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Gsm

Gsm

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Published by Muzzammil Iftikhar
GSM Overview and understanding
GSM Overview and understanding

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Published by: Muzzammil Iftikhar on Jun 16, 2014
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06/16/2014

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GSM infrastructure

MSC, BSC, BTS, VLR, HLR, GSGN, GSSN
Johan Montelius
jm@sics.se
Compared to a fixed network
Gateway MSC
MSC
BSC
MS
Local switches
Transit exchang
Subscriber stage
Fixed phone
What’s new?
• Radio access network
• Encryption
• Voice coding
• Locate a mobile station
• Identify and authenticate
• Handle mobility during a call
A bird eye’s view
BTS
MS
BSC
MSC
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
GMSC
Access Network
databases
”Typical” Mobile operator
• One to ten MSC per 1 M subscribers
• Ten to one hundred BSC per MSC
• Thousands of BTS per 1 M subscribers
Base Transceiver Station
• Controls the radio link
– encryption
– error control
– signal strength
• 1 - 6 duplex carriers, for
example:
– two layers
– 120
o
sectors
– (6+8)*3 = 42 voice calls
• Cost ~ 100 – 200 k$
Base Station Controller
• communication with the mobile
terminal
– local hand-over
– voice codecs
– carrier allocation
– paging to terminals
• talks to the MSC
• serves up to 40 BTSs
• could be co-located with MSC

Mobile Swicthing Center
• Mobility management
– identifies and authenticates
– locates
– switches between BSCs
– Handover to other MSCs
• 64 kbps regular voice channels
Radio Access network
A carrier is divided into logical channels
traffic channels TCH
control channels CCH
The first carrier holds 2 controll channels and
6 traffic channels. Additional carriers holds only
traffic channels.
Control Channels
• Broadcast
– Frequency correction: to synchronize (FCCH)
– Broadcast control: this is me, these are my neighbours (BCCH)
• Common control
– Paging: to notify a mobile station (PCH)
– Random access: for the mobile to request service (RACH)
– Access grant: reply with assigned dedicated control channel (AGCH)
• Dedicated control
– Standalone dedicated control: used during call set-up, SMS etc (SDCCH)
– Slow associated control: power, time etc (SACCH)
– Fast associated control: handover etc, uses the TCH (FACCH)
– Cell broadcast: cell broadcast


Traffic Channels
• Duplex
• Error control
– Forward Error Correction (FEC)
– retransmission (ARQ)
• Full rate (TCH/F)
– 13 Kbps speech
– 9,6 or 14,4 Kpbs data
• Half rate (TCH/H)
– 6,5 Kbps speech
– 7,2 or 4,8 Kbps data
Logical channels
8 time-slot TDMA frame 4.143 ms
Multiframe: 26 or 51 TDMA frames
Superframe: 26 or 51 multiframes 6.12 s
Hyperframe: 2048 superframes 3h28m
CCH
CCH CCH
TCH
One TDMA frame
Normal burst
57 b 57 b 26 b
tail
tail guard
user data user data
training
3 3
8.25
stealing flags
Frequency correction burst
Synchronization burst
Dummy burst
Access burst
148 b 0.577 ms
Keeping track of a mobile
station
VLR
visiting location register
Location area
Location area
update the VLR with new
location area
Moving to a new MSC
Location area
Location area
VLR
which LA which MSC ?
update the VLR with new
location area and new MSC
but also….
VLR
HLR
home location register
update the home location register!
Home Location Register
MSC
GMSC
PSTN
incomming call
where is the mobile?
HLR
How do we reach him?
VLR
Mobile station numbers
MSC
GMSC
PSTN
mobile subscriber ISDN number
(MSISDN) i.e. the phone number
HLR
Mobile Station Roaming
Number (MSRN).
VLR
Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity
International Mobile
Subscriber Identity
GPRS
BTS
MS
BSC
BTS
BTS
Access Network
Packet Control Unit
Gateway GPRS Support Node
GGSN
UDP/TCP tunnel
Serving GPRS Support Node
SGSN
Internet

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