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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


NEGROS ORIENTAL STATE UNIVERISTY
MAIN CAMPUS II, BAJUMPANDAN
DUMAGUETE CITY


DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN


PRESENTED TO
ENGR. ELIJAH SERATE


IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS
IN
ME 421- MACHINE DESIGN 2


BY
ROMMEL LITO C. NEPALAR


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CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION3
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE..4
Other Crusher Types.4
Single Roll Crusher4
Jaw Crusher..5
Brad-multi Roll Crusher.5
Clinker Crusher6
DRAWING..7
Isometric View (a)7
Isometric View (b)8
Top View.9
Front View10
Side View..10
DESIGN CONSIDERATION.11
DESIGN CALCULATION11
Solving for Radius of the Rolls 11
Solving for Feedrate12
Solving for the Crusher Power12
Solving for the Force Required.....13
Solving for Torque13
Design Horsepower to drive mechanism including losses14
Transmitted Power on V-belt.14
DRIVING SYSTEM DESIGN.14
V-belt Design..14
Solving for Design Hp.14
Solving for the Diameter of the Drive and Driven Sheave.15
Solving for Center Distance15
Solving for V-belt Length.15
Solving for V-belt Speed..16
Solving for kd(small diameter factor).16
Solving for Rated Hp. 16
Solving for Adjusted Hp16
Solving for the Number of Belts17
Solving for the Tension.17
Computing the Arc of Contact.18
Power Transmitted on V-belt..18
Solving for Thickness of Sheave.18
Computing the weight of the Motor Sheave..19
Computing the weight of the Driven Sheave..19
SHAFT DESIGN..19
Shaft 1 19
Computing the Angle of Wrap.20
Solving for Forces on Belt at Section A.20
Forces at Section A due to Weight of the Sheave, W
2
..21
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Total Load at Section A.21
Solving for Weight of the Roll.21
Solving for the Force Required to Crush the Coal (Fr).22
Solving for the Vertical Component of the Bearing ..23
Solving for the Horizontal Component of the Bearing .24
Data for the Loading at Shaft 1..26
Data for the Moment at Shaft 1.26
Bearing Selection for Shaft 127
Design for Key for the Pulley at Shaft 128
Solving for Maximum Torque..29
Solving for the Length of Key30
Bolt Design for the Bearings on Shaft 130
Solving for the Size of the Bolt31
Shaft 2.31
Solving for the Vertical Component of the Bearing 32
Solving for the Horizontal Component of the Bearing33
Data for the Loading at Shaft 2..33
Data for the Moment at Shaft 2..34
Bearing Selection for Shaft 2..35
Bearing Housing Design on Shaft 2.35
Bearing Housing Design on Shaft 2.36
Spring Design.37
Solving for Spring Index.37
Solving for Stress Factor.37
Stress Because of the Load..38
Solving the Number of Active Coils38
Solving for Solid Height38
Scale of Spring (k)39
Force to Compress the Spring to Solid Height.........39
Permissible Solid Stress.39
Solving for Pitch39
Spring Mounting..40
Bolt Design for Mounting the Crusher40
Solving for the Maximum Tensile Force.41
Solving for F
m
......................................................................................................42
Solving for F
r
43
DESIGN SUMMARY44
LIST OF REFERENCE46
APPENDIX.47









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INTRODUCTION


Double roll crushers consist of two adjacent rolls placed parallel to each other and
rotated in opposite directions. These are typically used in situations in which fines are to be
minimized. They are widely employed on friable materials such as coal, lime, limestone,
petroleum coke, and chemicals.

As the two rolls rotate toward each other, the material is pulled down into the crushing
zone where it is grabbed and compressed by the rolls.

Product size is determined by the size of the gap between the rolls, and this gap can be
changed to vary product size or to compensate for wear.

Since both rolls rotate at the same speed, there is no relative motion between the two
roll surfaces, and crushing is primarily accomplished by compression.

Compression crushing is extremely efficient, as energy is only used to crush those
particles larger than the gap between the rolls. Fines are reduced because already sized material
passes freely through the crusher with no further reduction.

Protection from uncrushables is provided by means of a retractable roll assembly. It
retracts instantly when an uncrushable is encountered, then reverts to its original position once
the uncrushable has cleared the crushing chamber with no stoppage of the crusher.


















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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

OTHER CRUSHER TYPES

Single Roll Crusher

Single Roll Crushers are typically
used as primary crushers. A single roll
crusher has a roll assembly consisting of a
roll shaft and a fabricated roll shell with
integral fixed teeth.

In the single roll crusher, three
different methods of reduction occur:
impact, shear and compression.

Entering the crusher through the
feed hopper, the feed material is struck by
the teeth of the revolving roll. While some breakage occurs here by impact, the rotation of the
roll carries the material into the crushing chamber formed between the breaker plate and the
roll itself. As the turning roll compresses the material against the stationary breaker plate, the
teeth on the roll shear the material.

Sized material falls directly out through the discharge end of the crusher which is
completely open.

There are no screen bars, and consequently there is no recrushing of the sized materials,
a factor that helps to reduce power demand while minimizing product fines.

The clearance between the breaker plate and the roll determines the product size. This
clearance is adjustable from outside the machine by a shim arrangement. Adding or removing
shims causes the plate to pivot about its top hinge, moving it into or away from the roll.

For protection against uncrushable debris, the breaker plate assembly is secured with an
automatic release device. As pressure from the uncrushable is exerted against the plate, the
device allows the entire breaker plate assembly to move away from the roll instantly. The
uncrushable drops clear of the machine by gravity, and the breaker plate assembly immediately
returns to its normal crushing position.






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Jaw Crusher

For crushing of
hard, abrasive materials,
Jaw Crushers are often
preferred, since this type of
machine will crush virtually
any mineral.

Jaw Crushers differ
substantially from other
types of crushers. There is
no rotary motion in the
crushing cycle, and all
crushing is done by
compression of the feed
material between two massive jaws, which in effect are a type of breaker plate. Jaw plates can
be either smooth or corrugated.

