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BPSK-QPSK

BPSK-QPSK

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KNCET, TRICHY 1/62

CHAPTER 6

PASS-BAND DATA
TRANSMISSION
KNCET, TRICHY 2/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Pass-band Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying - BPSK
KNCET, TRICHY 3/62
6.1 Introduction
• In Ch. 4 we studied digital baseband transmission where the
generated data stream, represented in the form of discrete
pulse-amplitude modulated signal (PAM) is transmitted
directly over a low-pass channel.
• In Ch.6 we will study digital pass-band transmission where
the incoming digital signal is modulated onto a carrier (usually
sinusoidal) with fixed frequency limits imposed by the band-
pass channel available
• The communication channel used in pass-band digital
transmission may be microwave radio link, satellite channel
etc.
• Other aspects of study in digital pass-band transmission are
line codes design and orthogonal FDM techniques for
broadcasting.

KNCET, TRICHY 4/62
Definitions:
• The modulation of digital signals is a process involving
switching (keying) the amplitude, frequency or phase of a
sinusoidal carrier in some way in accordance with the
incoming digital data.
• Three basic schemes exist:
– amplitude shift keying (ASK)
– frequency shift keying (FSK)
– phase shift keying (PSK)
• REMARKS:
– In continuous wave modulation phase modulated and frequency
modulated signals are difficult to distinguish between, this is not true
for PSK and FSK.
– PSK and FSK both have constant envelope while ASK does not.
KNCET, TRICHY 5/62
Figure 6.1
Illustrative waveforms for the three basic forms of signaling binary
information. (a) Amplitude-shift keying. (b) Phase-shift keying. (c)
Frequency-shift keying with continuous phase.
KNCET, TRICHY 6/62
Hierarchy of Digital Modulation Techniques
• Depending on whether the receiver does phase-recovery or not
the modulation techniques are divided into:
– Coherent
– Non-coherent
• Phase recovery circuit - ensures synchronization of locally
generated carrier wave (both frequency and phase), with the
incoming data stream from the Tx.
• Binary versus M-ary schemes
– binary – use only two symbol levels;
– M-ary schemes – pure M-ary scheme exists as M-ary ASK, M-ary PSK
and M-ary FSK, using more then one level in the modulation process;
Also hybrid M-ary schemes – quadrature-amplitude modulation
(QAM); preferred over band-pass transmissions when the requirement
is to preserve bandwidth at the expense of increased power
KNCET, TRICHY 7/62
Remarks:
• Linearity
– M-ary PSK and M-ary QAM are both linear modulation
schemes; M-ary PSK – constant envelope; M-ary QAM –
no
– M-ary PSK – used over linear channels
– M-ary QAM – used over non-linear channels
• Coherence
– ASK and FSK – used with non-coherent systems; no need
of maintaining carrier phase synchronization
– “noncoherent PSK” means no carrier phase information;
instead pseudo PSK = differential PSK (DPSK);
KNCET, TRICHY 8/62
Probability of Error
• Design goal – minimize the average probability of
symbol error in the presence of AWGN.
• Signal-space analysis is a tool for setting decision
areas for signal detection over AWGN (i.e. based on
maximum likelihood signal detection) (Ch.5!)
• Based on these decisions probability of symbol error
P
e
is calculated
– for simple binary coherent methods as coherent binary PSK
and coherent binary FSK, there are exact formulas for P
e

– for coherent M-ary PSK and coherent M-ary FSK
approximate solutions are sought.
KNCET, TRICHY 9/62
Power Spectra
• power spectra of resulting modulated signals is
important for:
– comparison of virtues and limitations of different
schemes
– study of occupancy of channel bandwidth
– study of co-channel interference

