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Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN

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Published by INBI World
A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).
A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).

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Published by: INBI World on Nov 24, 2009
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Sections

  • 1.1 The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu
  • 1.2 TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward, sTep-by-sTep
  • 1.3 The cOre Of TuishOu
  • 1.4 The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu
  • 1.5 TuishOu, The Only criTeriOn TO judge The gOngfu Of Taiji
  • 2.1 lisTening TO energy
  • 2.2 dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy
  • 2.3 zhan nian Techniques
  • 2.4 lian sui energies
  • 2.5 Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques
  • 2.6 na (seizing) Technique
  • 2.7 Opening and clOsing
  • 2.8 energy explOsiOn
  • 2.9 Ti (raising) fOrce
  • 2.10 reeling silk
  • 3.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 3.2.1    Exercise One
  • 3.2.2    Exercise Two
  • 3.3.1    Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles
  • 3.3.2    Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles
  • 3.3.3    Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike
  • 3.3.4    Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward
  • 3.3.5    Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy
  • 3.3.6    Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee
  • 3.3.7    Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
  • 3.4.1    Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
  • 3.4.2    Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
  • 3.4.3    Shuang Fen Quan
  • 3.4.4    Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward
  • 3.4.5    Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist
  • 3.4.6    Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist
  • 3.4.7    Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist
  • 3.4.8    Dingzi Quan Guanyang
  • 3.5.1    Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms
  • 3.5.2    Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique
  • 3.5.3    Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off
  • 3.5.4    Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push
  • 3.5.5    Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang
  • 3.5.6    Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang
  • 3.5.7    Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa
  • 3.5.8    Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa
  • 3.5.9    Qianchuan Zhang Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice
  • 3.6.1    Li Zhou … Standing Elbows
  • 3.6.2    Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows
  • 3.6.3    Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist
  • 3.6.4    Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block
  • 3.6.5    Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow
  • 3.6.6    Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow
  • 3.6.7    Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows
  • 3.6.8    Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou Double Closing Elbows
  • 3.6.9    Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow
  • 3.6.10    Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow
  • 3.6.11    Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow
  • 3.6.12    Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow
  • 3.7.1    Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.2    Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.3    Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder
  • 3.7.4    Xiong  Kao … Chest Push
  • 3.7.5    Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders
  • 3.7.6    Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back
  • 3.7.7    Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao
  • 3.8.1    Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling
  • 3.8.2    Xiong Na … Seize with Chest
  • 3.8.3    Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen
  • 3.8.4    Shuang He Fu Cai Na
  • 3.8.5    Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling
  • 3.8.6    Tui Na … Seize with the Leg
  • 3.8.7    Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands
  • 3.8.8    Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands
  • 3.9.1    Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape
  • 3.9.2    Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.3    Shuang Wan Zhi Jie
  • 3.9.4    Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.5    Qu Wan Fan Na Jie
  • 3.9.6    Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back
  • 3.9.7    Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie
  • 3.9.8    Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping
  • 3.9.9    Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie
  • 4.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 4.2.1    Postures
  • 4.2.2    The requirements for every part of the body
  • 4.2.3    Breathing
  • 4.2.4    Additional Notes
  • 4.3.1    Postures
  • 4.3.2    Body requirements
  • 4.3.3    Breathing
  • 4.4.1    Postures
  • 4.4.2    The relationship between Thought, Intention and Qi
  • 4.5 san Ti shi (Three pOsTures)
  • 4.6.1    The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.6.2    Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.7 wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang)
  • 5.1.1    Overview
  • 5.1.2    Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
  • 5.2.1    Overview
  • 5.2.2    Yuan Dang … Round Crotch
  • 5.2.3    Ding Dang … Tight Crotch
  • 5.2.4    Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
  • 5.2.5    Tang Dang
  • 6.1.1    Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories
  • 6.1.2    Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork
  • 6.2.1    Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground
  • 6.2.2    Cutting with Palm
  • 6.2.3    Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm
  • 6.2.4    Xie Tuo Zhan
  • 6.2.5    Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm
  • 6.2.6    Ba Zi Shou
  • 6.3.1    Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step
  • 6.3.2    Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step
  • 6.3.3    Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step
  • 6.3.4    Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step
  • 6.4.1    Shun Chan … Conforming reeling
  • 6.4.2    Ni Chan … Reverse reeling
  • 6.4.3    Shun Ni Zuo Wan
  • 6.4.4    Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist
  • 6.4.5    Shun Chan Yang Zhang
  • 6.5.1    Shang Bu … Forward Step
  • 6.5.2    Tui Bu … Retreating Step
  • 6.5.3    Gen Bu … Following Step
  • 7.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 7.2.1    Part 1
  • 7.2.2    Part 2
  • 7.2.3    Part 3
  • 7.2.5    Part 5
  • 7.2.7    Part 7
  • 7.2.8    Part 8
  • 7.2.9    Part 9
  • 7.3 sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle
  • 7.4 dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua
  • 7.5 sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle
  • 7.6 sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk
  • 7.7 shun bu TuishOu (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep)
  • 7.8 sOlO danren da lü TuishOu
  • 7.9 sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu
  • 8.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 8.2.1    Posture 1
  • 8.2.2    Posture 3
  • 8.2.3    Posture 4
  • 8.3.1    Posture 1
  • 8.3.2    Posture 2
  • 8.3.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.1    Posture 1
  • 8.4.2    Posture 2
  • 8.4.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.4    Posture 4
  • 8.5.1    Posture 1
  • 8.5.2    Posture 2
  • 8.5.3    Posture 3
  • 8.5.4    Posture 4
  • 8.6.1    Posture 1
  • 8.6.2    Posture 2
  • 8.6.3    Posture 3
  • 8.6.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.1    Posture 1
  • 8.7.2    Posture 2
  • 8.7.3    Posture 3
  • 8.7.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.5    Posture 5
  • 8.7.6    Posture 6
  • 8.7.7    Posture 7
  • 8.7.8    Posture 8
  • 8.7.9    Posture 9
  • 8.7.10    Posture 10
  • 8.7.11    Posture 11
  • 8.8 pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu)
  • 8.9 pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu (cOiling flOwer TuishOu)

太陳 極氏 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

Wang Xi’an

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou
Chenjiagou Wenxian County Henan, China

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Published by INBI Matrix Pty Ltd po box 775, Maroubra 2035 NSW Australia English Edition © 2009 INBI Matrix Pty Ltd Copyright © 1998 Wang Xi’an

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retreival system, without permissing in writing from the publisher.

First edition, 2009 Printed in China

王 西 安
iv

Project management & design: Roman Mukhortikov Editors: Juliana Ngiam, Tom Watson Translation: Zhang Yanping

ISBN-13: 978-1-87693-500-6 ISBN-10: 1-87693-500-6

Thoughts on Taiji

Ever since it came into being, Taiji has been passed down from generation to generation. Foremost among many historic figures, was Chen Zhaopi (1893-1972), who stands out for his determination to train young successors. Thus, today we witness a substantial and energetic development of Taiji in the Chen Village, from where its reputation has spread worldwide, inspiring both young and old in the practice of Taiji. Chen Zhaopi was passionate in sharing his heritage and knowledge. My only regret is that I failed to be more focused and to practice more diligently. As a successor of the Chen family heritage, I have undertaken to continue his legacy by writing this book, but despite all best attempts, I struggle to reveal all the subtleties in this vast body of knowledge. I sit with a lonely lamp, recalling the past and sigh to the sky.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Wang Xi’an

王 西 安
v

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vi .

One of the finished manuscripts resulted in this book. Japan 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vii . I shall always be greatful for Master Wang and Taijiquan for leading me to a totally different worldview and life.Preface to original edition I cannot express how excited I am on hearing the news that Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Techniques. I look forward to Master Wang’s future works with great enthusiasm. is to be published. More than ever. as an expression of the profound spirit inherent in all human beings. newly written by Master Wang Xian. Indeed. Tokyo. his high disciplinary standards and outstanding martial arts techniques serves as an inspiration to all Taiji learners in Japan and we greatly appreciate his tremendous contribution to Sino-Japan Taiji relations and the spread of Taiji knowledge all over Japan in years past. the Japanese are coming to love Taijiquan and the great charm of Chinese culture. I recall Master Wang working on two manuscripts which he carried around in his bag during his visit to Tokyo in November 1995. ‘to exist everywhere. an impressive feat of concentration and energy considering Master Wang’s teaching workload. In the spirit of Taiji’s original meaning. Atsuko Noguchi January 1998. indubitably a result of the efforts of Taiji followers in both countries. we believe that Taiji. to consist of everything’. belongs not only to China but to the rest of the world.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 viii .

...........................18 3.. The Origin of Taijiquan Tuishou .................................................................55 4.................................29 8....................... Jietuo (Escape) Practices....................4 The Core of Tuishou ..........97 8................................................................................................. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................13 Chapter Two: Interpretation on the Ten Forces of Tuishou 1......40 3.......................... Dongjin – Realization of Energy .......................................................................................... Na (Seizing) Techniques ............63 5................. Misleading and Transforming Techniques .............. The Relationship Between Three Stages of Taijiquan Practice and Tuishou ...3 Tuishou Practice – Going Inward....................................................... Step by Step .38 2............................................................................................................................ 3....... Lian Sui Energies ..23 5... Tuishou: the Only Criterion to Judge the Gongfu of Taiji..........................26 7.......................................................................................................84 7..............................................................21 4...............................................72 6...............................................................................................................117 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 ix ....31 9.. Palm Practice ...............34 10........................ Na (Seizing) Practices .............. 2.......................................35 Chapter Three: Single Form Practice 1...................................................... Leg Practice ............. Zhan Nian Techniques........................ Opening and Closing ......... Listening to Energy ..........................................................................................................................25 6...................................................... Fist Practice ....................................... Reeling Silk .........105 9...................... Kao (Push) Practices.........................................................................................................Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1... Energy Explosion ...............10 5................ Ti (Raising) Energy .. Elbow Practice ... Feet Practice ............................................................. 4........................................................................................................................16 2.................................................

........................................................214 2....................154 Chapter Five: Practice for the Buttocks and Crotch ..... Solo Tuishou With Static Footwork .......................... Shuang Shou Li Yuan Wan Hua................132 2...................................................... Solo Luan Cai Hua Tuishou ....... Single-hand Horizontal Wan Hua in Pair Practice .........200 7..................................................................209 9........................195 5....149 7............................................................................................... Shun Bu Tuishou ............................... Hand Techniques in Tuishou Reeling...........................193 4...................239 9............... Tuishou Footwork Techniques............ Solo Wan Hua ...........224 6....................... Pair Practice in Shun Bu Tuishou.................................218 4.................. Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan (Returning to Wu Ji Zhuang) ................. San Ti Shi (Three Postures).......................175 4...........................................................168 2................................................................................................... Introduction .... Introduction ..179 5..................... Single-hand Vertical Circle Wan Hua in Pair Practice ...171 3..................240 王 西 安 x .... Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture)....... 133 3.. 138 4...........................................210 Chapter Eight: Pair Practice in Tuisho 1....................................186 2.........230 8...... Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) ......... Solo Danren Da Lü Tuishou ........... Shuang Shou Ping Yuanwan Hua ........................... Pair Practice in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou................................................ Tuishou Handwork Techniques .............................................................................................. Pair Practice in Da Lü Tuishou .. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Zhuang) .......................... Solo Ping Yuanwan Hua .................. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) ...................... Classifications of Tuishou .......... 183 Chapter Seven: Solo Practice in Tuishou 1................................................................................................................................................................................... 157 Chapter Six: Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories 1.......... 215 3..................................................................................................... Tuishou Steps ........................142 5.......................................................197 6...................................227 7....................................................... He Bu-Tuishou ......................................220 5..........................146 6.......................... Introduction ..................................................... Solo Double-hand Flat Circle Wan Hua ............................................. Solo Double-hand Wan Hua in a Vertical Circle ...陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Chapter Four: Health and Qi Enhancement Practices 1..............203 8.......................187 3................................................

CHAPTER ONE: inTRoDuCTion .

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 2 .

location or access to equipment.1  The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu Tuishou originated in the Chen Village. awareness of Taijiquan and Tuishou’s health & fitness benefits have spread far beyond China to all corners of the globe. the Huangdi Neijing (The Canon of Huangdi) and acupuncture. Its creator. In doing so. Taiji Tuishou practice is not restricted by a practitioner’s age. Tuishou.1. and will continue to do so in years to come. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 3 . Wenxian County. With the accelerated pace of modern life. (also known as Zouting) was a famous martial arts master. transforming. is a practical combat technique based on grabbing. in the period between the Ming and Qing Dynasty. was the creator of Taijiquan and 9th generation head of the Chen Family. Chen Wangting. Henan Province. As it is not stressful to the body. he drew on the theories of the Yijing (I Ching. gender. sword and stick routines. and he was recognized as the creator of Chen Family boxing. the ‘Book of Changes’). throwing and striking. ‘The Family Tree of Chen’. catching. As a combat techniqiue. it helps maintain fitness. Chen Wangting developed the creative and athletic routines of Taijiquan and Taiji Tuishou. According to the book. reducing illness and prolonging a healthy life. it helps build health and defence as well as to develop a sensitivity to movement. Chen Wangting. Using the foundation of the 108 Form (Tongbei Changquan) which he inherited from previous generations and from other Ming period martial arts practitioners. agility and flexibility. China. originally known as Jieshou or Dashou. as well as the principles of Yin and Yang.

or appreciate the interplay of the slow/quick. A Taijiquan proverb pertains also to Tuishou.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. you must know its significance. listen to each other’s energy flow. with greater efficacy and subtlety. ‘From the familiarity of forms. to the Deity’. and what it consists of. to the realization of Jin. Learning Tuishou will quickly expose any weaknesses in one’s internal Gongfu. such as grasping.2  TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward. throwing. intuitive and subconscious. advance/retreat movements until your sense of touch develops to a level where your reactions to any external stimulus becomes immediate. transformation is the basis. and do not disconnect or oppose your partner’s energy. followed by the double hand horizontal and vertical practice. be relaxed. Initially. Tuishou translates as ‘push hands’. your entire body surface will become very sensitized and your ‘inner listening’ abilities very finely honed. Relaxation is fundamental. and striking. so much that you will be able to apply combat techniques. Less well known is Tuishou’s other application as a technique for internal transformation. catching. an athletic activity based on mutual pushing. sTep-by-sTep To practice Tuishou. you will be able to release explosive energy to both small and large targets. enabling you to throw opponents meters away without hurting them. pacing your learning step-bystep. that is. With sustained practice over a period of time. hard/ soft. from the realization of Jin. Follow the circling movements with the whole body. Note that adepts earn their title only when they attain the ability control and use combat techniques in an appropriate manner. You will not realize inner transformation. Literally. Become familiar with the single hand horizontal and vertical practice. 王 西 安 4 . nor will you be able to intuit your opponent’s energetic intention. As you reach the level of adept. Tuishou practice should be soft and modest. principles.

mind and spirit with determination. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 5 . combining your heart. be calm and concentrated in your demeanour. but never practice just in order to practice. force and speed in your actions. you will ultimately enhance your health and combat techniques. Practice makes perfect. As long as you practice persistently and make progress.Remember that ‘inner listening’ is the one essential skill required to improve your technique. Skill arises from consistent and accumulated practice. imagine a partner practicing or competing with you. To cultivate ‘inner listening’. your intention and commitment must be deeply held. In solo practice.

it will enable you to feel. gathering or exploding. you will develop the capacity to subconsciously anticipate quick or slow changes. At a more advanced stage. Movements alternate freely between Gang (hard) and Rou (soft). Nian. actions to the left or right. Tuishou practice is based on thirteen ‘forms’ or energies. upward or downward movements. follow) and Chansi Jin (Reeling Silk). . attacks or retreats. and so on. continue. When you can control these energies within yourself. Lian. your partner’s weight. distance and direction of energy. Kuai (quick) and Man (slow). Qing (light) and Zhong (heavy). adhere. opening or closing.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. You will learn to follow your partner’s intention and forget your own. which are also the essential elements of Taiji. speed. The thirteen forms are: • Ward off • Roll back • Press • Push • Pull down • Split • Elbow strike • Shoulder strike • Advance forward • Retreate back • Look backward • Gaze forward • Central equilibrium Peng Lü Ji An Cai Lie Zhou Kao Jin Tui Gu Pan Ding 王 西 安 6 Tuishou flows seamlessly between the application and combination of opposites.3  The cOre Of TuishOu The core of Tuishou consists of Zhan. Sui (stick. while its theoretical basis builds on the philosophies of Yin and Yang. with the lightest of touches.

‘follow slow attacks unhurriedly’. ‘utilize the opponent’s energy’ and ‘conquer the strong with the weak’. stretching. Tuishou centers around ‘listening and following’ techniques: ‘react fast to fast attacks’. Attack the opponent’s centre of gravity Use techniques such as ‘control a stronger opponent with weak force’ and ‘defeat weak points with a stronger force’. 王 西 安 7 . When releasing explosive energy. be calm and relaxed To release bursts of energy effectively. Use the forces of elasticity and friction Use these forces when applying techniques such as ‘draw the opponent into one’s orbit to destroy their centre of gravity’. ‘if the opponent does not move. ‘if the opponent moves slightly. move before they do’ etc. this energy refills automatically to its original ‘full’ state. expansion. concentrate on one direction at a time. don’t move’. or other deformation. Note: friction forces are often applied in Tuishou – as you come in contact with the opponent’s hands. Like a balloon whose air has been exhausted. Note: by ‘elastic’ we mean energy that is able to return to its original state after compression. it is the force of friction that enables you to hold and seize their arms etc. Master the fundamentals 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Basically.Points to remember: Move with great flexibility Change your movements constantly using elastic yet tense Neijin (internal energy).

none of your opponents can defeat you. Similarly. I perform strictly to the principles so as to make me unassailable. and they serve as concise and comprehensive guidelines for Taiji and Tuishou practice through the ages. 王 西 安 8 . yet few who can actually strike the enemy’s heart and ribs with agility and effectiveness’. I follow my partner. the 14th generation master.” Chen Changxing. utilizing the techniques of Kao. and is worth remembering.” This technique. push or strike your opponent you do so without alerting them in order to capture their energy. whether they strike or twist. whether ascending or descending. results in the shaking off of the opponent’s upper body and lifting of their lower body. no matter how hard they press. I can conquer a force of a thousand jin with a tiny force of four Liang. As Chen Changxing says: ‘There are so many people who wear the mask of a hero.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As stated in the General Song of Taijiquan by Chen Wangting (also known as the ‘Song of Taiji Practitioners’): “…remembering the principle of following. The canon of Taiji teachings is rich with such sayings. Using this. I always follow their intention. push or strike. Even if attacked by a monster. when you move forward in your turn to press. known as Shang Long Xia Ti (which means to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to his or her upper body while lifting their lower body). also states: “No one knows when I gather or stretch.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 9 . One with two Yin and eight Yang is a San Shou One with three Yin and seven Yang is still considered tough.Another essay defines the five levels of Tuishou: One with one Yin and nine Yang is as stiff as a stick. As a science. the relative practice methods for each stage with differing ratios of Yin and Yang are clearly defined. In order to inherit and develop this Chinese cultural heritage. requiring us to further our exploration and improve our practice of it. the study of Taijiquan Tuishou is a profound undertaking which knows no bounds. I sincerely hope Taijiquan followers will embark on a serious study of this art and strive toward the as yet unbounded acme of this science. Here. One with four Yin and six Yang is among the group of the adepts. Only one with five Yin and five Yang is called adept.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. Shen Ming (dual cultivation of inner energy and outer form) One is regarded as a Deity. still regarded hard’ turns into ‘fouryin six-yang. . ‘three-yin seven-yang. Da Quan (big circle) This is the stage whereby ‘one-yin nine-yang. Zhong Quan (medium circle) At this stage. Zhao Shu (familiarity with the forms) Outer form drives Qi. Dong Jin (realizing the inner energy) Qi drives outer form. The three stages of Taijiquan are: 1. as stiff as a stick’ evolves to ‘two-yin eight-yang. ‘Chen Style Taiji Laojia’ (Old Routine). one comes into the group of the adepts’.4  The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of  Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu A brief description of the three stages of Taijiquan practice will be provided here. is San Shou’. 2. 2. with fuller details available in Chapter Two of my book. Taiji Tuishou also consists of three stages with three respective practice methods: 王 西 安 10 1. Correspondingly. 3.

with the practice of Xiao Quan Shenzhi Wuquan (small or even no circle). At the second stage of Dong Jin (realization of energy). along with the Tuishou practice of Zhong Quan (medium circle). we practice Ling Jin (spiritual force) through Nei Wai Jian Xiu (culitivation of both internal and external qualities). in addition to a diligent assimilation of knowledge. as well as the combination of the respective techniques applied in the big.3. ‘I hit with any part of my 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 11 . and does not mean total stillness. Those who attain the level of Deity will be able to execute movements with tremendous flexibility and smoothness. enjoy a feeling of lightness. Xiao Quan Naizhi Wuquan (small circle or even no circle) This is the final stage where ‘five-yin five-yang. The three stages of Taijiquan practice are interrelated with the three stages of Taiji Tuishou. along with the Tuishou practice of Da Quan (big circle). we practice An Jin (invisible force) through Yi Qi Cui Xing (external form driven by Qi). all parts of the body become as highly sensitized as finger tips so that when competing. That is to say. By this stage. At the third stage of Shenming (deity). We must pay attention to different methods during different stages of practice. the complete fusion of external form and internal spirit. Note that ‘no circle’ denotes a state of subtlety and skilfulness. medium and small circles. that is. possess abundant internal energy. at the first stage. we practice Mingjin (apparent energy) by utilizing Yi Xing Dai Qi (external form guides internal Qi). and be able to achieve constant internal changes between Xu and Shi (void and solid). one is regarded as a Deity’. Following a correct program of practice as outlined above. random alternations between states of energy gathering and releasing within a relaxed and elastic body. that is. an adept may say. students will improve step-by-step and attain the ultimate stage of Deity or Xing Shen Jian Bei.

as our ancestors tell us.” 王 西 安 12 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 body that is attacked by my opponent. Also known as ‘Five-Yin Five-Yang’. those who reach this stage posess energy without imbalance and can achieve Lianshen Huanxu (cultivation of Shen spirit and return to the void). if you don’t make efforts to go forward. you surely go backwards. even though I don’t know how I do it’. “Taiji practice is like rowing in the river. This is not unattainable.

It simply requires practitioners to have sufficient physical force for competition. While appearing deceptively easy. Hence. it is also the key criterion against which one’s level of Taijiquan Gongfu can be measured. This is called. Ding meaning ‘stiff resistance’). tough energy. no techniques can be executed. Remember too where your weight is placed to maintain control of your centre of gravity. These reflexes are faster than thought and only come with constant practice. When they reach the level of ‘a good hand with invisible four-yin six-yang energy in medium circles’.e. nor is it just a matter of pitting one’s physical force against others. hence it is essentially a competitive activity. The Only criTeriOn TO judge   The gOngfu Of Taiji  Not only is Tuishou a reliable test of one’s level in any martial art form. Tuishou actually requires a strong sense of balance and an ability to combine energy and force. they are able to strike back instantly in response to an opponent’s movement using conditioned reflexes derived from highly sensitized skin alert to every minute stimulus. Only by being fully aware of the changes in your partner’s movement can you react promptly to any attack. Skilled practitioners rely on a highly developed sense of touch. In other words. try to feel the extent and speed of your partner’s motions with your sense of touch while ‘listening’ to their stance and angles of movement. meaning ‘loss of energy’. Nevertheless. it doesn’t imply Diu (a common defect due to failure in Zhan Nian. ‘Weak side strikes strong side. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 13 . the stronger force) also can defeat the weaker force. Tuishou develops one’s sensitivity to others. In contrast with Quan (form) practice where the focus is on solo practice and developing self-awareness.5  TuishOu. or ‘losing tracking to the opponent’s energy’) or Ding (a common defect due to failure in relaxation. four Liang defeats thousands of Jin’. Without the latter. ‘thousands of Jin’ (i. However. When forces are equally matched during competition.1. softness can break through hard. try to feel your partner’s tracks of energy while controlling your own centre of gravity during practice. It is this dynamic that we need to explore during practice.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 14 .

CHAPTER TWO: inTeRpReTaTions on The Ten FoRCes oF Taiji 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 15 .

On receiving these signals. allowing both body and mind to enter into the level of deity and transformation. Listening can be divided into three areas: listening with the bones. With your skin. One’s skin is the key weapon. continue.1  lisTening TO energy In the context of Taiji and Tuishou. Similarly. a practioner’s body can react instantly with great accuracy and flexibility. filled with abundant internal Qi. The entire body surface of a high level practioner is highly sensitive. the skin. alluding not only to listening with the ears. a rise or fall in height or changes in weight. What is listening with the skin? It means following the command of the heart and mind. adhere. her body light and flexible. sensing through the skin enables reaction in any manner within the rules.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. when an opponent touches one’s fine body hairs. the act of ‘listening’ has profound resonances. her changes in rotation. with the skin and with the fine hairs on the body surface. Hence the saying. but also with the eyes. ‘Without being known. squeeze and press.’ 王 西 安 16 . What is listening with the bones? It is the ability to anticipate an attack by listening through the skin and responding swiftly to an opponent’s attempt to seize. feel your partner’s movements. no matter if the changes are in the opponent’s rotation. During Tuishou sparring. follow) as fundamentals. one’s force is injected into the marrow. and a highly-tuned awareness of sensations in the heart and nerves as well. every single hair is so delicate and sensitive it can detect a feather just before it touches the skin. When Wu-Yin Wu-Yang (energy equal and balanced) is attained. any signals of attack will be transmitted as sensations through the minute hairs on one’s skin. At this stage. The level of one’s overall listening ability is determined by one’s internal energy (Gongfu). and taking Zhan Nian Lian Sui (stick. I know others and sweep all enemies aside. position and magnitude.

This is why we recommend the practice of Zhan and Nian (stick and adhere) energies as a preparation for listening practice. It requires cultivation of a finely-honed sensitivity to the sensations on one’s minute body hairs. Only through accumulated practice can one’s sensations detect the smallest changes. making all one’s muscles stiff. special attention should be paid to ‘the intervals of fastness and slowness’. As Sunzi Bingfa says. While the majority of practitioners are able to listen with the bones. Without this preparation. ‘clear manifestation of emptiness and solidness’. Just as a deaf person is unable to comprehend a conversation as he cannot hear. blood and breath. In all this. slow. rising to the upper body. your judgement confused. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 17 . so a practioner cannot generate energy for sparring if he or she is unable to listen.Finding a really peaceful place to practice will help concentration and improve one’s sensitivity to listening. ‘descending Qi and steady steps’. listening would be impossible. ‘co-ordination of opening and closing’ and maintaining a fluid continuity between all these techniques. How good it would be to attain this level. very few achieve the ability to listen with the skin. that is why it destroys the strongest of enemies”. “The most super-human strategy is formless and soundless. Failure to do so will cause one’s energy to remain stuck in the chest. which is essential for constant adjustments to frequently changing circumstances. You will look without seeing. you fight back. listen without hearing. Listening is essential to Tuishou. opening and closing (快、慢、沉、稳、虚、实、 开、合). defending and attacking blindly. let alone the attainment of energy for combat. descending. Listening practice should strictly follow the Four Principles (Zhan Nian Lian Sui) as well as the Essential Formula – fast. until it is too late to repel danger. leading only to failure. calm. your listening untrue. Your reactions will become slow. where every knot of one’s body opens and stretches without crude force. Nervously. emptiness. solidity.

