Flows with Friction, Drag and Lift

Laboratory Report

Student ID Number: 0851594 Experiment No.: MP2.4 Degree Programme/Level: Mechanical Engineering Level 2 Title: Film and Dropwise Condensation INTRODUCTION and DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENT Filmwise and Dropwise are 2 forms of condensation. In filmwise condensation a laminar film of vapour is created upon a surface. This film can then flow downwards, increasing in thickness as additional vapour is picked up along the way (1). In dropwise condensation vapour droplets form at an acute angle to a surface (1). These droplets then flow downwards, accumulating static droplets below them along the way. The first objective of this experiment is to investigate the difference in heat flux between the 2 forms of condensation for the same set of conditions. The second objective is to investigate what effect the presence of air in the condenser has on the heat flux and surface heat transfer coefficient. This experiment would be used in by any industry which is trying to increase the efficiency of heat transfer. An example of this is any vapour power cycle such as the Rankine cycle. By increasing the efficiency of the condenser, its operational pressure can be reduced and the overall efficiency of the cycle can be increased. RESULTS, DISCUSSION and CONCLUSIONS Figure 1 displays a graph which represents the Heat Flux for both dropwise and filmwise condensation at two different pressures. This graph shows that; Heat flux increases with steam pressure and the temperature difference between the steam and the condenser surface and that the values for Heat flux for each set value of pressure is higher using dropwise condensation that by using filmwise condensation in the same conditions. The final observation is confirmed in the Handbook of Phase Change (2) which quotes that at atmospheric pressure, the Heat Flux in dropwise condensation can be more than twenty times larger than in filmwise. This can be explained in terms of how the condensation forms on the condenser. The vapour drops in dropwise condensation are discrete and are continually formed and released which means that the surface of the condenser is also continually exposed. In comparison, the film created in filmwise condensation always covers the surface of the condenser (3). As a relatively poor conductor of heat, this film creates a thermal resistance which is the reason why the value for Heat Flux is lower for filmwise in comparison to dropwise condensation (3). To check the accuracy of the experiment, the values for the Heat Transfer Coefficient in the filmwise condenser were compared to the values which are obtained theoretically using the Nusselt equation (3). Figure 2 shows that the results derived experimentally were of a lower value than of those derived theoretically. One explanation for this is the presence of noncondensable gases in the steam vapour (1). The effect of a non condensable gas in the steam vapour is presented in figure 3. The graph shows that for a certain temperature difference, the Heat Flux for a condenser using steam mixed with 5% of air is significantly smaller than pure steam, and the magnitude of this difference increases with temperature difference. In the case of Heat Transfer Coefficients, the value for both steam and steam with air approaches zero, but when the steam is mixed with air it is consistently low. In conclusion, dropwise condensation is a more effective method of heat transfer than filmwise condensation, and the presence of air in steam vapour significantly reduces the heat transfer. REFERENCES (1) Mayhew, Y, Rogers, G. (1992). Engineering thermodynamics: th Work & Heat Transfer. 4 ed. Prentice Hall. (2) Rose, J, Utaka, Y, Tanasawa, I. (1999). Handbook of Phase Change: Dropwise Condensation. Taylor & Francis. th (3) Incropera, F, DeWitt, D. (1996). Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer. 4 ed. Wiley.

Date of Experiment: 17/02/2009

Date Report Submitted: 01/05/2009

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.