KNCET, TRICHY 10/62
~
( ) ( ) cos(2 ) ( )sin(2 )
Re[ ( ) exp( 2 )] (6.1)
I c Q c
c
s t s t f T s t f t
s t j f t
t t
t
= ÷
=
~
( ) ( ) ( ) (6.2)
I Q
s t s t js t = +
A modulated signal is described in terms of in-phase and
quadrature component as follows:
exp( 2 ) cos(2 ) sin(2 ) (6.3)
c c c
j f T f t j f t t t t = +
complex
envelope
KNCET, TRICHY 11/62
• The complex envelope is actually the baseband
version of the modulated (bandpass) signal.
• s
I
(t) and s
Q
(t) as components of are low-pass
signals.
~
( ) s t
Let S
B
(f) denote the power spectral density of the complex
envelope , known as baseband power spectral density.
The power spectral density S
s
(f) of the original band-pass
signal s(t) is a frequency shifted version of S
B
(f) except for a
scaling factor:
~
( ) s t
1
( ) [ ( ) ( )] (6.4)
4
s B c B c
S t S f f S f f = ÷ + +
KNCET, TRICHY 12/62
So,
• as far as the power spectrum is concerned it is
sufficient to evaluate the baseband power spectral
density S
B
(f) and since is a low-pass
signal, the calculation of S
B
(f) should be simpler
than the calculation of S
s
(f).
~
( ) s t
KNCET, TRICHY 13/62
Bandwidth efficiency
• Main goal of communication engineering –
spectrally efficient schemes
– maximize bandwidth efficiency = ratio of the data
rate in bits per seconds to the effectively utilized
channel bandwidth.
– achieve bandwidth at minimum practical
expenditure of average SNR

KNCET, TRICHY 14/62
/ / (6.5)
b
R
bits s Hz
B
µ =
The effectiveness of a channel with bandwidth B can be
expressed as:
bandwidth
data rate
KNCET, TRICHY 15/62
• Before (Ch.4) we discussed that the bandwidth
efficiency is the product of two independent
factors:
– multilevel encoding – use of blocks of bits instead
of single bits.
– spectral shaping – bandwidth requirements on the
channel are reduced by the use of suitable pulse-
shaping filters
KNCET, TRICHY 16/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Pass-band Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– Quadriphase-Shift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 17/62
6.2 Pass-band transmission model
• Functional blocks of the model
• Transmitter side
– message source, emitting a symbol every T seconds; a
symbol belongs to an alphabet of M symbols, denoted by
m
1
, m
2
, ….m
M;
the a priori probabilities P(m
1
),
P(m
2
),…P(m
M
) specify the message source output; when
symbols are equally likely we can express the
probability p
i
as:
( )
1
(6.6)
i i
p P m
for all i
M
=
=
KNCET, TRICHY 18/62
– signal transmission encoder , producing a vector s
i
made up
of N real elements, one such set for each of the M symbols
of the source alphabet; dimension- wise N ≤ M;
– s
i
is fed to a modulator that constructs a distinct signal s
i
(t)
of duration T seconds as the representation of symbol m
i

generated by the message source; the signal s
i
is an energy
signal (what does this mean?); s
i
is real valued
• Channel:
– linear channel wide enough to accommodate the
transmission of the modulated signal with negligible or no
distortion
– the channel white noise is a sample function of AWGN with
zero mean and N
0
/2 power spectral density


KNCET, TRICHY 19/62
• Receiver side (blocks described in detail p.326-327)
– detector
– signal transmission decoder; reverses the operations
performed in the transmitter;
Figure 6.2
Functional model of pass-band data transmission system.
KNCET, TRICHY 20/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Pass-band Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– Quadriphase-Shift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 21/62
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
- Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)
• In a coherent binary PSK the pair of signals used to
represent binary 0 and 1 are defined as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ) (6.8)
b
c
b
E
s t f t
T
t =
2
2 2
( ) cos(2 ) cos(2 ) (6.9)
b b
c c
b b
E E
s t f t f t
T T
t t t = + = ÷
transmitted energy
per bit
duration of one bit
f
c
=n
c
/T
b

