essential to learn from each campaign to ensure that the next one is even better. To invest a serious amount of time and energy into the briefing process, stimulate your agencies, and evaluate the return.


Target and buy your audience



mobile manager, MEDIACOM

& Implementing a mobile campaign
For best results, approach the planning and implementation of mobile campaigns with the same rigour as you would every other medium. While traditional planning insight often suggests mobile as a smart option, fully understanding the mobile consumer requires detailed analysis before moving forward. You need to be crystal clear about your campaign objectives too, such as to drive sales, raise awareness or deliver engagement. Only then can you craft messages and services in a coherent plan that are relevant, engaging and deliver great ROI. On the following page is a three stage guide:

24 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

1. Understand your mobile consumer
Pinpoint usage trends with TGI TGI reveals interesting insights about mobile consumers with its ability to cross-tab an audience with mobile usage. This helps build a platform of consumer insight on which to plan a campaign. For example, looking at 25 to 34-year-old men, TGI tells us they are almost 150% more likely to use mobile internet and twice as likely to visit sports and news content as all adults. Yet, they are 8% less likely to visit entertainment channels. Even deeper analysis enables us to compare their mobile internet usage with product categories specific to our clients. Scrutinise individuals’ mobile usage with MMetrics MMetrics research is a mobile consumer panel which enables us to look in more granular detail at how a particular audience uses mobile. We know from TGI that 25 to 34-year-old men visit news and sport more than the average and MMetrics tells us how many – in this example we see more than 800 000 25 to 34-year-old men accessed sport and over 700 000 accessed news in Jan 2009. We can see 750 000 accessed Facebook, too. So we start to build our consumer picture even further. MMetrics gives us a steer on SMS usage, mobile gaming, downloading and multimedia access too. With all these elements in place we can better understand our audience and plan to advertise to them where they play. Delve even deeper with proprietary research Proprietary research is useful when you need to investigate audience habits and patterns. In the above example, we know our audience index well for mobile internet usage and is interested in sport. Operator research shows peaks in sports access on a Saturday afternoon, helping us up-weight impressions accordingly. Research such as Orange Exposure 2 indicates where people tend to consume mobile media too, thus enhancing an already detailed picture. Naturally some studies’ emphasis is skewed to prove a particular point, so all proprietary data needs to be used wisely.


2. Implement the campaign
Select the right sites and networks So what sites do our heavy mobile internet users (with a liking for news and sport) visit? MMetrics ranks our audience against the key operator portals, both in terms of absolute numbers and total profile. So we can pinpoint a network with smaller absolute reach but with the best targeting efficiency, for example. For many large off-portal sites, however, agencies currently rely on publisher data. The GSMA figures, due to be released in H2 2009, offer the chance for more rigorous planning against sites such as Sky Sports, MSN and Yahoo!. Until their release we can up-weight sports and news content channels (for example) which reflect our audience’s browsing habits within these portals. Target and buy your audience Different networks offer different ways of targeting consumers. Simple demographic (age and gender) targeting is available on some networks. You can also target by billing address – useful when you want to isolate mobile advertising to a specific region. Interestingly, it is possible to serve ads to specific devices – clients such as Dell who need to reach a business audience can serve advertising just to Blackberries. If an operator indexes well against an audience, or you wish to reach contract versus pre-paid customers, this is doable too. Buying metrics like these currently mirror those available online, with the majority of campaigns bought on a CPM and CPC basis. Think beyond the click All mobile advertising campaigns must have a dedicated destination site.

26 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

It’s no good sending consumers to a full web page on a mobile handset – develop a mobile-friendly site. Mobile sites render quickly and correctly on all devices, providing an optimised browsing experience – true too for iPhone. Plus, a mobile site can host video or audio content, connect to maps, offer one-click calls or trigger brochures – whatever brings the campaign fully to life. Analytics include page views, dwell times and download numbers.

3. Crunch the numbers
When reporting on campaign performance we currently rely on weekly and total figures submitted by the publishers. Usually this includes: impressions served, number of clicks and achieved click-through rates. To maintain appropriate checks and balances, we can cross-reference these numbers with a client’s mobile site analytics. For this reason it’s important to provide unique URLS to each network and for each piece of creative, so you can optimise the campaign most efficiently. The introduction of 3rd party ad-serving in 2009 immediately brings more transparency to mobile (MediaCom has already run a test campaign through Eyeblaster) and ensures all agencies can be more confident in planning and buying across mobile.