Qi (insult). Zhi (straight). Ji (hit). Jia (stiff ). Ying (stiff ). Ya (push down). 发fa – explode) at the appropriate opportunity. straightness and curvature. your posture too straight (Zhi). Teng (jump). hardness and softness. vertical axis and flexibility. Hua. It is the ability to conquer one’s opponent by using proper rhythm and techniques such as Yin. Bing (defect) signifies the inability to follow principles such as maintaining one’s centre of gravity. We call such shortcomings. magnitude and hitting point. Pai (squeeze out). Gou (hook). Ting (stick out). transform. Tui (push). Zhuan (cheat). 化hua – change. A further thirty-five shortcomings need to be overcome at this stage: Chou (draw).2  dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy Realizing energy is a key concept in Taiji and Tuishou. Na. that is. Li (leave). Without ‘hearing’ the energy of one’s partner. Qin (intrude). you cannot note any of the above changes in the oponent. Ling (pressing). Failure to overcome these shortcomings would be to fail to realize energy. It is the ability to note present or potential changes in emptiness and solidity. Ba (pull out). Zhan (chop). direction. Be warned that mistakes will occur on this learning path. new challenges such as ‘being too fond of competing’. speed. Bo (move with hand). Even for those who achieve this skill. Peng. Cuo (rub). An (press). Realizing energy is based on listening. you cannot realize it. Hun (mix up). 拿na – capture. Fa (引yin – lead. the ability to circle and the principles of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. this skill may eventually be attained with diligent practice and a good teacher. Lou (hold). await them. Ba (seize by force). Di (resist) and Gun (roll). While beginners may find this difficult to achieve. Dang (block off ). “faulty palms” or “faulty body”.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. Zhe (hide). You may find yourself being too stiff (Jiang). Meng (sudden). Shan (dodge or flash). your energy too resistant (Ding) or being lost unnecessarily (Diu). Gua (hang on). Ke (knock). length. Duo (escape). 王 西 安 18 . Shi (tight).

but also in the combat arts and and Sanda (free sparring). Lü. Tuishou is the combat application of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. which is used not only in Tuishou. twisting. ultimately. In fact. As Chen Changxing. dodging. I always keep remembering to follow their intention. When attacking. Zhou and Kao). grasping. changing one’s centre of gravity and flexibility) in synchronous movements. striking. In effect. form and quality of Tuishou. the poplular stereotype of Taijiquan as a non-combat. ‘The Taijiquan Formula’: No one knows when I gather or stretch. these eight techniques form the method for Tuishou. the Tuishou practitioner must aim to apply these techniques (seizing. with Taijiquan. angle. is misleading and does not take into account its fundamental role across the Chinese martial arts. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 19 . Ultimately. hence its continuing ties with Tuishou and. no matter if they use the technique of Kao or twist. relaxation and health practice for the old and infirm. The quality of one’s form practice and Tuishou level speaks for itself – it is reflected in one’s ability to freely move forward or backward. Cai. Lie. developed from further transformations of Tuishou routines. jumping. transforming. Whilst acknowledged as a combat technique in its own right. 14th generation Taiji master from the Chen family. rather than use them as disparate forces to enhance one’s attacking prowess. and also in one’s facilitiy with the eight energies or techniques (Peng. Concordant with the adage that ‘external forms are the method and the pathway’. Sanda complies with basic Tuishou principles. Hence. Ji. Whilst all Chinese martial arts possess unique characteristics. look around and maintain an upright axis during Tuishou practice. says in a verse from his book. Sanda can simply be taken as a higher evolution of Tuishou. I follow my partner.The practice for ‘realizing energy’ also tests one’s position. An. utilizing the techniques of Kao in spiralling. they share the common practice of ‘realizing energy’. falling. and shares many common principles with Sanda (free sparring).

this verse confirms Taijiquan as a profoundly practical Martial Art. Taijiquan and Sanshou are practiced synchronously today to enhance health and selfdefence skills. fourth and fifth sentences refer to the application of Taiji Sanshou. the Chinese martial arts have evolved into health and fitness promoting practices. In addition to applying Master Chen Changxing’s advice. Chen Changxing exhorts practitioners to maintain a keen awareness of self and other parties. With the development of modern weapons. one must also ‘realize energy’ through diligent practice and the exchange of ideas with one’s sparring partner. As mentioned. to the realization of energy. The third. only with accumulated practice can one exert energy flexibly and 王 西 安 20 . ward off. and horizontal Cai are also irresistible. push or press. Indeed. The author stressed the importance of ‘follow’. The second sentence of the verse means to follow the other partner’s intention while circling them. adaptable to both Tuishou and Sanshou. leading to a wider understanding of the profound benefits and applications of Taijiquan. press and hold back. along with the Four Essentials and ‘realizing energy’ techniques in Tuishou. Hence. Li. Again. ‘listening and realizing energy’. step by step. that is. that is. Everyone knows how to hook. The attacks from me by twisting. strike. to act naturally and follow one’s intention. we can clearly see that in all movements. It is through the practice of Tuishou and Sanshou that one garners the true meaning of Taijiquan. Tuishou is a combat practice method designed to prevent injury to the body whilst Sanshou is the appliction of Tuishou in actual combat. until I come to the level of Deity”.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 You need to go forward in order to chop. Chen Xin once said. yet who knows the tactful way to turn one’s back and dodge suddenly? From the above verse. to forget about one’s own intentions and follow the opponent’s. “From the familiarity of forms. This ability is encapsulated in the phrase ‘Zhan Nian Lian Sui’.

will be able to instantly sense the delicate changes in the movement. Through reeling-silk practice.” Zhan literally means ‘stickiness’. with which one’s opponent will find difficult to escape. on reaching the final stage of ‘deity’. Whilst it is said that form practice cultivates a capacity to know oneself.3  zhan nian Techniques Zhan & Nian are forces directed forward. while Tuishou exposes the quality of Zhan Nian techniques. Tuishou practice cultivates the capacity to know others. “Form practice is the essence of Zhan Nian training. so that he finds it hard to escape. in this way maintaining the upper hand at all times. extent. and its natural and intuitive use. with Zhan as the dominant force since without a 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 21 . They are external manifestations of internal forces arising from prolonged ‘reeling silk’ practice. It is commonly used in attacking strategies. At this point. This ability comes through great patients and a life-long perseverance of effort through the three stages.effectively. the first being ‘familiarity with form’ and the last being ‘realizing deity’. that is. he or she will be able to prevent their opponent from escaping with zhan energy by following his intention. Zhan Nian techniques develop one’s capacity for high precision. magnitude. Only with the awareness of both oneself and others can others be conquered. Conversely. and come to realize the laws of movement and force. 2. direction and the position of a partner’s energy flow. A practitioner. capturing and transforming his energy and using it to attack at the first opportunity. Nian means to chase and follow one’s opponent. Ultimately. this results in a deeper and more precise understanding of energy. ‘Realizing energy’ is the middle stage of the three major phases in Taiji development. This is why it is said. the adhesive force that allows a practitioner to become strongly attached. to one’s opponent. like glue. Zhan Nian energies work as a pair.

Simultaneously. especially those who. Zhan techniques are fundamental to Tuishou – one needs to stick to the opponent to react appropriately. ‘I don’t move if they don’t move’. ‘I win by striking after the enemy has struck (My fist starts late. one can never accomplish quality ‘chasing’ (Nian). It is Zhan energy that envelops the body. inflexible muscles and joints. contact with the opponent’s palms allows the practitioner to estimate the opponent’s circle of reach and the level of their energy for transformation. 王 西 安 22 . Zhan Nian energies can be detected by sensations that start at the palms. ‘I move before them on feeling their slightest motion’. This is why it is said that at this relatively high level.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 good mastery to ‘stickiness’ (Zhan). an internal energy manifesting externally. the opponent will find it difficult to detect any weaknesses and hence any opportunity for attack. these techniques will lead the opponent into faulty moves. When Zhan Nian techniques are applied. and forget my own’. the practitioner can exert Zhan Nian forces towards the opponent. Zhan Nian energies can only be realized through thorough theoretical understanding and careful. and so on. flow up the arms to the shoulders and back. victory or defeat is decided in an instant. as reflected in their stiff bodies and tense. have failed to attain high proficiency in the art. During Tuishou. Once the whole body is enveloped. but even many long-term practitioners find total understanding or realization elusive. beginners find Zhan Nian energy difficult to comprehend let alone detect. Not an easy task for ordinary practitioners. ‘Fast reactions to fast attacks. yet arrives at the hitting point earlier than the opponent)’. and then through the entire body. slow reactions to slow attacks’. despite prolonged practice. as indicated by these teachings: ‘Follow my partner’s intention. but certainly achievable for diligent practitioners with good teachers. continuous and diligent practice. Ultimately. Understandably.

Used in concert with Zhan Nian energies. the act of connecting and maintaining the continuity of one’s movements with those of the opponent. fast reactions to fast attacks. emerges from the application of Lian. there can be no Lian. slow reactions to slow attacks. including consistency. follow and move in the same direction as one’s opponent. ‘to react while following’. another rises’. and can only exist in the presence of the latter. that is. adhesiveness.4  lian sui energies Lian Sui energies are twin companions of Zhan Nian energies. Lian has a rich amalgam of meanings. Sui. Unless one follow’s the opponent with Lian (co-relation). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 23 . the opponent cannot escape because if one follows closely using Zhan Nian. Only if we can achive quality work on Lian Sui (continue and follow) based on good mastery of Zhan Nian. so that ‘as one falls. how can Sui be achieved? Sui technique means to react. In so doing. one observes and reacts to the opponent’s Zhan Nian techniques. non-pressing. continuity.2. Once palms come in contact. Their inter-dependence requires both Zhan Nian and Lian Sui energies to be used in concert to work effectively. moving effortlessly between quick/slow and forward/ backward movements. non-forcing. Lian Sui means to follow the partner constantly and closely thereby preventing their escape. ‘Bu Diu Bu Ding’ (no loss of energy. can we execute Yin Jin Luo Kong efficiently. Lian is dependent on one’s use of Zhan. and no chance to escape. taking any opportunity to attack. misleading and upseting the opponent’s centre of gravity by attack and thus strike and ultimately conquer the opponent. Without Zhan’s adhesive force over the partner preventing escape. no resistance). It can be summarized as ‘co-relating to the opponent’.

Internal and external energy flows relay the most valuable quality inside those adepts who can coordinate their energies closely. Beginners may attain the preliminary stage of Lian Sui. therefore it is advisable to practice the combined application of both. Lian and Sui can never function without the other. upper and lower coordinate any motion in the middle. It is vital that beginners are able to feel the movement of internal energy inside their bodies. 王 西 安 24 . whether through form practice or Tuishou”.” Here we refer to the ability to keep every part of the body functioning as an integrated whole. As the teaching says. on the other hand. the basic ability to follow the opponent’s movements. applying Lian Sui provides a good opportunity to observe the partner’s weaknesses: “Lian and Sui are the means to mislead the opponent into our territory and to put them into a passive position.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a teaching goes. following their energy flow without interruption. Only with unimpeded energy flow and smooth internal co-ordination can one interact seamlessly with one’s Tuishou partner. successfully use Lian and Sui to attack and prevent escape. so that they can ascertain if their energy levels match the purpose and intention of their actions. without any break in flexibility or continuity. Adepts. “The lower body automatically follows any motions of the upper body.

Hua is the transformative force. one should avoid Diu and Ding (losing energy and resistance). Literally meaning ‘to draw’ or ‘to lead’. hips. the adept draws the opponent into his or her domain. Use these principles whether you are going backward or forward. if my partner presses my right arm with their palms. palms. legs and so on”. When we feel the changes in our opponent’s energy flow. neutralizing any opportunity for attack. and cannot exist without Yin first being applied. Yin is the ability to draw the opponent’s energy into one’s control. reeling my back inward before suddenly striking outward. using Lian Sui to follow their energy flow. so as to mislead my partner’s energy and upset their centre of gravity. For instance. Once neutralized. While moving.2. going up or down. striking the opponent with explosive energy while applying Yin Hua (literally to mislead and transform).5  Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques Yin is the main force used to mislead opponents. As Chen Xin explains. Note that while applying Yin and Hua forces. When applying Yin. and in this way mislead and neutralize your opponent’s energy. using our arms. hence ‘misleading’ and transforming the opponent’s energy. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 25 . we then use our shoulders. Using these complementary techniques. knees. then gradually upwards. hands. turning left or right. A particularly effective combination is Luo Kong. I lower my body then stretch my right foot toward his or her crotch. we should apply She Ji Cong Ren without being detected. I use Yin Jin Luo Kong to constrain my partner’s energy while simultaneously gathering energy carefully to prepare for an explosive release of energy at any angle or position. or feet to upset their centre of gravity. elbows. I apply Shun reeling downwards. “We strike by coordinating forces from different directions (Yin Jin Luo Kong).

That is to say. As Chen Changxing advises. elbows. one must cultivate the forces of Yin. 2. Hua and Xu (gathering). so as to accumulate and release energy effectively. In this way. the further one’s arrow flies. wrists or hands to inhibit their rotation or movement. dodge. i. depending on circumstances. Instead. explode energy as if releasing the arrow”. In Tuishou and San Shou. However. my Taiji harmony within emerges so that even ghosts fail to predict my next move. using all these techniques to mislead my opponent. just as one should attack forcefully without hesitation. 王 西 安 26 While many martial arts schools may practice their own interpretation of the Na technique. touch. rotate an opponent’s joint towards its unnatural direction. I “roll over. “gather energy as if pulling on the bow. It is important to remember that one must gather energy well before misleading one’s opponent. destabilizing their centre of gravity and transforming their energy in order to conquer them. tie up.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Yin Hua can be applied in many ways. hence rendering them helpless. and hence the harder the opponent falls. meaning the direction which hurts the natural structure of joint. the more one stretches the bow. I know my partner without being known.6  na (seizing) Technique The Na technique or ‘Way of Seizing’ consists of seizing opponents by their arms. sweep.e. and their pain penetrates right to the marrow. look one way and go another”. so that the opponent is hurt and caught) or low stances are not always necessary for a good practitioner to conquer opponents. he or she can easily capture his opponent through the combined use of all . they are conquered. When I attack. shock. As Chen Xin suggests. Opponents will feel as if their tendons and bones are about to break. continuous solo practice is required to absorb knowledge thoroughly before techniques can be put to effective use. that of Taijiquan is accepted as the most refined. Any hard fan guanjie (joint twisting.

With the combined application of seizing. Only with the synchronous use of various techniques can a Tuishou practitioner put their opponent at a disadvantage position and conquer them. These recovery measures also depend on a light. so that I can strike them cleanly and successfully. techniques such as Zhan Nian Lian Sui. agility. you must react quickly and flexibly to any changes in your opponent. ‘Only this. flexible and skilful exertion of Zhan Nian Lian Sui as well as other techniques. Shuai (throw). flexibility and skilfulness). In Tuishou. To apply Qing Ling Huo Qiao while seizing one’s opponent means to exert one’s spiral energy on them on contact. thus reaching their goal. If he or she succeeds in escaping. This is called ‘dual-utilization of seizing and gathering’. so that I may capture my opponent without hesitation or detection. There is a saying. This is why it is said that Na is the pre-condition of Da. Zhua (grabbing). Tuishou accentuates Taijiquan’s martial power. To apply Na effectively. in order to strike well.their gathered forces.’ as Sun Zi Bing Fa says. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 27 . agile. Indeed. I utilize Na to prevent my partner from escaping or from transforming their energy. ‘Na (seize) always goes with Da (strike). a Tuishou practitioner can exert the invincible might of Taiji. strengthen your force so that your opponent finds it too difficult to escape or transform their energy. you need to seize first’. ‘is called the “best of the best”’. Na (seizing). Hua (transforming) are all preconditions for striking (Da). transforming and striking. The seizing technique in Tuishou is very important. If you fail to attack lightly and skilfully and your intentions are detected. Make sure Shun reeling and Ni reeling happens continuously when you utilize Na techniques. When utilizing Na. applying the energy smoothly and judiciously without over-exertion. I move using the principles of Qing Ling Huo Qiao (lightness. you still have the opportunity to move in quickly and seize them by their palms before they move away. throwing.

and all parts in a gathering motion. remember to maintain a relaxed state by lowering your whole body. Exert your energy first lightly then with force. stomach and the protruding and concaved parts of the shoulders. Na is the synchronous manifestation of the internal and external. seize him then guide his pressing force into your territory using Lü energy. making sure your hitting points are clearly defined. your centre of gravity destabilized and you will find it difficult to protect yourself. include controlling one’s speed and magnitude of attack. he will be able to press forward. chest. Never let Qi float upward and never let your feet lose their roots. if you want to seize your opponent. in which case. Then strike directly forward in a spiral and hit your target accurately. If Qi ascends. ‘Never be rude and rash when you begin to practice Na. and sensing the amount of force the partner’s joints can withstand. your chest rolls inward naturally. whether you exert Na by the co-ordination of your hand and chest or with your ribs. stomach and legs. Next. you have no option but to relax your joints. shoulders and crotch all gather downward in concert. When relaxed. During practice. If you fail to Peng (ward off ) your opponent adequately. the targets for both being the arms. Common problems. Miscalculations often result in injuries. with no part tense. hence it is advisable to heed the teaching. In peace every part of my body moves at the time of movement’. releasing your force like bullets rushing out of a gun. twist his right arm inward with your left hand. How then can you hope to seize another? Indeed. especially amongst beginners.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 When applying Na. ‘No part of my body is not peaceful. The combination of Na-Cai with gathered chest energy has a force twice more powerful than Na alone. Using this will overcome the opponent without fail. Na technique works together with Cai technique. every part of your body works in harmonious cooperation. application of appropriate angles and techniques. your root will become unsteady. By relaxing. and your ribs. both palms covering his right wrist. just as it is stated.’ 王 西 安 28 . use the Na technique carefully to avoid hurting your sparring partner.

Sanda and form practice. bend and gather. OpeningClosing is a physical expression of Yin-Yang qualities: hardness versus softness. 2. OpeningClosing techniques. Closing (He) means to draw in. Opening (Kai) means to stretch and reach. Laozi and Zhuangzi – have been unable to describe the subtlety 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 29 . opening and closing imbues Taijiquan with a subtle elegance that is as difficult to define as the motion of snowflakes. often meaning to ‘guide and attack’ in the martial arts. Mengzi.Work on your technique step-by-step: develop a closed crotch. opening and closing illustrate the subtlety of Taijiquan. Remember – to attack your target with agility and flexibility requires long accumulated practice. Even masters of Chinese philosophy – Kungfuzi. one cannot ‘open’ without first being ‘closed’ and vice-versa. Listen to the tracks of your opponent’s energy while applying Na and Bi (closing). just as Chen Xin mentioned in his works. ‘How can the circulation of stillness and movement have fixed directions? No matter under conditions of movement or stillness. As Chen Xin says. Indeed. Inhale from the stomach so that it remains solid. every part of the body is engaged in the action of opening and closing. hence this technique epitomizes the dual nature of Taiji – the opposite yet complementary.7  Opening and clOsing In the martial arts. relax the shoulders. Gather the ribs. This is an important concept which bears deeper contemplation. In all Tuishou and Taiji movements. making sure all movements are steered by the waist. Keep every joint relaxed before you exert Na. As complementary opposites. gathering versus exploding. are widely used in Tuishou. transform. solid stomach and slightly concave chest. preserve. The opportunity to transform the partner’s energy lies in the process of movements in various directions’.

As the saying attests. In practice. that is. Without closing well. The art of opening or exploding your energy is akin to setting off firecrackers – the tighter the paper is rolled. muscle energy (Qi). swift and powerful. Kai (opening) energy originates in the root of your body. Yi moulds changes in external shape while Jin (force) rises with Qi. Closing not only means to bend and withdraw your upper body. but also to coordinate the heart (Xin). grasp the floor with the toes and soles. so that your targets become accurately defined and attacks successful. pressing the ground with your heels to empty the Yong Quan points. Thus positioned. every part of your body follows suit. you will find that Qi penetrates your whole body more smoothly and powerfully. this means that one needs to be closed first before one can open. In using Yi’s guiding qualities during form practice and opening-closing in Tuishou. sometimes appear before our eyes. your ‘opening’ explosion will be natural. forceful. so that all parts of the body work together.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 and beauty in the opening-closing movements of Taijiquan. Your heart acts as the guide and leader during energy explosion – when your heart opens. While standing. external shape (Xing) and spirit (Shen). 王 西 安 30 .’ Only diligent practitioners have the opportunity to experience this phenomenon. The Opening-Closing technique starts from the closed state. Likewise. the rebounding force exerted by the ground can be used to energise any upward movement. The quality of the effort you put in to closing determines your ability to open with power and effect. with the qualities of both solidity and emptiness. crude and slow. these changing motions. This means your root will not be disturbed and the flexibility of your reactions may even be enhanced. since Yi (intention) follows wherever Xin (heart) goes. you will find your opening powerless. your intention (Yi). filling you with great vigor. if your energy is gathered and conserved well. and sometimes they disappear. ‘Opening-Closing. from the soles of the feet. the louder the explosion.

lower your waist and let Qi flow along the spine. The solution is to make your energy round. The explosion should be short. spirals up the legs to the waist control-center. is limited by its short duration and small coverage which extends only as far as your body.33 cm. albeit swift and powerful. land on the ground on your in-steps. the energy released unhindered. This energy originates from the soles of the feet. Exploded energy is an elastic force which can only be controlled through intense concentration and physical flexibility only attained through accumulated practice. which then distributes it to the other extremities. and to develop high sensitivity and rapid responses to external stimuli. presenting your partner with opportunities to attack. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 31 . then spiral your internal energy up the legs to the waist. strikes may not find their mark. keep your elbows down. Practitioners also need to build-up a reasonable level of muscular strength. your centre of gravity may be lost. you need to train your muscles in relaxation and gathering. To master this elastic force. Exploding energy at close-range is best as Kai energy.8  energy explOsiOn Energy explosions consist of either long or short energy (Doujin or vibrating power). then to every corner of the body. 2. Exploding Doujin comes from releasing energy gathered during a state of relaxation when energy permeates the whole body. the whole body returns to a state of softness and relaxation. Beyond this range.As you explode energy. flexible and compact enough to mislead and upset your opponent’s centre of gravity. or worse still. To gather energy of this quality. you will need to drop and relax the shoulders. After exploding energy. Doujin is also known as ‘cun jin’ (very short energy) as cun is the Chinese unit of measurement for small lengths equivalent to 3. while being mindful of the adage. roll your chest slightly inward. or you may find your Kai technique lacking in power and precision.

one must explode energy smoothly. dissipate or absorb her external force. Failure to counter your partner’s force means. together with the abovementioned techniques of grasping the ground as energy explodes using the earth’s rebounding power. To combine the power of the three. utilize. Daily cultivation of Yuan Qi (primordial Qi) and vital energy flow throughout the body are essential for decisive wins. and exploding energy with elastic vibrations. Transforming and gathering are complementary and cannot function without each other. internal forces. When doing Tuishou exercises. frictional forces. The external force of both parties affects each’s internal energy flow. Gathering. in effect. To do this. Transforming and gathering are preconditions for energy explosions used in attacks – striking without transforming energy leads to stiff explosions while transforming without gathering results in powerless ones. The force that you and your partner exert on each other in Tuishou is external force. straight forces. which are characterized by firm and ferocious attacks where internal energy is released with an explosive ‘Ha!’ sound. consistent good performances will not be achievable. abundant internal energy and intense physical and energetic concentration. it is necessary to distinguish clearly the respective functions of internal force and external force. However. flexibly and harmoniously. that you are unable to neutralize. Constant diligence. skilfully. spiral forces.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 “use thought and intention. transforming and attacking are closely related. but also that of your internal energy and combat strategy. Without these. not relying on rigid or crude force. all these are prerequisites to “destroy something already in a state of ruin”. you must practice Changjin 王 西 安 32 . The main external force that we humans experience is gravitational force from the earth. and to explore the interactive relationship between them. not strength”. your opponent is vanquished. Your performance in competition depends not only on the quality of your sensitivity. counter forces. though random wins may happen. which manifests as our weight. and with that outburst. there are also a myriad of other forces which influence our bodies – supporting forces. horizontal forces and so on.