KNCET, TRICHY 22/62
• So the transmitted signals can be expressed as:
1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.10)
c b
b
t f t t T
T
| t = s <
• The equations (6.8) and (6.9) represent antipodal signals –
sinusoidal signals that differ only in a relative phase shift of
180 degrees.
• In BPSK there is only one basis function of unit energy
expressed as:
1 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.11)
b b
s t E t t T | = s <
2 1
( ) ( ), 0 (6.12)
b b
s t E t t T | = ÷ s <
KNCET, TRICHY 23/62
• A coherent BPSK system can be characterized by
having a signal space that is one dimensional (N= 1),
with signal constellation consisting of two message
points (M = 2)
• The coordinates of the message points are:

11 1 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.13)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
| =
= +
}
21 2 1
0
( ) ( )
(6.14)
b
T
b
s s t t dt
E
| =
= ÷
}
KNCET, TRICHY 24/62
Figure 6.3
Signal-space diagram for coherent binary PSK system. The waveforms depicting the
transmitted signals s
1
(t) and s
2
(t), displayed in the inserts, assume n
c
= 2.
Note that the frequency f
c
is chosen to ensure that each transmitted bit contains an integer
number of cycles..
message point
corresponding to s
1

message point
corresponding to s
2

n
c
is an integer such that
T
symbol
= n
c
/T
bit

KNCET, TRICHY 25/62
Error Probability of Binary PSK
• Decision rule: based on the maximum likelihood
decision algorithm/rule which in this case means
that we have to choose the message point closest to
the received signal point
observation vector x lies in region Z
i
if
the Euclidean distance ||x-s
k
|| is minimum for k =i
• For BPSK: N= 1, space is divided into two areas (fig.6.3)
– the set of points closest to message point 1 at +E
1/2

– the set of points closest to message point 2 at – E
1/2

KNCET, TRICHY 26/62
• The decision rule is simply to decide that signal s
1
(t) (i.e.
binary 1) was transmitted if the received signal point falls in
region Z
1
, and decide that signal s
2
(t) (i.e. binary symbol 0)
was transmitted if the received signal falls in region Z
2
.
• Two kinds of errors are possible due to noise:
– sent s
1
(t), received signal point falls in Z
2

– sent s
2
(t), received signal point falls in Z
1
• This can be expressed as: Z
i
: 0 < x
1
< æ
• and the observed element is expressed as a function of the
received signal x(t) as:
1 1
0
( ) ( ) (6.15)
b
T
x x t t dt | =
}
KNCET, TRICHY 27/62
So,
• In Ch.5 it was deduced that memory-less AWGN channels,
the observation elements X
i
are Gaussian RV with mean s
ij
and variance N
0
/2.
• The conditional probability density function that x
j
(signal s
j

was received providing m
i
was sent) is given by:
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / ) exp[ ( ) ]
j
x j i ij
f x m x s
N
N t
= ÷ ÷
KNCET, TRICHY 28/62
• When we substitute for the case of BPSK
1
2
1 1 21
0
0
2
1
0
0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ]
1 1
exp[ ( ) ] (6.16)
x
b
f x x s
N
N
x E
N
N
t
t
= ÷ ÷
= ÷ +
1
2
10 1 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1
( / 0) exp[ ( ) ] (6.17)
x b
f x dx x E dx
N
N
µ
t
· ·
= = ÷ +
} }
• Then the conditional probability of the receiver in
favor of 1 provided 0 was transmitted is:
KNCET, TRICHY 29/62
• if we substitute and change the integration variable:
1
0
1
( )] (6.18)
b
z x E
N
= +
0
2
10
/
0
1
exp( )
1
( (6.19)
2
b
E N
b
z dz
E
erfc
N
µ
t
·
= ÷
=
}
KNCET, TRICHY 30/62
• Considering an error of the second kind:
– signal space is symmetric about the origin
– p
01
is the same as p
10

