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Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN


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A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).
A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).

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  • 1.1 The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu
  • 1.2 TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward, sTep-by-sTep
  • 1.3 The cOre Of TuishOu
  • 1.4 The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu
  • 1.5 TuishOu, The Only criTeriOn TO judge The gOngfu Of Taiji
  • 2.1 lisTening TO energy
  • 2.2 dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy
  • 2.3 zhan nian Techniques
  • 2.4 lian sui energies
  • 2.5 Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques
  • 2.6 na (seizing) Technique
  • 2.7 Opening and clOsing
  • 2.8 energy explOsiOn
  • 2.9 Ti (raising) fOrce
  • 2.10 reeling silk
  • 3.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 3.2.1    Exercise One
  • 3.2.2    Exercise Two
  • 3.3.1    Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles
  • 3.3.2    Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles
  • 3.3.3    Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike
  • 3.3.4    Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward
  • 3.3.5    Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy
  • 3.3.6    Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee
  • 3.3.7    Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
  • 3.4.1    Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
  • 3.4.2    Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
  • 3.4.3    Shuang Fen Quan
  • 3.4.4    Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward
  • 3.4.5    Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist
  • 3.4.6    Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist
  • 3.4.7    Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist
  • 3.4.8    Dingzi Quan Guanyang
  • 3.5.1    Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms
  • 3.5.2    Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique
  • 3.5.3    Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off
  • 3.5.4    Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push
  • 3.5.5    Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang
  • 3.5.6    Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang
  • 3.5.7    Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa
  • 3.5.8    Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa
  • 3.5.9    Qianchuan Zhang Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice
  • 3.6.1    Li Zhou … Standing Elbows
  • 3.6.2    Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows
  • 3.6.3    Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist
  • 3.6.4    Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block
  • 3.6.5    Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow
  • 3.6.6    Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow
  • 3.6.7    Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows
  • 3.6.8    Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou Double Closing Elbows
  • 3.6.9    Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow
  • 3.6.10    Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow
  • 3.6.11    Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow
  • 3.6.12    Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow
  • 3.7.1    Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.2    Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.3    Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder
  • 3.7.4    Xiong  Kao … Chest Push
  • 3.7.5    Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders
  • 3.7.6    Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back
  • 3.7.7    Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao
  • 3.8.1    Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling
  • 3.8.2    Xiong Na … Seize with Chest
  • 3.8.3    Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen
  • 3.8.4    Shuang He Fu Cai Na
  • 3.8.5    Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling
  • 3.8.6    Tui Na … Seize with the Leg
  • 3.8.7    Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands
  • 3.8.8    Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands
  • 3.9.1    Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape
  • 3.9.2    Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.3    Shuang Wan Zhi Jie
  • 3.9.4    Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.5    Qu Wan Fan Na Jie
  • 3.9.6    Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back
  • 3.9.7    Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie
  • 3.9.8    Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping
  • 3.9.9    Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie
  • 4.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 4.2.1    Postures
  • 4.2.2    The requirements for every part of the body
  • 4.2.3    Breathing
  • 4.2.4    Additional Notes
  • 4.3.1    Postures
  • 4.3.2    Body requirements
  • 4.3.3    Breathing
  • 4.4.1    Postures
  • 4.4.2    The relationship between Thought, Intention and Qi
  • 4.5 san Ti shi (Three pOsTures)
  • 4.6.1    The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.6.2    Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.7 wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang)
  • 5.1.1    Overview
  • 5.1.2    Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
  • 5.2.1    Overview
  • 5.2.2    Yuan Dang … Round Crotch
  • 5.2.3    Ding Dang … Tight Crotch
  • 5.2.4    Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
  • 5.2.5    Tang Dang
  • 6.1.1    Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories
  • 6.1.2    Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork
  • 6.2.1    Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground
  • 6.2.2    Cutting with Palm
  • 6.2.3    Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm
  • 6.2.4    Xie Tuo Zhan
  • 6.2.5    Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm
  • 6.2.6    Ba Zi Shou
  • 6.3.1    Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step
  • 6.3.2    Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step
  • 6.3.3    Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step
  • 6.3.4    Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step
  • 6.4.1    Shun Chan … Conforming reeling
  • 6.4.2    Ni Chan … Reverse reeling
  • 6.4.3    Shun Ni Zuo Wan
  • 6.4.4    Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist
  • 6.4.5    Shun Chan Yang Zhang
  • 6.5.1    Shang Bu … Forward Step
  • 6.5.2    Tui Bu … Retreating Step
  • 6.5.3    Gen Bu … Following Step
  • 7.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 7.2.1    Part 1
  • 7.2.2    Part 2
  • 7.2.3    Part 3
  • 7.2.5    Part 5
  • 7.2.7    Part 7
  • 7.2.8    Part 8
  • 7.2.9    Part 9
  • 7.3 sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle
  • 7.4 dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua
  • 7.5 sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle
  • 7.6 sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk
  • 7.7 shun bu TuishOu (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep)
  • 7.8 sOlO danren da lü TuishOu
  • 7.9 sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu
  • 8.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 8.2.1    Posture 1
  • 8.2.2    Posture 3
  • 8.2.3    Posture 4
  • 8.3.1    Posture 1
  • 8.3.2    Posture 2
  • 8.3.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.1    Posture 1
  • 8.4.2    Posture 2
  • 8.4.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.4    Posture 4
  • 8.5.1    Posture 1
  • 8.5.2    Posture 2
  • 8.5.3    Posture 3
  • 8.5.4    Posture 4
  • 8.6.1    Posture 1
  • 8.6.2    Posture 2
  • 8.6.3    Posture 3
  • 8.6.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.1    Posture 1
  • 8.7.2    Posture 2
  • 8.7.3    Posture 3
  • 8.7.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.5    Posture 5
  • 8.7.6    Posture 6
  • 8.7.7    Posture 7
  • 8.7.8    Posture 8
  • 8.7.9    Posture 9
  • 8.7.10    Posture 10
  • 8.7.11    Posture 11
  • 8.8 pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu)
  • 8.9 pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu (cOiling flOwer TuishOu)

太陳 極氏 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

Wang Xi’an

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou
Chenjiagou Wenxian County Henan, China

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Published by INBI Matrix Pty Ltd po box 775, Maroubra 2035 NSW Australia English Edition © 2009 INBI Matrix Pty Ltd Copyright © 1998 Wang Xi’an

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retreival system, without permissing in writing from the publisher.

First edition, 2009 Printed in China

王 西 安

Project management & design: Roman Mukhortikov Editors: Juliana Ngiam, Tom Watson Translation: Zhang Yanping

ISBN-13: 978-1-87693-500-6 ISBN-10: 1-87693-500-6

Thoughts on Taiji

Ever since it came into being, Taiji has been passed down from generation to generation. Foremost among many historic figures, was Chen Zhaopi (1893-1972), who stands out for his determination to train young successors. Thus, today we witness a substantial and energetic development of Taiji in the Chen Village, from where its reputation has spread worldwide, inspiring both young and old in the practice of Taiji. Chen Zhaopi was passionate in sharing his heritage and knowledge. My only regret is that I failed to be more focused and to practice more diligently. As a successor of the Chen family heritage, I have undertaken to continue his legacy by writing this book, but despite all best attempts, I struggle to reveal all the subtleties in this vast body of knowledge. I sit with a lonely lamp, recalling the past and sigh to the sky.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Wang Xi’an

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vi .

we believe that Taiji. belongs not only to China but to the rest of the world.Preface to original edition I cannot express how excited I am on hearing the news that Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Techniques. More than ever. Japan 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vii . In the spirit of Taiji’s original meaning. I look forward to Master Wang’s future works with great enthusiasm. his high disciplinary standards and outstanding martial arts techniques serves as an inspiration to all Taiji learners in Japan and we greatly appreciate his tremendous contribution to Sino-Japan Taiji relations and the spread of Taiji knowledge all over Japan in years past. One of the finished manuscripts resulted in this book. ‘to exist everywhere. the Japanese are coming to love Taijiquan and the great charm of Chinese culture. Tokyo. an impressive feat of concentration and energy considering Master Wang’s teaching workload. as an expression of the profound spirit inherent in all human beings. Indeed. indubitably a result of the efforts of Taiji followers in both countries. is to be published. newly written by Master Wang Xian. to consist of everything’. Atsuko Noguchi January 1998. I recall Master Wang working on two manuscripts which he carried around in his bag during his visit to Tokyo in November 1995. I shall always be greatful for Master Wang and Taijiquan for leading me to a totally different worldview and life.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 viii .

........................................... Tuishou: the Only Criterion to Judge the Gongfu of Taiji.........................................................................................34 10.................... Ti (Raising) Energy .... The Relationship Between Three Stages of Taijiquan Practice and Tuishou ............. Energy Explosion ..................................................................................................... Introduction ............................25 6..................................................................63 5................................................ 3.............................. Leg Practice .................................................................................................................. Feet Practice ................................................................................................................................ Na (Seizing) Practices .................. Lian Sui Energies ..........................................97 8..................................21 4......... Reeling Silk .... 4....................16 2............................................................ Elbow Practice .......55 4......................................105 9............................. Step by Step ......26 7.................................................................................. Dongjin – Realization of Energy ............ 2..................38 2.................................. Kao (Push) Practices................................... Fist Practice ..................... Zhan Nian Techniques........... Jietuo (Escape) Practices......4 The Core of Tuishou .............31 9...........23 5.18 3..................29 8...........................................................................3 Tuishou Practice – Going Inward.......................................40 3................................................................................................................... Listening to Energy ....................................... The Origin of Taijiquan Tuishou ..................................................................84 7................................................... Opening and Closing ........................................ Misleading and Transforming Techniques ................................................................................................10 5.................................................... Palm Practice ............................................................117 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 ix ..........13 Chapter Two: Interpretation on the Ten Forces of Tuishou 1............... Na (Seizing) Techniques ...........Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1..............................35 Chapter Three: Single Form Practice 1...72 6.......................

..................175 4.......................... Classifications of Tuishou ....187 3....154 Chapter Five: Practice for the Buttocks and Crotch ............ Pair Practice in Da Lü Tuishou ............................230 8.................................132 2........ Tuishou Steps .......................................................................... He Bu-Tuishou ...............146 6.......... Solo Wan Hua ......................................209 9.............................................................................................................203 8...................... Pair Practice in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou. Hand Techniques in Tuishou Reeling...........200 7............................................................................................214 2.............................................................. Shun Bu Tuishou ......................... Tuishou Handwork Techniques ........210 Chapter Eight: Pair Practice in Tuisho 1.......陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Chapter Four: Health and Qi Enhancement Practices 1....................................................................................... Tuishou Footwork Techniques....... 215 3.............. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) ........................................................................ Single-hand Vertical Circle Wan Hua in Pair Practice .................... Single-hand Horizontal Wan Hua in Pair Practice ...............................................................................239 9.........................................................................195 5..... Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan (Returning to Wu Ji Zhuang) .............................. 138 4............................................. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) . Solo Tuishou With Static Footwork ........................................................... 183 Chapter Seven: Solo Practice in Tuishou 1....................................................................... 133 3.......... Shuang Shou Ping Yuanwan Hua .............................................................................220 5.......................... Solo Double-hand Flat Circle Wan Hua ......... Solo Double-hand Wan Hua in a Vertical Circle ........142 5....................................................197 6........................................ Shuang Shou Li Yuan Wan Hua................................................................186 2...............227 7............. San Ti Shi (Three Postures).......................218 4. Introduction ................................................... Introduction ........................224 6.............. Pair Practice in Shun Bu Tuishou...............171 3........... Solo Ping Yuanwan Hua ........................... Solo Luan Cai Hua Tuishou ............ 157 Chapter Six: Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories 1......................................................................... Solo Danren Da Lü Tuishou ...........................................149 7.................................168 2....193 4.............179 5.................... Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture).240 王 西 安 x ................... Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Zhuang) ............................... Introduction ...........................


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 2 .

China. sword and stick routines. the Huangdi Neijing (The Canon of Huangdi) and acupuncture. and he was recognized as the creator of Chen Family boxing. Henan Province. it helps build health and defence as well as to develop a sensitivity to movement. With the accelerated pace of modern life. Chen Wangting. Its creator. Using the foundation of the 108 Form (Tongbei Changquan) which he inherited from previous generations and from other Ming period martial arts practitioners. agility and flexibility. Chen Wangting developed the creative and athletic routines of Taijiquan and Taiji Tuishou. awareness of Taijiquan and Tuishou’s health & fitness benefits have spread far beyond China to all corners of the globe. it helps maintain fitness. he drew on the theories of the Yijing (I Ching. was the creator of Taijiquan and 9th generation head of the Chen Family. (also known as Zouting) was a famous martial arts master. is a practical combat technique based on grabbing. reducing illness and prolonging a healthy life. As a combat techniqiue. throwing and striking. gender. ‘The Family Tree of Chen’. Taiji Tuishou practice is not restricted by a practitioner’s age. Tuishou. As it is not stressful to the body. catching. Wenxian County. location or access to equipment. In doing so. as well as the principles of Yin and Yang.1  The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu Tuishou originated in the Chen Village. originally known as Jieshou or Dashou. Chen Wangting.1. in the period between the Ming and Qing Dynasty. transforming. the ‘Book of Changes’). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 3 . According to the book. and will continue to do so in years to come.

2  TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward. Relaxation is fundamental. Literally. intuitive and subconscious. catching. an athletic activity based on mutual pushing. transformation is the basis. you must know its significance. You will not realize inner transformation. nor will you be able to intuit your opponent’s energetic intention. such as grasping. to the realization of Jin. be relaxed. Tuishou practice should be soft and modest. hard/ soft. to the Deity’. followed by the double hand horizontal and vertical practice. advance/retreat movements until your sense of touch develops to a level where your reactions to any external stimulus becomes immediate. Follow the circling movements with the whole body. from the realization of Jin. Become familiar with the single hand horizontal and vertical practice. and what it consists of. sTep-by-sTep To practice Tuishou. Note that adepts earn their title only when they attain the ability control and use combat techniques in an appropriate manner. Learning Tuishou will quickly expose any weaknesses in one’s internal Gongfu.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. principles. and striking. Tuishou translates as ‘push hands’. your entire body surface will become very sensitized and your ‘inner listening’ abilities very finely honed. With sustained practice over a period of time. you will be able to release explosive energy to both small and large targets. listen to each other’s energy flow. with greater efficacy and subtlety. As you reach the level of adept. A Taijiquan proverb pertains also to Tuishou. enabling you to throw opponents meters away without hurting them. and do not disconnect or oppose your partner’s energy. or appreciate the interplay of the slow/quick. that is. so much that you will be able to apply combat techniques. pacing your learning step-bystep. Less well known is Tuishou’s other application as a technique for internal transformation. throwing. ‘From the familiarity of forms. Initially. 王 西 安 4 .

but never practice just in order to practice. Skill arises from consistent and accumulated practice. In solo practice. force and speed in your actions. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 5 .Remember that ‘inner listening’ is the one essential skill required to improve your technique. To cultivate ‘inner listening’. combining your heart. be calm and concentrated in your demeanour. Practice makes perfect. your intention and commitment must be deeply held. As long as you practice persistently and make progress. mind and spirit with determination. you will ultimately enhance your health and combat techniques. imagine a partner practicing or competing with you.

You will learn to follow your partner’s intention and forget your own.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. with the lightest of touches. continue. opening or closing. gathering or exploding. When you can control these energies within yourself. you will develop the capacity to subconsciously anticipate quick or slow changes. Lian. adhere. Qing (light) and Zhong (heavy). your partner’s weight. At a more advanced stage.3  The cOre Of TuishOu The core of Tuishou consists of Zhan. and so on. Kuai (quick) and Man (slow). . Movements alternate freely between Gang (hard) and Rou (soft). Sui (stick. which are also the essential elements of Taiji. upward or downward movements. follow) and Chansi Jin (Reeling Silk). attacks or retreats. it will enable you to feel. distance and direction of energy. The thirteen forms are: • Ward off • Roll back • Press • Push • Pull down • Split • Elbow strike • Shoulder strike • Advance forward • Retreate back • Look backward • Gaze forward • Central equilibrium Peng Lü Ji An Cai Lie Zhou Kao Jin Tui Gu Pan Ding 王 西 安 6 Tuishou flows seamlessly between the application and combination of opposites. actions to the left or right. speed. Nian. while its theoretical basis builds on the philosophies of Yin and Yang. Tuishou practice is based on thirteen ‘forms’ or energies.

Note: by ‘elastic’ we mean energy that is able to return to its original state after compression. 王 西 安 7 . concentrate on one direction at a time. Use the forces of elasticity and friction Use these forces when applying techniques such as ‘draw the opponent into one’s orbit to destroy their centre of gravity’. Tuishou centers around ‘listening and following’ techniques: ‘react fast to fast attacks’. stretching. it is the force of friction that enables you to hold and seize their arms etc.Points to remember: Move with great flexibility Change your movements constantly using elastic yet tense Neijin (internal energy). ‘if the opponent moves slightly. expansion. or other deformation. Note: friction forces are often applied in Tuishou – as you come in contact with the opponent’s hands. When releasing explosive energy. ‘if the opponent does not move. Attack the opponent’s centre of gravity Use techniques such as ‘control a stronger opponent with weak force’ and ‘defeat weak points with a stronger force’. Like a balloon whose air has been exhausted. ‘utilize the opponent’s energy’ and ‘conquer the strong with the weak’. be calm and relaxed To release bursts of energy effectively. ‘follow slow attacks unhurriedly’. Master the fundamentals 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Basically. move before they do’ etc. this energy refills automatically to its original ‘full’ state. don’t move’.

I follow my partner. whether ascending or descending. Even if attacked by a monster. and they serve as concise and comprehensive guidelines for Taiji and Tuishou practice through the ages. none of your opponents can defeat you.” Chen Changxing. and is worth remembering.” This technique. yet few who can actually strike the enemy’s heart and ribs with agility and effectiveness’. Similarly. I can conquer a force of a thousand jin with a tiny force of four Liang. known as Shang Long Xia Ti (which means to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to his or her upper body while lifting their lower body). no matter how hard they press. push or strike your opponent you do so without alerting them in order to capture their energy. whether they strike or twist. results in the shaking off of the opponent’s upper body and lifting of their lower body. also states: “No one knows when I gather or stretch. the 14th generation master. push or strike. I perform strictly to the principles so as to make me unassailable. The canon of Taiji teachings is rich with such sayings. 王 西 安 8 . I always follow their intention. Using this.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As stated in the General Song of Taijiquan by Chen Wangting (also known as the ‘Song of Taiji Practitioners’): “…remembering the principle of following. utilizing the techniques of Kao. when you move forward in your turn to press. As Chen Changxing says: ‘There are so many people who wear the mask of a hero.

In order to inherit and develop this Chinese cultural heritage. the relative practice methods for each stage with differing ratios of Yin and Yang are clearly defined. One with four Yin and six Yang is among the group of the adepts. One with two Yin and eight Yang is a San Shou One with three Yin and seven Yang is still considered tough. requiring us to further our exploration and improve our practice of it. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 9 . Only one with five Yin and five Yang is called adept.Another essay defines the five levels of Tuishou: One with one Yin and nine Yang is as stiff as a stick. I sincerely hope Taijiquan followers will embark on a serious study of this art and strive toward the as yet unbounded acme of this science. As a science. Here. the study of Taijiquan Tuishou is a profound undertaking which knows no bounds.

2. one comes into the group of the adepts’.4  The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of  Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu A brief description of the three stages of Taijiquan practice will be provided here. as stiff as a stick’ evolves to ‘two-yin eight-yang. Dong Jin (realizing the inner energy) Qi drives outer form. 3. 2. with fuller details available in Chapter Two of my book. still regarded hard’ turns into ‘fouryin six-yang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. ‘three-yin seven-yang. The three stages of Taijiquan are: 1. Shen Ming (dual cultivation of inner energy and outer form) One is regarded as a Deity. is San Shou’. Zhao Shu (familiarity with the forms) Outer form drives Qi. Zhong Quan (medium circle) At this stage. Correspondingly. . ‘Chen Style Taiji Laojia’ (Old Routine). Da Quan (big circle) This is the stage whereby ‘one-yin nine-yang. Taiji Tuishou also consists of three stages with three respective practice methods: 王 西 安 10 1.

By this stage.3. and does not mean total stillness. we practice Mingjin (apparent energy) by utilizing Yi Xing Dai Qi (external form guides internal Qi). The three stages of Taijiquan practice are interrelated with the three stages of Taiji Tuishou. one is regarded as a Deity’. along with the Tuishou practice of Zhong Quan (medium circle). Note that ‘no circle’ denotes a state of subtlety and skilfulness. the complete fusion of external form and internal spirit. we practice Ling Jin (spiritual force) through Nei Wai Jian Xiu (culitivation of both internal and external qualities). enjoy a feeling of lightness. At the second stage of Dong Jin (realization of energy). medium and small circles. Following a correct program of practice as outlined above. that is. Those who attain the level of Deity will be able to execute movements with tremendous flexibility and smoothness. At the third stage of Shenming (deity). at the first stage. an adept may say. random alternations between states of energy gathering and releasing within a relaxed and elastic body. in addition to a diligent assimilation of knowledge. We must pay attention to different methods during different stages of practice. we practice An Jin (invisible force) through Yi Qi Cui Xing (external form driven by Qi). as well as the combination of the respective techniques applied in the big. all parts of the body become as highly sensitized as finger tips so that when competing. with the practice of Xiao Quan Shenzhi Wuquan (small or even no circle). that is. Xiao Quan Naizhi Wuquan (small circle or even no circle) This is the final stage where ‘five-yin five-yang. along with the Tuishou practice of Da Quan (big circle). and be able to achieve constant internal changes between Xu and Shi (void and solid). That is to say. ‘I hit with any part of my 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 11 . students will improve step-by-step and attain the ultimate stage of Deity or Xing Shen Jian Bei. possess abundant internal energy.

as our ancestors tell us. you surely go backwards. “Taiji practice is like rowing in the river. if you don’t make efforts to go forward. even though I don’t know how I do it’. This is not unattainable. those who reach this stage posess energy without imbalance and can achieve Lianshen Huanxu (cultivation of Shen spirit and return to the void).” 王 西 安 12 . Also known as ‘Five-Yin Five-Yang’.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 body that is attacked by my opponent.

 The Only criTeriOn TO judge   The gOngfu Of Taiji  Not only is Tuishou a reliable test of one’s level in any martial art form. Nevertheless. Without the latter. tough energy. While appearing deceptively easy. ‘thousands of Jin’ (i.5  TuishOu. softness can break through hard. It is this dynamic that we need to explore during practice. Ding meaning ‘stiff resistance’). it doesn’t imply Diu (a common defect due to failure in Zhan Nian. When they reach the level of ‘a good hand with invisible four-yin six-yang energy in medium circles’. Only by being fully aware of the changes in your partner’s movement can you react promptly to any attack. Skilled practitioners rely on a highly developed sense of touch. try to feel your partner’s tracks of energy while controlling your own centre of gravity during practice. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 13 . ‘Weak side strikes strong side. However. Hence. it is also the key criterion against which one’s level of Taijiquan Gongfu can be measured. Tuishou actually requires a strong sense of balance and an ability to combine energy and force. In other words. Tuishou develops one’s sensitivity to others. meaning ‘loss of energy’. no techniques can be executed. When forces are equally matched during competition. hence it is essentially a competitive activity. the stronger force) also can defeat the weaker force. four Liang defeats thousands of Jin’.1. It simply requires practitioners to have sufficient physical force for competition. In contrast with Quan (form) practice where the focus is on solo practice and developing self-awareness. nor is it just a matter of pitting one’s physical force against others. try to feel the extent and speed of your partner’s motions with your sense of touch while ‘listening’ to their stance and angles of movement. These reflexes are faster than thought and only come with constant practice. This is called. Remember too where your weight is placed to maintain control of your centre of gravity.e. or ‘losing tracking to the opponent’s energy’) or Ding (a common defect due to failure in relaxation. they are able to strike back instantly in response to an opponent’s movement using conditioned reflexes derived from highly sensitized skin alert to every minute stimulus.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 14 .

CHAPTER TWO: inTeRpReTaTions on The Ten FoRCes oF Taiji 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 15 .

When Wu-Yin Wu-Yang (energy equal and balanced) is attained. filled with abundant internal Qi. On receiving these signals. allowing both body and mind to enter into the level of deity and transformation. ‘Without being known. a rise or fall in height or changes in weight. but also with the eyes. What is listening with the skin? It means following the command of the heart and mind. squeeze and press. One’s skin is the key weapon. and a highly-tuned awareness of sensations in the heart and nerves as well. Hence the saying.1  lisTening TO energy In the context of Taiji and Tuishou. I know others and sweep all enemies aside. the act of ‘listening’ has profound resonances. sensing through the skin enables reaction in any manner within the rules.’ 王 西 安 16 . The level of one’s overall listening ability is determined by one’s internal energy (Gongfu). At this stage. alluding not only to listening with the ears. her body light and flexible. With your skin. no matter if the changes are in the opponent’s rotation.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. feel your partner’s movements. follow) as fundamentals. one’s force is injected into the marrow. During Tuishou sparring. a practioner’s body can react instantly with great accuracy and flexibility. Listening can be divided into three areas: listening with the bones. Similarly. with the skin and with the fine hairs on the body surface. when an opponent touches one’s fine body hairs. the skin. What is listening with the bones? It is the ability to anticipate an attack by listening through the skin and responding swiftly to an opponent’s attempt to seize. any signals of attack will be transmitted as sensations through the minute hairs on one’s skin. every single hair is so delicate and sensitive it can detect a feather just before it touches the skin. her changes in rotation. adhere. and taking Zhan Nian Lian Sui (stick. The entire body surface of a high level practioner is highly sensitive. continue. position and magnitude.

until it is too late to repel danger. you fight back. listen without hearing. your listening untrue.Finding a really peaceful place to practice will help concentration and improve one’s sensitivity to listening. Listening practice should strictly follow the Four Principles (Zhan Nian Lian Sui) as well as the Essential Formula – fast. so a practioner cannot generate energy for sparring if he or she is unable to listen. While the majority of practitioners are able to listen with the bones. Your reactions will become slow. your judgement confused. defending and attacking blindly. which is essential for constant adjustments to frequently changing circumstances. Without this preparation. It requires cultivation of a finely-honed sensitivity to the sensations on one’s minute body hairs. where every knot of one’s body opens and stretches without crude force. making all one’s muscles stiff. rising to the upper body. solidity. Just as a deaf person is unable to comprehend a conversation as he cannot hear. How good it would be to attain this level. ‘co-ordination of opening and closing’ and maintaining a fluid continuity between all these techniques. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 17 . descending. You will look without seeing. ‘descending Qi and steady steps’. Listening is essential to Tuishou. In all this. ‘clear manifestation of emptiness and solidness’. emptiness. slow. very few achieve the ability to listen with the skin. “The most super-human strategy is formless and soundless. listening would be impossible. special attention should be paid to ‘the intervals of fastness and slowness’. This is why we recommend the practice of Zhan and Nian (stick and adhere) energies as a preparation for listening practice. that is why it destroys the strongest of enemies”. Nervously. calm. Only through accumulated practice can one’s sensations detect the smallest changes. let alone the attainment of energy for combat. Failure to do so will cause one’s energy to remain stuck in the chest. opening and closing (快、慢、沉、稳、虚、实、 开、合). blood and breath. As Sunzi Bingfa says. leading only to failure.