Still Tough’ and ‘Four-Yin Six-Yang. For example. below which energy flows downward and above which energy flows upward. To reach this level. as their attacks flow naturally from their heart and intention. there would be no striking the partner from one inch”. during Tiaozhou practice (upward strike with elbow). At the transitional stage between ‘Three-Yin Seven-Yang. the whole body moves as a synchronized force to follow the slightest movement of intention. At this level of Gongfu. especially exhaling-inhaling and opening-closing motions. imagine a line between the navel and Mingmen. This means that if one finds it difficult to attack from a distance. elastic or vibrating variations. quick. leading to very smooth and swift responses. a quality leveraged for precise attacks: upward energy is used to explode energy vigorously. even with the slightest touch. and the small or no circle practice. Only very high-level practitioners may achieve this. An attack. the medium circle practice. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 33 . will find the opponent flung far and wide. Close-range attacks require a high-level of competence. Alternate between these three with slow. As it is said. Continue developing these techniques step-by-step until the level of deity is reached. it is not advisable to exert Changjin (long energy). despite its ferocity. Good Hands’. you will find it easier to hit targets more accurately and swiftly. easy conquest of the opponent does not necessarily follow. By mastering the key points of energy explosion. and even when elastic cunjin (hitting a target at very close range) is executed. beginners need to do the following: do the big circle practice.(long energy) and Duanjin (elastic short energy) by doing stretching and relaxation. instantaneous. Upward energy and downward energy exist in opposition to each other. while downward flowing energy helps maintain a firm and stable root. “Without striking the partner from a distance of three metres. one should not attack at close target.

while you keep your intentions and energy flow undetected. never let your partner know your intention before you act.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2.9  Ti (raising) fOrce Ti means to ‘rise spirally’. and may lead to loss of control. keeping your axis upright and combine your eyes. When applying Ti. you lift your partner with spiralling energy to destabilize their centre of gravity and draw them into your control. Instead. As Qi flows up the spine. combine your rising force with your elastic force. Using Zhan Nian Lian Sui. your opponent’s upper body will shift out of their control. heart. Remember Master Chen Changxing’s advice to “hold [your opponent’s] upper body under your control before you lift his lower body. shadow your opponent with agile steps. This means that no matter what Tuishou techniques you use. at which point you quickly change to exert Lü and Cai downward to throw them to the ground. First. The rising force is difficult to use if forced. At the same time. Even if not thrown completely off balance. while you maintain a state of relaxation. powered by upward spiralling energy. you need to destabilize your opponent’s centre of gravity by inserting one leg between your opponent’s legs and lifting it quickly outward using spiralling energy. To apply Ti successfully requires the whole body to work in coordination. waist and arms. keep agile so that the opponent may not detect your energy flow and will thus be unprepared for escape. rotate your Dantian so that your body lifts with greater speed and accuracy. The arms and legs work together. To conquer your opponent. Remember to maintain full concentration. then your instant and precise attack can never fail”. spiral your forearms upward with guidance from the waist toward your opponent’s upper body. skilfully changing your tack to distract them from your true intentions until you have destabilized their centre of gravity and they are caught off-balance. Pay attention to defending your territory – it is better to relinquish victory than to lose territory 王 西 安 34 . Remember to maintain your centre of gravity with the coordination of the other leg. To lift your opponent up with Ti requires the combined effort of legs. and intention into one entity.

reeling in big or 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 35 . revolving energy which originates internally in the body. The Reeling Silk consists of great varieties: reeling inward. touch or sweep in response to the circumstances and you remain always observant and alert. walk with such assurance as to shock evil spirits. mislead. This energy is created using the Reeling Silk technique and penetrates all movements during form practice. transform and defeat your opponent’s attacking energy. reeling upward. reeling to the left or reeling to the right. Though undiscernible initially. Do not try to strike others before you have attained a reasonable level of competence. you will be able to transform energy while striking. go forward or backward.10  reeling silk  Reeling Silk is a spiralling. until it reaches the fine hairs of the skin. so you feel able to “protect your descendents and kill the rebels”. tie. passes through the legs up the spine and arms.and power. and not even know from whence your power emanates. you will lose awareness of your physical body and location. You roll. whether you rise or descend. reeling outward. as it emerges from the feet. but once attained. you will find it easier to follow. your attacks will never fail. Attaining high-level skills will make you braver. follow the primary principles and develop your skills stepby-step. you will come to sense it with practice. and manifests externally as it permeates through to the fine hairs on the skin. Your incredible speed allows you to gain ground easily while your opponent feels as if they are fighting perched on a ball. When this happens. For beginners. on the verge of losing their centre of gravity. your force will reach its target just with intention. their root and they will certainly fall. Adequate practice will naturally lead to success. 2. Mastering this energy requires much effort and practice. You will attack like a flying dragon.

one must avoid being too soft or too tough. and thus renders you unable to react properly and to be easily manipulated by the opponent. 王 西 安 36 . all these reeling movements are always comprehensively combined together and closely connected. Keep a firm root. Shun reeling (conforming) and Ni reeling (contrary). and apply opening and closing techniques. Excessive softness (Ruanshou or weak hands) makes you too weak to fight. remain balanced. The solution lies in the middle path: keep a balance between softness and toughness. reeling forward and backward. excessive toughness makes you get too rigid. When being utlilized. apply the principle of Dingjin (suspending force): hold the neck upright and relaxed. misleading) always comes with Jin (approaching forward or attacking) and vice versa. As for posture. and so on. remember to keep your Zhongqi (energy to keep your axis upright). Yin (guiding. Be humble and respectful during form practice. maintain the interplay between solidness and emptiness. quiet and calm. While reeling. reeling to the front or reeling aside. The principle of ‘Circulation between Yin and Yang’ clearly dominates the reeling process. When using Reeling Silk energy. collapse the waist and establish a stable centre of gravity in the legs.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 small circles. reeling horizontally or reeling vertically. focusing your energy internally and guiding the flow of your responses from Yin to Yang.

CHAPTER THREE: single FoRm pRaCTiCe 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 37 .

Because Yilu lacks speed and Gang (tough) energy. Lü. who is then inevitably conquered. keeping your energy tracks undetected by the opponent. and exerting energy too forcefully (Ding) while exploding energy. full relaxation of the joints. Ti. This means that Yilu fosters Zhongqi so that. Cai. Zhou. Kao. Ji. Zhan (battle). as well as techniques focussing on various target areas of the body. where ‘Qi spreads to the whole body. the purpose of form practice is to ‘get energy to reach the tips of the four limbs’. Qi will flow around the body to the extremities and skin.1      Yilu cultivates Qi.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. movements gradually become agile and flexible. Single Form practice is essential for developing techniques which form the basis of Taiji Tuishou: Peng. Faji (attack) effectively under any conditions. relaxed and soft. A wide variety of single movements must be practiced repeatedly. Yilu (First Form) cultivates energy while Erlu (Second Form) releases it. so the Single Form Practice and Erlu help to compensate for this disadvantage. 3. Take special care to avoid losing energy (Diu) while practicing relaxation (Song). goes through the Sanguan (Three Gates). 王 西 安 38 . As we know. interlinks the Santian (the three Dantian) and reaches the Yong Quan point. Lie.1  inTrOducTiOn  This is a practical lesson in combat practice. Keep learning and eventually you will be able to use intention (Yinian) alone to execute techniques appropriate to each circumstance rather than conscious thought.’ In this way. This practice requires a solid foundation in preparatory exercises. To win. Hua (transform) and Na. Tui (go backward). for example. Erlu and Single Form practice help to accumulate and strengthen Gang. if practice is diligent. medium and high-level stages. An. Da.1. you need to execute Jin (go forward). Erlu explodes In this technique. Shan (dodge). Shuai (fall). It also demands a period of diligent practice to ascend gradually through the primary. Single Form practice is vital for hand-to-hand Gongfu combat.

These clearly advise diligent practice of the shoulders. we have Master Feng Zhiqiang who is venerated for his steady. Lastly. you don’t. you harvest. 拴Shuan (tie). elbows. legs and hips using relevant principles. hands.Gongfu masters. resulting in loss of vigor and effectiveness. as well as for his subtle and delicate jinlu (energy tracks) in Qinna (arresting). 搭Da (touch) and 扫Sao (sweep). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 39 . The world of Taiji is replete with pithy sayings that provide useful guidance to the attentive practitioner. Chen Zhaopi was the undisputed master of 滚Gun (rolling). ‘Skills come naturally when you are familiar with forms’. To do otherwise would be to ‘attend to trifles and neglect the essentials’. these masters have attained their expertise through a shared and unwavering focus in Single Form practice. sober movements and his relaxed yet vigorous energy explosions. Hence. the seizing techniques of Eagle Claw King. after you practice the form ten thousand times’. you fail’ and so on. such as: ‘Profound principles emerge by themselves. each have their own unique combat style drawn from continuous tempering in their practice. Master Chen Zhaokui was celebrated for his sudden dodges and incredibly small rebounding circles. Well known examples include the foot techniques of Li Bantian. If prolonged. they always got hit and thrown to the ground. Also legendary is Master Chen Fadou’s ability to vanquish competition partners with just a touch. No matter how steady his partners stood in the beginning of a fight. so that the path to deeper understanding and realization may be paved. more like a relaxing stretch to enjoy the subtle. He was known to say that he found throwing partners too easy. neglectful practice becomes increasingly difficult to rectify. Single Form practice is of vital importance. inner meanings of the mysterious art rather than a competition. Though widely differing in style. the throwing technique of Zhang Zhidie and Master Dong Hai’s Baguazhang technique of ‘[striking] the world by a half-step Beng (burst apart)’. be they exponents in internal Gongfu or external Gongfu. back. ‘You practice. Significant gains may be attained by practicing the single forms step-by-step.

face to the front.1      Exercise One • • Squat slightly.2  feeT pracTice Feet practice includes the following movements.1 . chest rolled slightly inward. upwards and sideways. pedalling forward. trampling. bend and raise your knee slightly. horizontally.2. stomach gathered and head suspended from above. 王 西 安 40 Fig. With one hip relaxed and the opposite foot slightly touching the ground. alternating between both legs: kicking forward. swinging up and down and so on. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.

up and down. collecting the energy at the abdomen. make sure your in-step is stretched moderately tightly. stepping.3. horizontal.2      Exercise Two This is actually a series of exercises focusing on various kicking movements: forward. • Roll the chest inward and aggregate energy with the whole body. • Kicking smoothly.2. upward and downward swing. • Relax the feet so energy can reach the toes where it is required. 3. feet hanging backward and so on. Descriptions of some of these exercises are provided below. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. bend the other leg with toes grasping the ground to maintain a firm centre of gravity.2 41 . a) Forward Kick The Forward Kick consists of kicking directly forward at mid-level and to the left and right. sideways. pedaling.

Beginners should practice slowly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. edges of the foot plate and the sole (Fig. . use the rebounding force of the earth to bounce up and propel your kick (Fig. for example.5). 3.3 • This technique is applicable to the toes.3). except that the Horizontal Kick is higher and targets the opponent’s pubic region and lower abdomen.4. if you kick with the right leg. your left foot prepares to kick with the toes or instep as the right foot lands. At this point. b) Horizontal Kick 王 西 安 42 The key points of the Horizontal Kick are basically the same as those of the Forward Kick. 3. It should be practiced with both feet so that. 3. On landing with either foot. 3. they will be able to direct energy explosions to targets with precision and ferocity. gradually developing until they reach the point of whole body integrity with the unification of Yi-Qi-Xing (intention-energy-form).

5 c) Upward Kick (Shang Ti Jiao) 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.4 Fig. 3. 3. 3.6 43 .Fig.

The kick should be light. practice kicking with each foot sequentially. The whole body must be kept balanced and straight when kicking upwards. Only if one’s kick is quick and powerful can kicking be initiated precisely and the target hit cleanly.7  The Upward Kick is used for high targets. 王 西 安 44 d) Stepping Down (Xia Cai Jiao) Follow the sequences as follows: • Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. 3. usually the opponent’s chin. a principle also applicable to the Double Kick (Er Qi Jiao). • Switch your centre of gravity to the left foot. flexible and quick.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. There is no jumping in the Upward Kick. instead. . The Upward Kick should match the rhythm of the hands’ movements.

8 • • • Then stamp your right foot on the ground. gathering the stomach and collapsing the waist to ensure you stand with the left foot firmly rooted. 3. cup your right fist and left wrist together in front of the chest. 王 西 安 45 . grasp the ground with the left toes and. 3.• Bend the left knee. but try to keep some weight in the un-weighted side as well. feet firmly grasping the ground. Make sure that your centre of gravity does not switch to your right foot right after it touches the ground. Then empty the Yong Quan point. all the while rolling the chest slightly inward. raise the right knee gradually (Fig. As your right foot explodes energy stamping downward. standing with left leg. keeping the right foot at the same distance from the left foot as before. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.8). exploding energy as quickly and fiercely as you can.

 3. 王 西 安 46 . 3. and then withdraws elastically like a rubber band springing back into shape.9 Regardless of which leg steps forward first.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. remember to follow instantly and quickly with the other leg. In Single Form exercise. e) Forward Kick This consists of a straight kick forward with the sole of the foot. practice with the left leg) (Fig. The key points here are the same as those for the previous segments. you can practice with the alternation of legs (after praciticing with the right leg for a while. including the alternating use of the legs (Fig.9). Kick as high as your opponent’s stomach and chest.10). The distance of the kick depends on your skill level – a good kick hits the opponent at an angle of 25o from the horizontal. 3.

sometimes with the soles. 3. 3.11).10 Fig. prepare well by relaxing the chest and stomach to ensure your kick is fast. Avoid leaning backward when kicking – keep your axis upright to maintain your centre of gravity. 王 西 安 47 . 3. Before kicking.11 Kick mainly with the heels. f) Sideways Kick The Sideways Kick consists of the Inward Kick (Fig. with hitting points mainly on the inside of the foot (with the occasional use of the outside).12) and the Outward Kick (Fig. your reach will grow naturally and you will find it easier to execute kicks with greater ease (Fig. fierce and perfectly targeted. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The Inward Kick is executed upwardly to the front. 3. 3.13). As you reach a higher level of skill.Fig.

This emphasises the importance of good quality energy gathering as a precondition for fast and powerful kicking. as instructed in the ‘Essay on Quan’: “Gather energy like stretching a bow. the whole body gathers together then opens up with an explosion of energy. while the body becomes straightened when kick is streched). explode energy like releasing the arrow”. 3. as bending exists in straightness (meaning the body becomes bent when gathering (preparing for kicking). this reflects the relationship between Yin and Yang’. with the hitting points mainly on the outside of the foot (occasionally inside). Bend the kicking leg about 25o and lean slightly backwards as you kick to maintain a stable root and ensure ‘straightness exists in bending. 3.12 Fig.13 • The Outward Kick is executed outward and upwardly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. In the Sideways Kick. 王 西 安 48 • .

14 49 . 3. Eye your target and prepare for the kick by gathering your internal energy and lowering it. Before kicking. then bring it backward (Fig.15). Your swinging foot is targeted at the back of the opponent’s head. Kick upward with the back foot. toes grasping the ground and all muscles of the body relaxed. which allows you to use quick and continous forward steps.14). be it with the right or left foot. While swinging outward to the level of the shoulder. then swing it outward in a natural arc. use the Gen Bu (follow-on Steps). smack the foot with your hand to ensure the integrity of the energy. Always coordinate the kick with your hands. while your hands are targeted at the face. turn the body to the left to ensure a smooth and powerful forward swing of the foot and vice versa (Fig. Squat slightly. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. If kicking with the right foot.g) Upwards Swinging Kick • • • • • • Place one foot in front of the other. 3. 3.

王 西 安 50 Practice these kicks repeatedly so that they become smooth and continous and you may eventually hit distant targets using a combination of kicks with agility. And kick upward along with palms coordinated with Lü. I smack in the air by switching into the track of a swing arc.15 With openings and closings. I take the back of the opponent’s head as target.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a Tuishou poem states: Fig. . And smash enemies to pieces. 3.

remember to balance upward Long (close) movements with downward Ti (raise). otherwise the power will become Ding force (a deadly disadvantage: energy going up) and you will be defeated. No matter which you use. • The action must be quick and powerful. palms facing outward. meanwhile two hands attack the chest of the opponent and strike the opponent down to the earth. • Hold the body in a squatting position for the next few movements. Gua (hanging) and Gai (covering) in a second. During solo practice. • Use both hands to execute Lü on one arm of opponent behind the body. depending on the distance between you. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 51 .h) Back Hanging Foot (Hou Guan Jiao) This kick is widely applied in Huo Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with Moving Footwork). • The foot hangs to the calf suddenly to make the opponent lose his balance. The powers of hand and foot combine together. coordinating both with Tou Bu (sneaking steps). • Hang one foot backward. You should finish Lü. rotating it slightly so that it slants to one side. • Lower the back hanging foot to the ground then switch the front foot to Tou Bu (sneaking step) and move it forward. • Meanwhile the hand assists the foot hanging and covers towards the chest of the opponent. • Pay attention to that you finish this action with the guiding of the waist and back. • Swing both hands backward to the side of the back hanging Foot. Backward Hanging Foot can be used as an initial step or as a follow-on (Gen Bu) to initial approaches toward the opponent. keep your footwork flexible and neat.

And kick upward along with palms smashing downward. Then lower your foot to the ground.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.16).16 • • • • Start by executing Yin (guiding) then move forward to attack with Jin (forwarding and attacking) force. Hold your position and collect yourself enough to kick upward then swing downward. I explode my energy with the rotation of my waist. 3. twisting the waist and rotating the back to exert more power (Fig. 王 西 安 52 The secret of Back Hanging Foot is to plot the method to seize the opponent down and to fiercly bring him under your control without detection. Move forward with Tou Bu (Sneaking Steps). As a Tuishou poem states: With Yin and then Jin techniques. And enemies fall to the ground with face to the air. 3. . your face looking upward. I take the opponent’s upper body and chest as target.

17). 20:80). since these are in a constant state of flux depending on the circumstances.. The attacking leg must be flexible enough to swing to the left or right.19). 3. Use Front Bow Steps to practice this movement (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 53 . Note that while weight distribution ratios may be used as a guide (e. the other should not leave the ground until the centre of gravity is transferred to the heel of the front foot to lighten its weight.17 i) Downward Swinging Kick • • • • Take one step forward and switch your centre of gravity to the front leg (Fig 3. mindful that while one is in the air.Fig. 40:60. Practice this transfer of weight by alternating the legs.g. 3.18. 3. 30:70. these may not provide an accurate picture of weight changes required in practice or combat.

. 3. Avoid using long energy as it is likely to dissipate the concentration and power of your attack. so that the strikes are as rapid and powerful as possible. waist and hands. Moving my feet in Ni (reverse) circles and my body in Shun (conforming) circles. As one master said: 王 西 安 54 I move my centre of gravity. 3.19 Using Short Energy: Short energy should be used in both inward and outward kicks. ‘seize the upper body’ or ‘coordinate an outward strike with internal energy gathering’.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.18 Fig. I explode and shock the ghosts. making your intention easily anticipated. Short energy attacks are often used to ‘give a shock to the lower limbs’. shock their lower limbs and unbalance their upper body with my feet.

Keep your legs reeling from left to right. repeating the movements while keeping reeling from the left to right. As the toes touch the ground. • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Note: When stepping forward.1      Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles • • • Stand with the feet a shoulder-width apart. a shoulder width apart from the left foot. Move the left foot half a step to the left. Change your weight to the left. 王 西 安 55 . When the right foot lands fully on the ground. change the weight to the right and step out with the left foot. look in the direction of the moving leg. 3. just as in form practice. that is. Begin with slow practice. Practice continuously alternating both legs.3. making sure your leg is no higher than 15 cm above the ground. Use intention (Yi) rather than physical force (Li).3  leg pracTice Leg practice includes Shunchan Tui (Legs Reeling in Shun Circles).3. then squat and step out with your right foot. ‘Yong Yi Bu Yong Li’. Relax your legs and inject energy into the heels with Chun Chan for smooth and easy reeling. toward the target. Nichan Tui (Legs Reeling in Ni Circles). Xiacai Tui (Downward Cai energy). Zhuangxi Tui (Strike with the Knee) and Houbai Tui (Backward Swinging Kick). Lower the tip of the toes of your unweighted right foot to the ground. step your right foot 40 cm forward to the right. Lihe Tui (Inward Knee Strike). working up your speed in gradual stages. Waibai Tui (Legs Swinging Outward).

Inner knowledge can only develop with concerted. and then rotate 360o left stepping on the toes (Fig.3. Practice these steps in continuous alternating cycles. Note: It is best to practice Shunchan and Nichan by varying the distance between you and your partner. step forward 40 cm with the right foot. Step the right foot forward. then step forward 40 cm to the left. 3.20 56 . transferring all your weight to the right. rotate to the left forward at an angle of 360o. You also need to practice Nichan and Shunchan with both legs. remembering that the inner side of the heel is the striking point.20). continuous practice. Raise the left foot. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. striking to both sides with each leg.2      Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles • • • • • Step the left foot leftward so that the feet are a shoulder-width apart.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. transferring all your weight to the left. Next.

21).3. change your weight to the front foot. whilst in Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking back and forth) Lihe is usually applied with the left leg.3      Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike Lihe Tui is an inward strike using the inner side of the knee and is widely used in Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps) and Ban Gong Bu (Half Bow Steps). • While practicing. attack with Lihe and then move 90% of your weight to the back leg (Fig.22).22 57 . • Combine Lihe Tui with the rotation of the waist and spine. 3. 3.3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Stand at attention. then transfer your weight to the left before moving the right foot forward (Fig. In Huobu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking).21 Fig. As such. 3. practice with both legs and with change of directions. we usually attack with Lihe Tui using the right leg.

王 西 安 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.23 Fig. step forward with one leg and swing the other outward and then closing inward. Practice this technique with both legs alternately once you feel your energy flowing smoothly (Fig. Waibai Tui is usually applied during Da Lü (Lü in large scale movement) and the best way is to seek out opportunities for attack is while moving.3. practitioners will come to realize the deep significance of their efforts. Being content with a superficial understanding is fruitless.24). 3. 3. Through diligent solo Tuishou practice.23). Take care not to exert too much energy in the arms and legs to initiate the swing or your intention will be anticipated by your partner. During practicing Waibai Tui. 3. 3.4      Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward Waibai Tui is based on Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps). and requires a sudden outward swing of the leg as weight is transferred. regardless of whether you practice day and night (Fig.24 58 .

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. placing your toes slightly inward. Cai to the right. • Targets of this technique are typically the upper and middle parts of the inner side of the lower leg of the opponent. Shun Cai (Pulling Down in Conforming Circles) and Ni Cai (Pulling down in Reverse Circles). Shun Cai and Ni Cai are based on Front Bow Steps. Xiacai Tui consists of Cai to the left.5      Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy Cai means to pull down.3. placing your toes slightly outward. The outer side can also be targeted once your ability improves.26 59 . 3. • To do Shun Cai: Cai downwards from the outside in using Shun Chan (conforming circles). • To do Ni Cai: move the back leg forward.25 Fig.3. then Cai (pull down) with Ni (reverse circles) at an angle of 180o from the inside out. 3. • Start with your centre of gravity at the back leg.

Bend your knees about 40o – more than this and you will lose your centre of gravity. 3.6      Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee Zhuangxi Tui consists of four types of strikes: striking left and right. striking inward and striking outward.26). keep ankles relaxed and Qi descending (Fig. With a spiralling move forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While applying Cai (pulling down).3. Practice with alternating legs during Single Form practice. Deepen your understanding of Jin Li (energy and force distribution). striking to the front. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. you can enter the opponent’s territory (Fig. 3.27 Fig. Train your body to understand the meaning of ‘stretching consists in bending. 3.28 60 . bending consists of stretching’. 3.25).

• • •

All the above incorporate shifting of weight forward and back. Move the left foot forward then strike out the right knee, aiming it at the partner’s crotch (Fig. 3.27). While striking forward, roll the chest slightly inward and gather energy in the abdomen. Also, keep the hip and ankle relaxed, focusing your energy exertion on the target. Change your weight to the front, raise the knee, then strike it with an open palm (Fig. 3.28).

Li He Bu (Tuishou with Static Footwork) requires you to bend your knee, strike to the left, hit the inner side of partner’s right leg or the outer side of his left leg. (Fig. 3.29). Striking up and outward is called Waizhuang (Striking Outward). Key points are the same as in the previous striking practice (Fig. 3.30).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30

61

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.3.7      Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
This is a wide-spanning movement and beginners are advised to imagine an opponent or target as they perform the technique during solo practice. • Lift the right foot to step forward and as you lean forward, swing the right leg backward using both the waist and spine. • As the right leg swings backward, fend off the opponent’s arm and attack with both hands. This technique of ‘attacking the upper parts and shocking the lower parts’ is often used to throw opponents to the ground (Fig. 3.31). Key points to remember are the same as in preceding techniques, all of which require whole body involvement.

王 西 安
62

Fig. 3.31

3.4  fisT pracTice 3.4.1      Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
This technique consists of striking either fist spirally upward. • Step forward with the left leg, bending your knees slightly to transfer your centre of gravity to the left leg, then strike with the right fist using the ‘Ligou Quan’ (Fist Hooking Inward) technique, taking care not to overshoot your blow above the opponent’s head. • Simultaneously, use your bent right knee to hit at the opponent’s crotch (Fig. 3.32). • Integrate both fist and knee strikes with practice principles of rolling the chest slightly inward (Hanxiong), lowering the waist (Tayao), relaxing the stomach (Songfu), and drawing up the anus (Tigang). • Strengthen your centre of gravity to improve your accuracy by ensuring your left leg is slightly bent with toes grasping the ground (Fig. 3.33).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33

63

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.4.2      Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
This technique encompasses a downward strike with either fist at any angle. For example: • If the right leg goes forward, transfer your centre of gravity from the right to the left leg. • Clench the right hand into a fist, thumb tucked inside neither too tightly nor too loosely. • Strike the opponent’s upper body with the right fist, using your left arm to balance your movement. • You can also use the Bei Kao technique or attack with the elbows as well. • Again, effectiveness of this technique requires involvement of the whole body in the movement: ‘once you move, your whole body follows’ (Fig. 3.34).

王 西 安
64

Fig. 3.34

3.4.3      Shuang Fen Quan   Splitting Fists or Double Bursting Fists
• • • •

• •

Take a half-step to the left (or right). Bend your knees slightly and gather both fists to the chest, centres (Quanxin) facing downward (Fig. 3.35). Prepare to strike by gathering in the crotch and knees, and rolling the chest and shoulders slightly inward. To strike, transfer your weight to the right (or the opposite leg) and simultaneously split both fists explosively from the chest to either side of the torso, fists facing upward. As you strike, open the crotch, knees, chest and shoulders. Remember to keep the external and internal energy consistent, and the energy flow smooth (Fig. 3.36).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 3.35

Fig. 3.36

王 西 安
65

• • • • • • Take a half step to the right with the right foot. at the same time hooking the left fist upward. there are three main distinctions: the trajectory of the fists and target differ with Fists Smashing Downward and one or both fists may be used. However. change your weight to the right leg and step your left foot forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. 王 西 安 66 Fig. Rotate the body to the right then strike downward with the back of the right fist.4. fist centre facing inward. 3.4      Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward Fists Smashing Downward shares many common traits with Splitting Fists: both strike with the back of the fists and require practitioners to look to the side of the stepping foot. Rotate the right toes slightly outward as the foot lands. Hold the right fist close to the left side of the chest. Rest the left fist beside the left leg (Fig.37). Next.37 .