It is essential to develop a mobile-friendly site.




commercial director, INCENTIVATED

and how to get the most out of your media space
Whoever said you need a big screen to express a big idea? Mobile has emerged as the most versatile, personal, and targeted media and advertising channel. It’s also proving to be one of the most innovative and creative.

28 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Orange’s Exposure 2 research among mobile users asked participants to rate traditional, digital broadcast and print media on a number of attributes. Mobile media was overwhelmingly viewed as the most personal and innovative medium, providing it with a unique place in the marketing mix. The results give us valuable insights into how brands can go about engaging consumers with the mobile channel. Mobile users are looking for campaigns that entice and excite them with clever interaction. Mobile also provides a channel for us to express our own creativity. The fastest growth area for mobile usage is social networking: we’re creating and sharing content, and spending more time updating our Facebook profiles on mobile (3 times per day) than we do online (twice a day). Today’s advertisers have a rich palette of mobile formats to engage their customers. Banner ads - on and off portal - Bluetooth and search all provide targeted advertising opportunities. The industry has launched guidelines - for creating ads which can be viewed across all handsets in circulation. The revolution in mobile creativity has been mirrored by advances in handsets. Back in 2000, the first mobile sites were WML black and white text links which resolved on some GPRS handsets. By 2002, the first MMS ads were being developed, adding visual impact to marcomms with logos and images. Programmers started experimenting with mobile web by 2004, initially with basic HTML sites, and then moved to XHTML two years later, enabling the resizing of assets and a ‘made for mobile’ experience. And Java applications became popular with creatives in 2008, coinciding with the iPhone’s launch. What follows is a selection of highly creative mobile campaigns.

iPhone – a blank canvas for creatives
The iPhone has had a dramatic effect on mobile creativity, and found its way into the hands of our creative community. The cut-down Safari browser offers the most advanced mobile browsing experience, and although it accounts for just over 1% of handsets in the UK, 77% of iPhone users regularly browse the mobile web. The iPhone provides a blank canvas for creatives to harness sight, sound, touch and motion and the handset’s accelerometer (or gyroscope) allows the user to shake and tilt their iPhone rather than use the keypad. Features like this, the smaller screen and different browser call for ‘made for mobile’ sites, even for the iPhone, instead of trying to serve the main website.


iPhone apps, built using Apple’s developer kit, achieved notoriety when Beattie McGuinness Bungay launched the award winning ‘iPint’ for Carling, downloadable from iTunes. To date over 25,000 different applications have been made, and downloaded 800 million times. Recycle for London adapted its online recycling game with a mobile Java game and an iPhone app in order to extend the audience. The game challenges users to starve their hungry ‘evil bin’ by catching all recyclable waste using the keypad to control the recycling bin, or just tilting the iPhone. The app extends the importance of recycling to a new generation of Londoners. Players can forward the game to friends and challenge them to beat their score on a live scoreboard.

Brand engagement – location and personalisation
On launching its TV serialisation ‘Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles’, Virgin 1 sought to reach an audience of tech-savvy, early adopters, with an engaging promotion for the brand and the audience. Participants visit to sign up friends by submitting their name and mobile details to be ‘terminated’. The friend then receives a personalised mobile video telling them that the Terminators are hijacking their phone and are in the immediate vicinity. The video shows their name, mobile number and a map of their location. The friend can then do the same to someone else from the mobile internet site

30 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Made for mobile internet sites
One of the great challenges for creatives is to develop a rewarding browsing experience for the UK’s 15 million regular mobile web users, regardless of the diverse range of handsets they use. With different operating systems and screen sizes, advertisers need to make sure their mobile offerings are ‘made for mobile’. Handset detection software allows you to optimise the browsing experience and use the handset’s full capabilities. Three leading mobile sites, BBC, Google and Yahoo! automatically redirect browsers to ‘made for mobile’ sites from the same URL used for a PC. Jaguar launched the XF model in the USA with a heavy-weight mobile advertising campaign, delivering over 120 million impressions across mobile internet sites including Yahoo! and MSN. The banner ads attracted 1 million unique visitors (0.8% CTR), to a purpose-built mobile internet site – WML, XHTML and iPhone versions. On the site users view detailed information on the car, download video-clips, wallpapers and TV ads, find their nearest dealer and order an email brochure to be sent to their PC. This campaign’s success has prompted Jaguar North America to develop sites for the XK, XF, and XFR models, and commit an additional $1.6 million to mobile advertising for 2009, a major vote of confidence in mobile amid difficult trading conditions.