While one jaw is fixed, the other jaw pivots about a top hinge. This moving jaw is shaped
to move firmly and squarely against the material, at 250 to 400 strokes per minute. There is no
rubbing or grinding, only compression, which produces a generally cubical product with
minimum fines.

The moving jaw is so balanced that fully 95% of the drive motor power is used for
crushing, while only 5% of the power is needed to move the jaw itself. As a result of this high
mechanical efficiency, smaller motors may be used, keeping power costs down.

Behind the stationary jaw are shims, used to compensate for plate wear and to adjust
the closed side setting. For protection from uncrushables, there is also an automatic drive
disengagement feature that acts instantaneously on the moveable jaw assembly.

Brad-multi Roll Crusher

The Brad-Multi-Roll
Crusher was introduced to
produce material with output
smaller than 1/4" (6mm) while
producing a minimum of extreme
fines.

This produces a product
having a very steep gradation
curve, making it ideally suited for
preparation of fuel and sorbents
for fluid bed boilers and for other
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applications that require such a gradation.

This machine is capable of handling moist materials when operated in open circuit.
Drying is usually recommended when closed-circuit operation is needed to meet a specific
gradation curve.


The Brad-Multi-Roll Crusher is well suited to abrasive materials. To compensate for any
reduction in charge level resulting from wear, additional charge can simply be added. This
greatly simplifies maintenance, and provides a machine with exceptionally high availability.

For some closed-circuit applications, integral screening can be accomplished. The great
compactness of this design means that a smaller building is required, while minimizing the need
for peripheral equipment. Optional sound housings can be provided to control noise emissions.

When compared with other machines that require air classification to achieve specified
product sizes, users of the Brad-Multi-Roll Crusher will enjoy significant and continuing savings
in power costs.




Clinker Crusher

The Clinker Crusher is used
for handling of bottom ash, though it
can readily be configured to handle
other materials.

It is now widely employed as
a direct replacement for the most
common makes and sizes of clinker
grinders. Its efficient design improves
maintainability and increases
component life, thereby reducing both
operation and maintenance costs.

For example, the cast, high
chrome roll segments are reversible to
maximize their wear life. These
segments can also be changed out
with the unit in place by means of a large door in the rear of the frame.

For retrofit, no changes to foundations are needed under normal circumstances.




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DRAWING:

Isometric View (a)



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Isometric View (b)






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Top View

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Front View
Side View



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R
D/2
L
DESIGN CONSIDERATION:

Roll Crusher Type: Double Roll Crusher

Material to be crushed: Bituminous coal, Broken

Maximum Feed Size: 2 3/8 in.

Distance Between rolls: 1 in.

Operating Condition: dry condition

Further specifications and design considerations were made along the design process.

DESIGN CALCULATION:

Solving for Radius of the Rolls: (assuming all surfaces are smooth and particle to be
crushed is spherical)

To solve for the radius of the rolls, it is convenient to assume that the particle to be
crushed is spherical and roll surfaces are smooth. The figure below shows a spherical particle
about to enter the crushing zone of a roll crusher. The nip angle is defined as the angle that is
tangent to the roll surfaces at the points of contact between the rolls and the particle. Usually
the nip angle is between 20 and 30 but in some large roll crushers it is up to 40.

For the design I choose 20 nip angle.


Where:



R= radius of the roll
L= distance between rolls, 1 in.
d= diameter of the feed, 2 3/8 in.
= Nip angle, 20

)



R= 6.067001948 in.
D= 12.1340039

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For the roll diameter, the calculated diameter is not available in the market so I use D = 15
available at http://www.gundlachcrushers.com/crushers/roll-crushers-coal-salts-lime-
minerals.cfm with a chisel tooth profile.



Solving for Feedrate:

Q= 60DWL
B
(t/h)

Where:
Q= crusher capacity
D= diameter of roll, m (15 in= 0.381 m)
W= width of the roll, m (50 in = 1.27 m)
= roll speed, 130 rpm
L= distance between rolls, m (1 in = 0.0381 m)

B
= bulk density of feed material, t/m
3
(.833 t/m
3
)

For the
B
of coal,

refer to http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_density_of_coal.

Q= (60)(0.381)(1.27)(130)(0.0381)(.833)

Q= 376.3077383 t/h

Solving for the Crusher Power

From: http://www.gundlachcrushers.com/crushers, with data from a 2000 Series Roll Crusher I
can get the power required for the roll.

For a 2000 Series Roll Crusher
Single-stage and two-stage models
15" diameter rolls (380 mm)
Roll face up to 60" (1525 mm) wide
Motor Power, 20 kw (26.80965147 hp)
Capacity up to 400 tph
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From the Design Hp Formula:

Design Hp =Transmitted Hp x Nsf

Where:
Nsf = 1.4+0.2 (Table 17.7 by Faires, p. 460)
Design Hp = 26.80965147 Hp

Transmitted Hp = 26.80965147 / 1.6
= 16.75603217 Hp


Comparing the power and the feedrate for commercial crusher.
P
1
/C
1
= P
2
/C
2


Where:
P
1
and C
1
= Power and Capacity for the crusher to be design
P
2
and C
2
= Power and Capacity for a commercial crusher


=




P
1
= 15.76356142 hp

Solving for Torque

P= 2TN

T=



Where:
P= 15.76356142 hp
N= 130 rpm

T=

x




T= 636.8615984 lb-ft

Solving for the Force Required

F=T/r

F =


x




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F = 1018.978557 lb


Design horsepower to drive mechanism including losses

According to Morse, p.452, losses in V-belt is 5%.

Transmitted power on V-belt
Transmitted power on V-Belt= Required power to drive the crusher/0.95
= 15.76356142 / 0.95
= 16.59322255 hp

DRIVING SYSTEM DESIGN

V-Belt Design
Design Consideration:
Motor type: squirrel cage motor
Type of service: continuous (16 hr/day) service
V-belt material: Leather belt

From: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/electrical-motors-hp-torque-rpm-d_1503.html,
Power versus torque and motor velocity in electric motors Table.

