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FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS

HEALTH & PHYSI CAL EDUCATI ON
Contents
©Department of Education Community & Cultural Development,
Tasmania ISBN 0724646787
This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under a
Licence Agreement with Copyright Agency Limited, no part may be
reproduced by any process without written permission from the
Department. Inquiries should be directed to the Secretary, Department
of Education, Community, and Cultural Development, 116 Bathurst
Street Hobart, Tasmania, 7000
September 1997
Reproduced August 2006
Printed by The Printing Authority of Tasmania
Graphic Design Workhorse Design Group, Hobart
Colour Photography Peter Whyte Photography
Reproduction & Electronic Version by Tiger Media
PAGE
Foreword ....................................................................... 2
Acknowledgements ...................................................... 2
Introduction ................................................................... 3
Rationale ....................................................................... 4
Fundamental Motor Skills Benchmarks
Explanation .................................................................... 5
Charts ............................................................................. 6
Skill Components and Sample Activities
• Locomotor ................................................................ 9
• Body management ................................................. 17
• Manipulative ............................................................ 23
Planning for Teaching and Learning ........................... 41
Motor Skill Development .............................................. 42
Social Skill Development ............................................. 42
Children with Disabilities ............................................. 42
Safety ............................................................................. 43
Class Organisation ....................................................... 43
Sample Lesson Plans .................................................. 44
Student Assessment and Record
of Development ............................................................. 49
Pre and Post Program ................................................. 51
Sample Record Sheets ................................................ 52
Intervention Programs ................................................. 54
Appendices - Teaching Resources ............................ 55
Recommended equipment list .................................... 55
Skills referenced to available resources .................... 56
Fundamental motor skills criteria ................................ 61
References .................................................................... 64
1
Foreword
The development of movement skills is a fundamental
and vital component in the growth of all children.
The most significant development occurs in the first
eighteen months when a child aquires the strength and
coordination to balance unaided on two feet. From that
point onwards movement becomes a key component
in the child’s experience and gradually existing skills
are progressively refined and new skills developed.
Research has highlighted the need for all children
to have the opportunity to develop and refine their
fundamental motor skills in a sequenced manner.
The aquisition of these skills not only provides an
increase in physical competence but is a vital ingredient
in the development of self confidence. This confidence
can have a major impact on other areas of learning and
development.
Schools and their parent communities have a key role in
ensuring that all children have the opportunity to learn
and apply fundamental motor skills and in so doing
experience the joys that can be gained from movement.
Graham Harrington
Deputy Secretary (Education)
Department of Education, Community and Cultural
Development
Acknowledgements
This document has been the cooperative work of a
large group of teachers drawn from Tasmanian schools.
All have contributed their time to researching, proof
reading and providing critical feedback, and all endorse
the contents.
The Department of Education, Community and Cultural
Development wishes to acknowledge these individuals,
reference groups and schools:
Deborah Adams Bethanie Kearney
Chris Bell Rod Kelly
Nigel Carins Katrina Newitt
Peter Claridge Newton Sigrist
Graeme Cooksey Karen Swabey
J enni Connor Andrew Starick
Val Elliot Steve Smyth
Peter Faulkner Phil Tyson
Geoff Frier Rob Warren
Graham Gates Pam White
Rob Hill Craig Woodfall
Russell Horton
Mt Nelson Primary School Students
Goulburn Street Primary School Students
Physical Education Teachers in Tasmanian
Primary and District High Schools in 1997

2
I ntroducti on
Fundamental Motor Skills has been developed as an
integral part of the Health and Physical Education
Curriculum Planning and Course Support materials
documentation. It is designed for use by K-4 classroom
and specialist Health and Physical Education teachers.
The document may stand alone for intensive work in
the area of Fundamental Motor Skills (FMS), but it must
also be viewed in context with other components of the
Learning Area of Health and Physical Education.
It is assumed that teachers will use this document in the
context of on-going discussion with their colleagues,
and with reference to the related materials such as the
1
Kindergar ten Devel opment Check and
2
Fl ying Star t outcomes frameworks.
By refering to this range of benchmark statements,
teachers will be able to plan a sequenced program
for young children and to maximise the learning
opportunities within classroom activities.
Special features of the document include:
• a chart showing sequential development of skills
and the recommended introduction and
assessment stages
• possible teaching and learning strategies
• sample lesson formats
• skill criteria and sample activities
• assessment and recording
• a comprehensive resource list
• intervention strategies.
1
Kindergarten Development Check, DEA, 1994
2
Flying Start Program, DECCD Literacy, Numeracy and Social
Skills Development Program, 1997
3
Rati onal e
Rationale
The development of a child’s physical capabilities has
long been recognised as an integral and vital part
of the educational process. Physical development
cannot be achieved effectively in isolation, therefore
the opportunity to improve physical performance is
inextricably linked to the development of personal
and interpersonal competencies such as self-esteem,
cooperation, decision making and assertiveness.
Fundamental Motor Skills(FMS) are the foundation
movements or precursor patterns to more specialised,
complex skills in games, sports, dance, aquatics,
gymnastics and recreational activities. School Health
and Physical Education programs have traditionally
aimed at providing a balance between these more
specialised, complex skills rather than developing FMS.
Recent research projects by Dr J eff Walkley (Royal
Melbourne Institute of Technology) and the University of
Tasmania have come to the conclusion that the current
level of development of FMS in children’s formative
years is inadequate.
Early development of FMS is a significant step towards
ensuring a lifelong, healthy and safe involvement in
physical activity. Without competence in such skills
as running, leaping, balancing, rolling, catching, and
throwing, students are less likely to access the range of
options available to establish an active lifestyle.
Research indicates that the improvement in self esteem
and confidence in movement that accompanies the
acquisition of FMS has a flow-on effect to all oth
er areas of a child’s education. This confidence and
physical coordination also provides a sound foundation
for the development of proficiency in reading and
writing. It is therefore critical that current practices and
programs are reassessed in order that the present
shortcomings in the development of FMS can be
addressed.
4
B
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FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKI LLS
B
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LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
Benchmarks
Fundamental Motor Skills Benchmarks
The Introduction, Development and Acquisition of
Skills
The tables in this document have been developed
primarily to provide teachers with a sequential series of
benchmarks for the fundamental motor skills which are
considered critical for all children to have achieved a
level of proficiency in, by the conclusion of year 4.
The major motor skill areas are:
• locomotor
• body management
• manipulative
These are divided into 16 critical developmental skills,
with a benchmark identified for each.
Using body management skills as an example, a
teacher should interpret information as follows:
Example
Levels equate to the “Health
and Physical Education
Curriculum Profile for
Australian Schools”
Major Skill
Developmental Skills
A teacher can use this chart to:
• assist with planning by identifying when it is
recommended that a skill be introduced.
• evaluate student progress towards the
recommended stage of proficiency for each skill.
In planning, a teacher should consider the criteria of
each skill. These criteria are highlighted in the activity
section for each skill.
Students normally acquire the individual skill criteria at
varying stages of development, but must be combining
all these components to show proficiency at the point
indicated on this table.
SKILL CRITERIA
• feet flat on the beam/line with the toes pointed in the
direction of movement
• arms extended to the side head still with eyes
focused on an object straight ahead
• trunk of the body remains straight, knees flexed
The graphics visually demonstrate these skill criteria
components.
KEY
BODY MANAGEMENT
SKILLS
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
One foot balance - right

One foot balance - left

Beam walk forward

Body rolling - log (360
o
)
Body Rolling - forward
Body Rolling- backward
(down incline)
SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Beam walk forward


this is a DECCD “Kindergarten Check” item
early teacher emphasis
more detailed teacher emphasis
strong teacher emphasis (the final develop-
mental stage prior to proficiancy)
Benchmark child should have acquired
proficiency, i.e. satisfied all of the skill criteria
5
Benchmarks
FMS Benchmarks - Charts
Recommended Introduction and
Assessment Stages
KEY
Development
Proficiency

Kindergarten Check
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
LOCOMOTOR SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Running
Hopping
left foot

right foot

Galloping
Skipping

Dodging

Leaping
J ump and Land
(off 1 foot, land 2 feet)

LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
BODY MANAGEMENT
SKILLS
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
One Foot Balance
left foot

right foot

Beam Walk
forward

Body Rolling
log 360
o
forward
backward (down incline)
6
Benchmarks
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
MANIPULATIVE SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Dribbling - hand (200 mm ball)
preferred
non-preferred
Dribbling - feet (200 mm ball)
trapping a rolling ball
dribbling with both feet
Kicking (200 mm ball)
stationary round ball,
run approach

punt kick, round ball,
preferredÍ
punt kick, round ball,
non-preferred
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
MANIPULATIVE SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch - medium ball (150 mm) - 2 hands
receiving a rolling ball
receiving a bounce pass
receive on the full
Catch - small ball (50 mm)
two- hands

preferred hand
non-preferred hand
Throw - large ball (200 mm)
chest pass
Throw - small ball (50 mm)
underarm
preferred hand

underarm
non-preferred hand
overarm
Striking
two-hand from tee
drop & hit (forehand)
two-hand moving ball
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L
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FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKI LLS
Giving force to
a body through space
• Running
• Hopping
• Galloping
• Skipping
• Dodging
• Leaping
• J umping & Landing
L
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Locomotor
KEY
Recommended Introduction and
Assessment Stages
Development
Proficiency

Kindergarten Check
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
LOCOMOTOR SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Running
Hopping
left foot

right foot

Galloping
Skipping

Dodging

Leaping
J ump and Land
(off 1 foot, land 2 feet)

9
RUNNING
SKILL CRITERIA
• both feet are off the ground for a brief period of time
• arms move in opposition to legs - fingers relaxed
• head and trunk are still, with eyes focused
straight ahead
• foot placement is near or on a line with heel or ball
strike (not flat-footed)
TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure the working area is firm and even.
2. Break skill down to work on individual
components - legs, arms, trunk and head.
3. Ensure that efficient technique is used before
encouraging speed.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Children explore variations of running.
e.g. along a line, around a chair, on tip-toes, long
strides, slow motion.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: Movement to different rhythms,
e.g. clapping, rhythm sticks,
music
2 Activity:
High knee lift (slow and then fast) with slow
forward speed and elbows bent
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacing.
3 Activity:
J ogging slowly over various surfaces - even and
uneven.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacing.
4 Activity:
Various running relays - straight and circular.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Small teams - maximum of eight,
10 metre distance.