Then repeat with the other foot. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. downwards on the right and upward on the left. and lower the left fist from its upward strike position back to the left side of the body). 3. After striking. Return both fists to their original positions (raise the right fist from its downward strike position back to the left side of the chest. stepping the right foot forward and exploding the fists before landing.39) 王 西 安 67 . 3.Fig. both left and right fists rise and descend at the same time. Practice these steps. 3. as the left foot steps forward (weight on the right).38 Fig.39 • • • • • Again. involve your whole body in the attack. the fists are raised from the sides across the chest as one foot steps horizontally in front of the other. (Fig.38). step the left foot horizontally over the right one. alternating both sides continuously (Fig. when the right foot steps forward (weight on the left). the left fist rises above the right side of the chest and smashes down to the left. the right fist is raised above the left side of the chest for more power and then smashes down to the right. Likewise. 3. For each step. For example.

fingers vertical. avoid the temptation of focusing too much on the external ‘look’ of the punch – this will lead to nothing but the loss of energy (Fig. 3.4. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. • Sychronise both arms so that while the right fist flings forward.41 68 . • Step the left foot forward.40).41). 3. concentrating your power in the Quanding (the front of the fist). • Then fling the right fist forward in Ni reeling.5      Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist Single Fling Fist is a forward punch unique to Taijiquan in that its power is generated by rotating spiral energy at the waist and back. • Sink your weight into the right foot and rotate the waist to the right to gather energy.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Make efforts to cultivate both internal and external energies (Neiwai Jianxiu) and you will develop power. the left arm gathers inward and strikes backward to the left with the elbow. then guided outward with Yinian (intention) to manifest in a ‘quivering punch’. This counter-balancing movement helps to accelerate the punch of the right fist. stretching the left hand upward. • Gather the right fist under the right rib (Fig. Practice this technique on both sides.40 Fig.

simultaneously gathering the right fist beside the right ribs.42).4. 3. Baokong Fist shares the same characteristics as Zhichong Quan (Fling Fist). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. so that the strike manifests within a narrow range yet internally it contains great power and flexibility. The power of this technique depends very much on the practitioner’s physical condition.43 69 . bringing the left palm to the front of the body (Fig. the main difference being that in the former.6      Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist Baokong refers to the half-moon shape that is formed by the arms as you strike the centre of one palm with the other fist.42 Fig. Repeat with the other side. and practice alternating both sides. Instead.3. • • • • Step the right foot forward. Then step the left foot forward. only about 40% of the jin force generated is exerted as short rather than long energy. Transfer your centre of gravity from the back to the front and hit the right fist into the centre of the left palm (Fig. energy does not manifest externally.43). 3. 3.

 3. This forms the ‘peak’ of the fist. like hammering a nail.44). • Clench your fist so the middle joint of the middle finger protrudes.7      Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist Dianxue refers to the internal injury caused by hitting a specific acupuncture point with a sharp force. using small agile steps (Fig. • Brace the middle finger with the index and ring fingers. up or down.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.44 .4. This makes the fist ‘peak’ stable and solid. • Attack to the left or right. and press the tip of the thumb against the middle fingernail. 3. • Strike with force and ferocity with this fist using short energy. 王 西 安 70 Fig.

Roll the chest and shoulders slightly inward.8      Dingzi Quan Guanyang   Nail-shaped Fists targeting acupoints on the temple Dingzi Quan is also another term meaning ‘Nail-shaped Fist’. Form two nail-shaped fists and strike from both sides using short energy. 3.45). Method 1 • • Method 2 • • • Step forward with either leg. Bring the fists together in the middle about 25 cm apart. 3. Guanyang means to hit the temples with two nails. Bend the other leg then strike both fists upward together.46). gather the ribs and lower your energy to the Dantian (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Place your weight on one leg.45 Fig. hence creating a dual attack with both fists and knee (Fig. 3.4.46 71 . 3.3. Practice both methods using both legs.

5  palM pracTice 3. 3. while making sure the chest is relaxed.47). the ribs gathered. 3.1      Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms This technique includes shaking palms with both short and long energy. transferring your weight to the front.5. palms facing forward.48 72 . and lower the energy to the abdomen (Fig. 3. practice using long energy first. though in the initial stages. thrusting them forward with explosive force.47 Fig. • Step forward with the other leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • Step forward with either leg. • Strike forward with both palms.48). 王 西 安 Fig. fingers pointing up (Fig. the chest rolled slightly inward and the spine slightly lifted. 3. • Place your hands in front of the chest. • Prepare for the strike by ensuring your axis is upright.

 3.51.2      Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique This technique consists of the Single Palm Explosion with Shun Bu (walking forward and back). elbows and wrists are lowered. 王 西 安 73 . energy range and flexibility of movement of both Single and Double Palm Push all rely on the practitioner’s abilities and internal energy. As the energy reaches the wrists. Just before the explosive strike. lower your energy abruptly and push forward with short energy using small steps. 3. The power.49). using long or short energy (Fig. thrust your arms out about 50% (Fig.Fig. Make sure your shoulder.50. a Double Palm Push needs to be sudden and exerted directly forward. gather the chest and stomach like a cat stalking a rat.5.52). • Repeat using the left palm. while the Single Palm Push requires the rotation of waist and back to exert a frontal or inclining push. To be effective. • At the same time step forward with the left leg. 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. speed.49 When practicing with short energy. • Thrust the right palm forward or diagonally to the side.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Start this practice slowly. and hence conquer your opponents without effort. Fig.50 王 西 安 74 Fig.51 Fig. 3. you will be able to explode energy with natural ease by combining both external form and internal spirit.52 . 3. With continuous practice. 3. gradually increasing the speed. abruptness and power of the push.

• • Step one foot forward and ward off an arm attack with one hand. whilst using the other palm to push at the opponent’s chest or strike at their stomach.5. 3.54 王 西 安 75 .53 Fig.3.3      Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off This technique is used to fend off an arm strike from the opponent with an upward hand strike. 3. Direct energy above the waist upward and energy below the waist downward.53). 3. while gathering the other hand beside the ribs (Fig. 3. enabling you to hit your target with more precision and power (Fig. This creates an energy balance that stabilizes your centre of gravity. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.54).

press downward with the left hand as a counterbalance between the upper and lower body (taking the waist as the dividing line). 王 西 安 Fig.55).4      Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push This technique uses the inner side of the root of the palm (Zhanggen) to push upward. • As you push upward. 3. Explode this energy through the right side of body out through the right palm.5. open the right side of the chest and stomach. while gathering energy on the left side.55 76 . and then straighten it while pushing the right palm upward. • At the same time. • Keep the hips relaxed. first at an angle then vertically upward. the stomach gathered and the chest rolled inward (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • To push with the right palm: bend the right knee. 3.

Shun means ‘sequence’) (Fig. 3.5      Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang   Attack with Both Palms This is also called the ‘Attack with One Palm Guiding and Other Hand Pushing. 3.57). 3.56 Fig.5. • At the same time. rotate your body to the right. • Step the right foot forward and extend the right hand outward to ward off the opponent’s attack (Fig.57 77 . 3.3. Keep your body and energy lowered while doing this.’ Apply this technique during Single Palm practice. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. then quickly striking their chest with your right palm (Fig.56).58). • Then swiftly draw the opponent into your domain by touching their back with your left hand. stepping forward with the left foot and extending the left hand forward in Ni Shun reeling (Ni means ‘first’. 3.

Coordinate the movements of your body with those of the palms. left and right.58 • • Also apply the usual principles: roll the chest inward. and gather the ribs and dantian. 3. For example. moving the body quickly forward. incline your body outward with Ni reeling whilst following the opponent’s Shun reeling. 王 西 安 78 . • As you lower the body.5.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. apply the following steps: • Step your right foot forward and lower your body and centre of gravity to the right. lower the shoulders. This helps to concentrate energy in the palms. 3.6      Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang  Push Partner’s Waist with Shun or Ni Reeling This technique enables you to push the opponent to either side using both Shun and Ni reeling. if the opponent seizes your right hand and twists it outwards with Shun reeling.

60 • • • As you do this. extending the thumb and fingers (Fig. 3. Unify the three actions of stepping forward. • Key points are the same as with the left hand push above. 3. 王 西 安 79 . thrust forcefully at the opponent’s ribs.60). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 If the opponent seizes your left hand and twists it with Ni reeling. • Again. 3.59). Next. 3. inclining outward and exploding with the left palm (Fig.59 Fig. respond in this way: • Step forward with the left foot. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s right ribs by exploding energy with your left hand. lower your body then extend it forward with Shun reeling.Fig. this time at the left side with your right hand. lure the opponent into your territory to destabilize his centre of gravity (Yinjin Luokong) by swiftly moving your right foot further forward and lowering the body while your right hand reaches forward.

goes through legs.” 3.61).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. so that energy flows to the very tips of the body. change your centre of gravity from the left to the right. as advised in an essay.5. coordinate the waist and legs when exploding energy.7      Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa  Shun or Ni Reeling with Single Palm 王 西 安 80 This technique consists of using either hand to seize the opponent using Shun or Ni short spiralling energy. dominates the waist and penetrates to every part of body. Also. especially when stepping forward and exploding energy (Fig.61 Increase the effective of solo practice by sparring with an imaginary enemy in mind. • Step the right foot forward and seize (Na) the opponent’s hand with your left hand while reeling downward in Shun circles. regardless of the technique or force used. Relax your joints to enhance energy application. “Energy comes from heels. . 3. • As you seize. roll your chest slightly inward and bend your right arm inward. 3.

3. 3.62 Fig. practice alternating the seizing between right and left hands.63 • • • With your right arm.63). 王 西 安 81 [1] ‘Dai’ means to lead. you are able to use both palms to seize the opponent (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.62). reach out with your left palm and guide your opponent to the left by reeling in Shun circles with thumb extended.Fig. If the opponent escapes.8      Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa  Double Dai[1] Palms Single Form Practice Step your right foot forward and transfer your centre of gravity to the front. reach under your opponent’s front arm. guide or bring along . • At the same time. To speed up your response. Thus. 3. listening closely to your partner as you do so.5. 3. Change your right hand to Shun reeling and your left to Ni reeling. palm open. change sides so that your right hand seizes the opponent by Ni reeling and the left by Shun reeling (Fig.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Clench the left hand into a loose fist and push it forward. gather the right hand beside the ribs. 3. 3. Bend your right arm 90o inward and form a fist with your right hand. Change your weight to the back and turn to the right.66). 3.64).65). Transfer your centre of gravity to the front.9      Qianchuan Zhang   Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice • • Step the left foot forward.64 Fig. fingers pointing to the front (Fig. As your step forward. 3. moving your arms to stabilize this rotation. 王 西 安 82 3.5. palm up. fingers to the front (Fig. face the left palm outward. . 3.65 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. Then hit the opponent with the right arm (Fig. Practice on both sides. fingers up.

To increase the precision and power of the fingers.66 Fig. 3. reel the right hand in Shun reeling to the right and step the right foot forward. As the right foot lands on the ground.67 • • • • • • Lift the left palm over the right. coordinate the waist and spine when shaking the right palm forward in Shun reeling. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Practice alternating the position of both palms. to increase the speed and power of the explosion. 王 西 安 83 . Also. and then explode both palms forward with a piercing thrust. Return the hands to their original positions before the next energy explosion. Next. move the left hand and foot quickly forward together. left under right and right under left (Fig. 3.Fig. place the left thumb and little finger in opposition while the remaining fingers face forward.67).

 3. palms facing in (Fig. 3. Practice striking with both elbows with corresponding weight changes to either side.69 84 .69). As you change your weight to the front.68 Fig. In this case. 3. strike forward with the right elbow while hitting backward with the left elbow. bend both arms at 900 and gather both hands into fists close to the ribs to either side of the body. At the same time.69). 王 西 安 Fig. 3.6  elbOw pracTice 3.1      Li Zhou … Standing Elbows • • • • • Step forward with the left foot. Remember to apply long energy before you apply short energy (Fig. the left arm counter-balances the movement of the right.6.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.

70 Fig. As the right elbow descends.71). Lift the left hand when the right elbow completes 90o of its descent. At the same. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. take a small step forward with the left foot. 3.6.71  85 . Prepare for the downward elbow strike by raising the right arm while touching the back of the right fist with the left hand (Fig.70). return the elbow to the right side. palm up. wrist turned inward and the palm facing backward. Then strike the right elbow down for the second time (Fig. slap the right shoulder with the left palm. and clench the right hand into a fist. 3. gather it close to the right ribs. 3.3. step the right foot forward again and extend the left arm forward. Step the right foot forward and strike the right elbow down forcefully as the foot lands. Alternatively. bend the right elbow inward. After the strike. At the same time.2      Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows • • • • • • • • • Change your weight to the left and turn the body to the right.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. then turn right with the right toes facing slightly out. Fig.74 86 . Rotate slightly to the left.73 Fig. 3. 3. 3.3      Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist • • Step the right foot forward.72 王 西 安 Fig.6.

王 西 安 87 . Gather the body by bending it slightly. then step forward with the right foot. Turn to the left and strike out explosively with the right elbow. clench the right hand into a fist. gather the ribs and lower your Qi. palm facing in. Step the right foot to the left and bend the right arm. as if warding off (Fig. 3.4      Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block • • • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Roll the chest slightly inward so that it is concave. clasping the right forearm with the left palm. • • • Practice with the other arm.72). As you do this. Step the left foot forward. 3.6.• At the same time. Lower right fist to the left side of the body so that the right arm is held at 900 while stepping the left foot forward (Fig. Gather the body to prepare for attack by lowering the body slightly (Fig. clasping the right forearm with the left palm. 3. 3. transferring your centre of gravity to the left. raise the right hand across the front of the chest to the left in an upward arc. Focus on ‘hitting upward’ with your right elbow so as to destabilize the opponent’s centre of gravity and lift them off from the ground (Fig.75).73).74). toe tips slightly touching the ground. 3. Move the body to the left and transfer your centre of gravity to the right and back. Remember that the right leg moves forward with the right arm and vice-versa. so that both feet are approximately 50 cm apart.

Once familiar with the practice. with the following differences: .76). 3. practice with long and slow energy. 王 西 安 88 3.6. turning the body to the right.5      Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow This technique consists of an elbow strike at the heart.76 • Spiral the right arm forward with Ni reeling. Simultaneously. palm down. step right with the right foot. Practice with both sides (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. strike the right elbow to the right. the right fist lowered to front of the left armpit. Next. use short and fast energy.75 Fig. 3. balancing this movement with the left hand. 3. gathering it horizontally in front of the chest. • In the initial stages. Footwork and hand movements are similar to those of Shun Lan Zhou (Smooth Elbow Block).

palm facing right.• • Shun Lan Zhou is aimed slightly to the back.78). 3. 3. palm down. In Xin Zhou the left palm touches and lightly holds the right wrist as the right elbow strikes (Fig. landing approximately 50 cm apart from the left foot. 王 西 安 89 . • Jump the left foot half a step to the left. extend your left palm forward. • Simultaneously. jump slightly with the right foot.6. 3.77).6      Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow This technique consists of concentrating energy in the elbow and striking upward with it. • Stand at attention with the arms relaxed at the sides. 3. • Turn the body to the right and reel the right palm across the chest to the right. while Xin Zhou is targeted to the front (Fig. Before the foot lands. toe tips on the ground. Touch the right knee with the right palm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.78 3. fingers pointing up.77 Fig.

toe-tips on the ground. . then gradually using short and fast energy.80 Fig.81). then transfer your centre of gravity to the right. gather the left side of the body so that your attack will have a clear division of Xu (emptiness) and Shi (solidity). starting with slow movements initially until the steps become familiar. bending the wrist before striking upward quickly with the back of the right fist. 3. Next.81 • • • • • 王 西 安 90 • • Prepare to explode energy by looking to the right and gathering the body (Fig. Move the right fist toward the right shoulder using Shun reeling.79). avoid letting all your energy flow upward as this will destabilize your root. 3. 3. toe tips touching the ground (Fig. 3. followed by the right foot. balance the energy between the upper and lower body. After the strike. taking the waist as the dividing line. As you change weight. Practice on both sides. Instead. Return the left fist beside the right ribs (Fig. step the right foot forward. Also.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Look to the right side of body while striking upward.80). While striking on the right. step the left foot to the left.79 Fig. placing the left fist below the right. 3. 3. clench both palms into fists.

the right elbow executes the dominant attack. • • • • Step to one side with either leg.3.83 王 西 安 91 . Change your weight to the left.82). then strike with the right elbow. looking to the left and concentrating energy in the elbow tips (Fig. 3. place the left arm inside the right. Practice alternating both sides. then exploding both elbows horizontally. 3. In this position.6. Gather the fists close to the chest (Fig. 3. If you stepped to the left.7      Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows This technique consists of striking simultaneously with both elbows by holding the arms in front of the chest.83).82 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. while the left the supplementary strike. 3.

8      Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou  Double Closing Elbows This technique consists of a center strike with both elbows. 3.6. 王 西 安 92 Fig.85 . looking to the front and rolling the chest and shoulders inward.84).84 Fig. 3. As your weight transfers to the front. Try to feel the effect of this preparation during practice (Fig.85).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • • Step one foot forward. 3. prepare for the stike by gathering the wrists inward. holding fists on either side of the ribs (Fig. 3. This increases the force of your attack.

87). 3. then lift it so that the right elbow is positioned over the right knee (Fig. Simultaneously.86).9      Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow • • • • • Step the left foot forward and extend your left hand forward simultaneouly. 3. rotate the body to the right.6. At the same time. You can begin a new round by stepping forward with the other foot and repeating the movements on the other side. clench the left palm into a half fist and place it beside the left leg. clench the right hand into a fist. extend the left hand forward and simultaneously strike the right elbow downward past the back (Fig. As your centre of gravity shifts to the left. 3. palm facing inward and inclining backward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. take a big step forward with the right foot in front of the left.3.87 93 .86 Fig. Practice alternating both sides. palm to the front. As the weight shifts to the left.

• Shift your weight abruptly to the right and form a half fist with the left palm.10      Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow Pie Zhou signifies conquering conforming force (Shun Jin) with transverse force (Heng Jin). shifting your centre of gravity to the front.88 94 . the aim of Pie Zhou is to convert conforming force into transverse force (Shun Zhong Qiu Heng). Make sure both hands move and arrive at their destinations simultaneously.6. 3. you apply Pie (Pushing Aside) force by meeting conforming force with the transverse force of your arms. As one of the Eight Forces. • All movements are guided by the rotation of the waist and spine. the legs should be parallel to each other. palm up. Shape the right hand into a hook (Diao Shou) and place it in front of the left thumb. In this way. moving it beside the left ribs. • At the same time. • After exerting Pie force. • Change your weight to the left.88). • Step the right foot forward. • Extend the right hand outward. 3. then lower it over the right knee. 王 西 安 Fig. strike forward explosively with the right forearm using a short-energy (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.

using guiding energy from the little finger. and extend the left hand forward to the right. use Cai technique to strike out explosively with the outside of the right forearm and elbow. both internal and external movements are integrated with the movements of the body and limbs. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. lower the left hand from the front of the chest to the left ribs.89). coordinating the explosion of energy with a twisting of the crotch and rotation of the waist and spine. • While lowering the left hand.6. • Keep the left hand open so the thumb is separated from the fingers. 3.3. In this way. The thumb and index finger form the character Ba ‘八’. 3. • Raise the right hand from the right side.11      Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow This is a capturing and immobilising technique using the elbow.89 95 . closing it slightly. using downward Ni reeling. Form a hook (Diao Shou) with the right hand with the little. • Then. palm up. Shift your weight more to the left as you do this (Fig. ring and middle fingers. • Step backward with the left foot shifting your weight to the left. bending the elbow.

Relax the crotch and incline (Xia Fu) the body abruptly forward using Pie technique.91 .90 Fig. toes grasping the ground. make sure power is gathered properly through the whole body and that your timing is correct before you strike. strike the right elbow backward at an upward angle (Shang Chuan Zhou). • • • • Bend the left knee.12      Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow This technique consists of using the elbow to strike backward. 3. you raise the right hand in Ni reeling to descend the elbow (Fig. especially useful as a defensive move when being attacked while in a passive situation. 王 西 安 96 Fig.6. moving your weight to the right (Fig.91). 3. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. At the same time. and extend the right leg backward. While transferring weight. Note: For maximum effectiveness. the right thumb guides energy flow. and then. 3.90).

Ce Jian Kao. As you shift your weight to the right. Xiong Kao. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Shuang Bei Kao and Qi Cun Kao. 3. Ying Men Kao. and bend the right arm over the inside of the right leg while the left hand rests gently on the outside of the right arm.3.93 97 . 3.7. bend the right arm inward to position the right shoulder in readiness to execute Zai Kao. The right foot and right arm should reach their positions at the same time (Fig. 3. 3.92 Fig.7  kaO (push) pracTices Kao practices can be divided into seven techniques: Qian Zai Kao.92).1      Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push • • Step the right foot forward.

As the body inclines forward significantly during this move. Do not make the mistake of weakening your defences by being too eager to attack and moving beyond your territory. On completion of the shoulder push.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Then. step forward with the left foot and place it next to the right foot. The left hand follows the right hand in support and comes to a rest in front of the right shoulder.94). Then step the right foot forward again to execute Zai Kao for a second time. Note: Only push when you are in the correct position.93). take care to maintain your centre of gravity by not stretching too far forward (Fig. raise the right hand from the inside to fend off and steer the opponent’s hand to the right.2      Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push This technique consists of pushing the shoulder at the opponent’s ribs. 3. Repeat these steps for both sides. you can choose not to use Follow-on Steps (Dian Bu) as this will result in Ce Jian Kao being pitched too directly forward. Then take another big step forward with the right foot. pushing it forward and down. As the heel touches the ground. 3. 3. if you find you get into an appropriate space for attacking. quickly pushing the front of the right shoulder forward to execute Ce Jian Kao (Fig.7. After executing the above. • • 王 西 安 98 • • Step forward with the right foot (Shang Bu). use the outside of the right shoulder to execute Qian Zai Kao. .

lowering down but not stiff.94 Notes: • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Finding the right rhythmic flow to your movements is key to effective attacks. When firmly closed.3      Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder Ying Men Kao refers to the ancient tradition of comparing the arms to two iron doors. then techniques such as Ying Men Kao can be used to penetrate defences and attack. light but not floating” . This only comes with closely combining the Yin (guide). Dai (lead and pull) and Ji (attack) energies together. 3. 王 西 安 99 . arms are a defense against attacks.Fig. conversely if one is able to ‘open’ the doors of the opponent.7. 3. Work consistently to master the key points until you are able to execute the movements in a way that is “quick but not loose.

the right hand above the left. It is easier to hurt the partner using a narrower attacking surface.95 Fig. 3. Once the attack is completed. . 3. • You can use more of the shoulder surface in the attack. Next.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. move the left foot forward parallel to the right foot and repeat the sequence for another attack. 3.96). The success of this technique depends on the extent of coherency and how quickly and smoothly the steps can be executed. fingers pointing up and palms facing the sides of the body. 3. Separate the hands of the opponent to expose his chest (Fig. cross the hands in front of the chest. move both arms to each side of the body and push the right shoulder forward in attack (Fig. At the same time. Practice the steps in alternating rounds between right and left until you can execute the technique with speed and power.96 • • • • • • 王 西 安 100 Take a large step forward with the right foot.95). Note: There are two ways your can attack with Ying Men Kao: • You can lower your power slightly so that the tip of the shoulder protrudes more.

• Change your weight to the left while pulling the opponent toward your chest using your palms (Fig. using this shift to deliver a sudden push with the chest (Fig. • Practice this technique in rounds by stepping the right foot forward again and repeating the sequence above. move the left foot parallel to the right. • To begin.4      Xiong  Kao … Chest Push This technique uses the chest to push at the opponent. 3. the chest and waist are in a collapsed position. A good sense of timing is essential for defeating the opponent. • Step the right foot forward.98 101 .98). Only with a thorough mastery of this technique.97 Fig.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.97). • Then roll the chest inward and shift your weight quickly from left to right. can you execute it in actual combat (because you may easily hurt yourself ). • Extend both arms from the sides to the front in an embracing gesture.7. • After this move is completed. 3. shifting your weight to the front. 3. Note: Focus on sharpening your sense of timing during practice. 3.

99 Fig.5      Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders This technique consists of a simultaneous attack from both shoulders. a capability that comes only with extended Quan practice.99). 3. • Stand with feet parallel. 3. This technique also uses Duan Jing (short power). as the shoulders deliver Bei Kao backwards (Fig.100 102 . • When the whole body holds and collects to a moderate extent. shoulders slightly concave and with power guided by the thumbs (Fig.100). • Gently rotate backwards with both palms facing backwards. • When the weight moves forward the chest rolls inwards. Note: As mentioned in previous techniques.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. You may lead with either leg. take a sudden breath in and push the chest forward quickly. rebounding and shaking power). and the shoulders execute Bei Kao to the right . 3.7. remember to gather and withhold energy before delivering the strike. Shuang Bei Kao requires Duan Tan Dou Jing prowess (short.

extend the distance of your Kao slightly. Note: If the opponent is at close-range. • Practice pushing from both the right and left sides. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Find a stable centre of gravity with the body and gather your body in this position. • Extend the right foot and arm forward. continue to transfer your weight to the right.101). 3.6      Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back To attack by moving backwards is called Bei Zhe Kao. • Turn the body slightly to the left as the right hand rises. and at the same time deliver a forceful backward push (Hou Bei Kao Jing) with the right arm and shoulder (Fig. 3. • Once your root is stabilized.7. if further away.3. fingers pointing down. use short power in your push.101 103 . • Gradually move the right arm downward toward to the inside of the right leg. This technique consists of drawing your partner into your territory (Yin Jin) while you move backwards to attack. • Start doing Shun reeling with your right hand as you move your weight slightly to the front.

3. 3. Place the elbow below the knee (Fig.102 104 . • • • • Take a large step diagonally forward with the left or right leg.7      Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao The name of this technique indicates that the body should be seven cun (approximately 23 cm) above the ground. This technique uses largescale movements and requires the body to be inclined while keeping the suspending upright power (Ding Jing). Incline the body forward in the same direction. This technique is particularly difficult to apply in combat and can only be executed successfully if real efforts are made during practice.7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig.102). Note: Power applied in the initial stages should be slow rather than quick. Practice this sequence in rounds from left to right.

3. Diao gai Na. Shuang He Fu Cai Na. Fu Na.1      Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling This seizing technique employs both Shun and Ni reeling.103). • At same time. 3. 3. 3.8  na (seizing) pracTices Na practices can be divided into eight techniques: Shun Ni Na. palm facing in.103 Fig. draw the right hand inward in Shun reeling toward the left hand and seize forcefully (Fig. Tui Na. • Rest the right hand near the right ribs.8. and Shuang He Na. 3. 3. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight forward to the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Chan Rao Na.104 105 . palm up (Fig.104). • Take the left thumb as the guidance of energy flow and reel the left hand in Ni direction from outside in. • Extend the left foot and left hand forward. Xiong Na.

move the weight slightly backward then move forward again. this time reeling in Shun direction with the left hand and Ni direction with the right.e. i. if you practice each side diligently. then you must respond promptly by swapping the reelings to the opposite hands. and lower your waist and Qi. Try to relax at every step while applying the seizing action firmly. . If you try to seize the opponent using Shun reeling on the left hand and Ni reeling on the right. With practice. Seizing techniques are quite difficult to practice. in order to block the opponent’s energy path. drop the elbow. Observe your opponent’s changes and respond accordingly: if the opponent uses long power. but she evades your attack by ducking down. changing the weight from left to right. even though you deliver the power later than the partner.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While seizing with both hands. After seizing. tighten the ribs. Note: Shun and Ni reeling are interdependent and cannot be separated. lower the shoulders. Repeat the above sequence. roll the chest in. spread the energy up and down the length of your body like a bow so that power is distributed everywhere. you should use short power so that with one closing and one opening you can quickly reach the right position before the partner. Shun reel with the right hand and Ni reel with the left. When seizing. Your moves will become more effective as your internal Qi integrates more closely with the external movements. you’ll be able to apply this technique automatically and even defeat your opponent if you apply it well. 王 西 安 106 Closing with the left while seizing with the right and vice versa. you will be able to execute these changes quickly and smoothly.