While beginners may find this difficult to achieve. Duo (escape). length. Peng. Qin (intrude). this skill may eventually be attained with diligent practice and a good teacher. A further thirty-five shortcomings need to be overcome at this stage: Chou (draw). Ting (stick out). 拿na – capture. straightness and curvature. Realizing energy is based on listening. Tui (push). direction. Be warned that mistakes will occur on this learning path. 发fa – explode) at the appropriate opportunity. We call such shortcomings. Shi (tight). Shan (dodge or flash). 化hua – change. Zhe (hide). Jia (stiff ). “faulty palms” or “faulty body”. new challenges such as ‘being too fond of competing’. you cannot realize it. Failure to overcome these shortcomings would be to fail to realize energy. Lou (hold). Di (resist) and Gun (roll). Li (leave). Bo (move with hand). Ba (seize by force). Without ‘hearing’ the energy of one’s partner. Pai (squeeze out). Gua (hang on). Cuo (rub). You may find yourself being too stiff (Jiang). Ke (knock). speed. It is the ability to note present or potential changes in emptiness and solidity. the ability to circle and the principles of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Qi (insult). Teng (jump). Gou (hook). Ya (push down). hardness and softness. Even for those who achieve this skill. Zhan (chop). magnitude and hitting point. Zhuan (cheat).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. Bing (defect) signifies the inability to follow principles such as maintaining one’s centre of gravity. Ying (stiff ). vertical axis and flexibility. Fa (引yin – lead. Dang (block off ). your energy too resistant (Ding) or being lost unnecessarily (Diu). Hun (mix up). It is the ability to conquer one’s opponent by using proper rhythm and techniques such as Yin. transform. await them. Zhi (straight). Ji (hit). Hua. you cannot note any of the above changes in the oponent. An (press). that is. 王 西 安 18 .2  dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy Realizing energy is a key concept in Taiji and Tuishou. your posture too straight (Zhi). Meng (sudden). Ling (pressing). Ba (pull out). Na.

‘The Taijiquan Formula’: No one knows when I gather or stretch. I follow my partner. An. Cai. which is used not only in Tuishou. The quality of one’s form practice and Tuishou level speaks for itself – it is reflected in one’s ability to freely move forward or backward. and shares many common principles with Sanda (free sparring). changing one’s centre of gravity and flexibility) in synchronous movements. dodging. form and quality of Tuishou. jumping. with Taijiquan. In fact. Lü. transforming. Sanda can simply be taken as a higher evolution of Tuishou. Concordant with the adage that ‘external forms are the method and the pathway’. but also in the combat arts and and Sanda (free sparring). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 19 . Sanda complies with basic Tuishou principles. ultimately. angle. Lie. When attacking. Zhou and Kao). In effect. striking. Whilst all Chinese martial arts possess unique characteristics. Hence. utilizing the techniques of Kao in spiralling. the poplular stereotype of Taijiquan as a non-combat. Tuishou is the combat application of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Ultimately. they share the common practice of ‘realizing energy’. 14th generation Taiji master from the Chen family. is misleading and does not take into account its fundamental role across the Chinese martial arts. developed from further transformations of Tuishou routines. and also in one’s facilitiy with the eight energies or techniques (Peng. I always keep remembering to follow their intention. Whilst acknowledged as a combat technique in its own right. relaxation and health practice for the old and infirm. falling. look around and maintain an upright axis during Tuishou practice. grasping. says in a verse from his book. Ji. twisting.The practice for ‘realizing energy’ also tests one’s position. rather than use them as disparate forces to enhance one’s attacking prowess. no matter if they use the technique of Kao or twist. these eight techniques form the method for Tuishou. hence its continuing ties with Tuishou and. As Chen Changxing. the Tuishou practitioner must aim to apply these techniques (seizing.

that is. fourth and fifth sentences refer to the application of Taiji Sanshou. As mentioned. adaptable to both Tuishou and Sanshou. the Chinese martial arts have evolved into health and fitness promoting practices. The author stressed the importance of ‘follow’. This ability is encapsulated in the phrase ‘Zhan Nian Lian Sui’. The attacks from me by twisting. Chen Xin once said. It is through the practice of Tuishou and Sanshou that one garners the true meaning of Taijiquan. The third. Everyone knows how to hook. step by step. Again. strike. this verse confirms Taijiquan as a profoundly practical Martial Art. ward off. Hence. Tuishou is a combat practice method designed to prevent injury to the body whilst Sanshou is the appliction of Tuishou in actual combat. Taijiquan and Sanshou are practiced synchronously today to enhance health and selfdefence skills. to act naturally and follow one’s intention. that is. only with accumulated practice can one exert energy flexibly and 王 西 安 20 . to the realization of energy. to forget about one’s own intentions and follow the opponent’s. push or press.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 You need to go forward in order to chop. yet who knows the tactful way to turn one’s back and dodge suddenly? From the above verse. ‘listening and realizing energy’. press and hold back. along with the Four Essentials and ‘realizing energy’ techniques in Tuishou. one must also ‘realize energy’ through diligent practice and the exchange of ideas with one’s sparring partner. and horizontal Cai are also irresistible. leading to a wider understanding of the profound benefits and applications of Taijiquan. With the development of modern weapons. Chen Changxing exhorts practitioners to maintain a keen awareness of self and other parties. The second sentence of the verse means to follow the other partner’s intention while circling them. until I come to the level of Deity”. “From the familiarity of forms. Indeed. we can clearly see that in all movements. Li. In addition to applying Master Chen Changxing’s advice.

and its natural and intuitive use. the first being ‘familiarity with form’ and the last being ‘realizing deity’. while Tuishou exposes the quality of Zhan Nian techniques. in this way maintaining the upper hand at all times. Through reeling-silk practice. This ability comes through great patients and a life-long perseverance of effort through the three stages. A practitioner. extent.effectively. “Form practice is the essence of Zhan Nian training. on reaching the final stage of ‘deity’. At this point. This is why it is said. Only with the awareness of both oneself and others can others be conquered. Whilst it is said that form practice cultivates a capacity to know oneself. and come to realize the laws of movement and force. Zhan Nian energies work as a pair. the adhesive force that allows a practitioner to become strongly attached. Nian means to chase and follow one’s opponent. Conversely. with Zhan as the dominant force since without a 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 21 . this results in a deeper and more precise understanding of energy. will be able to instantly sense the delicate changes in the movement. so that he finds it hard to escape.” Zhan literally means ‘stickiness’. ‘Realizing energy’ is the middle stage of the three major phases in Taiji development. direction and the position of a partner’s energy flow. magnitude. 2. with which one’s opponent will find difficult to escape.3  zhan nian Techniques Zhan & Nian are forces directed forward. Tuishou practice cultivates the capacity to know others. like glue. he or she will be able to prevent their opponent from escaping with zhan energy by following his intention. They are external manifestations of internal forces arising from prolonged ‘reeling silk’ practice. Ultimately. capturing and transforming his energy and using it to attack at the first opportunity. to one’s opponent. that is. It is commonly used in attacking strategies. Zhan Nian techniques develop one’s capacity for high precision.

continuous and diligent practice. Simultaneously. these techniques will lead the opponent into faulty moves. This is why it is said that at this relatively high level. Zhan Nian energies can be detected by sensations that start at the palms. slow reactions to slow attacks’. It is Zhan energy that envelops the body. especially those who. have failed to attain high proficiency in the art. Understandably. the opponent will find it difficult to detect any weaknesses and hence any opportunity for attack. When Zhan Nian techniques are applied. and then through the entire body. ‘I don’t move if they don’t move’. and so on. despite prolonged practice. yet arrives at the hitting point earlier than the opponent)’.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 good mastery to ‘stickiness’ (Zhan). inflexible muscles and joints. Zhan techniques are fundamental to Tuishou – one needs to stick to the opponent to react appropriately. contact with the opponent’s palms allows the practitioner to estimate the opponent’s circle of reach and the level of their energy for transformation. flow up the arms to the shoulders and back. Not an easy task for ordinary practitioners. victory or defeat is decided in an instant. 王 西 安 22 . an internal energy manifesting externally. ‘I move before them on feeling their slightest motion’. as indicated by these teachings: ‘Follow my partner’s intention. but certainly achievable for diligent practitioners with good teachers. but even many long-term practitioners find total understanding or realization elusive. Once the whole body is enveloped. one can never accomplish quality ‘chasing’ (Nian). and forget my own’. as reflected in their stiff bodies and tense. Zhan Nian energies can only be realized through thorough theoretical understanding and careful. Ultimately. During Tuishou. ‘I win by striking after the enemy has struck (My fist starts late. the practitioner can exert Zhan Nian forces towards the opponent. beginners find Zhan Nian energy difficult to comprehend let alone detect. ‘Fast reactions to fast attacks.

Lian is dependent on one’s use of Zhan. moving effortlessly between quick/slow and forward/ backward movements. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 23 . Only if we can achive quality work on Lian Sui (continue and follow) based on good mastery of Zhan Nian. Without Zhan’s adhesive force over the partner preventing escape. emerges from the application of Lian. the act of connecting and maintaining the continuity of one’s movements with those of the opponent. continuity. non-pressing.2. slow reactions to slow attacks. Lian has a rich amalgam of meanings. Their inter-dependence requires both Zhan Nian and Lian Sui energies to be used in concert to work effectively. Lian Sui means to follow the partner constantly and closely thereby preventing their escape. the opponent cannot escape because if one follows closely using Zhan Nian. that is. fast reactions to fast attacks. non-forcing. and no chance to escape. It can be summarized as ‘co-relating to the opponent’. there can be no Lian. so that ‘as one falls. ‘to react while following’. adhesiveness. Sui.4  lian sui energies Lian Sui energies are twin companions of Zhan Nian energies. follow and move in the same direction as one’s opponent. including consistency. how can Sui be achieved? Sui technique means to react. Once palms come in contact. another rises’. can we execute Yin Jin Luo Kong efficiently. Used in concert with Zhan Nian energies. Unless one follow’s the opponent with Lian (co-relation). misleading and upseting the opponent’s centre of gravity by attack and thus strike and ultimately conquer the opponent. no resistance). ‘Bu Diu Bu Ding’ (no loss of energy. In so doing. one observes and reacts to the opponent’s Zhan Nian techniques. and can only exist in the presence of the latter. taking any opportunity to attack.

“The lower body automatically follows any motions of the upper body. 王 西 安 24 . Adepts. therefore it is advisable to practice the combined application of both.” Here we refer to the ability to keep every part of the body functioning as an integrated whole.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a teaching goes. applying Lian Sui provides a good opportunity to observe the partner’s weaknesses: “Lian and Sui are the means to mislead the opponent into our territory and to put them into a passive position. so that they can ascertain if their energy levels match the purpose and intention of their actions. Beginners may attain the preliminary stage of Lian Sui. It is vital that beginners are able to feel the movement of internal energy inside their bodies. whether through form practice or Tuishou”. following their energy flow without interruption. without any break in flexibility or continuity. Only with unimpeded energy flow and smooth internal co-ordination can one interact seamlessly with one’s Tuishou partner. successfully use Lian and Sui to attack and prevent escape. the basic ability to follow the opponent’s movements. Lian and Sui can never function without the other. As the teaching says. on the other hand. Internal and external energy flows relay the most valuable quality inside those adepts who can coordinate their energies closely. upper and lower coordinate any motion in the middle.

using our arms. so as to mislead my partner’s energy and upset their centre of gravity. we then use our shoulders. or feet to upset their centre of gravity. one should avoid Diu and Ding (losing energy and resistance). Using these complementary techniques. knees.2. Note that while applying Yin and Hua forces. For instance. striking the opponent with explosive energy while applying Yin Hua (literally to mislead and transform).5  Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques Yin is the main force used to mislead opponents. When applying Yin. Once neutralized. I apply Shun reeling downwards. neutralizing any opportunity for attack. using Lian Sui to follow their energy flow. Use these principles whether you are going backward or forward. Hua is the transformative force. if my partner presses my right arm with their palms. palms. and in this way mislead and neutralize your opponent’s energy. Literally meaning ‘to draw’ or ‘to lead’. A particularly effective combination is Luo Kong. we should apply She Ji Cong Ren without being detected. I use Yin Jin Luo Kong to constrain my partner’s energy while simultaneously gathering energy carefully to prepare for an explosive release of energy at any angle or position. the adept draws the opponent into his or her domain. hence ‘misleading’ and transforming the opponent’s energy. legs and so on”. I lower my body then stretch my right foot toward his or her crotch. While moving. going up or down. hips. Yin is the ability to draw the opponent’s energy into one’s control. and cannot exist without Yin first being applied. elbows. hands. then gradually upwards. “We strike by coordinating forces from different directions (Yin Jin Luo Kong). As Chen Xin explains. reeling my back inward before suddenly striking outward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 25 . When we feel the changes in our opponent’s energy flow. turning left or right.

shock. 2. However. Hua and Xu (gathering). so that the opponent is hurt and caught) or low stances are not always necessary for a good practitioner to conquer opponents. I “roll over.6  na (seizing) Technique The Na technique or ‘Way of Seizing’ consists of seizing opponents by their arms. just as one should attack forcefully without hesitation. the more one stretches the bow. “gather energy as if pulling on the bow. they are conquered. dodge.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Yin Hua can be applied in many ways. touch. As Chen Xin suggests.e. explode energy as if releasing the arrow”. rotate an opponent’s joint towards its unnatural direction. meaning the direction which hurts the natural structure of joint. so as to accumulate and release energy effectively. tie up. using all these techniques to mislead my opponent. In this way. and their pain penetrates right to the marrow. In Tuishou and San Shou. that of Taijiquan is accepted as the most refined. 王 西 安 26 While many martial arts schools may practice their own interpretation of the Na technique. As Chen Changxing advises. look one way and go another”. Opponents will feel as if their tendons and bones are about to break. Instead. It is important to remember that one must gather energy well before misleading one’s opponent. Any hard fan guanjie (joint twisting. sweep. my Taiji harmony within emerges so that even ghosts fail to predict my next move. depending on circumstances. That is to say. When I attack. hence rendering them helpless. i. destabilizing their centre of gravity and transforming their energy in order to conquer them. continuous solo practice is required to absorb knowledge thoroughly before techniques can be put to effective use. wrists or hands to inhibit their rotation or movement. elbows. he or she can easily capture his opponent through the combined use of all . and hence the harder the opponent falls. the further one’s arrow flies. one must cultivate the forces of Yin. I know my partner without being known.

Hua (transforming) are all preconditions for striking (Da). ‘Na (seize) always goes with Da (strike). In Tuishou. you still have the opportunity to move in quickly and seize them by their palms before they move away. There is a saying. These recovery measures also depend on a light. Zhua (grabbing). agility. agile. ‘Only this. This is why it is said that Na is the pre-condition of Da. If you fail to attack lightly and skilfully and your intentions are detected. I move using the principles of Qing Ling Huo Qiao (lightness. With the combined application of seizing. you need to seize first’. Indeed.’ as Sun Zi Bing Fa says. transforming and striking. I utilize Na to prevent my partner from escaping or from transforming their energy. so that I can strike them cleanly and successfully.their gathered forces. a Tuishou practitioner can exert the invincible might of Taiji. If he or she succeeds in escaping. so that I may capture my opponent without hesitation or detection. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 27 . To apply Qing Ling Huo Qiao while seizing one’s opponent means to exert one’s spiral energy on them on contact. Shuai (throw). The seizing technique in Tuishou is very important. ‘is called the “best of the best”’. Make sure Shun reeling and Ni reeling happens continuously when you utilize Na techniques. To apply Na effectively. When utilizing Na. you must react quickly and flexibly to any changes in your opponent. flexibility and skilfulness). strengthen your force so that your opponent finds it too difficult to escape or transform their energy. Tuishou accentuates Taijiquan’s martial power. This is called ‘dual-utilization of seizing and gathering’. in order to strike well. techniques such as Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Na (seizing). applying the energy smoothly and judiciously without over-exertion. Only with the synchronous use of various techniques can a Tuishou practitioner put their opponent at a disadvantage position and conquer them. throwing. thus reaching their goal. flexible and skilful exertion of Zhan Nian Lian Sui as well as other techniques.

‘No part of my body is not peaceful. in which case. stomach and the protruding and concaved parts of the shoulders. and all parts in a gathering motion. twist his right arm inward with your left hand. Na technique works together with Cai technique. If Qi ascends. both palms covering his right wrist. and your ribs. If you fail to Peng (ward off ) your opponent adequately. seize him then guide his pressing force into your territory using Lü energy. Never let Qi float upward and never let your feet lose their roots. Exert your energy first lightly then with force. When relaxed. your chest rolls inward naturally. stomach and legs. releasing your force like bullets rushing out of a gun. every part of your body works in harmonious cooperation. with no part tense. Using this will overcome the opponent without fail.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 When applying Na. the targets for both being the arms. The combination of Na-Cai with gathered chest energy has a force twice more powerful than Na alone. especially amongst beginners. Miscalculations often result in injuries. your centre of gravity destabilized and you will find it difficult to protect yourself. hence it is advisable to heed the teaching. During practice. In peace every part of my body moves at the time of movement’.’ 王 西 安 28 . whether you exert Na by the co-ordination of your hand and chest or with your ribs. Na is the synchronous manifestation of the internal and external. chest. remember to maintain a relaxed state by lowering your whole body. How then can you hope to seize another? Indeed. use the Na technique carefully to avoid hurting your sparring partner. ‘Never be rude and rash when you begin to practice Na. you have no option but to relax your joints. Common problems. if you want to seize your opponent. just as it is stated. making sure your hitting points are clearly defined. Next. your root will become unsteady. application of appropriate angles and techniques. and sensing the amount of force the partner’s joints can withstand. shoulders and crotch all gather downward in concert. By relaxing. he will be able to press forward. Then strike directly forward in a spiral and hit your target accurately. include controlling one’s speed and magnitude of attack.

2. relax the shoulders. often meaning to ‘guide and attack’ in the martial arts. OpeningClosing techniques. transform. preserve. just as Chen Xin mentioned in his works. Even masters of Chinese philosophy – Kungfuzi. The opportunity to transform the partner’s energy lies in the process of movements in various directions’. one cannot ‘open’ without first being ‘closed’ and vice-versa. This is an important concept which bears deeper contemplation. every part of the body is engaged in the action of opening and closing. Gather the ribs. ‘How can the circulation of stillness and movement have fixed directions? No matter under conditions of movement or stillness. gathering versus exploding.7  Opening and clOsing In the martial arts. OpeningClosing is a physical expression of Yin-Yang qualities: hardness versus softness. Opening (Kai) means to stretch and reach. opening and closing imbues Taijiquan with a subtle elegance that is as difficult to define as the motion of snowflakes. As Chen Xin says. Keep every joint relaxed before you exert Na. Listen to the tracks of your opponent’s energy while applying Na and Bi (closing). Laozi and Zhuangzi – have been unable to describe the subtlety 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 29 . Sanda and form practice. Indeed. solid stomach and slightly concave chest.Work on your technique step-by-step: develop a closed crotch. opening and closing illustrate the subtlety of Taijiquan. making sure all movements are steered by the waist. Remember – to attack your target with agility and flexibility requires long accumulated practice. bend and gather. Closing (He) means to draw in. hence this technique epitomizes the dual nature of Taiji – the opposite yet complementary. In all Tuishou and Taiji movements. Inhale from the stomach so that it remains solid. As complementary opposites. Mengzi. are widely used in Tuishou.

so that your targets become accurately defined and attacks successful. you will find your opening powerless. The quality of the effort you put in to closing determines your ability to open with power and effect. sometimes appear before our eyes. with the qualities of both solidity and emptiness. the rebounding force exerted by the ground can be used to energise any upward movement. your intention (Yi). The Opening-Closing technique starts from the closed state. that is. The art of opening or exploding your energy is akin to setting off firecrackers – the tighter the paper is rolled.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 and beauty in the opening-closing movements of Taijiquan. if your energy is gathered and conserved well. Closing not only means to bend and withdraw your upper body. In using Yi’s guiding qualities during form practice and opening-closing in Tuishou. As the saying attests. since Yi (intention) follows wherever Xin (heart) goes. and sometimes they disappear. swift and powerful. this means that one needs to be closed first before one can open. Kai (opening) energy originates in the root of your body. Thus positioned. every part of your body follows suit. grasp the floor with the toes and soles.’ Only diligent practitioners have the opportunity to experience this phenomenon. 王 西 安 30 . filling you with great vigor. the louder the explosion. but also to coordinate the heart (Xin). Yi moulds changes in external shape while Jin (force) rises with Qi. your ‘opening’ explosion will be natural. While standing. pressing the ground with your heels to empty the Yong Quan points. Without closing well. you will find that Qi penetrates your whole body more smoothly and powerfully. This means your root will not be disturbed and the flexibility of your reactions may even be enhanced. forceful. crude and slow. Likewise. from the soles of the feet. these changing motions. In practice. so that all parts of the body work together. ‘Opening-Closing. muscle energy (Qi). Your heart acts as the guide and leader during energy explosion – when your heart opens. external shape (Xing) and spirit (Shen).

then spiral your internal energy up the legs to the waist.8  energy explOsiOn Energy explosions consist of either long or short energy (Doujin or vibrating power). spirals up the legs to the waist control-center. Practitioners also need to build-up a reasonable level of muscular strength. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 31 . presenting your partner with opportunities to attack. land on the ground on your in-steps. Exploding energy at close-range is best as Kai energy. you need to train your muscles in relaxation and gathering. which then distributes it to the other extremities. is limited by its short duration and small coverage which extends only as far as your body. Exploding Doujin comes from releasing energy gathered during a state of relaxation when energy permeates the whole body. The solution is to make your energy round. After exploding energy. or worse still. the whole body returns to a state of softness and relaxation. This energy originates from the soles of the feet. and to develop high sensitivity and rapid responses to external stimuli. strikes may not find their mark.33 cm. 2. lower your waist and let Qi flow along the spine. the energy released unhindered.As you explode energy. while being mindful of the adage. The explosion should be short. keep your elbows down. Doujin is also known as ‘cun jin’ (very short energy) as cun is the Chinese unit of measurement for small lengths equivalent to 3. To gather energy of this quality. roll your chest slightly inward. Beyond this range. you will need to drop and relax the shoulders. then to every corner of the body. To master this elastic force. flexible and compact enough to mislead and upset your opponent’s centre of gravity. your centre of gravity may be lost. or you may find your Kai technique lacking in power and precision. Exploded energy is an elastic force which can only be controlled through intense concentration and physical flexibility only attained through accumulated practice. albeit swift and powerful.

utilize. consistent good performances will not be achievable. abundant internal energy and intense physical and energetic concentration. The force that you and your partner exert on each other in Tuishou is external force. one must explode energy smoothly. all these are prerequisites to “destroy something already in a state of ruin”. Daily cultivation of Yuan Qi (primordial Qi) and vital energy flow throughout the body are essential for decisive wins. Your performance in competition depends not only on the quality of your sensitivity. To combine the power of the three. transforming and attacking are closely related. flexibly and harmoniously. and with that outburst. Transforming and gathering are preconditions for energy explosions used in attacks – striking without transforming energy leads to stiff explosions while transforming without gathering results in powerless ones. it is necessary to distinguish clearly the respective functions of internal force and external force. frictional forces. together with the abovementioned techniques of grasping the ground as energy explodes using the earth’s rebounding power. straight forces. you must practice Changjin 王 西 安 32 . there are also a myriad of other forces which influence our bodies – supporting forces. Transforming and gathering are complementary and cannot function without each other. dissipate or absorb her external force. and exploding energy with elastic vibrations. Gathering. The external force of both parties affects each’s internal energy flow. The main external force that we humans experience is gravitational force from the earth. Constant diligence. To do this. your opponent is vanquished. that you are unable to neutralize. but also that of your internal energy and combat strategy. skilfully.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 “use thought and intention. horizontal forces and so on. Without these. counter forces. which are characterized by firm and ferocious attacks where internal energy is released with an explosive ‘Ha!’ sound. When doing Tuishou exercises. internal forces. However. and to explore the interactive relationship between them. not strength”. in effect. Failure to counter your partner’s force means. not relying on rigid or crude force. which manifests as our weight. spiral forces. though random wins may happen.

For example. easy conquest of the opponent does not necessarily follow. a quality leveraged for precise attacks: upward energy is used to explode energy vigorously. one should not attack at close target. the whole body moves as a synchronized force to follow the slightest movement of intention. during Tiaozhou practice (upward strike with elbow). “Without striking the partner from a distance of three metres. An attack. At this level of Gongfu. and even when elastic cunjin (hitting a target at very close range) is executed. imagine a line between the navel and Mingmen. Still Tough’ and ‘Four-Yin Six-Yang. will find the opponent flung far and wide. To reach this level. the medium circle practice. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 33 . Good Hands’. while downward flowing energy helps maintain a firm and stable root. you will find it easier to hit targets more accurately and swiftly. quick. as their attacks flow naturally from their heart and intention. leading to very smooth and swift responses. especially exhaling-inhaling and opening-closing motions. below which energy flows downward and above which energy flows upward.(long energy) and Duanjin (elastic short energy) by doing stretching and relaxation. elastic or vibrating variations. it is not advisable to exert Changjin (long energy). At the transitional stage between ‘Three-Yin Seven-Yang. This means that if one finds it difficult to attack from a distance. Close-range attacks require a high-level of competence. and the small or no circle practice. Only very high-level practitioners may achieve this. As it is said. beginners need to do the following: do the big circle practice. Alternate between these three with slow. there would be no striking the partner from one inch”. instantaneous. even with the slightest touch. Continue developing these techniques step-by-step until the level of deity is reached. By mastering the key points of energy explosion. Upward energy and downward energy exist in opposition to each other. despite its ferocity.