Nearest capable of driving is:
Motor Power = 20 hp
RPM= 500 rpm

Solving for Design Hp

Design Hp =Transmitted Hp x Nsf

Where:
Nsf = 1.4+0.2 (Table 17.7 by Faires, p. 460)

Design Hp= 16.59322255 x (1.4+0.2)
= 26.54915608 Hp

(From figure 17.14 Belt Selection from Horsepower and Speed by Faires, p.457, I choose
section D)





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Solving for the diameter of the drive and driven sheave

N
2
D
2
=N
1
D
1

Where:
N
1
= Motor speed, 500 rpm
N
2
= Crusher speed, 130 rpm
D
2
= diameter of the driven sheave
D
1
= diameter of the drive sheave

From: Table 17.3, Standard V-belt Lengths; Horsepower Constants (Faires, p. 458)

If D
2
= 48 in. and D
1
= 13 in.
N
2
= (13x500)/48
N
2
= 135.4166667 rpm

If D
2
=58 in. and D
1
= 16 in.
N
2
= (16x500)/58
N
2
= 137.9310345 rpm

If D
2
=58 in

and D
1
= 14 in.
N
2
= (14x500)/ 58
N
2
= 120.6896552 rpm

I choose D
2
=48 in. and D
1
= 13 in. which is nearest to 130 rpm.

Solving for center distance

(Eq. by Faires, p, 457)
C= [(D
2
+D
1
)/2]+D
1
or C =D
2
whichever is longer
C= [(48+13)/2]+13

C= 43.5 in.

I choose C = 48 in. which is longer

Note: The center distance is made adjustable so that the belts can be mounted into the grooves
without harmful stretching and so that initial tension can be maintained (Faires, p. 457).

Solving for belt length
(Eq. by Faires, p. 446 )

L = *(/2)(D
2
- D
1
)] + 2C + [(D
2
- D
1
)
2
/ 4C]
L = *(/2)(48

- 13)] + 2(48) + [(48

- 13)
2
/ 4(48)]

L=157.3580798 in.
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From table 17.3, Standard V-belt length (by Faires p. 458) at section D, select D158 with pitch
length equal to 161.3 in.

Solving for V-belt speed
V
m
= D
1
N
1
/ 12
= (13)(500)/12

V
m
= 1701.696021 ft/min

Solving for kd (small diameter factor)
From: table 17.4, by Faires, p.459

D
2
/D
1
= (48/13)= 3.692307692

Kd= 1.14


Solving for Rated Hp
From equation by Faires, p.456

* (



Where :
V
m
= belt speed, 1701.696021 ft/min
Kd = 1.14
Rated hp constants:
a= 18.788
c= 137.7
e= 0.0848

Rated hp constants (from table 17.3, by Faires, p. 458)

* (



Rated Hp = 9.505200567 Hp

Solving for Adjusted Hp
Horsepower rating must be corrected for length of belt (Kl) and arc of contact (K). (Faires,
p.457)

Adjusted Hp = k

xk
l
(Rated Hp)


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Where:
K
l
= Length correction factor, 0.92 from table 17.6 Length Correction Factors by Faires, (p.459)
k

= arc of contact factor



From table 17.5, Arc of Contact factors (Faires, p.459)
(D
2
D
1
) / C = (48 13) / 48
= 0.729166666

By interpolation,
0.70 0.89
0.729166666 K


0.80 0.87

K

= 0.884166668

Therefore,

Adjusted Hp = 0.92 x 0.884166668 x 9.505200567
= 7.731846993 Hp

Solving for Number of Belts
Number of Belts = Design Hp/ Adjusted Hp
= 26.54915608 / 7.731846993
= 3.433740489
Say 4 belts


Use 4 D158 leather V-belts with pitch length equal to 161.3 in. from section D, b x t = 1 in., 3/4
in., figure 17.14, Belt Section from Horsepower and Speed by Faires, p. 457.


Solving for the Tension

F1
F2

F
1
/ F
2
= e
f
Eq. 1


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Where:

F
1
= total tension on the tight side, lb
F
2
= total tension on the slack side, lb
f = coefficient of friction, 0.25 from Table 16-15 Coefficient of Friction for Belts,
for leather on cast iron pulley
= arc of contact, rad




Computing the arc of contact
= , 180 2sin
-1
[ (D
2
D
1
) / 2C + - ( / 180)
= { 180 2sin
-1
[ (48 13) / 2(48) + - ( / 180)
= 2.395222057 rad

From eq.1
F
1
/ F
2
= e
f
F
1
= e
(.25) (2.395222057)
F
2

F
1
= 1.819943605 F
2
Eq.2


Power Transmitted on V-belt
From equation 16.7 (Daughtie and Vallance, p.383)

Hp = [ (F
1
F
2
) / 550 ] x V
m


Where:
Hp= transmitted Hp, 16.59322255 hp
F
1
=total tension on the tight side, lb
F
2
= total tension on the slack side, lb

m
= belt speed, 28.36153368 ft/sec

(F
1
-F
2
)= 550(16.59322255)/28.36153368
(F
1
-F
2
)= 321.7827023 Eq. 3

Equating equation 2 and 3
1.819943605 F
2
F
2
= 321.7827023

F
2
= 392.4449198 lbs.
F
1
= 1.819943605 (392.4449198)
F
1
= 714.2276221 lbs.

Solving for thickness of the sheave
T = width of the belt x number of belt

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= (1 )x 4

T = 5 in.

Computing the weight of the motor sheave
W
1
= (/4) D
1
2
t

Where:

D
1
= diameter of the small sheave, 13 in.
t = thickness of small sheave, 5 in.
= density of pulley material used, 0.256 lb/in for ordinary cast iron from
Table 2-1, General Properties of commonly used materials (Doughtie and
Vallance, p.11)

W
1
= (/4)(13)
2
(5)(0.256)

W
1
= 169.8973307 lbs.