3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.3. palm out.105). lower the Qi. and shift your weight to the right side. 3. 3.106 Fig.105 Fig.107 王 西 安 107 . relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left. tighten the ribs. and clench the right hand into a fist. Then rotate the right hand and body to the right. Then lower the right hand to the right ribs. • • • • • Step forward with the left foot and move the right hand in front of chest to fend the opponent off upwards to the right at head level (Fig. placing it in front of the chest.106). As you do this. 3.107).8. The shift to the left enables you to hit the target clearly (Fig. extend the left hand forward to rest in front of the body (Fig.2      Xiong Na … Seize with Chest This seizing technique uses the Cai power of the chest with the help of the hands. Relax the left side of the crotch. Again. 3. roll the chest in. At the same time. 3.

Shift your weight forward and accumulate power well. Move the whole body in a natural and relaxed state. Relax the crotch. the force of upward suspension maintains the axis. • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the left side of the body. Draw the arc with the intention of meeting the opponent’s hand.108). 王 西 安 108 . As it states in the poem: “Raise the left hand and extend the right hand upward to draw a circle. palm facing left (Fig.109). Move quickly and follow your partner but do not lose power. • At the same time.” 3. and gather energy in the ribs. • As the weight shifts to the left.8. The left hand leads by closing the power causing the right hand to follow.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Remember that Qi gathers in the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) unify to become one power. Match the speed of your movements to that of your partner. while the two hands serve as supports. reel with both hands in a Shun direction. roll the chest slightly inward and gather the ribs. The strike is actually applied by the left side of the chest. • Step the left foot forward and extend the left hand to the front. lower Qi to the abdomen in preparation for the inward roll and seizing. • Close the crotch. 3. 3.3      Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen This technique consists of seizing with the abdomen filled with descending Qi with the assistance of the hands. extending it forward in an arc until it comes to a rest in the front of the right side of the abdomen. palm facing right (Fig. the palm forming a “八” (Ba) shape. Make sure to keep your own axis when seizing the opponent. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left by stepping the right foot on the ground. rotate the body.

108 • • As the Qi descends.110). The abdomen provides the main supporting element.Fig. 3. clench the left hand. 3. 3. seize with the right and roll the abdomen – these three actions combine to become one power.110 109 .109 Fig. The eyes look forward and to the left. the left hand moves lightly and assists the right. 3. whose movement is heavier (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

capture and immobilize the opponent. while the hands use Na (seizing) power to collect inward. followed by the left. Continue to shift your weight forward. the right foot steps forward. At the same time. As your weight shifts. move the palms up to chest level and seize the opponent’s elbows using Na power. immobilizes their wrists by bending them outwards.4      Shuang He Fu Cai Na  Seize from Both Sides with Abdomen This seizing technique uses the combined efforts of the abdomen and hands. gather the ribs and lower Qi to the abdomen so that internal strength flows through the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) may unify to guide the attack. whereby the abdomen gathers power to support the hands. . facing in so that the fingers are directed towards each other. As you seize. do not be kind to the foe for the opportunity to attack comes just once. • • • • 王 西 安 110 • • Take a half step forward with the right foot.8. and commence shifting your weight forward. bending them at the elbows. 3. keep your intention firm for victory or failure will be decided in a second. Both hands extend forward in sequence. push the abdomen out suddenly (Fig. the right hand moving down while the left moves up. Direct the eyes to the front.111). Concentrate your energies then pounce on your opponent like an agile cat.112). 3. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. and gather them towards you (Fig. palms about 10 cm from the lower abdomen. roll the chest slightly inward. extend both arms to the front. and both feet standing steadily as the hands move. Move swiftly without hesitation.

supported by the warding right hand. 3. Lower the right hand then cover it with the left.5      Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling This technique uses the gathering power of one hand to seize while the other reels from the inner side of the opponent.Fig. Step the left foot forward and shift your weight to the left.113).111 Fig. 王 西 安 111 . 3. and lower Qi in your abdomen before protruding it forward.8. fending the opponent off upward to the right (Fig.112 Note: It pays to practice as if sparring with a partner who is pushing forward with his or her hands on your abdomen. so that you respond by moving your weight forward. Reel the left hand forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • • • • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the chest. 3.

Alternate practice on both right and left sides. bones. this technique can be used effectively to break wrists.114). Combine them with the power of chest to become one power (Fig. not like a thug. But remember: practice like an adept. by taking a step forward (Shang Bu) each time. Collect the hands inward to about 15 cm in front of the chest. gathering the ribs and lowering the waist and Qi. Collect the body by rolling the chest slightly inward.114 • • • • Put your body in a squatting position by bending the knees slightly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. . Step the right foot forward again and repeat the above steps.113 Fig. tendons and veins. 3. 3. 3. 王 西 安 112 Note: If Qi descends smoothly.

• As you step. the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) combine to seize the opponent. • Bend the left arm inward to gather both palms. shift your weight forward and bend the knees slightly so that the body squats like a bent bow.116 113 . • Step forward with the left foot and extend the left arm to the front. lower the left arm in a downward arc using Shun reeling and extend the right hand forward in Ni reeling to seize downward from the right side. roll the chest in and gather the ribs (Fig. • As soon as the right hand reaches the level of the left leg. and move both hands to assist the left leg. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. relax the crotch.3. 3.115 Fig. • As the knee swings inward. 3.8. The powers of the left arm and right hand unify as one. • As the weight moves forward.115). swing the left knee inward to gather the left leg so that it serves as a supporting point during the seizing. fingers pointing forward. 3. In this way. Lower your Qi.6      Tui Na … Seize with the Leg This technique uses the combined power of both hands and one leg.

 3. • At the same time.117 Fig. extend the right arm and pass it from the upper left side of the body to the right in a warding off motion (Fig. shift your weight to the front and extend the left arm again to repeat the steps and seize once more.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • After seizing. 3. The changing of the legs happens quickly. • Step forward with the right foot.7      Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands This technique uses both hands to seize: the right hand moves up from the right to grasp the opponent’s arm from the bottom while the left presses down from the top. 3.118 114 . shift your weight quickly to the left and step forward with the right foot. 王 西 安 Fig. spiral the right hand up from the right side into an arc. Then step forward with the left foot.8. 3. guiding it to the right ribs for support (Fig. gradually guiding it inward to rest in front of the right ribs.116). 3. • Then lower the right arm by executing Lü downward in Ni reeling.117). As you step forward.

118).119 • • • • • • As soon as the right foot touches on the ground. When the right hand moves up.119). roll the chest slightly inward and bend the knees slightly into a squatting position. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 115 . shift your weight to the right and move the left foot and hand forward (Fig. 3. As the right foot touches the ground.Fig. The intention is to have the whole body collecting and seizing together with the hands. lower the shoulders. 3. Then extend the right hand forward to cover and seize with both hands with Gai power (Fig. shift your weight to the right and step forward with the left foot. Continue to move the right hand and foot forward. the left palm moves down in Shun reeling to cover the the arm of the opponent so that the forces of both arms work as one. Then move the right hand forward in Shun reeling until it reaches the same level as the nose. As the hands move. 3.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.121). At the same time. Prepare for the seizing by lowering Qi to the Dantian.120 Fig. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. Bend your knees so your body squats like a bending bow. step forward with the left foot and shift your weight to the front. Make sure you have a clear line to your target by lowering the shoulders and elbows before seizing downward (Fig. rolling the chest inward and tightening the ribs.8      Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands This technique uses the gathering power of both hands to seize. 3. This step marks the transformation of Peng (ward off ) to Na (seizing). then gather both hands and grasp the opponent’s wrist firmly downwards. Combine this with the power gathered in both hands and seize with one force.8. 3. • • • • • Sweep the right hand from left to right in a warding off movement (Peng) to fend the opponent’s arm out and upward (Fig. strengthed by whole body coordination.121 116 .120). 3.

then exhale as you bend the knees slightly to put the body in a squatting position (Fig. Chuan Zhang Jie 5.3. • Hang the hands naturally at the sides. 3. shoulder-width apart. Fan Na Cu Bu Jie 9. Guan Gong Jie Dai 2. This technique enables a practitioner to avoid capture or break a hold. • Stand with both feet in parallel. such as a waist grasp from the rear to throw you down. Shuang Wan Zhi Jie 4. middle finger.1      Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape According to the book. Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie 7. curve the fingers into hooks and raise them in front of the ribs with the little finger leading. 王 西 安 117 . Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo 3. then the ring finger. ‘Wars Among Three Countries’ by Guan Yu. Shan Jing Zhen Zhang Jie 8.9  jie TuO (escape) pracTices  The practice of Jie Tuo is divided into nine techniques: 1. • Next. the Guan Gong Jie Dai technique is said to be named after its creator.9. Guan Gong. • Inhale. Qu Wan Fan Na Jie 6. eyes looking forward.122). • Move Qi in from the outside and lower it to the Dantian. and finally the index finger. Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.

.123).122 Fig. In this way. 3. the squatting of the body.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.9. 3. This technique is always applied to Liu Feng Si Bi Dan Bian (Six Sealing and Four Closing Single Whip).2      Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo   Escape by Hooking Wrist & Bending Fingers This technique is especially useful to release a hand hold by an opponent. hook the wrist and bend the fingers to escape. This technique becomes effective only after extended practice. If the fingers are being held. otherwise it is not easy to unfold (Fig. 3.123 • Synchronise the speed of this movement with that of the body. and also with the speed of Qi descending. the gathering of the ribs and the hooking of fingers should combine to become one unit. 王 西 安 118 3.

125). lowering the elbows.125 • • • • • If the fingers of one hand are seized by the opponent. rolling the chest inward. As you move. and lowering your Qi as you do so.124). unblocking the arm area being attacked. 3. 3. so that Tuo (escaping) power can reach the fingers effectively. By doing this. 3. you relax and elongate your encaptured arm. relaxing the shoulders. Practice these steps with both hands in turn. Move your body to transform the attacking power.Fig. slowly bend the wrist and fingers. your conjoined fingertips and knuckles should be able to escape with ease (Fig. By the end of your movement. join the fingers of your hand together and point them diagonally upward to the right (Fig. 王 西 安 119 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 This technique is only to be used if you have become proficient in it after extended solo practice. 3.124 Fig.

127 120 . bend the arms. closing your hands while opening the opponent’s. While doing this. 3. 3. • • • Step one foot forward and shift your weight to the other leg (Fig.127). tighten the ribs. and lower the Qi so that power can flow smoothly to the inner side of the wrists. 王 西 安 Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. then move your arms forward and upward as your weight shifts forward (Fig.3      Shuang Wan Zhi Jie   Escape by Spiralling Wrists Upward This technique is used to escape a double wrist-hold. It is not necessary to use large movements in this technique. lower the shoulders and elbows. clench both hands into fists. 3. At the same time.126 Fig. It consists of spiralling the inner sides of both wrists upward to force the opponent to open his hand.126). roll the chest inward. Just focus on relaxing and lower the Qi.9.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. elbows.3. • Bend both arms 90o inward and cross them in front of the chest. tighten the ribs.128).129 121 . • Two feet stand flatly and the body stands straight.9. placing the right hand on the left (Fig. and lower the shoulders. • Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. 3.128 Fig. two eyes look forward horizontally.4      Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo   Escape by Crossing the Hands before the Chest This technique consists of crossing both hands before the chest when you move to the left or right to transform power. It is most often used in the transition between the Jin Gang Dao Zhui posture (Buddha’s Warrior Attendant Pounds Mortar) and the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying Coat). and roll the chest inward. and Qi. 3. 3.

and lock the palms of the opponent.131 122 . Then ward off (Peng) by pushing both palms outward. It requires you to twist the captured fingers outward in Shun reeling.129). then to follow your opponent by bending your wrist in Ni reeling while you rotate to the right position so as to extend the left hand and seize with the right.9. Do not rush forward but defend you territory in straight postures (Fig. 3. and move the right hand in Shun reeling while the left does Ni reeling. 王 西 安 Fig.130 Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • If you choose to turn to the left: rotate the body to the left then right. swapping the Shun and Ni reeling to the opposite hands.5      Qu Wan Fan Na Jie   Escape by Bending the Wrist and Seize the Opponent This technique is used to counter-attack a hold on the right fingers. 3. If you choose to turn to the right: rotate the body to the right then left. 3. then rotate forward again.

3. extend the left hand forward to support the right hand as it seizes downward (Fig. Apply the principle of constant change and flexibility in Taiji circles. 3. As you do this.132 Fig. 3. raise the elbows. Your movements should be relaxed and executed with power at all times. then bend it about 450. Rotate the arm about 1800 outward in Ni reeling. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Note: Use the waist as the boundary dividing rising energy above the waist and descending energy below the waist.130). As the right toes touch the ground. wrist bent inward in readiness to seize and fend off danger (Fig. it will be difficult for opponents to overcome your attacks. If you practice diligently. 3. step the right foot forward (Fig.132). 3. 王 西 安 123 .131). palm facing left (Fig.133).133 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. relax the shoulders.Fig. While rotating the arm. open the joints throughout the body and stretch the muscles so that power can flow through to the wrist and move to its end point more smoothly. 3.

right fingertips initially pointing downward. this sequence of movements make up the Shan Jing Ce Shen Jie technique. • Extend the right arm horizontally and bend it 900 inward.6      Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back This technique is applied when the opponent seizes your wrist in Shun reeling. • As the right palm reels outward. • Simultaneously. • The right wrist bends inward with the arm to rotate the hand in Ni reeling.134 Fig. so that the power of the left hand combines with the right to become one. In response.135 124 . 王 西 安 Fig. Together.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. incline the body and attack with the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). the palm gradually guided by Ni reeling to slant externally to the right. coordinating it with the lifting of the back and the descending Qi. you should rotate externally and upward in Ni reeling. roll the chest inward. then move swiftly to the right to destabilize the opponent. move the left hand rightward to the front of the chest. palm facing right. 3. Next.9. 3.

All the above movements of the hands. Project your shoulder forward using Shan Jing (Sudden Flash Back) and it will break the copper wall. touching the ground with the toe tips (Fig. If the opponent seizes your forearms: • Retreat half-a-step with the left foot. feet and shoulder should integrate into one resolute force and terminate at the same moment (Fig.9.135). then project the right shoulder forward to push at the opponent’s right rib using the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). The above movements of both arms and the right foot should occur in one very smooth and swift motion. 3. Note: Move in Ni reeling while the opponent moves in Shun reeling. Almost at the same time. you find it easy to execute Zhen Zhang (Shaking Palm) and thus to escape. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.134). then bend your knees slightly to place your body in a squatting position so that you can collect and hold energy. and thus enabling one to evade capture. giving him a sense of losing of Qi. 3. then quickly step the right foot forward (Shang Bu).7      Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie    Quick Shaking Palm Stun This technique uses very swift abrupt (Shan) power to stun the opponent.• • • As your left hand moves. The force of this attack can help wrest you free from the opponent’s grip and dislodge your wrist from his or her grasp. Use your whole body to collect energy and attack: the Yin force (guiding) from the upper body and Jin force (inserting and attacking) from the lower body. because with these. So Shan and Jing serve as the pre-condition of escaping. make a big step forward with the right foot. 王 西 安 125 . shift your weight to the left .

138). open both fists and shift them away from the sides of the body. use both hands to draw the opponent’s arm toward you and destabilise their center of gravity. step forward quickly and attack with the palm (Fig. 3.136).138 126 . slowly raise both hands and bend them inward about 1800. At the same time. and both palms draw inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • • At the same time. palms facing up and the two little fingers placed on the middle of each arm. 3.136 Fig. Simultaneously. palms facing up and eyes looking forward. 王 西 安 Fig. then the whole body sends a Dou in a circle in Shun reeling (short power). Shift your weight forward and extend both arms forward to break the power of the opponent’s grip on your forearms (Fig. then Shang Bu (take a step forward). the body squats. 3. Next. and the extending palm reaches the right position at the same time. When the body and two hands send the Dou power.137 Fig. This power should be quick and strong.137). 3. 3. 3. As soon as you surprise and destabilize them with your moves. clench the hands into fists and place them at the sides of the body (Fig.

extend the left hand from left to right.139). the partner cannot reach you though his attacking power is strong. and attacking by the Cu Bu or Dun Bu technique (stomping). 王 西 安 127 . palm facing out. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Step forward with the right foot and commence Shun reeling with the right arm. As the right foot steps on the ground. holding and collecting a quicker speed. since he or she can easily twist your fingers and get you caught’. 3. first bending it inward then moving it outward to the right. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the side. because sometimes appropriate retreating gives one a closing power. 3. Two elbows draw inward and hands move outwards. then shift your weight to the left and inclining the body to the right to hold and collect.9. With Shan and Jing. thumb separated from the fingers (Fig. Then push the left palm to the right.8      Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping This is a composite technique consisting of seizing and twisting the opponent’s joints (Fan Na) using the Fan Guanjie (Reverse Joints) technique. Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. 3.It is just like the poem reads: ‘It is not a failure if you retreat your pace. It is not wise to grasp the opponent’s elbow with your fingers. fingertips slanting up (Fig. you find escaping easy.140). which is against principle. Step diagonally right with the right foot. At the same time.

139 Fig. 3. from long power to short power. from slow to quick. This power can only be gathered with greatly unified power. do not react or become anxious but remain confident in your prowess. Stand rooted like a big tree. paying attention to the upper and lower body and your surroundings. Be patient and diligent with practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Incline your body and explode the energy with great unity by stomping with the right foot. 3. Then you will free yourself from capture. the body should move from high to low. Even if you sense the opponent’s intention to move. side pushing with the left palm and exhaling at one time. During the practice. only by this will you increase in strength. 王 西 安 128 .140 Notes The Cu Bu stomp requires a large incline to the side to project an abrupt burst of power.

exhale.141 Fig.3.9      Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie  Escaping by separating hands This technique is used to wrest free of a double wrist grip by separating the arms. 3. • Extend both arms forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. the hands wrest free of the opponent’s wrist grip. the left hand in Ni reeling and the right in Shun reeling.141). • Then bend both wrists inward. breathing in as you do this. As you do this. palms facing each other. • Next. tighten the ribs and lower Qi to the Dantian.142). palms facing in (Fig. bending inward about 90o.9. 3. • In this way. eyes looking forward (Fig. lower the shoulders and elbows. 3. separate the hands to the sides of the body.142 129 . • Step the right foot forward. roll the chest in. 3.

3.143). 3. 王 西 安 130 . If you cannot push the opponent’s hands away. If you still can’t free your wrists with this technique. 3. then raise your hands. You can escape from seizing by one closing and one opening. then you transform and eliminate the seizing on your wrists. finally returning them to the front of the chest to repeat the cycle (Fig. get your wrists free by moving the right hand in Shun reeling and the left hand in Ni reeling.144 Notes The extent to which you separate your hands depends on the opponent’s grip. 3.143 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. insert both palms downward (Xia Cha Zhang. Palm Inserting Down) (Fig. then separate them to each side. During practice. keeping both arms tightly together like pincers.144).

CHAPTER FOUR healTh anD qi enhanCemenT pRaCTiCes 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 131 .

its leaves and branches must flourish. Peng. These movements are applied throughout the whole system of Taiji and Tuishou practices. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) 王 西 安 132 3. . Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan Zhuang (Returning to Wu Ji stance) Diligent practice and application of all the postures in these six groups of Qigong practices will yield great results for Taiji and Tuishou practitioners. San Ti Shi (Three Postures) 5. rising and falling. Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture) 2. incorporating both movements inner quietness and more active techniques such as the Wu Ji posture.1  inTrOducTiOn Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is a collection of health and Qi enhancement practices essential for the formation of robust Taiji and Tuishou techniques. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) 6. Ji and An. states: “If a tree has deep and strong roots. each of which can be practiced individually or in sequence: 1. Chen Xin. As Qing Dynasty Taiji Master. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Posture) 4.” Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is an extension of Jing Qigong (Quiet Qigong).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Lü. This group of practices is used to strengthen the Prenatal and Postnatal systems of the body. unblocking the whole vessel system by enhancing Qi and blood flow through the body and helping the accumulation of Qi in the Yong Quan point (known as the ‘Bubbling Spring’ located on the sole of the foot). Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong can be divided into six postures. opening and closing. It also incorporates Qigong and body combat techniques and may be regarded as an advanced form of Qigong.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Hang both arms at the side of the body and relax. Open your eyes gradually. 4. keeping your mind relaxed.4. breathing gently and slowly.1      Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Stand upright.2  wu ji zhuang (wu ji pOsTure)  4. Concentrate your intention (Yi) in the Dantian.1 133 . feet parallel and shoulder width apart.2. eyes closed.

4. Take care of these points and you will not lose power (Diu Jin) unnecessarily. Overdoing this will raise your Qi to your upper body so that it becomes blocked in your chest and destabilizes your feet. On the other hand. Try to expand your arms moderately. when it should actually be solid. 4. the reverse for females (Fig. Lower the hands onto the abdomen. 王 西 安 Fig.3). do not do it so gently that Qi becomes too soft and weak to reach every part of the body. c) Posture 3 • • Curl the little fingers towards the thumb and slowly draw the arms down to the middle of the body.3 134 . 4. 4. Maintain the hands at shoulder height.2). palms facing downward and slanted diagonally (Fig.2 Fig. the right over the left for male practitioners.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 b) Posture 2 • • Raise the arms to the sides. the right hand rotating in Shun reeling and the left in Ni reeling.

The palate is the commencing point of Du Mai while the tip of the tongue is the beginning of Ren Mai. 4.2. so that the waist descends naturally. 2. the mind and facial muscles naturally relaxed. inhale and then swallow saliva down into the stomach. Relax the crotch so that the inner and middle parts of the lower limbs are also relaxed. The whole body will be steady if you gather the internal organs consistently. 3. Your shoulders should be loose and slightly lowered. The neck should be firm and straight. Concentrate your intention (Yi) at the Bai Hui point and apply power to this point. Lift the buttocks and anus up a little. The Yong Quan point should be kept empty and relaxed so that any stagnant Qi can flow through smoothly when it descends. Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth The tip of the tongue should touch the palate when inhaling. Let the Ren Mai and Du Mai meet during breathing: then lower the tip of tongue. guiding the Qi and saliva through to the middle Dantian. Your elbow joints should be lowered.3      Breathing Breathing is one of the main elements of the Zhan Zhuang (Standing Posture).2. It is important to practice this diligently to unblock both the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 135 .2      The requirements for every part of the body 1. Pay attention to the following points when practicing the Zhuang posture: 1.4. lower it when exhaling. Gather the chest and ribs inward. bend the knees slightly and grasp the ground gently with the toes. until they reach the lower Dantian.

By practising the above key points. leading to Qi filling and blocking the chest. Note: Do not press the abdomen down too much as it will swell naturally as it lowers. so that they all have the same rhythm. through the Wei Lü Guan point. Maintain your vertical axis. roll the chest slightly inward. Raise your Yi (intention) from the Hui Yin point (perineum). across the Yu Zhen point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. including the internal organs. While exhaling Lower every part of the body. Practice also enhances your ability to guide Qi with Yi (intention). 王 西 安 136 . lower the waist and gather the Qi in the Dantian. which will help with the distribution of Qi around the body. Feel the sensation of all the body joints. up along the spine. While lowering the internal Qi. skin and fine hairs opening as the Qi rises. keeping your body upright and lifting your back slightly. While inhaling Gather your chest and abdomen inward while breathing in Qi. and ease the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation (Da Zhou Tian and Xiao Zhou Tian). you will enlarge your vital capacity and exercise the diaphragm muscles. until it reaches the Bai Hui point. 3. Do not lift the back too much while the Qi rises as this causes both the Qi and blood to rise even further.

4. these can be accomplished only by hard learning. so it is recommended that they do not practice Yi and Qi until they become familliar with the form. can the mind obtain full rest and be adjusted so that every organ system may be well promoted. • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 137 . thinking. Qi cannot be separated from Yi (intention). and emotions. you need to concentrate your intention on the Dantian so that all other distracting ideas may be replaced (Yi Yinian Dai Wannian). external movements) follows Qi.4      Additional Notes  • In Taiji Yangsheng Zeng Qigong. consciousness. quietude and concentration. However. just as Xing (posture. Only through mastering your mental activities such as intention. Only these can guarantee normal and healthy internal Qi circulation.2. Practitioners should modify the scope of their practice according to their level and progress. Qi follows Yi. The key requirements for practice are relaxation. Beginners generally find it difficult to remember the postures and key points. and achieve the smooth Zhoutian circulation and help with body combat. During Wu Ji Zhuang. patients and the correct mastery of key points.

3  hunyuan zhuang (circle pOsTure) Zhuang skill. 4.5 138 . 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.4 Fig.3. also known as ‘Standing Zhuang’ or ‘Standing like a tree’ Qigong meditation.” Hence.” and “Practicing Martial Art routines without practicing Zhuang skill is like a house without pillars.1       Postures 王 西 安 Fig. 4. as reflected in the following sayings: “You won’t make progress if you practice Chinese Martial Art forms without praticing basic skills. is an important basic skill in Chinese Martial Arts. people who practice Taiji will make more progress only if they practice not only routines but also Zhuang skill.

3. focus on a static object at the same level as your eyes.4). Execute the posture as if embracing a big tree. Bend the knees so that the body is squatting a little. fingers pointing at their counterparts about 30 cm apart. Keep the fingers evenly open and slightly bent as if half grasping a sphere. if closed. Leave your eyes naturally open or close them. a little more than shoulder-width apart. waist and back straight. 王 西 安 139 .5). The old and weak may practice using a high body stance. The upper body should be kept upright. Relax the shoulders.2      Body requirements  a) Zhuang Skill Adjustment Hunyuan Zhuang can be practiced at three levels of body stance: high. focus your attention on the Dantian (Fig. Next. If your eyes are open. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. waist and crotch. then move them back to the middle. 4. 4. then lower the waist (Fig. the neck.a) Posture 1 • • • • • Start with the same initial posture as the previous posture. with practice duration increasing gradually from short to long. The palms face each other. Keep the head naturally erect. b) Posture 2 • • • Separate the hands when the left foot reaches ground. Lower the elbows and shoulders slightly. Stand with your feet parallel. mid-level and low. shift your weight to the right and lift the left foot and take half a step to the left.

