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CHAPTER 6
PASSBAND DATA
TRANSMISSION
KNCET, TRICHY 2/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Passband Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying  BPSK
KNCET, TRICHY 3/62
6.1 Introduction
• In Ch. 4 we studied digital baseband transmission where the
generated data stream, represented in the form of discrete
pulseamplitude modulated signal (PAM) is transmitted
directly over a lowpass channel.
• In Ch.6 we will study digital passband transmission where
the incoming digital signal is modulated onto a carrier (usually
sinusoidal) with fixed frequency limits imposed by the band
pass channel available
• The communication channel used in passband digital
transmission may be microwave radio link, satellite channel
etc.
• Other aspects of study in digital passband transmission are
line codes design and orthogonal FDM techniques for
broadcasting.
KNCET, TRICHY 4/62
Definitions:
• The modulation of digital signals is a process involving
switching (keying) the amplitude, frequency or phase of a
sinusoidal carrier in some way in accordance with the
incoming digital data.
• Three basic schemes exist:
– amplitude shift keying (ASK)
– frequency shift keying (FSK)
– phase shift keying (PSK)
• REMARKS:
– In continuous wave modulation phase modulated and frequency
modulated signals are difficult to distinguish between, this is not true
for PSK and FSK.
– PSK and FSK both have constant envelope while ASK does not.
KNCET, TRICHY 5/62
Figure 6.1
Illustrative waveforms for the three basic forms of signaling binary
information. (a) Amplitudeshift keying. (b) Phaseshift keying. (c)
Frequencyshift keying with continuous phase.
KNCET, TRICHY 6/62
Hierarchy of Digital Modulation Techniques
• Depending on whether the receiver does phaserecovery or not
the modulation techniques are divided into:
– Coherent
– Noncoherent
• Phase recovery circuit  ensures synchronization of locally
generated carrier wave (both frequency and phase), with the
incoming data stream from the Tx.
• Binary versus Mary schemes
– binary – use only two symbol levels;
– Mary schemes – pure Mary scheme exists as Mary ASK, Mary PSK
and Mary FSK, using more then one level in the modulation process;
Also hybrid Mary schemes – quadratureamplitude modulation
(QAM); preferred over bandpass transmissions when the requirement
is to preserve bandwidth at the expense of increased power
KNCET, TRICHY 7/62
Remarks:
• Linearity
– Mary PSK and Mary QAM are both linear modulation
schemes; Mary PSK – constant envelope; Mary QAM –
no
– Mary PSK – used over linear channels
– Mary QAM – used over nonlinear channels
• Coherence
– ASK and FSK – used with noncoherent systems; no need
of maintaining carrier phase synchronization
– “noncoherent PSK” means no carrier phase information;
instead pseudo PSK = differential PSK (DPSK);
KNCET, TRICHY 8/62
Probability of Error
• Design goal – minimize the average probability of
symbol error in the presence of AWGN.
• Signalspace analysis is a tool for setting decision
areas for signal detection over AWGN (i.e. based on
maximum likelihood signal detection) (Ch.5!)
• Based on these decisions probability of symbol error
P
e
is calculated
– for simple binary coherent methods as coherent binary PSK
and coherent binary FSK, there are exact formulas for P
e
– for coherent Mary PSK and coherent Mary FSK
approximate solutions are sought.
KNCET, TRICHY 9/62
Power Spectra
• power spectra of resulting modulated signals is
important for:
– comparison of virtues and limitations of different
schemes
– study of occupancy of channel bandwidth
– study of cochannel interference
KNCET, TRICHY 10/62
~
( ) ( ) cos(2 ) ( )sin(2 )
Re[ ( ) exp( 2 )] (6.1)
I c Q c
c
s t s t f T s t f t
s t j f t
t t
t
= ÷
=
~
( ) ( ) ( ) (6.2)
I Q
s t s t js t = +
A modulated signal is described in terms of inphase and
quadrature component as follows:
exp( 2 ) cos(2 ) sin(2 ) (6.3)
c c c
j f T f t j f t t t t = +
complex
envelope
KNCET, TRICHY 11/62
• The complex envelope is actually the baseband
version of the modulated (bandpass) signal.