Locomotor
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Running
10
Locomotor
HOPPING
SKILL CRITERIA
• foot on non-support leg is bent and carried
behind the body
• landing and springing from the ball of the foot
• head still with eyes looking forward
• rhythmical movement in a straight line
TEACHING HINTS
1. Commence with small hops, then gradually
increase the height and distance.
2. Hop on ball of foot.
3. Swing arms upward rapidly to increase height.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Hopping on the spot with a form of support, e.g.
chair, wall, partner, fence.
Equi pment: Whatever teacher designates for
children to hold.
Formation: Free spacing around the
equipment.

2 Activity:
Hopping forwards, backwards, sideways, lightly,
heavily, different patterns.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free space within a defined area
and between two marked lines,
e.g. netball court.
3 Activity:
Combine hopping directions with the use of
equipment.
Equi pment: e.g. line, rope, hoop, cane.
Formation: Equipment and students spaced
safely within a defined working
area.
4 Activity:
Various hopping patterns such as hop scotch.
Equi pment: Chalk or some other form of
marking to create desired
pattern.
Formation: Equipment and students spaced
safely within a defined working
area.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Hopping - right

Hopping - left

11
GALLOPING
SKILL CRITERIA
• a step forward with the lead foot, followed by a ste
forward with the trailing foot to a position adjacent to
or behind the lead foot
• brief period where both feet are off the ground
• head and trunk are still, with eyes focused
straight ahead
• able to lead with right and left foot
TEACHING HINTS
1. Smooth and graceful movement.
2. Each foot should have a chance to lead.
3. Make high gallops.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
• Dancing, basketball, collision avoidance,
rollerblading, racquet games.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
“Hide in the Giant’s Footsteps”.
Have children hold hands and slide in a circle,
moving in time with the teacher.
Gradually ask the class to face the direction in
which the circle is moving. This will lead them
naturally into a gallop.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Circle.

2 Activity:
Do a series of eight gallops with the same foot
leading, then change to other foot.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.
3 Activity:
Pretend to hold reins and use a riding crop.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.
4 Activity:
Gallop backwards.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.
5 Activity:
Gallop like a light pony, gallop like an old heavy
draft horse.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.

Locomotor
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Galloping

12
Locomotor
SKIPPING
SKILL CRITERIA
• arms move in opposition to the legs
• with each step-hop sequence there is a brief period
when both feet are off the ground
• head and upper body are stable, with eyes focused
to the front
• rhythmical movement in a straight line
TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure hopping on either foot is well developed.
2. Smoothness and rhythm are the goals.
3. Skip high.
4. Swing the arms.
5. On the toes.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Walk from one line to another using big and little
steps.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine;
open flat area with line markings.
Formation: Students spaced along a line.

2 Activity:
Walk through sequence - one big step, hop,
one big step, hop; repeat.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine;
open flat area with line markings.
Formation: Students spaced along a line.
3 Activity:
Have children hold a large ball (250 mm or more)
in front at waist height. A step is taken with one
foot, followed by raising the other knee to touch
the ball.
Repeat with other foot and opposite knee. Later
the child pretends to hold the ball and continues
the pattern.
Equi pment: Large ball (250 mm or more);
rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.
4 Activity:
Instruct children to skip so lightly that the
movement cannot be heard by their partner.
Equi pment: Rhythm sticks or tambourine.
Formation: Free space.

SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Skipping

13
DODGING
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused in direction of travel
• change direction by pushing off outside foot
• body lowered during change of direction
• change of direction occurs in one step
TEACHING HINTS
1. Because of the natural combination of running
with dodging, the two movements can easily be
linked.
2. Start slowly (walking) and have marked points
(chalk lines, witches hats) at which students can
experience the necessary changes in body
position to maintain balance whilst changing
direction.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
At walking pace, whole class dodging and
weaving. within a defined area.
Equi pment: Lined area.
Formation: Free spacing within defined area.
2 Activity:
Walking, pushing off (sideways) from right and
left foot.
Equi pment: Parallel lines approximately 1
metre apart.
Formation: Groups in single file between
parallel lines. Take turns to walk
through course, touching the
lines alternately on right and left.
3 Activity:
Increasing speed using the two activities above.
Equi pment: Witches hats and parallel lines.
Formation: As in one and two above.

Locomotor
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Dodging

14
Locomotor
LEAPING
SKILL CRITERIA
• take off from one foot and spring to land on the
other foot
• arm opposite the lead foot reaches forward
• during flight head remains up with eyes focused
forwards (not down)
• land softly on the ball of the leading foot to
demonstrate a rhythmical movement
TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure running is well developed.
2. Develop one foot landing.
3. Height, distance and graceful flight are the aims.
4. Use arms to help gain height.
5. Head up during flight.
6. Landing should be light and relaxed.
7. For safety work in straight lines and in the same
direction.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
From a standing start, children take a large step
(leap) over an obstacle, landing on one foot.
Equi pment: Hoops, bean bags etc.
open flat area with line markings.
Formation: Free space.

2 Activity:
Run and leap over objects or across a space
Equi pment: Ropes, lines, hoops.
Formation: Free space.
3 Activity:
Run and leap up to touch an imaginary object in
the sky.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacings.
4 Activity:
“Leap the Puddles”
Puddles are marked off on the floor.
The first is 1 m wide, the next is 1.5 m wide, the
last is 1.8 wide.
The children form a single file and leap over
the narrowest, exploring different take-off and
landing foot.
After they have satisfactorily negotiated the
smaller puddle, they move to the next, and so
on.

SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Leaping
15
J UMPING & LANDING

SKILL CRITERIA
• head up with eyes focused forward
• lift of the knees and forward upward swing of
the arms for power
• land on the balls of the feet and knees bent to retain
balance and absorb impact
• a rhythmical action
TEACHING HINTS
1. Develop landing on two feet.
2. Begin standing still to jump - increase speed
gradually, eg. one step, walk, slow jog then running.
3. Begin with small jumps, then increase height and
distance as skill increases.
4. Use arms for rhythm, balance and control.
5. Landing should be light and relaxed.

ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
From a standing start, children take a large jump
over an obstacle, landing on both feet.
Equi pment: Hoops, bean bags etc.
Formation: Free space.
2 Activity:
Run and jump over objects or across a space.
Equi pment: Ropes, lines, hoops.
Formation: Free space.
3 Activity:
Run and jump up to touch an imaginary object in
the sky, landing on both feet.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacings.
4 Activity:
“J ump the Creek”
A creek is marked off on the floor for a distance
of about 9 m.
For the first 3 m, it is 1 m wide; for the next 3 m,
it is 1.5 m wide; for the last 3 m, it is 1.8 m wide.
The children form a single file and jump over the
narrowest part.
After they have satisfactorily negotiated the
narrow part, they move to the next width, and so
on.
Locomotor
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Jump & Land
(off 1 foot, •
land 2 feet)
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FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKI LLS
• One-Foot Balance
• Beam Walk
• Rolling
“Maintaining balance in
static and dynamic
situations”
B
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Management
KEY
Recommended Introduction and
Assessment Stages
Body
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
BODY MANAGEMENT
SKILLS
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
One Foot Balance
left foot

right foot

Beam Walk
forward

Body Rolling
log 360
o
forward
backward (down incline)
17
Development
Proficiency

Kindergarten Check
ONE FOOT BALANCE
SKILL CRITERIA
• head still with eyes focused on an object straight
ahead
• arms extended to the side
• non-support leg raised forward with 90 degree
bend at knee
TEACHING HINTS
1. Work on a solid surface.
2. Emphasise importance of focussing on an
object straight ahead.
3. Head still.
4. Experiment with different arm positions.
5. Eyes closed to experience the importance of
vision.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Kicking (football, soccer).
2. J umping & Landing ( gymnastics, netball,
basketball, volleyball, tennis, badminton).
3. Locomotor activities.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Standing balance preferred foot -
5-second count.
Standing balance non-preferred foot -
5-second count.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free space.

2 Activity:
Walking along a line -
stop and balance on command.
Equi pment: Nil
Formation:
3 Activity:
Balance tag - when tagged stand on one foot
- alternate feet for each time tagged.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variation: Can’t be tagged if balancing on
one leg/either leg.
Management
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
- right foot

- left foot

Body
18
Management
Body
BEAM WALK
SKILL CRITERIA
• feet flat on the beam/line with the toes pointed in
the direction of movement
• arms extended to the side
• head still, with eyes focused on an object straight
ahead
• trunk of the body remains straight, knees flexed
TEACHING HINTS
1. Work at floor level till well performed.
2. On a bench with a “spotter” standing by
if possible.
3. On the beam at lowest height with “spotter”.
4. On the beam alone.
5. Encourage children to”feel” foot placement.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Directionality for all movement.
2. Gymnastics - balance beam.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Line Walk.
In a line follow the leader trying not to step off
the line.
Equi pment: Lines on the ground.
e.g. netball court.
2 Activity:
Hoop Walking.
Walk on the hoop - forwards, backwards,
sideways.
Equi pment: 1 hoop per child.
Formation: Free spacing.
3 Activity:
Bean Bag Walk.
Students place bean bag on head and walk in a
defined area.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag per student.
Formation: Free spacing.
4 Activity:
Balance Beam Walk.
Students walk along the balance beam back-
wards and forwards, with support from members
of the group.
Equi pment: Series of balance benches (wide
side up, approximately 30 cm).
Formation: Groups.
Variations: Encourage children to make up
simple combinations as soon as
confidence and ability permit.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Beam Walk
- forward

19
ROLLING
Recommended Introduction and Assessment Stages
SKILL CRITERIA
• body extended
• arms extended behind the head and legs together
• head still
• rolling continuously in a straight line

TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure safety by:
- working in designated areas.
- only one group member working at any one time.
- plan for a return activity when working in larger
groups.
2. A sloping grassed area is a good alternative
venue.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. The concept of rolling sideways to prevent injury/
absorb impact when failing in a sporting context .
e.g. netball, football, basketball, soccer.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Roll from back to side -
alternate side (90 degree roll).
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3) or
grassed area.
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
2 Activity:
Roll from back to front and front to back, trying
different ways to find the best body position (only
180 degree roll).
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3).
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
3 Activity:
Roll 360 degrees with arms extended
behind the head.
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3).
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
Variations: Link a series of rolls, rolling right,
rolling left.
Management
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Body rolling
- log
Body
20
Management
Body
ROLLING
SKILL CRITERIA
• knees bent and legs apart, tuck/curl body in crouch
position with weight on hands
• transfer weight, in a forward direction, to back of
shoulders, maintaining tuck position
• maintain tucked position, continue movement to
weight on feet, with or without use of arms
TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure safety by:
- working in designated areas.
- only one group member working at any onetime.
- plan for a return activity when working in larger
groups.
2. Emphasise use of hands to take the weight from the
head and neck.
3. Emphasise the importance of staying in a tucked
body position.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. The concept of rolling forward from a standing
position to prevent injury/absorb the impact
when failing in a sporting context eg. netball,
football, basketball, soccer.
2. Diving.
3. Trampolining.
4. Gymnastics.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
From sitting maintain a tucked position while
rocking back and forwards six times and then
stand up with use of arms or hands.
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3) or
grassed/carpeted area.
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
2 Activity:
Weight-on-hands activities to develop arm
strength.
e.g. bunny hops, angry cat, windscreen wiper.
Equi pment: Mats, carpet, grassed area etc.
Formation: Children spaced safely around
working area.
3 Activity:
Start in crouch position and roll to a sitting
position.
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3) or
grassed area.
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
4 Activity:
Start in crouch position and roll to crouch, then
stand.
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3) or
grassed area.
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
Variations: Link a series of rolls together,
without using arms or hands to
stand, legs apart, legs crossed.

SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Body rolling
- forward roll
21
ROLLING
SKILL CRITERIA
• start in a crouch position
• keep body in a tucked position to maintain
continuous rolling action
• use of arms or hands to take pressure from the
head/shoulders and push to the finish position
• land on balls of feet and retain balance
TEACHING HINTS
1. Ensure safety by:
- working in designated areas.
- only one group member working at any one time.
- plan for a return activity when working in larger
groups.
2. Emphasise use of hands to take the weight from
the head and neck.
3. Emphasise the importance of staying in a tucked
body position.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. The concept of rolling backward from a standing
position to prevent injury/ absorb the impact
when falling or in a sporting context.
e.g. netball, football basketball, soccer.
2. Diving.
3. Trampolining.
4. Gymnastics.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Sitting with palms of hands above shoulders and
pointing upwards, roll backward to place hands
on the mat and push back to the sitting position.
Equi pment: 1 mat per group (2 or 3).
Formation: Mats spaced safely around
working area.
2 Activity:
Start from sitting position, rolling backwards with
hands pushing on the mat to assist the body to
finish on the feet.
Equi pment: Matted incline.
Formation: Inclined mats spaced safely
around working area, inclined
mat set up as a station.
Management
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Body Rolling
- backward
down incline
Body
22
M
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A
T
I
V
E
FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKI LLS
“Giving force to
and receiving force from
objects”
• Catching
• Throwing
• Striking
• Dribbling
• Kicking
M
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P
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Mani pul ati ve
Recommended Introduction and
Assessment Stages
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
MANIPULATIVE SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
•Dribbling - hand (200 mm ball)
preferred hand
non-preferred hand
•Dribbling - feet (200 mm ball)
trapping a rolling ball
dribbling with feet
•Kicking (200 mm ball)
stationary round ball,
run approach

punt kick, round ball,
preferred foot
punt kick, round ball,
non-preferred foot
LEVEL THREE
LEVEL TWO
LEVEL ONE
MANIPULATIVE SKILLS K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
•Catch - medium ball (150 mm) - 2 hands
receiving a rolling ball
receiving a bounce pass
receive on the full
•Catch - small ball (50 mm)
two- hands

preferred hand
non-preferred hand
•Throw - large ball (200 mm)
chest pass
•Throw - small ball (50 mm)
underarm
preferred hand

underarm
non-preferred
overarm
•Striking
two-hand from tee
drop & hit (forehand)
two-hand moving ball
23
Development
Proficiency

Kindergarten Check
KEY
CATCH
receiving a rolling ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball
• behind the direction of the ball
• arms and hands outstretched to receive the ball
• scoop the ball to the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Remove the “fear factor” by using soft equipment.
2. Size of the ball to get smaller as skill increases.
3. Use verbal clues, “look”, “ready”, “catch”.
4. Balls and background colours should contrast.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Hit the Skittle, Rolling Rounders, Tunnel Ball.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Sitting opposite each other withfeet apart, ball
rolled to partner, who stops it with open hands
and rolls it back.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per pair.
Formation: Random. Partners spaced two
metres apart.
2 Activity:
Ball rolled to partner who scoops it into the arms
and stands up.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs, three metres apart.

3 Activity:
One person rolls the ball to their partner, varying
the direction and speed. Partner moves behind
the ball to scoop appropriately.
Equi pment: 1 medium sized ball per group.
Formation: Pairs 3 m - 5 m apart.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch
-receiving a
rolling medium
sized ball (150mm)
24
Mani pul ati ve
CATCH
receiving a bounce pass - two hands
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball, standing in line with on
coming ball
• hands positioned with arms extended to receive
the ball
• fingers spread and ball caught on the bounce and
pulled into the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Remove the “ fear factor” by using soft equipment.
2. Size of the ball to get smaller as skill increases.
3. Use verbal clues, “look”, “ready”, “catch”.
4. Balls and background colours should contrast.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Basketball, Netball.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Bounce and Catch.
Begin bounces sitting down, progress to
kneeling and then to standing.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball
per student.
Formation: Free spacing
- sitting, kneeling and standing.

2 Activity:
Bounce and Catch.
Children bounce and catch a ball with their
hands.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per
student.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: Throw the ball up, bounce it
under a body part.
e.g leg, arm, then catch it.
Bounce/Clap/Catch;
Bounce/Turn around/Catch.
3 Activity:
Bounce ball to partner aiming at their hands.
Partner catches ball and bounces back.
Equi pment: 1 medium ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs - 3 m apart.
Variations: Distance apart, speed and
direction of ball.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch
-receiving a
bounce pass
-2 hands
medium ball (150mm)
25
CATCH
receiving on the full - two hands
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball and move body in the path
of the ball
• arms extended with hands open to receive the ball
• the ball caught with the hands, the arms flexed to
absorb the force of the ball
• the ball hugged to the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Remove the “ fear factor” by using soft
equipment.
2. Size of the ball to get smaller as skill increases.
3. Use verbal clues, “look”, “ready”, “catch”.
4. Balls and background colours should contrast.
5. If the trajectory is raised it will allow more
opportunity for successful tracking.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Basketball, Netball, Volleyball, Water Polo.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
The ball thrown up to just above head height and
caught.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per
student.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: Throw/Catch/Bounce/Catch/
Throw - as a sequence.
2 Activity:
Ball thrown underarm with two hands at a waist-
high wall target.
The ball permitted to bounce and then scooped
into the arms.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per
student.
Formation: 2-3 metres from a wall.
3 Activity:
Ball thrown underarm to a partner to be caught.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs, two metres apart.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch
-receiving on
the full
-two hands,
medium ball (150 mm)
26
Mani pul ati ve
CATCH
two hands small ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball and body moved into the
path of the ball
• the ball caught in front of the body with fingers
spread and hands cupped
• catch “giving” with the arms to absorb the force of
the ball
TEACHING HINTS
1. Eyes focused on oncoming ball.
2. Move quickly into position to catch the ball.
3. Little fingers together pointing down if the ball is
coming below the waist.
4. Thumbs together pointing up if the ball is coming
above the waist.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Cricket, Softball, Baseball, Vigero.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Children throw the bean bag up into the air to
catch it themselves.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag.
Formation: Individual free spacing.
Variations: Bean bag caught softly;
clap and catch, touch body parts
and catch.
2 Activity:
Children throw the bean bag to each other and
catch it in their hands.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag.
Formation: Pairs, two metres apart.
3 Activity:
Bounce a ball and catch it with the hands.
Equi pment: 1 small ball.
Formation: Individual, free spacing.
Variations: Bounce it under a body part,
clap, and catch.
4 Activity:
Children throw and catch.
Equi pment: 1 small ball.
Formation: Pairs, from 2-5 metres apart.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch
-receiving a •
bounce pass
-2 hands
medium ball (150mm)
27
CATCH
preferred hand small ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball and body moves into the
path of the ball
• ball caught in front of the body with fingers spread
and hand cupped
• catch “giving” with the arm to absorb the force of
the ball
• the ball hugged to the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Successful catching activities are dependant on
accurate throwing and therefore should be
conducted concurrently with throwing skills.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Cricket, Softball, Baseball, Vigero
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Track and trap a ball that has been rolled toward
the child or bounced along the ground or
rolled at different speeds.
Equi pment: One small ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs 2-3 metres apart.

2 Activity:
Ball thrown underarm against the wall and
allowed to bounce before the catch is attempted.
Equi pment: One small ball per child;
rebound wall.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: No bounce / Turn 360” before
catching / Clap and catch.
3 Activity:
The bean bag is tossed against the net and
caught.
Equi pment: Rebound net, 1 bean bag per
child.
Formation: Group work.
Children line up beside a cone 3
metres from the rebound net.
Note:
All of these activities could be used to develop
catching with the preferred and non-preferred
hands.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch
-preferred hand
small ball 50mm
-non-preferred
hand
28
Mani pul ati ve
THROWING
large ball (200 mm) chest pass
SKILL CRITERIA
• Eyes focused on the target
• Ball held with both hands in front of chest; fingers
spread with thumbs behind the ball
• Forward step, arms and fingers extended, and ball
pushed in the direction of target
TEACHING HINTS
1. Hold the ball in the tips of fingers and thumb.
2. Keep elbows close to the body.
3. Extend arms and push thumbs downward.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Basketball, Netball, Newcombe Ball, Water Polo.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
From a standing position, children challenged to
bounce-pass the ball from their chest with both
hands, extending their arms forward.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per pair.
Formation: Two lines facing, 3 m apart.