Remember Master Chen Changxing’s advice to “hold [your opponent’s] upper body under your control before you lift his lower body. Remember to maintain full concentration. Remember to maintain your centre of gravity with the coordination of the other leg. while you keep your intentions and energy flow undetected. your opponent’s upper body will shift out of their control.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. never let your partner know your intention before you act. heart. At the same time. keeping your axis upright and combine your eyes. To apply Ti successfully requires the whole body to work in coordination. To lift your opponent up with Ti requires the combined effort of legs. you lift your partner with spiralling energy to destabilize their centre of gravity and draw them into your control. then your instant and precise attack can never fail”. The rising force is difficult to use if forced. Instead. This means that no matter what Tuishou techniques you use. Pay attention to defending your territory – it is better to relinquish victory than to lose territory 王 西 安 34 . waist and arms. at which point you quickly change to exert Lü and Cai downward to throw them to the ground. To conquer your opponent. and intention into one entity. you need to destabilize your opponent’s centre of gravity by inserting one leg between your opponent’s legs and lifting it quickly outward using spiralling energy. spiral your forearms upward with guidance from the waist toward your opponent’s upper body. and may lead to loss of control. Using Zhan Nian Lian Sui. shadow your opponent with agile steps. First.9  Ti (raising) fOrce Ti means to ‘rise spirally’. As Qi flows up the spine. keep agile so that the opponent may not detect your energy flow and will thus be unprepared for escape. skilfully changing your tack to distract them from your true intentions until you have destabilized their centre of gravity and they are caught off-balance. powered by upward spiralling energy. rotate your Dantian so that your body lifts with greater speed and accuracy. while you maintain a state of relaxation. Even if not thrown completely off balance. When applying Ti. The arms and legs work together. combine your rising force with your elastic force.

reeling to the left or reeling to the right.and power. you will be able to transform energy while striking. You will attack like a flying dragon. Do not try to strike others before you have attained a reasonable level of competence. until it reaches the fine hairs of the skin. This energy is created using the Reeling Silk technique and penetrates all movements during form practice. transform and defeat your opponent’s attacking energy. on the verge of losing their centre of gravity. go forward or backward. Mastering this energy requires much effort and practice. 2. your force will reach its target just with intention. Adequate practice will naturally lead to success. but once attained. walk with such assurance as to shock evil spirits. follow the primary principles and develop your skills stepby-step. so you feel able to “protect your descendents and kill the rebels”. touch or sweep in response to the circumstances and you remain always observant and alert. Though undiscernible initially. reeling upward. Attaining high-level skills will make you braver. reeling outward. mislead. passes through the legs up the spine and arms. you will lose awareness of your physical body and location. as it emerges from the feet. Your incredible speed allows you to gain ground easily while your opponent feels as if they are fighting perched on a ball. When this happens. whether you rise or descend. You roll. your attacks will never fail. For beginners. you will find it easier to follow. and manifests externally as it permeates through to the fine hairs on the skin. revolving energy which originates internally in the body. The Reeling Silk consists of great varieties: reeling inward.10  reeling silk  Reeling Silk is a spiralling. tie. reeling in big or 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 35 . you will come to sense it with practice. and not even know from whence your power emanates. their root and they will certainly fall.

The solution lies in the middle path: keep a balance between softness and toughness. The principle of ‘Circulation between Yin and Yang’ clearly dominates the reeling process. all these reeling movements are always comprehensively combined together and closely connected. When being utlilized. misleading) always comes with Jin (approaching forward or attacking) and vice versa. 王 西 安 36 . and apply opening and closing techniques. reeling to the front or reeling aside. maintain the interplay between solidness and emptiness. remember to keep your Zhongqi (energy to keep your axis upright). remain balanced. reeling horizontally or reeling vertically. Keep a firm root.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 small circles. While reeling. Be humble and respectful during form practice. Excessive softness (Ruanshou or weak hands) makes you too weak to fight. When using Reeling Silk energy. As for posture. focusing your energy internally and guiding the flow of your responses from Yin to Yang. quiet and calm. collapse the waist and establish a stable centre of gravity in the legs. and thus renders you unable to react properly and to be easily manipulated by the opponent. and so on. Yin (guiding. excessive toughness makes you get too rigid. apply the principle of Dingjin (suspending force): hold the neck upright and relaxed. reeling forward and backward. one must avoid being too soft or too tough. Shun reeling (conforming) and Ni reeling (contrary).

CHAPTER THREE: single FoRm pRaCTiCe 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 37 .

Ti. This practice requires a solid foundation in preparatory exercises. Qi will flow around the body to the extremities and skin.1. Keep learning and eventually you will be able to use intention (Yinian) alone to execute techniques appropriate to each circumstance rather than conscious thought.’ In this way. As we know. Faji (attack) effectively under any conditions. so the Single Form Practice and Erlu help to compensate for this disadvantage. the purpose of form practice is to ‘get energy to reach the tips of the four limbs’. This means that Yilu fosters Zhongqi so that.1      Yilu cultivates Qi. if practice is diligent.1  inTrOducTiOn  This is a practical lesson in combat practice. Ji. Hua (transform) and Na. It also demands a period of diligent practice to ascend gradually through the primary.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. keeping your energy tracks undetected by the opponent. Single Form practice is vital for hand-to-hand Gongfu combat. Tui (go backward). Erlu and Single Form practice help to accumulate and strengthen Gang. goes through the Sanguan (Three Gates). To win. relaxed and soft. Lü. An. for example. Yilu (First Form) cultivates energy while Erlu (Second Form) releases it. Cai. interlinks the Santian (the three Dantian) and reaches the Yong Quan point. Lie. Shan (dodge). where ‘Qi spreads to the whole body. Single Form practice is essential for developing techniques which form the basis of Taiji Tuishou: Peng. Shuai (fall). Erlu explodes In this technique. 3. movements gradually become agile and flexible. Take special care to avoid losing energy (Diu) while practicing relaxation (Song). full relaxation of the joints. medium and high-level stages. who is then inevitably conquered. Zhou. A wide variety of single movements must be practiced repeatedly. Because Yilu lacks speed and Gang (tough) energy. and exerting energy too forcefully (Ding) while exploding energy. 王 西 安 38 . Kao. Da. Zhan (battle). as well as techniques focussing on various target areas of the body. you need to execute Jin (go forward).

Significant gains may be attained by practicing the single forms step-by-step. hands. He was known to say that he found throwing partners too easy. No matter how steady his partners stood in the beginning of a fight. these masters have attained their expertise through a shared and unwavering focus in Single Form practice. 搭Da (touch) and 扫Sao (sweep). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 39 . ‘You practice. 拴Shuan (tie). you don’t. Well known examples include the foot techniques of Li Bantian. legs and hips using relevant principles. Lastly. the throwing technique of Zhang Zhidie and Master Dong Hai’s Baguazhang technique of ‘[striking] the world by a half-step Beng (burst apart)’. elbows. such as: ‘Profound principles emerge by themselves. Chen Zhaopi was the undisputed master of 滚Gun (rolling). after you practice the form ten thousand times’. we have Master Feng Zhiqiang who is venerated for his steady. more like a relaxing stretch to enjoy the subtle. Master Chen Zhaokui was celebrated for his sudden dodges and incredibly small rebounding circles. To do otherwise would be to ‘attend to trifles and neglect the essentials’. These clearly advise diligent practice of the shoulders. inner meanings of the mysterious art rather than a competition. If prolonged. you fail’ and so on. Single Form practice is of vital importance. neglectful practice becomes increasingly difficult to rectify. as well as for his subtle and delicate jinlu (energy tracks) in Qinna (arresting). Hence. back.Gongfu masters. they always got hit and thrown to the ground. the seizing techniques of Eagle Claw King. resulting in loss of vigor and effectiveness. Though widely differing in style. each have their own unique combat style drawn from continuous tempering in their practice. sober movements and his relaxed yet vigorous energy explosions. you harvest. Also legendary is Master Chen Fadou’s ability to vanquish competition partners with just a touch. ‘Skills come naturally when you are familiar with forms’. be they exponents in internal Gongfu or external Gongfu. The world of Taiji is replete with pithy sayings that provide useful guidance to the attentive practitioner. so that the path to deeper understanding and realization may be paved.

1 . pedalling forward. trampling. 3. swinging up and down and so on. 王 西 安 40 Fig. With one hip relaxed and the opposite foot slightly touching the ground.2  feeT pracTice Feet practice includes the following movements.2. horizontally. chest rolled slightly inward. alternating between both legs: kicking forward. 3. upwards and sideways. stomach gathered and head suspended from above.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. face to the front.1      Exercise One • • Squat slightly. bend and raise your knee slightly.

2      Exercise Two This is actually a series of exercises focusing on various kicking movements: forward.2. upward and downward swing. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. make sure your in-step is stretched moderately tightly. up and down. collecting the energy at the abdomen. pedaling. stepping.3. horizontal. 3. sideways.2 41 . feet hanging backward and so on. a) Forward Kick The Forward Kick consists of kicking directly forward at mid-level and to the left and right. • Roll the chest inward and aggregate energy with the whole body. • Relax the feet so energy can reach the toes where it is required. bend the other leg with toes grasping the ground to maintain a firm centre of gravity. Descriptions of some of these exercises are provided below. • Kicking smoothly.

your left foot prepares to kick with the toes or instep as the right foot lands. except that the Horizontal Kick is higher and targets the opponent’s pubic region and lower abdomen. Beginners should practice slowly. .4. gradually developing until they reach the point of whole body integrity with the unification of Yi-Qi-Xing (intention-energy-form). 3. they will be able to direct energy explosions to targets with precision and ferocity. 3. 3.3). for example. On landing with either foot.5). edges of the foot plate and the sole (Fig. use the rebounding force of the earth to bounce up and propel your kick (Fig. 3. It should be practiced with both feet so that. if you kick with the right leg. At this point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. b) Horizontal Kick 王 西 安 42 The key points of the Horizontal Kick are basically the same as those of the Forward Kick.3 • This technique is applicable to the toes.

5 c) Upward Kick (Shang Ti Jiao) 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.Fig.4 Fig.6 43 . 3. 3.

a principle also applicable to the Double Kick (Er Qi Jiao). The Upward Kick should match the rhythm of the hands’ movements. practice kicking with each foot sequentially. 王 西 安 44 d) Stepping Down (Xia Cai Jiao) Follow the sequences as follows: • Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. • Switch your centre of gravity to the left foot. The whole body must be kept balanced and straight when kicking upwards. . usually the opponent’s chin. flexible and quick. Only if one’s kick is quick and powerful can kicking be initiated precisely and the target hit cleanly. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. There is no jumping in the Upward Kick.7  The Upward Kick is used for high targets. instead. The kick should be light.

 3.8 • • • Then stamp your right foot on the ground. exploding energy as quickly and fiercely as you can. but try to keep some weight in the un-weighted side as well. grasp the ground with the left toes and. As your right foot explodes energy stamping downward.8). Make sure that your centre of gravity does not switch to your right foot right after it touches the ground. cup your right fist and left wrist together in front of the chest. keeping the right foot at the same distance from the left foot as before. Then empty the Yong Quan point. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. all the while rolling the chest slightly inward.• Bend the left knee. gathering the stomach and collapsing the waist to ensure you stand with the left foot firmly rooted. standing with left leg. feet firmly grasping the ground. 王 西 安 45 . raise the right knee gradually (Fig.

The distance of the kick depends on your skill level – a good kick hits the opponent at an angle of 25o from the horizontal. practice with the left leg) (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. The key points here are the same as those for the previous segments. remember to follow instantly and quickly with the other leg. you can practice with the alternation of legs (after praciticing with the right leg for a while. including the alternating use of the legs (Fig. In Single Form exercise. 3.9 Regardless of which leg steps forward first.10). e) Forward Kick This consists of a straight kick forward with the sole of the foot.9). Kick as high as your opponent’s stomach and chest. 3. 3. 王 西 安 46 . and then withdraws elastically like a rubber band springing back into shape.

 3. f) Sideways Kick The Sideways Kick consists of the Inward Kick (Fig.Fig. 3. fierce and perfectly targeted.13).12) and the Outward Kick (Fig.11 Kick mainly with the heels. As you reach a higher level of skill. Before kicking.10 Fig.11). 3. 3. with hitting points mainly on the inside of the foot (with the occasional use of the outside). 3. prepare well by relaxing the chest and stomach to ensure your kick is fast. sometimes with the soles. 王 西 安 47 . • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The Inward Kick is executed upwardly to the front. Avoid leaning backward when kicking – keep your axis upright to maintain your centre of gravity. your reach will grow naturally and you will find it easier to execute kicks with greater ease (Fig.

as instructed in the ‘Essay on Quan’: “Gather energy like stretching a bow. this reflects the relationship between Yin and Yang’. Bend the kicking leg about 25o and lean slightly backwards as you kick to maintain a stable root and ensure ‘straightness exists in bending.12 Fig. 3. as bending exists in straightness (meaning the body becomes bent when gathering (preparing for kicking).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. with the hitting points mainly on the outside of the foot (occasionally inside). 3. 王 西 安 48 • . In the Sideways Kick. This emphasises the importance of good quality energy gathering as a precondition for fast and powerful kicking.13 • The Outward Kick is executed outward and upwardly. the whole body gathers together then opens up with an explosion of energy. explode energy like releasing the arrow”. while the body becomes straightened when kick is streched).

while your hands are targeted at the face. Before kicking.15). toes grasping the ground and all muscles of the body relaxed. smack the foot with your hand to ensure the integrity of the energy. 3. Eye your target and prepare for the kick by gathering your internal energy and lowering it. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. be it with the right or left foot. turn the body to the left to ensure a smooth and powerful forward swing of the foot and vice versa (Fig. Kick upward with the back foot.14). If kicking with the right foot. Squat slightly. Always coordinate the kick with your hands. Your swinging foot is targeted at the back of the opponent’s head.g) Upwards Swinging Kick • • • • • • Place one foot in front of the other.14 49 . then bring it backward (Fig. 3. While swinging outward to the level of the shoulder. 3. which allows you to use quick and continous forward steps. use the Gen Bu (follow-on Steps). then swing it outward in a natural arc.

. 3. And kick upward along with palms coordinated with Lü.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a Tuishou poem states: Fig. 王 西 安 50 Practice these kicks repeatedly so that they become smooth and continous and you may eventually hit distant targets using a combination of kicks with agility. I smack in the air by switching into the track of a swing arc.15 With openings and closings. I take the back of the opponent’s head as target. And smash enemies to pieces.

• Lower the back hanging foot to the ground then switch the front foot to Tou Bu (sneaking step) and move it forward. • Hold the body in a squatting position for the next few movements. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 51 . • Meanwhile the hand assists the foot hanging and covers towards the chest of the opponent. • The action must be quick and powerful. meanwhile two hands attack the chest of the opponent and strike the opponent down to the earth. coordinating both with Tou Bu (sneaking steps). remember to balance upward Long (close) movements with downward Ti (raise). • Swing both hands backward to the side of the back hanging Foot. • Hang one foot backward. • Pay attention to that you finish this action with the guiding of the waist and back. The powers of hand and foot combine together.h) Back Hanging Foot (Hou Guan Jiao) This kick is widely applied in Huo Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with Moving Footwork). depending on the distance between you. Backward Hanging Foot can be used as an initial step or as a follow-on (Gen Bu) to initial approaches toward the opponent. During solo practice. palms facing outward. rotating it slightly so that it slants to one side. • Use both hands to execute Lü on one arm of opponent behind the body. You should finish Lü. keep your footwork flexible and neat. Gua (hanging) and Gai (covering) in a second. No matter which you use. • The foot hangs to the calf suddenly to make the opponent lose his balance. otherwise the power will become Ding force (a deadly disadvantage: energy going up) and you will be defeated.

Move forward with Tou Bu (Sneaking Steps). 王 西 安 52 The secret of Back Hanging Foot is to plot the method to seize the opponent down and to fiercly bring him under your control without detection. 3. As a Tuishou poem states: With Yin and then Jin techniques. I explode my energy with the rotation of my waist. 3.16 • • • • Start by executing Yin (guiding) then move forward to attack with Jin (forwarding and attacking) force. And enemies fall to the ground with face to the air. your face looking upward.16). . twisting the waist and rotating the back to exert more power (Fig. And kick upward along with palms smashing downward. Hold your position and collect yourself enough to kick upward then swing downward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. I take the opponent’s upper body and chest as target. Then lower your foot to the ground.

since these are in a constant state of flux depending on the circumstances. 30:70. Use Front Bow Steps to practice this movement (Fig.g.17 i) Downward Swinging Kick • • • • Take one step forward and switch your centre of gravity to the front leg (Fig 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 53 . The attacking leg must be flexible enough to swing to the left or right. Practice this transfer of weight by alternating the legs. the other should not leave the ground until the centre of gravity is transferred to the heel of the front foot to lighten its weight. 3. Note that while weight distribution ratios may be used as a guide (e.18.Fig.19). 20:80). mindful that while one is in the air.17). 3. 3.. these may not provide an accurate picture of weight changes required in practice or combat. 40:60.

making your intention easily anticipated. waist and hands.19 Using Short Energy: Short energy should be used in both inward and outward kicks. 3. . Moving my feet in Ni (reverse) circles and my body in Shun (conforming) circles.18 Fig. I explode and shock the ghosts.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. As one master said: 王 西 安 54 I move my centre of gravity. shock their lower limbs and unbalance their upper body with my feet. 3. Short energy attacks are often used to ‘give a shock to the lower limbs’. so that the strikes are as rapid and powerful as possible. Avoid using long energy as it is likely to dissipate the concentration and power of your attack. ‘seize the upper body’ or ‘coordinate an outward strike with internal energy gathering’.

look in the direction of the moving leg. then squat and step out with your right foot. Waibai Tui (Legs Swinging Outward). toward the target. Lihe Tui (Inward Knee Strike). Zhuangxi Tui (Strike with the Knee) and Houbai Tui (Backward Swinging Kick). Practice continuously alternating both legs. When the right foot lands fully on the ground. Move the left foot half a step to the left. Change your weight to the left. • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Note: When stepping forward. step your right foot 40 cm forward to the right.3. As the toes touch the ground.1      Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles • • • Stand with the feet a shoulder-width apart. repeating the movements while keeping reeling from the left to right. 王 西 安 55 . Keep your legs reeling from left to right. making sure your leg is no higher than 15 cm above the ground.3  leg pracTice Leg practice includes Shunchan Tui (Legs Reeling in Shun Circles). Relax your legs and inject energy into the heels with Chun Chan for smooth and easy reeling. Use intention (Yi) rather than physical force (Li). that is. 3. change the weight to the right and step out with the left foot. Xiacai Tui (Downward Cai energy). just as in form practice. ‘Yong Yi Bu Yong Li’. working up your speed in gradual stages. Nichan Tui (Legs Reeling in Ni Circles).3. Begin with slow practice. a shoulder width apart from the left foot. Lower the tip of the toes of your unweighted right foot to the ground.

transferring all your weight to the right. You also need to practice Nichan and Shunchan with both legs. 王 西 安 Fig. continuous practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.20). rotate to the left forward at an angle of 360o.20 56 . then step forward 40 cm to the left. and then rotate 360o left stepping on the toes (Fig. remembering that the inner side of the heel is the striking point. Step the right foot forward.3. Note: It is best to practice Shunchan and Nichan by varying the distance between you and your partner. Inner knowledge can only develop with concerted. Raise the left foot. Next. 3. step forward 40 cm with the right foot. 3. transferring all your weight to the left. Practice these steps in continuous alternating cycles. striking to both sides with each leg.2      Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles • • • • • Step the left foot leftward so that the feet are a shoulder-width apart.

change your weight to the front foot. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.21 Fig. As such.22). In Huobu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking).21).22 57 . then transfer your weight to the left before moving the right foot forward (Fig. • While practicing. practice with both legs and with change of directions. • Stand at attention. • Combine Lihe Tui with the rotation of the waist and spine. we usually attack with Lihe Tui using the right leg. attack with Lihe and then move 90% of your weight to the back leg (Fig.3. 3. 3.3.3      Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike Lihe Tui is an inward strike using the inner side of the knee and is widely used in Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps) and Ban Gong Bu (Half Bow Steps). 3. whilst in Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking back and forth) Lihe is usually applied with the left leg.

and requires a sudden outward swing of the leg as weight is transferred. 3. 3. During practicing Waibai Tui.24). Waibai Tui is usually applied during Da Lü (Lü in large scale movement) and the best way is to seek out opportunities for attack is while moving.23 Fig.23). 3.4      Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward Waibai Tui is based on Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps).24 58 .3. Take care not to exert too much energy in the arms and legs to initiate the swing or your intention will be anticipated by your partner. step forward with one leg and swing the other outward and then closing inward. Practice this technique with both legs alternately once you feel your energy flowing smoothly (Fig. Through diligent solo Tuishou practice. 3. practitioners will come to realize the deep significance of their efforts. 王 西 安 Fig. Being content with a superficial understanding is fruitless.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. regardless of whether you practice day and night (Fig.

• To do Ni Cai: move the back leg forward. • To do Shun Cai: Cai downwards from the outside in using Shun Chan (conforming circles). Cai to the right.25 Fig. Xiacai Tui consists of Cai to the left. Shun Cai and Ni Cai are based on Front Bow Steps. The outer side can also be targeted once your ability improves. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3.3. placing your toes slightly outward. • Start with your centre of gravity at the back leg.5      Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy Cai means to pull down. then Cai (pull down) with Ni (reverse circles) at an angle of 180o from the inside out. 3. Shun Cai (Pulling Down in Conforming Circles) and Ni Cai (Pulling down in Reverse Circles). placing your toes slightly inward.26 59 . 3. • Targets of this technique are typically the upper and middle parts of the inner side of the lower leg of the opponent.

3. you can enter the opponent’s territory (Fig. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. Practice with alternating legs during Single Form practice.6      Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee Zhuangxi Tui consists of four types of strikes: striking left and right. keep ankles relaxed and Qi descending (Fig. Bend your knees about 40o – more than this and you will lose your centre of gravity. 3. 3. With a spiralling move forward.26). 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While applying Cai (pulling down).27 Fig. striking inward and striking outward.28 60 . Train your body to understand the meaning of ‘stretching consists in bending. Deepen your understanding of Jin Li (energy and force distribution). striking to the front. bending consists of stretching’.3.25).

• • •

All the above incorporate shifting of weight forward and back. Move the left foot forward then strike out the right knee, aiming it at the partner’s crotch (Fig. 3.27). While striking forward, roll the chest slightly inward and gather energy in the abdomen. Also, keep the hip and ankle relaxed, focusing your energy exertion on the target. Change your weight to the front, raise the knee, then strike it with an open palm (Fig. 3.28).

Li He Bu (Tuishou with Static Footwork) requires you to bend your knee, strike to the left, hit the inner side of partner’s right leg or the outer side of his left leg. (Fig. 3.29). Striking up and outward is called Waizhuang (Striking Outward). Key points are the same as in the previous striking practice (Fig. 3.30).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.3.7      Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
This is a wide-spanning movement and beginners are advised to imagine an opponent or target as they perform the technique during solo practice. • Lift the right foot to step forward and as you lean forward, swing the right leg backward using both the waist and spine. • As the right leg swings backward, fend off the opponent’s arm and attack with both hands. This technique of ‘attacking the upper parts and shocking the lower parts’ is often used to throw opponents to the ground (Fig. 3.31). Key points to remember are the same as in preceding techniques, all of which require whole body involvement.

王 西 安

Fig. 3.31

3.4  fisT pracTice 3.4.1      Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
This technique consists of striking either fist spirally upward. • Step forward with the left leg, bending your knees slightly to transfer your centre of gravity to the left leg, then strike with the right fist using the ‘Ligou Quan’ (Fist Hooking Inward) technique, taking care not to overshoot your blow above the opponent’s head. • Simultaneously, use your bent right knee to hit at the opponent’s crotch (Fig. 3.32). • Integrate both fist and knee strikes with practice principles of rolling the chest slightly inward (Hanxiong), lowering the waist (Tayao), relaxing the stomach (Songfu), and drawing up the anus (Tigang). • Strengthen your centre of gravity to improve your accuracy by ensuring your left leg is slightly bent with toes grasping the ground (Fig. 3.33).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.4.2      Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
This technique encompasses a downward strike with either fist at any angle. For example: • If the right leg goes forward, transfer your centre of gravity from the right to the left leg. • Clench the right hand into a fist, thumb tucked inside neither too tightly nor too loosely. • Strike the opponent’s upper body with the right fist, using your left arm to balance your movement. • You can also use the Bei Kao technique or attack with the elbows as well. • Again, effectiveness of this technique requires involvement of the whole body in the movement: ‘once you move, your whole body follows’ (Fig. 3.34).

王 西 安

Fig. 3.34

3.4.3      Shuang Fen Quan   Splitting Fists or Double Bursting Fists
• • • •

• •

Take a half-step to the left (or right). Bend your knees slightly and gather both fists to the chest, centres (Quanxin) facing downward (Fig. 3.35). Prepare to strike by gathering in the crotch and knees, and rolling the chest and shoulders slightly inward. To strike, transfer your weight to the right (or the opposite leg) and simultaneously split both fists explosively from the chest to either side of the torso, fists facing upward. As you strike, open the crotch, knees, chest and shoulders. Remember to keep the external and internal energy consistent, and the energy flow smooth (Fig. 3.36).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 3.35

Fig. 3.36

王 西 安

Rotate the right toes slightly outward as the foot lands. Hold the right fist close to the left side of the chest. fist centre facing inward.37). at the same time hooking the left fist upward. Rest the left fist beside the left leg (Fig. Rotate the body to the right then strike downward with the back of the right fist. • • • • • • Take a half step to the right with the right foot.37 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.4. 3. 3. Next. However. change your weight to the right leg and step your left foot forward. there are three main distinctions: the trajectory of the fists and target differ with Fists Smashing Downward and one or both fists may be used.4      Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward Fists Smashing Downward shares many common traits with Splitting Fists: both strike with the back of the fists and require practitioners to look to the side of the stepping foot. 王 西 安 66 Fig.