• s
I
(t) and s
Q
(t) as components of are lowpass
signals.
~
( ) s t
Let S
B
(f) denote the power spectral density of the complex
envelope , known as baseband power spectral density.
The power spectral density S
s
(f) of the original bandpass
signal s(t) is a frequency shifted version of S
B
(f) except for a
scaling factor:
~
( ) s t
1
( ) [ ( ) ( )] (6.4)
4
s B c B c
S t S f f S f f = ÷ + +
KNCET, TRICHY 12/62
So,
• as far as the power spectrum is concerned it is
sufficient to evaluate the baseband power spectral
density S
B
(f) and since is a lowpass
signal, the calculation of S
B
(f) should be simpler
than the calculation of S
s
(f).
~
( ) s t
KNCET, TRICHY 13/62
Bandwidth efficiency
• Main goal of communication engineering –
spectrally efficient schemes
– maximize bandwidth efficiency = ratio of the data
rate in bits per seconds to the effectively utilized
channel bandwidth.
– achieve bandwidth at minimum practical
expenditure of average SNR
KNCET, TRICHY 14/62
/ / (6.5)
b
R
bits s Hz
B
µ =
The effectiveness of a channel with bandwidth B can be
expressed as:
bandwidth
data rate
KNCET, TRICHY 15/62
• Before (Ch.4) we discussed that the bandwidth
efficiency is the product of two independent
factors:
– multilevel encoding – use of blocks of bits instead
of single bits.
– spectral shaping – bandwidth requirements on the
channel are reduced by the use of suitable pulse
shaping filters
KNCET, TRICHY 16/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Passband Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– QuadriphaseShift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 17/62
6.2 Passband transmission model
• Functional blocks of the model
• Transmitter side
– message source, emitting a symbol every T seconds; a
symbol belongs to an alphabet of M symbols, denoted by
m
1
, m
2
, ….m
M;
the a priori probabilities P(m
1
),
P(m
2
),…P(m
M
) specify the message source output; when
symbols are equally likely we can express the
probability p
i
as:
( )
1
(6.6)
i i
p P m
for all i
M
=
=
KNCET, TRICHY 18/62
– signal transmission encoder , producing a vector s
i
made up
of N real elements, one such set for each of the M symbols
of the source alphabet; dimension wise N ≤ M;
– s
i
is fed to a modulator that constructs a distinct signal s
i
(t)
of duration T seconds as the representation of symbol m
i
generated by the message source; the signal s
i
is an energy
signal (what does this mean?); s
i
is real valued
• Channel:
– linear channel wide enough to accommodate the
transmission of the modulated signal with negligible or no
distortion
– the channel white noise is a sample function of AWGN with
zero mean and N
0
/2 power spectral density
KNCET, TRICHY 19/62
• Receiver side (blocks described in detail p.326327)
– detector
– signal transmission decoder; reverses the operations
performed in the transmitter;
Figure 6.2
Functional model of passband data transmission system.
KNCET, TRICHY 20/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Passband Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– QuadriphaseShift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 21/62
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
 Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
• In a coherent binary PSK the pair of signals used to
represent binary 0 and 1 are defined as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ) (6.8)
b
c
b
E
s t f t
T
t =
2
2 2
( ) cos(2 ) cos(2 ) (6.9)
b b
c c
b b
E E
s t f t f t
T T
t t t = + = ÷
transmitted energy
per bit
duration of one bit
f
c
=n
c
/T
b
KNCET, TRICHY 22/62
• So the transmitted signals can be expressed as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.10)
c b
b
t f t t T
T
 t = s <
• The equations (6.8) and (6.9) represent antipodal signals –
sinusoidal signals that differ only in a relative phase shift of
180 degrees.