• Average probability of symbol error or the bit error
rate for coherent BPSK is:
0
1
( ) (6.20)
2
b
e
E
P erfc
N
=
• So increasing the signal energy per bit makes the
points - and move farther apart which
correspond to reducing the error probability.
KNCET, TRICHY 31/62
Generation and Detection of Coherent
BPSK Signals
• Transmitter side:
– Need to represent the binary sequence 0 and 1 in polar form
with constant amplitudes, respectively – and +
(polar non-return-to-zero – NRZ - encoding).
– Carrier wave is with frequency f
c
=(n
c
/T
b
)
– Required BPSK modulated signal is at the output of the
product modulator.
• Receiver side
– noisy PSK is fed to a correlator with locally generated
reference signal
– correlator output is compared to a threshold of 0 volts in
the decision device
KNCET, TRICHY 32/62
Figure 6.4
Block diagrams for (a) binary PSK transmitter and (b)
coherent binary PSK receiver.
KNCET, TRICHY 33/62
Power Spectra of BPSK
• From the modulator – the complex envelope of the
BPSK has only in-phase component
• Depending on whether we have a symbol 1 or 0
during the signaling interval 0 ≤ t ≤ T
b
the in-phase
component is +g(t) or – g(t).
2
, 0
( ) (6.21)
0,
b
b
b
E
t T
g t T
otherwise
¦ ¹
s s
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
symbol
shaping function
KNCET, TRICHY 34/62
• We assume that the input binary wave is random, with symbols
1 or 0 equally likely and that symbols transmitted during the
different time slots are statistically independent.
• So, (Ch.1) the power spectra of such a random binary wave is
given by the energy spectral density of the symbol shaping
function divided by the symbol duration.(See Ex.1.3 and 1.6)
• g(t) is an energy signal – FT
• Finally, the energy spectral density is equal to the squared
magnitude of the signals FT.

2
2
2
2 sin ( )
( )
( )
2 sin ( ) (6.22)
b b
B
b
b b
E T f
S f
T f
E c T f
t
t
=
=
KNCET, TRICHY 35/62
Outline
• 6.1. Introduction
• 6.2. Pass-band Transmission
• 6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying
– Binary Phase shift Keying (BPSK)
– Quadriphase-Shift Keying (QPSK)
KNCET, TRICHY 36/62
• Reliable performance
– Very low probability of error
• Efficient utilization of channel bandwidth
– Sending more then one bit in a symbol
• Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK) - example of quadrature-
carrier multiplexing
– Information is carried in the phase
– Phase can take one of four equally spaced values – π/4, 3π/4, 5π/4, 7π/4
– We assume gray encoding (10, 00, 01, 11)
– Transmitted signal is defined as:


2
cos[2 (2 1) ], 0
( ) (6.23)
4
0,
c
i
E
f t i t T
s t
T
elsewhere
t
t
¦
+ ÷ s s ¦
=
´
¦
¹
6.3 Coherent Phase Shift Keying - QPSK
KNCET, TRICHY 37/62
Signal-Space Diagram of QPSK
• From 6.23 we can redefine the transmitted signal
using a trigonometric identity:
• From this representation we can use Gram-Schmidt
Orthogonal Procedure to create the signal-space
diagram for this signal.
• It allows us to find the orthogonal basis functions
used for the signal-space representation.

2 2
( ) cos[(2 1) ]cos(2 ) sin[(2 1) ]sin(2 ) (6.24)
4 4
i c c
E E
s t i f t i f t
T T
t t
t t = ÷ ÷ ÷
KNCET, TRICHY 38/62
• In our case there exist two orthogonal basis functions
in the expansion of s
i
(t). These are φ
1
(t) and φ
2
(t),
defined by a pair of quadrature carriers:






• Based on these representations we can make the
following two important observations:

1
2
( ) cos(2 ), 0 (6.25)
c
t f t t T
T
| t = s s
2
2
( ) sin(2 ), 0 (6.26)
c
t f t t T
T
| t = s s
KNCET, TRICHY 39/62
• There are 4 message points and the associated vectors
are defined by:




• Values are summarized in Table 6.1
• Conclusion:
– QPSK has a two-dimensional signal constellation (N = 2)
and four message points (M = 4).
– As binary PSK, QPSK has minimum average energy

cos[(2 1) ]
4
, 1, 2, 3, 4 (6.27)
sin[(2 1) ]
4
i
E i
s i
E i
t
t
(
÷
(
= =
(
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
KNCET, TRICHY 40/62
Figure 6.6
Signal-space diagram of coherent QPSK system.
KNCET, TRICHY 41/62
Example 6.1
• Generate a QPSK signal for the given
binary input.
Input binary sequence is: 01101000
Divided into odd- even- input bits sequences
Two waveforms are created: s
i1
φ
1
(t) and s
i2