For each step. Likewise. the right fist is raised above the left side of the chest for more power and then smashes down to the right.38 Fig. Then repeat with the other foot. 3.Fig.39 • • • • • Again. alternating both sides continuously (Fig. step the left foot horizontally over the right one. Return both fists to their original positions (raise the right fist from its downward strike position back to the left side of the chest.39) 王 西 安 67 . involve your whole body in the attack. both left and right fists rise and descend at the same time. 3.38). 3. For example. Practice these steps. After striking. and lower the left fist from its upward strike position back to the left side of the body). stepping the right foot forward and exploding the fists before landing. when the right foot steps forward (weight on the left). the left fist rises above the right side of the chest and smashes down to the left. 3. the fists are raised from the sides across the chest as one foot steps horizontally in front of the other. (Fig. as the left foot steps forward (weight on the right). downwards on the right and upward on the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary.

the left arm gathers inward and strikes backward to the left with the elbow. Make efforts to cultivate both internal and external energies (Neiwai Jianxiu) and you will develop power.41 68 . 3. concentrating your power in the Quanding (the front of the fist).4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. stretching the left hand upward. • Sychronise both arms so that while the right fist flings forward. Practice this technique on both sides. • Gather the right fist under the right rib (Fig. • Step the left foot forward. • Sink your weight into the right foot and rotate the waist to the right to gather energy.5      Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist Single Fling Fist is a forward punch unique to Taijiquan in that its power is generated by rotating spiral energy at the waist and back.40). 3.41).40 Fig. avoid the temptation of focusing too much on the external ‘look’ of the punch – this will lead to nothing but the loss of energy (Fig. 3. then guided outward with Yinian (intention) to manifest in a ‘quivering punch’. This counter-balancing movement helps to accelerate the punch of the right fist. • Then fling the right fist forward in Ni reeling. 3. fingers vertical. 王 西 安 Fig.

bringing the left palm to the front of the body (Fig. energy does not manifest externally. • • • • Step the right foot forward. the main difference being that in the former. and practice alternating both sides. 3. 3.42). so that the strike manifests within a narrow range yet internally it contains great power and flexibility. simultaneously gathering the right fist beside the right ribs. Instead. Then step the left foot forward.43). Repeat with the other side. 3.6      Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist Baokong refers to the half-moon shape that is formed by the arms as you strike the centre of one palm with the other fist.4. Baokong Fist shares the same characteristics as Zhichong Quan (Fling Fist).3.42 Fig. The power of this technique depends very much on the practitioner’s physical condition. Transfer your centre of gravity from the back to the front and hit the right fist into the centre of the left palm (Fig. only about 40% of the jin force generated is exerted as short rather than long energy.43 69 . 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

44 . • Clench your fist so the middle joint of the middle finger protrudes.4. like hammering a nail. This forms the ‘peak’ of the fist.7      Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist Dianxue refers to the internal injury caused by hitting a specific acupuncture point with a sharp force. This makes the fist ‘peak’ stable and solid.44). and press the tip of the thumb against the middle fingernail. up or down. 3. 3. • Brace the middle finger with the index and ring fingers. using small agile steps (Fig. • Strike with force and ferocity with this fist using short energy.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • Attack to the left or right. 王 西 安 70 Fig.

45 Fig. Place your weight on one leg. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. Practice both methods using both legs. 3. Form two nail-shaped fists and strike from both sides using short energy. gather the ribs and lower your energy to the Dantian (Fig. 3. Bring the fists together in the middle about 25 cm apart.45).46).4.46 71 . Bend the other leg then strike both fists upward together. hence creating a dual attack with both fists and knee (Fig. Roll the chest and shoulders slightly inward. Guanyang means to hit the temples with two nails.3. 3. Method 1 • • Method 2 • • • Step forward with either leg.8      Dingzi Quan Guanyang   Nail-shaped Fists targeting acupoints on the temple Dingzi Quan is also another term meaning ‘Nail-shaped Fist’.

5  palM pracTice 3. • Place your hands in front of the chest. 3. 3.5. thrusting them forward with explosive force.47).48). • Step forward with the other leg. practice using long energy first. 3. while making sure the chest is relaxed. transferring your weight to the front. • Strike forward with both palms. • Step forward with either leg. the chest rolled slightly inward and the spine slightly lifted.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. palms facing forward.1      Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms This technique includes shaking palms with both short and long energy. the ribs gathered. though in the initial stages.47 Fig. • Prepare for the strike by ensuring your axis is upright. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. fingers pointing up (Fig. and lower the energy to the abdomen (Fig.48 72 .

• Repeat using the left palm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. speed. 3. 3. The power. Just before the explosive strike. lower your energy abruptly and push forward with short energy using small steps.49 When practicing with short energy. • Thrust the right palm forward or diagonally to the side.2      Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique This technique consists of the Single Palm Explosion with Shun Bu (walking forward and back).50. thrust your arms out about 50% (Fig. As the energy reaches the wrists. • At the same time step forward with the left leg.5. 王 西 安 73 . 3.49).Fig. gather the chest and stomach like a cat stalking a rat. using long or short energy (Fig. 3. 3. To be effective.52). energy range and flexibility of movement of both Single and Double Palm Push all rely on the practitioner’s abilities and internal energy. while the Single Palm Push requires the rotation of waist and back to exert a frontal or inclining push. Make sure your shoulder. a Double Palm Push needs to be sudden and exerted directly forward.51. elbows and wrists are lowered.

Fig.50 王 西 安 74 Fig. you will be able to explode energy with natural ease by combining both external form and internal spirit. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Start this practice slowly. 3. With continuous practice. gradually increasing the speed.51 Fig. 3. abruptness and power of the push.52 . and hence conquer your opponents without effort.

54). This creates an energy balance that stabilizes your centre of gravity.53). while gathering the other hand beside the ribs (Fig.54 王 西 安 75 .3      Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off This technique is used to fend off an arm strike from the opponent with an upward hand strike. 3.53 Fig. whilst using the other palm to push at the opponent’s chest or strike at their stomach.5. 3. 3. 3. Direct energy above the waist upward and energy below the waist downward.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. • • Step one foot forward and ward off an arm attack with one hand. enabling you to hit your target with more precision and power (Fig.

王 西 安 Fig. and then straighten it while pushing the right palm upward. 3. • To push with the right palm: bend the right knee.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. the stomach gathered and the chest rolled inward (Fig. • As you push upward. press downward with the left hand as a counterbalance between the upper and lower body (taking the waist as the dividing line).55). Explode this energy through the right side of body out through the right palm. • Keep the hips relaxed.55 76 . 3. • At the same time. first at an angle then vertically upward. open the right side of the chest and stomach.4      Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push This technique uses the inner side of the root of the palm (Zhanggen) to push upward.5. while gathering energy on the left side.

 3. Shun means ‘sequence’) (Fig. stepping forward with the left foot and extending the left hand forward in Ni Shun reeling (Ni means ‘first’.3. Keep your body and energy lowered while doing this. then quickly striking their chest with your right palm (Fig.56 Fig. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Then swiftly draw the opponent into your domain by touching their back with your left hand. 3. • Step the right foot forward and extend the right hand outward to ward off the opponent’s attack (Fig.’ Apply this technique during Single Palm practice.57 77 .5      Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang   Attack with Both Palms This is also called the ‘Attack with One Palm Guiding and Other Hand Pushing. 3. rotate your body to the right.58).57).5.56). • At the same time. 3.

王 西 安 78 .58 • • Also apply the usual principles: roll the chest inward. Coordinate the movements of your body with those of the palms. For example. lower the shoulders. and gather the ribs and dantian.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. • As you lower the body. This helps to concentrate energy in the palms.5. moving the body quickly forward. 3. left and right.6      Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang  Push Partner’s Waist with Shun or Ni Reeling This technique enables you to push the opponent to either side using both Shun and Ni reeling. 3. apply the following steps: • Step your right foot forward and lower your body and centre of gravity to the right. incline your body outward with Ni reeling whilst following the opponent’s Shun reeling. if the opponent seizes your right hand and twists it outwards with Shun reeling.

lure the opponent into your territory to destabilize his centre of gravity (Yinjin Luokong) by swiftly moving your right foot further forward and lowering the body while your right hand reaches forward.59). extending the thumb and fingers (Fig. Next. inclining outward and exploding with the left palm (Fig. Unify the three actions of stepping forward. 王 西 安 79 . 3. • Key points are the same as with the left hand push above.60 • • • As you do this.Fig. lower your body then extend it forward with Shun reeling. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s right ribs by exploding energy with your left hand.59 Fig.60). respond in this way: • Step forward with the left foot. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 If the opponent seizes your left hand and twists it with Ni reeling. 3. 3. 3. • Again. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s ribs. this time at the left side with your right hand.

regardless of the technique or force used. Also. roll your chest slightly inward and bend your right arm inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. change your centre of gravity from the left to the right. so that energy flows to the very tips of the body. especially when stepping forward and exploding energy (Fig. Relax your joints to enhance energy application.61).5. coordinate the waist and legs when exploding energy. • As you seize. 3. “Energy comes from heels. dominates the waist and penetrates to every part of body.7      Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa  Shun or Ni Reeling with Single Palm 王 西 安 80 This technique consists of using either hand to seize the opponent using Shun or Ni short spiralling energy. • Step the right foot forward and seize (Na) the opponent’s hand with your left hand while reeling downward in Shun circles. 3.61 Increase the effective of solo practice by sparring with an imaginary enemy in mind.” 3. as advised in an essay. . goes through legs.

62).63). you are able to use both palms to seize the opponent (Fig. guide or bring along . Thus. 3. 3. reach out with your left palm and guide your opponent to the left by reeling in Shun circles with thumb extended. practice alternating the seizing between right and left hands. change sides so that your right hand seizes the opponent by Ni reeling and the left by Shun reeling (Fig. reach under your opponent’s front arm. palm open.63 • • • With your right arm.62 Fig. 3. • At the same time. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Change your right hand to Shun reeling and your left to Ni reeling.Fig. listening closely to your partner as you do so. If the opponent escapes.5. To speed up your response.8      Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa  Double Dai[1] Palms Single Form Practice Step your right foot forward and transfer your centre of gravity to the front. 3. 王 西 安 81 [1] ‘Dai’ means to lead.

Transfer your centre of gravity to the front.64).64 Fig. fingers pointing to the front (Fig. 3. Clench the left hand into a loose fist and push it forward.66). fingers up. Then hit the opponent with the right arm (Fig. face the left palm outward. . Bend your right arm 90o inward and form a fist with your right hand. fingers to the front (Fig. Practice on both sides. gather the right hand beside the ribs. moving your arms to stabilize this rotation.65 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. 3. As your step forward. 3. palm up. Change your weight to the back and turn to the right.5. 3. 3. 王 西 安 82 3.65).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.9      Qianchuan Zhang   Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice • • Step the left foot forward.

place the left thumb and little finger in opposition while the remaining fingers face forward.67 • • • • • • Lift the left palm over the right. As the right foot lands on the ground. 王 西 安 83 . Return the hands to their original positions before the next energy explosion. reel the right hand in Shun reeling to the right and step the right foot forward. to increase the speed and power of the explosion.66 Fig. Next. left under right and right under left (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Practice alternating the position of both palms. To increase the precision and power of the fingers. and then explode both palms forward with a piercing thrust. move the left hand and foot quickly forward together.67). Also.Fig. coordinate the waist and spine when shaking the right palm forward in Shun reeling. 3. 3. 3.

bend both arms at 900 and gather both hands into fists close to the ribs to either side of the body. 3. 3. the left arm counter-balances the movement of the right.1      Li Zhou … Standing Elbows • • • • • Step forward with the left foot.6  elbOw pracTice 3. In this case. As you change your weight to the front. Remember to apply long energy before you apply short energy (Fig. 3.68 Fig. Practice striking with both elbows with corresponding weight changes to either side.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. At the same time. strike forward with the right elbow while hitting backward with the left elbow. 3.69).6.69).69 84 . palms facing in (Fig. 王 西 安 Fig.

gather it close to the right ribs. palm up. Alternatively. As the right elbow descends. take a small step forward with the left foot. Then strike the right elbow down for the second time (Fig. step the right foot forward again and extend the left arm forward.71  85 . and clench the right hand into a fist. 3.70). Step the right foot forward and strike the right elbow down forcefully as the foot lands. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. After the strike.71).70 Fig. return the elbow to the right side. At the same.6.2      Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows • • • • • • • • • Change your weight to the left and turn the body to the right. Lift the left hand when the right elbow completes 90o of its descent.3. Prepare for the downward elbow strike by raising the right arm while touching the back of the right fist with the left hand (Fig. slap the right shoulder with the left palm. 3. wrist turned inward and the palm facing backward. 3. 3. At the same time. bend the right elbow inward.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.73 Fig. 3. Fig. Rotate slightly to the left. then turn right with the right toes facing slightly out.72 王 西 安 Fig. 3.6.74 86 .3      Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist • • Step the right foot forward. 3.

transferring your centre of gravity to the left.75). Lower right fist to the left side of the body so that the right arm is held at 900 while stepping the left foot forward (Fig. Step the right foot to the left and bend the right arm.• At the same time. then step forward with the right foot.6.73). gather the ribs and lower your Qi. As you do this. 3.74). Step the left foot forward. Move the body to the left and transfer your centre of gravity to the right and back.4      Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block • • • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Roll the chest slightly inward so that it is concave. toe tips slightly touching the ground. Remember that the right leg moves forward with the right arm and vice-versa. 3. clench the right hand into a fist. 3. 王 西 安 87 .72). clasping the right forearm with the left palm. clasping the right forearm with the left palm. so that both feet are approximately 50 cm apart. palm facing in. 3. Turn to the left and strike out explosively with the right elbow. Gather the body to prepare for attack by lowering the body slightly (Fig. Focus on ‘hitting upward’ with your right elbow so as to destabilize the opponent’s centre of gravity and lift them off from the ground (Fig. raise the right hand across the front of the chest to the left in an upward arc. • • • Practice with the other arm. as if warding off (Fig. 3. Gather the body by bending it slightly.

Once familiar with the practice. • In the initial stages. strike the right elbow to the right. with the following differences: . palm down. balancing this movement with the left hand. the right fist lowered to front of the left armpit. practice with long and slow energy. Next. Practice with both sides (Fig.76 • Spiral the right arm forward with Ni reeling.75 Fig. step right with the right foot. use short and fast energy. 3. Simultaneously. 3. turning the body to the right. Footwork and hand movements are similar to those of Shun Lan Zhou (Smooth Elbow Block).6.76). 王 西 安 88 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. gathering it horizontally in front of the chest.5      Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow This technique consists of an elbow strike at the heart.

• Stand at attention with the arms relaxed at the sides. • Jump the left foot half a step to the left. landing approximately 50 cm apart from the left foot. jump slightly with the right foot.78 3.6. palm facing right. 3.• • Shun Lan Zhou is aimed slightly to the back.6      Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow This technique consists of concentrating energy in the elbow and striking upward with it.78). extend your left palm forward. toe tips on the ground. Touch the right knee with the right palm. Before the foot lands. fingers pointing up. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. palm down.77 Fig. 3. In Xin Zhou the left palm touches and lightly holds the right wrist as the right elbow strikes (Fig. while Xin Zhou is targeted to the front (Fig. • Turn the body to the right and reel the right palm across the chest to the right. 3. • Simultaneously. 3. 王 西 安 89 .77).

3. 3. followed by the right foot. 3.79). 3. placing the left fist below the right.80 Fig. gather the left side of the body so that your attack will have a clear division of Xu (emptiness) and Shi (solidity). Return the left fist beside the right ribs (Fig. bending the wrist before striking upward quickly with the back of the right fist. As you change weight. 3. taking the waist as the dividing line.81). . Move the right fist toward the right shoulder using Shun reeling. toe-tips on the ground. Also. step the right foot forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. avoid letting all your energy flow upward as this will destabilize your root. Look to the right side of body while striking upward.80). Practice on both sides. balance the energy between the upper and lower body.81 • • • • • 王 西 安 90 • • Prepare to explode energy by looking to the right and gathering the body (Fig. clench both palms into fists. 3. then transfer your centre of gravity to the right. toe tips touching the ground (Fig. then gradually using short and fast energy. After the strike.79 Fig. starting with slow movements initially until the steps become familiar. Instead. Next. step the left foot to the left. While striking on the right.

83).82). In this position. while the left the supplementary strike. Gather the fists close to the chest (Fig.82 Fig. then strike with the right elbow. the right elbow executes the dominant attack. Change your weight to the left. If you stepped to the left.6. Practice alternating both sides. 3. place the left arm inside the right.3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. looking to the left and concentrating energy in the elbow tips (Fig. 3. • • • • Step to one side with either leg. 3.7      Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows This technique consists of striking simultaneously with both elbows by holding the arms in front of the chest.83 王 西 安 91 . then exploding both elbows horizontally.

85).8      Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou  Double Closing Elbows This technique consists of a center strike with both elbows. This increases the force of your attack.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. holding fists on either side of the ribs (Fig.84 Fig. looking to the front and rolling the chest and shoulders inward. • • Step one foot forward. 3. 王 西 安 92 Fig. prepare for the stike by gathering the wrists inward. 3. 3. Try to feel the effect of this preparation during practice (Fig.84). As your weight transfers to the front. 3.6.85 .

 3.87). palm to the front. 3.87 93 .86). extend the left hand forward and simultaneously strike the right elbow downward past the back (Fig.6. As your centre of gravity shifts to the left. clench the right hand into a fist.3. Simultaneously. 3.86 Fig. clench the left palm into a half fist and place it beside the left leg. Practice alternating both sides. As the weight shifts to the left. palm facing inward and inclining backward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.9      Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow • • • • • Step the left foot forward and extend your left hand forward simultaneouly. take a big step forward with the right foot in front of the left. rotate the body to the right. At the same time. You can begin a new round by stepping forward with the other foot and repeating the movements on the other side. then lift it so that the right elbow is positioned over the right knee (Fig.

shifting your centre of gravity to the front. you apply Pie (Pushing Aside) force by meeting conforming force with the transverse force of your arms. palm up.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. As one of the Eight Forces. Make sure both hands move and arrive at their destinations simultaneously. • After exerting Pie force. 3. moving it beside the left ribs. • Extend the right hand outward. • All movements are guided by the rotation of the waist and spine. the aim of Pie Zhou is to convert conforming force into transverse force (Shun Zhong Qiu Heng).6. Shape the right hand into a hook (Diao Shou) and place it in front of the left thumb. • Step the right foot forward. • Change your weight to the left. the legs should be parallel to each other. • Shift your weight abruptly to the right and form a half fist with the left palm. • At the same time. then lower it over the right knee. strike forward explosively with the right forearm using a short-energy (Fig. In this way.88 94 .10      Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow Pie Zhou signifies conquering conforming force (Shun Jin) with transverse force (Heng Jin).88). 王 西 安 Fig. 3.

Form a hook (Diao Shou) with the right hand with the little. use Cai technique to strike out explosively with the outside of the right forearm and elbow. • Keep the left hand open so the thumb is separated from the fingers. Shift your weight more to the left as you do this (Fig. lower the left hand from the front of the chest to the left ribs. closing it slightly. 3. both internal and external movements are integrated with the movements of the body and limbs. ring and middle fingers. The thumb and index finger form the character Ba ‘八’. • Then. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.11      Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow This is a capturing and immobilising technique using the elbow. palm up. In this way.3. using downward Ni reeling. bending the elbow. • While lowering the left hand. 3. coordinating the explosion of energy with a twisting of the crotch and rotation of the waist and spine. using guiding energy from the little finger.6. • Raise the right hand from the right side. and extend the left hand forward to the right.89).89 95 . • Step backward with the left foot shifting your weight to the left.

Relax the crotch and incline (Xia Fu) the body abruptly forward using Pie technique.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • • • • Bend the left knee. While transferring weight. 3. 王 西 安 96 Fig. 3. moving your weight to the right (Fig.90). 3. toes grasping the ground.6. especially useful as a defensive move when being attacked while in a passive situation. you raise the right hand in Ni reeling to descend the elbow (Fig. Note: For maximum effectiveness.90 Fig.12      Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow This technique consists of using the elbow to strike backward.91 . strike the right elbow backward at an upward angle (Shang Chuan Zhou). and extend the right leg backward.91). and then. make sure power is gathered properly through the whole body and that your timing is correct before you strike. the right thumb guides energy flow. At the same time. 3.

7. 3.7  kaO (push) pracTices Kao practices can be divided into seven techniques: Qian Zai Kao. Shuang Bei Kao and Qi Cun Kao. As you shift your weight to the right. bend the right arm inward to position the right shoulder in readiness to execute Zai Kao. 3. and bend the right arm over the inside of the right leg while the left hand rests gently on the outside of the right arm. Xiong Kao.1      Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push • • Step the right foot forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.93 97 .92). Ce Jian Kao. The right foot and right arm should reach their positions at the same time (Fig.3.92 Fig. Ying Men Kao. 3.

94). Then take another big step forward with the right foot. step forward with the left foot and place it next to the right foot. 3. 3.2      Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push This technique consists of pushing the shoulder at the opponent’s ribs.93).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Then. raise the right hand from the inside to fend off and steer the opponent’s hand to the right. use the outside of the right shoulder to execute Qian Zai Kao. . As the body inclines forward significantly during this move. pushing it forward and down. 3.7. you can choose not to use Follow-on Steps (Dian Bu) as this will result in Ce Jian Kao being pitched too directly forward. • • 王 西 安 98 • • Step forward with the right foot (Shang Bu). take care to maintain your centre of gravity by not stretching too far forward (Fig. Do not make the mistake of weakening your defences by being too eager to attack and moving beyond your territory. The left hand follows the right hand in support and comes to a rest in front of the right shoulder. Repeat these steps for both sides. Note: Only push when you are in the correct position. quickly pushing the front of the right shoulder forward to execute Ce Jian Kao (Fig. As the heel touches the ground. After executing the above. if you find you get into an appropriate space for attacking. On completion of the shoulder push. Then step the right foot forward again to execute Zai Kao for a second time.

then techniques such as Ying Men Kao can be used to penetrate defences and attack. This only comes with closely combining the Yin (guide).7. lowering down but not stiff. Work consistently to master the key points until you are able to execute the movements in a way that is “quick but not loose.94 Notes: • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Finding the right rhythmic flow to your movements is key to effective attacks. conversely if one is able to ‘open’ the doors of the opponent. 3. arms are a defense against attacks. When firmly closed. Dai (lead and pull) and Ji (attack) energies together. 3.3      Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder Ying Men Kao refers to the ancient tradition of comparing the arms to two iron doors. 王 西 安 99 .Fig. light but not floating” .

Once the attack is completed. At the same time. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.96 • • • • • • 王 西 安 100 Take a large step forward with the right foot. 3. Separate the hands of the opponent to expose his chest (Fig. move the left foot forward parallel to the right foot and repeat the sequence for another attack. Note: There are two ways your can attack with Ying Men Kao: • You can lower your power slightly so that the tip of the shoulder protrudes more. cross the hands in front of the chest. The success of this technique depends on the extent of coherency and how quickly and smoothly the steps can be executed. 3. • You can use more of the shoulder surface in the attack. Next. It is easier to hurt the partner using a narrower attacking surface. fingers pointing up and palms facing the sides of the body.95 Fig. move both arms to each side of the body and push the right shoulder forward in attack (Fig. 3. the right hand above the left. .95). Practice the steps in alternating rounds between right and left until you can execute the technique with speed and power.96).

3. the chest and waist are in a collapsed position. 3. move the left foot parallel to the right. • Extend both arms from the sides to the front in an embracing gesture. using this shift to deliver a sudden push with the chest (Fig. • Practice this technique in rounds by stepping the right foot forward again and repeating the sequence above.7.4      Xiong  Kao … Chest Push This technique uses the chest to push at the opponent. 3. A good sense of timing is essential for defeating the opponent.98).97). • Change your weight to the left while pulling the opponent toward your chest using your palms (Fig. • Then roll the chest inward and shift your weight quickly from left to right. • Step the right foot forward. • To begin.98 101 . 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Note: Focus on sharpening your sense of timing during practice. can you execute it in actual combat (because you may easily hurt yourself ). shifting your weight to the front. • After this move is completed.97 Fig. Only with a thorough mastery of this technique.

99 Fig. • When the weight moves forward the chest rolls inwards. • Gently rotate backwards with both palms facing backwards.100). rebounding and shaking power).7. 王 西 安 Fig.5      Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders This technique consists of a simultaneous attack from both shoulders. Shuang Bei Kao requires Duan Tan Dou Jing prowess (short. 3. a capability that comes only with extended Quan practice. • Stand with feet parallel. This technique also uses Duan Jing (short power). You may lead with either leg. 3. 3. shoulders slightly concave and with power guided by the thumbs (Fig. take a sudden breath in and push the chest forward quickly. remember to gather and withhold energy before delivering the strike. and the shoulders execute Bei Kao to the right .99).100 102 . Note: As mentioned in previous techniques. as the shoulders deliver Bei Kao backwards (Fig. • When the whole body holds and collects to a moderate extent.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.

use short power in your push.101). if further away. extend the distance of your Kao slightly.7. 3. • Start doing Shun reeling with your right hand as you move your weight slightly to the front. 3. • Gradually move the right arm downward toward to the inside of the right leg. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Practice pushing from both the right and left sides. • Once your root is stabilized. fingers pointing down.101 103 . • Extend the right foot and arm forward. This technique consists of drawing your partner into your territory (Yin Jin) while you move backwards to attack. and at the same time deliver a forceful backward push (Hou Bei Kao Jing) with the right arm and shoulder (Fig.6      Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back To attack by moving backwards is called Bei Zhe Kao. Find a stable centre of gravity with the body and gather your body in this position. • Turn the body slightly to the left as the right hand rises.3. continue to transfer your weight to the right. Note: If the opponent is at close-range.

Incline the body forward in the same direction.102 104 . • • • • Take a large step diagonally forward with the left or right leg. 3.102). This technique uses largescale movements and requires the body to be inclined while keeping the suspending upright power (Ding Jing). 3. 王 西 安 Fig. Place the elbow below the knee (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. This technique is particularly difficult to apply in combat and can only be executed successfully if real efforts are made during practice. Note: Power applied in the initial stages should be slow rather than quick.7. Practice this sequence in rounds from left to right.7      Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao The name of this technique indicates that the body should be seven cun (approximately 23 cm) above the ground.

Fu Na. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.103 Fig. Tui Na. palm up (Fig.103).104). Chan Rao Na. draw the right hand inward in Shun reeling toward the left hand and seize forcefully (Fig. 3. 3. 3.3. • Take the left thumb as the guidance of energy flow and reel the left hand in Ni direction from outside in. Xiong Na.8  na (seizing) pracTices Na practices can be divided into eight techniques: Shun Ni Na. 3. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight forward to the left. palm facing in. and Shuang He Na.8. • Extend the left foot and left hand forward. Shuang He Fu Cai Na.1      Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling This seizing technique employs both Shun and Ni reeling.104 105 . Diao gai Na. • Rest the right hand near the right ribs. • At same time. 3.