Computing the weight of the Driven sheave
W
2
= (/4) D
2
2
t

Where:

D
2
= diameter of the driven sheave, 48 in.
t = thickness of sheave, 5 in.
= density of pulley material used, 0.256 lb/in for ordinary cast iron from
Table 2-1, General Properties of commonly used materials (Doughtie and
Vallance, p.11)

W
2
= (/4)(48)
2
(5)(0.256)

W
2
= 2316.233432 lbs

SHAFT DESIGN

Shaft 1

Design Consideration:
Material Used: AISI C1117 Normalized Carbon Steel
Tensile strength: 63,700 psi
Yield strength: 35,000 psi
From Table AT 8 Typical Properties of Steel (Faires, p.578)
Shaft diameter: 4 in


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8" 36" 36"
Fx1
F
1
Fx2
F
y
2
F
2

Fy1

Ft
Fr


Components of shaft 1



Computing the Angle of Wrap
Cos = (D
2
-D
1
)/2C from eq. by Spotts, p.293

Where:
D

= diameter of big sheave, 48 in
D

= diameter of small sheave, 13 in


C = centre distance, 48in

Therefore,
= cos
-1





= 68.61805742


Solving for Forces on Belt at Section A

F
1
= 714.2276221 lbs.

F
2
= 392.4449198 lbs.

F
x1
= F1sin = 714.2276221 (sin 68.61805742)
F
x1
= 665.0678856 lbs
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F
y1
= F
1
cos = 714.2276221 (cos 68.61805742)
F
y1
= 260.3954756 lbs (downward)

F
x2
= F
2
sin = 392.4449198 (sin 68.61805742)
F
x2
= 365.4449198 lbs

F
y2
= F2cos = 392.4449198 (cos 68.61805742)
F
y2
= 143.0788706 lbs (upward)

Horizontal Component, F
x
= F
x1
+ F
x2

F
x
= 665.0678856 + 365.4449198
F
x
= 1030.512805 lb (to the right)

Vertical Component, F
y
= F
y1
- F
y2

F
y
= 260.3954756 143.0788706
F
y
= 117.316605 lbs (downward)

Forces at Section A Due to Weight of the Sheave, W
2

W
2
= 2316.233432 lbs

Total Load at section A
F
HA
= 1030.512805 lbs

F
VA
= 117.316605 + 2316.233432
F
VA
= 2433.550037 lbs.

Solving for the weight of the roll

Roll material: high carbon steel
w= v

where:
= density of the roll, 0.283244983 lb/in
3
(Material Science and Engineering 4
th
Edition,
V. Raghavan, p.396)
v= roll volume
v= (/4)(D-d)
2
w

where:
D= diameter of the roll, 15 in.
d= shaft diameter, 4 in.
w= roll width, 50 in.

v= (/4)(15-4)
2
(50)
v= 4751.658889 in
3


therefore,
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w = (4751.658889) (.283244983)
w = 1345.883541 lbs.


Solving for the Force Required to Crush the Coal (Fr)

= F/A

where:
= compressive strength of coal, 500 psi, (Table 8.2, Handbook of Coal Analysis by J.G. Speight)
A= area of the coal to be crushed

Solving for area:
e= effective length of the roll, 60%
1 1/2
3/4
19/16
w
x

X = (



X = 0.920682491

W = 2(0.920682491)
W = 1.841364983

Therefore:
A = (1.841364983)(50)(0.6)
A = 55.24094949 in
2


F
r
= 500 x 55.24094949

F
r
= 27620.47475 lbs.

F
t
= force required to drive the crusher, 1018.978557 lb

Total Roll Load

F
VC
= w - F
t



F
VC
= 1345.883541- 1018.978557
F
VC
= 326.904984 lbs (downward)
F
HC
= F
r
= 27620.47475 lbs
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Solving for Vertical Component of the Bearing
8" 36" 36"
Fva Fvc
Rvb Rvd

F
VA
= 2433.550037 lbs
F
VC
= 326.904984 lbs

M
B
= 0
72 Rvd = 8 (2433.550037) - 36(326.904984)

Rvd = 106.9419566 lbs

Y = 0

Rvb = Fva + Fvc + Rvd
Rvb = 2433.550037 + 326.904984 + 106.9419566

Rvb = 2867.39678 lbs
8"
2433.550037 lbs
6.53809968 lb/in
2867.396978 lbs 106.9419566 lbs
11" 50"
11"
A
C B
D E






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Shear Diagram
2433.550037 lbs
0
106.941957 lbs
433.846941 lbs

Moment Diagram
0
19468.4003 in-lb
14696.08395 in-lb
1176.386495 in-lb


Solving for Horizontal Component of the Bearing
8" 36" 36"
FHA
RHB
FHC
RHD

F
HC
= 27620.47475 lbs. (left)
F
HA
= 1030.512805 lbs. (right)

M
B
= 0

72 R
HD
= 36(27620.47475) + 8(1030.512805)
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
25

R
HD
= 13924.7388 lbs

Y = 0

R
HB
+ F
HC
= F
HA
+ R
HD

R
HB
= 1030.512805 + 13924.7388 27620.47475
R
HB
= -12665.22315 lbs

Therefore: R
HB
= 12665.22315 lbs (upward)
8"
1030.512805 lbs
12665.22315 lbs
552.409495 lb/in
13924.7388 lbs
0
50"
11" 11"
A
B E D C

Shear Diagram
1030.512805 lbs
13695.73596 lbs
13924.7388 lbs
X = 24.79326224 in
Moment Diagram
153172.1267 in-lb
0
328678.1846 in-lb
8244.10244 in-lb
158897.198 in-lb



2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
26


Resultant moment

M
B
=


M
B
= 21141.99223 in-lb

M
c
=


M
C
= 159575.3565 in-lb

M
D
=


M
D
= 153176.6461 in-lb

M
F
=


M
F
= 328678.1846 in-lb

Therefore, maximum moment occurs at section F.