• Personalised mobile drama The COI is a pioneer in creative mobile marketing. In its quest to engage elusive and sceptical teenagers, and raise awareness of sexual wellbeing, the Department for Children, Schools and Families developed ‘Want Respect – Wear a Condom’, the world’s first interactive mobile drama. The campaign uses web and WAP banner ads to sign up subscribers at to receive 22 weekly episodes. The ‘mobisodes’ are personalised: viewers’ names appear in characters’ mobile phone books, and weekly reminders from the characters invite viewers to change the storyline via text response. In a UK first, data charges were zero-rated so all video downloads are totally free to receive, thereby maximising its appeal to cost-conscious teenagers. Mobile creativity is in great shape. Technically, there really are no real limits any more, and those brands willing to take risks will steel a march on their competitors. Interaction and engagement lie at the heart of successful digital campaigns, and the examples mentioned prove that mobile is a fertile channel for forward thinking marketers to exploit its opportunities.

5 tips for great mobile creative… from the IAB
1. Be innovative. Maximise the potential of the mobile phone and then do a little bit more… consumers love this and it holds great word of mouth opportunities. 2. Be personal. By personalising your marketing messages and letting customers interact, engagement is likely to be higher. 3. Be useful. Some of the biggest and best mobile campaigns have given consumers a service or application they need, and will use for a long period of time. This way you’re actually becoming a part of their daily lives. 4. Be social. Bring people together with your creative, and help them become brand advocates, even giving them the tools necessary to tell others about you. 5. Be aware. Keep abreast of what’s possible on mobile, and more importantly what works, with the case studies at

32 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009



and Measuring

head of insights, YAHOO!

the success of your mobile campaigns
Marketers today are showing an increased interest in using mobile for marketing purposes. Recognising that individuals from hard-to-reach demographic groups are turning to the mobile internet to access information throughout the day, these advertisers are beginning to experiment with this new and largely uncluttered medium.

However, before the mobile internet is fully embraced by advertisers as a legitimate marketing medium, proper evaluation and measurement will be essential. What follows is a brief overview of the challenges faced when evaluating mobile media campaigns and the various forms of mobile media campaign measurement available.

Mobile campaign measurement challenges
The beauty of interactive advertising is its measurability. For years before its inception, media researchers had to contend with softer measures in order to determine the impact of advertising campaigns. Actual exposure could never explicitly be measured. Rather, a determination of OTS or ‘Opportunity to See’ an ad was used and pre-post methodologies employed to evaluate the success of a campaign. By definition, however, interactive advertising is advertising with which consumers can directly interact. Consequently, these behaviours can be directly measured and impact directly quantified, whether by behavioural metrics (such as clickthrough rates and interaction rates) or brand metrics (such as awareness and purchase intent). Mobile media advertising sits under the umbrella of interactive advertising and as such, is afforded the same benefits. However, there are some unique challenges the mobile marketers face when evaluating their campaigns. 1. Lack of cookies to track exposure. Due to the security risks inherent in targeting individuals on such a personal device as a mobile phone as well as the wealth of data the mobile operators have on each of their subscribers, the use of cookies to track exposure is generally prohibited by most of the mobile network providers. Creative work-arounds, such as passing an ASID (or Anonymous Subscriber ID) through to the research provider in order to identify those who have been exposed to the advertising are often necessary in this space to preserve the ability to track exposure, thus ensuring a clean control-exposed methodology. 2. Diversity in form factor and screen size. The range in screen shapes and sizes means advertisers must produce campaign creative in a multitude of sizes to ensure that their ads appear on each and every device in existence. Without taking all devices into consideration and building their ads to fit on these devices, marketers can miss key segments of the population and evaluation then becomes skewed.

34 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

3. Decreasing survey response rates. Getting consumers to respond to survey participation requests via banner ads on their mobile phones is becoming more and more difficult. Initial response rates were quite promising as consumers were curious and intrigued by the novelty. However, as the number of research studies has increased over time, the novelty has worn off and response rates have decreased significantly. Today, brands must utilise vast amounts of inventory in order to meet minimum sample thresholds and come up with creative methods to keep response rates as high as possible.