With practice. you will be able to execute these changes quickly and smoothly. in order to block the opponent’s energy path. lower the shoulders. Repeat the above sequence. you should use short power so that with one closing and one opening you can quickly reach the right position before the partner. When seizing. 王 西 安 106 Closing with the left while seizing with the right and vice versa.e. drop the elbow. Seizing techniques are quite difficult to practice. and lower your waist and Qi. this time reeling in Shun direction with the left hand and Ni direction with the right. move the weight slightly backward then move forward again. then you must respond promptly by swapping the reelings to the opposite hands. roll the chest in. If you try to seize the opponent using Shun reeling on the left hand and Ni reeling on the right. if you practice each side diligently. you’ll be able to apply this technique automatically and even defeat your opponent if you apply it well. changing the weight from left to right. Note: Shun and Ni reeling are interdependent and cannot be separated. Shun reel with the right hand and Ni reel with the left. After seizing. spread the energy up and down the length of your body like a bow so that power is distributed everywhere. Observe your opponent’s changes and respond accordingly: if the opponent uses long power. even though you deliver the power later than the partner. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While seizing with both hands. Try to relax at every step while applying the seizing action firmly. but she evades your attack by ducking down. Your moves will become more effective as your internal Qi integrates more closely with the external movements. tighten the ribs. i.

lower the Qi.107 王 西 安 107 . placing it in front of the chest. palm out.106). 3. tighten the ribs. Then rotate the right hand and body to the right. 3. Relax the left side of the crotch. • • • • • Step forward with the left foot and move the right hand in front of chest to fend the opponent off upwards to the right at head level (Fig. 3.107). and clench the right hand into a fist.8. Then lower the right hand to the right ribs. extend the left hand forward to rest in front of the body (Fig.105).106 Fig. Again. The shift to the left enables you to hit the target clearly (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.2      Xiong Na … Seize with Chest This seizing technique uses the Cai power of the chest with the help of the hands.105 Fig. At the same time. As you do this. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left. 3. roll the chest in. 3. and shift your weight to the right side. 3.3.

• Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left by stepping the right foot on the ground. The left hand leads by closing the power causing the right hand to follow.108). 3. Relax the crotch. • Step the left foot forward and extend the left hand to the front. palm facing left (Fig. the force of upward suspension maintains the axis. and gather energy in the ribs. • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the left side of the body. • As the weight shifts to the left. Shift your weight forward and accumulate power well. 3.109). • Close the crotch.8. As it states in the poem: “Raise the left hand and extend the right hand upward to draw a circle.3      Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen This technique consists of seizing with the abdomen filled with descending Qi with the assistance of the hands. 王 西 安 108 . the palm forming a “八” (Ba) shape.” 3. • At the same time. Match the speed of your movements to that of your partner. while the two hands serve as supports. Make sure to keep your own axis when seizing the opponent. extending it forward in an arc until it comes to a rest in the front of the right side of the abdomen.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Remember that Qi gathers in the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) unify to become one power. lower Qi to the abdomen in preparation for the inward roll and seizing. palm facing right (Fig. The strike is actually applied by the left side of the chest. Move the whole body in a natural and relaxed state. rotate the body. reel with both hands in a Shun direction. Move quickly and follow your partner but do not lose power. roll the chest slightly inward and gather the ribs. Draw the arc with the intention of meeting the opponent’s hand.

clench the left hand. the left hand moves lightly and assists the right.110). seize with the right and roll the abdomen – these three actions combine to become one power.Fig. 3.108 • • As the Qi descends. The abdomen provides the main supporting element. The eyes look forward and to the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.110 109 .109 Fig. 3. whose movement is heavier (Fig. 3. 3.

111). the right hand moving down while the left moves up.8. palms about 10 cm from the lower abdomen. Move swiftly without hesitation. keep your intention firm for victory or failure will be decided in a second. 3. push the abdomen out suddenly (Fig. capture and immobilize the opponent. followed by the left. bending them at the elbows. roll the chest slightly inward. and gather them towards you (Fig. while the hands use Na (seizing) power to collect inward. gather the ribs and lower Qi to the abdomen so that internal strength flows through the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) may unify to guide the attack. Continue to shift your weight forward. 3. . As you seize. Concentrate your energies then pounce on your opponent like an agile cat. As your weight shifts. 3. immobilizes their wrists by bending them outwards.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary.4      Shuang He Fu Cai Na  Seize from Both Sides with Abdomen This seizing technique uses the combined efforts of the abdomen and hands. do not be kind to the foe for the opportunity to attack comes just once.112). move the palms up to chest level and seize the opponent’s elbows using Na power. and commence shifting your weight forward. extend both arms to the front. Both hands extend forward in sequence. At the same time. whereby the abdomen gathers power to support the hands. the right foot steps forward. Direct the eyes to the front. and both feet standing steadily as the hands move. • • • • 王 西 安 110 • • Take a half step forward with the right foot. facing in so that the fingers are directed towards each other.

111 Fig. and lower Qi in your abdomen before protruding it forward. so that you respond by moving your weight forward.5      Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling This technique uses the gathering power of one hand to seize while the other reels from the inner side of the opponent. supported by the warding right hand. Lower the right hand then cover it with the left.112 Note: It pays to practice as if sparring with a partner who is pushing forward with his or her hands on your abdomen. 3. Reel the left hand forward. fending the opponent off upward to the right (Fig. 3. • • • • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the chest. Step the left foot forward and shift your weight to the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.8. 王 西 安 111 .113).Fig. 3.

Collect the body by rolling the chest slightly inward.114 • • • • Put your body in a squatting position by bending the knees slightly. But remember: practice like an adept. .114). gathering the ribs and lowering the waist and Qi. Alternate practice on both right and left sides. 3.113 Fig. Step the right foot forward again and repeat the above steps. 王 西 安 112 Note: If Qi descends smoothly. bones. 3. by taking a step forward (Shang Bu) each time. 3. this technique can be used effectively to break wrists. tendons and veins. not like a thug. Combine them with the power of chest to become one power (Fig. Collect the hands inward to about 15 cm in front of the chest.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. lower the left arm in a downward arc using Shun reeling and extend the right hand forward in Ni reeling to seize downward from the right side.115). 3. In this way. • Step forward with the left foot and extend the left arm to the front. • As soon as the right hand reaches the level of the left leg. relax the crotch. • As the knee swings inward.3.6      Tui Na … Seize with the Leg This technique uses the combined power of both hands and one leg.116 113 . shift your weight forward and bend the knees slightly so that the body squats like a bent bow. 3. and move both hands to assist the left leg. 3. roll the chest in and gather the ribs (Fig. The powers of the left arm and right hand unify as one. fingers pointing forward. the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) combine to seize the opponent. swing the left knee inward to gather the left leg so that it serves as a supporting point during the seizing. • Bend the left arm inward to gather both palms. • As you step. Lower your Qi. • As the weight moves forward.115 Fig.8.

3. 3.118 114 . • Step forward with the right foot.7      Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands This technique uses both hands to seize: the right hand moves up from the right to grasp the opponent’s arm from the bottom while the left presses down from the top. 王 西 安 Fig.8. Then step forward with the left foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • After seizing.117). • Then lower the right arm by executing Lü downward in Ni reeling. spiral the right hand up from the right side into an arc.117 Fig. gradually guiding it inward to rest in front of the right ribs. 3. The changing of the legs happens quickly. 3. guiding it to the right ribs for support (Fig. extend the right arm and pass it from the upper left side of the body to the right in a warding off motion (Fig. 3. shift your weight to the front and extend the left arm again to repeat the steps and seize once more. shift your weight quickly to the left and step forward with the right foot.116). • At the same time. As you step forward.

lower the shoulders.119). As the right foot touches the ground. As the hands move. the left palm moves down in Shun reeling to cover the the arm of the opponent so that the forces of both arms work as one.118).Fig. 3. roll the chest slightly inward and bend the knees slightly into a squatting position. Continue to move the right hand and foot forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 115 . Then extend the right hand forward to cover and seize with both hands with Gai power (Fig. 3.119 • • • • • • As soon as the right foot touches on the ground. The intention is to have the whole body collecting and seizing together with the hands. shift your weight to the right and move the left foot and hand forward (Fig. When the right hand moves up. 3. Then move the right hand forward in Shun reeling until it reaches the same level as the nose. shift your weight to the right and step forward with the left foot.

121). Combine this with the power gathered in both hands and seize with one force.8      Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands This technique uses the gathering power of both hands to seize. then gather both hands and grasp the opponent’s wrist firmly downwards. At the same time. rolling the chest inward and tightening the ribs. step forward with the left foot and shift your weight to the front. This step marks the transformation of Peng (ward off ) to Na (seizing). 王 西 安 Fig.8. 3. 3. 3. Bend your knees so your body squats like a bending bow.120 Fig. strengthed by whole body coordination.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.121 116 . Prepare for the seizing by lowering Qi to the Dantian.120). • • • • • Sweep the right hand from left to right in a warding off movement (Peng) to fend the opponent’s arm out and upward (Fig. Make sure you have a clear line to your target by lowering the shoulders and elbows before seizing downward (Fig.

• Hang the hands naturally at the sides. then exhale as you bend the knees slightly to put the body in a squatting position (Fig. ‘Wars Among Three Countries’ by Guan Yu. • Inhale.122).9  jie TuO (escape) pracTices  The practice of Jie Tuo is divided into nine techniques: 1.1      Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape According to the book. Shuang Wan Zhi Jie 4. Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo 3. then the ring finger. Guan Gong. • Stand with both feet in parallel. the Guan Gong Jie Dai technique is said to be named after its creator. eyes looking forward. shoulder-width apart. and finally the index finger. This technique enables a practitioner to avoid capture or break a hold. Chuan Zhang Jie 5. Fan Na Cu Bu Jie 9. Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. Shan Jing Zhen Zhang Jie 8. curve the fingers into hooks and raise them in front of the ribs with the little finger leading.3. such as a waist grasp from the rear to throw you down.9. 王 西 安 117 . • Next. Guan Gong Jie Dai 2. • Move Qi in from the outside and lower it to the Dantian. middle finger. Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie 7. Qu Wan Fan Na Jie 6.

and also with the speed of Qi descending. otherwise it is not easy to unfold (Fig. 3. hook the wrist and bend the fingers to escape.123). This technique is always applied to Liu Feng Si Bi Dan Bian (Six Sealing and Four Closing Single Whip).122 Fig. In this way.123 • Synchronise the speed of this movement with that of the body. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. If the fingers are being held. This technique becomes effective only after extended practice. 3. the squatting of the body.2      Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo   Escape by Hooking Wrist & Bending Fingers This technique is especially useful to release a hand hold by an opponent. the gathering of the ribs and the hooking of fingers should combine to become one unit. 3. 王 西 安 118 3.9.

relaxing the shoulders. Move your body to transform the attacking power. 3. you relax and elongate your encaptured arm. By the end of your movement.124). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 This technique is only to be used if you have become proficient in it after extended solo practice. unblocking the arm area being attacked.Fig. lowering the elbows. slowly bend the wrist and fingers. rolling the chest inward. As you move. and lowering your Qi as you do so. 王 西 安 119 . By doing this.124 Fig. join the fingers of your hand together and point them diagonally upward to the right (Fig. your conjoined fingertips and knuckles should be able to escape with ease (Fig. 3. Practice these steps with both hands in turn. 3. 3. so that Tuo (escaping) power can reach the fingers effectively.125 • • • • • If the fingers of one hand are seized by the opponent.125).

It consists of spiralling the inner sides of both wrists upward to force the opponent to open his hand. It is not necessary to use large movements in this technique.3      Shuang Wan Zhi Jie   Escape by Spiralling Wrists Upward This technique is used to escape a double wrist-hold. then move your arms forward and upward as your weight shifts forward (Fig.127 120 . roll the chest inward.127). At the same time. 3. and lower the Qi so that power can flow smoothly to the inner side of the wrists.126 Fig.9.126). tighten the ribs. 3. closing your hands while opening the opponent’s. 3. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. While doing this. clench both hands into fists. lower the shoulders and elbows. Just focus on relaxing and lower the Qi. bend the arms.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • • • Step one foot forward and shift your weight to the other leg (Fig.

and Qi. 3. and roll the chest inward.4      Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo   Escape by Crossing the Hands before the Chest This technique consists of crossing both hands before the chest when you move to the left or right to transform power. placing the right hand on the left (Fig. It is most often used in the transition between the Jin Gang Dao Zhui posture (Buddha’s Warrior Attendant Pounds Mortar) and the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying Coat). and lower the shoulders.129 121 . 3. tighten the ribs. • Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. 3. • Bend both arms 90o inward and cross them in front of the chest. • Two feet stand flatly and the body stands straight.128 Fig.9. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3. elbows. two eyes look forward horizontally.128).

130 Fig. Do not rush forward but defend you territory in straight postures (Fig. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. swapping the Shun and Ni reeling to the opposite hands. 3. Then ward off (Peng) by pushing both palms outward. then rotate forward again. and move the right hand in Shun reeling while the left does Ni reeling.129). 3.131 122 . If you choose to turn to the right: rotate the body to the right then left.5      Qu Wan Fan Na Jie   Escape by Bending the Wrist and Seize the Opponent This technique is used to counter-attack a hold on the right fingers. 3.9. It requires you to twist the captured fingers outward in Shun reeling.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • If you choose to turn to the left: rotate the body to the left then right. then to follow your opponent by bending your wrist in Ni reeling while you rotate to the right position so as to extend the left hand and seize with the right. and lock the palms of the opponent.

While rotating the arm. 3.130).133 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. open the joints throughout the body and stretch the muscles so that power can flow through to the wrist and move to its end point more smoothly. Your movements should be relaxed and executed with power at all times. palm facing left (Fig. Apply the principle of constant change and flexibility in Taiji circles. 3. 王 西 安 123 . 3. wrist bent inward in readiness to seize and fend off danger (Fig.133). 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Note: Use the waist as the boundary dividing rising energy above the waist and descending energy below the waist. As you do this. it will be difficult for opponents to overcome your attacks. step the right foot forward (Fig.132). As the right toes touch the ground. raise the elbows. If you practice diligently. then bend it about 450.131). relax the shoulders.132 Fig. 3. extend the left hand forward to support the right hand as it seizes downward (Fig. Rotate the arm about 1800 outward in Ni reeling. 3.Fig.

9. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. Next. so that the power of the left hand combines with the right to become one. coordinating it with the lifting of the back and the descending Qi. 3. incline the body and attack with the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). palm facing right. you should rotate externally and upward in Ni reeling. • Extend the right arm horizontally and bend it 900 inward. In response.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • As the right palm reels outward. • Simultaneously. • The right wrist bends inward with the arm to rotate the hand in Ni reeling. roll the chest inward. then move swiftly to the right to destabilize the opponent.134 Fig.135 124 . the palm gradually guided by Ni reeling to slant externally to the right. Together.6      Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back This technique is applied when the opponent seizes your wrist in Shun reeling. this sequence of movements make up the Shan Jing Ce Shen Jie technique. right fingertips initially pointing downward. move the left hand rightward to the front of the chest.

Use your whole body to collect energy and attack: the Yin force (guiding) from the upper body and Jin force (inserting and attacking) from the lower body.• • • As your left hand moves. Note: Move in Ni reeling while the opponent moves in Shun reeling. So Shan and Jing serve as the pre-condition of escaping.7      Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie    Quick Shaking Palm Stun This technique uses very swift abrupt (Shan) power to stun the opponent. feet and shoulder should integrate into one resolute force and terminate at the same moment (Fig. you find it easy to execute Zhen Zhang (Shaking Palm) and thus to escape. because with these. Almost at the same time. All the above movements of the hands. The force of this attack can help wrest you free from the opponent’s grip and dislodge your wrist from his or her grasp. then bend your knees slightly to place your body in a squatting position so that you can collect and hold energy. then quickly step the right foot forward (Shang Bu). then project the right shoulder forward to push at the opponent’s right rib using the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). giving him a sense of losing of Qi. and thus enabling one to evade capture. If the opponent seizes your forearms: • Retreat half-a-step with the left foot. Project your shoulder forward using Shan Jing (Sudden Flash Back) and it will break the copper wall. The above movements of both arms and the right foot should occur in one very smooth and swift motion. touching the ground with the toe tips (Fig.9. make a big step forward with the right foot. 3. 3. shift your weight to the left .134). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.135). 王 西 安 125 .

palms facing up and the two little fingers placed on the middle of each arm. 3. use both hands to draw the opponent’s arm toward you and destabilise their center of gravity. 3.137). slowly raise both hands and bend them inward about 1800. Next.138). and both palms draw inward. step forward quickly and attack with the palm (Fig.136).137 Fig. This power should be quick and strong.136 Fig. 3. At the same time. open both fists and shift them away from the sides of the body. Simultaneously. 王 西 安 Fig. then the whole body sends a Dou in a circle in Shun reeling (short power). clench the hands into fists and place them at the sides of the body (Fig.138 126 . As soon as you surprise and destabilize them with your moves.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • • At the same time. When the body and two hands send the Dou power. and the extending palm reaches the right position at the same time. the body squats. Shift your weight forward and extend both arms forward to break the power of the opponent’s grip on your forearms (Fig. 3. palms facing up and eyes looking forward. 3. 3. then Shang Bu (take a step forward).

because sometimes appropriate retreating gives one a closing power.9. Two elbows draw inward and hands move outwards.139). Then push the left palm to the right. extend the left hand from left to right. 3. and attacking by the Cu Bu or Dun Bu technique (stomping). palm facing out. Step diagonally right with the right foot. thumb separated from the fingers (Fig. holding and collecting a quicker speed. the partner cannot reach you though his attacking power is strong. you find escaping easy. It is not wise to grasp the opponent’s elbow with your fingers.140).It is just like the poem reads: ‘It is not a failure if you retreat your pace. 王 西 安 127 . which is against principle. With Shan and Jing. 3. As the right foot steps on the ground.8      Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping This is a composite technique consisting of seizing and twisting the opponent’s joints (Fan Na) using the Fan Guanjie (Reverse Joints) technique. Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. since he or she can easily twist your fingers and get you caught’. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Step forward with the right foot and commence Shun reeling with the right arm. then shift your weight to the left and inclining the body to the right to hold and collect. 3. fingertips slanting up (Fig. At the same time. first bending it inward then moving it outward to the right. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the side.

139 Fig. During the practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Then you will free yourself from capture. the body should move from high to low. from slow to quick. Stand rooted like a big tree. do not react or become anxious but remain confident in your prowess. Incline your body and explode the energy with great unity by stomping with the right foot.140 Notes The Cu Bu stomp requires a large incline to the side to project an abrupt burst of power. 3. Be patient and diligent with practice. Even if you sense the opponent’s intention to move. only by this will you increase in strength. This power can only be gathered with greatly unified power. 王 西 安 128 . side pushing with the left palm and exhaling at one time. 3. paying attention to the upper and lower body and your surroundings. from long power to short power.

9      Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie  Escaping by separating hands This technique is used to wrest free of a double wrist grip by separating the arms. • Extend both arms forward. 3.142). As you do this. bending inward about 90o. 3.142 129 . the hands wrest free of the opponent’s wrist grip. • Next. exhale. the left hand in Ni reeling and the right in Shun reeling.9. lower the shoulders and elbows. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. tighten the ribs and lower Qi to the Dantian.3.141 Fig. breathing in as you do this. roll the chest in. • Step the right foot forward. • In this way. separate the hands to the sides of the body. eyes looking forward (Fig. 3. palms facing in (Fig. • Then bend both wrists inward.141). palms facing each other.

 3. get your wrists free by moving the right hand in Shun reeling and the left hand in Ni reeling.144). 3. 3. During practice. You can escape from seizing by one closing and one opening.144 Notes The extent to which you separate your hands depends on the opponent’s grip. then you transform and eliminate the seizing on your wrists. Palm Inserting Down) (Fig. If you still can’t free your wrists with this technique. finally returning them to the front of the chest to repeat the cycle (Fig. 3. then separate them to each side. keeping both arms tightly together like pincers.143 Fig. then raise your hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.143). insert both palms downward (Xia Cha Zhang. If you cannot push the opponent’s hands away. 王 西 安 130 .

CHAPTER FOUR healTh anD qi enhanCemenT pRaCTiCes 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 131 .

incorporating both movements inner quietness and more active techniques such as the Wu Ji posture. each of which can be practiced individually or in sequence: 1. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Posture) 4. These movements are applied throughout the whole system of Taiji and Tuishou practices. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) 王 西 安 132 3. Ji and An. its leaves and branches must flourish. . Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture) 2. This group of practices is used to strengthen the Prenatal and Postnatal systems of the body. As Qing Dynasty Taiji Master.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan Zhuang (Returning to Wu Ji stance) Diligent practice and application of all the postures in these six groups of Qigong practices will yield great results for Taiji and Tuishou practitioners. Lü. Chen Xin. opening and closing. unblocking the whole vessel system by enhancing Qi and blood flow through the body and helping the accumulation of Qi in the Yong Quan point (known as the ‘Bubbling Spring’ located on the sole of the foot). Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) 6. Peng. San Ti Shi (Three Postures) 5. Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong can be divided into six postures. rising and falling. It also incorporates Qigong and body combat techniques and may be regarded as an advanced form of Qigong.1  inTrOducTiOn Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is a collection of health and Qi enhancement practices essential for the formation of robust Taiji and Tuishou techniques.” Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is an extension of Jing Qigong (Quiet Qigong). states: “If a tree has deep and strong roots.

breathing gently and slowly. eyes closed. Hang both arms at the side of the body and relax.2. 4.2  wu ji zhuang (wu ji pOsTure)  4.1      Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Stand upright. feet parallel and shoulder width apart. Concentrate your intention (Yi) in the Dantian. keeping your mind relaxed. Open your eyes gradually.4.1 133 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

the right hand rotating in Shun reeling and the left in Ni reeling. the right over the left for male practitioners. Lower the hands onto the abdomen.3 134 .2). c) Posture 3 • • Curl the little fingers towards the thumb and slowly draw the arms down to the middle of the body.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 b) Posture 2 • • Raise the arms to the sides. Take care of these points and you will not lose power (Diu Jin) unnecessarily. the reverse for females (Fig. Maintain the hands at shoulder height.2 Fig. do not do it so gently that Qi becomes too soft and weak to reach every part of the body. 4.3). 4. 4. Overdoing this will raise your Qi to your upper body so that it becomes blocked in your chest and destabilizes your feet. when it should actually be solid. 4. 王 西 安 Fig. On the other hand. palms facing downward and slanted diagonally (Fig. Try to expand your arms moderately.

2.2      The requirements for every part of the body 1. Let the Ren Mai and Du Mai meet during breathing: then lower the tip of tongue. until they reach the lower Dantian.3      Breathing Breathing is one of the main elements of the Zhan Zhuang (Standing Posture). The whole body will be steady if you gather the internal organs consistently. Pay attention to the following points when practicing the Zhuang posture: 1. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 135 . 2.4. lower it when exhaling. 3. 4. It is important to practice this diligently to unblock both the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation. Your shoulders should be loose and slightly lowered. Lift the buttocks and anus up a little. 4. bend the knees slightly and grasp the ground gently with the toes. guiding the Qi and saliva through to the middle Dantian. the mind and facial muscles naturally relaxed. Concentrate your intention (Yi) at the Bai Hui point and apply power to this point. The Yong Quan point should be kept empty and relaxed so that any stagnant Qi can flow through smoothly when it descends. Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth The tip of the tongue should touch the palate when inhaling. The palate is the commencing point of Du Mai while the tip of the tongue is the beginning of Ren Mai. The neck should be firm and straight. Your elbow joints should be lowered. Gather the chest and ribs inward. inhale and then swallow saliva down into the stomach. so that the waist descends naturally. Relax the crotch so that the inner and middle parts of the lower limbs are also relaxed.2.

including the internal organs. and ease the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation (Da Zhou Tian and Xiao Zhou Tian). roll the chest slightly inward. Feel the sensation of all the body joints. Maintain your vertical axis. leading to Qi filling and blocking the chest. 3. 王 西 安 136 . Practice also enhances your ability to guide Qi with Yi (intention). across the Yu Zhen point. keeping your body upright and lifting your back slightly. While exhaling Lower every part of the body. skin and fine hairs opening as the Qi rises. through the Wei Lü Guan point. up along the spine. which will help with the distribution of Qi around the body. until it reaches the Bai Hui point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. Raise your Yi (intention) from the Hui Yin point (perineum). While inhaling Gather your chest and abdomen inward while breathing in Qi. Do not lift the back too much while the Qi rises as this causes both the Qi and blood to rise even further. lower the waist and gather the Qi in the Dantian. you will enlarge your vital capacity and exercise the diaphragm muscles. By practising the above key points. While lowering the internal Qi. so that they all have the same rhythm. Note: Do not press the abdomen down too much as it will swell naturally as it lowers.

and achieve the smooth Zhoutian circulation and help with body combat. can the mind obtain full rest and be adjusted so that every organ system may be well promoted. Qi follows Yi.2. just as Xing (posture. quietude and concentration. However. Practitioners should modify the scope of their practice according to their level and progress. The key requirements for practice are relaxation. so it is recommended that they do not practice Yi and Qi until they become familliar with the form. Only these can guarantee normal and healthy internal Qi circulation. Qi cannot be separated from Yi (intention).4. these can be accomplished only by hard learning. Only through mastering your mental activities such as intention. • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 137 . and emotions. Beginners generally find it difficult to remember the postures and key points.4      Additional Notes  • In Taiji Yangsheng Zeng Qigong. During Wu Ji Zhuang. thinking. patients and the correct mastery of key points. consciousness. external movements) follows Qi. you need to concentrate your intention on the Dantian so that all other distracting ideas may be replaced (Yi Yinian Dai Wannian).

4. 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. also known as ‘Standing Zhuang’ or ‘Standing like a tree’ Qigong meditation. as reflected in the following sayings: “You won’t make progress if you practice Chinese Martial Art forms without praticing basic skills. 4.1       Postures 王 西 安 Fig.3.” and “Practicing Martial Art routines without practicing Zhuang skill is like a house without pillars.4 Fig. people who practice Taiji will make more progress only if they practice not only routines but also Zhuang skill. is an important basic skill in Chinese Martial Arts.5 138 .3  hunyuan zhuang (circle pOsTure) Zhuang skill.” Hence.