Data for the Loading at Shaft 1

Section
Load
Resultant
Vertical Horizontal
A 2433.550037 lbs 1030.512805 lbs 2642.749028 lbs
B 2867.396978 lbs 12665.22315 lbs 12985.75538 lbs
C 326.904984 lbs 27620.47475 lbs 27622.40924 lbs
D 106.9419566 lbs 13924.7388lbs 13925.14945 lbs



Data for the Moment at Shaft 1

Section
Moment
Resultant
Vertical Horizontal
B 13468.4003 in-lb 8244.10244 in-lb 21141.99223 in-lb
C 14696.08395 in-lb 158897.198 in-lb 159575.3565 in-lb
D 1176.38695 in-lb 153172.1287 in-lb 153176.6461 in -lb
F 0 328678.1846 in-lb 328678.1846 in -lb






2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
27


Bearing Selection for Shaft 1
The maximum actual radial load of the bearing is at section D

F
r
= 13925.14945 lbs.

From eq. 9-17 by Doughtie and Vallance, p.209
F
c
= (K
a
K
l
) K
o
K
p
K
s
K
t
F
r

When a rolling bearing turns while receiving a load, a lot of stress is repeatedly placed on the
small contact surface of the bearing rings and rolling elements, and the bearing must maintain
high precision while rotating. That means bearing materials must satisfy the following demands.

Must be hard.
Rolling fatigue life must be long.
Wear must be slight.
Must be shock-resistant.
Dimensions must not vary largely with the passing of time.
Must be economical and easy to machine.

Design Consideration:
Material Used for the bearing: High Carbon Chrome Bearing Steel

The expected life of operation for the bearings is 10 years for 16 hrs/day operation.
Shaft diameter may be reduced to accommodate the bearing.

Where:
F
c
= catalog rating of bearing, lb (Table 9-7 & 9-8)

F
r
= actual radial load on the bearing, 4643.7678 lbs

K
a
= application factor taking into account the amount of shock (Table 9-4), 1.0
for uniform and steady load

K
l
=


, life factor

H
a
= desired life of bearing, hours of use

H
c
= catalog rated life, 10,000 hrs.

K
rel
= reliability factor (Table 9-3), 1.0
H
a
= 10(365)(16)
H
a
= 58400 hrs.
H
c
=10,000 hrs.

K
l
=


= 1.800822669
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
28


K
o
= oscillation factor, 1.0 for constant rotational speeds of the races

K
p
= preloading factor, 1.0 for non-preloaded ball bearings

K
s
=

, speed factor

N
a
= rotational speed of bearing, 135.4166667 rpm

N
c
= catalog rated rotational speed, 500 rpm

K
r
= rotational factor, 1.0 for bearing with fixed outer races and rotating inner
races

K
s
=

= 0.646994673

K
t
= thrust factor, 1.0 for no thrust-load component



Therefore,
F
C
= (1.0 x 1.800822669 ) x 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.646994673 x 1.0 x 13925.14945

F
C
= 16224.50736 lbs

From Table 9-7 Typical radial capacity F
c
of ball bearings (Doughtie and Vallance, p.212).
I select SAE 419 Two-row angular type ball bearing with radial capacity (F
c
) of 20300 lbs and
shaft diameter be reduced to 3.7402 in.
From Table 8 outside diameter is equal to 9.8425 in and width 2.1654 in.


Design for Key for the Pulley on Shaft 1

Design consideration of Key:

Material used: AISI C1117, Normalized Carbon Steel, same as the material used in shafting

S
u
= 63,700 psi
S
y
= 35,000 psi

From Table AT 19 Key Dimension (Faires, p.594)

For shaft diameter of 3.7402 in
b= 7/8 t = 5/8



2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
29



Shearing Stress, S
s

S
s
=



Where:
S
y
= yield stress, 35,000 psi
Fs = factor of safety, 3.0 from Table 1.1 Factors of Safety for repeated, one
direction, gradual mild shock (Faires, p.20)
Therefore,

S
s
=

= 5833.3333333 psi

Compressive Stress, S
c
S
c
=



Where:
S
y
= yield stress, 35,000 psi
Fs = factor of safety, 3.0 from Table 1.1 Factors of Safety for repeated, one
direction, gradual mild shock (Faires, p.20)
Therefore,

S
c
=

= 11,666.66667 psi


Solving for the Maximum Torque, T

Hp =



Where:
Hp = transmitted power, 16.59322255 hp
T = maximum torque
N = rpm of the shaft, 135.4166667 rpm

Therefore,
T =


T =



T = 643.5654046 ft-lb or 7722.784855 in-lb
Then,
F =


F =


2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
30


F = 4129.610638 lbs.

Solving for the Length of the Key
a. Based on the bearing stress of the shaft and since the shaft and the key have the same
material it is also equal to the bearing stress of the key.

S
c
=



11,666.66667 =



L = 1.132693203 in.

b. Based on the shearing stress of the key

S
s
=


5833.3333333 =




L = 0.809066574 in.

Therefore, I use L =1.132693203 in. and

in x

in Key.


Bolt Design for the Bearings on Shaft 1
Bearing housing design is a four bolt flange housing design.

Design Condition:
Material Used: AISI C1117, Normalized Carbon Steel
S
y
: 35,000 psi
S
u
: 63,700 psi

From Table AT 8 Typical Properties of Steel (Faires, p.578)

Number of bolts: 4 bolts

Fs = 3.0, from Table 1.1 Factors of Safety, based on yield strength of steel, ductile metals (Faires,
p.20)

2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
31

To compute for the size of bolt I will use the resultant force that will cause shearing (F =
27622.40924 lbs) divided by the number of bolts.


Solving the Size of the Bolt

Based on Shearing stress
S
s
=



Where:
S
y
= yield stress, 35,000 psi
F
s
= factor of safety, 3.0

S
s
=



Where:
F = maximum shear force, 27622.40924 lbs
A= cross sectional area of the bolt
Therefore,

=

(


)


d= 1.227714667 in.