Forms of campaign evaluation
As in the online environment, making the choice between the different forms of campaign evaluation available is wholly dependent on the objectives of the mobile campaign itself. If the goal is to obtain leads for the advertised brand, drive engagement with your WAP site, or click-to-call to make a purchase, then behavioural response metrics will be essential to measure success. If, on the other hand, the goal is to build brand equity through increasing brand awareness or favourability, or to shift consumers’ perceptions of a brand, then brand impact metrics will be important to collect during the campaign.

Behavioural response measurement
Within the mobile environment, behavioural response measurement primarily consists of reporting on click-through rate (CTR), defined as the number of users who clicked on an ad divided by the number of times the ad was delivered, expressed as a percentage. Marketers use clickthrough rates to understand the degree to which consumers responded to their ads. However, it is important to remember that the click-through rate of a campaign will never tell the entire story of how exposure to an ad impacted behaviour. This is because CTR does not include people who failed to click on the ad, but arrived at the WAP later, as a result of seeing the ad previously.


Brand impact measurement
When marketers measure the brand impact of a campaign, they can test the following: • Unaided brand awareness – measures users’ recall of the test brand without prompting • Aided brand awareness – measures users’ recall of the test brand from a short list provided • Ad recall/online ad awareness – measures users’ recollection of an ad for the test brand • Message association – measures users’ recollection of the campaign key messages • Brand favourability – measures the percentage of users that view the brand positively • Purchase intent – measures the percentage of users that intend to buy the test brand Additionally, marketers can measure the change in brand perceptions as a result of exposure to the interactive ad campaign. To measure any or all of these factors, marketers would employ a control/ exposed methodology. In order to step up this methodology, ideally the mobile environment being used would need to allow for exposure to be tracked and exposed consumers to be identified in some way. If this is possible, then the research would be set-up as follows: 1. Consumers are recruited to take a survey by clicking through on a survey recruitment banner and answering a series of questions about the advertised brand (and the competitive set, to blind the survey). 2. After the campaign is completed, the list of survey respondents is matched to the list of exposed respondents, using a unique identifier. Those respondents who fall on both lists will be identified as exposed respondents and those only falling on the survey respondent list will be used as control respondents. 3. Whilst both groups will be recruited from the same areas where the mobile campaign is running to ensure that they are matched appropriately, additional profiling will be used to ensure this is the case. 4. Once it is determined that the two groups are matched as closely as possible, answers to the questions from the exposed group are compared to those of the control group and any significant differences are attributed to exposure to the mobile ad campaign.
36 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

Harness simplicity to enable growth

the future


of mobile

head of mobile sales UK, MICROSOFT ADVERTISING

An evolving medium needs constant change and growth. Easy achievement of this is through meeting the growing needs of the 3 key parties involved in the process of firmly establishing any medium: the brands, consumers and media owners.


Who needs what?
1. Brands need more targeting, more data and definitely more access to their consumer 2. Consumers need more content, more opportunity, more relevance and much more at a much lower cost 3. Media owners need more consumers, more consumption information and more development of technology - ad formats, platforms, useful applications etc. What we have learnt so far is that an inherent understanding of the relationships between the medium, the consumer and the message is essential for stimulation. The nature of a mobile phone even in its most basic form is a personal one. It’s your access point to friends, family and all things important. Getting it wrong will have very negative impacts on your consumer, getting it right will mean that the future will hold blossoming, long-term relationships.

The link to content and info
More and more the mobile will provide the consumer with their link to information, to entertainment, to business and social connections, with the demand for immediacy at the forefront of consumption patterns. “Mobile” access and connection is essential.

Give and you shall receive
New technology drives consumption; the release of the iPhone created a desire and a high profile consumer-focused reason to visit the mobile internet. The resulting spikes in mobile internet usage peaked at nearly 20 million (1/3rd of all of the UK) unique users the month after release (Jan 2008), about 19.4 million on non iPhone handsets. Give the consumer reason to come and they will.