2. Activity:
From a standing position, children challenged to
push the ball from their chest with both hands to
partner, extending their arms forward.
Equi pment: 1 medium gator-skin ball per pair.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: Push the ball through a
suspended hoop; over the head
of another person; against a wall.
3 Activity:
Bouncing the ball to partner, concentrating on
stepping forward as pushing the ball from chest.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm ball per pair.
Formation: Opposite and facing 2-3 metres
apart.
4 Activity:
Captain Ball.
Student 1 stands about 3 metres in front and
facing the remainder of the team, who are lined
up one behind the other.
Student 1 passes to 2 who returns the pass and
ducks down.
Student 1 passes to student 3 and then repeats
with each member until the last person receives
the pass and replaces number 1.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm ball per team.
Formation: Team of approximately 4.
Variations: Pass the ball through a
suspended hoop.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Throw
-large ball
(200 mm)
chest pass
29
THROWING
SKILL CRITERIA
• ball is held in the fingers in front of body
• throwing hand supported by non-preferred hand
• throwing arm extended down and back, to full
extension
• weight transferred from back to front foot during the
throw by stepping forwards with the opposite foot to
the throwing arm
• at the end of the release the fingers pointed at the
target
TEACHING HINTS
1. The efficiency of the skill performance should be
the focus, not the result of the throw.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Basketball, Softball, Cricket.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Thrower lobs the bean bag underarm to land at
feet of partner.
Continue till all 5 bean bags have been thrown.
Reverse roles.
Equi pment: 5 bean bags per pair.
Formation: Pairs approximately 5 metres
apart.
Variations: Partner stands with feet apart
and thrower attempts to lob the
bean bag between feet.
2 Activity:
Thrower uses the hoop as target area and lobs
bea bag into hoop from close by, progressively
trying from further away.
Equi pment: 2 bean bags and 1 hoop per
person.
Formation: Free spacing with plenty of area
between each.
3 Activity:
Partners make a target with their hands,
checking to see that the thrower steps forward
with the opposite foot.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag, 1 small ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs opposite and facing,
3-4 metres apart.
4 Activity:
“Underarm Golf”.
Each student in turn throws the ball underarm
into or onto the target.
Equi pment: 1 small ball per student and
various “flat” targets
(e.g. softball base, quoit, hoop,
lunch-box lid).
Formation: Groups of three and a small
“golf” course with various target
holes.
Variations: Increase number of targets;
increase distance between
targets.
Note:
All of these activities can be used to develop
underarm throwing with preferred
and nonpreferred hands.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Underarm throw - small ball (50 mm)
-preferred hand

-non-preferred
hand
30
Mani pul ati ve
THROWING
SKILL CRITERIA
• body is side on, with the weight on the rear foot and
eyes focused on the target
• ball is held in the fingers, the arm extends
backwards with elbow down
• step forward onto the foot opposite the throwing
arm and shift the weight forward to the front
foot during the throw
• rotate the upper body from side-on to face forward
during the throw
TEACHING HINTS
1. Experiment with a variety of objects to throw.
2. It is ineffective to emphasise catching and throwing
at the same time - students need to focus on one
aspect at a time.
3. Beanbags are excellent for developing throwing
velocity.
4. Emphasise distance and velocity before accuracy.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Cricket, Softball, Baseball.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Sitting throw.
a) Throw the ball to a partner by flicking the
wrist.
Keeping the forearm still by holding it tightly with
the non-throwing hand.
b) Hold the upper arm against the body and
throw using forearm and wrist.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag or 1 small gator-skin
ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs sitting opposite and facing
each other about 5 metres apart.

2 Activity:
Kneeling throw.
Use the whole arm and wrist to throw.
Encourage thrower to rotate upper body, drawing
throwing elbow back and non-preferred hand
pointed at target.
Follow through in a smooth action.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag or 1 small gator-skin
ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs sitting opposite and facing
each other about 5 metres apart.
3 Activity:
Standing throw.
a) Repeat the progressions listed in first activity
with the thrower now in a standing position
with feet slightly apart.
b) Repeat, standing side-on to a partner.
Rotate from side-on to chest-on, to throw the
ball without moving the feet.
c) Stand side-on with feet slightly apart.
Step forward onto opposite foot as throw is
executed.
Equi pment: 1 bean bag or small gator-skin
ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs facing about 10 metres
apart.
Note:
It is preferable for the skill to be developed on the
non preferred side concurrently.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Overarm throw
-small ball
(50 mm)
- preferred
hand
31
STRIKING
two hand from tee
SKILL CRITERIA
• bat gripped with hands touching, with the preferred
hand above non-preferred hand and fingers
wrapped around the handle
• stance is side-on to the hitting direction, with body
weight on the back foot
• as the swing is commenced, weight is transferred
onto the front foot, and hips and shoulders rotate
during the swing
• ball is struck level with or slightly behind the front
foot, and the bat follows through, ending up behind
the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Technique should be emphasised before hitting for
distance.
2. Batting tees and balls on a string are good for
introductory activities, introducing striking.
3. Use slow moving objects such as balloons in the
early stages.
4. As skill proficiency increases the size of the
projectile and bat (racquet) decreases.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Softball, Baseball, Tennis, Badminton, Volleyball,
Golf, Hockey, Polo.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Practice the rhythm of hitting by mirroring the
stance and swing of the teacher.
Equi pment: Rolled-up newspaper bound with
masking tape.
Formation: Free spacing.
2. Activity:
Hitting a balloon back and forth to partner.
Equi pment: Rolled-up newspaper bound with
masking tape, 1 balloon per pair.
Formation: Pairs, 3 metres apart.
Variations: Hang a soft ball suspended in a
stocking.
3 Activity:
Commence in small groups lined up behind
each tee.
Each student has a ball and in turn places it
on the “t” then hits it towards a common target
closer to the centre of the playing area.
Students retrieve their own ball then move on to
the next tee, moving from tee to tee in the order
set prior to the start.
Teacher should note safety precautions.
Equi pment: Light-weight soft ball bats, kanga
cricket bats.
Formation: Tees or appropriately sized
witches’ hats spaced at safe
distances along the perimeter of
playing area.
(alternating types of bats)
4 Activity:
Each player has a role - striker, fielder, catcher
- and these rotate after every 3 hits.
Hitters practice the correct stance and swing,
aiming to hit the ball to the fielder; the fielder
returns the ball to the catcher, who in turn
replaces the ball on the tee.
Equi pment: Light-weight soft ball bats, kanga
cricket bats or rolled-up
newspaper bound with masking
tape;
witches’ hats or tee ball stands.
Formation: Groups of three, large open
playing area.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Striking
- two hand
from tee
32
Mani pul ati ve
STRIKING
drop & hit, forehand
SKILL CRITERIA
• bat held in preferred hand, “shake hands” grip
• ball held in fingers of opposite hand with fingers
pointing to the ground; the arm is outstretched
perpendicular to the direction of hitting
• stance is side-on to the hitting direction, with
body weight on the back foot. Bat is back, ready to
commence swing forward
• as swing is commenced, weight is transferred onto
the front foot; hips and shoulders rotate during the
swing
• ball is hit on the rebound, level with waist, elbow
slightly bent. Bat follows through towards the target
TEACHING HINT
1. Start with a larger ball, then reduce the size as
striking ability improves.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Students hit a balloon or ball into the air using
the palm and fingers of their hand.
Equi pment: 1 balloon or ball per hitter.
Formation: Free spacing.
2 Activity:
a) balance ball on bat - stationary, moving,
stationary while rocking bat back and forth.
b) balance ball on bat - drop and catch on the
bat; drop and hit to self.
Equi pment: 1 short-handled bat, 1 light ball
per hitter..
Formation: Free spacing

3 Activity:
Hitter strikes ball off tee toward fielder.
Ball rolled back to catcher, who places it on the
tee.
Rotate after five hits.
Equi pment: 1 short-handled bat, 1 medium
soft ball, 1 tee ball stand per
group.
Formation: Group of three (fielder, receiver,
hitter).
4 Activity:
Receiver bounces ball for striker to hit to fielder.
Ball rolled to the receiver for process to continue.
Rotate after five hits
Equi pment: 1 short-handled bat, 1 medium
soft ball per group.
Formation: Group of 3.
(fielder, receiver, hitter)
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Striking - drop
& hit, forehand
(short-handled
bat)
33
STRIKING
two hands moving ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• bat is gripped with hands touching, the preferred
hand above non-preferred hand, fingers wrapped
around the handle and wrists cocked backward; bat
is held just behind the preferred shoulder
• stance is side-on to the direction of ball delivery,
with body weight on the back foot
• as the swing is commenced weight is transferred
onto the front foot by stepping towards the on-
coming ball; hip and shoulders rotate during
the swing
• ball is struck level with or slightly behind the front
foot, arms and bat are in a straight line, and the bat
then follows through, ending up behind the body
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Baseball, Softball, Cricket, Vigero.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
One student uses bat and sets up as for skill
criteria.
Other students line up facing batter just out of
reach of bat, proximately where a tee would
normally be situated.
First student with a ball drops ball as
“striking - drop & hit”, then steps back.
Batter strikes ball on rebound and ball is
retrieved by student who dropped the ball.
When batter has hit all balls thenext student has
a turn to bat.
Equi pment: 1 soft ball bat or light cricket bat
per group, 1 medium soft ball per
student.
Formation: Small groups spaced safely
around the playing area.

2 Activity:
Thrower rolls the ball to the batter, who steps
forward to strike the ball back to their partner.
Equi pment: 1 soft ball bat or light cricket bat,
1 medium soft ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs 10 metres apart facing their
partner, one with the ball, the
other with the bat.
Variations: Ball is bounced;
Ball is thrown underarm;
Ball size is reduced as striking
ability improves.
3 Activity:
Teacher pitches ball; on contact, batter runs to
bases.
Equi pment: 1 soft ball bat, 1 soft ball, 5
bases/hoops.
Formation: Rounders diamond.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Striking
- two hands
moving ball
34
Mani pul ati ve
DRIBBLING
with hands
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball
• fingertips push the ball from about waist height
• slightly flexed during the bounce
• ball bounces in front of and to the side of the body
TEACHING HINTS
1. Allow wrist, fingers and arm to do the work.
2. Push the ball towards the ground.
3. As a child increases running speed so does the
height of the dribble.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Basketball, European Handball.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Two-hand bounce and catch.
Equi pment: Medium gator-skin ball per
student.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variations: Bounce, clap, catch; bounce,
touch body part, catch;
Continuous two-hand bounce.
2 Activity:
Students in a kneeling position practice
bouncing the ball beside their hip with preferred
hand and then non-preferred hand.
Equi pment: 1 ball per student.
Formation: Free spacing.
Variation: Bounce ball around the body;
Changing hands;
Eyes closed.
3 Activity:
Using preferred hand, dribble ball within defined
area, moving in different ways (sideways,
backwards, hopping, jumping).
As skill improves, increase the speed.
Equi pment: 1 ball per student.
Formation: Free spacing.