Du Mai. Continue standing for as long as you can as this helps build fatigue resistance and enhances control of the muscles. through the Ren Mai. graduating to midlevel. past the Yu Zhen point. the thigh muscles and even the whole body may tremble rhythmically. intention and internal strength join together at the end of Du Mai (which is also the beginning of Ren Mai). until it reaches the Baihui point. Beginners will find that the thighs may ache after two weeks of practice. Inhale again as the body rises. when doing Standing Zhuang at a high stance. This relieves or may even stop the trembling for a period. Practice duration can last just a few minutes in the initial stages. Que Qiao. inhale slowly first. Wei Lü Guan. becoming gradually longer. raise Qi from the heels up the legs. and slight trembling may occur. Should this happen. up the spine. At the same time.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The young and strong should start with a high stance. then a low stance. b) Rising and Falling Method This method refers to the subtle rise and fall of the body during Standing Zhuang following the rhythm of the breath. although this may become more obvious with prolonged practicing at mid or low stances. you should raise your stance slightly to rest. The trembling may only be detected by touch or by close observation of the leg muscles. then bend the knees to lower the body until the buttocks are at the same level as the knees. More benefits may be gained if initial practice lasts for at least ten to fifteen minutes. At this point. In this case. For example. and guide the saliva down to the middle and lower Dantian. increasing to thirty or forty minutes at later stages. touch the palate with the tip of the tongue. swallowing your breath with saliva. Now lower the tongue and inhale. then lower your body again. 王 西 安 140 .

4. as it responds to the circulating blood. the body quivers in a relaxed and peaceful state of mind. Practice this process repeatedly.3. but the apparent non-activity is misleading. It rises and falls like a boat in the ocean. breathing motions and digesting processes. The upper body is Xu (void) while the lower part is Shi (solid) with feet grasping the ground. This is explained in the Song of Huanyuan Zhuang: The body ascends or descends corresponding with the breath. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 141 .3      Breathing Breathing is an important element of Zhuang skill. The body weight is always subtly moving in various directions. Zhuang skill is actually a practice using static strength and tension. the body lowers slightly and Qi moves down to the Yong Quan point along the inner sides of the legs.As you exhale slowly. Standing on the ground steadily like a mountain. like a wild goose flies off and falls.

 4. 4. Gather the chest and abdomen. The navel and Ming Men are in the same rhythm.1      Postures  a) Posture 1 • • • • Inhale and slowly separate both arms to each side.4.4  kai he zhuang (Opening and clOsing zhuang) The standing posture of Kai He Zhuang is the same as Hunyuan Zhuang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. 4. 4. as are the requirements and key points for the body parts. At the same time. the breath is usually short. The only difference is that in this posture. the body rises slightly with the inhalation. In the initial stages of practice. The distance between both arms starts short then grows longer. the middle fingers connect.8). 王 西 安 Fig. relax and open the internal organs.6 Fig.7 142 . the palms face inward and the eyes are slightly closed (see Fig. extend your breath slowly through the practice process.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. you will detect a current of energy released from both palms which seems to be difficult to gather at this point.Note: when you inhale and open up. All internal organs are filled with strength. 4. use your intention to guide the current outward. using your intention (Yi).8 143 . the navel and the Ming Men Mai swell out. Focusing on your intention (Yi). Roll the chest slightly inward. Drop the wrists and hold the palms facing inwards in a concave shape. lower the waist and gather the rib muscles. Acting slowly. Relax the body. At the same time. Guide this Qi from the fingertips and palms into the ‘sphere’ in front of your abdomen. Qi appears between finger tips of both hands like a magnetic force. b) Posture 2 • • • • • • Exhale and gather the organs. Do this practice slowly. crouch down and lower the elbows.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The main aim of practising Kai He Zhuang is to enhance the strength of the lower limbs and to promote the shrinking and expanding abilities of the navel and Ming Men. Qi and strength. gentle and even. as well as breath control. and when Qi rises – the body and internal organs gather slightly. It will take some practice before you will be able to sense Qi and feel it move with the rhythm of your breath. intention and Qi. “the internal Qi moves inside”.   Intention and Qi Kai He Zhuang is directly related to the Three Internal Combinations: thought and intention. Qi here refers to the fresh air exchanged between the lungs and the outside.4. To combine intention with Qi means to guide Qi so that it follows your intention as you practice Zhuang techniques. This is called. one’s thoughts need to implement intention consistently. the ebb and flow of Qi and strength (or power) are in synch with each other. only when you can mentally trust that you feel the Qi in your hands can you apply the practice techniques to good effect. This practice also strengthens the practitioner’s ‘root’. it also helps increase internal strength and distributes Qi around the whole body. For example. For example. then your strength must be soft. For thought (or attention) to combine with intention. and also helps the practitioner build skills in relaxation and quietness. if you require the breath to be slow.2      The relationship between Thought. 王 西 安 144 Qi combines with strength when Qi descends – the whole body and internal organs relax. as well as the internal Qi moving in the body with the guidance of your intention. 4. . In this way. Lastly. when extending the hands.

With practice. you will reach the point where internal Qi may be guided by intention to move freely in your body along desired routes. the chest. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 145 . Guided by intention. Its purpose is to stimulate the nerve system by muscle movement. this movement becomes a conditioned reflex and helps move muscles which are normally static. and are one of the main requirements in Zhuang skill. abdomen and back. In particular.The relaxing and gathering of the internal organs mentioned here refers to the activities of the internal organs and the muscles around the midriff area – under the ribs. the regular up-down movement of the midriff muscles are very important in Kai He Zhuang.

This posture could also be called a sideways Bow Step (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Purify this saliva with your intention. The rhythm of the navel and Ming Men should be consistent with the breathing in and drawing in.5  san Ti shi (Three pOsTures) The core content of San Ti posture is the method of drawing in and pushing forward. inhale and move your weight backward. When the weight shifts completely to the left leg. 4.9). a) Posture 1 • • • • • • • • 王 西 安 146 • Stand with feet parallel and take a step forward with the right foot. 4. The fingers are poised as if grasping the air. make sure your eyes are drawn inward to looking internally.10). The length of inhalation should match the speed of the weight shift. then shift your weight forward from the left foot to the right knee. the right hand in front of the left. fill the body with strength and withdraw the limbs to prepare for the next pushing posture. suffusing it with saliva and Qi and lower it to the middle and lower Dantian. then open your eyes and look into the distance. Next. raise both hands above the right leg. When inhaling. Start the posture with your eyes closed. then breathe it out slowly as you move forward (Fig. Gather the Lao Gong points of both hands inward. Expand the crotch like a circle. At the same time. focusing your intention in the Dantian. . Swallow the fresh air inhaled.

lower the waist. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 4.9 b) Posture 2 • • As Qi is lowered into the Dantian.11). then push both hands forward slowly (Fig.10 Fig. close and fold your strength into your chest and waist. 4.Fig. You need to have the feeling of closing before opening. As you exhale and shift your weight forward. 4.11 147 . Repeat this process alternating the left and right sides.

confidence is a critical prerequisite. your practice hesitant and inconsistent. If. persistence may be engendered. Beginners tend not to have much confidence or belief in Zhuang skills because their practice has only just begun. your belief is half-hearted. and persistence. Confidence in Zhuang skills grows with practice as difficulties are overcome. practitioners are required to cultivate their Three Spirits when they begin practice. Indeed. You can persevere only if you firmly believe in the benefits of Zhuang skills. 王 西 安 148 . then your progress will be poor. Only after prolonged practice can confidence be nurtured. Through serious dedication. confident and diligent practice. So where does confidence come from? From practice. on the contrary. practioners will make the expected progress. and hold firm to these attributes throughout path of practice and study. With confidence comes determination. leading to progress and experience of the benefits. determination. In sum. with confidence and determination. Practitioners who apply the Three Spirits can develop good Zhuang skills and attain the expected results. and great determination.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Notes: Remember to cultivate and apply the Three Spirits: confidence.

1      The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang a) Posture 1 • • Step forward with the right foot and shift your weight forward. Chan Si Zhuang refers to practices using silkreeling power built on the foundation of Zhuang skill.6  chan si zhuang (reeling silk pOsTure) Chan Si power generated by practising Chan Si Zhuang is the core content of Chen Style Taijiquan. 王 西 安 149 .12). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The difference of this posture from that of San Ti posture is: • Both hands extend outward with Peng energy to prepare for the opponent’s Lü gesture. 4.4. both palms facing forward.6. As you step forward. extend both hands forward with the right hand before the left. 4. In this way. • At the same time. Peng force is maintained while the foundation of the body is reinforced as well. inhaling all the while (Fig. relax the chest and midriff muscles to provide balanced strength between the upper and lower bodies (with the waist as the dividing line). • The fingers of the both hands point to each other.

 4. 4.13 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 4.14 .12 王 西 安 150 Fig.

13). relax both arms. inhale and crouch the body slightly. otherwize. Apply Peng (ward off ) and Ji (press) outwards with both hands as you shift weight and exhale (Fig. Both hands make a half fist when reeling. At the same time. As you shift your weight. keeping the left hand inside and the right outside (Fig. open both fists into palms facing inward. suffusing it with Qi before lowering it down to the middle and then lower Dantian. rotate the left hand in Shun reeling in front of the lowered abdomen. 4. Inhale and swallow saliva. As this happens. 4. step the right foot on the ground. you start to repeat the sequence. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 c) Posture 3 • • • Next. 王 西 安 151 . When the left hand executes Lü (roll back) to the middle of the body. As the weight shifts. the right hand in front of the left. lower the shoulders. drop the elbows. gather and close the whole body so it forms a posture prepared for opening activities. relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left Move the left hand down in Ni (contrary) reeling and the right hand down in Shun (conforming) reeling.14).b) Posture 2 • • • • • • • Next. withdraw the right hand so it intersects the left. When this happens. you will lose your weight and axis). turn the waist and twist the crotch. When both hands reach their full extent (your Peng and Ji can’t exceed your orbit or territory. relax the right crotch and shift your weight gradually to the right.

Therefore. you should focus on increasing the duration and depth of your breath. It is incorrect to exhale with a long breath and inhale with a short breath (known as “too much Yin”) or vice-versa (“too much Yang”). When you practise Zhuang skills to a certain level.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. This phenomena of “connected arteries. veins and joints” is known as the “connected Ren Mai and Du Mai” in Zhuang skill terminology. After mastering the key principle of natural breath. your breath should be natural and of the proper duration so that it enhances body combat and health. The normal breath frequency of adults is six to twenty times per minute. then to five times per minute. the breath can become slower and longer. so that your lung capacity is enlarged and the contact area between the capillary vessels of the alveolus and fresh air is increased. The purpose of deep breathing is to make sure every small cell of your lungs takes part in the breathing. you will feel your key joints and your arteries and veins become unblocked and re-connected. Ren Mai starts 王 西 安 152 . Only by this can you avoid errors and side effects. This helps in the exchange of carbon dioxide and promotes metabolism in the body. After practicing Zhuang skills for a period. and comes only after accumulated practice.6.2      Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang When practicing Zhuang skill. Ren Mai and Du Mai are two of the eight channels (Ji Jing Ba Mai). Dual practice with Yi (intention) and Qi connects the whole body. Inhalations and exhalations should be of proper length. the most essential principles to apply when practicing Zhuang skill is intentional natural breathing and intentional technical coordination. This is a primary sign of beneficial Zhuang practice. decreasing to seven or ten breaths per minute. inhalation/exhalation being one breath. and even to one or two times per minute.

and Yu Zhen Guan. more gentle. and Yi and Qi should move in the required routes. the five sense organs internally gathered. the difference being that Da Zhou Tian extends Qi to the lower limbs. reaches the perineum through the Dantian and then connects to Du Mai. then reaches the maxilla through the ears and cheeks to finally connect to the tip of the tongue. reaches the Bai Hui point through Wei Lü Guan. even and quiet. except that the breathing in the former is longer. The whole process of moving Qi through Ren Mai and Du Mai. For both. the body should be relaxed. then infusing Qi into the Dantian. then rises through the backs of the legs before joining the routes of Xiao Zhou Tian. Du Mai starts at the perineum. Da Zhou Tian (Major Zhoutian) is an extension of Xiao Zhou Tian. Qi descends to the Yong Quan point through the inner sides of both legs after which it returns to the Dantian. deeper. The practice method for Da Zhou Tian is the same as that for Xiao Zhou Tian.from the tip of the tongue. In Da Zhou Tian. is called Xiao Zhou Tian (Minor Zhoutian) of Yin Yang circulation. Jia Gu Guan. all channels extended and unfolded. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 153 . The Qi of Da Zhou Tian originates from the Yong Quan point.

At the same time.15 Fig.7  wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang) Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan is also called “Closing Practice”. 王 西 安 Fig. Leave it there for a little while to nourish the Dantian before disgorging the Qi slowly. Its practicing method can be summarized thus: when you finish Peng and Ji outwards with both arms in Chan Si Zhuang.15). Swallow Qi down with saliva and guide it down to the middle Dantian. then infuse it into the lower Dantian. 4. a) Posture 1 • • • Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. 4. bring in the arms and place both palms in front of the abdomen (Fig. close your eyes and inhale. then bring in the right foot so that both feet are a shoulder-width apart.16 154 . 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.

17).17 Fig.b) Posture 2 • • • • • Inhale and with thumbs guiding the energy flow.16). pointing the fingertips upward. As the body lowers. Clench both hands into fists and lower them to ear level as the body lowers. separate the arms to the sides. lift both arms upright.18). Relax the whole body and raise it up slightly to open the joints throughout the body (Fig. 4. palms facing each other.18 155 . 4. finally placing them in front of the shoulders. swallow Qi and saliva and infuse them into the lower Dantian (Fig. palms facing in (Fig. fingertips pointing obliquely down. Then using the little fingers to guide the energy. 4. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 4.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.20

c) Posture 3

• •

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Lower the body into a crouch and open the fists into palms. Move them slowly to the outside of the legs and push down slowly while exhaling. Stop pushing when exhalation is complete (Fig. 4.19). Inhale again and slowly raise the body, extending the arms to the sides and lift them upright again. Repeat this process six times. When you finish, detach the tip of the tongue from the palate, open your eyes slowly. Join the hands together and heat them up by rubbing. Then use your warm hands to rub your face, neck, chest and other parts of the body. This method of warming helps relax the acupoint channels, stretches the tendons and muscles, and promotes the generation of Qi (Fig. 4.20).

CHAPTER FIVE

pRaCTiCes FoR The BuTToCks anD CRoTCh

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5.1  pracTice fOr The buTTOcks

5.1.1      Overview 
The requirements for positioning the buttocks in Taijiquan practice are very strict. It requires the practitioner to put Wei Lü (coccygeal end, at the end of spine) in an upright position when practicing, gathering and raising it naturally so that the buttocks do not protrude nor swing too much, otherwise the buttocks will be unable to rise and lower naturally. Taijiquan novices sometimes err on over-gathering or raising the buttocks, which can result in various negative effects. For example, if the buttocks are gathered too far forward, the posture will become unnaturally stiff and not follow the natural straight alignment of the body; in addition, this posture may also impede natural breathing as it blocks smooth circulation of Qi throughout the body and may even destabilize the firmness of the weight of the lower limbs. Gathering or raising buttocks in routine and Tuishou practice must be applied in accordance with each specific practice and not generalized. For example, while relaxing the the joints and muscles in the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying One’s Coat), the buttocks should be raised slightly as the waist is lowered so that Qi can descend smoothly into the Dantian. If the buttocks are pushed too far forward, the lowering of the waist is impeded and consequently, Qi cannot cannot descend through the Dantian and separate into two streams to flow through the Yong Quan point through to the legs.

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5.1.2      Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
An example of applying this principle in Tuishou sparring is as follows: if the opponent executes Lü on you, you need to relax, lower your Qi and gather your buttocks before executing the Bei Kao move (Kao with the back). In this move, gathering the buttocks helps to concentrate power drawn from the heels and transported up the legs before it is unleashed at the target. In contrast, raising rather than gathering buttocks at this point will hinder full release of striking power and thwarts any attempt to transform the opponent’s energy. Bei Kao is an opening-closing move, consisting of lightening-quick power exertion and rebound, during which you need to guide Qi upward to explode energy. To do this, you need to roll the chest slightly inward and bend knees a little, then stamp on the ground to generate rebounding power and ascending Qi. The gathering of buttocks at this point is essential so that Qi can descend instantaneously after energy release. Protruding the buttocks will impede Qi flow downwards, resulting in Qi blockage at the chest which affects the stability of a practitioner’s stance and may even be harmful to health. These key points in the above example need to be practised and applied assiduously during routine and Tuishou practice.

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5.2  pracTices fOr The crOTch (dang)

5.2.1      Overview
Dang refers to the crotch area where the legs connect to the body. To open the Dang area, the thighs need to be stretched apart as much as possible so that the waist and crotch can rotate freely. Any obstruction of Dang movement will negatively affect routine and Tuishou practice. The opening-closing of Dang, that is, the transition between emptiness and solidity of the crotch area, has a direct impact on the flexibility of the practitioner’s body and his or her ability to change speed and weight. The shift between emptiness and solidity of the Dang area is used as a measure to monitor and adjust movement and speed of movement, and also serves as the key point to increase the power to be exploded. The firmness of Dang relates to their exertion of power and resistance. Mastery of Dang power and posture in routine and Tuishou practice helps increase flexibility, emptiness and stability of waist and legs, reinforces the foundation and enhances your practice. Adjustments to the waist and Dang are usually the first steps taken when you feel there is something not quite right with your movements routine or Tuishou practice. As Master Chen Xin said, “When you attain realization of Taiji, even a bird cannot fly out from under you during Taiji movement.” In other words, the openingclosing of Dang is key to increasing and exerting power. When Dang is closed, the whole body is directed toward closing (He); when Dang opens, the body opens. Hence, Dang is essential to Xu (gathering), He (closing), Yin (guiding), and Fang (releasing) in routine and Tuishou practice.

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王 西 安 161 . A brief introduction is provided below. This realization caused the ancients to suggest that “the ground door should be always closed”. womb prolapse and so on.The Anus In the same way that the positioning of Dang is very precise. and it became difficult for vena blood to flow to heart. advocating contraction of the anus during physical exercise as a remedy. the perineum and it’s soft tissue started to bear greater pressure from such internal organs as the liver. The right leg should be relaxed with the right knee inclined slightly outward and the Dang gathered inward so that both form a strong pair.2      Yuan Dang … Round Crotch Yuan Dang refers to the opening of the Dang area in a circular shape. In ancient times. Ding Dang. a short introduction of key Dang movements. Jian Dang and Tang Dang. in the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture of the Chen style Taiji Lao Jia routine. when the distribution between the weight-bearing leg and the other leg is at a ratio of 3:7 or 4:6. This requires the left leg to be solid with the lower leg standing upright. the left knee and ankle vertically aligned to each other and the ground. the weight distribution is 3:7.2. rectocele. anus contraction should only be slight and done in a natural way. To help you master correct Dang postures in routine and Tuishou practice. it was realized that the anus and perineum were two of the most vulnerable parts of the human body. the positioning of the anus also needs careful attention. which means that the left leg bears 30% of body weight while the right leg bears 70% of body weight. are described below: 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 5. womb and so on. Yuan Dang. For example. In Taiji practice. After humans evolved to the upright posture and started to walk. Doing so over an extended period can have a positive effect in curing hemorrhoids.

For example. innate talents. the body crouches as the right knee moves outward.” Indeed. there are many opportunities and responsibilities. Some perform better than others due to learning abilities. This positioning of Dang also means that it fulfils the Taiji principle of “opening in closing”. These traditional teaching methods should be changed as implied by the adage. In traditional teaching methods. “closing in opening” and that “Dang should open in a full circle”. A practitioner trying to eliminate the habit of Ding Dang in his or her postures will require a long period of re-adjustment as the new correct Dang posture will initially feel very uncomfortable. which means there will not be opening-closing power if he or she crouches in the Horse Stance. he or she will typically re-distribute weight between the legs to a ratio of 4:6 or 5:5. the right knee should incline outward. when the right leg moves to the side. As for practitioners. This should be corrected at the earliest stages of learning.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In this way. 5. it is very difficult to correct bad practice habits solidified with prolonged practice.3      Ding Dang … Tight Crotch Ding Dang refers to a common mistake made by novice practitioners whereby one leg supports the body without relaxing. Ding Dang arises when the area connecting the weight-bearing right leg to the crotch remains tight. “It is easy to teach but hard to change what is learnt. energy in the legs is strengthened and the body is well supported. 王 西 安 162 . teachers do not typically correct their students’ mistakes as the emphasis was on students digesting teachings gradually and adjusting mistakes themselves. That is. the root of Dang should be relaxed. at the end of the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture.2. Hence. Yuan Dang reinforces the foundation and allows flexible body rotation in any direction. and at this moment Dang should open in a circle so that both legs can support all parts of the body. If a practitioner is advised to relax.

and quality and length of practice, rather than due to a teacher’s attention. Some practitioners are happy to help the teacher out and teach others, their intention being to allow the teacher more rest. Students are also happy to learn from co-practitioners as this may help to accelerate learning.

5.2.4      Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
In Jian Dang position, the Dang area is shaped like an inverted “A”, the bottom tip of the Dang area is tight and not relaxed. In this case, Dang cannot be lowered during routine and Tuishou practice, and Yuan Dang cannot be formed at all. Moreover, the Bow Step is hampered, one’s gait becomes unsteady, and the upper body becomes heavy while the lower body is unrooted, swaying to the right or left, while the feet are also unsteady. This mistake may be tolerated by the old and weak if their aim is just to improve health, but cannot be ignored by younger practitioners who want to improve combat skills. Because with Jian Dang, some get easily unrooted, some find they can’t get clear distribution of weight, some find it so hard to shift the weight because they put exceeded weight onto one leg. If the habit of Jian Dang is allowed to form over a period of time, practitioners will become used to it and feel comfortable in this incorrect stance, which should be avoided. On the contrary, one must learn to identify and cultivate the twin qualities of emptiness-solidity in the legs through the practice of Taiji routines. Novices practicing Dang will inevitably develop aching feet. This is no cause for worry, as these are normal physical indications of body development and they will disappear when you reach a certain level. For example, after a bout of Tuishou sparring, novice practitioners may feel a little ache in the arms and legs, and indeed, the whole body may ache after a little rest. This is because you are not used to the intense exercise and some capillary blood vessels may have been strained. This ache will lessen gradually after extended practise, as the body becomes stronger, blood circulation improves and lung capacity is increased. At this stage, any additional

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muscle ache resulting from further increase in practice will ease off more quickly. Hence, do not be deterred by any aches and apply Yuan Dang when practicing Taiji and Tuishou, so that Jian Dang may be prevented from developing. Without patience, Taiji skills cannot be improved.

5.2.5      Tang Dang 
Tang Dang happens when the legs are spread too far apart, out of proportion to the weight distribution required on the legs and the lowered Dang. As a result, the movements of the legs are hampered as they are not able to move forward and back or turn to the sides with natural ease. This situation is also called Ta Dang, meaning collapsing Dang. The Taijiquan routine is a whole body practice, suitable for people of all ages, body constitutions and those engaged in mental and physical work. Typically, practice methods for Taijiquan routines start from large circle movements to smaller ones, then from smaller circles to no-circle movements. However, the opposite is true for Dang practice, which starts with smaller scale movements, growing to larger-scaled practice. This requires Dang to be positioned a little higher in the beginning before becoming lower and wider gradually. As with Ding Dang and Jian Dang, be careful not to form the habit of committing to Tuishou movements that bring a lot of pressure to the knee joints, as Tang Dang not only increases pressure, but may also cause harm. This results in chronically tight muscles which will eventually cause bad blood circulation in the legs. The Tang Dang posture has particular impact on the stimulation of the on the nerves in the knee joint, so hindering the supply and renewal of blood in the leg muscles. Prolonged Tang Dang positioning will result in aching knee joints and a very heavy feeling in the legs. In some large-scale movements, Tang Dang

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may actually be intentionally applied, such as in the Seven Cun Kao movement, that is Kao applied in the Xie Xing or oblique walk where the distance between the ground and shoulder is seven cun (about 23 cm). Yet even in this movement, heavy pressure on the legs last only an instant and the legs can recover quickly, so Tang Dang poses no real issues. However, large-scale movements cannot be applied to the whole practice; hence Tang Dang is considered harmful to health and body combat if applied for extended periods in routine and Tuishou practice. Generally speaking, Dang practice should begin modestly with a slight lowering of the body, gradually growing to bigger movements. Most importantly, it should match the physical conditions of the practitioner and the requirements of body combat so that the practitioner does not incur any injury.

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CHAPTER SIX

Chen sTyle Taiji Tuishou CaTegoRies

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In this chapter. Indeed. Tuishou is commonly divided into eight categories. since both the attacking and defensive movements are interrelated and cannot be separated. we will describe how to apply these eight Tuishou techniques in sparring practice. your opponent may respond defensively with Xiong Kao (Kao by chest). then strike back with Jian Kao. with attackers changing to defensive roles in an instant and back again without warning. the attack-defense stances change dynamically. For example.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. if you advance using Ying Men Kao (Kao diagonally to the front).1  Overview  Within the Chen style Taiji routine. practitioners may master its secrets and principles with serious study. For example. if the opponent attacks using Jian Kao (Kao with shoulder). 王 西 安 168 . While the combinations of Tuishou moves are infinite. you can defend using An (pressing).

He Bu Tuishou with static footwork. normally a forward step then a backward step) 6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 169 .e. which is regarded as the highest level of Tuishou. and any movements can be exerted by intention.1      Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories The Chen style Taiji Tuishou Routines can be divided into: 1.1. also known as Ding Bu Tuishou (Coiling Hand with Static Footwork) 5. silk reeling in the shape of a flower) 2.6. Da Lü (larger scale movements) 7. Li Yuan and Ping Yuan (Vertical Coiling Flower and Horizontal Coiling Flower) 4. Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with movable footwork. Shuang Shou Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Double Hands) 3. i. Dan Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Single Hand. while Tuishou) or Jin Wu Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 5 steps. Jin San Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 3 steps. where the the practitioners are no longer oblidged to the sequences or fixed routines. while Tuishou) 8. Luan Cai Hua (Picking Flower.