Technology developments
The future holds great development in devices, 3D Touch Screen Technology, customisation for Home Pages, quicker and more accessible connection speeds, 3G to 3.5G and 4G on its way via LTE Technology, larger screens (average sizes on the increase 3”) and thanks to more content, consumers are moving from quick snacking experiences to that of a browsing nature. This allows for much greater consumption of content, varied formats and will provide increased opportunities for interaction. Richer ad formats will lead the way in the development of mobile into an accepted, established channel for consumer communication. Improving ad formats will keep mobile at the forefront of consumer conversations as growth in competition from advertisers, media owners and content all mean that the challenge of standing out will be greater.
38 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

The future of mobile consumption and advertising is exciting and definitely moving forward. Adoption of mobile from global brands in all areas of marketing is providing groundbreaking insights, into how and why the mobile internet, mobile interaction and brand accessibility has a future. With close to all FTSE 100 brands having looked at mobile as a part of their marketing campaigns the present is providing a great platform for the future as a stand alone media channel for marketing managers across the board.

Embrace the potential
Realise mobile is another platform for you to communicate with your consumer, whether it be through marketing activity, display advertising, encouraging response or the simplest of brand exposure. Your consumer will be, if not already, utilising the benefits of this medium and your competitors will be too.

Harness simplicity to enable growth
The competitive and potentially complicated mobile ecosystem has found its feet with brands through clear opportunity in the present and even more opportunity in the future. With scale on its way, creativity at a new high, consumer experiences getting better and better with each release and competition for the next getting greater, growth in mobile adspend looks set to rocket over the next few years.

Understand consumption and develop with new technology
More research is required in terms of how mobile works with traditional offline and online channels, how does it provide something different in the mix, where does it enhance performance of campaigns and add value to the consumer experience? 2/3 screen campaigns will prove to be successful, harnessing each and every opportunity to deliver messaging on the mobile, PC and Another (TV, Outdoor, etc). The continuity of the message is essential in the success of this strategy but it will prove to be a powerful mechanic to encourage advertiser recognition and interaction. Branded applications will continue to grow as a form of mobile communication in the future, as long as special attention is paid to what the consumer wants and what the application delivers is beneficial. BA are a great example of how to have success in this area with the provision of a specific application for their travellers, allowing early checkin options, up to the minute information on flight times and more. So what will make a successful future for mobile? It’s certainly no dark art or scientific formula. As an industry, we can achieve it by understanding the consumer, devoting enough time to the planning stages, developing creatively with the technology and simply making the next ‘new thing’ available better, and more compelling, than the last.


jargon buster

‘3G’ is the third generation of telecommunication hardware standards. It offers comprehensive voice and multimedia services to mobile customers by providing very high data rates and functionality such as data streaming. 3G phones are backward compatible and can access all the services that 2 and 2.5G phones can, except that in this case, data can be transferred a lot quicker. A statement or instruction, typically promoted in print, web, TV, radio, on-portal, or other forms of media (often embedded in advertising), that explains to a mobile subscriber how to respond to an opt-in for a particular promotion or mobile initiative. A service that enables a mobile subscriber to initiate a voice call to a specified phone number by clicking on a link on a mobile internet site. Typically used to enhance and provide a direct response mechanism in an advertisement. Data tariff are the rates that phone networks charge for accessing ‘data’. Consumers typically pay a monthly fee for a ‘bundle’ of unlimited internet access, although unlimited data packages are on the rise. General Packet Radio Service or ‘2.5G’ is an underlying mechanism for the networks to deliver internet browsing, WAP, email and other such content. The user is ‘always connected’ and relatively high data rates can be achieved with most modern phones compared to a dial-up modem. Most phones default to using GPRS (if capable). A global navigation satellite system that is often used for navigation purposes. Many new phones have built in GPS technology allowing more advanced location based services. An organisation licensed to offer mobile communications services to it’s customers. In the UK this includes 3, Orange, T-mobile, Vodafone and O2. Point of sale/access on the mobile network, but outside of the operator’s “walled garden”/portal/deck, where consumers can access/purchase information and mobile products/content/utilities. Point of sale/access within the operator’s “walled garden”/portal/deck, where consumers can access/purchase information and mobile products/ content/utilities. Creative use for mobile advertisements – represented by highlighted and clickable text(s) with a link embedded within the highlighted text. Usually limited to 16-24 characters. Virtual Mobile Network Operator. A company that uses the infrastructure of an existing (licence-owning) telecoms network operator. Tesco, Virgin and Blyk are some of the largest VMNOs in the UK.