4 Activity:
Follow the leader through an obstacle course.
Equi pment: 1 ball per dribbler, cones, hoops
and other equipment to create
obstacles.
Formation: Obstacle course.
Variations: Vary the distance between
obstacles;
Increase the speed;
Have music playing to provide a
rhythm.
Note:
All of these activities can be used to develop
dribbling with preferred and non-preferred hand.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Dribbling - hand (200mm ball)
preferred hand
non-preferred
hand
35
DRIBBLING
trapping a rolling ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes tracking the ball
• body moved behind and in line with the path of
the ball
• received with trapping foot which is high enough for
the ball to lodge under the sole
• the foot “gives” to cushion the impact of the ball
TEACHING HINTS
1. Practice standing and balancing on either foot.
2. Encourage children to hold their feet so as to wedge
the ball.
SKILL APPLICATION
1. Soccer.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
The ball is rolled towards a partner who moves
into the line and stops.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm ball per pair.
Formation: A defined grassed or court area.
2 Activity:
The ball is tapped or pushed around an area,
and on a command trapped under the sole of
the foot.
Equi pment : l x 200 mm ball per student.
Formation: A defined grassed or court area.
3 Activity:
The ball is rolled towards a partner to trap.
Vary the direction, speed and distance.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm ball per pair.
Formation: A defined grassed or court area.
Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
- trapping a
rolling ball
(sole of foot)
36
Mani pul ati ve
DRIBBLING
with feet
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes looking in the direction of travel
• ball kept close to the feet
• the inside of each foot is used alternately to push or
trap the ball
TEACHING HINTS
1. Start by dribbling with inside of foot.
2. Body to be bent slightly forward.
3. Head over the ball.
4. Gently push the ball in short controlled movements.
SKILL APPLICATION
1. Soccer.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Dribbling the ball whilst walking to the
opposite line.
As skill develops, the speed of movement is
increased. i.e. fast walk, jog, run.
Equi pment: 1 ball per student.
Formation: Along the sideline of a court.

2 Activity:
Follow the leader.
Students follow designated leader and change
on command.
Equi pment: 1 ball per student.
Formation: Defined grassed area.

3 Activity:
Dribble the ball, weaving around the witches’
hats in various ways.
Equi pment: 1 ball per group, witches’ hats.
Formation: Defined grassed or court area,
4-5 students in a single file.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
- Dribbling with
both feet
(200 mm ball)
37
KICKING
stationary ball
SKILL CRITERIA
• eyes focused on the ball throughout the approach
and kick
• non-kicking foot is placed to the side of the ball
• arms are outstretched for balance
• underneath of ball is contacted with the top of
the foot
• kicking foot follows through in the direction of
the kick
TEACHING HINTS
1. Focus on technique rather than accuracy.
2. All players should have a ball to kick.
3. Teach various types of kicks - the toe kick,
instep kick, side of foot kick.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Soccer, Australian Rules, Rugby.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
Students use their feet to push or tap the balloon
around freely, keeping it as close as possible to
their feet.
Equi pment: 1 balloon slightly filled with water,
1 x 200 mm playball per student.
Formation: Free spacing.
2 Activity:
Students place ball on the ground and practice
kicking to their partner from a standing position
or one step to kick.
Receiver can practice trapping.
Increase the speed as the skill increases.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm playball per pair.
Formation: Pairs 3-4 metres apart.

3 Activity:
Vary the distance and height of the ball kicked
through witches’ hats or to hit the marker.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm playball per pair,
2 witches’ hats or markers.
Formation: Pairs opposite each other.
4 Activity:
Students place their ball on the ground and step
forward and kick towards the goal.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm playball per student,
a witches’ hat or rubbish bin.
Formation: Students spaced around a
central goal.
Variations: Increase distance or width of
goals; place balls on a mini
“tee”;
Kick a rolling ball in different
directions;
Use skittles or milk cartons as
targets.
5 Activity:
“Golf Kicking”.
Students are challenged to see how many kicks
it takes to “sink” the ball through the goal.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm playball.
Formation: Set up a fairway with a “tee-off”
area and a “green”
(witches’ hats as a goal).

Mani pul ati ve
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
stationary ball
- run approach

38
Mani pul ati ve
KICKING
(200 mm round ball) punt
SKILL CRITERIA
• ball held at hip height with both hands
• eyes focused on the ball throughout the punt
• feet together and in line with the direction of the
kick. Three-step run-up, starting on the
non-kicking foot
• the ball guided with the preferred hand down the
middle of the kicking leg onto the foot
• the centre of the ball kicked with the top of the foot,
which follows through in the direction of the ball
TEACHING HINTS
1. Focus on technique rather than accuracy.
2. All players should have a ball to kick.
SKILL APPLICATIONS
1. Soccer, Australian Rules, Rugby.
ACTIVITIES
1 Activity:
“Phantom kicking”.
Kicking action without a ball: “step, swing
through”.
Equi pment: Nil.
Formation: Free spacing in a large playing
field.

2 Activity:
Kicking the ball to each other, start with “step,
swing through, kick”, and include 3-step run-up
as skill develops.
Equi pment: 1 gator-ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs, 3-4 metres apart.
3 Activity:
Students punt-kick back and forth to each
other, starting at 10 metres then increasing the
distance as skill level increases.
Equi pment: 1 x 200 mm soccer ball per pair.
Formation: Pairs.