From Table 6-1 Unified & American National threads, coarse, fine, and extra-fine series
(Doughtie and Vallance, p.130) I select 1

in-11 UNC bolt with A


r
= 0.969 in
2
and minor diameter
of 1.0747 in. The bolt being screwed into the post is the threaded part.


Shaft 2

Design Consideration:

Material Used: AISI C1117 Normalized Carbon Steel
Tensile strength: 63,700 psi
Yield strength: 35,000 psi

From Table AT 8 Typical Properties of Steel (Faires, p.578)
Shaft diameter: 4 in.
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
32

36" 36"
Fr

w = 1345.883541 lbs
F
r
= 27620.47475 lbs

Total Load
F
vB
= 1345.883541 lbs
F
HB
= 27620.47475 lbs

Solving for the Vertical Component of the Bearing
36" 36"
RVA
FVB
RvC

R
VA
= R
VC
= 1345.883541/ 2
R
VA
= R
VC
= 672.417705 lbs
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
33

672.417705 lbs
26.91767082 lbs
672.417705 lbs
50"
11" 11"
A
D C B


Shear Diagram
672.417705 lbs
672.417705 lbs
o
X= 25 in

Moment Diagram
15801.81607 in-lb
o
7396.594755 in-lb
7396.594755 in-lb



Solving for the Horizontal Component of the bearing
36" 36"
RHA
FHB
RHC

F
HB
= 27620.47475 lbs


2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
34

R
HA
= R
HC
= 27620.47475 / 2
R
HA
= R
HC
= 13810.23738 lbs
13810.23738 lbs
552.409495 lb/in
13810.23738 lbs
11" 50" 11"
A D C B


Shear Diagram
0
13810.23738 lbs
13810.23738 lbs
X = 25 in


Moment Diagram
0
151912.6112 in-lb
151912.6112 in-lb
324540.5784 in-lb


Resultant Moment

M
E
=


M
E
= 324925.0439 in-lb

M
B
= M
C
=


M
B
= M
C
= 152092.574 in-lb
maximum moment occurs at section E.
Data for the Loading at Shaft 2

Section
Load
Resultant
Vertical Horizontal
A 672.417705 lbs 13810.23738 lbs 13826.59763 lbs
B 1345.883541 lbs 27620.47475 lbs 27653.24625 lbs
C 672.417705 lbs 13810.23738 lbs 13826.59763 lbs
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
35


Data for the Moment at Shaft 2

Section
Moment
Resultant
Vertical Horizontal
E 15801.81607 in-lb 324540.578 in-lb 324925.0439 in-lb
B or C 7396.594755 in-lb 151912.6112 152092.574 in-lb



Bearing Selection for Shaft 2
The maximum actual radial load of the bearing is at section A or C.

F
r
= 13826.59763 lbs.

From eq. 9-17 by Doughtie and Vallance, p.209
F
c
= (K
a
K
l
) K
o
K
p
K
s
K
t
F
r

When a rolling bearing turns while receiving a load, a lot of stress is repeatedly placed on the
small contact surface of the bearing rings and rolling elements, and the bearing must maintain
high precision while rotating. That means bearing materials must satisfy the following demands.


Must be hard.
Rolling fatigue life must be long.
Wear must be slight.
Must be shock-resistant.
Dimensions must not vary largely with the passing of time.
Must be economical and easy to machine.

Design Consideration:
Material Used for the bearing: High Carbon Chrome Bearing Steel

The expected life of operation for the bearings is 10 years for 16 hrs/day operation.
Shaft diameter may be reduced to accommodate the bearing.

Where:
F
c
= catalog rating of bearing, lb (Table 9-7 & 9-8)

F
r
= actual radial load on the bearing, 1794.885353 lbs

K
a
= application factor taking into account the amount of shock (Table 9-4), 1.0
for uniform and steady load

K
l
=


, life factor
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
36


H
a
= desired life of bearing, hours of use

H
c
= catalog rated life, 10,000 hrs.

K
rel
= reliability factor (Table 9-3), 1.0
H
a
= 10(365)(16)
H
a
= 58400 hrs.
H
c
=10,000 hrs.
K
l
=


= 1.800822669
K
o
= oscillation factor, 1.0 for constant rotational speeds of the races

K
p
= preloading factor, 1.0 for non-preloaded ball bearings

K
s
=

, speed factor
N
a
= rotational speed, 135.4166667 rpm
N
c
= catalog rated rotational speed, 500 rpm
K
r
= rotational factor, 1.0 for bearing with fixed outer races and rotating
inner races

K
s
=

= 0.646994673

K
t
= thrust factor, 1.0 for no thrust-load component



Therefore,
F
C
= (1.0 x 1.800822669 ) x 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.646994673 x 1.0 x 13826.59763
F
C
=16109.71837 lbs

From Table 9-7 Typical radial capacity F
c
of ball bearings (Doughtie and Vallance, p.212).
I select SAE 419 Two-row angular type ball bearing with radial capacity (F
c
) of 20300 lbs and
shaft diameter be reduced to 3.7402 in.
From Table 8 outside diameter is equal to 9.8425 in and width 2.1654 in.

Bearing Housing Design on Shaft 2



Material Used: AISI C1117, Normalized Carbon Steel
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
37

SPRING DESIGN

Design Consideration:

Load: F = 27620.47475 lbs (based on horizontal reaction for shearing)

Number of Spring: 8

Load = 27620.47475 / 8
Load = 3452.559344 lbs

Spring material: Hard drawn Wire, squared and ground ends

Type of service: average service

From Table 9 Century Spring Catalog, I use 4053 spring with wire diameter, Dw = 1.00 in with
maximum suggested load = 4200 lbs

Free Length = 10 in
Dm = 3 in
Deflection = .4 in

Solving for Spring Index
C = Dm/Dw
C = 3 / 1
C = 3
Solving for Stress Factor

K=



K =


2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
38


K= 1.58

Stress Because of the Load

S
s
= k



S
s
= 1.58



S
s
= 38.67346463 ksi

Design stress
S
sd =
0.324 S
u


Where:
S
u
= 140/ Dw
0.19

S
sd
= 47.304/Dw
0.19
(.85)