• In BPSK there is only one basis function of unit energy
expressed as:
1 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.11)
b b
s t E t t T  = s <
2 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.12)
b b
s t E t t T  = ÷ s <
KNCET, TRICHY 23/62
• A coherent BPSK system can be characterized by
having a signal space that is one dimensional (N= 1),
with signal constellation consisting of two message
points (M = 2)
• The coordinates of the message points are:
11 1 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.13)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
 =
= +
}
21 2 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.14)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
 =
= ÷
}
KNCET, TRICHY 24/62
Figure 6.3
Signalspace diagram for coherent binary PSK system. The waveforms depicting the
transmitted signals s
1
(t) and s
2
(t), displayed in the inserts, assume n
c
= 2.
Note that the frequency f
c
is chosen to ensure that each transmitted bit contains an integer
number of cycles..
message point
corresponding to s
1
message point
corresponding to s
2
n
c
is an integer such that
T
symbol
= n
c
/T
bit
KNCET, TRICHY 25/62
Error Probability of Binary PSK
• Decision rule: based on the maximum likelihood
decision algorithm/rule which in this case means
that we have to choose the message point closest to
the received signal point
observation vector x lies in region Z
i
if
the Euclidean distance xs
k
 is minimum for k =i
• For BPSK: N= 1, space is divided into two areas (fig.6.3)
– the set of points closest to message point 1 at +E
1/2
– the set of points closest to message point 2 at – E
1/2
KNCET, TRICHY 26/62
• The decision rule is simply to decide that signal s
1
(t) (i.e.
binary 1) was transmitted if the received signal point falls in
region Z
1
, and decide that signal s
2
(t) (i.e. binary symbol 0)
was transmitted if the received signal falls in region Z
2
.
• Two kinds of errors are possible due to noise:
– sent s
1
(t), received signal point falls in Z
2
– sent s
2
(t), received signal point falls in Z
1
• This can be expressed as: Z
i
: 0 < x
1
< æ
• and the observed element is expressed as a function of the
received signal x(t) as:
1 1
0
( ) ( ) (6.15)
b
T
x x t t dt  =
}
KNCET, TRICHY 27/62
So,
• In Ch.5 it was deduced that memoryless AWGN channels,
the observation elements X
i
are Gaussian RV with mean s
ij
and variance N
0
/2.
• The conditional probability density function that x
j
(signal s
j
was received providing m
i
was sent) is given by:
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / ) exp[ ( ) ]
j
x j i ij
f x m x s
N
N t
= ÷ ÷
KNCET, TRICHY 28/62
• When we substitute for the case of BPSK
1
2
1 1 21
0
0
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ]
1 1
exp[ ( ) ] (6.16)
x
b
f x x s
N
N
x E
N
N
t
t
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
1
2
10 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ] (6.17)
x b
f x dx x E dx
N
N
µ
t
· ·
= = ÷ +
} }
• Then the conditional probability of the receiver in
favor of 1 provided 0 was transmitted is:
KNCET, TRICHY 29/62
• if we substitute and change the integration variable:
1
0
1
( )] (6.18)
b
z x E
N
= +
0
2
10
/
0
1
exp( )
1
( (6.19)
2
b
E N
b
z dz
E
erfc
N
µ
t
·
= ÷
=
}
KNCET, TRICHY 30/62
• Considering an error of the second kind:
– signal space is symmetric about the origin
– p
01
is the same as p
10
• Average probability of symbol error or the bit error
rate for coherent BPSK is:
0
1
( ) (6.20)
2
b
e
E
P erfc
N
=
• So increasing the signal energy per bit makes the
points  and move farther apart which
correspond to reducing the error probability.
KNCET, TRICHY 31/62
Generation and Detection of Coherent
BPSK Signals
• Transmitter side:
– Need to represent the binary sequence 0 and 1 in polar form
with constant amplitudes, respectively – and +
(polar nonreturntozero – NRZ  encoding).