4 Activity:
Kicker attempts three punts and the marker
identifies the closest kick, placing a bean bag
where the ball lands.
Take turns.
Equi pment: 3 x 200 mm playballs per pair,
1 bean bag per pair.
Formation: Pairs.
SKILL K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Punt Kick (200mm round ball)
Preferred foot
Non-Preferred
Foot
39
40
P
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A
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FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKI LLS
Planning for
Teaching and
Learning
P
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Planning for Teaching and
Learning
Planning can occur in many forms but good planning
ensures:
• inclusion of pre and post evaluation of a unit
• establishment of goals and priorities
• best use of time, space, and equipment
• all children are catered for and included
• a high level of activity without overloading
• appropriate exposure to skill development
• consistency and continuity between lessons
• the appropriate development of spatial awareness
• enjoyment and satisfaction
• adequate provision for safety.
A well planned program aimed at the development of
fundamental motor skills also provides a teacher with
an excellent context within which the development and
application of social competencies can be achieved.
41
Motor Skill Development
Whilst the development of fundamental motor skills is
usually considered on a discrete basis, in practice it is
more realistic if the skills are integrated. For example,
if a child is being taught to catch, then it is obvious that
their partner must first throw the ball or bean bag. It
is therefore sensible to plan to group interdependent
skills. The emphasis can still be on the development of
one skill, with supporting skills taking a secondary role.
Social Skill Development
Positive self-concept is the basis of all learning and is
also the foundation of all good human relationships.
Fundamental Motor Skills provide an important means
for children to experience success. Success in FMS
development will promote self-worth and eagerness to
attempt new challenges, and this is transferable across
the full spectrum of their learning
Careful planning will ensure that opportunities are
provided for key social skills to be developed and trialed
in a range of contexts:
Cooperation: Children can be enticed to work on a
shared task and assist their partner or
group member to achieve the set goal.
Teachers may also provide challenges
for individual students that will
harness their enthusiasm to provide
assistance to the teacher and their
peers.
Fair Play: Situations involving competition
will often highlight strengths or
weaknesses in an individual child’s
approach to issues of acceptance and
fairplay.
In the context of the application of
physical skills therefore, a teacher
can take the opportunity to develop
children’s social competencies.
Enjoyment: It should be a basic aim of all teachers
to instil a love for learning into their
students.
The tangible indicators of success
that the development of motor skills
provide, enable the teacher to provide
positive feedback and in turn enable
the child to feel pleased with their
achievements.
This provides the initial stage in a
child’s gaining pleasure and enjoyment
from physical activity and later the
adoption of a
healthy active lifestyle.
Leadership/ It is important for all children to
Followership: have the opportunity to develop
leadership skills in a range of contexts
but also to develop the humility that
is required to enable a peer to be
assertive in order for a task to be
completed.
Independence: It is important that all children are
given the opportunity to develop the
confidence and motivation to work
independently in completing tasks.
Developmental Considerations
A range of factors determine the needs of groups and
individuals. These include the stage of growth, social
development, level of maturation, previous learning
and the capacity for learning. Individuals of the same
chronological age vary greatly and planning must cater
for these differences.
The Benchmark tables (in Section 3) have been
designed to provide teachers with a guide to achievable
standards. They have been developed through
considerable research, but they should always be
taken only as a guide and these specific developmental
considerations must be factored into the planning
process.
Children with Disabilities
All children should be encouraged to participate in
any activity. In some situations total inclusion may
be inappropriate for a child’s needs and alternative
planning will be required to ensure that the child is
provided with a beneficial motor skill experience.
It is recommended that teachers refer to Willing and
Able
1
for general guidelines for inclusion of students
with disabilities and that further consultation with
parents or carers and occupational therapists take
place prior to planning for inclusion.
Positive Learning Environment
Positive feelings in a class are vitally important
in ensuring that students have the best possible
opportunity to succeed. This atmosphere is not created
by chance but is developed when teachers:
• are enthusiastic and show interest in all children
• interact with all children
• modify activities to make the skill challenging
• make positive comment about individual
• performance recognise success
• give specific information about how to improve.
1
Willing and Able - Australian Sports Commission 1995
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42
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Goal Setting
Children should be encouraged to set personal goals in
their development of specific skills.
Safety
Careful planning is needed to determine the balance
between challenge and unacceptable risk. It is the
responsibility of teachers to ensure that safe guidelines
are established and have been explained at a level
children will comprehend.
The ongoing objective should be for students to accept
and develop responsibility for their personal safety (and
equipment and facilities) and that of others.
Spatial Awareness
This is an essential competency that must be planned
for in a range of contexts. The open expanse of a
gymnasium or grassed area, coupled with a variety of
movements and a range of equipment, enables a child
to gain spatial experiences. The language or terms
used by the teacher will also enhance the successful
development of a child’s spatial awareness.
Class Organisation
The teacher has the option of utilising a range of
organisational structures to meet the needs of the
class, and the available equipment, facilities and
available time. In any one lesson it is suggested that
children be given the opportunity to work in a range of
organisational structures.
Possible structures which provide the opportunity to
develop fundamental motor skills in conjunction with
social competence include:
Individual: By working on their own, children
have the opportunity for personal
expression and interpretation as well
as developing self-confidence.
Children are often “less visible” to
their peers in this situation and will
therefore be prepared to experiment
and are less concerned with making
mistakes.
Pairs: Children can be partnered for skill or
social reasons.
There are advantages in the use of
a competent partner to help a less
competent peer, equal-ability partners
to assist with self-
esteem.
Groups: Placing children of lesser ability in
mixed-ability groups enables them to
obtain a better understanding of the
task, whilst the more proficient children
can provide role models and give
direct assistance.
Groups of similar ability enable the
teacher to provide learning tasks that
are appropriate to each child’s stage of
development.
Teams: A team approach can facilitate an
atmosphere of healthy rivalry either
through direct competition with another
team on a shared task/activity or
through indirect competition amongst a
number of teams.
This organisational option provides
excellent opportunities to promote and
develop a range of social and personal
competencies.
Whole Class: By having all the members of a class
perform the same activity at the one
time a teacher can quickly identify the
strengths and weaknesses and hence
plan remedial action.
From an organisational perspective it
provides a quick method of initiating
class activity and enables possible
behavioural problems to be reduced.
43
Sample Lesson Plans
• The following lesson examples are provided as a
suggested lesson structure, content and format of
how skills maybe developed.
Each is a snapshot within a sequential program and
maybe dependant on prior learning.
• Lessons are based on a minimum of 30 minutes.
• It is recognised that there are a range of other
considerations which may affect planning, including
prior learning and experiences, numbers in the
class, amount of equipment available, safe facilities
and surfaces as working areas etc.
• It is recommended that links are made to other
learning areas, and this is facilitated by open
communication between specialist Physical
Educators and Class teachers.
Each lesson will provide opportunities to reinforce
appropriate social skill development which should
be considered concurrently with fundamental motor
skills development.
Individual development will mean that not all students
will progress through all activities illustrated in each of
these examples in one lesson.
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Lesson Example
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
Year: PREP
Focus: Manipulative - Catching
(Catch 2 hands bean bag, Activity 1, p 27)
Equipment
• Bean Bags.
Content/Activities:
• Warm up: Children in a line follow a leader to collect
bean bag out of a container.
• Place bean bag on head, balancing whilst walking.
• Bean Bag balanced on nominated body parts, whist
both stationary and moving.
Skill Development
1. In a sitting position:
• throw and catch;
• throw, clap hands and catch;
• throw, touch body parts and catch;
• transfer bean bag horizontally from hand to hand
with increasing speed;
• drop from hand to hand to catch, alternating hands;
• increase distance between hands;
• lob bean bag from hand to hand;
• increase lob height.
2. In a kneeling position:
• repeat all of the above.
3. In a standing position:
• repeat all of the above activities.
• place bean bag on foot, kick the bean bag upwards
to catch.
Social Skill Links
• listening and following instructions;
• demonstrating;
• appreciating others efforts.
Layout:
• Free Spacing (illustrated below)
Teaching Tips
• “eyes on the ball” - watch the bean bag all the
time.
• “catch bean bag at chest / waist height - don’t
reach up”.
• “hands cupped and close around the bean bag
to catch”.
Organisational/Safety Tips
• bean bags are preferable to balls in early
developmental stages.
• children face away from sun.
• establish “ listening” position to hold bean bag
when talking to the class.
Outcomes
HUMAN MOVEMENT:
1.4 combines movement with the use of bean bags.
2.4 demonstrates basic motor skills with equipment
in creative play.
45
Lesson Example
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
Year: ONE
Focus: Manipulative - Catching
(Catch 2 hands small ball, Activities 2 & 3, p 27)
Equipment
• 1 bean bag per student, 1 50 mm ball per student.
Content/Activities:
• Warm up: Use locomotor skills as a revision e.g.
hopping, skipping, galloping in time with a beat or
music.
• Visual tracking: Children hold bean bag in one hand
and whilst keeping head still, have eyes follow the
bean bag as they move it about using alternate
hands.
Skill Development
1. Bean Bags:
• children stand opposite partner appox. 2 mtrs apart;
• throw gently to partners;
• vary the height of the throw;
• vary the speed of the throw;
• vary the distance apart.
2. Small Ball: Free Spacing
• two hand drop from waist, bounce and catch;
• one hand drop from waist, bounce and catch;
• drop, clap and catch;
• drop, touch body parts and catch;
• drop, turn around and catch;
• throw ball up, bounce and catch;
• throw up and repeat above variations for drop
and catch;
As skill improves, increase height thrown.
Social Skill Links
• listening and following instructions;
• demonstrating;
• appreciating others efforts;
• discussing ways to achieve task;
• cooperation.
Layout
1. Lines 2 mtrs apart (illustrated below)
2. Free Spacing (illustrated below)
Teaching Tips
• “eyes on the ball” - watch the bean bag all the time.
• “catch bean bag at chest / waist height -
don’t reach up”.
• “hands cupped with partner aiming at the hands”.
• “give with the bean bag to absorb the force”.
• “move to be in line with the bean bag/ball”.
Organisational/Safety Tips
• children face away from sun.
• pairs all throw in the same direction.
• emphasise “check that partner is looking
before throwing”.
• adequate personal space.
Outcomes
HUMAN MOVEMENT:
1.4 combines movement with the use of bean
bags/small balls.
2.4 demonstrates basic motor skills with equipment
in creative play.
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Lesson Example
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
Year: TWO
Focus: Manipulative - Catching
(Catch 2 hands small ball, Activity 4, p 27)
Equipment
• 1 x 150 mm ball per student.
Content/Activities:
• Warm up: Revise locomotor activities and individual
throw and catch activities.
Skill Development
1. Small Balls:
• in pairs approximately 2 mtrs apart throw, gently to
partners aiming at waist;
• vary height of throw;
• vary direction of the throw;
• vary the speed of the throw.
2. Partner Challenges:
• “how many catches without dropping the ball?”
• “try catching closer and further apart and see what
changes need to be made to throwing and catching
techniques?”
• “can you catch and throw as you are
walking/jogging?”
3. Groups of 4 -6 in a Circle:
• “can you do a circuit of the group catching and
throwing to yourself without dropping the ball?”
• “how many circuits can your group do without
dropping the ball?”
Social Skill Links
• listening and following instructions
• demonstrating
• appreciating others efforts
• discussing ways to achieve tasks
• encouragement and teamwork
Layout
• Lines 2 mtrs apart (illustrated below)
Teaching Tips
• “eyes on the ball” - watch the ball all the time.
• “move in line with the on - coming ball”.
• “hands ready to move and cup the ball”.
• “give to receive the impact”.
Organisational/Safety Tips
• work on a firm surface.
• children face away from sun.
• pairs working between set points in the same
direction.
• establish “ listening” position to hold bean bag when
talking to the class.
Outcomes
HUMAN MOVEMENT:
1.4 combines movement with the use of balls.
2.4 demonstrates basic motor skills with equipment in
creative play.
47
Lesson Example
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
Year: THREE
Focus: Body Management