S
sd
= 40.2084/1
0.19


S
sd
= 40.2084 ksi

S
sd
> S
s
(Applicable)

Solving the Number of Active Coils

Nc =



Nc =
(



Nc = 6.168263649 or 6 active coils



Solving for Solid Height

At Table At 16 Approximate Free Length and Solid Heights (Faires, p.589)

Solid Height = DwNc + 2Dw
= (1)(6) + 2 (1)
= 8 in


2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
39


Scale of Spring (k)
k= F/
k= 3452.559344/.4

k= 8631.39836 lb/in

Force to Compress the Spring to Solid Height
Fc = k (free length solid height)
Fc = (8631.39836)(10 8)

Fc = 17262.79672 lbs

Solving For Solid Stress
S
solid stress
= (Ss/F)(Fc)
S
solid stress
= (38.67346463/3452.559344)(17262.79672)

S
solid stress
= 193.3673232 ksi

Permissible Solid Stress
Ss =



Where:
Q = 70
X= 0.19
Ss =



Ss = 70 ksi.

The spring would take a permanent set if compressed to solid height.

Solving for Pitch

At Table At 16 Approximate Free Length and Solid Heights (Faires, p.589)
Free length = PNc + 2Dw
10 = P (6) + 2 (1)

P = 1.33333333 in

Solving for Pitch Angle

Pitch Angle, = tan
-1
(1.33333333/2)

= 11.98081357

2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
40


Spring Mounting





























Bolt design for Mounting the Crusher
Design Condition:
Material Used: AISI C1117, Normalized Carbon Steel
S
y
: 35,000 psi
S
u
: 63,700 psi





2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
41

6
9

i
n
58 in
1030.512805 lbs
19 in
8 in
TOP VIEW
Fd
Fm
r
Fr
1
4 3
2
B

Solving for the Maximum Tensile Force













T
1
= T
2

T
3
= T
4
= (1.5/70.5) F
1


D= 1.5 in
D
=
1
.
5

i
n
69 in
2
5

i
n
1030.512805 lbs
1.5 in
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
42


M
o
= 0
1030.512805 x 25 = 2 (70.5) T
1
+ 2 (1.5) T
3
1030.512805 x 25 = 2 (70.5) T
1
+ 2 (1.5) (1.5/70.5) T
1


T
1
= 182.6323599 lbs

Max = (

)
Where:

x
= T
A
/ A
r

y
= 0
= F
r
/ n A
r

Max =


N = number of bolts
Ar = stress area
Fs = 3.0, from Table 1.1 Factors of Safety, based on yield strength of steel, ductile metals (Faires,
p.20)

Solving for F
m
r =


r = 45.06939094 in
1030.512805 (19) = 4 (45.06939094) F
m

F
m
= 108.6088745 lbs
F
m
Components:
tan = 29/34.5
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
43

= 40.46222749

F
my
= 108.6088745 sin 40.46222749
F
my
= 70.4813605 lbs
F
mx
= 108.6088745 cos 40.46222749
F
mx
= 82.63331921 lbs

Solving for F
r
F
r
=


F
r
= 1104.090756 lbs



= (

)




5833.3333333 =


Ar = 0.263546125 in
2

From Table 6-1 Unified & American National threads, coarse, fine, and extra-fine series
(Doughtie and lVallance, p.130) I select in-10 UNC bolt with A
r
= 0.334 in
2
and minor diameter
of 0.6273 in.





2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
44

DESIGN SUMMARY
Elements Specifications Loadings
Motor 20 Hp
500 rpm

V-belt C = 48 in
L = 161.3 in
V
m
= 1701.696021 ft/min
N = 4 leather belts
b x t = 1 x in
Hp
Transmitted
= 16.59322255
Sheave of V-belt D
1
= 13 in
D
2
= 48 in
T = 5 in
C = 48 in
N
1
= 500 rpm
N
2
= 135.4166667 rpm
W
1
= 169.8973307 lbs
W
2
= 2316.233432 lbs
Shaft 1 AISI C117 Normalized Carbon
Steel
D = 4 in
L = 80 in
@ section F,
M
max
= 328678.1846 in-lb
T = 7722.784855 in-lb
Bearing on Shaft 1 High Carbon Chrome Bearing
Steel
H
a
= 58400 hrs.
SAE 419 Two-row Angular
Type Ball Bearing
Bore = 3.7402 in
F
r
= 13925.14945 lbs
Key at Shaft 1 AISI C117 Normalized Carbon
Steel
b = 7/8 in
t = 5/8 in
L= 1.132693203 in
T = 7722.784855 in-lb
F = 4129.610638 lbs
Bolt on Bearing @ Shaft 1 AISI C117 Normalized Carbon
Steel
A
r
= 0.969 in
2

N= 4 bolts
1 in-11 UNC bolt

F = 27622.40924 lbs
Shaft 2 AISI C117 Normalized Carbon
Steel
D = 4 in
L = 72 in
@ section E
M
max =
324925.0439 in-lb

Bearing on Shaft 2 High Carbon Chrome Bearing
Steel
H
a
= 58400 hrs.
SAE 419 Two-row Angular
Type Ball Bearing
Bore = 3.7402 in
F
r
= 13826.59763 lbs
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
45

Spring Hard drawn wire
Squared and Ground ends
Dw = 1 in
Free length = 10 in
Dm = 3 in
Deflection = 0.4 in
Nc = 6 active coils
P = 1.3333333 in
= 11.980811357
C = 3 in
Solid height = 8 in
F = 3452.559344 lbs.
S
s
= 38.67346463 ksi
S
sd
= 40.2084 ksi.
Fc = 17262.79672 lbs.
k= 8631.39836 lb/in
S
solid stress
= 193.3673232 ksi
S
permissible
= 70 ksi.
Bolt on Crusher AISI C117 Normalized Carbon
Steel
N= 4 bolts
A
r
= 0.334 in
2

select in-10 UNC bolt
T
1
= 182.6323599 lbs
F = 1030.512805 lbs
F
r
= 1104.030756 lbs
F
m
= 108.6088745 lbs































2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
46


LIST OF REFERENCES

Books :

Doughtie, V.L., &Vallance, A. (1978).Design of Machine Members(4
th
ed.).New York: McGraw-
Hill, INC.
Faires, V.M. (1969). Design of Machine Elements (4
th
ed.). New York: MacMillan Company.
Morse, F. (1953).Power Plant Engineering. Philippines: Litton Educational Pubishing, INC.
Spotts, M.F. (1991). Design of Machine Elements (6
th
ed.). Singapore: Simon & Schuster (Asia) Pte
Ltd.