– Carrier wave is with frequency f
c
=(n
c
/T
b
)
– Required BPSK modulated signal is at the output of the
product modulator.
• Receiver side
– noisy PSK is fed to a correlator with locally generated
reference signal
– correlator output is compared to a threshold of 0 volts in
the decision device
KNCET, TRICHY 32/62
Figure 6.4
Block diagrams for (a) binary PSK transmitter and (b)
coherent binary PSK receiver.
KNCET, TRICHY 33/62
Power Spectra of BPSK
• From the modulator – the complex envelope of the
BPSK has only inphase component
• Depending on whether we have a symbol 1 or 0
during the signaling interval 0 ≤ t ≤ T
b
the inphase
component is +g(t) or – g(t).
2
, 0
( ) (6.21)
0,
b
b
b
E
t T
g t T
otherwise
¦ ¹
s s
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
symbol
shaping function
KNCET, TRICHY 34/62
• We assume that the input binary wave is random, with symbols
1 or 0 equally likely and that symbols transmitted during the
different time slots are statistically independent.
• So, (Ch.1) the power spectra of such a random binary wave is
given by the energy spectral density of the symbol shaping
function divided by the symbol duration.(See Ex.1.3 and 1.6)
• g(t) is an energy signal – FT
• Finally, the energy spectral density is equal to the squared
magnitude of the signals FT.
2
2
2
2 sin ( )
( )
( )
2 sin ( ) (6.22)
b b
B
b
b b
E T f
S f
T f
E c T f
t
t
=
=
KNCET, TRICHY 35/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Passband Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– QuadriphaseShift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 36/62
• Reliable performance
– Very low probability of error
• Efficient utilization of channel bandwidth
– Sending more then one bit in a symbol
• Quadriphaseshift keying (QPSK)  example of quadrature
carrier multiplexing
– Information is carried in the phase
– Phase can take one of four equally spaced values – π/4, 3π/4, 5π/4, 7π/4
– We assume gray encoding (10, 00, 01, 11)
– Transmitted signal is defined as:
2
cos[2 (2 1) ], 0
( ) (6.23)
4
0,
c
i
E
f t i t T
s t
T
elsewhere
t
t
¦
+ ÷ s s ¦
=
´
¦
¹
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying  QPSK
KNCET, TRICHY 37/62
SignalSpace Diagram of QPSK
• From 6.23 we can redefine the transmitted signal
using a trigonometric identity:
• From this representation we can use GramSchmidt
Orthogonal Procedure to create the signalspace
diagram for this signal.
• It allows us to find the orthogonal basis functions
used for the signalspace representation.
2 2
( ) cos[(2 1) ]cos(2 ) sin[(2 1) ]sin(2 ) (6.24)
4 4
i c c
E E
s t i f t i f t
T T
t t
t t = ÷ ÷ ÷
KNCET, TRICHY 38/62
• In our case there exist two orthogonal basis functions
in the expansion of s
i
(t). These are φ
1
(t) and φ
2
(t),
defined by a pair of quadrature carriers:
• Based on these representations we can make the
following two important observations:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.25)
c
t f t t T
T
 t = s s
2
2
( ) sin(2 ), 0 (6.26)
c
t f t t T
T
 t = s s
KNCET, TRICHY 39/62
• There are 4 message points and the associated vectors
are defined by:
• Values are summarized in Table 6.1
• Conclusion:
– QPSK has a twodimensional signal constellation (N = 2)
and four message points (M = 4).
– As binary PSK, QPSK has minimum average energy
cos[(2 1) ]
4
, 1, 2, 3, 4 (6.27)
sin[(2 1) ]
4
i
E i
s i
E i
t
t
(
÷
(
= =
(
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
KNCET, TRICHY 40/62
Figure 6.6
Signalspace diagram of coherent QPSK system.
KNCET, TRICHY 41/62
Example 6.1
• Generate a QPSK signal for the given
binary input.