2      Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork  Tuishou handwork is commonly divided into four classifications. In moving footwork such as Shun Bu (walking backward and forward) and Da Lü. Ji. Zou. Lü. Dan Tuishou (Tuishou with single hand) 2. including: 1. feet placed together ) 7. During sparring. Cha Bu (inserting steps) 6. Si Zheng Shou (Peng.e. Huo Bu (moving footwork) 3. Lian Jin Lian Tui (moving forward/back/right/left continuously) 4. and not be limited to one or the other. Lian Huan Zuoyou Xuanzhuan (moving continously with body rotation) 王 西 安 170 5. Shuang Tuishou (Tuishou with double hands) 3. Qie Zhang (palm chop) In static footwork. i. Si Yu Shou hand techniques are always used. Bie. Dian Bu (stepping on toe-tips) .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Xuan Wan (rotating wrists) 4. There are many categories of footwork techniques. Duli Bu (standing on a single foot) 8. novices should start by learning one set at a time. as follows: 1.1. these consist of the Cai. Ding Bu (static footwork) 2. practitioners should be able to switch flexibly between Si Zheng Shou and Si Yu Shou techniques as circumstances require. Bing Bu (step touch. or Kao hand techniques. An) is usually applied. However.

1      Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground Li Zhang is used at the initial stages of a sparring bout. you need to place the body in a crouching position. palm facing in. When cutting downward. with the forearm bent toward the upper arm at an angle of 450. one arm is extended horizontally sideways. 6. 6.2  TuishOu handwOrk Techniques 6.2).2. it is also applied to Gun (roll).6. with the wrist lowered and fingers relaxed. the four fingers extended and joined together to form a slightly concave palm (Fig. In single practice.2. Da (meet) and Sao (sweep) movements. when both players retreat after being mutually warded off.2 171 . The elbow must be dropped. 6. The roots of the fingers are relaxed. 6.2      Cutting with Palm This technique uses the edge of the palm to cut downward in a vertical or diagonal direction. roll the chest slightly inward and lower the waist and shoulders. In this posture. 6.1). Shuan (bind). it is also often used when pushing or rotating in various directions in both Shun and Ni reeling. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. All these adjustments must be executed simultaneously so that power can reach the palm edge and hit the target clearly (Fig.1 Fig.

2. For example. 王 西 安 Fig. In this instance. The remaing three fingers turn slightly outward so that the palm becomes concave (Fig.3). if the opponent executes Lü on you. Xie Tuo Zhang is also applied in the process of Big Lü. change your palm to Wa Long Palm as you follow your opponent and reel in the Shun direction as the palm rotates upward. 6. This techniqueis often applied in Shun Chan (conforming reeling) and Yin Jin (drawing into your territory). one player may guide the other to reel first in the Shun direction.4 172 . 6. where the raised hand lies above the middle of the upper arm. the power lies in the root of the palm. the hand is stretched upward to the sides (Fig. 6. During sparring. The palm posture during this direction change is called Xie Tuo Zhang. As you rotate the hand downward or outward.3      Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm The Wa Long Palm is shaped like a Chinese roof tile where the sides curl upward and the middle is low. 6. then reverse to the Ni direction when the hands arrive at his or her body.3 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.2. the little finger is used to guide energy and draw inward toward the thumb. 6.4).4      Xie Tuo Zhan In this technique. when hands are rotating horizontally in a circle.

5 173 . • In Luan Cai Hua (palms reel in non-predictable angles. 6. • When the opponent executes Lü on your hand during Si Zheng Shou (handwork in four directions. • Cha Zhang is also adopted in Shun Bu Tuishou (see above) with moving footwork. fingers slightly parted (Fig. see above). separate them and switch to Cha Zhang. This technique is called Diagonally Upward Cha. the hand is inserted upward or vertically/diagonally downward. Cha Zhang can be applied via the same application methods as with the Si Zheng Shou (stated above). then lower your shoulders and drop the elbows. Cha Zhang is widely used in Tuishou.5      Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm In this technique. see above).2.6. as the hands insert downward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. for example: • When you rotate both hands in vertical circles. 6. insert your hand downward and rotate it in the Shun direction.5). and gradually press your hands toward the opponent.

When you guide your partner via Shun reeling to the front of your chest.2. This way. and the little finger bending inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. This type of hand is always used in Qin Na (arresting) and Tuishou with single hand in a horizontal circle.6      Ba Zi Shou Ba Zi Shou (hand posture in character ‘八’): separate the thumb and the index finger to form a “八” shape. 6. the ring finger. Fig. you can rotate your arm with the middle finger. while the thumb and the index finger form a “ 八” shape.6). 6. it is called Ba Zi hand because “八” is pronounced ‘ba’ in Chinese (Fig. and your partner exerts An to your hand.6 王 西 安 174 . you find it earsier to eliminate the opponent’s power by rotating your waist outwards with relaxation.

toe tips bent slightly inward. This knee is turned slightly outward to provide a frame for all parts of the body. One knee is bent so that the body is in a half crouch.3. The toe tips point slightly inward.6. 6. the Yong Quan point should be empty while the Dang is open with the intention to close. the thigh nearly parallel to the ground.3  TuishOu fOOTwOrk Techniques 6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. the sole fully touching the ground. 6. following the principle of ‘straightening in bending’. the knee positioned approximately above the tip of the foot (Fig. The other leg bends with the intention to straighten. following the principle of ‘closing in opening’.7 王 西 安 175 . In this posture.7).1      Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step This technique requires the soles of the feet to touch the ground.

toes grasping the ground. you can move your the weight back to transform their power by raising your toe tip and hence causing the heel to touch the ground naturally. Keep the Yong Quan point empty so the straightened leg can be lifted later if the body weight is kept on the Bow leg (Fig. for example: • In Ping Yuan Tuishou (Tuishou in horizontal circles).8 6.2      Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step In this posture.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. 6. straighten the front leg so that the back leg becomes the Bow leg. Fig. 6. the heel touches the ground with the toes pointing up at about 450 (Fig. if the opponent presses on any part of your body with his or her hands or arms. It is applied widely in Tuishou. 王 西 安 176 .3.8). • This step is always used in Shun step. body weight is transferred from the front Bow leg to the back leg during in Shun Bu Tuishou pairwork. Position both feet fully on the ground.9). knee bent slightly over the toe tips. When the weight is completely transferred.3.3      Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step In this step. 6.

and Luan Cai Hua For example. 6. if an opponent applies Lü on you. 6. 6. followed by the sole then heel (Fig.Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3. move your weight back and withdraw the front leg backward by stepping the toe tip back first.10).9 6.4      Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step This step is applied in three Tuishou techniques: a) Shun Bu –Tuishou big Lü.10 177 .

Lü applied through large-scale movements) (Fig.11).12 . For example. quickly ‘fall’ to the ground with a large-scale ground sweep of the Bow leg. 6. 6. 王 西 安 178 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. which now lies close to the ground. 6. This posture is applied to Shun step. c) Duli Bu (Standing on Single Foot) Duli Bu refers to having one foot raised while the other stands on the ground.11 b) Pu Bu (Falling Step) Pu Bu is only applied to Big Lü (i. Hence the name ‘Falling Step’. and is widely used in forward or backward movements (Fig. in the ‘Dragon sweeps ground’ form. 6. 12). Big Lü and Luan Cai Hua.e. When the opponent applies Big Lü on you.

4.13 179 .6. spirals around the waist and shoulders. you can also use Shun Chan to attack to the side or directly on to the opponent after drawing them into your territory. It then rises from the internal to manifest externally through the skin and fine hairs until it reaches the fingers. In addition. exerting Ji and Na in confronting reelings). where it returns to its original position of circulation. with the other fingers slightly turned outward. the shoulders guiding the elbows and the waist guiding the shoulders. you draw the opponent inward into your territory. Shun Chan means to spiral energy from the outside to the inside. The principle of Shun Chan is that with the elbows guiding the hands. In Silk Reeling technique.e. while simultaneously executing Kao on the opponent. For example. the term ‘reeling’ means to spiral energy. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. when the opponent executes Lü on you. enters the bone marrow through gaps in the scapula and travels down the arms. 6. with the little finger guiding energy as it points to the thumb when it is drawn inward. power rises from the heels up the legs.1      Shun Chan … Conforming reeling In Taijiquan. This move is called Shun Ji Shun Fa (i. you can use Shun Chan to gather energy and edge into the opponent’s territory.4  hand Techniques in TuishOu reeling 6. in Bei Zhe Kao (Lean with back).

extend your right hand and guide the opponent to rotate in Shun reelings towards your leftside. 6.15). by using the waist to urge the shoulder. shoulders and elbows. the thumb gathers inward and guides the little finger. In Ni Chan. 6. Ni Chan is used to open outward. concentrate you energy in the wrist. 王 西 安 Fig.4. the shoulders to urge on the elbows and the elbows guiding the hands.15 180 . In horizontal circle rotations with single hand. Note: to apply this technique precisely. 6. You then Ni reel to your right ribs and change the attacking hand into ‘八’ shape so that you can easily capture your opponent.4. while the other fingers turn out slightly (Fig. Zuo Wan (descending wrist) technique is adopted (Fig.14 Fig. 6.3      Shun Ni Zuo Wan   Wrist descending in Shun and Ni directions This technique consists of lowering the wrist gradually during the transition from Shun to Ni Chan. Here.14). roll your chest slightly inward and lower your waist.2      Ni Chan … Reverse reeling Ni Chan is the reverse of Shun Chan and may also be called ‘Ni Silk Reeling Outwards’.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. 6.

An) or four side-oriented Si Yu Shou techniques (Si Yu Shou. Lie.4. in case of single hand rotation in the horizontal circle. and adhere to him or her. which is formed by pointing the little. Diao Wan is also widely applied in response to a Lü attack. Lü. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.16). Kao). Diao Wan has two functions: • Diao Wan can be used as one option to enhance the ability of Zhan Nian (adhering to the opponent). 6. your right hand rotates at 90o towards the right side of body in Ni reeling.16 181 . ring and middle fingers vertically downward while the thumb and the index finger form a ‘八’ shape (Ba Zi). Zhou.6. The wrist is drawn inward to form a Diao Wan (Hooked Wrist). then quickly switches to Shun reeling and you easily seize the wrist of your partner by hooking hand.4      Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist This technique is often used when the Ni Chan changes to Shun Chan. by holding on to the opponent by the hand. • For example. the Shun hand changes to Diao Shou (Hooked Hand). through any of the four front-oriented Si Zheng Shou techniques (Si Zheng Shou Peng. Ji. At this point. to provide a closing and opposing force with the three fingers (Fig. 6. Cai. while trying to ‘listen’.

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6.4.5      Shun Chan Yang Zhang   Raised palm in conforming reeling
This can be divided into inward Yang (palm rising) and outward Yang (palm rising), which are always used in the four front oriented techniques (called ‘Si Zheng Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Peng, Lü, Ji, An) and four side oriented techniques (called ‘Si Yu Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). First, if the partner executes Lü on your right arm, you insert loosely in Ni reeling, and then advance and press inwards by Shun reeling, raising the hand while advancing. It is called Yi Yang Zhang (palm raised inward), because at this time the palm is facing inward and upward. Second, if you guide the partner and withdraw your step, the partner will likely expose some weak point after you raise your palm in Ni reeling. To lift the partner in this ‘openning’ provides preparation for your ‘closing’, i.e. to capture your partner in Shun reeling quickly. At this time your palm is facing upper outward, so it is called Wai Yang Zhang (palm raised outward) Internally, whether in outward Yang or inward Yang, you should coordinate whole body movements coherently. Yang is a kind of opening, so at this time the body should close, so as to support each other and not be separated. Practitioners must pay attention to these principles in practice.

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6.5  TuishOu sTeps 6.5.1      Shang Bu … Forward Step
Shang Bu is a forward step with one foot, and begins with both a step forward and the bending of the knees so that the body is slightly crouched, five toes grasping the ground (Fig. 6.18). This preparatory posture resembles a cat ready to pounce on a rat, and allows you to step forward lightly and flexibly. Like a cat, you should prepare first by gathering energy, then extending the foot while listening and feeling intently. Step first with the heel then uncurling the rest of the foot flat on the ground. This procedure will limit your vulnerability.

6.5.2      Tui Bu … Retreating Step
The Tui step consists of moving one leg backward in an arc, and it can consist of more than one step (Fig. 6.19). Key to the Tui Bu is the bending of the weight-bearing knee. How much this knee bends and hence how much your body squats depends on the size of the Tui step. The bigger your retreating step, the lower you will have to bend your knee. However, it also depends on your body condition. Whatever the case, the Tui step has to be done flexibly and lightly and not with stiffness.

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6.5.3      Gen Bu … Following Step
The Gen Bu can also be called the Dian (adding) Step (Fig. 6.20). This step is used in the situation where one normal step is too small to reach the target while two steps too excessive. In this instance, one is said to Gen (follow) or Dian (add) a small step after a normal step to reach the target distance. Gen is applied to the four front orientated techniques, Si Zheng Shou (Peng, Lü, Ji, An), big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. The main purpose of Gen Bu is to get closer to the opponent to decrease their chances of escape. However, note that the Gen step is completed without the opponent’s awareness, a technique called Die Fa (a general concept of body combat techniques, referring to the comprehensive techniques and strategies to defeat the opponents, on the basis of quality ‘listening’ to their speed, weight and power in Tuishou). The importance the Gen step in Tuishou is reflected in the saying, “You cannot reach the depth and secrets of Tuishou without understanding Die Fa.”

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Fig. 6.20

CHAPTER 7

solo pRaCTiCe in Tuishou

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7.1  inTrOducTiOn 
Solo Tuishou practice consists of individual practices useful for improving flexibility, agility and responsiveness to combat. Typically, body movements are initially executed at a high stance, gradually lowering to mid then lower stances. However, practitioners should practise according to their body condition. Likewise, beginners should start with practicing at slow speed, gradually working up to faster then very swift movements. At each stage, slow movements should not become blocked, fast movements not energy-losing, and very fast movements not chaotic. In other words, you should not lose energy in slow practice, nor be obstructed in fast movements. On the contrary, you should keep the consistency, coherence and Liu He (the Closing and Consistency of six parts of the body), and avoid any disorder and energy loss.When one part of body moves, all other parts follow and coordinate. In solo Tuishou, you should act as though following your partner neatly, and always keep attention concentrated, shoulder blades relaxed, and movements flexible. Execute solo practice as if you were actually fighting with a partner, with the fight so vivid that it brings you more interest in your practice. As a result, after thorough sole practice, the whole body moves flexibly, neatly and smoothly, and you are able to do well in actual paired Tuishou.

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Your step should be light. Step the right foot forward. bend the left knee and draw in the lower abdomen slightly to stabilize the weight-bearing left leg. straightening the neck and lifting the top of the head. empty the Yong Quan point.2. Continue relaxing the crotch. precise and full of intention of listening.e. the left toes grasping the ground.2. palms lightly touching the sides of the legs. eyes looking forward (Fig. stepping without thought) (Fig. Maintain the vertical axis. heel first with toes pointed up. relax the crotch and lift the right knee. then slowly roll down the rest of the foot to the ground. in preparation for the right leg step forward lightly. 7. Relax the arms and hang them at the sides. 7. Shift your weight slowly to the left leg. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. As your weight shifts.2). 7.2      Part 2 • • • • Relax the crotch and bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position.3      Part 3 • • • Maintain the vertical axis and lift the top of the head slightly.2  sOlO ping yuanwan hua (sOlO hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer) 7.1).2.3). so as to avoid empty stepping (i. Point the right toe tips down naturally as your weight shifts completely to the left and you stand with a left leg posture (Fig. 王 西 安 187 .1      Part 1 • • • Stand at attention with toe tips pointing slightly outward to form a “八” shape. 7.7.

.4). relax the left arm so that the left hand hangs down. 7. As the weight shifts.4      Part 4 • • • Shift your weight slowly to the right leg to form a right Bow step. thumb behind the fingers (Fig. 王 西 安 188 Note: in later movements.2.3 7. 7. 7. the left elbow and the right hand should move coherently in collaboration with each other. While the right arm moves.1 Fig. right elbow and wrist.2 Fig. extend the right arm forward then bend the forearm about 450 inward while also lowering the shoulders. Complete the movement by raising the right fingers to form the Li (erect) palm. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

Fig.5      Part 5 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Focusing your right hand on the imaginary partner move it about 900 in Shun reeling to the left of the body. 王 西 安 189 .5 7. As you reel. 7. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight slowly to the left so that the inner side of the right foot touches the ground.4 Fig. 7. The right knee follows the movement of the right hand and rotates inward at the same speed (Fig. 7.5).2.

the weight shifts completely to the left.6 Fig.7). the elbow in a slightly warding off (Peng) position in coordination with the little finger. 7. The other fingers reel outwards in coordination with the elbow (Fig.6). draw the right knee slightly inward to prepare for an increased range of movement in the ensuing steps.6      Part 6 • • 王 西 安 190 • • As the right hand completes its reel to the left. This gesture enhances the movement by making the downward movement of the arm more precise and structured (Fig. At this point. . When the right arm moves downward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. change from Shun reeling to Ni reeling and continue moving in a downward arc to the front of the left ribs. 7. Step the right foot either flatly on the ground or with toe tips pointing up. The right forearm now moves transversely in front of the abdomen. 7. 7.2.7 7. right palm facing down and wrist bending 450 inward using the little finger as a guide.

8). Rotate the waist to the right. While the right arm reels. 7. 7. As the arm changes to Ni reeling. bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. followed by the hand. continue reeling the right arm outward until the palm faces upward and the thumb and the first finger form a “八” shape. 7. that is. The 3600 rotation of the arm follows this sequence of changes: Shun.9      Part 9 • • Now using Ni reeling. until it reaches the front of the right ribs. power is most concentrated and exerted on the external side of the thumb and index finger.2. Then place the palm downward (Fig. pointing the right knee slightly outward and moving it in a helix.8      Part 8 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 With the right hand. extend the right hand slightly forward. Return the bent arm and the bow leg to their original positions (Fig. draw the chest slightly inward and relax the right side of the crotch. At this point. Use the rightward rotation of the waist and torso to steer and guide the partner’s power into your territory towards your right side so you can eliminate it. shift your weight to the right. three Shun reelings and two Ni reelings. changing into Ni reeling.2.2. Shun. then draw an arc to the left where you met yourtpartner at the beginning the posture of palms.7. using it as a pivot to rotate the right shoulder rightward. Ni. Ni. Shun.7      Part 7 • • • • Using the little finger to guide the energy. 王 西 安 191 .9). 7. a 900 arc to the right side of body.

three Ni reelings and two Shun reelings. that is. when one body part moves then all other body part follow. the reeling sequence being Ni. 王 西 安 192 . Relax the waist and shoulders. the lower body follows. The movement of every part of the body should be continuous and synchronised – when the upper body moves. rotate the wrist. the arms rotate with the waist and the axis while the hand guides the energy. the upper body guides the lower body’s movement. Practice alternating rotations with both arms so that there is a feeling of balance. practice on the left by switching to the left leg and the left hand. Shun. Shun. Notes In these horizontal-circle rotations. 7.9 • The left arm rotates from the left.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.8 Fig. and ensure your body weight moves back and forth in synch with the body movements. Ni. Practice until you reach a level where when one body part keeps still then all other body parts keep still. all parts moving together collectively. The middle body moves in coordination with the upper and lower bodies. When you feel tired practicing on the right. 7. Ni. that is.

Focus the eyes on the right palm (Fig. These shifts are not immediately apparent as they occur mainly between the front and back sides of the legs and feet.3  sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle This is a single hand practice involving movements of a smaller range. lower your Qi. then switching to 90o Shun reeling.10).12). It only requires vertial hand revolution and very small shifts in weight. 7. • • • • • Keep your body weight on the left leg and step forward. with eyes looking forward (Fig. switch to Ni reeling. heel first with the right foot. Finally. The range and intensity in the arm rotations may be increased gradually depending of the level of the practitioner. palm slanting upward with intention to gently guide and draw in.11). The whole movement is mainly guided by the rotating waist and relaxed shoulders.7. return your hand to the original Da Shou position (meet the opponent with the hand) (Fig. relax the left side of the crotch. 7. drawing an arc of about 180o which goes downward and then up to the right. Extend the right arm forward (either below or above the head) with the arm bending inward about 45o and with the left hand akimbo. Next. drawing an arc of about 90o to the left. Bend the left leg so that you squat slightly. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 193 . Next. then turn the body to the left and raise the right hand in Shun reeling. 7. with the rest of the foot gradually fully touching the ground. This vertical rotation may be developed to the quality of Silk Reeling and may be used as a combat technique or for listening practice.

王 西 安 194 .11 Fig.10 Fig. 7. then reel in Shun. Finally. 7. reel in Ni to the right at 90o.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7.12 • • When rotating in the opposite direction. Vertical arm rotation is guided by spiraling movements of the waist and back. then draw a 180o arc to the left side of the body with palm facing left and finger tips slanted upward. Practice rotating both arms in turn. Notes The single-hand vertical circle is not completely vertical but slightly slanted at an angle to allow you to guide and draw the opponent in. return to the Da Shou position (meeting the opponent with your hand) by a 90o upward arc in Ni reeling.

15). Raise the forearms 90o upward. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance.14 Fig. 7. Note: when applying Tui Palm. 7. 7. 7.13 Fig. otherwise the shape of the posture will be lost (Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. the palms should move forward at an inclined angle (see picture). shift your the weight gradually forward.4  dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua • • • • Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.14). palms facing to each other. the forward shift of the body should stop once the palms reach their natural end position.13). 7. 7. eyes facing the front (Fig. in preparation for action (Fig. then raise the right foot. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. pushing both palms forward (Tui Palm) at the same time. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. Relax the left crotch and while focussing on the right crotch.7.16). 7. toes relaxed and pointing downward (Fig.15 195 . Also.

then pushing both hands forward. palms vertical. then lowering to the front of the abdomen. 7.17 • • • Next. imagining the hands seizing the opponent’s wrists by Diao (Fig. 7. Repeat the Tui Palm movement again. 7. shift your weight backward and separate both hands to the sides of the body. Practice this cycle.17).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.15) by drawing a circle by the sides of the body. 7. this time relaxing the right crotch and focussing on the left crotch. Continue shifting your weight backward while both hands return to the original position in front of the abdomen (Fig.16 Fig. 王 西 安 196 .

This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. 7. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.19 197 .19). draw the chest inward. 7. toes relaxed and pointing downward (see Fig. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance. eyes facing the front. lower the waist and shoulders. Grasp the ground lightly with the toes and face the eyes forward (Fig.7. palms facing to each other.5  sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle One cycle consists of one Shun reeling plus one Ni reeling of each hand. 7. 7.18).18 Fig. then raise the right foot. • • • • Preparation postures are the same as those of Double Hand Horizontal Wan Hua. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen.14). in preparation for action (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 7. While raising the hands. stated as follows: Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. drop the elbows and sink the Qi downward. Raise the forearms 90o upward.

palms facing forward. both palms facing inward. continue to draw your chest inward. extending the hands forward so that the left hand crosses over the inner side of the right wrist.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.20). push the crossed palms over the head in Ni reeling. Then. with the intention of supporting something upward.21 • • • • 王 西 安 198 • Next. open your back slightly and withdraw the elbows slightly inward so that power can easily reach the inner edges of the hands. cross both hands slowly in Shun reeling.21). . Extend both hands forward in an ‘offering’ stance. finish the weight shift to your right leg. During this process. 7. As both hands separate upwards. 7. Next. step the left foot on the ground and shift your weight forward (Fig.20 Fig. 7. At the same time. stopping at shoulder level (Fig. the palms descend to the sides. 7. after another small Ni reeling upward.

each associated body part strikes out in a Peng attack (Ward Off ) from the sides of the body. shoulders. finger-tips pointing down. With body gathering. the chest. Note: Hand techniques are of the same as that of Solo Ping Yuan Wan Hua. palms facing each other. upper arm. palms cross together. You will feel the power after long practice. then hands. that is. • • Now the left hand reels in Ni while the right hand reels in Shun. strike out in succession to the sides so that the arms become a pulled bow. only that palms in the latter move horizontally.Note: as both hands separate outward. while weight totally switches to the left. so as to start a new cycle. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 199 . forearm. Both hands then draw a downward arc to fall to each side of the abdomen. Closing form: palms continue to Shun reel.

6  sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk Solo practice for He Bu Tuishou with static footwork is based on the four Zheng hands: Peng. eyes. palm facing forward.22 Fig.23 200 . • Stand at attention. thumb pointing down and the little finger pointing upward. 王 西 安 Fig. palm facing in. heel first. • Shift your weight to the left leg and lift the right foot to step forward. then bend it inward 45o. • As the weight shifts. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the right. The key points are the same as those of solo Tuishou. Lü. Ji. Extend the left hand transversely and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. Coordinate the movements of your hands. 7. When practicing.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. and An. 7. act as if sparring with a partner. with the foot gradually stepping fully on the ground. body and steps. Open every body part to make your rotations natural and flexible. Note that one should practice with intention rather than by force.

shift your weight left and focus your eyes on the front of the right hand (Fig.• • • • • The left arm intends to Peng outward. 7. and the eyes look forward to the right (Fig. 7. Move the right hand in Shun reeling. lower the right shoulder and drop the right elbow. During this process. Meanwhile.24 Fig.24). and so continue to Peng upward before executing Lü. raise both hands in Ni reeling. coordinate and execution of Ji forward to the right with the right hand acting as a joint force (Fig. 7.25 201 . Next. the wrist bent slightly inward and palm facing inward. At the same time. Relax the right crotch and turn the body to the right. as the left hand moves inward in Ni reelings. relax the left crotch. the arm opens like a circle. 7. visualize placing the outer edge of the right hand on the outside of the opponent’s elbow joint Then execute Lü with both hands slowly to the left side of the body until the right hand reaches the front of the right breast.23). 7. As the left hand rises. the left hand ahead of the right. Shift your weight to the left slightly then to right.22). focus your intention on meeting and holding the opponent’s hand. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

As this happens. pushing it outward. Execute An forward with both hands the palms facing each other about 33 cm apart. Now withdraw the left hand quickly and imagine placing it on the middle of the right upper arm of your partner (Fig. the right hand executes Peng. Peng and An are transitional actions executed in 王 西 安 202 . 7.22).25). visualize your left hand pressing down on the hand of the opponent. and the left hand helps the right to execute Lü. Note: In this movement. At this point. This is the same as the starting posture of Da Shou posture. If the left leg is in the front. The edges of the hands become power-exerting points. shift your weight forward to the right leg. alternating left and right sides. an instant. eyes looking forward. 7. The right hand reels in Ni direction also with the intention to push outward (Fig. You will also need to use your left shoulder to push and use the right hand to help press forward. Repeat the process.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right as the upper body moves and turns right.

7  shun bu TuishOu  (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep) Shun Bu Tuishou consists of two basic steps – one moving forward and one moving backward. As the weight moves forward. Hand movements consist of four Zheng hands: Peng. Keep the eyes looking to the front right (Fig. raise both hands to attack by pushing them to the front right of the body. sink the shoulder downward and drop the elbows. Face the outer hand edges. In practice. 7.7. outward.27 203 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.26). 7. 7. where the pushing power is exerted. Step the left foot on the ground with the inner side of the foot touching the ground.26 Fig. moving forward is combined with Ji and An hand movements. These actions drive two the hands forward. Lower the waist. • • • • Step forward with the right foot then shift your weight forward. Ji and An. Lü. moving backward uses Peng and Lü hand movements. draw the chest inward.