Internet:

Engineering Tool Box, electrical motors - Hp, torque and rpm. Retrieved July 5,2012 from
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/electrical-motors-hp-torque-rpm-d_1503.html

Handbook of Coal Analysis. Retrieved July 5, 2012 from http://info.com/Handbookofcoalanalysis

Roll Crusher. Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.gundlachcrushers.com/crushers/roll-
crushers-coal-salts-lime-minerals.cfm

What is the density of Coal.Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What

BL Precision Bearings Radial Ball Bearings Catalog. Retrieve September 12, 2012 from
http://www.qbcbearings.com/BuyRFQ/ThrustB_Bearing_B_CSBW.htm
Century Compression Spring Catalog. Retrieved Sept 12, 2012 http://www.centuryspring.com














2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
47



APPENDIX:
Power
Motor Velocity (rpm)
3450 2000 1000 500
Torque
hp Kw
(in
lb
f
)
(ft lb
f
) (Nm)
(in
lb
f
)
(ft lb
f
) (Nm)
(in
lb
f
)
(ft lb
f
) (Nm)
(in
lb
f
)
(ft lb
f
) (Nm)
1 0.75 18 1.5 2.1 32 2.6 3.6 63 5.3 7.1 126 10.5 14.2
1.5 1.1 27 2.3 3.1 47 3.9 5.3 95 7.9 10.7 189 15.8 21.4
2 1.5 37 3.0 4.1 63 5.3 7.1 126 10.5 14.2 252 21.0 28.5
3 2.2 55 4.6 6.2 95 7.9 10.7 189 15.8 21.4 378 31.5 42.7
5 3.7 91 7.6 10 158 13.1 18 315 26.3 36 630 52.5 71
7.5 5.6 137 11 15 236 20 27 473 39 53 945 79 107
10 7.5 183 15 21 315 26 36 630 53 71 1260 105 142
15 11 274 23 31 473 39 53 945 79 107 1891 158 214
20 15 365 30 41 630 53 71 1260 105 142 2521 210 285
25 19 457 38 52 788 66 89 1576 131 178 3151 263 356
30 22 548 46 62 945 79 107 1891 158 214 3781 315 427
2012 [DOUBLE ROLL CRUSHER DESIGN]

MACHINE DESIGN 2
48

40 30 731 61 83 1260 105 142 2521 210 285 5042 420 570
50 37 913 76 103 1576 131 178 3151 263 356 6302 525 712
60 45 1096 91 124 1891 158 214 3781 315 427 7563 630 855
70 52 1279 107 145 2206 184 249 4412 368 499 8823 735 997
80 60 1461 122 165 2521 210 285 5042 420 570 10084 840 1140
90 67 1644 137 186 2836 236 321 5672 473 641 11344 945 1282
100 75 1827 152 207 3151 263 356 6302 525 712 12605 1050 1425
125 93 2283 190 258 3939 328 445 7878 657 891 15756 1313 1781
150 112 2740 228 310 4727 394 534 9454 788 1069 18907 1576 2137
175 131 3197 266 361 5515 460 623 11029 919 1247 22058 1838 2494
200 149 3654 304 413 6302 525 712 12605 1050 1425 25210 2101 2850
225 168 4110 343 465 7090 591 801 14180 1182 1603 28361 2363 3206
250 187 4567 381 516 7878 657 891 15756 1313 1781 31512 2626 3562
275 205 5024 419 568 8666 722 980 17332 1444 1959 34663 2889 3918
300 224 5480 457 620 9454 788 1069 18907 1576 2137 37814 3151 4275
350 261 6394 533 723 11029 919 1247 22058 1838 2494 44117 3676 4987
400 298 7307 609 826 12605 1050 1425 25210 2101 2850 50419 4202 5699
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Table 1 Power versus torque and motor velocity in electric motors




















Table 8.2 Variation Of Compressive Strength by Rank




Figure 17.14 Belt Selection from Horsepower and Speed

450 336 8221 685 929 14180 1182 1603 28361 2363 3206 56722 4727 6412
550 410 10047 837 1136 17332 1444 1959 34663 2889 3918 69326 5777 7837
600 448 10961 913 1239 18907 1576 2137 37814 3151 4275 75629 6302 8549
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Table 17.7 Service Factors

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Table 17.5 Arc-of contact
factors

















Table 17.4 small diameter
factor
Table 17.3 Standard V-belt Lengths;
Horsepower Constants

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Table 16-5 Coefficient of Friction For Belts






























Table 17.6 Length Correction Factors
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Table AT8 Typical Properties of Steel-Various Sizes and Conditions

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Table 9-3 Typical Reliability Factors for rolling element bearings












Table 9-4 Typical Values of application factor for roller and ball bearings










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Table 9-2 SAE and International Standard dimensions for ball and Roller Bearings







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Table 8 Ball Bearing specification






















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Table 9-7 Typical Radial Capacity for Ball bearings


















Table 9-4 Typical Values of Application factor for roller and ball bearings


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Table AT 19 Key Dimensions
















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Table 6-1 Uniform and American National Threads, coarse, fine and extra-fine.



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Table 1.1 Factors of safety



Table 9 Century Spring Catalog
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Figure AF 15 Stress Factor

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Table AT 17 Mechanical Properties of Wire for Coil Springs





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Table AT 16 Approximate Free Lengths and Solid Heights