Input binary sequence is: 01101000
Divided into odd even input bits sequences
Two waveforms are created: s
i1
φ
1
(t) and s
i2
φ
2
(t) – individually viewed as binary PSK
signals.
By adding them we get the QPSK signal
KNCET, TRICHY 42/62
Example 6.1 – cont’d
To define the decision rule for the detection of the
transmitted data sequence the signal space is
partitioned into four regions in accordance with:
observation vector x lies in region Z
i
if
the Euclidean distance xs
k
 is minimum for k = i
Result: Four regions – quadrants – are defined,
whose vertices coincide with the origin.
Marked in fig. 6.6 (previous pages)
KNCET, TRICHY 43/62
Figure 6.7
(a) Input binary sequence. (b) Oddnumbered bits of input sequence and
associated binary PSK wave. (c) Evennumbered bits of input sequence
and associated binary PSK wave. (d) QPSK waveform defined as s(t) =
s
i1

1
(t) + s
i2

2
(t).
KNCET, TRICHY 44/62
Error probability of QPSK
• In a coherent system the received signal is defined
as:
• w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise
process of zero mean and N
0
/2.
0
( ) ( ) ( ), (6.28)
1, 2, 3, 4
i
t T
x t s t w t
i
s s
¦
= +
´
=
¹
KNCET, TRICHY 45/62
The observation vector has two elements, x
1
and x
2
,
defined by:
( )
1 1
0
1
1
( ) ( )
cos 2 1 (6.29)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w

t
=
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
KNCET, TRICHY 46/62
The observation vector has two elements, x
1
and x
2
,
defined by:
( )
1 1
0
1
1
( ) ( )
cos 2 1 (6.29)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w

t
=
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
i=1 and 3 so
cos(π/4)
= 1/2
KNCET, TRICHY 47/62
( )
2 2
0
2
2
( ) ( )
sin 2 1 (6.30)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w

t
=
(
= ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
KNCET, TRICHY 48/62
( )
2 2
0
2
2
( ) ( )
sin 2 1 (6.30)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w

t
=
(
= ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
i=2 and 4 so
sin(3π/4)
= 1/2
KNCET, TRICHY 49/62
So,
• The observable elements x
1
and x
2
are
sample values of independent Gaussian RV
with mean equal to +/√E/2 and /+√E/2
and variance equal to N
0
/2.
• The decision rule is to find whether the
received signal s
i
is in the expected zone Z
i
or not.
KNCET, TRICHY 50/62
Calculation of the error
probability:
• QPSK is actually equivalent to two BPSK systems
working in parallel and using carriers that are
quadrature in phase.
• According to 6.29 and 6.30 these two BPSK are
characterized as follows:
– The signal energy per bit is √E/2
– The noise spectral density is N
0
/2.
• Calculate the average probability of bit error for
each channel as:
KNCET, TRICHY 51/62
• In one of the previous
classes we derived the
formula for the bit error
rate for coherent binary
PSK as:
0
1
( ) (6.20)
2
b
e
E
P erfc
N
=
1 / 2
'
2
1
(6.31)
2 2
o
o
E
P erfc
N
E
erfc
N
 
=


\ .
 
=


\ .
• Using 6.20 we can find
the average probability
for bit error in each
channel of the coherent
QPSK as:
KNCET, TRICHY 52/62
• The bit errors for the inphase and
quadrature channels of the coherent QPSK
are statistically independent
• The inphase channel makes a decision on
one of the two dibits constituting a symbol;
the quadrature channel – for the other one.
• Then the average probability of a correct
decision is product of two statistically
independent events p
1
and p
2
.