The palms face each other. Bend the knees so that the body is squatting a little. a little more than shoulder-width apart. waist and crotch. Relax the shoulders. fingers pointing at their counterparts about 30 cm apart. then move them back to the middle. mid-level and low. Execute the posture as if embracing a big tree.3. The upper body should be kept upright. Stand with your feet parallel. Leave your eyes naturally open or close them. 王 西 安 139 . if closed. 4.a) Posture 1 • • • • • Start with the same initial posture as the previous posture. waist and back straight. then lower the waist (Fig. 4. with practice duration increasing gradually from short to long. Lower the elbows and shoulders slightly. Keep the head naturally erect. If your eyes are open.4).2      Body requirements  a) Zhuang Skill Adjustment Hunyuan Zhuang can be practiced at three levels of body stance: high. focus your attention on the Dantian (Fig.5). Next. shift your weight to the right and lift the left foot and take half a step to the left. Keep the fingers evenly open and slightly bent as if half grasping a sphere. b) Posture 2 • • • Separate the hands when the left foot reaches ground. focus on a static object at the same level as your eyes. The old and weak may practice using a high body stance. the neck. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.

then a low stance. then bend the knees to lower the body until the buttocks are at the same level as the knees. More benefits may be gained if initial practice lasts for at least ten to fifteen minutes. At the same time. For example. Continue standing for as long as you can as this helps build fatigue resistance and enhances control of the muscles. Beginners will find that the thighs may ache after two weeks of practice. In this case. through the Ren Mai. Now lower the tongue and inhale. although this may become more obvious with prolonged practicing at mid or low stances. the thigh muscles and even the whole body may tremble rhythmically. intention and internal strength join together at the end of Du Mai (which is also the beginning of Ren Mai). then lower your body again. Que Qiao. b) Rising and Falling Method This method refers to the subtle rise and fall of the body during Standing Zhuang following the rhythm of the breath. Should this happen. you should raise your stance slightly to rest. graduating to midlevel. and guide the saliva down to the middle and lower Dantian. 王 西 安 140 . up the spine. inhale slowly first. Practice duration can last just a few minutes in the initial stages. becoming gradually longer. Inhale again as the body rises. past the Yu Zhen point. This relieves or may even stop the trembling for a period.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The young and strong should start with a high stance. and slight trembling may occur. Du Mai. increasing to thirty or forty minutes at later stages. Wei Lü Guan. raise Qi from the heels up the legs. At this point. until it reaches the Baihui point. swallowing your breath with saliva. touch the palate with the tip of the tongue. The trembling may only be detected by touch or by close observation of the leg muscles. when doing Standing Zhuang at a high stance.

but the apparent non-activity is misleading. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 141 . the body lowers slightly and Qi moves down to the Yong Quan point along the inner sides of the legs. 4. like a wild goose flies off and falls. Zhuang skill is actually a practice using static strength and tension. Practice this process repeatedly.3      Breathing Breathing is an important element of Zhuang skill. as it responds to the circulating blood. the body quivers in a relaxed and peaceful state of mind. The upper body is Xu (void) while the lower part is Shi (solid) with feet grasping the ground. The body weight is always subtly moving in various directions. It rises and falls like a boat in the ocean.As you exhale slowly.3. This is explained in the Song of Huanyuan Zhuang: The body ascends or descends corresponding with the breath. breathing motions and digesting processes. Standing on the ground steadily like a mountain.

The distance between both arms starts short then grows longer.1      Postures  a) Posture 1 • • • • Inhale and slowly separate both arms to each side. Gather the chest and abdomen. In the initial stages of practice.7 142 . as are the requirements and key points for the body parts. 4. the middle fingers connect. 王 西 安 Fig. the breath is usually short. the body rises slightly with the inhalation. relax and open the internal organs. the palms face inward and the eyes are slightly closed (see Fig. 4. 4. The only difference is that in this posture.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. 4.6 Fig. At the same time.4  kai he zhuang (Opening and clOsing zhuang) The standing posture of Kai He Zhuang is the same as Hunyuan Zhuang.4. The navel and Ming Men are in the same rhythm. extend your breath slowly through the practice process.8).

All internal organs are filled with strength. using your intention (Yi). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Qi appears between finger tips of both hands like a magnetic force. Focusing on your intention (Yi). you will detect a current of energy released from both palms which seems to be difficult to gather at this point. Do this practice slowly. Acting slowly. use your intention to guide the current outward. b) Posture 2 • • • • • • Exhale and gather the organs. Guide this Qi from the fingertips and palms into the ‘sphere’ in front of your abdomen. the navel and the Ming Men Mai swell out. Drop the wrists and hold the palms facing inwards in a concave shape. lower the waist and gather the rib muscles. Relax the body.Note: when you inhale and open up. 4. crouch down and lower the elbows.8 143 . Roll the chest slightly inward. At the same time.

For thought (or attention) to combine with intention. 4.4. the ebb and flow of Qi and strength (or power) are in synch with each other. as well as breath control. and when Qi rises – the body and internal organs gather slightly. intention and Qi. Qi here refers to the fresh air exchanged between the lungs and the outside. it also helps increase internal strength and distributes Qi around the whole body. gentle and even. In this way. then your strength must be soft.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The main aim of practising Kai He Zhuang is to enhance the strength of the lower limbs and to promote the shrinking and expanding abilities of the navel and Ming Men. This is called. if you require the breath to be slow. . It will take some practice before you will be able to sense Qi and feel it move with the rhythm of your breath. Qi and strength. For example. when extending the hands.   Intention and Qi Kai He Zhuang is directly related to the Three Internal Combinations: thought and intention. “the internal Qi moves inside”.2      The relationship between Thought. and also helps the practitioner build skills in relaxation and quietness. This practice also strengthens the practitioner’s ‘root’. as well as the internal Qi moving in the body with the guidance of your intention. 王 西 安 144 Qi combines with strength when Qi descends – the whole body and internal organs relax. To combine intention with Qi means to guide Qi so that it follows your intention as you practice Zhuang techniques. only when you can mentally trust that you feel the Qi in your hands can you apply the practice techniques to good effect. For example. one’s thoughts need to implement intention consistently. Lastly.

abdomen and back. you will reach the point where internal Qi may be guided by intention to move freely in your body along desired routes. With practice. Guided by intention. the chest. Its purpose is to stimulate the nerve system by muscle movement. In particular.The relaxing and gathering of the internal organs mentioned here refers to the activities of the internal organs and the muscles around the midriff area – under the ribs. the regular up-down movement of the midriff muscles are very important in Kai He Zhuang. this movement becomes a conditioned reflex and helps move muscles which are normally static. and are one of the main requirements in Zhuang skill. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 145 .

focusing your intention in the Dantian. 4. The length of inhalation should match the speed of the weight shift. then breathe it out slowly as you move forward (Fig. Swallow the fresh air inhaled.5  san Ti shi (Three pOsTures) The core content of San Ti posture is the method of drawing in and pushing forward. . raise both hands above the right leg. suffusing it with saliva and Qi and lower it to the middle and lower Dantian. When inhaling.9). Start the posture with your eyes closed. Purify this saliva with your intention. This posture could also be called a sideways Bow Step (Fig. inhale and move your weight backward. Expand the crotch like a circle. make sure your eyes are drawn inward to looking internally. then open your eyes and look into the distance. The rhythm of the navel and Ming Men should be consistent with the breathing in and drawing in.10). When the weight shifts completely to the left leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. the right hand in front of the left. The fingers are poised as if grasping the air. Next. 4. then shift your weight forward from the left foot to the right knee. fill the body with strength and withdraw the limbs to prepare for the next pushing posture. At the same time. Gather the Lao Gong points of both hands inward. a) Posture 1 • • • • • • • • 王 西 安 146 • Stand with feet parallel and take a step forward with the right foot.

You need to have the feeling of closing before opening. 4. lower the waist.11 147 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. then push both hands forward slowly (Fig. 4.Fig. 4. 4. close and fold your strength into your chest and waist.10 Fig.9 b) Posture 2 • • As Qi is lowered into the Dantian. As you exhale and shift your weight forward.11). Repeat this process alternating the left and right sides.

persistence may be engendered. If. practitioners are required to cultivate their Three Spirits when they begin practice. your practice hesitant and inconsistent. You can persevere only if you firmly believe in the benefits of Zhuang skills. on the contrary. then your progress will be poor. your belief is half-hearted. and persistence. and great determination. Only after prolonged practice can confidence be nurtured. Confidence in Zhuang skills grows with practice as difficulties are overcome. practioners will make the expected progress. with confidence and determination. determination. Beginners tend not to have much confidence or belief in Zhuang skills because their practice has only just begun. and hold firm to these attributes throughout path of practice and study. Indeed. confidence is a critical prerequisite. So where does confidence come from? From practice. In sum. confident and diligent practice. leading to progress and experience of the benefits.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Notes: Remember to cultivate and apply the Three Spirits: confidence. Practitioners who apply the Three Spirits can develop good Zhuang skills and attain the expected results. With confidence comes determination. Through serious dedication. 王 西 安 148 .

4. relax the chest and midriff muscles to provide balanced strength between the upper and lower bodies (with the waist as the dividing line). Peng force is maintained while the foundation of the body is reinforced as well.6. 4.1      The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang a) Posture 1 • • Step forward with the right foot and shift your weight forward. 王 西 安 149 . both palms facing forward. Chan Si Zhuang refers to practices using silkreeling power built on the foundation of Zhuang skill. • At the same time. • The fingers of the both hands point to each other. In this way.6  chan si zhuang (reeling silk pOsTure) Chan Si power generated by practising Chan Si Zhuang is the core content of Chen Style Taijiquan. extend both hands forward with the right hand before the left.4.12). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The difference of this posture from that of San Ti posture is: • Both hands extend outward with Peng energy to prepare for the opponent’s Lü gesture. As you step forward. inhaling all the while (Fig.

12 王 西 安 150 Fig. 4.13 Fig. 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 4.14 .

withdraw the right hand so it intersects the left. open both fists into palms facing inward. When both hands reach their full extent (your Peng and Ji can’t exceed your orbit or territory. Apply Peng (ward off ) and Ji (press) outwards with both hands as you shift weight and exhale (Fig. otherwize. relax the right crotch and shift your weight gradually to the right. 4. At the same time. As the weight shifts. 王 西 安 151 . When this happens. When the left hand executes Lü (roll back) to the middle of the body. turn the waist and twist the crotch. Inhale and swallow saliva. As you shift your weight. lower the shoulders. the right hand in front of the left. relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left Move the left hand down in Ni (contrary) reeling and the right hand down in Shun (conforming) reeling. you start to repeat the sequence. Both hands make a half fist when reeling. As this happens. 4. relax both arms.14). rotate the left hand in Shun reeling in front of the lowered abdomen.b) Posture 2 • • • • • • • Next.13). gather and close the whole body so it forms a posture prepared for opening activities. inhale and crouch the body slightly. step the right foot on the ground. keeping the left hand inside and the right outside (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 c) Posture 3 • • • Next. suffusing it with Qi before lowering it down to the middle and then lower Dantian. you will lose your weight and axis). drop the elbows.

veins and joints” is known as the “connected Ren Mai and Du Mai” in Zhuang skill terminology. When you practise Zhuang skills to a certain level. This is a primary sign of beneficial Zhuang practice. decreasing to seven or ten breaths per minute. then to five times per minute. This phenomena of “connected arteries.2      Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang When practicing Zhuang skill. The normal breath frequency of adults is six to twenty times per minute. and even to one or two times per minute.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. the breath can become slower and longer. The purpose of deep breathing is to make sure every small cell of your lungs takes part in the breathing. Ren Mai starts 王 西 安 152 . Ren Mai and Du Mai are two of the eight channels (Ji Jing Ba Mai). you should focus on increasing the duration and depth of your breath. After practicing Zhuang skills for a period. Dual practice with Yi (intention) and Qi connects the whole body. This helps in the exchange of carbon dioxide and promotes metabolism in the body. It is incorrect to exhale with a long breath and inhale with a short breath (known as “too much Yin”) or vice-versa (“too much Yang”). you will feel your key joints and your arteries and veins become unblocked and re-connected. Therefore. so that your lung capacity is enlarged and the contact area between the capillary vessels of the alveolus and fresh air is increased. Only by this can you avoid errors and side effects. and comes only after accumulated practice. Inhalations and exhalations should be of proper length. After mastering the key principle of natural breath.6. your breath should be natural and of the proper duration so that it enhances body combat and health. inhalation/exhalation being one breath. the most essential principles to apply when practicing Zhuang skill is intentional natural breathing and intentional technical coordination.

then reaches the maxilla through the ears and cheeks to finally connect to the tip of the tongue. more gentle. Qi descends to the Yong Quan point through the inner sides of both legs after which it returns to the Dantian. deeper. Da Zhou Tian (Major Zhoutian) is an extension of Xiao Zhou Tian. then infusing Qi into the Dantian. and Yu Zhen Guan. and Yi and Qi should move in the required routes. all channels extended and unfolded. For both. even and quiet. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 153 . is called Xiao Zhou Tian (Minor Zhoutian) of Yin Yang circulation. the body should be relaxed. The whole process of moving Qi through Ren Mai and Du Mai. reaches the perineum through the Dantian and then connects to Du Mai. except that the breathing in the former is longer. Jia Gu Guan. The Qi of Da Zhou Tian originates from the Yong Quan point. In Da Zhou Tian. the difference being that Da Zhou Tian extends Qi to the lower limbs. reaches the Bai Hui point through Wei Lü Guan. The practice method for Da Zhou Tian is the same as that for Xiao Zhou Tian. then rises through the backs of the legs before joining the routes of Xiao Zhou Tian.from the tip of the tongue. Du Mai starts at the perineum. the five sense organs internally gathered.

Swallow Qi down with saliva and guide it down to the middle Dantian. close your eyes and inhale.7  wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang) Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan is also called “Closing Practice”. bring in the arms and place both palms in front of the abdomen (Fig. At the same time.16 154 . Its practicing method can be summarized thus: when you finish Peng and Ji outwards with both arms in Chan Si Zhuang. 4. then infuse it into the lower Dantian. 王 西 安 Fig. 4. then bring in the right foot so that both feet are a shoulder-width apart.15).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Leave it there for a little while to nourish the Dantian before disgorging the Qi slowly.15 Fig. a) Posture 1 • • • Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. 4.

16).18 155 . finally placing them in front of the shoulders. 4. As the body lowers. fingertips pointing obliquely down. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. lift both arms upright.b) Posture 2 • • • • • Inhale and with thumbs guiding the energy flow. 4. Relax the whole body and raise it up slightly to open the joints throughout the body (Fig.17 Fig. 4. palms facing in (Fig. swallow Qi and saliva and infuse them into the lower Dantian (Fig.17).18). palms facing each other. pointing the fingertips upward. separate the arms to the sides. Then using the little fingers to guide the energy. 4. Clench both hands into fists and lower them to ear level as the body lowers. 4.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.20

c) Posture 3

• •

王 西 安

Lower the body into a crouch and open the fists into palms. Move them slowly to the outside of the legs and push down slowly while exhaling. Stop pushing when exhalation is complete (Fig. 4.19). Inhale again and slowly raise the body, extending the arms to the sides and lift them upright again. Repeat this process six times. When you finish, detach the tip of the tongue from the palate, open your eyes slowly. Join the hands together and heat them up by rubbing. Then use your warm hands to rub your face, neck, chest and other parts of the body. This method of warming helps relax the acupoint channels, stretches the tendons and muscles, and promotes the generation of Qi (Fig. 4.20).


pRaCTiCes FoR The BuTToCks anD CRoTCh

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

5.1  pracTice fOr The buTTOcks

5.1.1      Overview 
The requirements for positioning the buttocks in Taijiquan practice are very strict. It requires the practitioner to put Wei Lü (coccygeal end, at the end of spine) in an upright position when practicing, gathering and raising it naturally so that the buttocks do not protrude nor swing too much, otherwise the buttocks will be unable to rise and lower naturally. Taijiquan novices sometimes err on over-gathering or raising the buttocks, which can result in various negative effects. For example, if the buttocks are gathered too far forward, the posture will become unnaturally stiff and not follow the natural straight alignment of the body; in addition, this posture may also impede natural breathing as it blocks smooth circulation of Qi throughout the body and may even destabilize the firmness of the weight of the lower limbs. Gathering or raising buttocks in routine and Tuishou practice must be applied in accordance with each specific practice and not generalized. For example, while relaxing the the joints and muscles in the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying One’s Coat), the buttocks should be raised slightly as the waist is lowered so that Qi can descend smoothly into the Dantian. If the buttocks are pushed too far forward, the lowering of the waist is impeded and consequently, Qi cannot cannot descend through the Dantian and separate into two streams to flow through the Yong Quan point through to the legs.

王 西 安

5.1.2      Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
An example of applying this principle in Tuishou sparring is as follows: if the opponent executes Lü on you, you need to relax, lower your Qi and gather your buttocks before executing the Bei Kao move (Kao with the back). In this move, gathering the buttocks helps to concentrate power drawn from the heels and transported up the legs before it is unleashed at the target. In contrast, raising rather than gathering buttocks at this point will hinder full release of striking power and thwarts any attempt to transform the opponent’s energy. Bei Kao is an opening-closing move, consisting of lightening-quick power exertion and rebound, during which you need to guide Qi upward to explode energy. To do this, you need to roll the chest slightly inward and bend knees a little, then stamp on the ground to generate rebounding power and ascending Qi. The gathering of buttocks at this point is essential so that Qi can descend instantaneously after energy release. Protruding the buttocks will impede Qi flow downwards, resulting in Qi blockage at the chest which affects the stability of a practitioner’s stance and may even be harmful to health. These key points in the above example need to be practised and applied assiduously during routine and Tuishou practice.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

5.2  pracTices fOr The crOTch (dang)

5.2.1      Overview
Dang refers to the crotch area where the legs connect to the body. To open the Dang area, the thighs need to be stretched apart as much as possible so that the waist and crotch can rotate freely. Any obstruction of Dang movement will negatively affect routine and Tuishou practice. The opening-closing of Dang, that is, the transition between emptiness and solidity of the crotch area, has a direct impact on the flexibility of the practitioner’s body and his or her ability to change speed and weight. The shift between emptiness and solidity of the Dang area is used as a measure to monitor and adjust movement and speed of movement, and also serves as the key point to increase the power to be exploded. The firmness of Dang relates to their exertion of power and resistance. Mastery of Dang power and posture in routine and Tuishou practice helps increase flexibility, emptiness and stability of waist and legs, reinforces the foundation and enhances your practice. Adjustments to the waist and Dang are usually the first steps taken when you feel there is something not quite right with your movements routine or Tuishou practice. As Master Chen Xin said, “When you attain realization of Taiji, even a bird cannot fly out from under you during Taiji movement.” In other words, the openingclosing of Dang is key to increasing and exerting power. When Dang is closed, the whole body is directed toward closing (He); when Dang opens, the body opens. Hence, Dang is essential to Xu (gathering), He (closing), Yin (guiding), and Fang (releasing) in routine and Tuishou practice.

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in the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture of the Chen style Taiji Lao Jia routine.2      Yuan Dang … Round Crotch Yuan Dang refers to the opening of the Dang area in a circular shape. womb prolapse and so on. To help you master correct Dang postures in routine and Tuishou practice. it was realized that the anus and perineum were two of the most vulnerable parts of the human body. are described below: 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 5. Doing so over an extended period can have a positive effect in curing hemorrhoids. In ancient times. the perineum and it’s soft tissue started to bear greater pressure from such internal organs as the liver. Jian Dang and Tang Dang. This realization caused the ancients to suggest that “the ground door should be always closed”.2. when the distribution between the weight-bearing leg and the other leg is at a ratio of 3:7 or 4:6. the left knee and ankle vertically aligned to each other and the ground. the weight distribution is 3:7. Ding Dang. advocating contraction of the anus during physical exercise as a remedy. The right leg should be relaxed with the right knee inclined slightly outward and the Dang gathered inward so that both form a strong pair. a short introduction of key Dang movements. rectocele. A brief introduction is provided below.The Anus In the same way that the positioning of Dang is very precise. which means that the left leg bears 30% of body weight while the right leg bears 70% of body weight. For example. This requires the left leg to be solid with the lower leg standing upright. and it became difficult for vena blood to flow to heart. anus contraction should only be slight and done in a natural way. 王 西 安 161 . In Taiji practice. Yuan Dang. womb and so on. After humans evolved to the upright posture and started to walk. the positioning of the anus also needs careful attention.

there are many opportunities and responsibilities. Some perform better than others due to learning abilities. In traditional teaching methods. energy in the legs is strengthened and the body is well supported. the root of Dang should be relaxed. These traditional teaching methods should be changed as implied by the adage. the right knee should incline outward. For example. 5. and at this moment Dang should open in a circle so that both legs can support all parts of the body. A practitioner trying to eliminate the habit of Ding Dang in his or her postures will require a long period of re-adjustment as the new correct Dang posture will initially feel very uncomfortable. 王 西 安 162 . “closing in opening” and that “Dang should open in a full circle”. it is very difficult to correct bad practice habits solidified with prolonged practice.3      Ding Dang … Tight Crotch Ding Dang refers to a common mistake made by novice practitioners whereby one leg supports the body without relaxing. innate talents. the body crouches as the right knee moves outward. teachers do not typically correct their students’ mistakes as the emphasis was on students digesting teachings gradually and adjusting mistakes themselves. This positioning of Dang also means that it fulfils the Taiji principle of “opening in closing”. This should be corrected at the earliest stages of learning. at the end of the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture. which means there will not be opening-closing power if he or she crouches in the Horse Stance.” Indeed.2. when the right leg moves to the side. “It is easy to teach but hard to change what is learnt. If a practitioner is advised to relax. Hence. Yuan Dang reinforces the foundation and allows flexible body rotation in any direction.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In this way. he or she will typically re-distribute weight between the legs to a ratio of 4:6 or 5:5. That is. As for practitioners. Ding Dang arises when the area connecting the weight-bearing right leg to the crotch remains tight.

and quality and length of practice, rather than due to a teacher’s attention. Some practitioners are happy to help the teacher out and teach others, their intention being to allow the teacher more rest. Students are also happy to learn from co-practitioners as this may help to accelerate learning.

5.2.4      Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
In Jian Dang position, the Dang area is shaped like an inverted “A”, the bottom tip of the Dang area is tight and not relaxed. In this case, Dang cannot be lowered during routine and Tuishou practice, and Yuan Dang cannot be formed at all. Moreover, the Bow Step is hampered, one’s gait becomes unsteady, and the upper body becomes heavy while the lower body is unrooted, swaying to the right or left, while the feet are also unsteady. This mistake may be tolerated by the old and weak if their aim is just to improve health, but cannot be ignored by younger practitioners who want to improve combat skills. Because with Jian Dang, some get easily unrooted, some find they can’t get clear distribution of weight, some find it so hard to shift the weight because they put exceeded weight onto one leg. If the habit of Jian Dang is allowed to form over a period of time, practitioners will become used to it and feel comfortable in this incorrect stance, which should be avoided. On the contrary, one must learn to identify and cultivate the twin qualities of emptiness-solidity in the legs through the practice of Taiji routines. Novices practicing Dang will inevitably develop aching feet. This is no cause for worry, as these are normal physical indications of body development and they will disappear when you reach a certain level. For example, after a bout of Tuishou sparring, novice practitioners may feel a little ache in the arms and legs, and indeed, the whole body may ache after a little rest. This is because you are not used to the intense exercise and some capillary blood vessels may have been strained. This ache will lessen gradually after extended practise, as the body becomes stronger, blood circulation improves and lung capacity is increased. At this stage, any additional

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muscle ache resulting from further increase in practice will ease off more quickly. Hence, do not be deterred by any aches and apply Yuan Dang when practicing Taiji and Tuishou, so that Jian Dang may be prevented from developing. Without patience, Taiji skills cannot be improved.

5.2.5      Tang Dang 
Tang Dang happens when the legs are spread too far apart, out of proportion to the weight distribution required on the legs and the lowered Dang. As a result, the movements of the legs are hampered as they are not able to move forward and back or turn to the sides with natural ease. This situation is also called Ta Dang, meaning collapsing Dang. The Taijiquan routine is a whole body practice, suitable for people of all ages, body constitutions and those engaged in mental and physical work. Typically, practice methods for Taijiquan routines start from large circle movements to smaller ones, then from smaller circles to no-circle movements. However, the opposite is true for Dang practice, which starts with smaller scale movements, growing to larger-scaled practice. This requires Dang to be positioned a little higher in the beginning before becoming lower and wider gradually. As with Ding Dang and Jian Dang, be careful not to form the habit of committing to Tuishou movements that bring a lot of pressure to the knee joints, as Tang Dang not only increases pressure, but may also cause harm. This results in chronically tight muscles which will eventually cause bad blood circulation in the legs. The Tang Dang posture has particular impact on the stimulation of the on the nerves in the knee joint, so hindering the supply and renewal of blood in the leg muscles. Prolonged Tang Dang positioning will result in aching knee joints and a very heavy feeling in the legs. In some large-scale movements, Tang Dang

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may actually be intentionally applied, such as in the Seven Cun Kao movement, that is Kao applied in the Xie Xing or oblique walk where the distance between the ground and shoulder is seven cun (about 23 cm). Yet even in this movement, heavy pressure on the legs last only an instant and the legs can recover quickly, so Tang Dang poses no real issues. However, large-scale movements cannot be applied to the whole practice; hence Tang Dang is considered harmful to health and body combat if applied for extended periods in routine and Tuishou practice. Generally speaking, Dang practice should begin modestly with a slight lowering of the body, gradually growing to bigger movements. Most importantly, it should match the physical conditions of the practitioner and the requirements of body combat so that the practitioner does not incur any injury.

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陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

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Chen sTyle Taiji Tuishou CaTegoRies

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陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. In this chapter. Indeed. Tuishou is commonly divided into eight categories. you can defend using An (pressing).1  Overview  Within the Chen style Taiji routine. then strike back with Jian Kao. if you advance using Ying Men Kao (Kao diagonally to the front). we will describe how to apply these eight Tuishou techniques in sparring practice. For example. the attack-defense stances change dynamically. if the opponent attacks using Jian Kao (Kao with shoulder). since both the attacking and defensive movements are interrelated and cannot be separated. practitioners may master its secrets and principles with serious study. with attackers changing to defensive roles in an instant and back again without warning. While the combinations of Tuishou moves are infinite. For example. your opponent may respond defensively with Xiong Kao (Kao by chest). 王 西 安 168 .

while Tuishou) or Jin Wu Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 5 steps. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 169 . also known as Ding Bu Tuishou (Coiling Hand with Static Footwork) 5. normally a forward step then a backward step) 6.1      Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories The Chen style Taiji Tuishou Routines can be divided into: 1. Da Lü (larger scale movements) 7. Li Yuan and Ping Yuan (Vertical Coiling Flower and Horizontal Coiling Flower) 4. while Tuishou) 8. Dan Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Single Hand. Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with movable footwork. i. Luan Cai Hua (Picking Flower. silk reeling in the shape of a flower) 2. and any movements can be exerted by intention. which is regarded as the highest level of Tuishou. where the the practitioners are no longer oblidged to the sequences or fixed routines. Shuang Shou Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Double Hands) 3.1. He Bu Tuishou with static footwork. Jin San Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 3 steps.6.e.

Duli Bu (standing on a single foot) 8. Si Yu Shou hand techniques are always used. novices should start by learning one set at a time. Ding Bu (static footwork) 2. these consist of the Cai. Xuan Wan (rotating wrists) 4. Ji.e. including: 1. However. Dan Tuishou (Tuishou with single hand) 2. During sparring. An) is usually applied. Cha Bu (inserting steps) 6. i.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. and not be limited to one or the other. Zou. There are many categories of footwork techniques. Shuang Tuishou (Tuishou with double hands) 3. Dian Bu (stepping on toe-tips) . or Kao hand techniques. Huo Bu (moving footwork) 3. Bing Bu (step touch. as follows: 1. feet placed together ) 7. Lü.1.2      Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork  Tuishou handwork is commonly divided into four classifications. Lian Jin Lian Tui (moving forward/back/right/left continuously) 4. Bie. Si Zheng Shou (Peng. In moving footwork such as Shun Bu (walking backward and forward) and Da Lü. practitioners should be able to switch flexibly between Si Zheng Shou and Si Yu Shou techniques as circumstances require. Qie Zhang (palm chop) In static footwork. Lian Huan Zuoyou Xuanzhuan (moving continously with body rotation) 王 西 安 170 5.