φ
2
(t) – individually viewed as binary PSK
signals.
By adding them we get the QPSK signal
KNCET, TRICHY 42/62
Example 6.1 – cont’d
To define the decision rule for the detection of the
transmitted data sequence the signal space is
partitioned into four regions in accordance with:
observation vector x lies in region Z
i
if
the Euclidean distance ||x-s
k
|| is minimum for k = i
Result: Four regions – quadrants – are defined,
whose vertices coincide with the origin.
Marked in fig. 6.6 (previous pages)
KNCET, TRICHY 43/62
Figure 6.7
(a) Input binary sequence. (b) Odd-numbered bits of input sequence and
associated binary PSK wave. (c) Even-numbered bits of input sequence
and associated binary PSK wave. (d) QPSK waveform defined as s(t) =
s
i1
|
1
(t) + s
i2
|
2
(t).
KNCET, TRICHY 44/62
Error probability of QPSK
• In a coherent system the received signal is defined
as:



• w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise
process of zero mean and N
0
/2.
0
( ) ( ) ( ), (6.28)
1, 2, 3, 4
i
t T
x t s t w t
i
s s
¦
= +
´
=
¹
KNCET, TRICHY 45/62
The observation vector has two elements, x
1
and x
2
,
defined by:
( )
1 1
0
1
1
( ) ( )
cos 2 1 (6.29)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w
|
t
=
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
KNCET, TRICHY 46/62
The observation vector has two elements, x
1
and x
2
,
defined by:
( )
1 1
0
1
1
( ) ( )
cos 2 1 (6.29)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w
|
t
=
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
i=1 and 3 so
cos(π/4)
= 1/2
KNCET, TRICHY 47/62
( )
2 2
0
2
2
( ) ( )
sin 2 1 (6.30)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w
|
t
=
(
= ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
KNCET, TRICHY 48/62
( )
2 2
0
2
2
( ) ( )
sin 2 1 (6.30)
4
2
T
x x t t dt
E i w
E
w
|
t
=
(
= ÷ ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
= ± +
}
i=2 and 4 so
sin(3π/4)
= 1/2
KNCET, TRICHY 49/62
So,
• The observable elements x
1
and x
2
are
sample values of independent Gaussian RV
with mean equal to +/-√E/2 and -/+√E/2
and variance equal to N
0
/2.
• The decision rule is to find whether the
received signal s
i
is in the expected zone Z
i

or not.
KNCET, TRICHY 50/62
Calculation of the error
probability:
• QPSK is actually equivalent to two BPSK systems
working in parallel and using carriers that are
quadrature in phase.
• According to 6.29 and 6.30 these two BPSK are
characterized as follows:
– The signal energy per bit is √E/2
– The noise spectral density is N
0
/2.
• Calculate the average probability of bit error for
each channel as:
KNCET, TRICHY 51/62
• In one of the previous
classes we derived the
formula for the bit error
rate for coherent binary
PSK as:

0
1
( ) (6.20)
2
b
e
E
P erfc
N
=
1 / 2
'
2
1
(6.31)
2 2
o
o
E
P erfc
N
E
erfc
N
| |
=
|
|
\ .
| |
=
|
|
\ .
• Using 6.20 we can find
the average probability
for bit error in each
channel of the coherent
QPSK as:

KNCET, TRICHY 52/62
• The bit errors for the in-phase and
quadrature channels of the coherent QPSK
are statistically independent
• The in-phase channel makes a decision on
one of the two dibits constituting a symbol;
the quadrature channel – for the other one.
• Then the average probability of a correct
decision is product of two statistically
independent events p
1
and p
2
.
KNCET, TRICHY 53/62
• The average probability for a correct decision resulting from
the combined action of the two channels can be expressed as
(p
1
* p
2
):
2
2
0
2
0 0
(1 ')
1
[1 ( )] (6.32)
2 2
1
1 ( ) ( )
2 4 2
c
P P
E
erfc
N
E E
erfc erfc
N N
= ÷
= ÷
= ÷ +
KNCET, TRICHY 54/62
• Thus the average probability for a symbol error for
coherent QPSK can be written as:




• The term erfc
2
(√E/2N
0
)<< 1 so it can be ignored,
then:
2
0 0
1
1
( ) ( ) (6.33)
2 4 2
e c
P P
E E
erfc erfc
N N
= ÷
= ÷
0
( ) (6.34)
2
e
E
P erfc
N
KNCET, TRICHY 55/62
• Since there are two bits per symbol in the QPSK
system, the energy per symbol is related to the
energy per bit in the following way:


• So, using the ratio E
b
/N
0
we can express the symbol
error (6.37):
2 (6.36)
b
E E =
( ) (6.37)
b
e
o
E
P erfc
N
KNCET, TRICHY 56/62
• Finally we can express the bit error rate (BER) for QPSK
as:
1
( ) (6.38)
2
b
o
E
BER erfc
N
=
Conclusions:
• A coherent QPSK system achieves the same average probability of bit error
as a coherent PSK system for the same bit error rate and the same E
b
/N
0
but
uses half of the channel bandwidth.
or
• At the same channel bandwidth the QPSK systems transmits information at
twice the bit rate and the same average probability of error.
• Better usage of channel bandwidth!
KNCET, TRICHY 57/62
Generation and Detection of Coherent
QPSK Signals
• Algorithm (transmitter)
– input binary data sequence transformed into polar form (non-
return-to-zero encoder) – symbols 1 and 0 are represented by
+√E/2 and -√E/2
– divided into two streams by a demultiplexer (odd and even
numbered bits) – a
1
(t) and a
2
(t)
– in any signaling interval the amplitudes of a
1
(t) and a
2
(t)
equal s
i1
and s
i2
depending on the particular bit that is sent
– a
1
(t) and a
2
(t) modulate a pair of quadrature carriers
(orthogonal basis functions φ
1
(t) = √2/Tcos(2πf
c
t) and φ
2
(t)=
√2/Tsin(2πf
c
t) )
– results in a pair of binary PSK which can be detected
independently due to the orthogonallity of the basis functions.

KNCET, TRICHY 58/62
• Algorithm (receiver)
– pair of correlators with common input
– locally generated pair of coherent reference signals
φ
1
(t) and φ
2
(t).
– correlator outputs – x
1
and x
2
produced in response
to the input signal x(t)
– threshold comparison for decision
• in-phase – x
1
>0 decision for 1; x
1
<0 decision of 0
• quadrature – x
2
>0 decision for 1; x
2
<0 decision of 0
– combined in a multiplexer


KNCET, TRICHY 59/62
Figure 6.8
Block diagrams of (a)
QPSK transmitter and
(b) coherent QPSK
receiver.
KNCET, TRICHY 60/62
Power Spectra of QPSK Signals
• Assumptions;
– binary wave is random;
– 1 and 0 symbols are equally likely;
– symbols transmitted in adjacent intervals are statistically
independent
• Then:
1. depending on the dibit sent during the signaling
interval T
b
≤ t ≤ T
b

- the in-phase component equals +g(t) or – g(t)
- similar situation exists for the quadrature component
Note: the g(t) denotes the symbol shaping function
KNCET, TRICHY 61/62
So,
it follows that the in-phase and quadrature
components have a common power spectral
density E sinc
2
(Tf).

, 0
( ) (6.39)
0,
E
t T
g t
T
otherwise
¦
s s ¦
=
´
¦
¹
KNCET, TRICHY 62/62
• The in-phase and quadrature components
are statistically independent.
• the baseband power spectral density of QPSK equals
the sum of the individual power spectral densities of
the in-phase and quadrature components
2
2
( ) 2 sin ( )
4 sin (2 ) (6.40)
B
b b
S f E c Tf
E c T f
=
=

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