Call to Action (CTA)

Click to Call

Data tariff


Global Positioning System (GPS) Mobile Network Operator (MNO) Off-Portal (or off-deck) On-Portal (or on-deck)

Text Link


40 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009

AdMob is the world’s largest and highest quality mobile advertising marketplace, serving more than 6 billion mobile banner and text ads per month. Incorporated in April 2006, AdMob allows advertisers to reach their customers on the mobile web and enables publishers to increase the value of their mobile sites. AdMob makes it easy for publishers to monetise their mobile traffic and for advertisers to target and reach customers on the mobile Web in more than 160 countries. AdMob offers the most innovative iPhone advertising solution in the industry with multiple ad formats to maximise the unique iPhone environment. AdMob has been named a 2008 Technology Pioneer by the World Economic Forum, one of’s 2008 Companies to Watch, and VentureBeat’s Mobilebeat 2008 Best Overall Mobile Startup / Best Mobile Infrastructure Company. To learn more about AdMob, visit

no 2 en ing ts s a a 91 in fi

ma s beacthed

gyc d ier hede ndW pumenupoodlic bo rb t sla unc lic t n ou ra c ris s be a e t s at

gH nP0 ki a

l laust

s p1o de iny C at

3. p t 's $ el h ma ce n o as ba mples of inn O sa Bolton 1 – New DN ck A o a ep cas e rs 2 ke lre Rov tle o t n atu m bb k le ar cac
i h –lB

tt veh



pp os

re s

ts m

iti o

o pi m ies s to h a p ec die s n ew st I n We is e t h uid dge g u 5tn b ed

ee ns upp rs


uti n


pl a


hip ns

rs afi

h w


a al le

To advertise contact or call 020 3353 2243

The Guardian on your mobile 39 The latest news, sport and more

Platform-A offers the most complete mobile advertising solution; providing a simple, yet effective approach to leverage this exciting opportunity. Choose from an open site list of premium publishers on our Mobile network, including AOL, Auto Trader and NME or extend your campaign reach with our wider network of mobile specific content publishers. Performance • Call to action text links accompany all display banners • Email-send, data-capture and click-to-call campaigns • Industry leading ad-serving technology from Third Screen Media Targeting • Unique solutions include iPhone specific banner optimisation and targeting and rich media ad serving • Additional targeting options include device / operator, frequency capping, time of day and day of week Service • Dedicated team of mobile experts manage campaigns from launch, optimising it on a daily basis • Insightful reporting helps deliver ROI proof points

Best Targeting Best Localisation Best Graphics Fully Trackable +44(0)131 243 2502


Mobile ad sales (including networks/ publishers/media owners) BSkyB, Contact: Tim Hussain, 07958318960 Microsoft / MSN Contact: Paul Lyonette, 07779 580 865 Orange Contact: Cecile Pruvost, 07814 756 807 Platform-A, Contact: Stephen Judd, 0207 092 2118 Yahoo! Network, Contact: Matt White, 020 7131 1026 Media and creative agencies Harvest Digital, Contact: Emma Wilson, 0207 4797500 Mediacom, Contact: David Fieldhouse, Phonevalley, Contact: Charles-Henri Prevost, +33 1 42 80 96 40 Yodel Digital Ltd, Contact: Mick Rigby, 0207 428 1310 Research specialists comScore Mobile, Contact: Richard Bowman, 020 7099 1785

44 MOBILE Advertising Handbook 2009


Mobile technology companies Ad Infuse, Contact: Stephen Upstone, 07801 953 743 Graphico, 01635 522810, Rapid Mobile Media Ltd, Contact: Jeremy Copp, 020 8390 2204 Mobile media and marketing Gorillabox Contact: Christian Harris 01268 418 158 design & artwork:

The iab would like to thank Orange, the proud sponsor of this Guide to Mobile Advertising. For further information on our mobile offering, please visit or email iab contributors: Jon Mew - head of mobile Amy Kean - senior pr and marketing manager Chloe Chadwick - senior marketing executive Harriet Clarke - communications executive

Peter Gonzalez Evolve

Internet Marketing Handbook Series

t, tree F lin S k 5N 2B 69 Mac 14 WC 50 69 n ndo )20 70 928 Lo 29 4 (0 724 t +4 (0)20 t 4 f +4 @iabu fo e in

Sponsored by