 6. All these adjustments must be executed simultaneously so that power can reach the palm edge and hit the target clearly (Fig. 6.6. one arm is extended horizontally sideways. The elbow must be dropped.1 Fig. In single practice. Shuan (bind). when both players retreat after being mutually warded off. it is also applied to Gun (roll). roll the chest slightly inward and lower the waist and shoulders. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.2  TuishOu handwOrk Techniques 6. When cutting downward.2).1).2 171 . the four fingers extended and joined together to form a slightly concave palm (Fig. 6. In this posture. 6. Da (meet) and Sao (sweep) movements. 6.2      Cutting with Palm This technique uses the edge of the palm to cut downward in a vertical or diagonal direction. with the wrist lowered and fingers relaxed. with the forearm bent toward the upper arm at an angle of 450. it is also often used when pushing or rotating in various directions in both Shun and Ni reeling.1      Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground Li Zhang is used at the initial stages of a sparring bout.2. you need to place the body in a crouching position. palm facing in. The roots of the fingers are relaxed.2.

4 172 . when hands are rotating horizontally in a circle.4). where the raised hand lies above the middle of the upper arm. This techniqueis often applied in Shun Chan (conforming reeling) and Yin Jin (drawing into your territory). then reverse to the Ni direction when the hands arrive at his or her body. the little finger is used to guide energy and draw inward toward the thumb. 6. if the opponent executes Lü on you. one player may guide the other to reel first in the Shun direction. In this instance.3      Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm The Wa Long Palm is shaped like a Chinese roof tile where the sides curl upward and the middle is low.4      Xie Tuo Zhan In this technique. 6. 6. The remaing three fingers turn slightly outward so that the palm becomes concave (Fig. change your palm to Wa Long Palm as you follow your opponent and reel in the Shun direction as the palm rotates upward. For example. During sparring.2.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. As you rotate the hand downward or outward.3 Fig. 6.3). the hand is stretched upward to the sides (Fig. Xie Tuo Zhang is also applied in the process of Big Lü. The palm posture during this direction change is called Xie Tuo Zhang.2. the power lies in the root of the palm. 王 西 安 Fig. 6.

• When the opponent executes Lü on your hand during Si Zheng Shou (handwork in four directions. Cha Zhang is widely used in Tuishou.2. Cha Zhang can be applied via the same application methods as with the Si Zheng Shou (stated above). and gradually press your hands toward the opponent. for example: • When you rotate both hands in vertical circles. This technique is called Diagonally Upward Cha. separate them and switch to Cha Zhang. as the hands insert downward. fingers slightly parted (Fig.6. • In Luan Cai Hua (palms reel in non-predictable angles. 6. then lower your shoulders and drop the elbows. 6. see above).5      Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm In this technique. insert your hand downward and rotate it in the Shun direction.5). • Cha Zhang is also adopted in Shun Bu Tuishou (see above) with moving footwork. see above).5 173 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. the hand is inserted upward or vertically/diagonally downward.

and your partner exerts An to your hand.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.6). you find it earsier to eliminate the opponent’s power by rotating your waist outwards with relaxation. while the thumb and the index finger form a “ 八” shape. it is called Ba Zi hand because “八” is pronounced ‘ba’ in Chinese (Fig. the ring finger. This way.2. This type of hand is always used in Qin Na (arresting) and Tuishou with single hand in a horizontal circle.6      Ba Zi Shou Ba Zi Shou (hand posture in character ‘八’): separate the thumb and the index finger to form a “八” shape. Fig. 6.6 王 西 安 174 . you can rotate your arm with the middle finger. and the little finger bending inward. 6. When you guide your partner via Shun reeling to the front of your chest.

toe tips bent slightly inward. One knee is bent so that the body is in a half crouch. the knee positioned approximately above the tip of the foot (Fig.6.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. The toe tips point slightly inward.7). the Yong Quan point should be empty while the Dang is open with the intention to close.3  TuishOu fOOTwOrk Techniques 6.1      Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step This technique requires the soles of the feet to touch the ground. In this posture. following the principle of ‘straightening in bending’.7 王 西 安 175 . This knee is turned slightly outward to provide a frame for all parts of the body. 6. 6. following the principle of ‘closing in opening’. the thigh nearly parallel to the ground. the sole fully touching the ground. The other leg bends with the intention to straighten.

you can move your the weight back to transform their power by raising your toe tip and hence causing the heel to touch the ground naturally. Position both feet fully on the ground. 6. big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. if the opponent presses on any part of your body with his or her hands or arms. 6. • This step is always used in Shun step. toes grasping the ground.3.8 6. It is applied widely in Tuishou. the heel touches the ground with the toes pointing up at about 450 (Fig. for example: • In Ping Yuan Tuishou (Tuishou in horizontal circles). body weight is transferred from the front Bow leg to the back leg during in Shun Bu Tuishou pairwork.3.8). Fig. straighten the front leg so that the back leg becomes the Bow leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Keep the Yong Quan point empty so the straightened leg can be lifted later if the body weight is kept on the Bow leg (Fig. knee bent slightly over the toe tips.2      Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step In this posture.3      Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step In this step. 6. 王 西 安 176 .9). When the weight is completely transferred.

6.10). 6.3. followed by the sole then heel (Fig. if an opponent applies Lü on you. and Luan Cai Hua For example. move your weight back and withdraw the front leg backward by stepping the toe tip back first. 6.10 177 .9 6.Fig.4      Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step This step is applied in three Tuishou techniques: a) Shun Bu –Tuishou big Lü. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

Hence the name ‘Falling Step’. This posture is applied to Shun step. which now lies close to the ground. and is widely used in forward or backward movements (Fig. 6. quickly ‘fall’ to the ground with a large-scale ground sweep of the Bow leg. 王 西 安 178 Fig. Big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. 6. 6.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 6. 12). in the ‘Dragon sweeps ground’ form.11).e. When the opponent applies Big Lü on you. For example.12 . Lü applied through large-scale movements) (Fig. c) Duli Bu (Standing on Single Foot) Duli Bu refers to having one foot raised while the other stands on the ground.11 b) Pu Bu (Falling Step) Pu Bu is only applied to Big Lü (i.

Shun Chan means to spiral energy from the outside to the inside. you can use Shun Chan to gather energy and edge into the opponent’s territory. when the opponent executes Lü on you.4  hand Techniques in TuishOu reeling 6. spirals around the waist and shoulders.4. It then rises from the internal to manifest externally through the skin and fine hairs until it reaches the fingers. in Bei Zhe Kao (Lean with back).13 179 . exerting Ji and Na in confronting reelings). In addition. with the little finger guiding energy as it points to the thumb when it is drawn inward. enters the bone marrow through gaps in the scapula and travels down the arms. In Silk Reeling technique. The principle of Shun Chan is that with the elbows guiding the hands. with the other fingers slightly turned outward.1      Shun Chan … Conforming reeling In Taijiquan. power rises from the heels up the legs. This move is called Shun Ji Shun Fa (i. the shoulders guiding the elbows and the waist guiding the shoulders. 6. where it returns to its original position of circulation. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.e. you can also use Shun Chan to attack to the side or directly on to the opponent after drawing them into your territory. you draw the opponent inward into your territory.6. For example. the term ‘reeling’ means to spiral energy. while simultaneously executing Kao on the opponent.

4. while the other fingers turn out slightly (Fig. In horizontal circle rotations with single hand.15 180 . shoulders and elbows. 6. You then Ni reel to your right ribs and change the attacking hand into ‘八’ shape so that you can easily capture your opponent. Note: to apply this technique precisely.15).14 Fig. 6. Zuo Wan (descending wrist) technique is adopted (Fig. roll your chest slightly inward and lower your waist. Here.3      Shun Ni Zuo Wan   Wrist descending in Shun and Ni directions This technique consists of lowering the wrist gradually during the transition from Shun to Ni Chan. 6. by using the waist to urge the shoulder.14). 6. the thumb gathers inward and guides the little finger. concentrate you energy in the wrist.2      Ni Chan … Reverse reeling Ni Chan is the reverse of Shun Chan and may also be called ‘Ni Silk Reeling Outwards’. 王 西 安 Fig. the shoulders to urge on the elbows and the elbows guiding the hands. 6. Ni Chan is used to open outward. extend your right hand and guide the opponent to rotate in Shun reelings towards your leftside. In Ni Chan.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.4.

• For example. in case of single hand rotation in the horizontal circle. Diao Wan is also widely applied in response to a Lü attack. Cai. through any of the four front-oriented Si Zheng Shou techniques (Si Zheng Shou Peng.4. your right hand rotates at 90o towards the right side of body in Ni reeling. then quickly switches to Shun reeling and you easily seize the wrist of your partner by hooking hand.6. The wrist is drawn inward to form a Diao Wan (Hooked Wrist). and adhere to him or her. the Shun hand changes to Diao Shou (Hooked Hand). An) or four side-oriented Si Yu Shou techniques (Si Yu Shou. Ji. Kao). which is formed by pointing the little. to provide a closing and opposing force with the three fingers (Fig.16 181 . At this point. Diao Wan has two functions: • Diao Wan can be used as one option to enhance the ability of Zhan Nian (adhering to the opponent). 6. Lü. ring and middle fingers vertically downward while the thumb and the index finger form a ‘八’ shape (Ba Zi). while trying to ‘listen’. by holding on to the opponent by the hand. Zhou.16).4      Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist This technique is often used when the Ni Chan changes to Shun Chan. Lie. 6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

6.4.5      Shun Chan Yang Zhang   Raised palm in conforming reeling
This can be divided into inward Yang (palm rising) and outward Yang (palm rising), which are always used in the four front oriented techniques (called ‘Si Zheng Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Peng, Lü, Ji, An) and four side oriented techniques (called ‘Si Yu Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). First, if the partner executes Lü on your right arm, you insert loosely in Ni reeling, and then advance and press inwards by Shun reeling, raising the hand while advancing. It is called Yi Yang Zhang (palm raised inward), because at this time the palm is facing inward and upward. Second, if you guide the partner and withdraw your step, the partner will likely expose some weak point after you raise your palm in Ni reeling. To lift the partner in this ‘openning’ provides preparation for your ‘closing’, i.e. to capture your partner in Shun reeling quickly. At this time your palm is facing upper outward, so it is called Wai Yang Zhang (palm raised outward) Internally, whether in outward Yang or inward Yang, you should coordinate whole body movements coherently. Yang is a kind of opening, so at this time the body should close, so as to support each other and not be separated. Practitioners must pay attention to these principles in practice.

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Fig. 6.17


6.5  TuishOu sTeps 6.5.1      Shang Bu … Forward Step
Shang Bu is a forward step with one foot, and begins with both a step forward and the bending of the knees so that the body is slightly crouched, five toes grasping the ground (Fig. 6.18). This preparatory posture resembles a cat ready to pounce on a rat, and allows you to step forward lightly and flexibly. Like a cat, you should prepare first by gathering energy, then extending the foot while listening and feeling intently. Step first with the heel then uncurling the rest of the foot flat on the ground. This procedure will limit your vulnerability.

6.5.2      Tui Bu … Retreating Step
The Tui step consists of moving one leg backward in an arc, and it can consist of more than one step (Fig. 6.19). Key to the Tui Bu is the bending of the weight-bearing knee. How much this knee bends and hence how much your body squats depends on the size of the Tui step. The bigger your retreating step, the lower you will have to bend your knee. However, it also depends on your body condition. Whatever the case, the Tui step has to be done flexibly and lightly and not with stiffness.

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王 西 安
Fig. 6.18 Fig. 6.19


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

6.5.3      Gen Bu … Following Step
The Gen Bu can also be called the Dian (adding) Step (Fig. 6.20). This step is used in the situation where one normal step is too small to reach the target while two steps too excessive. In this instance, one is said to Gen (follow) or Dian (add) a small step after a normal step to reach the target distance. Gen is applied to the four front orientated techniques, Si Zheng Shou (Peng, Lü, Ji, An), big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. The main purpose of Gen Bu is to get closer to the opponent to decrease their chances of escape. However, note that the Gen step is completed without the opponent’s awareness, a technique called Die Fa (a general concept of body combat techniques, referring to the comprehensive techniques and strategies to defeat the opponents, on the basis of quality ‘listening’ to their speed, weight and power in Tuishou). The importance the Gen step in Tuishou is reflected in the saying, “You cannot reach the depth and secrets of Tuishou without understanding Die Fa.”

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Fig. 6.20


solo pRaCTiCe in Tuishou

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陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

7.1  inTrOducTiOn 
Solo Tuishou practice consists of individual practices useful for improving flexibility, agility and responsiveness to combat. Typically, body movements are initially executed at a high stance, gradually lowering to mid then lower stances. However, practitioners should practise according to their body condition. Likewise, beginners should start with practicing at slow speed, gradually working up to faster then very swift movements. At each stage, slow movements should not become blocked, fast movements not energy-losing, and very fast movements not chaotic. In other words, you should not lose energy in slow practice, nor be obstructed in fast movements. On the contrary, you should keep the consistency, coherence and Liu He (the Closing and Consistency of six parts of the body), and avoid any disorder and energy loss.When one part of body moves, all other parts follow and coordinate. In solo Tuishou, you should act as though following your partner neatly, and always keep attention concentrated, shoulder blades relaxed, and movements flexible. Execute solo practice as if you were actually fighting with a partner, with the fight so vivid that it brings you more interest in your practice. As a result, after thorough sole practice, the whole body moves flexibly, neatly and smoothly, and you are able to do well in actual paired Tuishou.

王 西 安

1). Continue relaxing the crotch. 王 西 安 187 .e. 7.2      Part 2 • • • • Relax the crotch and bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. empty the Yong Quan point.7.2.1      Part 1 • • • Stand at attention with toe tips pointing slightly outward to form a “八” shape. eyes looking forward (Fig.2. relax the crotch and lift the right knee. palms lightly touching the sides of the legs.3      Part 3 • • • Maintain the vertical axis and lift the top of the head slightly. so as to avoid empty stepping (i. the left toes grasping the ground. 7.2  sOlO ping yuanwan hua (sOlO hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer) 7.2). Maintain the vertical axis. bend the left knee and draw in the lower abdomen slightly to stabilize the weight-bearing left leg. straightening the neck and lifting the top of the head.3). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. in preparation for the right leg step forward lightly. Point the right toe tips down naturally as your weight shifts completely to the left and you stand with a left leg posture (Fig. Your step should be light. Shift your weight slowly to the left leg. stepping without thought) (Fig.2. Relax the arms and hang them at the sides. heel first with toes pointed up. 7. 7. As your weight shifts. Step the right foot forward. then slowly roll down the rest of the foot to the ground. precise and full of intention of listening.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. . 王 西 安 188 Note: in later movements. relax the left arm so that the left hand hangs down. 7. 7.2. 7. Complete the movement by raising the right fingers to form the Li (erect) palm. As the weight shifts.4      Part 4 • • • Shift your weight slowly to the right leg to form a right Bow step. the left elbow and the right hand should move coherently in collaboration with each other.4).1 Fig. extend the right arm forward then bend the forearm about 450 inward while also lowering the shoulders.3 7. While the right arm moves.2 Fig. thumb behind the fingers (Fig. right elbow and wrist.

2.4 Fig. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight slowly to the left so that the inner side of the right foot touches the ground.Fig. 7.5      Part 5 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Focusing your right hand on the imaginary partner move it about 900 in Shun reeling to the left of the body.5). 7. The right knee follows the movement of the right hand and rotates inward at the same speed (Fig.5 7. As you reel. 王 西 安 189 . 7.

6      Part 6 • • 王 西 安 190 • • As the right hand completes its reel to the left.6 Fig. The other fingers reel outwards in coordination with the elbow (Fig. When the right arm moves downward. 7. change from Shun reeling to Ni reeling and continue moving in a downward arc to the front of the left ribs. draw the right knee slightly inward to prepare for an increased range of movement in the ensuing steps. the elbow in a slightly warding off (Peng) position in coordination with the little finger.7 7. Step the right foot either flatly on the ground or with toe tips pointing up. . 7. 7. right palm facing down and wrist bending 450 inward using the little finger as a guide. 7. This gesture enhances the movement by making the downward movement of the arm more precise and structured (Fig.7).6). The right forearm now moves transversely in front of the abdomen. the weight shifts completely to the left. At this point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.2.

Return the bent arm and the bow leg to their original positions (Fig. Then place the palm downward (Fig. pointing the right knee slightly outward and moving it in a helix. extend the right hand slightly forward.9). until it reaches the front of the right ribs.7      Part 7 • • • • Using the little finger to guide the energy.8). 7. The 3600 rotation of the arm follows this sequence of changes: Shun. While the right arm reels. 7. followed by the hand. At this point. continue reeling the right arm outward until the palm faces upward and the thumb and the first finger form a “八” shape. Use the rightward rotation of the waist and torso to steer and guide the partner’s power into your territory towards your right side so you can eliminate it. Shun. power is most concentrated and exerted on the external side of the thumb and index finger. Ni. draw the chest slightly inward and relax the right side of the crotch. As the arm changes to Ni reeling. Ni. shift your weight to the right.2. three Shun reelings and two Ni reelings. Rotate the waist to the right.7. 7. 王 西 安 191 . a 900 arc to the right side of body.2. then draw an arc to the left where you met yourtpartner at the beginning the posture of palms. bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. changing into Ni reeling.2. Shun.8      Part 8 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 With the right hand. that is.9      Part 9 • • Now using Ni reeling. 7. using it as a pivot to rotate the right shoulder rightward.

Ni. the reeling sequence being Ni. practice on the left by switching to the left leg and the left hand. rotate the wrist. the arms rotate with the waist and the axis while the hand guides the energy. Shun. Notes In these horizontal-circle rotations. the lower body follows. all parts moving together collectively. that is. Ni.8 Fig. that is. Practice until you reach a level where when one body part keeps still then all other body parts keep still. the upper body guides the lower body’s movement. The movement of every part of the body should be continuous and synchronised – when the upper body moves. Practice alternating rotations with both arms so that there is a feeling of balance.9 • The left arm rotates from the left. three Ni reelings and two Shun reelings. and ensure your body weight moves back and forth in synch with the body movements. The middle body moves in coordination with the upper and lower bodies. 王 西 安 192 . Shun. When you feel tired practicing on the right. when one body part moves then all other body part follow.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. Relax the waist and shoulders. 7.

drawing an arc of about 180o which goes downward and then up to the right. Extend the right arm forward (either below or above the head) with the arm bending inward about 45o and with the left hand akimbo. with eyes looking forward (Fig. return your hand to the original Da Shou position (meet the opponent with the hand) (Fig. Next. heel first with the right foot. relax the left side of the crotch. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 193 .7. Next. palm slanting upward with intention to gently guide and draw in. with the rest of the foot gradually fully touching the ground. It only requires vertial hand revolution and very small shifts in weight.12). 7. switch to Ni reeling. The range and intensity in the arm rotations may be increased gradually depending of the level of the practitioner. 7. Finally.3  sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle This is a single hand practice involving movements of a smaller range. drawing an arc of about 90o to the left. • • • • • Keep your body weight on the left leg and step forward. This vertical rotation may be developed to the quality of Silk Reeling and may be used as a combat technique or for listening practice. 7. Bend the left leg so that you squat slightly.10). lower your Qi.11). These shifts are not immediately apparent as they occur mainly between the front and back sides of the legs and feet. The whole movement is mainly guided by the rotating waist and relaxed shoulders. Focus the eyes on the right palm (Fig. then switching to 90o Shun reeling. then turn the body to the left and raise the right hand in Shun reeling.

then draw a 180o arc to the left side of the body with palm facing left and finger tips slanted upward. Notes The single-hand vertical circle is not completely vertical but slightly slanted at an angle to allow you to guide and draw the opponent in. 7. 7. Finally. 王 西 安 194 . reel in Ni to the right at 90o. then reel in Shun. Practice rotating both arms in turn. return to the Da Shou position (meeting the opponent with your hand) by a 90o upward arc in Ni reeling. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Vertical arm rotation is guided by spiraling movements of the waist and back.11 Fig.10 Fig.12 • • When rotating in the opposite direction.

palms facing to each other. 7. otherwise the shape of the posture will be lost (Fig. 7. eyes facing the front (Fig. 7.7.14 Fig.13 Fig. Relax the left crotch and while focussing on the right crotch. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. in preparation for action (Fig. 7. toes relaxed and pointing downward (Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. then raise the right foot. the palms should move forward at an inclined angle (see picture). Also. Note: when applying Tui Palm. Raise the forearms 90o upward.14). This body posture is now one of holding and collecting.13). 7. 7.4  dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua • • • • Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. shift your the weight gradually forward.15 195 . pushing both palms forward (Tui Palm) at the same time.16). the forward shift of the body should stop once the palms reach their natural end position. 7. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance.15).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Repeat the Tui Palm movement again. this time relaxing the right crotch and focussing on the left crotch. then lowering to the front of the abdomen.17 • • • Next.15) by drawing a circle by the sides of the body. 7. 7. shift your weight backward and separate both hands to the sides of the body. 7. 7.17). 王 西 安 196 . Continue shifting your weight backward while both hands return to the original position in front of the abdomen (Fig. palms vertical. then pushing both hands forward. Practice this cycle.16 Fig. imagining the hands seizing the opponent’s wrists by Diao (Fig.

Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance.19).19 197 . Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.18 Fig.18). This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. eyes facing the front. 7. 7. then raise the right foot. • • • • Preparation postures are the same as those of Double Hand Horizontal Wan Hua. While raising the hands. stated as follows: Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed.14). 7. palms facing to each other. 7. in preparation for action (Fig. draw the chest inward. lower the waist and shoulders.7.5  sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle One cycle consists of one Shun reeling plus one Ni reeling of each hand. 7. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Grasp the ground lightly with the toes and face the eyes forward (Fig. toes relaxed and pointing downward (see Fig. Raise the forearms 90o upward. drop the elbows and sink the Qi downward.

20 Fig.21). the palms descend to the sides.21 • • • • 王 西 安 198 • Next. Next. after another small Ni reeling upward. During this process. stopping at shoulder level (Fig. As both hands separate upwards. At the same time. 7. Extend both hands forward in an ‘offering’ stance. continue to draw your chest inward. open your back slightly and withdraw the elbows slightly inward so that power can easily reach the inner edges of the hands. step the left foot on the ground and shift your weight forward (Fig. . Then. extending the hands forward so that the left hand crosses over the inner side of the right wrist. 7.20). 7. cross both hands slowly in Shun reeling. palms facing forward. push the crossed palms over the head in Ni reeling. finish the weight shift to your right leg. 7. both palms facing inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. with the intention of supporting something upward.

Closing form: palms continue to Shun reel. palms cross together. the chest. so as to start a new cycle. while weight totally switches to the left. palms facing each other. Note: Hand techniques are of the same as that of Solo Ping Yuan Wan Hua. that is. Both hands then draw a downward arc to fall to each side of the abdomen. forearm. You will feel the power after long practice. shoulders. each associated body part strikes out in a Peng attack (Ward Off ) from the sides of the body. upper arm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 199 . strike out in succession to the sides so that the arms become a pulled bow. only that palms in the latter move horizontally. then hands. finger-tips pointing down.Note: as both hands separate outward. With body gathering. • • Now the left hand reels in Ni while the right hand reels in Shun.

eyes. • Shift your weight to the left leg and lift the right foot to step forward.6  sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk Solo practice for He Bu Tuishou with static footwork is based on the four Zheng hands: Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. thumb pointing down and the little finger pointing upward. The key points are the same as those of solo Tuishou. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the right.23 200 . act as if sparring with a partner. palm facing forward. 7.22 Fig. Ji. • Stand at attention. palm facing in. and An. Coordinate the movements of your hands. body and steps. Lü. 王 西 安 Fig. Extend the left hand transversely and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. then bend it inward 45o. heel first. with the foot gradually stepping fully on the ground. When practicing. Open every body part to make your rotations natural and flexible. Note that one should practice with intention rather than by force. • As the weight shifts. 7.

the left hand ahead of the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Next. raise both hands in Ni reeling. visualize placing the outer edge of the right hand on the outside of the opponent’s elbow joint Then execute Lü with both hands slowly to the left side of the body until the right hand reaches the front of the right breast. relax the left crotch. coordinate and execution of Ji forward to the right with the right hand acting as a joint force (Fig. At the same time. As the left hand rises.23). the arm opens like a circle. focus your intention on meeting and holding the opponent’s hand. the wrist bent slightly inward and palm facing inward. 7. Relax the right crotch and turn the body to the right.24). Meanwhile.24 Fig. lower the right shoulder and drop the right elbow. 7. and the eyes look forward to the right (Fig.25 201 . as the left hand moves inward in Ni reelings. and so continue to Peng upward before executing Lü. During this process.22).• • • • • The left arm intends to Peng outward. Shift your weight to the left slightly then to right. 7. 7. shift your weight left and focus your eyes on the front of the right hand (Fig. 7. Move the right hand in Shun reeling.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right as the upper body moves and turns right. Repeat the process. You will also need to use your left shoulder to push and use the right hand to help press forward.25). 7. and the left hand helps the right to execute Lü. visualize your left hand pressing down on the hand of the opponent. 7. If the left leg is in the front. shift your weight forward to the right leg. The right hand reels in Ni direction also with the intention to push outward (Fig. The edges of the hands become power-exerting points. an instant. alternating left and right sides. At this point. Peng and An are transitional actions executed in 王 西 安 202 . Execute An forward with both hands the palms facing each other about 33 cm apart. eyes looking forward. As this happens. This is the same as the starting posture of Da Shou posture. Note: In this movement. pushing it outward.22). Now withdraw the left hand quickly and imagine placing it on the middle of the right upper arm of your partner (Fig. the right hand executes Peng.

Lü. In practice. Hand movements consist of four Zheng hands: Peng.26 Fig.7. draw the chest inward.27 203 . where the pushing power is exerted. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. raise both hands to attack by pushing them to the front right of the body. 7. Step the left foot on the ground with the inner side of the foot touching the ground. moving forward is combined with Ji and An hand movements. As the weight moves forward. 7. These actions drive two the hands forward. • • • • Step forward with the right foot then shift your weight forward.26). Lower the waist. Ji and An. sink the shoulder downward and drop the elbows. Face the outer hand edges. moving backward uses Peng and Lü hand movements.7  shun bu TuishOu  (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep) Shun Bu Tuishou consists of two basic steps – one moving forward and one moving backward. outward. 7. Keep the eyes looking to the front right (Fig.