29 • • • • • 王 西 安 204 • • • After the pushing attack. thumb pointing down and palm facing down. turning the right elbow out and upward. withdraw the left hand gradually and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. the right hand moves upward in Ni reeling while the right foot takes a step backward without turning the body. The body moves forward following the shift in weight. Push the shoulder forward. 7. shift your weight to the left and lift the right foot. Note that Qi should not be allowed to float upward. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. As the arm moves. Bend the left leg to squat further and extend the right foot forward. with the intention to close before opening. Relax the left crotch after pushing and shift the weight to the left. followed by the arm and the hand (Fig. toes pointing down (Fig. and in preparation for moving. As this happens. Raise the right hand in Shun reeling. move the left hand downward then draw a forward arc to form a Lü posture with the right hand.27). . 7. rotate the right hand slightly downward in Ni reeling. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. At the same time. At the same time.28 Fig.28). 7.29). 7. tiptoe first.

Raise the right foot and take a step backwards to the right. The front push of the right hand provides an instant defense. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. 7. 7. then in Shun direction downward to the left.which takes place in an instant. 7. 7. Reel the left hand first in Ni direction.31 • • • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. Then the right hand switches to Lü. then draw a circle downward. 7. Both hands are about 33 cm apart (Fig. Next.33). Next. Withdraw the right hand quickly in Ni reeling and place it on the middle of the left upper arm. then shift your weight to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 205 . The outer edges of the hands are power-exerting points. As the weight shifts.30 Fig. raise the left hand in a spiral to form a Lü movement with the right hand. 7. gradually squat the body.31). raise the right hand quickly to push forward together with the left hand toward the left side of the body. Visualize sending the opponent’s right hand out to the left side of your body. Eyes look to the left (Fig.32). Eyes look to the front left (Fig.Fig. thumb pointing down and palm facing forward. the upper and lower body form a balanced block of strength with the waist as the boundary.30). While the right hand switches to Lü.

Eyes look to the front left (Fig.35 206 .33 • • • Both hands execute Lü from left to right following the body. 7. 7. until the left hand reaches the middle line of the body.34 Fig. 王 西 安 Fig. take a step forward with the right foot. the right arm then bends to 450 inward. 7.34). Raise the body gradually and slowly shift your weight to the left leg.32 Fig. 7. 7. At the same time. As the weight shifts. extend the right hand to the right front of the body following the right foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

7. Note that the waist power descends to the left first then the right. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 7.36). 7.35). Then shift your weight slightly rightward. Continue shifting your weight to the right while pressing the right arm forward in a relaxed manner with descending energy. 7. 7.39 207 .Fig. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 7.36 Fig. thumb pointing down.38 Fig. place the left hand on the right upper arm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.37 • • Simultaneously.

move the right hand in front of the left hand quickly. At the same time. raise the right hand quickly and exert An forward with power.38). 7. 7. visualizing that you are pushing the opponent’s hand outward to the right. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.37). then move it out to the right. 7. 王 西 安 208 . then execute Lü movement with both hands to the left side of the body until the right hand moves in front of the right breast. As soon as both arms finish pressing forward. Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right. Eyes look to the right (Fig. execute Lü downward with the left hand.39). Start a new cycle (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. Next.

Lie. The other picture demonstrates the big Frontward Bow Step. we will only refer to two main Da Lü postures as shown in the pictures which follow. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. beginners should first practise the routines. It uses the combat techniques of the four hand techniques in corner directions – Cai. Lü Ji and An. like the “dragon sweeps ground” routine in which Player A executes Lü on Player B.40 Fig. literally meaning “big falling step”. Ji and An is the same to those in Shun Step (forward or backwards Step). As such. the whole body will become stiff when you try to squat down in the big body movements. 7. One is Da Pu Bu. Bie. a good foundation in Taijiquan and solo Tuishou is required before you can become proficient in using Cai. and Kao.8  sOlO danren da lü TuishOu Da Lü is based on four hand techniques in the main directions – Peng. then the fives methods of solo Tuishou practice. Kao with large-scaled body movements.41 209 . whereby Player B executes Lü on Player A. Zou.7. 7. The circulating of steps in Da Lü when practicing Peng. and Kao. a major weakness with which you cannot even hope to attack the opponent. Lü. In this chapter. Furthermore. the only difference being that the extent of the steps in Da Lü is bigger. It is not easy to practice Cai. If not. Bie Zou. Zhou. The other movements are the same as the movements in Shun Step (forward or backward step).

Lü. In the Luan Cai Hua Tuishou practice. It’s features include free movement with no fixed direction. precise rotation. 7.42 210 . You need to rotate neatly when executing a step forward as the partner changes his or her direction. and An. The body movement and gait should be neat and swift. Luan Cai Hua is also built on the foundation of Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7.42. and also uses the Si Zheng Shou. and flexible. This way you will not lose energy unnecessarily nor become stiff.9  sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu The gait in Luan Cai Hu is called San Bu (scattered steps) or Hua Jiao Bu (steps in flower tracks). Ji. you should pay attention to the following points. 王 西 安 Fig. You should adjust your direction and position by applying small Gen steps so that you can stick to the partner tightly and prevent their escape. See how to execute Dian step in Figure 7.

the extent of the arm rotations should be small to match the changes in gestures and the revolving steps. An). Lü. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 211 . The steps and gestures in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou are the same as Da Lü and in Shun Step. You try to sense the partner’s intention by through pressing and pushing precisely and lightly. getting close to their upper body while causing them to raise their lower body or slant it. You should practice listening repeatedly. Your movements should be quick but not chaotic. Ji. heavy but not stiff. the steps are small but the speed is fast. and entice the partner to advance and show his or her weak points. When you apply Luan Cai Hua in Tuishou sparring. It is not easy to apply Die Fa. If you are able to put the partner in a passive position you can fullfil your intention without being noticed. light but not empty and floating. looking for the attacking opportunity. and thus impede any progress in Tuishou. Do not just practice at fast speeds or you will lose your energy or get stiff. you feel the partner’s energy as you rotate. When circulating the four Zheng hand techniques (Peng.In this technique. the only difference being in the stances of the body.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 212 .

CHAPTER 8 paiR pRaCTiCe in Tuishou 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 213 .

If both partners have Taiji proficiency. 王 西 安 214 . If possible. flexible and rapid. then pair Tuishou may be described as “acting as if there is no partner although you have one”. pair practice becomes beautiful to watch. agile.1  inTrOducTiOn  Pair practice in Tuishou consists of applying a combination of techniques with partners and sparring. Faster progress may be made if your partner is proficient in Taiji. An introduction to Tuishou pair practices has been provided in the following pages. In addition. development should follow the stages of San Shou to Zhan (coherence). Pair Tuishou embodies the essence of Taiji Tuishou. moving as the partner moves. I hope that the reader will use this to practice diligently and master the key points. similarly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Nian (sticking). lowering to mid-height then low stance. gathering speed in the later stages. flexible and without weaknesses. Partners should pay attention to co-operating with each other and using different practice methods at different stages in pair practice. If solo Tuishou is described as “imagining you are fighting with a person though you are practicing alone”. Lian (connecting) and finally Sui (following). so you must strive to concentrate. movements in pair practice should start simply before gaining in complexity. like a flowing river: smooth. Pair practice Tuishou improves combat skills. the practice stance should start high. try to choose a partner of similar level for pair practice. pair practice should start slowly. whereby your actions should be precise. Lastly. Like solo practice.

toes pointing slightly outward to form a 八 shape. arms hanging relaxed by the sides.2  single-hand hOrizOnTal wan hua in pair pracTice Player A refers to the male practitioner dressed in a dark blue. 8.8. 王 西 安 215 . The distance between both right feet should be about 10 cm.2. These may be shortened to ‘A’ and ‘B’.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. Their bodies are upright. gradually forming a front Bow Step. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8. Player B refers to the female practitioner dressed in red. an arms length from each other so that their fists touch when arms are outstretched.1 Both players take a step forward with their right feet.

2 8. the left hand can also be placed naturally along side the body. eyes focussed on the right hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 While the right feet step forward.2. As both players draw this arc. both players raise their right palm and extend it forward. using the middle line of the nose as the boundary. A’s weight shifts backward. and B continues to reel 90o in the Ni direction until her hand falls to the front of A’s lower abdomen. The back of the palms touch each other. The right hand extends forward with the left hand akimbo. and his body crouches slightly to form a closing power.2      Posture 3 王 西 安 216 Player A guides Player B to draw a 90o arc from the waist midline toward his left. Both players watch their hands throughout this step. B’s weight continues to move forward to form a single-hand An (pushing) power. . with the middle fingers at nose level. corresponding with the rotation of the waist. 8. Fig. Alternatively.

Fig.2. At the same time. B shifts her weight gradually backward while her hand draws an arc following Player A.4 217 . then she guides A’s hand to the front of his abdomen. Repeat this cycle. then Ni reels 90o to the front of Player B’s abdomen. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 8. 8.3 8.3      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and Shun reels 90o to the right.

2      Posture 2 王 西 安 218 After both players complete a Da Shou (meet partner with hand).1      Posture 1 The preparation postures are the same as that of single-hand horizontal circle rotation.5  8. the only difference being that here the Da Shou (meet partner with hand) position is higher. 8.3. Both players then rise.3.3  single-hand verTical circle wan hua in pair pracTice 8. Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. . Player A guides Player B to move first in Shun reeling. then then draws a 90o arc to the left. before crouching again as they Ni reel downward 90o until their hands reach the front of the lower abdomen. both hands perpendicular to each other and eyes looking forward.

6  8. when A draws an arc to the right side. 8. guiding Player B to Ni reel 900 to his right side. For example. with eyes looking at the same direction. During the above process.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body to the right.3.Fig. turning to the right (B’s left side). B always adheres to A. A continues to Shun reel a 900 arc upward until he returns to the original Da Shou position.7 219 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Partner B relaxes the left crotch. 8.

they lower their waists. having first shifted their weight onto the left leg. ready to move and attack if hands touch. While waiting. heel first. lower the shoulders and drop the elbows. draw their chests inward and gather their ribs. Now both players wait in a defensive mode. Player A raises two hands in front of his chest.8 220 . with aim to form a front Bow Step. 8. Then Player B extends her hands forward. toes turned up (optional). eyes looking forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.4.4  shuang shOu ping yuanwan hua (hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. placing them outside A’s hands.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. Both right feet start to uncurl to the ground. 王 西 安 Fig. Both players step forward simultaneously with their right foot.

He stops pushing when his hands are 20 cm away from Player B’s chest. 8. B’s little fingers “stick” to A throughout the process.8. Player B “listens” to A’s power and shifts her weight backward to force A to increase his pushing distance. with her little finger lightly hanging on A’s wrists to guard against any sudden attacks. A’s weight shift to the right foot has been fully completed. Here.4.2      Posture 2 Player A relaxes his right crotch and continues to shift his weight forward while pushing his hands forward in Ni reeling. her hands reel in Shun. In other words.9 王 西 安 221 . As Player A pushes his hands forward. As B’s weight moves backward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

10  8. While A draws arcs.4. Fig. B senses the speed of A’s pushing and separating power as her hands are tightly guided by his hands and separated by them to the sides. She relaxes her chest as her hands separate.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.4      Posture 4 Player A switches to Shun reeling and draws an arc inward.4. then separates Player B’s hands to the sides of her body at shoulderlevel. He shifts his weight backward. 8. his little fingers catching Player B’s wrists to the sides of the body as the two hands draw arcs. Then both players return to the original position. 王 西 安 222 . While Player A separates. B moves her weight forward to form a Bow Step. using the outer edges of his palms.3      Posture 3 Player A pushes first and then separates his hands by reeling in a Ni direction.

Fig. 8.11 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 223 .

The two parties’ eyes always follow their movements.1      Posture 1 Player A and B stand facing each other.5. . then step their right feet forward simultaneously. Now.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.5. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. The positions of all hands are higher than the eyes. all eyes look forward. Fig.5  shuang shOu li yuan wan hua  (verTical cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands)  8. the weight for both parties starts to shift to the right. 8. Both players extend and raise their hands in front of their bodies with Player B’s hands placed on the outer edges of Partner A’s hands. draw a vertical circle outward.12  王 西 安 224 8. and separate hands to the sides of the body at shoulder level. B has been shifting her weight to the left. A’s weight is all at the right foot.2      Posture 2 Player A reels in the Ni directon and contitues to shift his weight forward. Now. guiding Partner B to raise her hands.

5. Both players’ eyes face forward.13  8. While Player B rotates her arms downward following Player A.Fig. 8. while he shifts his weight backward. his little fingers slightly catching Player B’s wrists. she shifts her weight forward to form a front Bow Step. 8.3      Posture 3 Player A switches to Shun reeling. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.14 225 . Player A draws outwards while Partner B draws inwards. and draw arcs to the lower abdomen.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. whether Player A separates B or vice versa. Player B follows Player A closely and feels his change.5. his hands crossing before the chest with both palms facing in. Both players can practice this in turn. the body squats to prepare for openning. and continues to move her weight forward.4      Posture 4 Player A continues Shun reeling. Both players face forward. Then Player A returns to the original position by Ni reeling and separating his arms outward. Repeat this cycle. 王 西 安 226 . Note: The steps are the same.

then step their right feet forward simultaneously. Both players then shift a little more weight to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. and then extend their right hands forward so they cross each other. Player A and B stand facing each other. 8.6. eyes looking forward.15 王 西 安 227 . with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart.8.1      Posture 1 The gait of He Bu Tuishou is the same to that of the Vertical Coiling Flower with Double Hands. yet start to shift to the right. backs of the hands touching. Now. the weight for both parties are both in the left.6  he bu TuishOu   (TuishOu wiTh cOiling hands and sTaTic fOOTwOrk) 8.

. At the same time. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. then turns his right hand left in Shun reeling following the turn of his body. he places his left hand on the middle of the right upper arm.16  8. Her right hand presses Player A’s right hand slightly downward. gradually switching from Peng (ward off ) to Lü leftward. During this process. Player B places her left hand on the right upper arm of Player A as he moves. While the right arm turns.6. Fig.3      Posture 3 王 西 安 228 Player A holds the left hand of Player B to ward it off outward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.6. both of B’s arms form an An (Pushing) power. 8. palm facing out and thumb pointing down so that both arms form an outward Peng (ward off ) power posture. In this way. Player A relaxes his left crotch and moves his weight slightly leftward. Player B withdraws her left hand quickly when Player A executes Peng and puts it on the middle of her own right upper arm. then extends forward to press against A’s left forearm.2      Posture 2 Player A shifts his weight forward.

17 8. 8. 8. In response.6. shifting his weight forward to add more pressure. Partner A withdraws his pressing hand and places it on his own right upper arm. Then Player B wards off Player A’s left hand upward. Repeat this cycle.18 229 . then moves quickly forward to press the middle of Player B’s right upper arm with his left hand. Player B switches from An (push) to Peng (ward off ). In response.Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Player A executes Lü on B’s hand and presses it downward. thus returning to the original position.4      Posture 4 Player B executes Ji (press) on Player A. and executes Lü (roll back) again.

Both players look at each other from the side. placing it on the outside of A’s right leg. Player B’s right hand crosses the outside of A’s right hand. and places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. A’s left hand then crosses with B’s left hand. so that both knees touch (A’s inner knee and B’s outer knee).7. bending it 450 inward. 8. then places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. 王 西 安 Fig.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention.19 230 . Player A raises his right arm as his right leg moves. Player B steps her right foot forward at the same time.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.7  pair pracTice in shun bu TuishOu  (TuishOu wiTh MOveable fOOTwOrk) 8. Player A steps his right foot forward to form a front Bow Step. palm facing outward.

then withdraws her right hand and puts it on the middle of her right upper arm to form a Ji (press) power to counter Partner A quickly. and moves his weight leftward.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his left crotch first. he lowers his left shoulder and left elbow. executing Lü (roll back) with his right hand. shifts his weight slightly to the right. This switch from Peng to Lü happens in an instant. Simultaneously. Both players look to the front and gather themselves to prepare for futher movements. 王 西 安 231 .7.8. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Player B continues to move her weight forward when Player A applies Lü. and switches both hands to double-hand Shun reeling to ward off outward gradually.7. Player B shifts her weight forward to double her pressing power. Both players look to the front.2      Posture 2 Player A then relaxes his right crotch. As Player A’s body turns right. 8. and then wards off Player B’s left hand upwards.20  8. raises his left hand. turns his body to the right. At the same time.

he presses Player B’s left hand downward to the front of her lower abdomen.4      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body slightly to the right. with the aim of getting her to fall to his right side. forming an An force. 8.22 232 . A then extends his left hand up and forward and presses the middle of Partner B’s right hand. 王 西 安 Fig. 8.21 8. At the same time.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. with the coordination of his right hand. then pushes her left hand rightward. Player B exerts a strong Peng force to Player A’s right upper arm touching A’s right hand with her right hand. When Player A presses downward.7.

then her foot gradually steps on the ground fully.23  8. 王 西 安 233 .5      Posture 5 Player B’s left foot steps on the ground. In this move. As Player B executes Lü. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. tiptoe first. At the same time. and his forward push corresponds to the hardness or softness and speed of B’s Lü power. Player A moves his weight first to the left and lifts his right foot quickly to step forward. his right hand switches to Ni reeling to force Player B to step backward. her right crotch relaxes and she shifts her weight to the right. At the same time. Note: both players should not move too quickly as this would hinder the rotation of the arms and result in blockages. 8. He then pushes his shoulder and upper arm towards B’s chest in response to B’s Lü.7.7. both her hands follow the body and turn right to execute Lü (roll back) on the right side of Player A’s right arm until her left hand reaches the mid-line of her body.8.6      Posture 6 Player A shifts his weight back to the left leg after pushing. A’s upper and lower body move as one.

shifting her weight gradually rightward. then takes a step forward with her right foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 At the same time. then pushes Player B’s right hand first down then left using the pressing power of his left hand.7. turns his body slightly left and shifts his weight slightly leftward. Player A places his left hand on B’s right upper arm. B steps forward in synch with A’s guiding hand. Both players look diagonally to the front. so as to form Peng and Lü with both of his hands. and steps within A’s left leg so that their two knees connect. to form Ji (press) power with her right arm. Player B relaxes her left crotch. In response. shifts her weight leftward. B also places her left hand on the middle of her right upper arm. Fig. 8. While this happens. palm out.24  8. . Both players look to the side at each other.7      Posture 7 王 西 安 234 Player A relaxes his left crotch. Player B wards off slowly outwards with both hands in Shun reeling. Simultaneously.

then switches her left hand instantly from Peng to Lü. Player B lowers her left shoulder and left elbow.26 235 . Simultaneously. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 8.Fig. 8.7. At the same time. then raises her left hand in an upward Peng on A’s left hand. B also places her right hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.25  8.8      Posture 8 Player A relaxes his left crotch then shifts his weight to the left.

then raising his left hand upward onto B’s right upper arm to warding off (Peng). both A’s arms form an outward Peng power. 8. Then with her left hand. she presses forward on the middle of A’s right lower arm. then withdraws his right hand to place it on the middle of his left upper arm. she presses Player A’s left hand first down to the front of his lower abdomen. 王 西 安 Fig. Player A continues to shift his weight forward. then to her left.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As this happens. As Player B pushes A’s left hand downward. A responds first by flowing downward. At the same time. In this instance.9      Posture 9 Player B relaxes her right crotch and turns her body slightly to the right.27 236 . His right hand then comes into contact with B’s right hand. Both B’s hands work together to form an upward pressure pose. Both players look diagonally to the front. 8. then quickly forms a pushing power towards B.7. Both players look to the sides.

He moves in Lü until his left hand reaches the mid-line of his body. leading to increased exposure to attacks. Both players should defend and stick to defend their own territory. taking care not to go beyond their territory as this would mean that the transferring and changing of movements would not be as quick and flexible.10      Posture 10 Both players keep moving and rotating. 王 西 安 237 .8. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. following A’s Lü power. relaxes his left crotch. Player A steps his left foot on the ground.28 Notes: Player B’s upper and lower body should follow each other when pushing forward. and the speed and extent of her forward push should be dependent on the speed and hardness or softness of Partner A’s Lü. 8.7. then steps forward quickly with her right foot and pushes her shoulder and upper arm forward toward A’s chest. In response to A’s Lü. shifts his weight to the right and rotates both hands to the right following the body to execute Lü on the right side of Player B’s right arm. Player B shifts her weight first to the left.

Ji and An.11      Posture 11  After pushing forward. You may have found that. A relaxes his left crotch. foot gradually steps fully on the ground.7. palm out. As B shifts her weight backward. Finally. to form a Ji power with his right arm. 8. Lü. Both their knees connect. her two hands forming a Lü posture. shifts his weight leftward. 王 西 安 238 . 8. Player A places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. one full cycle consists of one step forward and one step backward. Player B shifts her weight backward to her left leg. her right hand changes to Ni reeling to force Player A to step back.28. Simultaneously. tiptoe first.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Both playesr look diagonally to the front. B places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. both players return to their original positions. At the same time. then takes a step forward (Shang Bu) with his right foot to step on the inside of B’s leg. and 8.27. as well as an accomplishment of one cycle of Peng. and are ready to start a new cycle. The rotating methods are the same as those on Figures 8.25. Posture 11 is the same as Shun Bu (moving forward and back in one step) Tuishou. for both of the two players. At the same time.26.

8. Zhou and Kao.29 王 西 安 239 . The practice of Da Lü movements is very important in learning how to apply low body movements in combat without impacting on other combat movements or losing agility and flexibility. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8. which is aimed at reinforcing your lower body stance and leg power in this technique. you should combine Si Zheng Shou practice with Si Yu Shou. and is based on Shun Bu Tuishou. This technique consists of larger scale body movement. Bie. which is Cai. In this low body movement. requiring both players to crouch on one leg while extending the other fully forward with calf touching the ground.8  pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu) Da Lü Tuishou pair practice is the fourth technique of of Chen-style Taiji Tuishou.

During combat. Bi Ya (push and press) and so on. left and right. From this position. to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to the upper part of their body while lifting their lower body). This Tuishou technique combines the handwork of Si Zheng Shou and the footwork of Shang Xia Bu (moving forward and backward) in varying degrees. hence sweeping your arm horinzontally left and right after meeting your opponent in Da Shou (meet partner with hand). If you choose not to attack under some circumstances. push and press against the opponent to force them into a defensive mode. nor the location of your body weight. try to feel the Gongfu level gap between you and your opponent by listening. The technique also uses the deft and precise handwork of Shang Long Xia Ti (which means.9  pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu   (cOiling flOwer TuishOu) Luan Cai Hua is also known as Hua Jiao Bu. Shuan means to put an arm across the chest like a locked door bolt to protect against attack. up and down. Instead of sweeping the arms horizontally. 王 西 安 240 . can you win consistently. Sao means to sweep or clear away. Only this way. or power direction. With this method. reel them in Shun and Ni directions. depending on the circumstances. Da means to put your hand on the hand of the opponent with the intention of using it as a touchpoint and support.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. In Da Sao. use your elbow or Kao (shoulder strike) to attack when you find a weak point. so as to transform the opponent’s power. Gun Shuan is an extension of Da Sao. Gun Shuan (roll and seize). the opponent cannot discern your target. Other handwork techniques used to render opponents passive are: Da Sao (support and sweep).

Place yourself in a strong and active position by applying Dian Bu (adding half paces) continuously when executing Shang Bu (stepping forward). 8. direction and angle of changes. Actually. Apply Ti (lift) and Long (holding close) unpredictably and precisely.32 Fig. you can advance two or three steps to gain a territorial advantage. 8. agile and swift. Combine the power of both your hands so that they become one indivisible power. Fig. Your Dian Bu should be light. if the opponent retreats one step. For example. transforming the power of your opponent so that he or she becomes trapped in a passive position unawares. These are the main methods and purpose of Luan Cai Hua pair practice. coordinated with Shang Long Xia Ti.30 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.Your footwork should be coordinated with your handwork. Your footwork should be based on the speed. there are no restrictions in the application during practical body combat. flexible. 8. which you think harmful to your opponent. This is an example of the Die Fa.31 王 西 安 241 .

At its foundation. one of the pre-eminent representatives of Yang Taiji family. and offered new ways of understanding humans as a microcosmic blueprint of the Universe. each action or form occurs as a result of a certain combination of forces which are generated by Heaven. our world and the human body through the interactions. Taiji Philosophy is most easily expressed and understood through the use of body language. While the Taiji form has undergone many changes through the ages. through Taiji forms and postures. that is. Earth or Human realms. the philosophy of Taiji attempts to explain the workings of the universe. much of the theory in this book is based on the guidelines written by Yang Chengfu. culminating in the modern-day Chen. we shall focus on the Yang Style for the purposes of this book as because this style best illustrates the Yin and Yang principles of Taiji philosophy. opposing and complementary. of two fundamental forces: Yin and Yang. This philosophy provides an alternative and deeply sophisticated paradigm of how human beings may be perceived in relation to their position within the cosmos. . Yang. Sun and Wu Styles. According to this philosophy.Other books by INBI World: OLEG TCHERNE philosophy of Taiji The philosophy of Taiji was developed in China at the height of the Daoist era between 700 bc to 200 ad. For this reason.

The English translation of this canon marks the first ever attempt to translate into English Chen Xin’s highly esoteric and detailed technical explanations of Chen-style Taijiquan techniques. www. including his meticulous inscriptions for over 400 illustrations.com . and a referential resource for Taiji instructors and practitioners for generations to follow.inbiworld.CHEN XIN The illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan “The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan” is universally acknowledged by the Taoist community and Taiji practitioners as the seminal sourcebook of Taiji philosophy and techniques. this tome was intended by its author to be both the first ever written repository of Taiji lore. A work of intense scholarship which took over fourteen years to complete.

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Wenxian. Who was Chen Changxing? A. All people who buy calligraphy or make a direct contribution will have their name and the amount carved into a stone tablet to be displayed in Chen village. An effort to preserve the heritage of Taijiquan by restoring Chen Changxing’s home in Chen Village.com . By proceeds from the purchase of Master Chen Xiaowang’s calligraphy or through direct contributions. China. How do I purchase calligraphy or make a contribution A.Chen Village Restoration Project • Q.chenxiaowang. Q. How is the project being funded? A. founder of the Yang style. Q. Henan Province. Through the website below and in person at Master Chen Xiaowang’s seminars worldwide. Chen Changxing was the fourteenth generation Master of Chen family Taijiquan who taught Yang Lu Chan. Q. www. What is the Chen Changxing - Chen Village Restoration Project? A.

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