Application of Body Rolling and Balancing Skills
Equipment
• Large and small gym mats, foam wedge or roll,
Balance Bench, hoops, bean bags
Content/Activities:
• Warm up: Revision of locomotor skills.
• Movement around, through and over mats spaced
around the working area .
• Stretches with special emphasis on neck, back,
shoulders and lower body.
Skill Development
1. Revision of Forward Rolls (4 Stations):
• stand, roll, stand;
• variations; straight legs, legs apart, legs crossed,
without use of hands, bean bag between feet.
2. Design a linked whole Group Balance
• which has all members of the group making contact
with the floor.
3. Develop a roll/balance routine:
• challenge set to link a roll, or series of rolls together
with a balance.
4. Introduction Backward Rolls:
• rolling down an incline
• return along a wide balance bench climbing through
a series of hoops.
Social Skill Links
• cooperation;
• taking turns;
• listening and following instructions;
• demonstrating;
• appreciating others efforts;
• assisting other group members.
Layout
1.
3. 2.
4.
Teaching Tips
• “make a ball/keep body tucked while rolling.
• chin tucked on chest”.
• emphasise the use of hands to support the body
weight.
• rhythmical motion.
• “push on hands to recover to stand in backward roll”
Organisational/Safety Tips
• establish set routines for safety, time on task, and
movement, between stations.
Outcomes
HUMAN MOVEMENT:
2.3 links a series of basic movement patterns to
perform a simple movement sequence.
3.3 demonstrates control in performing sequences of
simple movement patterns.
Background:
This lesson would be implemented only after a series of
introductory lessons had been taught introducing both
individual balances, partner balances, beam balances and
forward rolls. The focus is on introduction to backward rolls.
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48
Assessment
1
Kindergarten Development Check. DEA, 1994
Student Asessment and Record
of Development
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching and
learning program.
Teachers should be planning for assessment when
developing teaching and learning activities.
The major purpose is to improve student learning
outcomes.
Points for consideration
• checks be administered as a part of the physical
education lesson.
• the check be a natural part of the lesson.
• the check be implemented in a non-competitive
environment.
• the assessment focus be on the individual
performance matched against the set skill criteria.
When assessing children the following ratings apply:
l Has attempted activities designed to develop
the skill.
/ Developing the ability to perform the skill.
¸ Can perform the skill proficiently on a regular
basis.
N.B. Children new to the school will need to be checked
immediately, and results transferred to the class list.
Advantages in creating a full class li st include
• the teacher has an immediate record as to each
child’s level of proficiency.
• the teacher has a class profile from which to
commence planning.
• children who require extra assistance can be easily
identified.
• the teacher has a record sheet from which
he /she can add data.
Pre Program
• Kindergarten children will move to their next
teacher without a formal fundamental motor skills
assessment. They will need to be checked against
the Prep FMS items and results recorded on the
Class Record Sheet (Figure A).
• Kindergarten teachers will have used the Kinder
Check’ and these results will be valuable to Prep
teachers as a reference.
• Each child in years 1, 2, 3 and 4 will have arrived
at their new class with a Personal Portfolio.
Contained in this document will be an FMS Record
of Development (Figure B) which clearly shows the
child’s assessment results. This information will
need to be transferred to the class record sheet for
that year.
49
Figure A: Class Record List
Figure B: Pupil Record of Developmet
Assessment
50
Assessment
Post Program
During late November or early December the teacher
must complete the final FMS check.
As represented the results need to be:
• included on the class list;
• transferred to the individual child’s Record of
Development;
• included in the child’s Personal Portfolio for the
following year; and
• transferred to their next teacher at the
commencement of the new school year.
As a safeguard, the class list from which results were
transferred should be filed in the school office.
This will also be of great assistance if a child arrives
at a new school without a portfolio, as all that the new
school will need to do is contact the child’s previous
school to gather the relevant information.
Pre and Post Program Assessment
Flow
51
Sample Record Sheets
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
PUPIL RECORD OF DEVELOPMENT
l Has attempted activities designed to develop the skill
/ Developing the ability to perform the skill
¸ Can perform the skill proficiently on a regular basis.
Assessment
Name:
School:
LOCOMOTOR
SKILL
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Running
Hopping - left foot
- right foot
Galloping
Skipping
Dodging
Leaping
J ump and Land
(off 1 foot, land 2 feet)
BODY MANAGEMENT
SKILL
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
One foot balance - right
One foot balance - left
Beam Walk - forward
Body Rolling - log 360
o
- forward
- backward (down incline)
52
Assessment
Sample Record Sheets
FUNDAMENTAL MOTOR SKILLS
PUPIL RECORD OF DEVELOPMENT
l Has attempted activities designed to develop the skill
/ Developing the ability to perform the skill
¸ Can perform the skill proficiently on a regular basis.
Name:
School:
MANIPULATIVE
SKILL
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Catch - medium ball (150 mm) - two hands
- receiving a rolling ball
- receiving a bounce pass
- receive on the full
Catch - small ball (50 mm)
- 2 hands
- preferred hand
- non-preferred hand
Throw - large ball (200 mm)
- chest pass
Throw - small ball (50 mm)
- underarm preferred hand
- non-preferred
- overarm
MANIPULATIVE
SKILL
K Prep Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4
Striking
- two-hand from tee
- drop & hit (forehand)
- two-hand moving ball
Dribbling - hand (200 mm ball)
- preferred hand
- non-preferred
Dribbling - feet (200 mm ball)
- trapping a rolling ball
- preferred foot
- non-preferred foot
Kicking (200 mm ball)
- stationary round ball,
run approach
- punt kick, round ball,
preferred
- punt kick, round ball,
non-preferred
53
Intervention Programs
To ensure that a child reaches an acceptable level
of essential skill proficiency it may be necessary for
teachers and parents to intervene. This would occur in
much the same way as it does in other areas such as,
for example, literacy or numeracy.
Once a child is identified as requiring assistance, i.e.
does not meet the recommended stage of proficiency, it
is then necessary for the class teacher, specialist, and
parents to collaboratively develop an individual program
for that child.
There are a variety of ways in which an intervention
program could be implemented:
• working one-to-one or in small groups (4-6 children);
• identifying a group of children who have similar
needs and conducting a program which focuses on
one skill at a time;
• identifying groups of children, dividing them into
small sub-groups, setting different tasks at each
sub-group and rotating children around.
Parents, teachers, peer group leaders, senior students,
senior staff are all examples of personnel who could aid
in the delivery of the program.
It is crucial that the parents of children who have
been assessed as requiring assistance are informed
and are involved in the development of the individual
program. The parents need to know the importance of
the intervention and the role that they can play in the
process.
In preparation for intervention, teachers and parents
should consider the following:
Activities should:
• be conducted 3-5 times a week;
• be 10-20 mins in length per session;
• stimulate the child - “fun” - avoiding tedious
repetitions;
• be designed to achieve specific learning outcomes;
• be reinforced through programs at both home and
school.
A child who does not improve and does not achieve
proficiency after working in the intervention program
should be recommended for a more detailed
assessment.
Teachers should not be reluctant to seek further
specialised advice, as the earlier the intervention the
greater the chance of a positive outcome.
Some examples of programs which are commercially
available to assist in the development of children’s
movement skills are:
Name of Program
Available through / Author
Movement for Learning Program
Movement for Learning Association, Victoria
Sport It
Australian Sports Commission
Play Stations
Western Australian Education Dept
Sports Start
Australian Sports Commission
Home Play
Keith Burridge & J oanne Landy
Perceptual Motor Lesson Plans - Level 1
J ack Capon
Fundamental Motor Skills - Manual for Classroom
Teachers
Dept. of Education Victoria
Fundamental Movement Skills - Support Package
Education Dept WA
KIWISPORT - Fundamental Skills
Hillary Commission NZ
Assessment
54
Resources
APPENDICES
Appendix A
Recommended Equipment List
Each school should have a central pool of equipment
which can be accessed by the school’s specialist
Health and Physical Education and classroom teachers.
However, it is of prime importance that the specialist
has prior call on equipment, as it becomes difficult
to conduct a planned program when the necessary
equipment may be in use elsewhere.
The specialist Health and Physical Education teacher
has a responsibility to liaise with class teachers and
advise as to the equipment requirements of his/her
program well in advance, most probably at a time when
he/She discusses and distributes copies of the annual
program to teachers.
As a minimum, a school’s central store should hold the
following types and amounts of equipment in order to
conduct an early childhood fundamental motor skills
program.
As a guide, and based on 1997 prices, a sample budget
is also provided.
Equipment List Approx. Cost
15 gymnastic mats $ 900.00
30 small balls (50 mm $ 90.00
30 medium playballs (150 mm $ 90.00
30 large play balls (200 mm ) $ 180.00
30 hitting tees (small marker hats) $ 90.00
30 small plastic bats $ 90.00
30 hoops $ 120.00
30 short ropes $ 60.00
30 bean bags $ 50.00
15 gator-skin balls (200 mm) $ 60.00
3 sets of quoits $ 15.00
3 sets of skittles $ 20.00
--------------
Total $ 1,765.00
The list does not include other items which will be
required in order to successfully implement a full K-6
Health and Physical Education program, e.g. sporting
equipment etc.
In addition to the main store it should be a school’s
aim to have equipment readily available to children
in the classrooms. There are a number of ways in
which this can be organised, including:
• recess and lunchtime access to the
central store - through the use of monitors;
• an equipment allocation to each class;
• equipment not in use by the specialist H & PE
teacher, for that particular week, being distributed,
in sets, around classes.
e.g. Class A - 30 small balls, Class B - 30 hoops etc;
• a duplication of equipment available to classes from
the central store which is divided into class sets
of 30 pieces of like equipment and rotated around
classes on a weekly or fortnightly basis.
(Under this method the central store is for the use
solely at the discretion of the HPE teacher).
It should be clearly understood that, whatever method the
school chooses, unless allocation is closely monitored and
teachers are meticulous in ensuring that the children return
equipment, much will be lost and the cost of replacement
will be high. Schools should be maximising the amount of
equipment available, rather than having to use budgets to
replace lost or stolen items.
Some other tips for teachers in helping to ensure
that a program runs smoothly are:
• appoint responsible children;
• make use of sport leaders, peer group leaders,
older children and others within your school to assist
in effective rotation of equipment around classes;
• always return equipment at the conclusion of a
lesson;
• clearly mark or label all equipment;
• be quick to repair or maintain damaged equipment
before it is too late;
• quickly check to see if all equipment has been
returned after daily breaks - this is where most gear
is lost ;
• ensure that equipment is stored in appropriate
containers (e.g. a large duffle bag);
• synchronise the rotation at the same time each
week - this will ensure that the task is undertaken
and in the correct order;
• classes must take financial responsibility for lost
or stolen equipment: e.g. establish a classroom
contingency fund to ensure equipment replacement;
• obtain an annual budget allocation for equipment
replacement;
• seek parental assistance in maintaining the store.
55
Resources
Appendix B
Fundamental Motor Skills Referenced to Available Resources
Skill Ready to
Use K-2
Ready to
Use 3-4
Home Play PEP Fitness Sport It Sport Start GymFun Kiwi Sport CrossSport Gallahue
Locomotor
Running
Sections
1,2,3,4,6,8
Sections
1,2,3
35-37
19,49,77,
80,87,89
100,108
21,22 26-33,61 100-102 31-48
279-282,293
294,309-313
Hopping
Sections
1,2,3,4,5,6
Section1 38-40
26,50,58
77,87-89,95,
111
26-27 26-33 114-132 49-54
288,289,303
304,310-313
Galloping
Sections
2,3,4,7,8
Section1 47-49
49,53,61-62
83,87
32 114-132
289-291,
307-313
Skipping
1,2,3,4,5,6,
7,8
Sections
1,2,3
41-43
33,49-51,
55-61,77,
87-89,111
31 31 114-132 61-66
291,292,
305-313
Dodging
Sections
1,5,6,7
Sections
1,2,3
29 267-276,310
Leaping
Sections
1,2,3,4
Sections
3,5
5,6,7
44-46
52,77,80,
87,98,111
32-33 26-33 114-132 54-60
279,282,283
295,296,309
312
Jump &
Land
Sections
1,2,3,4,5,
6,7,8
Sections
3,5
26-28,33
22,30,49,
53,57,61,
77-100,111
23-25,28,29 26-33 114-132 59-66
283,288,297
-302,309-
313,360-364
Body Management
Balance
Sections
1,2,3,5,6,8
Sections
3,5
29-34,39
56,57,
77-109
35
10,11,18,
19,34
103-113 67-75
260-265,
273-276,
366-377
Rolling
34,35,43,44
64-69,74,90
113-125,130,278
55,63,74-76
83,89
24,25
95-102
92,93 16,25-27 133-143 84,85 356-360
265-267,270
271,276
Manipulative
Catch
Sections
6,7
Sections
6,7
50-61
20-34,87,
92-94,99
82-103
35-37,50-52
57,58
147-157 124-132
16-26,42-56
58-68
305-309
Throw
Sections
1,6,7,8
Sections
6,7
65-70
20,23-34,
87,92-94,99
60-81 36,48-50 147-157 137-170
28-40,58-68
70-82,
116-128
301-305
Strike
204-208
236-248
116-140
155-163
71-76
21,24,28
32,35
123-144 37,38,53-55 171-195
84-98
100-114
333-337
Dribble
(hand)
32,189-191,
253
207-208
247-258
33,53-55,
62-64
19-23,
26-31,85,90
41-52 147-157 117-122 254-255
Dribble
(foot)
192-198,
236-246
280-289 45,49-58 58-60
110-116
133-136
430-431
Kick
23,192-198,
202-203,277
282,286,
283,289
77-85
21-25,
29-35
104-122 39-40,56,57
172-175
176-179
310-311
422-426
56
Resources
Appendix C
Prep
Locomotor Body Management Manipulative
NAMES
R
u
n
H
o
p
L
e
f
t