7. Relax the left crotch after pushing and shift the weight to the left. Note that Qi should not be allowed to float upward. toes pointing down (Fig.28 Fig. 7.29). As the arm moves. followed by the arm and the hand (Fig.28). At the same time. As this happens. The body moves forward following the shift in weight. turning the right elbow out and upward. shift your weight to the left and lift the right foot. tiptoe first. with the intention to close before opening. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. the right hand moves upward in Ni reeling while the right foot takes a step backward without turning the body. withdraw the left hand gradually and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. move the left hand downward then draw a forward arc to form a Lü posture with the right hand. Bend the left leg to squat further and extend the right foot forward. rotate the right hand slightly downward in Ni reeling. Raise the right hand in Shun reeling. 7. 7. At the same time. thumb pointing down and palm facing down. .29 • • • • • 王 西 安 204 • • • After the pushing attack. and in preparation for moving.27). Push the shoulder forward.

gradually squat the body. raise the right hand quickly to push forward together with the left hand toward the left side of the body. Both hands are about 33 cm apart (Fig. 7. Visualize sending the opponent’s right hand out to the left side of your body. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. the upper and lower body form a balanced block of strength with the waist as the boundary.33). 7. Then the right hand switches to Lü. raise the left hand in a spiral to form a Lü movement with the right hand. As the weight shifts. Eyes look to the left (Fig. thumb pointing down and palm facing forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 205 .30 Fig.which takes place in an instant. 7. While the right hand switches to Lü. Next. Withdraw the right hand quickly in Ni reeling and place it on the middle of the left upper arm. Next. 7. then shift your weight to the right. 7.30). Raise the right foot and take a step backwards to the right.31). Eyes look to the front left (Fig.Fig. The outer edges of the hands are power-exerting points.31 • • • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. The front push of the right hand provides an instant defense. Reel the left hand first in Ni direction. then in Shun direction downward to the left. then draw a circle downward.32). 7.

32 Fig. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. At the same time. take a step forward with the right foot. extend the right hand to the right front of the body following the right foot. 7. 7. Raise the body gradually and slowly shift your weight to the left leg. 王 西 安 Fig. the right arm then bends to 450 inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.33 • • • Both hands execute Lü from left to right following the body. As the weight shifts. 7. 7.34).34 Fig. until the left hand reaches the middle line of the body. 7.35 206 .

 7. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.36 Fig. thumb pointing down. Continue shifting your weight to the right while pressing the right arm forward in a relaxed manner with descending energy. Then shift your weight slightly rightward. Note that the waist power descends to the left first then the right. 7.Fig. 7. 7.36).38 Fig. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.35). Eyes look to the front right (Fig.39 207 .37 • • Simultaneously. 7. place the left hand on the right upper arm.

visualizing that you are pushing the opponent’s hand outward to the right. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.39). As soon as both arms finish pressing forward. move the right hand in front of the left hand quickly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. execute Lü downward with the left hand. At the same time. 王 西 安 208 . 7. Start a new cycle (Fig. 7.37). Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right. raise the right hand quickly and exert An forward with power. 7. Next. then move it out to the right. then execute Lü movement with both hands to the left side of the body until the right hand moves in front of the right breast. Eyes look to the right (Fig.38).

 7. then the fives methods of solo Tuishou practice. The other movements are the same as the movements in Shun Step (forward or backward step).7. The other picture demonstrates the big Frontward Bow Step. It is not easy to practice Cai. and Kao. The circulating of steps in Da Lü when practicing Peng.41 209 . 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Zhou. In this chapter. Lie. and Kao. Lü. we will only refer to two main Da Lü postures as shown in the pictures which follow. Lü Ji and An. One is Da Pu Bu. the whole body will become stiff when you try to squat down in the big body movements. Furthermore. If not.8  sOlO danren da lü TuishOu Da Lü is based on four hand techniques in the main directions – Peng. Kao with large-scaled body movements. As such. like the “dragon sweeps ground” routine in which Player A executes Lü on Player B. beginners should first practise the routines.40 Fig. Ji and An is the same to those in Shun Step (forward or backwards Step). a good foundation in Taijiquan and solo Tuishou is required before you can become proficient in using Cai. whereby Player B executes Lü on Player A. It uses the combat techniques of the four hand techniques in corner directions – Cai. the only difference being that the extent of the steps in Da Lü is bigger. Bie Zou. Zou. Bie. literally meaning “big falling step”. a major weakness with which you cannot even hope to attack the opponent.

You should adjust your direction and position by applying small Gen steps so that you can stick to the partner tightly and prevent their escape.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. The body movement and gait should be neat and swift. In the Luan Cai Hua Tuishou practice.42. you should pay attention to the following points.9  sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu The gait in Luan Cai Hu is called San Bu (scattered steps) or Hua Jiao Bu (steps in flower tracks). and An. and flexible. Luan Cai Hua is also built on the foundation of Peng. Ji.42 210 . 王 西 安 Fig. precise rotation. You need to rotate neatly when executing a step forward as the partner changes his or her direction. See how to execute Dian step in Figure 7. It’s features include free movement with no fixed direction. and also uses the Si Zheng Shou. Lü. This way you will not lose energy unnecessarily nor become stiff. 7.

An). Your movements should be quick but not chaotic. the only difference being in the stances of the body. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 211 . looking for the attacking opportunity. The steps and gestures in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou are the same as Da Lü and in Shun Step. When you apply Luan Cai Hua in Tuishou sparring. you feel the partner’s energy as you rotate. When circulating the four Zheng hand techniques (Peng. If you are able to put the partner in a passive position you can fullfil your intention without being noticed. It is not easy to apply Die Fa. You should practice listening repeatedly. the steps are small but the speed is fast. and entice the partner to advance and show his or her weak points. Do not just practice at fast speeds or you will lose your energy or get stiff. heavy but not stiff. light but not empty and floating. the extent of the arm rotations should be small to match the changes in gestures and the revolving steps. Ji.In this technique. Lü. getting close to their upper body while causing them to raise their lower body or slant it. You try to sense the partner’s intention by through pressing and pushing precisely and lightly. and thus impede any progress in Tuishou.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 212 .

CHAPTER 8 paiR pRaCTiCe in Tuishou 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 213 .

pair practice should start slowly. If both partners have Taiji proficiency. development should follow the stages of San Shou to Zhan (coherence). If possible. whereby your actions should be precise. like a flowing river: smooth. An introduction to Tuishou pair practices has been provided in the following pages. In addition. gathering speed in the later stages. similarly. movements in pair practice should start simply before gaining in complexity. Like solo practice. Partners should pay attention to co-operating with each other and using different practice methods at different stages in pair practice. pair practice becomes beautiful to watch. then pair Tuishou may be described as “acting as if there is no partner although you have one”. moving as the partner moves. agile. so you must strive to concentrate. flexible and rapid. Pair Tuishou embodies the essence of Taiji Tuishou. Pair practice Tuishou improves combat skills. 王 西 安 214 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. If solo Tuishou is described as “imagining you are fighting with a person though you are practicing alone”. I hope that the reader will use this to practice diligently and master the key points. the practice stance should start high. Lian (connecting) and finally Sui (following). Faster progress may be made if your partner is proficient in Taiji.1  inTrOducTiOn  Pair practice in Tuishou consists of applying a combination of techniques with partners and sparring. lowering to mid-height then low stance. Lastly. Nian (sticking). flexible and without weaknesses. try to choose a partner of similar level for pair practice.

王 西 安 215 .1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. Their bodies are upright. Player B refers to the female practitioner dressed in red.2  single-hand hOrizOnTal wan hua in pair pracTice Player A refers to the male practitioner dressed in a dark blue.8. an arms length from each other so that their fists touch when arms are outstretched. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. These may be shortened to ‘A’ and ‘B’. gradually forming a front Bow Step.1 Both players take a step forward with their right feet. arms hanging relaxed by the sides. The distance between both right feet should be about 10 cm. toes pointing slightly outward to form a 八 shape. 8. 8.2.

As both players draw this arc. with the middle fingers at nose level.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 While the right feet step forward. . 8.2 8. Both players watch their hands throughout this step. A’s weight shifts backward. using the middle line of the nose as the boundary. both players raise their right palm and extend it forward. Alternatively.2. corresponding with the rotation of the waist. The back of the palms touch each other. the left hand can also be placed naturally along side the body.2      Posture 3 王 西 安 216 Player A guides Player B to draw a 90o arc from the waist midline toward his left. and his body crouches slightly to form a closing power. B’s weight continues to move forward to form a single-hand An (pushing) power. The right hand extends forward with the left hand akimbo. and B continues to reel 90o in the Ni direction until her hand falls to the front of A’s lower abdomen. Fig. eyes focussed on the right hands.

3      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and Shun reels 90o to the right. then Ni reels 90o to the front of Player B’s abdomen. Repeat this cycle.Fig. B shifts her weight gradually backward while her hand draws an arc following Player A.3 8. 8. At the same time. then she guides A’s hand to the front of his abdomen.2. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 8.4 217 .

2      Posture 2 王 西 安 218 After both players complete a Da Shou (meet partner with hand).3. Player A guides Player B to move first in Shun reeling.3. Fig.3  single-hand verTical circle wan hua in pair pracTice 8. then then draws a 90o arc to the left.1      Posture 1 The preparation postures are the same as that of single-hand horizontal circle rotation. both hands perpendicular to each other and eyes looking forward. the only difference being that here the Da Shou (meet partner with hand) position is higher. before crouching again as they Ni reel downward 90o until their hands reach the front of the lower abdomen. Both players then rise. 8.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. .5  8.

when A draws an arc to the right side. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body to the right. 8. 8. Partner B relaxes the left crotch. turning to the right (B’s left side).3. B always adheres to A. with eyes looking at the same direction. guiding Player B to Ni reel 900 to his right side.Fig.7 219 . A continues to Shun reel a 900 arc upward until he returns to the original Da Shou position.6  8. For example. During the above process.

they lower their waists. toes turned up (optional). Player A raises two hands in front of his chest. Both right feet start to uncurl to the ground. heel first. eyes looking forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Both players step forward simultaneously with their right foot. with aim to form a front Bow Step. 王 西 安 Fig. draw their chests inward and gather their ribs. 8. lower the shoulders and drop the elbows.4  shuang shOu ping yuanwan hua (hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. placing them outside A’s hands.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. Then Player B extends her hands forward. Now both players wait in a defensive mode. While waiting. ready to move and attack if hands touch.4. having first shifted their weight onto the left leg.8 220 .

He stops pushing when his hands are 20 cm away from Player B’s chest. A’s weight shift to the right foot has been fully completed. with her little finger lightly hanging on A’s wrists to guard against any sudden attacks. her hands reel in Shun.2      Posture 2 Player A relaxes his right crotch and continues to shift his weight forward while pushing his hands forward in Ni reeling.9 王 西 安 221 . In other words. As Player A pushes his hands forward. Player B “listens” to A’s power and shifts her weight backward to force A to increase his pushing distance. B’s little fingers “stick” to A throughout the process. Here. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.4. As B’s weight moves backward.8. 8.

She relaxes her chest as her hands separate. 王 西 安 222 . B senses the speed of A’s pushing and separating power as her hands are tightly guided by his hands and separated by them to the sides.4      Posture 4 Player A switches to Shun reeling and draws an arc inward. using the outer edges of his palms. then separates Player B’s hands to the sides of her body at shoulderlevel. While Player A separates. 8.10  8. While A draws arcs. Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Then both players return to the original position. B moves her weight forward to form a Bow Step.4.4. He shifts his weight backward. his little fingers catching Player B’s wrists to the sides of the body as the two hands draw arcs.3      Posture 3 Player A pushes first and then separates his hands by reeling in a Ni direction.

11 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 223 . 8.Fig.

12  王 西 安 224 8. 8. Now. and separate hands to the sides of the body at shoulder level. Now. then step their right feet forward simultaneously. A’s weight is all at the right foot. guiding Partner B to raise her hands. Fig. the weight for both parties starts to shift to the right. B has been shifting her weight to the left.2      Posture 2 Player A reels in the Ni directon and contitues to shift his weight forward.5. all eyes look forward. The positions of all hands are higher than the eyes. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart.5  shuang shOu li yuan wan hua  (verTical cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands)  8. draw a vertical circle outward.1      Posture 1 Player A and B stand facing each other. The two parties’ eyes always follow their movements.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.5. . Both players extend and raise their hands in front of their bodies with Player B’s hands placed on the outer edges of Partner A’s hands.

14 225 .3      Posture 3 Player A switches to Shun reeling. 8. 8.13  8. and draw arcs to the lower abdomen. his little fingers slightly catching Player B’s wrists. Player A draws outwards while Partner B draws inwards.5. she shifts her weight forward to form a front Bow Step. While Player B rotates her arms downward following Player A. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Both players’ eyes face forward.Fig. while he shifts his weight backward.

Note: The steps are the same. his hands crossing before the chest with both palms facing in.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Player B follows Player A closely and feels his change. and continues to move her weight forward. Both players face forward. the body squats to prepare for openning.5. Repeat this cycle. Then Player A returns to the original position by Ni reeling and separating his arms outward.4      Posture 4 Player A continues Shun reeling. whether Player A separates B or vice versa. Both players can practice this in turn. 王 西 安 226 .

1      Posture 1 The gait of He Bu Tuishou is the same to that of the Vertical Coiling Flower with Double Hands. Now. Both players then shift a little more weight to the right. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. eyes looking forward.6  he bu TuishOu   (TuishOu wiTh cOiling hands and sTaTic fOOTwOrk) 8. the weight for both parties are both in the left.15 王 西 安 227 . yet start to shift to the right. backs of the hands touching.8. and then extend their right hands forward so they cross each other. 8. Player A and B stand facing each other.6. then step their right feet forward simultaneously.

he places his left hand on the middle of the right upper arm.6. gradually switching from Peng (ward off ) to Lü leftward. palm facing out and thumb pointing down so that both arms form an outward Peng (ward off ) power posture. Player B withdraws her left hand quickly when Player A executes Peng and puts it on the middle of her own right upper arm. In this way. Player B places her left hand on the right upper arm of Player A as he moves.2      Posture 2 Player A shifts his weight forward. then extends forward to press against A’s left forearm.6. then turns his right hand left in Shun reeling following the turn of his body. Fig. Player A relaxes his left crotch and moves his weight slightly leftward. Her right hand presses Player A’s right hand slightly downward. 8. During this process.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. While the right arm turns.3      Posture 3 王 西 安 228 Player A holds the left hand of Player B to ward it off outward. .16  8. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. both of B’s arms form an An (Pushing) power. At the same time.

 8. Repeat this cycle. Partner A withdraws his pressing hand and places it on his own right upper arm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 8. thus returning to the original position.18 229 .6. Player A executes Lü on B’s hand and presses it downward. In response. In response.4      Posture 4 Player B executes Ji (press) on Player A.17 8.Fig. Player B switches from An (push) to Peng (ward off ). Then Player B wards off Player A’s left hand upward. and executes Lü (roll back) again. shifting his weight forward to add more pressure. then moves quickly forward to press the middle of Player B’s right upper arm with his left hand.

 8. 王 西 安 Fig. and places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. then places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. bending it 450 inward.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention. Player A steps his right foot forward to form a front Bow Step. Player B steps her right foot forward at the same time.19 230 . A’s left hand then crosses with B’s left hand. Player A raises his right arm as his right leg moves.7  pair pracTice in shun bu TuishOu  (TuishOu wiTh MOveable fOOTwOrk) 8.7. Both players look at each other from the side.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. placing it on the outside of A’s right leg. palm facing outward. Player B’s right hand crosses the outside of A’s right hand. so that both knees touch (A’s inner knee and B’s outer knee).

 8. executing Lü (roll back) with his right hand. Both players look to the front and gather themselves to prepare for futher movements. and moves his weight leftward.2      Posture 2 Player A then relaxes his right crotch. then withdraws her right hand and puts it on the middle of her right upper arm to form a Ji (press) power to counter Partner A quickly. Player B shifts her weight forward to double her pressing power. shifts his weight slightly to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his left crotch first. and then wards off Player B’s left hand upwards. Player B continues to move her weight forward when Player A applies Lü.8. 王 西 安 231 . he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. At the same time. turns his body to the right. As Player A’s body turns right.7. he lowers his left shoulder and left elbow. Simultaneously.20  8. This switch from Peng to Lü happens in an instant. Both players look to the front.7. and switches both hands to double-hand Shun reeling to ward off outward gradually. raises his left hand.

then pushes her left hand rightward. 8. When Player A presses downward. 8.21 8.4      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body slightly to the right. with the coordination of his right hand. he presses Player B’s left hand downward to the front of her lower abdomen.22 232 . Player B exerts a strong Peng force to Player A’s right upper arm touching A’s right hand with her right hand. forming an An force. A then extends his left hand up and forward and presses the middle of Partner B’s right hand.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.7. At the same time. 王 西 安 Fig. with the aim of getting her to fall to his right side.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8. his right hand switches to Ni reeling to force Player B to step backward. Note: both players should not move too quickly as this would hinder the rotation of the arms and result in blockages. In this move.8. A’s upper and lower body move as one.5      Posture 5 Player B’s left foot steps on the ground.7. then her foot gradually steps on the ground fully. As Player B executes Lü. her right crotch relaxes and she shifts her weight to the right. both her hands follow the body and turn right to execute Lü (roll back) on the right side of Player A’s right arm until her left hand reaches the mid-line of her body. At the same time.7. Player A moves his weight first to the left and lifts his right foot quickly to step forward. He then pushes his shoulder and upper arm towards B’s chest in response to B’s Lü.23  8.6      Posture 6 Player A shifts his weight back to the left leg after pushing. 王 西 安 233 . tiptoe first. At the same time. and his forward push corresponds to the hardness or softness and speed of B’s Lü power.

7. In response. shifts her weight leftward. Both players look to the side at each other. to form Ji (press) power with her right arm. While this happens. and steps within A’s left leg so that their two knees connect. 8. B steps forward in synch with A’s guiding hand.24  8. . Fig. Simultaneously. turns his body slightly left and shifts his weight slightly leftward. B also places her left hand on the middle of her right upper arm. so as to form Peng and Lü with both of his hands. Both players look diagonally to the front. shifting her weight gradually rightward. Player B wards off slowly outwards with both hands in Shun reeling. palm out. Player B relaxes her left crotch. then takes a step forward with her right foot.7      Posture 7 王 西 安 234 Player A relaxes his left crotch. Player A places his left hand on B’s right upper arm.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 At the same time. then pushes Player B’s right hand first down then left using the pressing power of his left hand.

B also places her right hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.8      Posture 8 Player A relaxes his left crotch then shifts his weight to the left.26 235 . 8. At the same time. then switches her left hand instantly from Peng to Lü. Simultaneously. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.25  8. Player B lowers her left shoulder and left elbow. then raises her left hand in an upward Peng on A’s left hand. 8.7.Fig.

Both players look diagonally to the front. In this instance. A responds first by flowing downward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As this happens. At the same time. Player A continues to shift his weight forward. then to her left. 8. she presses forward on the middle of A’s right lower arm. Both players look to the sides. 王 西 安 Fig. then quickly forms a pushing power towards B. His right hand then comes into contact with B’s right hand. then raising his left hand upward onto B’s right upper arm to warding off (Peng). As Player B pushes A’s left hand downward. Then with her left hand. 8. she presses Player A’s left hand first down to the front of his lower abdomen. Both B’s hands work together to form an upward pressure pose.27 236 .7. both A’s arms form an outward Peng power. then withdraws his right hand to place it on the middle of his left upper arm.9      Posture 9 Player B relaxes her right crotch and turns her body slightly to the right.

leading to increased exposure to attacks. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. shifts his weight to the right and rotates both hands to the right following the body to execute Lü on the right side of Player B’s right arm. and the speed and extent of her forward push should be dependent on the speed and hardness or softness of Partner A’s Lü. taking care not to go beyond their territory as this would mean that the transferring and changing of movements would not be as quick and flexible. 8. Player A steps his left foot on the ground. Player B shifts her weight first to the left. following A’s Lü power. In response to A’s Lü. He moves in Lü until his left hand reaches the mid-line of his body. Both players should defend and stick to defend their own territory. relaxes his left crotch.28 Notes: Player B’s upper and lower body should follow each other when pushing forward.8.7.10      Posture 10 Both players keep moving and rotating. then steps forward quickly with her right foot and pushes her shoulder and upper arm forward toward A’s chest. 王 西 安 237 .

11      Posture 11  After pushing forward. The rotating methods are the same as those on Figures 8. You may have found that. 王 西 安 238 . Player A places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. As B shifts her weight backward. her right hand changes to Ni reeling to force Player A to step back. B places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. as well as an accomplishment of one cycle of Peng. and are ready to start a new cycle. Both playesr look diagonally to the front. foot gradually steps fully on the ground. tiptoe first. shifts his weight leftward.26. Finally. palm out.27. At the same time. A relaxes his left crotch. Ji and An. to form a Ji power with his right arm.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Both their knees connect. At the same time. for both of the two players.25. 8. Lü. Player B shifts her weight backward to her left leg. and 8.28. then takes a step forward (Shang Bu) with his right foot to step on the inside of B’s leg. Posture 11 is the same as Shun Bu (moving forward and back in one step) Tuishou. Simultaneously. 8. her two hands forming a Lü posture. one full cycle consists of one step forward and one step backward.7. both players return to their original positions.

In this low body movement. requiring both players to crouch on one leg while extending the other fully forward with calf touching the ground.8.29 王 西 安 239 . Bie. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Zhou and Kao.8  pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu) Da Lü Tuishou pair practice is the fourth technique of of Chen-style Taiji Tuishou. 8. The practice of Da Lü movements is very important in learning how to apply low body movements in combat without impacting on other combat movements or losing agility and flexibility. and is based on Shun Bu Tuishou. which is Cai. you should combine Si Zheng Shou practice with Si Yu Shou. This technique consists of larger scale body movement. which is aimed at reinforcing your lower body stance and leg power in this technique.

Sao means to sweep or clear away. Gun Shuan is an extension of Da Sao. hence sweeping your arm horinzontally left and right after meeting your opponent in Da Shou (meet partner with hand). With this method. In Da Sao. Shuan means to put an arm across the chest like a locked door bolt to protect against attack. From this position. If you choose not to attack under some circumstances. 王 西 安 240 . Da means to put your hand on the hand of the opponent with the intention of using it as a touchpoint and support. Other handwork techniques used to render opponents passive are: Da Sao (support and sweep). push and press against the opponent to force them into a defensive mode. use your elbow or Kao (shoulder strike) to attack when you find a weak point. This Tuishou technique combines the handwork of Si Zheng Shou and the footwork of Shang Xia Bu (moving forward and backward) in varying degrees. Instead of sweeping the arms horizontally. depending on the circumstances. to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to the upper part of their body while lifting their lower body). the opponent cannot discern your target. can you win consistently. During combat.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. reel them in Shun and Ni directions.9  pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu   (cOiling flOwer TuishOu) Luan Cai Hua is also known as Hua Jiao Bu. left and right. Only this way. nor the location of your body weight. so as to transform the opponent’s power. or power direction. up and down. try to feel the Gongfu level gap between you and your opponent by listening. Gun Shuan (roll and seize). The technique also uses the deft and precise handwork of Shang Long Xia Ti (which means. Bi Ya (push and press) and so on.

you can advance two or three steps to gain a territorial advantage. These are the main methods and purpose of Luan Cai Hua pair practice. Your footwork should be based on the speed.30 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. flexible. 8.32 Fig. direction and angle of changes. This is an example of the Die Fa. Actually. which you think harmful to your opponent.31 王 西 安 241 . agile and swift.Your footwork should be coordinated with your handwork. 8. For example. Apply Ti (lift) and Long (holding close) unpredictably and precisely. transforming the power of your opponent so that he or she becomes trapped in a passive position unawares. coordinated with Shang Long Xia Ti. 8. there are no restrictions in the application during practical body combat. if the opponent retreats one step. Fig. Place yourself in a strong and active position by applying Dian Bu (adding half paces) continuously when executing Shang Bu (stepping forward). Your Dian Bu should be light. Combine the power of both your hands so that they become one indivisible power.

and offered new ways of understanding humans as a microcosmic blueprint of the Universe. one of the pre-eminent representatives of Yang Taiji family. culminating in the modern-day Chen. we shall focus on the Yang Style for the purposes of this book as because this style best illustrates the Yin and Yang principles of Taiji philosophy. At its foundation. This philosophy provides an alternative and deeply sophisticated paradigm of how human beings may be perceived in relation to their position within the cosmos. While the Taiji form has undergone many changes through the ages. Earth or Human realms.Other books by INBI World: OLEG TCHERNE philosophy of Taiji The philosophy of Taiji was developed in China at the height of the Daoist era between 700 bc to 200 ad. our world and the human body through the interactions. opposing and complementary. of two fundamental forces: Yin and Yang. each action or form occurs as a result of a certain combination of forces which are generated by Heaven. For this reason. much of the theory in this book is based on the guidelines written by Yang Chengfu. . Yang. that is. the philosophy of Taiji attempts to explain the workings of the universe. According to this philosophy. Taiji Philosophy is most easily expressed and understood through the use of body language. Sun and Wu Styles. through Taiji forms and postures.

this tome was intended by its author to be both the first ever written repository of Taiji lore. www. including his meticulous inscriptions for over 400 illustrations.com . The English translation of this canon marks the first ever attempt to translate into English Chen Xin’s highly esoteric and detailed technical explanations of Chen-style Taijiquan techniques.CHEN XIN The illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan “The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan” is universally acknowledged by the Taoist community and Taiji practitioners as the seminal sourcebook of Taiji philosophy and techniques. A work of intense scholarship which took over fourteen years to complete. and a referential resource for Taiji instructors and practitioners for generations to follow.inbiworld.



 How is the project being funded? A. China. Wenxian. Through the website below and in person at Master Chen Xiaowang’s seminars worldwide.Chen Village Restoration Project • Q. Who was Chen Changxing? A. An effort to preserve the heritage of Taijiquan by restoring Chen Changxing’s home in Chen Village. Henan Province. Q. Chen Changxing was the fourteenth generation Master of Chen family Taijiquan who taught Yang Lu Chan.com . www. All people who buy calligraphy or make a direct contribution will have their name and the amount carved into a stone tablet to be displayed in Chen village. How do I purchase calligraphy or make a contribution A. founder of the Yang style. Q. By proceeds from the purchase of Master Chen Xiaowang’s calligraphy or through direct contributions. Q.chenxiaowang. What is the Chen Changxing - Chen Village Restoration Project? A.

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