KNCET, TRICHY 53/62
• The average probability for a correct decision resulting from
the combined action of the two channels can be expressed as
(p
1
* p
2
):
2
2
0
2
0 0
(1 ')
1
[1 ( )] (6.32)
2 2
1
1 ( ) ( )
2 4 2
c
P P
E
erfc
N
E E
erfc erfc
N N
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷ +
KNCET, TRICHY 54/62
• Thus the average probability for a symbol error for
coherent QPSK can be written as:
• The term erfc
2
(√E/2N
0
)<< 1 so it can be ignored,
then:
2
0 0
1
1
( ) ( ) (6.33)
2 4 2
e c
P P
E E
erfc erfc
N N
= ÷
= ÷
0
( ) (6.34)
2
e
E
P erfc
N
KNCET, TRICHY 55/62
• Since there are two bits per symbol in the QPSK
system, the energy per symbol is related to the
energy per bit in the following way:
• So, using the ratio E
b
/N
0
we can express the symbol
error (6.37):
2 (6.36)
b
E E =
( ) (6.37)
b
e
o
E
P erfc
N
KNCET, TRICHY 56/62
• Finally we can express the bit error rate (BER) for QPSK
as:
1
( ) (6.38)
2
b
o
E
BER erfc
N
=
Conclusions:
• A coherent QPSK system achieves the same average probability of bit error
as a coherent PSK system for the same bit error rate and the same E
b
/N
0
but
uses half of the channel bandwidth.
or
• At the same channel bandwidth the QPSK systems transmits information at
twice the bit rate and the same average probability of error.
• Better usage of channel bandwidth!
KNCET, TRICHY 57/62
Generation and Detection of Coherent
QPSK Signals
• Algorithm (transmitter)
– input binary data sequence transformed into polar form (non
returntozero encoder) – symbols 1 and 0 are represented by
+√E/2 and √E/2
– divided into two streams by a demultiplexer (odd and even
numbered bits) – a
1
(t) and a
2
(t)
– in any signaling interval the amplitudes of a
1
(t) and a
2
(t)
equal s
i1
and s
i2
depending on the particular bit that is sent
– a
1
(t) and a
2
(t) modulate a pair of quadrature carriers
(orthogonal basis functions φ
1
(t) = √2/Tcos(2πf
c
t) and φ
2
(t)=
√2/Tsin(2πf
c
t) )
– results in a pair of binary PSK which can be detected
independently due to the orthogonallity of the basis functions.
KNCET, TRICHY 58/62
• Algorithm (receiver)
– pair of correlators with common input
– locally generated pair of coherent reference signals
φ
1
(t) and φ
2
(t).
– correlator outputs – x
1
and x
2
produced in response
to the input signal x(t)
– threshold comparison for decision
• inphase – x
1
>0 decision for 1; x
1
<0 decision of 0
• quadrature – x
2
>0 decision for 1; x
2
<0 decision of 0
– combined in a multiplexer
KNCET, TRICHY 59/62
Figure 6.8
Block diagrams of (a)
QPSK transmitter and
(b) coherent QPSK
receiver.
KNCET, TRICHY 60/62
Power Spectra of QPSK Signals
• Assumptions;
– binary wave is random;
– 1 and 0 symbols are equally likely;
– symbols transmitted in adjacent intervals are statistically
independent
• Then:
1. depending on the dibit sent during the signaling
interval T
b
≤ t ≤ T
b
 the inphase component equals +g(t) or – g(t)
 similar situation exists for the quadrature component
Note: the g(t) denotes the symbol shaping function
KNCET, TRICHY 61/62
So,
it follows that the inphase and quadrature
components have a common power spectral
density E sinc
2
(Tf).
, 0
( ) (6.39)
0,
E
t T
g t
T
otherwise
¦
s s ¦
=
´
¦
¹
KNCET, TRICHY 62/62
• The inphase and quadrature components
are statistically independent.
• the baseband power spectral density of QPSK equals
the sum of the individual power spectral densities of
the inphase and quadrature components
2
2
( ) 2 sin ( )
4 sin (2 ) (6.40)
B
b b
S f E c Tf
E c T f
=
=
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