f
o
o
t
H
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p
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f
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a
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c
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R
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g
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t

f
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o
t
B
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a
m

W
a
l
k
F
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w
a
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d
L
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g

R
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l
l
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c
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v
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r
o
l
l
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g

b
a
l
l
R
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c
e
i
v
e
b
o
u
n
c
e

p
a
s
s
sample: Peter Forkna
l / ¸ l / ¸ l / ¸ l
Date/Year
Class
l Attempted
/ Needs improvement
¸ Proficiency
57
Resources
Appendix C
Year One
Loco
motor
Body
Manag
ement
Manipulative
NAMES
S
k
i
p
p
i
n
g
F
o
r
w
a
r
d

r
o
l
l
C
a
t
c
h

-
2

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d
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m

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n
a
r
y
b
a
l
l
sample: Peter Forkna
l / ¸ l /
Date/Year
Class
l Attempted
/ Needs improvement
¸ Proficiency
58
Resources
Appendix C
Year Two
Locomotor Manipulative
NAMES
D
o
d
g
i
n
g
L
e
a
p
i
n
g
C
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B
a
l
l
sample: Peter Forkna
l l / ¸ l / ¸ l
Date/Year
Class
l Attempted
/ Needs improvement
¸ Proficiency
59
Resources
Appendix C
Year Three Year Four
Loco
motor
Body
Manag
ement
Manipulative Manipulative
NAMES
J
u
m
p

&

L
a
n
d
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)
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p
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f
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r
r
e
d
sample: Peter Forkna
l l / ¸ l / ¸ l l
Date/Year
Class
l Attempted
/ Needs improvement
¸ Proficiency
60
Resources
Appendix D
Fundamental Motor Skills Criteria
Locomotor
Running
• both feet are off the ground for a brief period of time
• arms move in opposition to legs - fingers relaxed
• head and trunk are still, with eyes focused straight ahead
• foot placement is near or on a line with heel or ball strike
(not flat- footed).
Hopping
• foot on non-support leg is bent and carried behind the body
• landing and springing from the ball of the foot
• head still, with eyes looking forward
• rhythmical movement in a straight line
Gallop
• a step forward with the lead foot, followed by a step forward
with the trailing foot to a position adjacent to or behind the
lead foot
• brief period where both feet are off the ground
• head and trunk are still, with the eyes focused straight
ahead
• able to lead with right and left foot
Skipping
• arms move in opposition to the legs
• with each step-hop sequence there is a brief period when
both feet are off the ground
• head and upper body are stable with eyes focused to the
front
• rhythmical movement in a straight line
Dodging
• eyes focused in direction of travel
• change direction by pushing off outside foot
• body lowered during
• change of direction change of direction occurs in one step
Leaping
• take off from one foot and spring to land on the other
• arm opposite the lead foot reaches forward
• during flight, head remains up with eyes focused forwards
(not down)
• land softly on the ball of the leading foot to demonstrate a
rhythmical movement
J ump & Land
• head up, with eyes focused forward
• lift of the knees and forward upward swing of the arms for
power
• land on the balls of the feet and knees bent to retain
balance and absorb impact.
• a rhythmical action
Body Management
One-foot balance
• head still, with eyes focused on object straight ahead
• arms extended to the side
• non-support leg raised forward with 90
o
bend at knee
Beam Walk
• feet flat on the beam/line, with the toes pointed in the
direction of movement
• arms extended to the side
• head still, with eyes focused on an object straight ahead
• trunk of the body remains straight, knees flexed.
Log Roll
• body extended
• arms extended behind the head and legs together
• head still
• rolling continuously in a straight line
Forward Roll
• knees bent and legs apart, tuck/curl body in crouch position
with weight on hands
• transfer weight, in a forward direction to back of shoulders,
maintaining tuck position maintain tucked position
• continue movement to weight on feet, with or without use of
arms
Backward Roll down incline
• start in a crouch position
• keep body in a tucked position to maintain continuous
rolling action
• use of arms/hands to take pressure off the head/shoulders
and push to the finish position
• land on balls of feet and retain balance
61
Appendix D
Fundamental Motor Skills Criteria
Manipulative
Catch - receive a rolling ball
• eyes focused on the ball
• body behind the direction of the ball
• arms and hands outstretched to receive the ball
• scoop the ball to the body
Catch - receive a bounce pass
• eyes focused on the ball, standing in line with oncoming
ball
• hands positioned with arms extended to receive the ball
• fingers spread and ball caught on the bounce and pulled
into the body
Catch - receive on full
• eyes focused on the ball and move body in the path of the
ball
• arms extended with hands open to receive the ball
• the ball caught with the hands, the arms flexed to absorb
the force of the ball
• the ball hugged to the bodyCatch - 2 hands (50 mm ball)
• eyes focused on the ball and body moved into the path of
the ball
• the ball caught in front of the body with fingers spread and
hands cupped
• catch “giving” with the arms to absorb the force of the ball
Catch - preferred & non-preferred hand (50 mm ball)
• eyes focused on the ball and body moves into the path of
the ball
• ball caught in front of the body with fingers spread and
hand cupped
• catch “giving” with the arm to absorb the force of the ball
Throw - chest pass
• Eyes focused on the target
• Ball held with both hands in front of chest; fingers spread
with thumbs behind the ball
• Forward step, arms and fingers extended, and ball pushed
in the direction of target
Throw - underarm, preferred & non-preferred hand
• ball is held in the fingers in front of body
• throwing hand supported by non-preferred hand
• throwing arm extended down and back to full extension
• weight transferred from back to front foot during the throw
by stepping forwards with the opposite foot to the throwing
arm
• at the end of the release the fingers pointed at the target
Overarm Throw
• body is side-on, with the weight on the rear foot and eyes
focused on the target
• ball is held in the fingers, the arm extends backwards with
elbow down
• step forward onto the foot opposite the throwing arm and
shift the weight forward to the front foot during the throw
• rotate the upper body from side on to face forward during
the throw
Striking - two-hand from tee
• bat gripped with hands touching, with the preferred hand
above non-preferred hand and fingers wrapped around
the handle
• stance is side-on to the hitting direction with body weight
on the back foot
• as the swing is commenced weight is transferred onto the
front foot, and hip and shoulders rotate during the swing
• ball is struck level with or slightly behind the front foot, and
the bat follows through ending up behind the body
Striking - forehand drop & hit
• bat held in preferred hand, “shake hands” grip
• ball held in fingers of opposite hand with fingers pointing
to the ground, the arm is outstretched perpendicular to the
direction of hitting
• stance is side-on to the hitting direction with body weight
on the back foot
• as the swing is commenced weight is transferred onto the
front foot, and hip and shoulders rotate during the swing
• ball is hit on the rebound, level with waist, elbow slightly
bent. Bat follows through towards the target
Striking - two hands, moving ball
• bat is gripped with hands touching, with the preferred
hand above non-preferred hand and fingers wrapped
around the handle and wrists cocked backward. Bat is
held just behind the preferred shoulder
• stance is side-on to the direction of ball delivery, with body
weight on the back foot
• as the swing is commenced weight is transferred onto the
front foot by stepping towards the oncoming ball, hip and
shoulders rotate during the swing
• ball is struck level with or slightly behind the front foot,
arms and bat are in a straight line, and the bat then follows
through ending up behind the body
Resources
62
LESSON PLAN PROFORMA
Year:
Focus:
Resources
Equipment
Teaching Tips
Social Skill Links
Outcomes
HUMAN MOVEMENT:
Content/Activities
Warm Up
Skill Development
Layout Organisational/Safety
Tips
63
References
ACHPER, (Taggart, J .) (1994). Fitness Upper Primary &
Fitness Lower Primary. South Australia: Eagle Press.
Australian Gymnastic Federation Inc. (1984). Gym Fun
part 2: Lesson Plan Program for Schools and Clubs.
Burridge, K.,& Landy, J . (1996). HOMEPLAY:
Fundamental Movement Skill Activities for Teaching
Young Children Movement. West Australia.
Capon, J . (1983). Perceptual - Motor Plans Levels 1 & 2
(3rd Ed.). California: Front Row Experience.
Department of Education, Victoria (1996). Fundamental
Motor Skills: A Manual for Class Teachers.
Education Department of Western Australia (1997).
Fundamental Movement Skills Support Package.
Gailahue, D.L. (1993). Developmental Physical
Education for Today’s Children (2nd Ed.). Indiana:
Brown & Benchmark.
Gailahue, D.L., & Ozmun, J .C. (1995). Understanding
Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents
(3rd Ed.). lndianapolis: Benchmark Press.
Hillary Commission (1994). KiwiSport: Fundamental
Skills. New Zealand.
Kirchner, Glen (1992). Physical Education for
Elementary School Children (3rd Ed.). USA: Brown
Publishers.
Landy, M., & Landy, J . (1992). Ready to Use RE.
Activities, K-2, 3-4. New York: Parker Publishing.
Meaney, P.H. (1993). SportStart Developing Your Kid’s
Skills at Home (Revised edition). Australian Sports
Commission.
Murphy, B., & Surridge, G. (1994). The Cross Sport
Program: A Hand-Eye Skill Development Program for
Young Children. Melbourne: CollinsDove.
Pangrazi, R.P., & Dauer, V.P. (1992). Dynamic Physical
Education for Elementary School Children (10th Ed.).
New York: Macmillan.
Walkley, J ., & Baldock, R. (eds) (1992). Sport It!
Teacher Resource Manual. Canberra: Australian Sports
Commission.
Resources
64
Resources
CLASS RECORD LIST
Prep Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four
Locomotor Body Management Manipulative
Loco
motor
Body
Manag
ement
Manipulative Locomotor Manipulative
Loco
motor
Body
Manag
ement
Manipulative Manipulative
NAMES R
u
n
H
o
p

-

L
e
f
t

f
o
o
t
H
o
p

-

R
i
g
h
t

f
o
o
t
G
a
l
l
o
p
B
a
l
a
n
c
e

-

L
e
f
t

f
o
o
t
B
a
l
a
n
c
e

-

R
i
g
h
t

f
o
o
t
B
e
a
m

W
a
l
k
F
o
r
w
a
r
d
L
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g

R
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l
l
R
e
c
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i
v
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l
l
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g

b
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l
R
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v
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b
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c
e

p
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S
k
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p
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n
g
F
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a
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d

r
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l
C
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U
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sample: Peter Forkna l / ¸ l / ¸ l / ¸ l l / ¸ l / l l / ¸ l / ¸ l l l ¸ ¸ / ¸ l / ¸ / l
Date/Year
Class
l Attempted
/ Needs improvement
¸ Proficiency
HEALTH & PHYSICAL EDUCATION
GPO Box 919 Hobart 7001
Telephone (03) 6233 7281
Facsimilie (03) 6233 6979
Email tony.nichols@postoffice.tased.edu.au
DEPARTMENT of
EDUCATION, COMMUNITY and
CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT