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Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou by WANG XI'AN


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A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).
A Chen family patriarch Wang Xi'an's book on Tui Shou (Pushing Hands).

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Published by: INBI World on Nov 24, 2009
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  • 1.1 The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu
  • 1.2 TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward, sTep-by-sTep
  • 1.3 The cOre Of TuishOu
  • 1.4 The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu
  • 1.5 TuishOu, The Only criTeriOn TO judge The gOngfu Of Taiji
  • 2.1 lisTening TO energy
  • 2.2 dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy
  • 2.3 zhan nian Techniques
  • 2.4 lian sui energies
  • 2.5 Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques
  • 2.6 na (seizing) Technique
  • 2.7 Opening and clOsing
  • 2.8 energy explOsiOn
  • 2.9 Ti (raising) fOrce
  • 2.10 reeling silk
  • 3.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 3.2.1    Exercise One
  • 3.2.2    Exercise Two
  • 3.3.1    Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles
  • 3.3.2    Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles
  • 3.3.3    Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike
  • 3.3.4    Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward
  • 3.3.5    Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy
  • 3.3.6    Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee
  • 3.3.7    Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
  • 3.4.1    Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
  • 3.4.2    Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
  • 3.4.3    Shuang Fen Quan
  • 3.4.4    Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward
  • 3.4.5    Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist
  • 3.4.6    Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist
  • 3.4.7    Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist
  • 3.4.8    Dingzi Quan Guanyang
  • 3.5.1    Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms
  • 3.5.2    Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique
  • 3.5.3    Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off
  • 3.5.4    Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push
  • 3.5.5    Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang
  • 3.5.6    Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang
  • 3.5.7    Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa
  • 3.5.8    Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa
  • 3.5.9    Qianchuan Zhang Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice
  • 3.6.1    Li Zhou … Standing Elbows
  • 3.6.2    Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows
  • 3.6.3    Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist
  • 3.6.4    Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block
  • 3.6.5    Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow
  • 3.6.6    Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow
  • 3.6.7    Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows
  • 3.6.8    Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou Double Closing Elbows
  • 3.6.9    Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow
  • 3.6.10    Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow
  • 3.6.11    Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow
  • 3.6.12    Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow
  • 3.7.1    Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.2    Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push
  • 3.7.3    Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder
  • 3.7.4    Xiong  Kao … Chest Push
  • 3.7.5    Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders
  • 3.7.6    Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back
  • 3.7.7    Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao
  • 3.8.1    Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling
  • 3.8.2    Xiong Na … Seize with Chest
  • 3.8.3    Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen
  • 3.8.4    Shuang He Fu Cai Na
  • 3.8.5    Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling
  • 3.8.6    Tui Na … Seize with the Leg
  • 3.8.7    Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands
  • 3.8.8    Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands
  • 3.9.1    Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape
  • 3.9.2    Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.3    Shuang Wan Zhi Jie
  • 3.9.4    Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo
  • 3.9.5    Qu Wan Fan Na Jie
  • 3.9.6    Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back
  • 3.9.7    Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie
  • 3.9.8    Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping
  • 3.9.9    Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie
  • 4.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 4.2.1    Postures
  • 4.2.2    The requirements for every part of the body
  • 4.2.3    Breathing
  • 4.2.4    Additional Notes
  • 4.3.1    Postures
  • 4.3.2    Body requirements
  • 4.3.3    Breathing
  • 4.4.1    Postures
  • 4.4.2    The relationship between Thought, Intention and Qi
  • 4.5 san Ti shi (Three pOsTures)
  • 4.6.1    The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.6.2    Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang
  • 4.7 wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang)
  • 5.1.1    Overview
  • 5.1.2    Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
  • 5.2.1    Overview
  • 5.2.2    Yuan Dang … Round Crotch
  • 5.2.3    Ding Dang … Tight Crotch
  • 5.2.4    Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
  • 5.2.5    Tang Dang
  • 6.1.1    Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories
  • 6.1.2    Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork
  • 6.2.1    Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground
  • 6.2.2    Cutting with Palm
  • 6.2.3    Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm
  • 6.2.4    Xie Tuo Zhan
  • 6.2.5    Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm
  • 6.2.6    Ba Zi Shou
  • 6.3.1    Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step
  • 6.3.2    Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step
  • 6.3.3    Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step
  • 6.3.4    Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step
  • 6.4.1    Shun Chan … Conforming reeling
  • 6.4.2    Ni Chan … Reverse reeling
  • 6.4.3    Shun Ni Zuo Wan
  • 6.4.4    Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist
  • 6.4.5    Shun Chan Yang Zhang
  • 6.5.1    Shang Bu … Forward Step
  • 6.5.2    Tui Bu … Retreating Step
  • 6.5.3    Gen Bu … Following Step
  • 7.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 7.2.1    Part 1
  • 7.2.2    Part 2
  • 7.2.3    Part 3
  • 7.2.5    Part 5
  • 7.2.7    Part 7
  • 7.2.8    Part 8
  • 7.2.9    Part 9
  • 7.3 sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle
  • 7.4 dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua
  • 7.5 sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle
  • 7.6 sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk
  • 7.7 shun bu TuishOu (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep)
  • 7.8 sOlO danren da lü TuishOu
  • 7.9 sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu
  • 8.1 inTrOducTiOn
  • 8.2.1    Posture 1
  • 8.2.2    Posture 3
  • 8.2.3    Posture 4
  • 8.3.1    Posture 1
  • 8.3.2    Posture 2
  • 8.3.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.1    Posture 1
  • 8.4.2    Posture 2
  • 8.4.3    Posture 3
  • 8.4.4    Posture 4
  • 8.5.1    Posture 1
  • 8.5.2    Posture 2
  • 8.5.3    Posture 3
  • 8.5.4    Posture 4
  • 8.6.1    Posture 1
  • 8.6.2    Posture 2
  • 8.6.3    Posture 3
  • 8.6.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.1    Posture 1
  • 8.7.2    Posture 2
  • 8.7.3    Posture 3
  • 8.7.4    Posture 4
  • 8.7.5    Posture 5
  • 8.7.6    Posture 6
  • 8.7.7    Posture 7
  • 8.7.8    Posture 8
  • 8.7.9    Posture 9
  • 8.7.10    Posture 10
  • 8.7.11    Posture 11
  • 8.8 pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu)
  • 8.9 pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu (cOiling flOwer TuishOu)

太陳 極氏 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

Wang Xi’an

Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou
Chenjiagou Wenxian County Henan, China

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Published by INBI Matrix Pty Ltd po box 775, Maroubra 2035 NSW Australia English Edition © 2009 INBI Matrix Pty Ltd Copyright © 1998 Wang Xi’an

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retreival system, without permissing in writing from the publisher.

First edition, 2009 Printed in China

王 西 安

Project management & design: Roman Mukhortikov Editors: Juliana Ngiam, Tom Watson Translation: Zhang Yanping

ISBN-13: 978-1-87693-500-6 ISBN-10: 1-87693-500-6

Thoughts on Taiji

Ever since it came into being, Taiji has been passed down from generation to generation. Foremost among many historic figures, was Chen Zhaopi (1893-1972), who stands out for his determination to train young successors. Thus, today we witness a substantial and energetic development of Taiji in the Chen Village, from where its reputation has spread worldwide, inspiring both young and old in the practice of Taiji. Chen Zhaopi was passionate in sharing his heritage and knowledge. My only regret is that I failed to be more focused and to practice more diligently. As a successor of the Chen family heritage, I have undertaken to continue his legacy by writing this book, but despite all best attempts, I struggle to reveal all the subtleties in this vast body of knowledge. I sit with a lonely lamp, recalling the past and sigh to the sky.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Wang Xi’an

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vi .

Japan 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vii . Atsuko Noguchi January 1998. One of the finished manuscripts resulted in this book. an impressive feat of concentration and energy considering Master Wang’s teaching workload. to consist of everything’. indubitably a result of the efforts of Taiji followers in both countries. is to be published. I look forward to Master Wang’s future works with great enthusiasm. the Japanese are coming to love Taijiquan and the great charm of Chinese culture. I recall Master Wang working on two manuscripts which he carried around in his bag during his visit to Tokyo in November 1995. Tokyo. In the spirit of Taiji’s original meaning. we believe that Taiji. his high disciplinary standards and outstanding martial arts techniques serves as an inspiration to all Taiji learners in Japan and we greatly appreciate his tremendous contribution to Sino-Japan Taiji relations and the spread of Taiji knowledge all over Japan in years past. I shall always be greatful for Master Wang and Taijiquan for leading me to a totally different worldview and life.Preface to original edition I cannot express how excited I am on hearing the news that Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Techniques. as an expression of the profound spirit inherent in all human beings. ‘to exist everywhere. belongs not only to China but to the rest of the world. More than ever. newly written by Master Wang Xian. Indeed.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 viii .

..... Step by Step ......................................... Elbow Practice ................31 9....21 4........................................................................................... The Origin of Taijiquan Tuishou .........................................................................63 5.............................................. Feet Practice .................... Energy Explosion ............. Na (Seizing) Practices .................................................29 8......................10 5..............................................105 9..............72 6.............................................................................55 4................................................................ Dongjin – Realization of Energy ..........................3 Tuishou Practice – Going Inward................................................................18 3................. Opening and Closing ............40 3...............................................................117 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 ix ...........................................................23 5............................................................................................................................................ 3....................... Jietuo (Escape) Practices................................................. Introduction ........................................ The Relationship Between Three Stages of Taijiquan Practice and Tuishou ................................ Misleading and Transforming Techniques ............................26 7.......... Reeling Silk ...................... Fist Practice ...Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1.................4 The Core of Tuishou ............25 6......................................................84 7................34 10............................13 Chapter Two: Interpretation on the Ten Forces of Tuishou 1.................................................................................................................................................................. Palm Practice ........................................ Zhan Nian Techniques.............. 4...35 Chapter Three: Single Form Practice 1...........................97 8....................... Na (Seizing) Techniques .......................................................... Tuishou: the Only Criterion to Judge the Gongfu of Taiji................ Ti (Raising) Energy .............................. Kao (Push) Practices....................... 2............................................. Lian Sui Energies ....................................................38 2................................................................ Leg Practice ............ Listening to Energy .................................................16 2........................

.......................227 7....................... He Bu-Tuishou .................... Hand Techniques in Tuishou Reeling....................179 5.............230 8................................................................195 5................................................................................................................................ Tuishou Steps .......................................224 6.............197 6..................200 7............................ Shuang Shou Li Yuan Wan Hua........ Introduction ...............239 9............................................................................142 5..................................................... Pair Practice in Da Lü Tuishou .......................................................... Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan (Returning to Wu Ji Zhuang) ................................................................................... Tuishou Footwork Techniques...............................................................................................陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Chapter Four: Health and Qi Enhancement Practices 1..................................................................................................... Introduction ............... 157 Chapter Six: Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories 1.............................................................................. Solo Danren Da Lü Tuishou ..........................................132 2...................203 8.....240 王 西 安 x .................................................220 5.. Solo Tuishou With Static Footwork ...... Classifications of Tuishou ................ Solo Luan Cai Hua Tuishou ..................................... San Ti Shi (Three Postures)...................... Single-hand Vertical Circle Wan Hua in Pair Practice ........149 7.. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) ....................... Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) ........... Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture)....... 133 3................................................ 138 4............... 183 Chapter Seven: Solo Practice in Tuishou 1.................................................... Shuang Shou Ping Yuanwan Hua ...... Single-hand Horizontal Wan Hua in Pair Practice ..............154 Chapter Five: Practice for the Buttocks and Crotch .... Shun Bu Tuishou ......................... Tuishou Handwork Techniques ....... Introduction .................................................. Pair Practice in Shun Bu Tuishou.................209 9.218 4... Pair Practice in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou................ 215 3............ Solo Double-hand Wan Hua in a Vertical Circle ................................... Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Zhuang) ....................................210 Chapter Eight: Pair Practice in Tuisho 1..........................................168 2................................ Solo Double-hand Flat Circle Wan Hua ..............................175 4......187 3...171 3............................146 6.....................................186 2..................................................................................................................214 2................................193 4.......... Solo Wan Hua ................. Solo Ping Yuanwan Hua ..............


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 2 .

As a combat techniqiue. reducing illness and prolonging a healthy life. he drew on the theories of the Yijing (I Ching. it helps maintain fitness. gender. Taiji Tuishou practice is not restricted by a practitioner’s age. Chen Wangting. transforming. throwing and striking. and he was recognized as the creator of Chen Family boxing. it helps build health and defence as well as to develop a sensitivity to movement. According to the book. China. Its creator. ‘The Family Tree of Chen’. the Huangdi Neijing (The Canon of Huangdi) and acupuncture. Henan Province. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 3 . With the accelerated pace of modern life. Chen Wangting developed the creative and athletic routines of Taijiquan and Taiji Tuishou. catching. originally known as Jieshou or Dashou. agility and flexibility. in the period between the Ming and Qing Dynasty. Chen Wangting. the ‘Book of Changes’). Using the foundation of the 108 Form (Tongbei Changquan) which he inherited from previous generations and from other Ming period martial arts practitioners. (also known as Zouting) was a famous martial arts master. In doing so. was the creator of Taijiquan and 9th generation head of the Chen Family. location or access to equipment. Wenxian County. As it is not stressful to the body. awareness of Taijiquan and Tuishou’s health & fitness benefits have spread far beyond China to all corners of the globe. sword and stick routines. Tuishou.1. and will continue to do so in years to come.1  The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu Tuishou originated in the Chen Village. as well as the principles of Yin and Yang. is a practical combat technique based on grabbing.

Become familiar with the single hand horizontal and vertical practice. an athletic activity based on mutual pushing. advance/retreat movements until your sense of touch develops to a level where your reactions to any external stimulus becomes immediate. listen to each other’s energy flow. you must know its significance. to the realization of Jin. to the Deity’. With sustained practice over a period of time. transformation is the basis. Follow the circling movements with the whole body. hard/ soft. Initially. enabling you to throw opponents meters away without hurting them.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. nor will you be able to intuit your opponent’s energetic intention. and do not disconnect or oppose your partner’s energy. so much that you will be able to apply combat techniques. and striking. such as grasping. you will be able to release explosive energy to both small and large targets. A Taijiquan proverb pertains also to Tuishou. followed by the double hand horizontal and vertical practice. 王 西 安 4 . As you reach the level of adept. from the realization of Jin. Less well known is Tuishou’s other application as a technique for internal transformation. Literally. catching. Tuishou practice should be soft and modest. Relaxation is fundamental. You will not realize inner transformation. Note that adepts earn their title only when they attain the ability control and use combat techniques in an appropriate manner.2  TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward. sTep-by-sTep To practice Tuishou. throwing. your entire body surface will become very sensitized and your ‘inner listening’ abilities very finely honed. be relaxed. Tuishou translates as ‘push hands’. intuitive and subconscious. or appreciate the interplay of the slow/quick. and what it consists of. ‘From the familiarity of forms. that is. with greater efficacy and subtlety. principles. pacing your learning step-bystep. Learning Tuishou will quickly expose any weaknesses in one’s internal Gongfu.

mind and spirit with determination. In solo practice. As long as you practice persistently and make progress. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 5 . but never practice just in order to practice. be calm and concentrated in your demeanour.Remember that ‘inner listening’ is the one essential skill required to improve your technique. force and speed in your actions. Practice makes perfect. you will ultimately enhance your health and combat techniques. your intention and commitment must be deeply held. To cultivate ‘inner listening’. imagine a partner practicing or competing with you. combining your heart. Skill arises from consistent and accumulated practice.

which are also the essential elements of Taiji. you will develop the capacity to subconsciously anticipate quick or slow changes. You will learn to follow your partner’s intention and forget your own. Tuishou practice is based on thirteen ‘forms’ or energies. adhere. Sui (stick.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. opening or closing. Kuai (quick) and Man (slow). Qing (light) and Zhong (heavy). Movements alternate freely between Gang (hard) and Rou (soft). actions to the left or right. distance and direction of energy. attacks or retreats. upward or downward movements. . your partner’s weight. with the lightest of touches. speed. gathering or exploding. while its theoretical basis builds on the philosophies of Yin and Yang. and so on. it will enable you to feel.3  The cOre Of TuishOu The core of Tuishou consists of Zhan. The thirteen forms are: • Ward off • Roll back • Press • Push • Pull down • Split • Elbow strike • Shoulder strike • Advance forward • Retreate back • Look backward • Gaze forward • Central equilibrium Peng Lü Ji An Cai Lie Zhou Kao Jin Tui Gu Pan Ding 王 西 安 6 Tuishou flows seamlessly between the application and combination of opposites. When you can control these energies within yourself. Lian. follow) and Chansi Jin (Reeling Silk). At a more advanced stage. continue. Nian.

don’t move’. ‘if the opponent moves slightly.Points to remember: Move with great flexibility Change your movements constantly using elastic yet tense Neijin (internal energy). stretching. Note: by ‘elastic’ we mean energy that is able to return to its original state after compression. move before they do’ etc. Tuishou centers around ‘listening and following’ techniques: ‘react fast to fast attacks’. 王 西 安 7 . Attack the opponent’s centre of gravity Use techniques such as ‘control a stronger opponent with weak force’ and ‘defeat weak points with a stronger force’. or other deformation. expansion. it is the force of friction that enables you to hold and seize their arms etc. ‘follow slow attacks unhurriedly’. be calm and relaxed To release bursts of energy effectively. Use the forces of elasticity and friction Use these forces when applying techniques such as ‘draw the opponent into one’s orbit to destroy their centre of gravity’. Note: friction forces are often applied in Tuishou – as you come in contact with the opponent’s hands. Like a balloon whose air has been exhausted. this energy refills automatically to its original ‘full’ state. When releasing explosive energy. ‘if the opponent does not move. concentrate on one direction at a time. Master the fundamentals 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Basically. ‘utilize the opponent’s energy’ and ‘conquer the strong with the weak’.

utilizing the techniques of Kao. known as Shang Long Xia Ti (which means to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to his or her upper body while lifting their lower body). The canon of Taiji teachings is rich with such sayings. whether they strike or twist. no matter how hard they press. As Chen Changxing says: ‘There are so many people who wear the mask of a hero. Using this. results in the shaking off of the opponent’s upper body and lifting of their lower body. none of your opponents can defeat you. I can conquer a force of a thousand jin with a tiny force of four Liang. Similarly. I always follow their intention.” This technique.” Chen Changxing. Even if attacked by a monster. whether ascending or descending. 王 西 安 8 . the 14th generation master. push or strike your opponent you do so without alerting them in order to capture their energy. I perform strictly to the principles so as to make me unassailable. push or strike. yet few who can actually strike the enemy’s heart and ribs with agility and effectiveness’. when you move forward in your turn to press. and is worth remembering.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As stated in the General Song of Taijiquan by Chen Wangting (also known as the ‘Song of Taiji Practitioners’): “…remembering the principle of following. and they serve as concise and comprehensive guidelines for Taiji and Tuishou practice through the ages. also states: “No one knows when I gather or stretch. I follow my partner.

I sincerely hope Taijiquan followers will embark on a serious study of this art and strive toward the as yet unbounded acme of this science. One with two Yin and eight Yang is a San Shou One with three Yin and seven Yang is still considered tough. Only one with five Yin and five Yang is called adept. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 9 .Another essay defines the five levels of Tuishou: One with one Yin and nine Yang is as stiff as a stick. the relative practice methods for each stage with differing ratios of Yin and Yang are clearly defined. As a science. requiring us to further our exploration and improve our practice of it. the study of Taijiquan Tuishou is a profound undertaking which knows no bounds. In order to inherit and develop this Chinese cultural heritage. One with four Yin and six Yang is among the group of the adepts. Here.

Zhong Quan (medium circle) At this stage. as stiff as a stick’ evolves to ‘two-yin eight-yang. 3. Correspondingly. with fuller details available in Chapter Two of my book. still regarded hard’ turns into ‘fouryin six-yang. one comes into the group of the adepts’. is San Shou’. Da Quan (big circle) This is the stage whereby ‘one-yin nine-yang. Zhao Shu (familiarity with the forms) Outer form drives Qi. Shen Ming (dual cultivation of inner energy and outer form) One is regarded as a Deity. Dong Jin (realizing the inner energy) Qi drives outer form. ‘three-yin seven-yang. . Taiji Tuishou also consists of three stages with three respective practice methods: 王 西 安 10 1. 2. 2.4  The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of  Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu A brief description of the three stages of Taijiquan practice will be provided here.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. The three stages of Taijiquan are: 1. ‘Chen Style Taiji Laojia’ (Old Routine).

all parts of the body become as highly sensitized as finger tips so that when competing. Those who attain the level of Deity will be able to execute movements with tremendous flexibility and smoothness. along with the Tuishou practice of Da Quan (big circle).3. random alternations between states of energy gathering and releasing within a relaxed and elastic body. Note that ‘no circle’ denotes a state of subtlety and skilfulness. medium and small circles. and does not mean total stillness. students will improve step-by-step and attain the ultimate stage of Deity or Xing Shen Jian Bei. with the practice of Xiao Quan Shenzhi Wuquan (small or even no circle). that is. That is to say. in addition to a diligent assimilation of knowledge. and be able to achieve constant internal changes between Xu and Shi (void and solid). At the third stage of Shenming (deity). an adept may say. Following a correct program of practice as outlined above. possess abundant internal energy. By this stage. Xiao Quan Naizhi Wuquan (small circle or even no circle) This is the final stage where ‘five-yin five-yang. The three stages of Taijiquan practice are interrelated with the three stages of Taiji Tuishou. that is. we practice Mingjin (apparent energy) by utilizing Yi Xing Dai Qi (external form guides internal Qi). At the second stage of Dong Jin (realization of energy). we practice Ling Jin (spiritual force) through Nei Wai Jian Xiu (culitivation of both internal and external qualities). ‘I hit with any part of my 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 11 . one is regarded as a Deity’. the complete fusion of external form and internal spirit. along with the Tuishou practice of Zhong Quan (medium circle). enjoy a feeling of lightness. as well as the combination of the respective techniques applied in the big. at the first stage. We must pay attention to different methods during different stages of practice. we practice An Jin (invisible force) through Yi Qi Cui Xing (external form driven by Qi).

” 王 西 安 12 . if you don’t make efforts to go forward. Also known as ‘Five-Yin Five-Yang’. This is not unattainable. as our ancestors tell us. you surely go backwards. “Taiji practice is like rowing in the river.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 body that is attacked by my opponent. those who reach this stage posess energy without imbalance and can achieve Lianshen Huanxu (cultivation of Shen spirit and return to the void). even though I don’t know how I do it’.

no techniques can be executed. nor is it just a matter of pitting one’s physical force against others. Without the latter. it doesn’t imply Diu (a common defect due to failure in Zhan Nian. Tuishou develops one’s sensitivity to others.5  TuishOu. four Liang defeats thousands of Jin’. tough energy. However. While appearing deceptively easy. When they reach the level of ‘a good hand with invisible four-yin six-yang energy in medium circles’. ‘thousands of Jin’ (i. It simply requires practitioners to have sufficient physical force for competition. In other words.e. they are able to strike back instantly in response to an opponent’s movement using conditioned reflexes derived from highly sensitized skin alert to every minute stimulus. try to feel the extent and speed of your partner’s motions with your sense of touch while ‘listening’ to their stance and angles of movement. Hence. try to feel your partner’s tracks of energy while controlling your own centre of gravity during practice.1. The Only criTeriOn TO judge   The gOngfu Of Taiji  Not only is Tuishou a reliable test of one’s level in any martial art form. meaning ‘loss of energy’. softness can break through hard. These reflexes are faster than thought and only come with constant practice. Skilled practitioners rely on a highly developed sense of touch. It is this dynamic that we need to explore during practice. Tuishou actually requires a strong sense of balance and an ability to combine energy and force. Remember too where your weight is placed to maintain control of your centre of gravity. Ding meaning ‘stiff resistance’). it is also the key criterion against which one’s level of Taijiquan Gongfu can be measured. Nevertheless. hence it is essentially a competitive activity. In contrast with Quan (form) practice where the focus is on solo practice and developing self-awareness. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 13 . or ‘losing tracking to the opponent’s energy’) or Ding (a common defect due to failure in relaxation. This is called. the stronger force) also can defeat the weaker force. When forces are equally matched during competition. Only by being fully aware of the changes in your partner’s movement can you react promptly to any attack. ‘Weak side strikes strong side.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 14 .

CHAPTER TWO: inTeRpReTaTions on The Ten FoRCes oF Taiji 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 15 .

with the skin and with the fine hairs on the body surface. alluding not only to listening with the ears. The level of one’s overall listening ability is determined by one’s internal energy (Gongfu). filled with abundant internal Qi. a rise or fall in height or changes in weight.1  lisTening TO energy In the context of Taiji and Tuishou. no matter if the changes are in the opponent’s rotation. but also with the eyes. a practioner’s body can react instantly with great accuracy and flexibility. ‘Without being known. adhere. the skin. sensing through the skin enables reaction in any manner within the rules. During Tuishou sparring. When Wu-Yin Wu-Yang (energy equal and balanced) is attained. continue. Similarly. when an opponent touches one’s fine body hairs. her body light and flexible. every single hair is so delicate and sensitive it can detect a feather just before it touches the skin. and taking Zhan Nian Lian Sui (stick. her changes in rotation. feel your partner’s movements. What is listening with the skin? It means following the command of the heart and mind. One’s skin is the key weapon. Hence the saying. one’s force is injected into the marrow.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. position and magnitude. Listening can be divided into three areas: listening with the bones.’ 王 西 安 16 . With your skin. follow) as fundamentals. squeeze and press. any signals of attack will be transmitted as sensations through the minute hairs on one’s skin. At this stage. I know others and sweep all enemies aside. allowing both body and mind to enter into the level of deity and transformation. the act of ‘listening’ has profound resonances. and a highly-tuned awareness of sensations in the heart and nerves as well. What is listening with the bones? It is the ability to anticipate an attack by listening through the skin and responding swiftly to an opponent’s attempt to seize. On receiving these signals. The entire body surface of a high level practioner is highly sensitive.

very few achieve the ability to listen with the skin. until it is too late to repel danger. descending. your listening untrue. It requires cultivation of a finely-honed sensitivity to the sensations on one’s minute body hairs. Failure to do so will cause one’s energy to remain stuck in the chest. ‘descending Qi and steady steps’. solidity. Just as a deaf person is unable to comprehend a conversation as he cannot hear. opening and closing (快、慢、沉、稳、虚、实、 开、合). making all one’s muscles stiff. While the majority of practitioners are able to listen with the bones. that is why it destroys the strongest of enemies”. How good it would be to attain this level. blood and breath. defending and attacking blindly. ‘clear manifestation of emptiness and solidness’. listen without hearing. you fight back. In all this. your judgement confused. “The most super-human strategy is formless and soundless. Without this preparation. As Sunzi Bingfa says. slow. ‘co-ordination of opening and closing’ and maintaining a fluid continuity between all these techniques. Nervously. Your reactions will become slow. calm. Listening is essential to Tuishou. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 17 . where every knot of one’s body opens and stretches without crude force. Only through accumulated practice can one’s sensations detect the smallest changes. Listening practice should strictly follow the Four Principles (Zhan Nian Lian Sui) as well as the Essential Formula – fast. let alone the attainment of energy for combat. rising to the upper body. emptiness. This is why we recommend the practice of Zhan and Nian (stick and adhere) energies as a preparation for listening practice. which is essential for constant adjustments to frequently changing circumstances. leading only to failure. special attention should be paid to ‘the intervals of fastness and slowness’. You will look without seeing. listening would be impossible.Finding a really peaceful place to practice will help concentration and improve one’s sensitivity to listening. so a practioner cannot generate energy for sparring if he or she is unable to listen.

Di (resist) and Gun (roll). Lou (hold). Gua (hang on). Zhi (straight).2  dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy Realizing energy is a key concept in Taiji and Tuishou.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. magnitude and hitting point. your energy too resistant (Ding) or being lost unnecessarily (Diu). this skill may eventually be attained with diligent practice and a good teacher. While beginners may find this difficult to achieve. you cannot note any of the above changes in the oponent. Shan (dodge or flash). Dang (block off ). Ying (stiff ). Bo (move with hand). Meng (sudden). Ling (pressing). Ting (stick out). It is the ability to conquer one’s opponent by using proper rhythm and techniques such as Yin. 拿na – capture. A further thirty-five shortcomings need to be overcome at this stage: Chou (draw). Na. the ability to circle and the principles of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. vertical axis and flexibility. It is the ability to note present or potential changes in emptiness and solidity. Ke (knock). Jia (stiff ). Ba (pull out). Realizing energy is based on listening. You may find yourself being too stiff (Jiang). 发fa – explode) at the appropriate opportunity. Fa (引yin – lead. Pai (squeeze out). Gou (hook). “faulty palms” or “faulty body”. you cannot realize it. Cuo (rub). Li (leave). new challenges such as ‘being too fond of competing’. Zhe (hide). your posture too straight (Zhi). Be warned that mistakes will occur on this learning path. Without ‘hearing’ the energy of one’s partner. Hua. Teng (jump). Zhuan (cheat). Duo (escape). Even for those who achieve this skill. length. An (press). hardness and softness. Qin (intrude). Shi (tight). Ba (seize by force). Hun (mix up). Peng. that is. Ji (hit). direction. Failure to overcome these shortcomings would be to fail to realize energy. straightness and curvature. 王 西 安 18 . Ya (push down). speed. We call such shortcomings. Zhan (chop). Qi (insult). 化hua – change. transform. Tui (push). Bing (defect) signifies the inability to follow principles such as maintaining one’s centre of gravity. await them.

striking. Whilst acknowledged as a combat technique in its own right. transforming. twisting. I follow my partner. In effect. they share the common practice of ‘realizing energy’. angle. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 19 . and also in one’s facilitiy with the eight energies or techniques (Peng. As Chen Changxing. grasping. Hence. Zhou and Kao). The quality of one’s form practice and Tuishou level speaks for itself – it is reflected in one’s ability to freely move forward or backward. An. which is used not only in Tuishou. relaxation and health practice for the old and infirm. is misleading and does not take into account its fundamental role across the Chinese martial arts. but also in the combat arts and and Sanda (free sparring). I always keep remembering to follow their intention. form and quality of Tuishou.The practice for ‘realizing energy’ also tests one’s position. When attacking. Ji. Lie. Sanda complies with basic Tuishou principles. dodging. developed from further transformations of Tuishou routines. says in a verse from his book. with Taijiquan. hence its continuing ties with Tuishou and. In fact. Ultimately. Sanda can simply be taken as a higher evolution of Tuishou. falling. Whilst all Chinese martial arts possess unique characteristics. Concordant with the adage that ‘external forms are the method and the pathway’. no matter if they use the technique of Kao or twist. Lü. Tuishou is the combat application of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. the Tuishou practitioner must aim to apply these techniques (seizing. ‘The Taijiquan Formula’: No one knows when I gather or stretch. utilizing the techniques of Kao in spiralling. jumping. changing one’s centre of gravity and flexibility) in synchronous movements. these eight techniques form the method for Tuishou. ultimately. 14th generation Taiji master from the Chen family. the poplular stereotype of Taijiquan as a non-combat. look around and maintain an upright axis during Tuishou practice. rather than use them as disparate forces to enhance one’s attacking prowess. and shares many common principles with Sanda (free sparring). Cai.

Taijiquan and Sanshou are practiced synchronously today to enhance health and selfdefence skills. “From the familiarity of forms. Hence. ‘listening and realizing energy’. along with the Four Essentials and ‘realizing energy’ techniques in Tuishou. one must also ‘realize energy’ through diligent practice and the exchange of ideas with one’s sparring partner. As mentioned. In addition to applying Master Chen Changxing’s advice. Everyone knows how to hook. Chen Xin once said. Indeed. the Chinese martial arts have evolved into health and fitness promoting practices. Li. this verse confirms Taijiquan as a profoundly practical Martial Art. step by step. Again. to the realization of energy. The second sentence of the verse means to follow the other partner’s intention while circling them. The attacks from me by twisting. we can clearly see that in all movements. ward off. until I come to the level of Deity”. fourth and fifth sentences refer to the application of Taiji Sanshou. only with accumulated practice can one exert energy flexibly and 王 西 安 20 . push or press. This ability is encapsulated in the phrase ‘Zhan Nian Lian Sui’. With the development of modern weapons. Tuishou is a combat practice method designed to prevent injury to the body whilst Sanshou is the appliction of Tuishou in actual combat. The third. It is through the practice of Tuishou and Sanshou that one garners the true meaning of Taijiquan. leading to a wider understanding of the profound benefits and applications of Taijiquan. to forget about one’s own intentions and follow the opponent’s. Chen Changxing exhorts practitioners to maintain a keen awareness of self and other parties. and horizontal Cai are also irresistible. yet who knows the tactful way to turn one’s back and dodge suddenly? From the above verse. strike.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 You need to go forward in order to chop. The author stressed the importance of ‘follow’. that is. press and hold back. adaptable to both Tuishou and Sanshou. that is. to act naturally and follow one’s intention.

direction and the position of a partner’s energy flow. Zhan Nian techniques develop one’s capacity for high precision. They are external manifestations of internal forces arising from prolonged ‘reeling silk’ practice. Conversely. the adhesive force that allows a practitioner to become strongly attached. this results in a deeper and more precise understanding of energy. the first being ‘familiarity with form’ and the last being ‘realizing deity’. with which one’s opponent will find difficult to escape. with Zhan as the dominant force since without a 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 21 . like glue. and come to realize the laws of movement and force. 2. extent. Whilst it is said that form practice cultivates a capacity to know oneself. ‘Realizing energy’ is the middle stage of the three major phases in Taiji development. while Tuishou exposes the quality of Zhan Nian techniques. This ability comes through great patients and a life-long perseverance of effort through the three stages. A practitioner. and its natural and intuitive use. on reaching the final stage of ‘deity’. so that he finds it hard to escape.3  zhan nian Techniques Zhan & Nian are forces directed forward.” Zhan literally means ‘stickiness’. Nian means to chase and follow one’s opponent. “Form practice is the essence of Zhan Nian training. will be able to instantly sense the delicate changes in the movement. magnitude. to one’s opponent. This is why it is said. Only with the awareness of both oneself and others can others be conquered. Ultimately. capturing and transforming his energy and using it to attack at the first opportunity.effectively. Through reeling-silk practice. Tuishou practice cultivates the capacity to know others. At this point. It is commonly used in attacking strategies. he or she will be able to prevent their opponent from escaping with zhan energy by following his intention. that is. in this way maintaining the upper hand at all times. Zhan Nian energies work as a pair.

‘I win by striking after the enemy has struck (My fist starts late. victory or defeat is decided in an instant. It is Zhan energy that envelops the body. have failed to attain high proficiency in the art.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 good mastery to ‘stickiness’ (Zhan). contact with the opponent’s palms allows the practitioner to estimate the opponent’s circle of reach and the level of their energy for transformation. This is why it is said that at this relatively high level. yet arrives at the hitting point earlier than the opponent)’. Zhan techniques are fundamental to Tuishou – one needs to stick to the opponent to react appropriately. ‘I don’t move if they don’t move’. ‘I move before them on feeling their slightest motion’. these techniques will lead the opponent into faulty moves. especially those who. slow reactions to slow attacks’. as reflected in their stiff bodies and tense. one can never accomplish quality ‘chasing’ (Nian). Understandably. and forget my own’. During Tuishou. but certainly achievable for diligent practitioners with good teachers. continuous and diligent practice. ‘Fast reactions to fast attacks. despite prolonged practice. beginners find Zhan Nian energy difficult to comprehend let alone detect. the practitioner can exert Zhan Nian forces towards the opponent. 王 西 安 22 . and then through the entire body. as indicated by these teachings: ‘Follow my partner’s intention. but even many long-term practitioners find total understanding or realization elusive. Ultimately. Once the whole body is enveloped. inflexible muscles and joints. Zhan Nian energies can be detected by sensations that start at the palms. and so on. When Zhan Nian techniques are applied. Simultaneously. the opponent will find it difficult to detect any weaknesses and hence any opportunity for attack. Zhan Nian energies can only be realized through thorough theoretical understanding and careful. Not an easy task for ordinary practitioners. flow up the arms to the shoulders and back. an internal energy manifesting externally.

follow and move in the same direction as one’s opponent. one observes and reacts to the opponent’s Zhan Nian techniques. Used in concert with Zhan Nian energies. there can be no Lian. Sui. another rises’. ‘Bu Diu Bu Ding’ (no loss of energy.4  lian sui energies Lian Sui energies are twin companions of Zhan Nian energies. that is. no resistance). can we execute Yin Jin Luo Kong efficiently. Only if we can achive quality work on Lian Sui (continue and follow) based on good mastery of Zhan Nian. It can be summarized as ‘co-relating to the opponent’. moving effortlessly between quick/slow and forward/ backward movements. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 23 . Without Zhan’s adhesive force over the partner preventing escape. the opponent cannot escape because if one follows closely using Zhan Nian. Unless one follow’s the opponent with Lian (co-relation). continuity. In so doing. and can only exist in the presence of the latter. Once palms come in contact. non-pressing. and no chance to escape. non-forcing. Lian is dependent on one’s use of Zhan. slow reactions to slow attacks. Lian Sui means to follow the partner constantly and closely thereby preventing their escape. so that ‘as one falls. including consistency. adhesiveness. emerges from the application of Lian. fast reactions to fast attacks. Lian has a rich amalgam of meanings. taking any opportunity to attack. misleading and upseting the opponent’s centre of gravity by attack and thus strike and ultimately conquer the opponent.2. ‘to react while following’. how can Sui be achieved? Sui technique means to react. Their inter-dependence requires both Zhan Nian and Lian Sui energies to be used in concert to work effectively. the act of connecting and maintaining the continuity of one’s movements with those of the opponent.

Only with unimpeded energy flow and smooth internal co-ordination can one interact seamlessly with one’s Tuishou partner. As the teaching says.” Here we refer to the ability to keep every part of the body functioning as an integrated whole. without any break in flexibility or continuity. Adepts. the basic ability to follow the opponent’s movements. Internal and external energy flows relay the most valuable quality inside those adepts who can coordinate their energies closely. It is vital that beginners are able to feel the movement of internal energy inside their bodies. Beginners may attain the preliminary stage of Lian Sui. therefore it is advisable to practice the combined application of both. “The lower body automatically follows any motions of the upper body. applying Lian Sui provides a good opportunity to observe the partner’s weaknesses: “Lian and Sui are the means to mislead the opponent into our territory and to put them into a passive position. successfully use Lian and Sui to attack and prevent escape.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a teaching goes. Lian and Sui can never function without the other. 王 西 安 24 . following their energy flow without interruption. so that they can ascertain if their energy levels match the purpose and intention of their actions. whether through form practice or Tuishou”. on the other hand. upper and lower coordinate any motion in the middle.

if my partner presses my right arm with their palms.2. hence ‘misleading’ and transforming the opponent’s energy. A particularly effective combination is Luo Kong. legs and so on”. For instance. using our arms. going up or down. While moving. striking the opponent with explosive energy while applying Yin Hua (literally to mislead and transform). using Lian Sui to follow their energy flow. we should apply She Ji Cong Ren without being detected. and cannot exist without Yin first being applied. the adept draws the opponent into his or her domain.5  Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques Yin is the main force used to mislead opponents. Literally meaning ‘to draw’ or ‘to lead’. elbows. turning left or right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 25 . and in this way mislead and neutralize your opponent’s energy. hips. neutralizing any opportunity for attack. one should avoid Diu and Ding (losing energy and resistance). When applying Yin. “We strike by coordinating forces from different directions (Yin Jin Luo Kong). I use Yin Jin Luo Kong to constrain my partner’s energy while simultaneously gathering energy carefully to prepare for an explosive release of energy at any angle or position. so as to mislead my partner’s energy and upset their centre of gravity. then gradually upwards. knees. we then use our shoulders. Hua is the transformative force. As Chen Xin explains. Note that while applying Yin and Hua forces. Use these principles whether you are going backward or forward. hands. When we feel the changes in our opponent’s energy flow. Once neutralized. I lower my body then stretch my right foot toward his or her crotch. palms. Using these complementary techniques. I apply Shun reeling downwards. reeling my back inward before suddenly striking outward. or feet to upset their centre of gravity. Yin is the ability to draw the opponent’s energy into one’s control.

that of Taijiquan is accepted as the most refined. In Tuishou and San Shou. and hence the harder the opponent falls. using all these techniques to mislead my opponent. destabilizing their centre of gravity and transforming their energy in order to conquer them. the more one stretches the bow. However. continuous solo practice is required to absorb knowledge thoroughly before techniques can be put to effective use.e. i. That is to say. they are conquered. explode energy as if releasing the arrow”. sweep. wrists or hands to inhibit their rotation or movement. shock. rotate an opponent’s joint towards its unnatural direction. just as one should attack forcefully without hesitation. so that the opponent is hurt and caught) or low stances are not always necessary for a good practitioner to conquer opponents. When I attack. the further one’s arrow flies. and their pain penetrates right to the marrow. I “roll over. Opponents will feel as if their tendons and bones are about to break. Any hard fan guanjie (joint twisting. look one way and go another”. my Taiji harmony within emerges so that even ghosts fail to predict my next move. dodge. It is important to remember that one must gather energy well before misleading one’s opponent. elbows. hence rendering them helpless. 王 西 安 26 While many martial arts schools may practice their own interpretation of the Na technique.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Yin Hua can be applied in many ways. 2. tie up. meaning the direction which hurts the natural structure of joint. Hua and Xu (gathering).6  na (seizing) Technique The Na technique or ‘Way of Seizing’ consists of seizing opponents by their arms. he or she can easily capture his opponent through the combined use of all . Instead. “gather energy as if pulling on the bow. I know my partner without being known. depending on circumstances. one must cultivate the forces of Yin. touch. As Chen Changxing advises. As Chen Xin suggests. so as to accumulate and release energy effectively. In this way.

There is a saying. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 27 . in order to strike well. you must react quickly and flexibly to any changes in your opponent. When utilizing Na. strengthen your force so that your opponent finds it too difficult to escape or transform their energy. I utilize Na to prevent my partner from escaping or from transforming their energy. If you fail to attack lightly and skilfully and your intentions are detected. ‘Only this. The seizing technique in Tuishou is very important. Tuishou accentuates Taijiquan’s martial power. I move using the principles of Qing Ling Huo Qiao (lightness. ‘is called the “best of the best”’. To apply Qing Ling Huo Qiao while seizing one’s opponent means to exert one’s spiral energy on them on contact. agility. so that I can strike them cleanly and successfully. This is why it is said that Na is the pre-condition of Da. If he or she succeeds in escaping. a Tuishou practitioner can exert the invincible might of Taiji. so that I may capture my opponent without hesitation or detection. To apply Na effectively. applying the energy smoothly and judiciously without over-exertion. These recovery measures also depend on a light. thus reaching their goal. Hua (transforming) are all preconditions for striking (Da). transforming and striking.their gathered forces. Na (seizing). Only with the synchronous use of various techniques can a Tuishou practitioner put their opponent at a disadvantage position and conquer them. throwing. With the combined application of seizing. Shuai (throw). flexibility and skilfulness). This is called ‘dual-utilization of seizing and gathering’. techniques such as Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Zhua (grabbing). agile. flexible and skilful exertion of Zhan Nian Lian Sui as well as other techniques. you need to seize first’. you still have the opportunity to move in quickly and seize them by their palms before they move away.’ as Sun Zi Bing Fa says. Make sure Shun reeling and Ni reeling happens continuously when you utilize Na techniques. ‘Na (seize) always goes with Da (strike). Indeed. In Tuishou.

both palms covering his right wrist. By relaxing.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 When applying Na. Miscalculations often result in injuries. Then strike directly forward in a spiral and hit your target accurately. making sure your hitting points are clearly defined. if you want to seize your opponent. Next. whether you exert Na by the co-ordination of your hand and chest or with your ribs. shoulders and crotch all gather downward in concert. How then can you hope to seize another? Indeed. and all parts in a gathering motion. Exert your energy first lightly then with force. especially amongst beginners. use the Na technique carefully to avoid hurting your sparring partner. your chest rolls inward naturally. releasing your force like bullets rushing out of a gun. your root will become unsteady. chest. During practice. seize him then guide his pressing force into your territory using Lü energy. If Qi ascends. and your ribs. you have no option but to relax your joints. application of appropriate angles and techniques. remember to maintain a relaxed state by lowering your whole body. stomach and the protruding and concaved parts of the shoulders. Na technique works together with Cai technique. every part of your body works in harmonious cooperation. ‘Never be rude and rash when you begin to practice Na. If you fail to Peng (ward off ) your opponent adequately. with no part tense. The combination of Na-Cai with gathered chest energy has a force twice more powerful than Na alone. he will be able to press forward.’ 王 西 安 28 . your centre of gravity destabilized and you will find it difficult to protect yourself. hence it is advisable to heed the teaching. and sensing the amount of force the partner’s joints can withstand. include controlling one’s speed and magnitude of attack. In peace every part of my body moves at the time of movement’. the targets for both being the arms. Common problems. in which case. Na is the synchronous manifestation of the internal and external. just as it is stated. Never let Qi float upward and never let your feet lose their roots. When relaxed. ‘No part of my body is not peaceful. stomach and legs. twist his right arm inward with your left hand. Using this will overcome the opponent without fail.

transform.Work on your technique step-by-step: develop a closed crotch. relax the shoulders. OpeningClosing is a physical expression of Yin-Yang qualities: hardness versus softness. opening and closing illustrate the subtlety of Taijiquan. As complementary opposites. ‘How can the circulation of stillness and movement have fixed directions? No matter under conditions of movement or stillness.7  Opening and clOsing In the martial arts. This is an important concept which bears deeper contemplation. Listen to the tracks of your opponent’s energy while applying Na and Bi (closing). Keep every joint relaxed before you exert Na. In all Tuishou and Taiji movements. Indeed. Opening (Kai) means to stretch and reach. often meaning to ‘guide and attack’ in the martial arts. The opportunity to transform the partner’s energy lies in the process of movements in various directions’. Remember – to attack your target with agility and flexibility requires long accumulated practice. just as Chen Xin mentioned in his works. preserve. Even masters of Chinese philosophy – Kungfuzi. bend and gather. Sanda and form practice. Gather the ribs. 2. hence this technique epitomizes the dual nature of Taiji – the opposite yet complementary. solid stomach and slightly concave chest. Closing (He) means to draw in. making sure all movements are steered by the waist. are widely used in Tuishou. opening and closing imbues Taijiquan with a subtle elegance that is as difficult to define as the motion of snowflakes. As Chen Xin says. Laozi and Zhuangzi – have been unable to describe the subtlety 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 29 . gathering versus exploding. one cannot ‘open’ without first being ‘closed’ and vice-versa. OpeningClosing techniques. Inhale from the stomach so that it remains solid. every part of the body is engaged in the action of opening and closing. Mengzi.

every part of your body follows suit. so that all parts of the body work together. the rebounding force exerted by the ground can be used to energise any upward movement. filling you with great vigor. that is. your ‘opening’ explosion will be natural. these changing motions. Yi moulds changes in external shape while Jin (force) rises with Qi. In using Yi’s guiding qualities during form practice and opening-closing in Tuishou. This means your root will not be disturbed and the flexibility of your reactions may even be enhanced. In practice. Likewise. the louder the explosion. pressing the ground with your heels to empty the Yong Quan points. While standing.’ Only diligent practitioners have the opportunity to experience this phenomenon.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 and beauty in the opening-closing movements of Taijiquan. with the qualities of both solidity and emptiness. from the soles of the feet. so that your targets become accurately defined and attacks successful. ‘Opening-Closing. external shape (Xing) and spirit (Shen). you will find that Qi penetrates your whole body more smoothly and powerfully. sometimes appear before our eyes. Without closing well. Kai (opening) energy originates in the root of your body. your intention (Yi). this means that one needs to be closed first before one can open. if your energy is gathered and conserved well. forceful. As the saying attests. crude and slow. swift and powerful. The art of opening or exploding your energy is akin to setting off firecrackers – the tighter the paper is rolled. Your heart acts as the guide and leader during energy explosion – when your heart opens. Thus positioned. Closing not only means to bend and withdraw your upper body. muscle energy (Qi). since Yi (intention) follows wherever Xin (heart) goes. but also to coordinate the heart (Xin). and sometimes they disappear. grasp the floor with the toes and soles. you will find your opening powerless. The Opening-Closing technique starts from the closed state. 王 西 安 30 . The quality of the effort you put in to closing determines your ability to open with power and effect.

The solution is to make your energy round. presenting your partner with opportunities to attack. Beyond this range. Exploded energy is an elastic force which can only be controlled through intense concentration and physical flexibility only attained through accumulated practice. your centre of gravity may be lost. you need to train your muscles in relaxation and gathering. lower your waist and let Qi flow along the spine. To gather energy of this quality.As you explode energy. strikes may not find their mark. flexible and compact enough to mislead and upset your opponent’s centre of gravity. which then distributes it to the other extremities. The explosion should be short. spirals up the legs to the waist control-center. Practitioners also need to build-up a reasonable level of muscular strength. Doujin is also known as ‘cun jin’ (very short energy) as cun is the Chinese unit of measurement for small lengths equivalent to 3. then to every corner of the body. land on the ground on your in-steps. while being mindful of the adage. After exploding energy. To master this elastic force. and to develop high sensitivity and rapid responses to external stimuli. keep your elbows down. roll your chest slightly inward. Exploding Doujin comes from releasing energy gathered during a state of relaxation when energy permeates the whole body. is limited by its short duration and small coverage which extends only as far as your body. 2. the whole body returns to a state of softness and relaxation. Exploding energy at close-range is best as Kai energy. or you may find your Kai technique lacking in power and precision. you will need to drop and relax the shoulders. or worse still.8  energy explOsiOn Energy explosions consist of either long or short energy (Doujin or vibrating power). then spiral your internal energy up the legs to the waist.33 cm. albeit swift and powerful. This energy originates from the soles of the feet. the energy released unhindered. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 31 .

The force that you and your partner exert on each other in Tuishou is external force. utilize. your opponent is vanquished. Your performance in competition depends not only on the quality of your sensitivity. not relying on rigid or crude force. it is necessary to distinguish clearly the respective functions of internal force and external force. together with the abovementioned techniques of grasping the ground as energy explodes using the earth’s rebounding power. The external force of both parties affects each’s internal energy flow. The main external force that we humans experience is gravitational force from the earth. horizontal forces and so on.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 “use thought and intention. To combine the power of the three. and to explore the interactive relationship between them. transforming and attacking are closely related. not strength”. all these are prerequisites to “destroy something already in a state of ruin”. When doing Tuishou exercises. and with that outburst. spiral forces. Without these. straight forces. abundant internal energy and intense physical and energetic concentration. skilfully. which manifests as our weight. though random wins may happen. Transforming and gathering are complementary and cannot function without each other. which are characterized by firm and ferocious attacks where internal energy is released with an explosive ‘Ha!’ sound. Constant diligence. Transforming and gathering are preconditions for energy explosions used in attacks – striking without transforming energy leads to stiff explosions while transforming without gathering results in powerless ones. but also that of your internal energy and combat strategy. and exploding energy with elastic vibrations. dissipate or absorb her external force. Gathering. internal forces. there are also a myriad of other forces which influence our bodies – supporting forces. However. counter forces. that you are unable to neutralize. To do this. you must practice Changjin 王 西 安 32 . in effect. frictional forces. flexibly and harmoniously. consistent good performances will not be achievable. Daily cultivation of Yuan Qi (primordial Qi) and vital energy flow throughout the body are essential for decisive wins. Failure to counter your partner’s force means. one must explode energy smoothly.

during Tiaozhou practice (upward strike with elbow). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 33 . and even when elastic cunjin (hitting a target at very close range) is executed. At this level of Gongfu. To reach this level. instantaneous. Only very high-level practitioners may achieve this. easy conquest of the opponent does not necessarily follow. and the small or no circle practice. Continue developing these techniques step-by-step until the level of deity is reached. as their attacks flow naturally from their heart and intention. will find the opponent flung far and wide. By mastering the key points of energy explosion. beginners need to do the following: do the big circle practice. Still Tough’ and ‘Four-Yin Six-Yang. At the transitional stage between ‘Three-Yin Seven-Yang. quick. the whole body moves as a synchronized force to follow the slightest movement of intention. Alternate between these three with slow. the medium circle practice. “Without striking the partner from a distance of three metres. This means that if one finds it difficult to attack from a distance. imagine a line between the navel and Mingmen. especially exhaling-inhaling and opening-closing motions. one should not attack at close target. Good Hands’. even with the slightest touch. it is not advisable to exert Changjin (long energy). below which energy flows downward and above which energy flows upward. despite its ferocity. elastic or vibrating variations. while downward flowing energy helps maintain a firm and stable root. Close-range attacks require a high-level of competence. An attack.(long energy) and Duanjin (elastic short energy) by doing stretching and relaxation. leading to very smooth and swift responses. Upward energy and downward energy exist in opposition to each other. you will find it easier to hit targets more accurately and swiftly. a quality leveraged for precise attacks: upward energy is used to explode energy vigorously. For example. there would be no striking the partner from one inch”. As it is said.

To apply Ti successfully requires the whole body to work in coordination. Instead. powered by upward spiralling energy. The rising force is difficult to use if forced. at which point you quickly change to exert Lü and Cai downward to throw them to the ground. you need to destabilize your opponent’s centre of gravity by inserting one leg between your opponent’s legs and lifting it quickly outward using spiralling energy. To conquer your opponent. and intention into one entity. First. Remember to maintain full concentration. shadow your opponent with agile steps. combine your rising force with your elastic force. As Qi flows up the spine. When applying Ti. heart. Remember to maintain your centre of gravity with the coordination of the other leg. keep agile so that the opponent may not detect your energy flow and will thus be unprepared for escape. you lift your partner with spiralling energy to destabilize their centre of gravity and draw them into your control. Using Zhan Nian Lian Sui. while you maintain a state of relaxation. rotate your Dantian so that your body lifts with greater speed and accuracy. never let your partner know your intention before you act. Remember Master Chen Changxing’s advice to “hold [your opponent’s] upper body under your control before you lift his lower body. This means that no matter what Tuishou techniques you use. spiral your forearms upward with guidance from the waist toward your opponent’s upper body. At the same time. keeping your axis upright and combine your eyes. skilfully changing your tack to distract them from your true intentions until you have destabilized their centre of gravity and they are caught off-balance. waist and arms. while you keep your intentions and energy flow undetected. your opponent’s upper body will shift out of their control. To lift your opponent up with Ti requires the combined effort of legs. then your instant and precise attack can never fail”. The arms and legs work together. Even if not thrown completely off balance. Pay attention to defending your territory – it is better to relinquish victory than to lose territory 王 西 安 34 . and may lead to loss of control.9  Ti (raising) fOrce Ti means to ‘rise spirally’.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2.

and not even know from whence your power emanates. tie. as it emerges from the feet. Do not try to strike others before you have attained a reasonable level of competence. You will attack like a flying dragon. reeling to the left or reeling to the right. This energy is created using the Reeling Silk technique and penetrates all movements during form practice. you will come to sense it with practice.10  reeling silk  Reeling Silk is a spiralling.and power. walk with such assurance as to shock evil spirits. Adequate practice will naturally lead to success. on the verge of losing their centre of gravity. The Reeling Silk consists of great varieties: reeling inward. but once attained. mislead. transform and defeat your opponent’s attacking energy. For beginners. you will be able to transform energy while striking. 2. reeling upward. your attacks will never fail. until it reaches the fine hairs of the skin. you will find it easier to follow. and manifests externally as it permeates through to the fine hairs on the skin. Mastering this energy requires much effort and practice. reeling in big or 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 35 . you will lose awareness of your physical body and location. Though undiscernible initially. When this happens. revolving energy which originates internally in the body. so you feel able to “protect your descendents and kill the rebels”. your force will reach its target just with intention. their root and they will certainly fall. go forward or backward. touch or sweep in response to the circumstances and you remain always observant and alert. reeling outward. passes through the legs up the spine and arms. Your incredible speed allows you to gain ground easily while your opponent feels as if they are fighting perched on a ball. whether you rise or descend. You roll. Attaining high-level skills will make you braver. follow the primary principles and develop your skills stepby-step.

When being utlilized. When using Reeling Silk energy. While reeling. and so on. Keep a firm root. The solution lies in the middle path: keep a balance between softness and toughness. As for posture. excessive toughness makes you get too rigid. 王 西 安 36 . remember to keep your Zhongqi (energy to keep your axis upright). remain balanced. focusing your energy internally and guiding the flow of your responses from Yin to Yang. reeling horizontally or reeling vertically. apply the principle of Dingjin (suspending force): hold the neck upright and relaxed. reeling forward and backward. all these reeling movements are always comprehensively combined together and closely connected. quiet and calm. and thus renders you unable to react properly and to be easily manipulated by the opponent. Be humble and respectful during form practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 small circles. The principle of ‘Circulation between Yin and Yang’ clearly dominates the reeling process. collapse the waist and establish a stable centre of gravity in the legs. Shun reeling (conforming) and Ni reeling (contrary). and apply opening and closing techniques. maintain the interplay between solidness and emptiness. misleading) always comes with Jin (approaching forward or attacking) and vice versa. Excessive softness (Ruanshou or weak hands) makes you too weak to fight. Yin (guiding. one must avoid being too soft or too tough. reeling to the front or reeling aside.

CHAPTER THREE: single FoRm pRaCTiCe 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 37 .

you need to execute Jin (go forward). Keep learning and eventually you will be able to use intention (Yinian) alone to execute techniques appropriate to each circumstance rather than conscious thought. Faji (attack) effectively under any conditions. Single Form practice is vital for hand-to-hand Gongfu combat. interlinks the Santian (the three Dantian) and reaches the Yong Quan point. It also demands a period of diligent practice to ascend gradually through the primary. Hua (transform) and Na. Yilu (First Form) cultivates energy while Erlu (Second Form) releases it. the purpose of form practice is to ‘get energy to reach the tips of the four limbs’. full relaxation of the joints. Lie. Erlu explodes In this technique. This means that Yilu fosters Zhongqi so that.1      Yilu cultivates Qi. Ji. Single Form practice is essential for developing techniques which form the basis of Taiji Tuishou: Peng. if practice is diligent. and exerting energy too forcefully (Ding) while exploding energy. goes through the Sanguan (Three Gates).1. Take special care to avoid losing energy (Diu) while practicing relaxation (Song). Ti. Kao. relaxed and soft. A wide variety of single movements must be practiced repeatedly. Da. To win. Erlu and Single Form practice help to accumulate and strengthen Gang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. for example. who is then inevitably conquered. Qi will flow around the body to the extremities and skin. as well as techniques focussing on various target areas of the body. movements gradually become agile and flexible. Shan (dodge). Lü. 王 西 安 38 . Zhou. Because Yilu lacks speed and Gang (tough) energy.’ In this way. An. Shuai (fall). 3. medium and high-level stages. As we know. This practice requires a solid foundation in preparatory exercises. Tui (go backward). so the Single Form Practice and Erlu help to compensate for this disadvantage. where ‘Qi spreads to the whole body. Zhan (battle).1  inTrOducTiOn  This is a practical lesson in combat practice. Cai. keeping your energy tracks undetected by the opponent.

so that the path to deeper understanding and realization may be paved. the throwing technique of Zhang Zhidie and Master Dong Hai’s Baguazhang technique of ‘[striking] the world by a half-step Beng (burst apart)’. elbows. Well known examples include the foot techniques of Li Bantian. To do otherwise would be to ‘attend to trifles and neglect the essentials’. These clearly advise diligent practice of the shoulders. we have Master Feng Zhiqiang who is venerated for his steady. ‘You practice. sober movements and his relaxed yet vigorous energy explosions. Also legendary is Master Chen Fadou’s ability to vanquish competition partners with just a touch. Significant gains may be attained by practicing the single forms step-by-step. Chen Zhaopi was the undisputed master of 滚Gun (rolling).Gongfu masters. these masters have attained their expertise through a shared and unwavering focus in Single Form practice. He was known to say that he found throwing partners too easy. 搭Da (touch) and 扫Sao (sweep). inner meanings of the mysterious art rather than a competition. as well as for his subtle and delicate jinlu (energy tracks) in Qinna (arresting). Hence. after you practice the form ten thousand times’. 拴Shuan (tie). The world of Taiji is replete with pithy sayings that provide useful guidance to the attentive practitioner. hands. more like a relaxing stretch to enjoy the subtle. Though widely differing in style. legs and hips using relevant principles. back. the seizing techniques of Eagle Claw King. If prolonged. such as: ‘Profound principles emerge by themselves. ‘Skills come naturally when you are familiar with forms’. Master Chen Zhaokui was celebrated for his sudden dodges and incredibly small rebounding circles. Lastly. resulting in loss of vigor and effectiveness. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 39 . you fail’ and so on. each have their own unique combat style drawn from continuous tempering in their practice. you don’t. you harvest. be they exponents in internal Gongfu or external Gongfu. neglectful practice becomes increasingly difficult to rectify. they always got hit and thrown to the ground. No matter how steady his partners stood in the beginning of a fight. Single Form practice is of vital importance.

3.2. alternating between both legs: kicking forward. stomach gathered and head suspended from above. With one hip relaxed and the opposite foot slightly touching the ground. chest rolled slightly inward. pedalling forward. face to the front. 3. bend and raise your knee slightly. 王 西 安 40 Fig.1 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.1      Exercise One • • Squat slightly. upwards and sideways.2  feeT pracTice Feet practice includes the following movements. trampling. swinging up and down and so on. horizontally.

upward and downward swing.2 41 .2. • Kicking smoothly. a) Forward Kick The Forward Kick consists of kicking directly forward at mid-level and to the left and right. Descriptions of some of these exercises are provided below. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. collecting the energy at the abdomen.3. • Relax the feet so energy can reach the toes where it is required. feet hanging backward and so on. sideways. bend the other leg with toes grasping the ground to maintain a firm centre of gravity. pedaling. 3. horizontal. make sure your in-step is stretched moderately tightly. • Roll the chest inward and aggregate energy with the whole body. up and down. stepping.2      Exercise Two This is actually a series of exercises focusing on various kicking movements: forward.

Beginners should practice slowly. At this point. 3. they will be able to direct energy explosions to targets with precision and ferocity. 3. your left foot prepares to kick with the toes or instep as the right foot lands.3). if you kick with the right leg. for example. 3. use the rebounding force of the earth to bounce up and propel your kick (Fig. On landing with either foot. .4. 3. It should be practiced with both feet so that. except that the Horizontal Kick is higher and targets the opponent’s pubic region and lower abdomen. gradually developing until they reach the point of whole body integrity with the unification of Yi-Qi-Xing (intention-energy-form).3 • This technique is applicable to the toes. edges of the foot plate and the sole (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. b) Horizontal Kick 王 西 安 42 The key points of the Horizontal Kick are basically the same as those of the Forward Kick.5).

 3.5 c) Upward Kick (Shang Ti Jiao) 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.Fig. 3. 3.6 43 .4 Fig.

The whole body must be kept balanced and straight when kicking upwards. 3. a principle also applicable to the Double Kick (Er Qi Jiao). 王 西 安 44 d) Stepping Down (Xia Cai Jiao) Follow the sequences as follows: • Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. There is no jumping in the Upward Kick. flexible and quick. usually the opponent’s chin. practice kicking with each foot sequentially. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. The Upward Kick should match the rhythm of the hands’ movements. The kick should be light. instead. • Switch your centre of gravity to the left foot.7  The Upward Kick is used for high targets. Only if one’s kick is quick and powerful can kicking be initiated precisely and the target hit cleanly.

gathering the stomach and collapsing the waist to ensure you stand with the left foot firmly rooted. Then empty the Yong Quan point. Make sure that your centre of gravity does not switch to your right foot right after it touches the ground. exploding energy as quickly and fiercely as you can. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 45 . cup your right fist and left wrist together in front of the chest. 3.8 • • • Then stamp your right foot on the ground.• Bend the left knee. feet firmly grasping the ground. 3. As your right foot explodes energy stamping downward. grasp the ground with the left toes and. all the while rolling the chest slightly inward. raise the right knee gradually (Fig.8). standing with left leg. but try to keep some weight in the un-weighted side as well. keeping the right foot at the same distance from the left foot as before.

practice with the left leg) (Fig. The key points here are the same as those for the previous segments. Kick as high as your opponent’s stomach and chest. In Single Form exercise. 3. including the alternating use of the legs (Fig.10). 3.9). The distance of the kick depends on your skill level – a good kick hits the opponent at an angle of 25o from the horizontal. e) Forward Kick This consists of a straight kick forward with the sole of the foot. 3. you can practice with the alternation of legs (after praciticing with the right leg for a while.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. and then withdraws elastically like a rubber band springing back into shape. 王 西 安 46 .9 Regardless of which leg steps forward first. remember to follow instantly and quickly with the other leg.

Fig.11 Kick mainly with the heels. 3.10 Fig. 3. 3. sometimes with the soles. Avoid leaning backward when kicking – keep your axis upright to maintain your centre of gravity. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The Inward Kick is executed upwardly to the front.13).12) and the Outward Kick (Fig. f) Sideways Kick The Sideways Kick consists of the Inward Kick (Fig. 3. As you reach a higher level of skill.11). 3. Before kicking. prepare well by relaxing the chest and stomach to ensure your kick is fast. 王 西 安 47 . fierce and perfectly targeted. your reach will grow naturally and you will find it easier to execute kicks with greater ease (Fig. with hitting points mainly on the inside of the foot (with the occasional use of the outside).

with the hitting points mainly on the outside of the foot (occasionally inside). as instructed in the ‘Essay on Quan’: “Gather energy like stretching a bow. Bend the kicking leg about 25o and lean slightly backwards as you kick to maintain a stable root and ensure ‘straightness exists in bending. 王 西 安 48 • .12 Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. This emphasises the importance of good quality energy gathering as a precondition for fast and powerful kicking. this reflects the relationship between Yin and Yang’. as bending exists in straightness (meaning the body becomes bent when gathering (preparing for kicking). while the body becomes straightened when kick is streched). In the Sideways Kick. explode energy like releasing the arrow”. 3.13 • The Outward Kick is executed outward and upwardly. the whole body gathers together then opens up with an explosion of energy.

use the Gen Bu (follow-on Steps). If kicking with the right foot. Eye your target and prepare for the kick by gathering your internal energy and lowering it. Always coordinate the kick with your hands. Your swinging foot is targeted at the back of the opponent’s head. then bring it backward (Fig. 3.14). Before kicking.g) Upwards Swinging Kick • • • • • • Place one foot in front of the other.14 49 . 3. toes grasping the ground and all muscles of the body relaxed. While swinging outward to the level of the shoulder. while your hands are targeted at the face. then swing it outward in a natural arc. turn the body to the left to ensure a smooth and powerful forward swing of the foot and vice versa (Fig. be it with the right or left foot. Squat slightly. smack the foot with your hand to ensure the integrity of the energy. which allows you to use quick and continous forward steps. 3. Kick upward with the back foot. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.15).

15 With openings and closings. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a Tuishou poem states: Fig. I smack in the air by switching into the track of a swing arc. 王 西 安 50 Practice these kicks repeatedly so that they become smooth and continous and you may eventually hit distant targets using a combination of kicks with agility. . I take the back of the opponent’s head as target. And kick upward along with palms coordinated with Lü. And smash enemies to pieces.

• The foot hangs to the calf suddenly to make the opponent lose his balance. keep your footwork flexible and neat. • Hold the body in a squatting position for the next few movements. remember to balance upward Long (close) movements with downward Ti (raise). Backward Hanging Foot can be used as an initial step or as a follow-on (Gen Bu) to initial approaches toward the opponent. meanwhile two hands attack the chest of the opponent and strike the opponent down to the earth. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 51 . • Lower the back hanging foot to the ground then switch the front foot to Tou Bu (sneaking step) and move it forward. rotating it slightly so that it slants to one side. depending on the distance between you. palms facing outward. • Pay attention to that you finish this action with the guiding of the waist and back. No matter which you use. • Swing both hands backward to the side of the back hanging Foot. • The action must be quick and powerful. Gua (hanging) and Gai (covering) in a second.h) Back Hanging Foot (Hou Guan Jiao) This kick is widely applied in Huo Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with Moving Footwork). During solo practice. • Hang one foot backward. You should finish Lü. • Use both hands to execute Lü on one arm of opponent behind the body. The powers of hand and foot combine together. coordinating both with Tou Bu (sneaking steps). otherwise the power will become Ding force (a deadly disadvantage: energy going up) and you will be defeated. • Meanwhile the hand assists the foot hanging and covers towards the chest of the opponent.

And kick upward along with palms smashing downward. .16 • • • • Start by executing Yin (guiding) then move forward to attack with Jin (forwarding and attacking) force. And enemies fall to the ground with face to the air.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. As a Tuishou poem states: With Yin and then Jin techniques. Hold your position and collect yourself enough to kick upward then swing downward. 王 西 安 52 The secret of Back Hanging Foot is to plot the method to seize the opponent down and to fiercly bring him under your control without detection. Then lower your foot to the ground. I take the opponent’s upper body and chest as target. twisting the waist and rotating the back to exert more power (Fig. Move forward with Tou Bu (Sneaking Steps).16). your face looking upward. 3. I explode my energy with the rotation of my waist. 3.

40:60. 30:70. the other should not leave the ground until the centre of gravity is transferred to the heel of the front foot to lighten its weight.. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 53 .18.Fig. 3. these may not provide an accurate picture of weight changes required in practice or combat.17). Use Front Bow Steps to practice this movement (Fig.19). 3.g. 3. mindful that while one is in the air. The attacking leg must be flexible enough to swing to the left or right. since these are in a constant state of flux depending on the circumstances. 20:80). Practice this transfer of weight by alternating the legs. Note that while weight distribution ratios may be used as a guide (e.17 i) Downward Swinging Kick • • • • Take one step forward and switch your centre of gravity to the front leg (Fig 3.

 3. As one master said: 王 西 安 54 I move my centre of gravity. Avoid using long energy as it is likely to dissipate the concentration and power of your attack. 3. waist and hands.19 Using Short Energy: Short energy should be used in both inward and outward kicks. making your intention easily anticipated. ‘seize the upper body’ or ‘coordinate an outward strike with internal energy gathering’. so that the strikes are as rapid and powerful as possible.18 Fig. shock their lower limbs and unbalance their upper body with my feet. Moving my feet in Ni (reverse) circles and my body in Shun (conforming) circles. I explode and shock the ghosts.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Short energy attacks are often used to ‘give a shock to the lower limbs’. .

Change your weight to the left. 3.1      Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles • • • Stand with the feet a shoulder-width apart. making sure your leg is no higher than 15 cm above the ground. When the right foot lands fully on the ground. a shoulder width apart from the left foot. change the weight to the right and step out with the left foot.3  leg pracTice Leg practice includes Shunchan Tui (Legs Reeling in Shun Circles). Lihe Tui (Inward Knee Strike). Nichan Tui (Legs Reeling in Ni Circles). look in the direction of the moving leg. Lower the tip of the toes of your unweighted right foot to the ground. repeating the movements while keeping reeling from the left to right. Waibai Tui (Legs Swinging Outward). Relax your legs and inject energy into the heels with Chun Chan for smooth and easy reeling. step your right foot 40 cm forward to the right. working up your speed in gradual stages. then squat and step out with your right foot. Practice continuously alternating both legs. Keep your legs reeling from left to right.3. just as in form practice. 王 西 安 55 . As the toes touch the ground. • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Note: When stepping forward. toward the target. Move the left foot half a step to the left. Xiacai Tui (Downward Cai energy). ‘Yong Yi Bu Yong Li’. that is. Begin with slow practice.3. Zhuangxi Tui (Strike with the Knee) and Houbai Tui (Backward Swinging Kick). Use intention (Yi) rather than physical force (Li).

Next. then step forward 40 cm to the left. transferring all your weight to the left. 王 西 安 Fig.20 56 . transferring all your weight to the right. Raise the left foot.3. Practice these steps in continuous alternating cycles. Step the right foot forward. 3. continuous practice.2      Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles • • • • • Step the left foot leftward so that the feet are a shoulder-width apart. rotate to the left forward at an angle of 360o. Note: It is best to practice Shunchan and Nichan by varying the distance between you and your partner.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. You also need to practice Nichan and Shunchan with both legs. striking to both sides with each leg.20). step forward 40 cm with the right foot. 3. and then rotate 360o left stepping on the toes (Fig. Inner knowledge can only develop with concerted. remembering that the inner side of the heel is the striking point.

22 57 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.22).3.3. attack with Lihe and then move 90% of your weight to the back leg (Fig. • While practicing.21). As such. whilst in Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking back and forth) Lihe is usually applied with the left leg. • Combine Lihe Tui with the rotation of the waist and spine. 3. 3. change your weight to the front foot. we usually attack with Lihe Tui using the right leg. • Stand at attention. practice with both legs and with change of directions.3      Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike Lihe Tui is an inward strike using the inner side of the knee and is widely used in Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps) and Ban Gong Bu (Half Bow Steps). 3. In Huobu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking). then transfer your weight to the left before moving the right foot forward (Fig. 3.21 Fig.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.3. 王 西 安 Fig. Practice this technique with both legs alternately once you feel your energy flowing smoothly (Fig.4      Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward Waibai Tui is based on Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps). and requires a sudden outward swing of the leg as weight is transferred. regardless of whether you practice day and night (Fig. practitioners will come to realize the deep significance of their efforts. Take care not to exert too much energy in the arms and legs to initiate the swing or your intention will be anticipated by your partner. 3.24 58 . Waibai Tui is usually applied during Da Lü (Lü in large scale movement) and the best way is to seek out opportunities for attack is while moving. Being content with a superficial understanding is fruitless. Through diligent solo Tuishou practice. 3. step forward with one leg and swing the other outward and then closing inward.23 Fig. 3.23). During practicing Waibai Tui.24).

• Targets of this technique are typically the upper and middle parts of the inner side of the lower leg of the opponent. Shun Cai (Pulling Down in Conforming Circles) and Ni Cai (Pulling down in Reverse Circles). Shun Cai and Ni Cai are based on Front Bow Steps. • Start with your centre of gravity at the back leg. The outer side can also be targeted once your ability improves.25 Fig. 3.3. then Cai (pull down) with Ni (reverse circles) at an angle of 180o from the inside out.26 59 .3. Xiacai Tui consists of Cai to the left. • To do Ni Cai: move the back leg forward. placing your toes slightly outward. Cai to the right.5      Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy Cai means to pull down. placing your toes slightly inward. • To do Shun Cai: Cai downwards from the outside in using Shun Chan (conforming circles). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.

3. keep ankles relaxed and Qi descending (Fig. striking to the front. 3. 3. you can enter the opponent’s territory (Fig.6      Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee Zhuangxi Tui consists of four types of strikes: striking left and right. Deepen your understanding of Jin Li (energy and force distribution). striking inward and striking outward. bending consists of stretching’.28 60 .25). 3. Train your body to understand the meaning of ‘stretching consists in bending.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While applying Cai (pulling down). With a spiralling move forward.27 Fig. Practice with alternating legs during Single Form practice. 3.26). 3. 王 西 安 Fig. Bend your knees about 40o – more than this and you will lose your centre of gravity.

• • •

All the above incorporate shifting of weight forward and back. Move the left foot forward then strike out the right knee, aiming it at the partner’s crotch (Fig. 3.27). While striking forward, roll the chest slightly inward and gather energy in the abdomen. Also, keep the hip and ankle relaxed, focusing your energy exertion on the target. Change your weight to the front, raise the knee, then strike it with an open palm (Fig. 3.28).

Li He Bu (Tuishou with Static Footwork) requires you to bend your knee, strike to the left, hit the inner side of partner’s right leg or the outer side of his left leg. (Fig. 3.29). Striking up and outward is called Waizhuang (Striking Outward). Key points are the same as in the previous striking practice (Fig. 3.30).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.3.7      Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
This is a wide-spanning movement and beginners are advised to imagine an opponent or target as they perform the technique during solo practice. • Lift the right foot to step forward and as you lean forward, swing the right leg backward using both the waist and spine. • As the right leg swings backward, fend off the opponent’s arm and attack with both hands. This technique of ‘attacking the upper parts and shocking the lower parts’ is often used to throw opponents to the ground (Fig. 3.31). Key points to remember are the same as in preceding techniques, all of which require whole body involvement.

王 西 安

Fig. 3.31

3.4  fisT pracTice 3.4.1      Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
This technique consists of striking either fist spirally upward. • Step forward with the left leg, bending your knees slightly to transfer your centre of gravity to the left leg, then strike with the right fist using the ‘Ligou Quan’ (Fist Hooking Inward) technique, taking care not to overshoot your blow above the opponent’s head. • Simultaneously, use your bent right knee to hit at the opponent’s crotch (Fig. 3.32). • Integrate both fist and knee strikes with practice principles of rolling the chest slightly inward (Hanxiong), lowering the waist (Tayao), relaxing the stomach (Songfu), and drawing up the anus (Tigang). • Strengthen your centre of gravity to improve your accuracy by ensuring your left leg is slightly bent with toes grasping the ground (Fig. 3.33).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安
Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33


陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

3.4.2      Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
This technique encompasses a downward strike with either fist at any angle. For example: • If the right leg goes forward, transfer your centre of gravity from the right to the left leg. • Clench the right hand into a fist, thumb tucked inside neither too tightly nor too loosely. • Strike the opponent’s upper body with the right fist, using your left arm to balance your movement. • You can also use the Bei Kao technique or attack with the elbows as well. • Again, effectiveness of this technique requires involvement of the whole body in the movement: ‘once you move, your whole body follows’ (Fig. 3.34).

王 西 安

Fig. 3.34

3.4.3      Shuang Fen Quan   Splitting Fists or Double Bursting Fists
• • • •

• •

Take a half-step to the left (or right). Bend your knees slightly and gather both fists to the chest, centres (Quanxin) facing downward (Fig. 3.35). Prepare to strike by gathering in the crotch and knees, and rolling the chest and shoulders slightly inward. To strike, transfer your weight to the right (or the opposite leg) and simultaneously split both fists explosively from the chest to either side of the torso, fists facing upward. As you strike, open the crotch, knees, chest and shoulders. Remember to keep the external and internal energy consistent, and the energy flow smooth (Fig. 3.36).

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 3.35

Fig. 3.36

王 西 安

4      Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward Fists Smashing Downward shares many common traits with Splitting Fists: both strike with the back of the fists and require practitioners to look to the side of the stepping foot. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. fist centre facing inward. Next.4.37).37 . 3. at the same time hooking the left fist upward. there are three main distinctions: the trajectory of the fists and target differ with Fists Smashing Downward and one or both fists may be used. Rest the left fist beside the left leg (Fig. Rotate the right toes slightly outward as the foot lands. 王 西 安 66 Fig. Hold the right fist close to the left side of the chest. However. change your weight to the right leg and step your left foot forward. • • • • • • Take a half step to the right with the right foot. Rotate the body to the right then strike downward with the back of the right fist.

downwards on the right and upward on the left. 3. the right fist is raised above the left side of the chest for more power and then smashes down to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. step the left foot horizontally over the right one. and lower the left fist from its upward strike position back to the left side of the body). stepping the right foot forward and exploding the fists before landing.39 • • • • • Again. Likewise. the fists are raised from the sides across the chest as one foot steps horizontally in front of the other. Return both fists to their original positions (raise the right fist from its downward strike position back to the left side of the chest.39) 王 西 安 67 .38). as the left foot steps forward (weight on the right).38 Fig. alternating both sides continuously (Fig.Fig. After striking. (Fig. both left and right fists rise and descend at the same time. Then repeat with the other foot. For example. involve your whole body in the attack. Practice these steps. 3. the left fist rises above the right side of the chest and smashes down to the left. For each step. 3. when the right foot steps forward (weight on the left). 3.

3. the left arm gathers inward and strikes backward to the left with the elbow.41). This counter-balancing movement helps to accelerate the punch of the right fist. • Sink your weight into the right foot and rotate the waist to the right to gather energy. stretching the left hand upward. fingers vertical. 3.41 68 .40 Fig.4. avoid the temptation of focusing too much on the external ‘look’ of the punch – this will lead to nothing but the loss of energy (Fig. • Step the left foot forward. then guided outward with Yinian (intention) to manifest in a ‘quivering punch’. 3. concentrating your power in the Quanding (the front of the fist). Practice this technique on both sides. • Gather the right fist under the right rib (Fig. • Sychronise both arms so that while the right fist flings forward. • Then fling the right fist forward in Ni reeling.5      Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist Single Fling Fist is a forward punch unique to Taijiquan in that its power is generated by rotating spiral energy at the waist and back. 3.40). 王 西 安 Fig. Make efforts to cultivate both internal and external energies (Neiwai Jianxiu) and you will develop power.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.

3. only about 40% of the jin force generated is exerted as short rather than long energy. 3.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.42 Fig.6      Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist Baokong refers to the half-moon shape that is formed by the arms as you strike the centre of one palm with the other fist. energy does not manifest externally. so that the strike manifests within a narrow range yet internally it contains great power and flexibility. • • • • Step the right foot forward. Transfer your centre of gravity from the back to the front and hit the right fist into the centre of the left palm (Fig. Then step the left foot forward.43). simultaneously gathering the right fist beside the right ribs. bringing the left palm to the front of the body (Fig. Repeat with the other side. Instead. 3. the main difference being that in the former. and practice alternating both sides. The power of this technique depends very much on the practitioner’s physical condition. Baokong Fist shares the same characteristics as Zhichong Quan (Fling Fist).4.43 69 .42).

 3.7      Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist Dianxue refers to the internal injury caused by hitting a specific acupuncture point with a sharp force.4. using small agile steps (Fig. up or down.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 70 Fig.44). This makes the fist ‘peak’ stable and solid. 3. • Brace the middle finger with the index and ring fingers. like hammering a nail. • Attack to the left or right. • Clench your fist so the middle joint of the middle finger protrudes. and press the tip of the thumb against the middle fingernail. • Strike with force and ferocity with this fist using short energy. This forms the ‘peak’ of the fist.44 .

Bend the other leg then strike both fists upward together.46 71 . Method 1 • • Method 2 • • • Step forward with either leg.46).4. 3.45 Fig. Guanyang means to hit the temples with two nails. Roll the chest and shoulders slightly inward. Practice both methods using both legs.8      Dingzi Quan Guanyang   Nail-shaped Fists targeting acupoints on the temple Dingzi Quan is also another term meaning ‘Nail-shaped Fist’. Form two nail-shaped fists and strike from both sides using short energy. Place your weight on one leg.45). 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.3. 3. hence creating a dual attack with both fists and knee (Fig. gather the ribs and lower your energy to the Dantian (Fig. Bring the fists together in the middle about 25 cm apart.

5  palM pracTice 3. the ribs gathered. transferring your weight to the front. and lower the energy to the abdomen (Fig.5.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. • Prepare for the strike by ensuring your axis is upright.47 Fig. • Place your hands in front of the chest. • Step forward with the other leg.48 72 . 3.47). though in the initial stages. 3. the chest rolled slightly inward and the spine slightly lifted.48). while making sure the chest is relaxed. fingers pointing up (Fig. • Step forward with either leg. practice using long energy first. 3. • Strike forward with both palms. palms facing forward. 王 西 安 Fig. thrusting them forward with explosive force.1      Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms This technique includes shaking palms with both short and long energy.

3. The power. 3. using long or short energy (Fig. • Repeat using the left palm. Just before the explosive strike.2      Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique This technique consists of the Single Palm Explosion with Shun Bu (walking forward and back). energy range and flexibility of movement of both Single and Double Palm Push all rely on the practitioner’s abilities and internal energy. As the energy reaches the wrists.52).5. a Double Palm Push needs to be sudden and exerted directly forward. speed. • At the same time step forward with the left leg.51.Fig. gather the chest and stomach like a cat stalking a rat. Make sure your shoulder. lower your energy abruptly and push forward with short energy using small steps. 3.49 When practicing with short energy. 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.50. elbows and wrists are lowered. To be effective. thrust your arms out about 50% (Fig.49). while the Single Palm Push requires the rotation of waist and back to exert a frontal or inclining push. • Thrust the right palm forward or diagonally to the side. 王 西 安 73 .

With continuous practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Start this practice slowly. 3. 3. and hence conquer your opponents without effort. Fig.51 Fig.50 王 西 安 74 Fig.52 . abruptness and power of the push. gradually increasing the speed. you will be able to explode energy with natural ease by combining both external form and internal spirit. 3.

53).53 Fig. This creates an energy balance that stabilizes your centre of gravity.3.54). 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Direct energy above the waist upward and energy below the waist downward. 3. 3.54 王 西 安 75 . while gathering the other hand beside the ribs (Fig.3      Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off This technique is used to fend off an arm strike from the opponent with an upward hand strike.5. whilst using the other palm to push at the opponent’s chest or strike at their stomach. enabling you to hit your target with more precision and power (Fig. • • Step one foot forward and ward off an arm attack with one hand. 3.

• Keep the hips relaxed. and then straighten it while pushing the right palm upward. while gathering energy on the left side. the stomach gathered and the chest rolled inward (Fig. open the right side of the chest and stomach. • At the same time. • As you push upward. press downward with the left hand as a counterbalance between the upper and lower body (taking the waist as the dividing line). Explode this energy through the right side of body out through the right palm.55 76 .5. 王 西 安 Fig.4      Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push This technique uses the inner side of the root of the palm (Zhanggen) to push upward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. first at an angle then vertically upward. • To push with the right palm: bend the right knee. 3.55).

3. 3. Keep your body and energy lowered while doing this.58). 3.5. 3.56).’ Apply this technique during Single Palm practice. 3.57 77 .56 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Shun means ‘sequence’) (Fig. rotate your body to the right. then quickly striking their chest with your right palm (Fig.5      Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang   Attack with Both Palms This is also called the ‘Attack with One Palm Guiding and Other Hand Pushing. 3. stepping forward with the left foot and extending the left hand forward in Ni Shun reeling (Ni means ‘first’. • Then swiftly draw the opponent into your domain by touching their back with your left hand.57). • Step the right foot forward and extend the right hand outward to ward off the opponent’s attack (Fig. • At the same time.

incline your body outward with Ni reeling whilst following the opponent’s Shun reeling. 王 西 安 78 .58 • • Also apply the usual principles: roll the chest inward. if the opponent seizes your right hand and twists it outwards with Shun reeling. moving the body quickly forward. and gather the ribs and dantian. left and right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.6      Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang  Push Partner’s Waist with Shun or Ni Reeling This technique enables you to push the opponent to either side using both Shun and Ni reeling. apply the following steps: • Step your right foot forward and lower your body and centre of gravity to the right.5. This helps to concentrate energy in the palms. 3. Coordinate the movements of your body with those of the palms. lower the shoulders. • As you lower the body. For example. 3.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 If the opponent seizes your left hand and twists it with Ni reeling. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s ribs.60 • • • As you do this. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s right ribs by exploding energy with your left hand. this time at the left side with your right hand. inclining outward and exploding with the left palm (Fig. 3. lower your body then extend it forward with Shun reeling. 3. • Key points are the same as with the left hand push above.59 Fig. Unify the three actions of stepping forward. Next. 3.60). 3. lure the opponent into your territory to destabilize his centre of gravity (Yinjin Luokong) by swiftly moving your right foot further forward and lowering the body while your right hand reaches forward. respond in this way: • Step forward with the left foot. extending the thumb and fingers (Fig.59). • Again. 王 西 安 79 .Fig.

Relax your joints to enhance energy application. . Also. as advised in an essay. “Energy comes from heels.7      Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa  Shun or Ni Reeling with Single Palm 王 西 安 80 This technique consists of using either hand to seize the opponent using Shun or Ni short spiralling energy. 3. roll your chest slightly inward and bend your right arm inward.” 3. especially when stepping forward and exploding energy (Fig.61 Increase the effective of solo practice by sparring with an imaginary enemy in mind. dominates the waist and penetrates to every part of body. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. change your centre of gravity from the left to the right. coordinate the waist and legs when exploding energy. so that energy flows to the very tips of the body. • Step the right foot forward and seize (Na) the opponent’s hand with your left hand while reeling downward in Shun circles. regardless of the technique or force used. • As you seize.5. goes through legs.61).

 3. reach under your opponent’s front arm. 3. Thus. To speed up your response. 王 西 安 81 [1] ‘Dai’ means to lead. you are able to use both palms to seize the opponent (Fig. change sides so that your right hand seizes the opponent by Ni reeling and the left by Shun reeling (Fig. • At the same time. practice alternating the seizing between right and left hands. 3.63 • • • With your right arm. If the opponent escapes.8      Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa  Double Dai[1] Palms Single Form Practice Step your right foot forward and transfer your centre of gravity to the front. guide or bring along . reach out with your left palm and guide your opponent to the left by reeling in Shun circles with thumb extended. palm open.5.63). listening closely to your partner as you do so. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.62). Change your right hand to Shun reeling and your left to Ni reeling.62 Fig.Fig. 3.

Clench the left hand into a loose fist and push it forward.65). moving your arms to stabilize this rotation.65 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. Change your weight to the back and turn to the right.66). 3. Transfer your centre of gravity to the front. 3.9      Qianchuan Zhang   Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice • • Step the left foot forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.5. 王 西 安 82 3. Bend your right arm 90o inward and form a fist with your right hand. Then hit the opponent with the right arm (Fig. fingers to the front (Fig. face the left palm outward. gather the right hand beside the ribs. 3. palm up.64 Fig. As your step forward.64). Practice on both sides. fingers up. 3. 3. . fingers pointing to the front (Fig.

3. move the left hand and foot quickly forward together. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Practice alternating the position of both palms. left under right and right under left (Fig. Also. coordinate the waist and spine when shaking the right palm forward in Shun reeling. reel the right hand in Shun reeling to the right and step the right foot forward. 王 西 安 83 .67 • • • • • • Lift the left palm over the right. to increase the speed and power of the explosion. 3.67).Fig.66 Fig. 3. and then explode both palms forward with a piercing thrust. To increase the precision and power of the fingers. As the right foot lands on the ground. Return the hands to their original positions before the next energy explosion. place the left thumb and little finger in opposition while the remaining fingers face forward. Next.

69).68 Fig. bend both arms at 900 and gather both hands into fists close to the ribs to either side of the body. 3. 3.6. 3.1      Li Zhou … Standing Elbows • • • • • Step forward with the left foot. the left arm counter-balances the movement of the right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.69). In this case. palms facing in (Fig. strike forward with the right elbow while hitting backward with the left elbow.6  elbOw pracTice 3. Practice striking with both elbows with corresponding weight changes to either side.69 84 . 王 西 安 Fig. Remember to apply long energy before you apply short energy (Fig. As you change your weight to the front. At the same time. 3.

and clench the right hand into a fist. Prepare for the downward elbow strike by raising the right arm while touching the back of the right fist with the left hand (Fig. At the same. As the right elbow descends. Step the right foot forward and strike the right elbow down forcefully as the foot lands. return the elbow to the right side. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3. 3.70 Fig. wrist turned inward and the palm facing backward. At the same time.71).71  85 . step the right foot forward again and extend the left arm forward. take a small step forward with the left foot. slap the right shoulder with the left palm. palm up. After the strike. 3. 3.2      Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows • • • • • • • • • Change your weight to the left and turn the body to the right. 3.70). bend the right elbow inward.6. gather it close to the right ribs. Alternatively. Then strike the right elbow down for the second time (Fig. Lift the left hand when the right elbow completes 90o of its descent.

73 Fig.72 王 西 安 Fig. 3.6.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Fig. 3.74 86 . 3.3      Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist • • Step the right foot forward. then turn right with the right toes facing slightly out. Rotate slightly to the left.

as if warding off (Fig. 3. then step forward with the right foot. clasping the right forearm with the left palm.6. palm facing in.4      Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block • • • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Roll the chest slightly inward so that it is concave. so that both feet are approximately 50 cm apart. • • • Practice with the other arm. 王 西 安 87 . Step the left foot forward. 3. 3. toe tips slightly touching the ground. Step the right foot to the left and bend the right arm. Lower right fist to the left side of the body so that the right arm is held at 900 while stepping the left foot forward (Fig.72). raise the right hand across the front of the chest to the left in an upward arc. Turn to the left and strike out explosively with the right elbow.75).74). Gather the body to prepare for attack by lowering the body slightly (Fig. 3. Move the body to the left and transfer your centre of gravity to the right and back. Gather the body by bending it slightly. Remember that the right leg moves forward with the right arm and vice-versa.73). transferring your centre of gravity to the left. As you do this. clasping the right forearm with the left palm. gather the ribs and lower your Qi.• At the same time. clench the right hand into a fist. Focus on ‘hitting upward’ with your right elbow so as to destabilize the opponent’s centre of gravity and lift them off from the ground (Fig. 3.

Simultaneously. strike the right elbow to the right. 王 西 安 88 3. 3. 3. turning the body to the right. the right fist lowered to front of the left armpit.6. palm down. • In the initial stages.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Next.5      Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow This technique consists of an elbow strike at the heart. gathering it horizontally in front of the chest. Once familiar with the practice. Practice with both sides (Fig.76).76 • Spiral the right arm forward with Ni reeling. step right with the right foot. 3.75 Fig. Footwork and hand movements are similar to those of Shun Lan Zhou (Smooth Elbow Block). practice with long and slow energy. balancing this movement with the left hand. use short and fast energy. with the following differences: .

• Simultaneously. • Jump the left foot half a step to the left. • Turn the body to the right and reel the right palm across the chest to the right. jump slightly with the right foot.77). 3. 王 西 安 89 . while Xin Zhou is targeted to the front (Fig. In Xin Zhou the left palm touches and lightly holds the right wrist as the right elbow strikes (Fig.6      Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow This technique consists of concentrating energy in the elbow and striking upward with it.78 3.6.• • Shun Lan Zhou is aimed slightly to the back.78).77 Fig. palm down. • Stand at attention with the arms relaxed at the sides. toe tips on the ground. landing approximately 50 cm apart from the left foot. extend your left palm forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. Touch the right knee with the right palm. Before the foot lands. palm facing right. 3. fingers pointing up. 3.

toe tips touching the ground (Fig. While striking on the right. 3.79).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. toe-tips on the ground. As you change weight.81 • • • • • 王 西 安 90 • • Prepare to explode energy by looking to the right and gathering the body (Fig. Return the left fist beside the right ribs (Fig. Instead. balance the energy between the upper and lower body. Move the right fist toward the right shoulder using Shun reeling. Look to the right side of body while striking upward. step the right foot forward. then transfer your centre of gravity to the right. After the strike. 3. avoid letting all your energy flow upward as this will destabilize your root. placing the left fist below the right. then gradually using short and fast energy. starting with slow movements initially until the steps become familiar. 3. Next. 3. 3. step the left foot to the left.79 Fig. . gather the left side of the body so that your attack will have a clear division of Xu (emptiness) and Shi (solidity). taking the waist as the dividing line.81). followed by the right foot. Practice on both sides. Also. bending the wrist before striking upward quickly with the back of the right fist. clench both palms into fists.80 Fig.80).

82).7      Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows This technique consists of striking simultaneously with both elbows by holding the arms in front of the chest. In this position.82 Fig.83).6. If you stepped to the left.3.83 王 西 安 91 . then exploding both elbows horizontally. looking to the left and concentrating energy in the elbow tips (Fig. 3. 3. Practice alternating both sides. place the left arm inside the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Change your weight to the left. Gather the fists close to the chest (Fig. • • • • Step to one side with either leg. the right elbow executes the dominant attack. then strike with the right elbow. 3. 3. while the left the supplementary strike.

As your weight transfers to the front. prepare for the stike by gathering the wrists inward. holding fists on either side of the ribs (Fig. 3. 3.6.85 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.84).8      Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou  Double Closing Elbows This technique consists of a center strike with both elbows. 3. looking to the front and rolling the chest and shoulders inward. • • Step one foot forward. This increases the force of your attack.85). Try to feel the effect of this preparation during practice (Fig. 王 西 安 92 Fig.84 Fig. 3.

palm to the front.9      Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow • • • • • Step the left foot forward and extend your left hand forward simultaneouly. 3. extend the left hand forward and simultaneously strike the right elbow downward past the back (Fig. You can begin a new round by stepping forward with the other foot and repeating the movements on the other side. palm facing inward and inclining backward. take a big step forward with the right foot in front of the left. As your centre of gravity shifts to the left. 3.87 93 . 3. rotate the body to the right. As the weight shifts to the left. Practice alternating both sides. clench the right hand into a fist. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.86 Fig.6. 3.86).87). then lift it so that the right elbow is positioned over the right knee (Fig. Simultaneously. At the same time.3. clench the left palm into a half fist and place it beside the left leg.

palm up. you apply Pie (Pushing Aside) force by meeting conforming force with the transverse force of your arms. • Step the right foot forward. shifting your centre of gravity to the front. then lower it over the right knee. Shape the right hand into a hook (Diao Shou) and place it in front of the left thumb.88).10      Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow Pie Zhou signifies conquering conforming force (Shun Jin) with transverse force (Heng Jin). the legs should be parallel to each other. Make sure both hands move and arrive at their destinations simultaneously.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. In this way. • Extend the right hand outward. 3. 3. • Shift your weight abruptly to the right and form a half fist with the left palm.6. • All movements are guided by the rotation of the waist and spine. the aim of Pie Zhou is to convert conforming force into transverse force (Shun Zhong Qiu Heng).88 94 . As one of the Eight Forces. strike forward explosively with the right forearm using a short-energy (Fig. • After exerting Pie force. • At the same time. moving it beside the left ribs. • Change your weight to the left. 王 西 安 Fig.

3. ring and middle fingers. lower the left hand from the front of the chest to the left ribs.89). In this way. Form a hook (Diao Shou) with the right hand with the little. • Keep the left hand open so the thumb is separated from the fingers. coordinating the explosion of energy with a twisting of the crotch and rotation of the waist and spine. 3. and extend the left hand forward to the right. • Step backward with the left foot shifting your weight to the left. bending the elbow. 3. using downward Ni reeling. The thumb and index finger form the character Ba ‘八’. Shift your weight more to the left as you do this (Fig.6.11      Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow This is a capturing and immobilising technique using the elbow. using guiding energy from the little finger. closing it slightly. • While lowering the left hand.89 95 . • Then. palm up. both internal and external movements are integrated with the movements of the body and limbs. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Raise the right hand from the right side. use Cai technique to strike out explosively with the outside of the right forearm and elbow.

91 . 3. 3. 3.91). you raise the right hand in Ni reeling to descend the elbow (Fig. At the same time. • • • • Bend the left knee. Relax the crotch and incline (Xia Fu) the body abruptly forward using Pie technique. Note: For maximum effectiveness. make sure power is gathered properly through the whole body and that your timing is correct before you strike. and extend the right leg backward. toes grasping the ground. especially useful as a defensive move when being attacked while in a passive situation. moving your weight to the right (Fig. the right thumb guides energy flow.6.12      Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow This technique consists of using the elbow to strike backward. 3.90 Fig.90). and then.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. strike the right elbow backward at an upward angle (Shang Chuan Zhou). While transferring weight. 王 西 安 96 Fig.

92). and bend the right arm over the inside of the right leg while the left hand rests gently on the outside of the right arm. 3. Xiong Kao. Ying Men Kao.7. 3. The right foot and right arm should reach their positions at the same time (Fig. 3. 3.93 97 . Shuang Bei Kao and Qi Cun Kao. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.7  kaO (push) pracTices Kao practices can be divided into seven techniques: Qian Zai Kao. As you shift your weight to the right.92 Fig.3. bend the right arm inward to position the right shoulder in readiness to execute Zai Kao. Ce Jian Kao.1      Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push • • Step the right foot forward.

On completion of the shoulder push. if you find you get into an appropriate space for attacking.2      Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push This technique consists of pushing the shoulder at the opponent’s ribs. The left hand follows the right hand in support and comes to a rest in front of the right shoulder. pushing it forward and down.7. quickly pushing the front of the right shoulder forward to execute Ce Jian Kao (Fig. 3. Do not make the mistake of weakening your defences by being too eager to attack and moving beyond your territory. Then step the right foot forward again to execute Zai Kao for a second time. raise the right hand from the inside to fend off and steer the opponent’s hand to the right. use the outside of the right shoulder to execute Qian Zai Kao. Then take another big step forward with the right foot. As the heel touches the ground.93). After executing the above. Note: Only push when you are in the correct position. take care to maintain your centre of gravity by not stretching too far forward (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Then. . As the body inclines forward significantly during this move. you can choose not to use Follow-on Steps (Dian Bu) as this will result in Ce Jian Kao being pitched too directly forward. Repeat these steps for both sides. step forward with the left foot and place it next to the right foot. • • 王 西 安 98 • • Step forward with the right foot (Shang Bu). 3.94). 3.

7. 3. lowering down but not stiff. 王 西 安 99 . 3.94 Notes: • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Finding the right rhythmic flow to your movements is key to effective attacks. conversely if one is able to ‘open’ the doors of the opponent. When firmly closed. light but not floating” . then techniques such as Ying Men Kao can be used to penetrate defences and attack.Fig.3      Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder Ying Men Kao refers to the ancient tradition of comparing the arms to two iron doors. This only comes with closely combining the Yin (guide). Work consistently to master the key points until you are able to execute the movements in a way that is “quick but not loose. Dai (lead and pull) and Ji (attack) energies together. arms are a defense against attacks.

 3. cross the hands in front of the chest.95). move the left foot forward parallel to the right foot and repeat the sequence for another attack. Once the attack is completed. 3. 3. Next. The success of this technique depends on the extent of coherency and how quickly and smoothly the steps can be executed. Separate the hands of the opponent to expose his chest (Fig. It is easier to hurt the partner using a narrower attacking surface.96 • • • • • • 王 西 安 100 Take a large step forward with the right foot. Practice the steps in alternating rounds between right and left until you can execute the technique with speed and power. fingers pointing up and palms facing the sides of the body. move both arms to each side of the body and push the right shoulder forward in attack (Fig.96).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. .95 Fig. At the same time. the right hand above the left. 3. Note: There are two ways your can attack with Ying Men Kao: • You can lower your power slightly so that the tip of the shoulder protrudes more. • You can use more of the shoulder surface in the attack.

shifting your weight to the front.3. the chest and waist are in a collapsed position. • Change your weight to the left while pulling the opponent toward your chest using your palms (Fig.98).7. • Extend both arms from the sides to the front in an embracing gesture. 3. can you execute it in actual combat (because you may easily hurt yourself ).4      Xiong  Kao … Chest Push This technique uses the chest to push at the opponent. • After this move is completed. • Step the right foot forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Then roll the chest inward and shift your weight quickly from left to right. A good sense of timing is essential for defeating the opponent. Note: Focus on sharpening your sense of timing during practice. 3. 3. 3. • Practice this technique in rounds by stepping the right foot forward again and repeating the sequence above. move the left foot parallel to the right.98 101 .97 Fig.97). using this shift to deliver a sudden push with the chest (Fig. • To begin. Only with a thorough mastery of this technique.

3. 王 西 安 Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Shuang Bei Kao requires Duan Tan Dou Jing prowess (short. rebounding and shaking power).99 Fig.100).5      Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders This technique consists of a simultaneous attack from both shoulders. 3. You may lead with either leg. a capability that comes only with extended Quan practice. • Gently rotate backwards with both palms facing backwards. and the shoulders execute Bei Kao to the right . • When the whole body holds and collects to a moderate extent. Note: As mentioned in previous techniques. as the shoulders deliver Bei Kao backwards (Fig.7. • Stand with feet parallel.100 102 . shoulders slightly concave and with power guided by the thumbs (Fig. This technique also uses Duan Jing (short power). 3. take a sudden breath in and push the chest forward quickly. remember to gather and withhold energy before delivering the strike. • When the weight moves forward the chest rolls inwards.99).

• Extend the right foot and arm forward. • Once your root is stabilized. 3. 3. This technique consists of drawing your partner into your territory (Yin Jin) while you move backwards to attack. extend the distance of your Kao slightly. fingers pointing down. use short power in your push. • Turn the body slightly to the left as the right hand rises. Find a stable centre of gravity with the body and gather your body in this position. • Start doing Shun reeling with your right hand as you move your weight slightly to the front.7. • Practice pushing from both the right and left sides.6      Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back To attack by moving backwards is called Bei Zhe Kao. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. and at the same time deliver a forceful backward push (Hou Bei Kao Jing) with the right arm and shoulder (Fig. continue to transfer your weight to the right.3. Note: If the opponent is at close-range.101 103 .101). • Gradually move the right arm downward toward to the inside of the right leg. if further away.

Practice this sequence in rounds from left to right.7      Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao The name of this technique indicates that the body should be seven cun (approximately 23 cm) above the ground.102). 3. 3. This technique is particularly difficult to apply in combat and can only be executed successfully if real efforts are made during practice. Note: Power applied in the initial stages should be slow rather than quick.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • • • • Take a large step diagonally forward with the left or right leg. 王 西 安 Fig. Place the elbow below the knee (Fig.7.102 104 . This technique uses largescale movements and requires the body to be inclined while keeping the suspending upright power (Ding Jing). Incline the body forward in the same direction.

Xiong Na.8  na (seizing) pracTices Na practices can be divided into eight techniques: Shun Ni Na. • Extend the left foot and left hand forward. 3. palm facing in. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight forward to the left. 3.8. palm up (Fig.104). Shuang He Fu Cai Na. 3.1      Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling This seizing technique employs both Shun and Ni reeling. Diao gai Na.103). Fu Na. Chan Rao Na. 3. Tui Na. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.104 105 .3.103 Fig. • At same time. • Take the left thumb as the guidance of energy flow and reel the left hand in Ni direction from outside in. • Rest the right hand near the right ribs. draw the right hand inward in Shun reeling toward the left hand and seize forcefully (Fig. and Shuang He Na.

Repeat the above sequence. When seizing.e. in order to block the opponent’s energy path. if you practice each side diligently. Seizing techniques are quite difficult to practice. move the weight slightly backward then move forward again. Your moves will become more effective as your internal Qi integrates more closely with the external movements. Shun reel with the right hand and Ni reel with the left. roll the chest in. drop the elbow. Try to relax at every step while applying the seizing action firmly. this time reeling in Shun direction with the left hand and Ni direction with the right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While seizing with both hands. spread the energy up and down the length of your body like a bow so that power is distributed everywhere. 王 西 安 106 Closing with the left while seizing with the right and vice versa. Observe your opponent’s changes and respond accordingly: if the opponent uses long power. but she evades your attack by ducking down. Note: Shun and Ni reeling are interdependent and cannot be separated. i. . you will be able to execute these changes quickly and smoothly. After seizing. lower the shoulders. changing the weight from left to right. you’ll be able to apply this technique automatically and even defeat your opponent if you apply it well. and lower your waist and Qi. tighten the ribs. then you must respond promptly by swapping the reelings to the opposite hands. you should use short power so that with one closing and one opening you can quickly reach the right position before the partner. With practice. If you try to seize the opponent using Shun reeling on the left hand and Ni reeling on the right. even though you deliver the power later than the partner.

At the same time. tighten the ribs.3.107 王 西 安 107 .107).106).105 Fig. Then lower the right hand to the right ribs. 3. 3. 3. 3. placing it in front of the chest. As you do this. and shift your weight to the right side. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left. palm out. and clench the right hand into a fist. Again. lower the Qi.105). The shift to the left enables you to hit the target clearly (Fig. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Relax the left side of the crotch. Then rotate the right hand and body to the right. • • • • • Step forward with the left foot and move the right hand in front of chest to fend the opponent off upwards to the right at head level (Fig. 3.8.2      Xiong Na … Seize with Chest This seizing technique uses the Cai power of the chest with the help of the hands. extend the left hand forward to rest in front of the body (Fig. roll the chest in.106 Fig.

Move the whole body in a natural and relaxed state. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left by stepping the right foot on the ground. The strike is actually applied by the left side of the chest. Draw the arc with the intention of meeting the opponent’s hand.3      Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen This technique consists of seizing with the abdomen filled with descending Qi with the assistance of the hands. 王 西 安 108 . Make sure to keep your own axis when seizing the opponent. the force of upward suspension maintains the axis. The left hand leads by closing the power causing the right hand to follow. the palm forming a “八” (Ba) shape. • Step the left foot forward and extend the left hand to the front. • At the same time. • As the weight shifts to the left. 3. reel with both hands in a Shun direction. Shift your weight forward and accumulate power well. As it states in the poem: “Raise the left hand and extend the right hand upward to draw a circle. while the two hands serve as supports. Relax the crotch. extending it forward in an arc until it comes to a rest in the front of the right side of the abdomen. lower Qi to the abdomen in preparation for the inward roll and seizing. Match the speed of your movements to that of your partner. • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the left side of the body. rotate the body.108). palm facing right (Fig. Move quickly and follow your partner but do not lose power. • Close the crotch. 3.” 3. and gather energy in the ribs.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Remember that Qi gathers in the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) unify to become one power. palm facing left (Fig.109).8. roll the chest slightly inward and gather the ribs.

110). whose movement is heavier (Fig.108 • • As the Qi descends. 3. 3. clench the left hand. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.110 109 . seize with the right and roll the abdomen – these three actions combine to become one power.Fig. the left hand moves lightly and assists the right.109 Fig. 3. The abdomen provides the main supporting element. The eyes look forward and to the left.

capture and immobilize the opponent. Move swiftly without hesitation. . palms about 10 cm from the lower abdomen. followed by the left. and both feet standing steadily as the hands move. push the abdomen out suddenly (Fig. while the hands use Na (seizing) power to collect inward. move the palms up to chest level and seize the opponent’s elbows using Na power. Both hands extend forward in sequence. Continue to shift your weight forward. the right foot steps forward.8.111). and commence shifting your weight forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. • • • • 王 西 安 110 • • Take a half step forward with the right foot. gather the ribs and lower Qi to the abdomen so that internal strength flows through the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) may unify to guide the attack. As you seize. the right hand moving down while the left moves up. 3. 3. At the same time. As your weight shifts. facing in so that the fingers are directed towards each other. and gather them towards you (Fig. whereby the abdomen gathers power to support the hands. 3. bending them at the elbows. Direct the eyes to the front. roll the chest slightly inward. keep your intention firm for victory or failure will be decided in a second. immobilizes their wrists by bending them outwards. extend both arms to the front. do not be kind to the foe for the opportunity to attack comes just once.4      Shuang He Fu Cai Na  Seize from Both Sides with Abdomen This seizing technique uses the combined efforts of the abdomen and hands. Concentrate your energies then pounce on your opponent like an agile cat.112).

• • • • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the chest.Fig. 3. Step the left foot forward and shift your weight to the left. supported by the warding right hand. 王 西 安 111 .112 Note: It pays to practice as if sparring with a partner who is pushing forward with his or her hands on your abdomen. Lower the right hand then cover it with the left. so that you respond by moving your weight forward.8. Reel the left hand forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.111 Fig. and lower Qi in your abdomen before protruding it forward.5      Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling This technique uses the gathering power of one hand to seize while the other reels from the inner side of the opponent.113). fending the opponent off upward to the right (Fig. 3.

Alternate practice on both right and left sides. Collect the body by rolling the chest slightly inward. Step the right foot forward again and repeat the above steps. Combine them with the power of chest to become one power (Fig. 王 西 安 112 Note: If Qi descends smoothly.114). 3. gathering the ribs and lowering the waist and Qi. tendons and veins. by taking a step forward (Shang Bu) each time.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. this technique can be used effectively to break wrists. 3. Collect the hands inward to about 15 cm in front of the chest. not like a thug.114 • • • • Put your body in a squatting position by bending the knees slightly. .113 Fig. bones. But remember: practice like an adept. 3.

 3.115). • As the knee swings inward.8.116 113 . Lower your Qi. fingers pointing forward. the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) combine to seize the opponent. and move both hands to assist the left leg. • Bend the left arm inward to gather both palms. • As the weight moves forward. roll the chest in and gather the ribs (Fig.3. lower the left arm in a downward arc using Shun reeling and extend the right hand forward in Ni reeling to seize downward from the right side. The powers of the left arm and right hand unify as one. swing the left knee inward to gather the left leg so that it serves as a supporting point during the seizing. • As you step. • Step forward with the left foot and extend the left arm to the front.6      Tui Na … Seize with the Leg This technique uses the combined power of both hands and one leg. In this way. shift your weight forward and bend the knees slightly so that the body squats like a bent bow. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • As soon as the right hand reaches the level of the left leg. 3.115 Fig. relax the crotch.

117 Fig.117). • Then lower the right arm by executing Lü downward in Ni reeling.8. 3.116).118 114 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • After seizing. The changing of the legs happens quickly. shift your weight quickly to the left and step forward with the right foot. 3. • Step forward with the right foot. 3. spiral the right hand up from the right side into an arc. guiding it to the right ribs for support (Fig. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. As you step forward. shift your weight to the front and extend the left arm again to repeat the steps and seize once more. gradually guiding it inward to rest in front of the right ribs. Then step forward with the left foot. 3. extend the right arm and pass it from the upper left side of the body to the right in a warding off motion (Fig.7      Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands This technique uses both hands to seize: the right hand moves up from the right to grasp the opponent’s arm from the bottom while the left presses down from the top. • At the same time.

roll the chest slightly inward and bend the knees slightly into a squatting position.Fig. 3.118). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 115 . When the right hand moves up. As the right foot touches the ground. The intention is to have the whole body collecting and seizing together with the hands. 3. As the hands move. Continue to move the right hand and foot forward.119 • • • • • • As soon as the right foot touches on the ground.119). the left palm moves down in Shun reeling to cover the the arm of the opponent so that the forces of both arms work as one. 3. shift your weight to the right and move the left foot and hand forward (Fig. shift your weight to the right and step forward with the left foot. Then extend the right hand forward to cover and seize with both hands with Gai power (Fig. lower the shoulders. Then move the right hand forward in Shun reeling until it reaches the same level as the nose.

This step marks the transformation of Peng (ward off ) to Na (seizing). Bend your knees so your body squats like a bending bow. At the same time. Make sure you have a clear line to your target by lowering the shoulders and elbows before seizing downward (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. 3. 3.8      Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands This technique uses the gathering power of both hands to seize. then gather both hands and grasp the opponent’s wrist firmly downwards. 3. strengthed by whole body coordination.121). rolling the chest inward and tightening the ribs. 王 西 安 Fig. step forward with the left foot and shift your weight to the front.120 Fig. • • • • • Sweep the right hand from left to right in a warding off movement (Peng) to fend the opponent’s arm out and upward (Fig. Combine this with the power gathered in both hands and seize with one force. Prepare for the seizing by lowering Qi to the Dantian.121 116 .120).8.

eyes looking forward. • Stand with both feet in parallel. Qu Wan Fan Na Jie 6. • Next. 王 西 安 117 .1      Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape According to the book. • Move Qi in from the outside and lower it to the Dantian. Chuan Zhang Jie 5. Shan Jing Zhen Zhang Jie 8. such as a waist grasp from the rear to throw you down. Shuang Wan Zhi Jie 4. then the ring finger.122). Guan Gong. This technique enables a practitioner to avoid capture or break a hold.3. then exhale as you bend the knees slightly to put the body in a squatting position (Fig. • Hang the hands naturally at the sides. and finally the index finger. Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie 7. 3. Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo 3. • Inhale. shoulder-width apart. Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Guan Gong Jie Dai 2. ‘Wars Among Three Countries’ by Guan Yu. middle finger. Fan Na Cu Bu Jie 9.9. the Guan Gong Jie Dai technique is said to be named after its creator. curve the fingers into hooks and raise them in front of the ribs with the little finger leading.9  jie TuO (escape) pracTices  The practice of Jie Tuo is divided into nine techniques: 1.

3. In this way. If the fingers are being held.9. This technique becomes effective only after extended practice. .123 • Synchronise the speed of this movement with that of the body.123).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. 王 西 安 118 3. the squatting of the body.2      Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo   Escape by Hooking Wrist & Bending Fingers This technique is especially useful to release a hand hold by an opponent. otherwise it is not easy to unfold (Fig.122 Fig. the gathering of the ribs and the hooking of fingers should combine to become one unit. 3. hook the wrist and bend the fingers to escape. This technique is always applied to Liu Feng Si Bi Dan Bian (Six Sealing and Four Closing Single Whip). and also with the speed of Qi descending.

Fig. join the fingers of your hand together and point them diagonally upward to the right (Fig. so that Tuo (escaping) power can reach the fingers effectively. 3. As you move. and lowering your Qi as you do so. lowering the elbows. you relax and elongate your encaptured arm.124 Fig. Practice these steps with both hands in turn. your conjoined fingertips and knuckles should be able to escape with ease (Fig. 王 西 安 119 . By doing this. relaxing the shoulders.125). unblocking the arm area being attacked.124).125 • • • • • If the fingers of one hand are seized by the opponent. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 This technique is only to be used if you have become proficient in it after extended solo practice. 3. slowly bend the wrist and fingers. Move your body to transform the attacking power. By the end of your movement. 3. 3. rolling the chest inward.

3      Shuang Wan Zhi Jie   Escape by Spiralling Wrists Upward This technique is used to escape a double wrist-hold.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.126). 王 西 安 Fig. closing your hands while opening the opponent’s. 3.9. roll the chest inward. 3. 3. then move your arms forward and upward as your weight shifts forward (Fig. 3.127 120 . bend the arms. At the same time. and lower the Qi so that power can flow smoothly to the inner side of the wrists. It consists of spiralling the inner sides of both wrists upward to force the opponent to open his hand. It is not necessary to use large movements in this technique. lower the shoulders and elbows. • • • Step one foot forward and shift your weight to the other leg (Fig.126 Fig. While doing this. Just focus on relaxing and lower the Qi. clench both hands into fists.127). tighten the ribs.

placing the right hand on the left (Fig. 3. 3. and roll the chest inward. • Bend both arms 90o inward and cross them in front of the chest.4      Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo   Escape by Crossing the Hands before the Chest This technique consists of crossing both hands before the chest when you move to the left or right to transform power. 3. and lower the shoulders. two eyes look forward horizontally. • Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. It is most often used in the transition between the Jin Gang Dao Zhui posture (Buddha’s Warrior Attendant Pounds Mortar) and the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying Coat). tighten the ribs.128 Fig.128).9. and Qi.129 121 . elbows. • Two feet stand flatly and the body stands straight.3.

129).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • If you choose to turn to the left: rotate the body to the left then right. 3. and lock the palms of the opponent. 3. 3. and move the right hand in Shun reeling while the left does Ni reeling. then to follow your opponent by bending your wrist in Ni reeling while you rotate to the right position so as to extend the left hand and seize with the right.5      Qu Wan Fan Na Jie   Escape by Bending the Wrist and Seize the Opponent This technique is used to counter-attack a hold on the right fingers. then rotate forward again. swapping the Shun and Ni reeling to the opposite hands. Do not rush forward but defend you territory in straight postures (Fig. Then ward off (Peng) by pushing both palms outward. It requires you to twist the captured fingers outward in Shun reeling. 王 西 安 Fig.9. 3. If you choose to turn to the right: rotate the body to the right then left.131 122 .130 Fig.

Fig.133). 3. extend the left hand forward to support the right hand as it seizes downward (Fig. then bend it about 450. As the right toes touch the ground. Apply the principle of constant change and flexibility in Taiji circles. 3. Rotate the arm about 1800 outward in Ni reeling. While rotating the arm. open the joints throughout the body and stretch the muscles so that power can flow through to the wrist and move to its end point more smoothly. 王 西 安 123 . 3.132). As you do this.133 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. 3. 3. palm facing left (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Note: Use the waist as the boundary dividing rising energy above the waist and descending energy below the waist. relax the shoulders. wrist bent inward in readiness to seize and fend off danger (Fig.132 Fig. raise the elbows. step the right foot forward (Fig.130). Your movements should be relaxed and executed with power at all times. it will be difficult for opponents to overcome your attacks. If you practice diligently.131). 3.

so that the power of the left hand combines with the right to become one. Together. • The right wrist bends inward with the arm to rotate the hand in Ni reeling. this sequence of movements make up the Shan Jing Ce Shen Jie technique. palm facing right. 3.6      Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back This technique is applied when the opponent seizes your wrist in Shun reeling. 3. • Extend the right arm horizontally and bend it 900 inward. move the left hand rightward to the front of the chest. • Simultaneously. you should rotate externally and upward in Ni reeling.134 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. roll the chest inward. coordinating it with the lifting of the back and the descending Qi. 王 西 安 Fig. the palm gradually guided by Ni reeling to slant externally to the right. incline the body and attack with the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). • As the right palm reels outward. In response. Next. right fingertips initially pointing downward.135 124 .9. then move swiftly to the right to destabilize the opponent.

135). The force of this attack can help wrest you free from the opponent’s grip and dislodge your wrist from his or her grasp. Almost at the same time. feet and shoulder should integrate into one resolute force and terminate at the same moment (Fig. and thus enabling one to evade capture.7      Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie    Quick Shaking Palm Stun This technique uses very swift abrupt (Shan) power to stun the opponent. Note: Move in Ni reeling while the opponent moves in Shun reeling. 3. then bend your knees slightly to place your body in a squatting position so that you can collect and hold energy. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. then quickly step the right foot forward (Shang Bu). 3. you find it easy to execute Zhen Zhang (Shaking Palm) and thus to escape. then project the right shoulder forward to push at the opponent’s right rib using the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). Use your whole body to collect energy and attack: the Yin force (guiding) from the upper body and Jin force (inserting and attacking) from the lower body.134). touching the ground with the toe tips (Fig. All the above movements of the hands. 王 西 安 125 . Project your shoulder forward using Shan Jing (Sudden Flash Back) and it will break the copper wall. make a big step forward with the right foot.9. shift your weight to the left . because with these. If the opponent seizes your forearms: • Retreat half-a-step with the left foot. So Shan and Jing serve as the pre-condition of escaping. giving him a sense of losing of Qi.• • • As your left hand moves. The above movements of both arms and the right foot should occur in one very smooth and swift motion.

3. use both hands to draw the opponent’s arm toward you and destabilise their center of gravity. 3. When the body and two hands send the Dou power. then Shang Bu (take a step forward). 3. then the whole body sends a Dou in a circle in Shun reeling (short power). open both fists and shift them away from the sides of the body. and the extending palm reaches the right position at the same time. 王 西 安 Fig. clench the hands into fists and place them at the sides of the body (Fig. 3. Shift your weight forward and extend both arms forward to break the power of the opponent’s grip on your forearms (Fig. Simultaneously.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • • At the same time. palms facing up and eyes looking forward. slowly raise both hands and bend them inward about 1800.138). palms facing up and the two little fingers placed on the middle of each arm.136). At the same time. 3.136 Fig.137). Next. As soon as you surprise and destabilize them with your moves.138 126 .137 Fig. step forward quickly and attack with the palm (Fig. This power should be quick and strong. the body squats. 3. and both palms draw inward.

王 西 安 127 . thumb separated from the fingers (Fig. and attacking by the Cu Bu or Dun Bu technique (stomping). 3. because sometimes appropriate retreating gives one a closing power.9. fingertips slanting up (Fig. 3. Two elbows draw inward and hands move outwards. the partner cannot reach you though his attacking power is strong. which is against principle. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Step forward with the right foot and commence Shun reeling with the right arm. holding and collecting a quicker speed. With Shan and Jing. palm facing out. 3. As the right foot steps on the ground.8      Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping This is a composite technique consisting of seizing and twisting the opponent’s joints (Fan Na) using the Fan Guanjie (Reverse Joints) technique.140). Step diagonally right with the right foot. It is not wise to grasp the opponent’s elbow with your fingers. you find escaping easy. Then push the left palm to the right.It is just like the poem reads: ‘It is not a failure if you retreat your pace. then shift your weight to the left and inclining the body to the right to hold and collect.139). At the same time. extend the left hand from left to right. Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. since he or she can easily twist your fingers and get you caught’. first bending it inward then moving it outward to the right. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the side.

During the practice. 王 西 安 128 . from slow to quick.140 Notes The Cu Bu stomp requires a large incline to the side to project an abrupt burst of power. Then you will free yourself from capture. side pushing with the left palm and exhaling at one time. paying attention to the upper and lower body and your surroundings. 3. from long power to short power. This power can only be gathered with greatly unified power.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Stand rooted like a big tree. do not react or become anxious but remain confident in your prowess. Be patient and diligent with practice. Incline your body and explode the energy with great unity by stomping with the right foot. 3. Even if you sense the opponent’s intention to move. the body should move from high to low.139 Fig. only by this will you increase in strength.

3. 3. separate the hands to the sides of the body. palms facing each other. lower the shoulders and elbows. • Then bend both wrists inward. 3. the left hand in Ni reeling and the right in Shun reeling. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Step the right foot forward.142 129 . breathing in as you do this. • In this way. eyes looking forward (Fig. palms facing in (Fig. the hands wrest free of the opponent’s wrist grip.9.142). • Next. bending inward about 90o. As you do this.141).9      Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie  Escaping by separating hands This technique is used to wrest free of a double wrist grip by separating the arms. 3.141 Fig. roll the chest in. • Extend both arms forward.3. tighten the ribs and lower Qi to the Dantian. exhale.

144). 3. 3. You can escape from seizing by one closing and one opening. then separate them to each side. keeping both arms tightly together like pincers. 3. If you cannot push the opponent’s hands away. If you still can’t free your wrists with this technique.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. insert both palms downward (Xia Cha Zhang.144 Notes The extent to which you separate your hands depends on the opponent’s grip. then raise your hands. 3. 王 西 安 130 . finally returning them to the front of the chest to repeat the cycle (Fig.143 Fig. During practice. Palm Inserting Down) (Fig.143). then you transform and eliminate the seizing on your wrists. get your wrists free by moving the right hand in Shun reeling and the left hand in Ni reeling.

CHAPTER FOUR healTh anD qi enhanCemenT pRaCTiCes 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 131 .

Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan Zhuang (Returning to Wu Ji stance) Diligent practice and application of all the postures in these six groups of Qigong practices will yield great results for Taiji and Tuishou practitioners. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Posture) 4.” Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is an extension of Jing Qigong (Quiet Qigong). its leaves and branches must flourish. Ji and An. states: “If a tree has deep and strong roots. As Qing Dynasty Taiji Master. Chen Xin. It also incorporates Qigong and body combat techniques and may be regarded as an advanced form of Qigong. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) 6. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) 王 西 安 132 3. rising and falling. San Ti Shi (Three Postures) 5. . This group of practices is used to strengthen the Prenatal and Postnatal systems of the body. incorporating both movements inner quietness and more active techniques such as the Wu Ji posture. opening and closing. These movements are applied throughout the whole system of Taiji and Tuishou practices. Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture) 2.1  inTrOducTiOn Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is a collection of health and Qi enhancement practices essential for the formation of robust Taiji and Tuishou techniques. Lü. Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong can be divided into six postures. unblocking the whole vessel system by enhancing Qi and blood flow through the body and helping the accumulation of Qi in the Yong Quan point (known as the ‘Bubbling Spring’ located on the sole of the foot). Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. each of which can be practiced individually or in sequence: 1.

keeping your mind relaxed.2. feet parallel and shoulder width apart. breathing gently and slowly.1 133 .4.2  wu ji zhuang (wu ji pOsTure)  4. Concentrate your intention (Yi) in the Dantian.1      Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Stand upright. Open your eyes gradually. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Hang both arms at the side of the body and relax. eyes closed. 4.

3). 4. palms facing downward and slanted diagonally (Fig. 4.3 134 . On the other hand. 4. the right hand rotating in Shun reeling and the left in Ni reeling. when it should actually be solid.2 Fig. the reverse for females (Fig. Maintain the hands at shoulder height. Take care of these points and you will not lose power (Diu Jin) unnecessarily. c) Posture 3 • • Curl the little fingers towards the thumb and slowly draw the arms down to the middle of the body.2). 4. 王 西 安 Fig. do not do it so gently that Qi becomes too soft and weak to reach every part of the body. Overdoing this will raise your Qi to your upper body so that it becomes blocked in your chest and destabilizes your feet.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 b) Posture 2 • • Raise the arms to the sides. Lower the hands onto the abdomen. the right over the left for male practitioners. Try to expand your arms moderately.

The palate is the commencing point of Du Mai while the tip of the tongue is the beginning of Ren Mai. Let the Ren Mai and Du Mai meet during breathing: then lower the tip of tongue. 3. The neck should be firm and straight. The Yong Quan point should be kept empty and relaxed so that any stagnant Qi can flow through smoothly when it descends. The whole body will be steady if you gather the internal organs consistently. 2. Pay attention to the following points when practicing the Zhuang posture: 1. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 135 .4. Lift the buttocks and anus up a little. lower it when exhaling. 4. bend the knees slightly and grasp the ground gently with the toes. Your elbow joints should be lowered. It is important to practice this diligently to unblock both the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation.3      Breathing Breathing is one of the main elements of the Zhan Zhuang (Standing Posture). Your shoulders should be loose and slightly lowered. guiding the Qi and saliva through to the middle Dantian. Relax the crotch so that the inner and middle parts of the lower limbs are also relaxed. Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth The tip of the tongue should touch the palate when inhaling.2.2      The requirements for every part of the body 1. 4.2. the mind and facial muscles naturally relaxed. until they reach the lower Dantian. so that the waist descends naturally. Gather the chest and ribs inward. inhale and then swallow saliva down into the stomach. Concentrate your intention (Yi) at the Bai Hui point and apply power to this point.

Raise your Yi (intention) from the Hui Yin point (perineum). and ease the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation (Da Zhou Tian and Xiao Zhou Tian). leading to Qi filling and blocking the chest. While inhaling Gather your chest and abdomen inward while breathing in Qi. While exhaling Lower every part of the body. Maintain your vertical axis. Practice also enhances your ability to guide Qi with Yi (intention). keeping your body upright and lifting your back slightly. While lowering the internal Qi. until it reaches the Bai Hui point. Feel the sensation of all the body joints. across the Yu Zhen point. lower the waist and gather the Qi in the Dantian. 3. Note: Do not press the abdomen down too much as it will swell naturally as it lowers. you will enlarge your vital capacity and exercise the diaphragm muscles. which will help with the distribution of Qi around the body. up along the spine. including the internal organs. 王 西 安 136 . so that they all have the same rhythm. roll the chest slightly inward. Do not lift the back too much while the Qi rises as this causes both the Qi and blood to rise even further. By practising the above key points.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. skin and fine hairs opening as the Qi rises. through the Wei Lü Guan point.

so it is recommended that they do not practice Yi and Qi until they become familliar with the form. you need to concentrate your intention on the Dantian so that all other distracting ideas may be replaced (Yi Yinian Dai Wannian). Practitioners should modify the scope of their practice according to their level and progress. • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 137 . quietude and concentration. thinking.2. However. During Wu Ji Zhuang. Only these can guarantee normal and healthy internal Qi circulation. can the mind obtain full rest and be adjusted so that every organ system may be well promoted. Qi cannot be separated from Yi (intention). consciousness. The key requirements for practice are relaxation. just as Xing (posture. Only through mastering your mental activities such as intention. Qi follows Yi.4      Additional Notes  • In Taiji Yangsheng Zeng Qigong. these can be accomplished only by hard learning.4. patients and the correct mastery of key points. Beginners generally find it difficult to remember the postures and key points. and emotions. external movements) follows Qi. and achieve the smooth Zhoutian circulation and help with body combat.

 4.3.3  hunyuan zhuang (circle pOsTure) Zhuang skill. people who practice Taiji will make more progress only if they practice not only routines but also Zhuang skill.5 138 . is an important basic skill in Chinese Martial Arts.1       Postures 王 西 安 Fig. 4. also known as ‘Standing Zhuang’ or ‘Standing like a tree’ Qigong meditation.” Hence.4 Fig. as reflected in the following sayings: “You won’t make progress if you practice Chinese Martial Art forms without praticing basic skills. 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.” and “Practicing Martial Art routines without practicing Zhuang skill is like a house without pillars.

Leave your eyes naturally open or close them. Keep the head naturally erect. waist and crotch. Bend the knees so that the body is squatting a little. fingers pointing at their counterparts about 30 cm apart. then move them back to the middle. Next. The palms face each other. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. the neck.4). if closed.5). waist and back straight. mid-level and low. b) Posture 2 • • • Separate the hands when the left foot reaches ground. a little more than shoulder-width apart. shift your weight to the right and lift the left foot and take half a step to the left. Stand with your feet parallel. If your eyes are open. 4.a) Posture 1 • • • • • Start with the same initial posture as the previous posture. 王 西 安 139 . Execute the posture as if embracing a big tree. then lower the waist (Fig. Relax the shoulders.2      Body requirements  a) Zhuang Skill Adjustment Hunyuan Zhuang can be practiced at three levels of body stance: high. focus on a static object at the same level as your eyes. The upper body should be kept upright. 4. focus your attention on the Dantian (Fig.3. Keep the fingers evenly open and slightly bent as if half grasping a sphere. Lower the elbows and shoulders slightly. with practice duration increasing gradually from short to long. The old and weak may practice using a high body stance.

For example. Inhale again as the body rises. This relieves or may even stop the trembling for a period. inhale slowly first. increasing to thirty or forty minutes at later stages. Que Qiao. At this point. swallowing your breath with saliva. you should raise your stance slightly to rest. At the same time. Continue standing for as long as you can as this helps build fatigue resistance and enhances control of the muscles. In this case. then lower your body again. Beginners will find that the thighs may ache after two weeks of practice. although this may become more obvious with prolonged practicing at mid or low stances. the thigh muscles and even the whole body may tremble rhythmically. More benefits may be gained if initial practice lasts for at least ten to fifteen minutes. Now lower the tongue and inhale. and slight trembling may occur. Du Mai. Wei Lü Guan. intention and internal strength join together at the end of Du Mai (which is also the beginning of Ren Mai). up the spine. then bend the knees to lower the body until the buttocks are at the same level as the knees. when doing Standing Zhuang at a high stance. through the Ren Mai. graduating to midlevel. and guide the saliva down to the middle and lower Dantian. until it reaches the Baihui point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The young and strong should start with a high stance. past the Yu Zhen point. then a low stance. touch the palate with the tip of the tongue. becoming gradually longer. b) Rising and Falling Method This method refers to the subtle rise and fall of the body during Standing Zhuang following the rhythm of the breath. Practice duration can last just a few minutes in the initial stages. raise Qi from the heels up the legs. 王 西 安 140 . The trembling may only be detected by touch or by close observation of the leg muscles. Should this happen.

breathing motions and digesting processes.As you exhale slowly. The upper body is Xu (void) while the lower part is Shi (solid) with feet grasping the ground. the body lowers slightly and Qi moves down to the Yong Quan point along the inner sides of the legs.3      Breathing Breathing is an important element of Zhuang skill. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 141 . as it responds to the circulating blood. Standing on the ground steadily like a mountain. the body quivers in a relaxed and peaceful state of mind. It rises and falls like a boat in the ocean.3. Practice this process repeatedly. but the apparent non-activity is misleading. Zhuang skill is actually a practice using static strength and tension. The body weight is always subtly moving in various directions. like a wild goose flies off and falls. 4. This is explained in the Song of Huanyuan Zhuang: The body ascends or descends corresponding with the breath.

7 142 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. 4. the middle fingers connect. The distance between both arms starts short then grows longer. Gather the chest and abdomen. 4. In the initial stages of practice.8). The navel and Ming Men are in the same rhythm. the body rises slightly with the inhalation.4. 4. 王 西 安 Fig. the breath is usually short. The only difference is that in this posture.1      Postures  a) Posture 1 • • • • Inhale and slowly separate both arms to each side. 4. the palms face inward and the eyes are slightly closed (see Fig. relax and open the internal organs. extend your breath slowly through the practice process.6 Fig.4  kai he zhuang (Opening and clOsing zhuang) The standing posture of Kai He Zhuang is the same as Hunyuan Zhuang. as are the requirements and key points for the body parts. At the same time.

Focusing on your intention (Yi). Qi appears between finger tips of both hands like a magnetic force. Drop the wrists and hold the palms facing inwards in a concave shape. Do this practice slowly. Roll the chest slightly inward. All internal organs are filled with strength. the navel and the Ming Men Mai swell out. lower the waist and gather the rib muscles.Note: when you inhale and open up. Relax the body. using your intention (Yi). use your intention to guide the current outward. you will detect a current of energy released from both palms which seems to be difficult to gather at this point. At the same time. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. crouch down and lower the elbows. b) Posture 2 • • • • • • Exhale and gather the organs. 4.8 143 . Acting slowly. Guide this Qi from the fingertips and palms into the ‘sphere’ in front of your abdomen.

and when Qi rises – the body and internal organs gather slightly. For example. Qi and strength. For thought (or attention) to combine with intention. only when you can mentally trust that you feel the Qi in your hands can you apply the practice techniques to good effect. For example. Qi here refers to the fresh air exchanged between the lungs and the outside. It will take some practice before you will be able to sense Qi and feel it move with the rhythm of your breath. intention and Qi. when extending the hands. then your strength must be soft. This practice also strengthens the practitioner’s ‘root’. one’s thoughts need to implement intention consistently.   Intention and Qi Kai He Zhuang is directly related to the Three Internal Combinations: thought and intention.4. and also helps the practitioner build skills in relaxation and quietness. Lastly. gentle and even. the ebb and flow of Qi and strength (or power) are in synch with each other.2      The relationship between Thought. In this way. 4. “the internal Qi moves inside”. if you require the breath to be slow. . 王 西 安 144 Qi combines with strength when Qi descends – the whole body and internal organs relax. To combine intention with Qi means to guide Qi so that it follows your intention as you practice Zhuang techniques. This is called. it also helps increase internal strength and distributes Qi around the whole body. as well as breath control.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The main aim of practising Kai He Zhuang is to enhance the strength of the lower limbs and to promote the shrinking and expanding abilities of the navel and Ming Men. as well as the internal Qi moving in the body with the guidance of your intention.

abdomen and back. this movement becomes a conditioned reflex and helps move muscles which are normally static. In particular. Its purpose is to stimulate the nerve system by muscle movement. and are one of the main requirements in Zhuang skill. you will reach the point where internal Qi may be guided by intention to move freely in your body along desired routes. With practice. the regular up-down movement of the midriff muscles are very important in Kai He Zhuang. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 145 . the chest.The relaxing and gathering of the internal organs mentioned here refers to the activities of the internal organs and the muscles around the midriff area – under the ribs. Guided by intention.

make sure your eyes are drawn inward to looking internally. Expand the crotch like a circle.9). then breathe it out slowly as you move forward (Fig. At the same time. The rhythm of the navel and Ming Men should be consistent with the breathing in and drawing in. suffusing it with saliva and Qi and lower it to the middle and lower Dantian. Purify this saliva with your intention. This posture could also be called a sideways Bow Step (Fig. focusing your intention in the Dantian. inhale and move your weight backward. then open your eyes and look into the distance. 4. The fingers are poised as if grasping the air. a) Posture 1 • • • • • • • • 王 西 安 146 • Stand with feet parallel and take a step forward with the right foot. the right hand in front of the left. . raise both hands above the right leg. Gather the Lao Gong points of both hands inward. Swallow the fresh air inhaled. Next. Start the posture with your eyes closed. The length of inhalation should match the speed of the weight shift. 4.5  san Ti shi (Three pOsTures) The core content of San Ti posture is the method of drawing in and pushing forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. When inhaling.10). then shift your weight forward from the left foot to the right knee. fill the body with strength and withdraw the limbs to prepare for the next pushing posture. When the weight shifts completely to the left leg.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.11).9 b) Posture 2 • • As Qi is lowered into the Dantian.11 147 . 4.Fig. 4. You need to have the feeling of closing before opening. Repeat this process alternating the left and right sides. 4. As you exhale and shift your weight forward. lower the waist.10 Fig. then push both hands forward slowly (Fig. 4. close and fold your strength into your chest and waist.

determination. Indeed. and great determination. Through serious dedication. your belief is half-hearted. practioners will make the expected progress. then your progress will be poor. practitioners are required to cultivate their Three Spirits when they begin practice. So where does confidence come from? From practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Notes: Remember to cultivate and apply the Three Spirits: confidence. With confidence comes determination. Confidence in Zhuang skills grows with practice as difficulties are overcome. leading to progress and experience of the benefits. with confidence and determination. If. confident and diligent practice. In sum. 王 西 安 148 . your practice hesitant and inconsistent. You can persevere only if you firmly believe in the benefits of Zhuang skills. and persistence. Beginners tend not to have much confidence or belief in Zhuang skills because their practice has only just begun. Only after prolonged practice can confidence be nurtured. on the contrary. and hold firm to these attributes throughout path of practice and study. Practitioners who apply the Three Spirits can develop good Zhuang skills and attain the expected results. persistence may be engendered. confidence is a critical prerequisite.

• At the same time. Peng force is maintained while the foundation of the body is reinforced as well. 4. inhaling all the while (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The difference of this posture from that of San Ti posture is: • Both hands extend outward with Peng energy to prepare for the opponent’s Lü gesture. both palms facing forward. As you step forward. In this way.6  chan si zhuang (reeling silk pOsTure) Chan Si power generated by practising Chan Si Zhuang is the core content of Chen Style Taijiquan.4. • The fingers of the both hands point to each other. Chan Si Zhuang refers to practices using silkreeling power built on the foundation of Zhuang skill.6. 4.12). extend both hands forward with the right hand before the left. 王 西 安 149 . relax the chest and midriff muscles to provide balanced strength between the upper and lower bodies (with the waist as the dividing line).1      The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang a) Posture 1 • • Step forward with the right foot and shift your weight forward.

 4. 4.13 Fig. 4.12 王 西 安 150 Fig.14 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

As you shift your weight. When both hands reach their full extent (your Peng and Ji can’t exceed your orbit or territory. you will lose your weight and axis). As this happens. otherwize.13). When the left hand executes Lü (roll back) to the middle of the body. drop the elbows. relax the right crotch and shift your weight gradually to the right. suffusing it with Qi before lowering it down to the middle and then lower Dantian. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 c) Posture 3 • • • Next. step the right foot on the ground. lower the shoulders. gather and close the whole body so it forms a posture prepared for opening activities. At the same time.14). 4. relax both arms. the right hand in front of the left. keeping the left hand inside and the right outside (Fig. 4. Inhale and swallow saliva. 王 西 安 151 . relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left Move the left hand down in Ni (contrary) reeling and the right hand down in Shun (conforming) reeling. inhale and crouch the body slightly. As the weight shifts. Both hands make a half fist when reeling. open both fists into palms facing inward. withdraw the right hand so it intersects the left. When this happens. rotate the left hand in Shun reeling in front of the lowered abdomen. Apply Peng (ward off ) and Ji (press) outwards with both hands as you shift weight and exhale (Fig.b) Posture 2 • • • • • • • Next. you start to repeat the sequence. turn the waist and twist the crotch.

After mastering the key principle of natural breath. the breath can become slower and longer. and even to one or two times per minute. After practicing Zhuang skills for a period. and comes only after accumulated practice. the most essential principles to apply when practicing Zhuang skill is intentional natural breathing and intentional technical coordination. you should focus on increasing the duration and depth of your breath. Ren Mai starts 王 西 安 152 . your breath should be natural and of the proper duration so that it enhances body combat and health. The purpose of deep breathing is to make sure every small cell of your lungs takes part in the breathing. Dual practice with Yi (intention) and Qi connects the whole body. Therefore. This is a primary sign of beneficial Zhuang practice. then to five times per minute.6. Only by this can you avoid errors and side effects. The normal breath frequency of adults is six to twenty times per minute. inhalation/exhalation being one breath. This phenomena of “connected arteries. veins and joints” is known as the “connected Ren Mai and Du Mai” in Zhuang skill terminology. so that your lung capacity is enlarged and the contact area between the capillary vessels of the alveolus and fresh air is increased. Ren Mai and Du Mai are two of the eight channels (Ji Jing Ba Mai). It is incorrect to exhale with a long breath and inhale with a short breath (known as “too much Yin”) or vice-versa (“too much Yang”). When you practise Zhuang skills to a certain level. Inhalations and exhalations should be of proper length.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. you will feel your key joints and your arteries and veins become unblocked and re-connected. decreasing to seven or ten breaths per minute. This helps in the exchange of carbon dioxide and promotes metabolism in the body.2      Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang When practicing Zhuang skill.

Qi descends to the Yong Quan point through the inner sides of both legs after which it returns to the Dantian. then rises through the backs of the legs before joining the routes of Xiao Zhou Tian. except that the breathing in the former is longer. deeper. Jia Gu Guan. reaches the perineum through the Dantian and then connects to Du Mai. even and quiet. The whole process of moving Qi through Ren Mai and Du Mai. reaches the Bai Hui point through Wei Lü Guan. the five sense organs internally gathered. all channels extended and unfolded. the body should be relaxed. In Da Zhou Tian. For both.from the tip of the tongue. Da Zhou Tian (Major Zhoutian) is an extension of Xiao Zhou Tian. then infusing Qi into the Dantian. then reaches the maxilla through the ears and cheeks to finally connect to the tip of the tongue. and Yu Zhen Guan. The Qi of Da Zhou Tian originates from the Yong Quan point. Du Mai starts at the perineum. more gentle. and Yi and Qi should move in the required routes. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 153 . the difference being that Da Zhou Tian extends Qi to the lower limbs. The practice method for Da Zhou Tian is the same as that for Xiao Zhou Tian. is called Xiao Zhou Tian (Minor Zhoutian) of Yin Yang circulation.

close your eyes and inhale.16 154 .7  wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang) Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan is also called “Closing Practice”. then infuse it into the lower Dantian. 4. then bring in the right foot so that both feet are a shoulder-width apart. 4. bring in the arms and place both palms in front of the abdomen (Fig. Swallow Qi down with saliva and guide it down to the middle Dantian. 王 西 安 Fig. Leave it there for a little while to nourish the Dantian before disgorging the Qi slowly. a) Posture 1 • • • Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. Its practicing method can be summarized thus: when you finish Peng and Ji outwards with both arms in Chan Si Zhuang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.15 Fig. 4.15). At the same time.

separate the arms to the sides.18 155 . lift both arms upright.b) Posture 2 • • • • • Inhale and with thumbs guiding the energy flow. Then using the little fingers to guide the energy. 4.17).16). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.17 Fig. finally placing them in front of the shoulders.18). 4. 4. 4. swallow Qi and saliva and infuse them into the lower Dantian (Fig. fingertips pointing obliquely down. Relax the whole body and raise it up slightly to open the joints throughout the body (Fig. Clench both hands into fists and lower them to ear level as the body lowers. As the body lowers. palms facing each other. palms facing in (Fig. pointing the fingertips upward. 4.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.20

c) Posture 3

• •

王 西 安

Lower the body into a crouch and open the fists into palms. Move them slowly to the outside of the legs and push down slowly while exhaling. Stop pushing when exhalation is complete (Fig. 4.19). Inhale again and slowly raise the body, extending the arms to the sides and lift them upright again. Repeat this process six times. When you finish, detach the tip of the tongue from the palate, open your eyes slowly. Join the hands together and heat them up by rubbing. Then use your warm hands to rub your face, neck, chest and other parts of the body. This method of warming helps relax the acupoint channels, stretches the tendons and muscles, and promotes the generation of Qi (Fig. 4.20).


pRaCTiCes FoR The BuTToCks anD CRoTCh

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

5.1  pracTice fOr The buTTOcks

5.1.1      Overview 
The requirements for positioning the buttocks in Taijiquan practice are very strict. It requires the practitioner to put Wei Lü (coccygeal end, at the end of spine) in an upright position when practicing, gathering and raising it naturally so that the buttocks do not protrude nor swing too much, otherwise the buttocks will be unable to rise and lower naturally. Taijiquan novices sometimes err on over-gathering or raising the buttocks, which can result in various negative effects. For example, if the buttocks are gathered too far forward, the posture will become unnaturally stiff and not follow the natural straight alignment of the body; in addition, this posture may also impede natural breathing as it blocks smooth circulation of Qi throughout the body and may even destabilize the firmness of the weight of the lower limbs. Gathering or raising buttocks in routine and Tuishou practice must be applied in accordance with each specific practice and not generalized. For example, while relaxing the the joints and muscles in the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying One’s Coat), the buttocks should be raised slightly as the waist is lowered so that Qi can descend smoothly into the Dantian. If the buttocks are pushed too far forward, the lowering of the waist is impeded and consequently, Qi cannot cannot descend through the Dantian and separate into two streams to flow through the Yong Quan point through to the legs.

王 西 安

5.1.2      Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
An example of applying this principle in Tuishou sparring is as follows: if the opponent executes Lü on you, you need to relax, lower your Qi and gather your buttocks before executing the Bei Kao move (Kao with the back). In this move, gathering the buttocks helps to concentrate power drawn from the heels and transported up the legs before it is unleashed at the target. In contrast, raising rather than gathering buttocks at this point will hinder full release of striking power and thwarts any attempt to transform the opponent’s energy. Bei Kao is an opening-closing move, consisting of lightening-quick power exertion and rebound, during which you need to guide Qi upward to explode energy. To do this, you need to roll the chest slightly inward and bend knees a little, then stamp on the ground to generate rebounding power and ascending Qi. The gathering of buttocks at this point is essential so that Qi can descend instantaneously after energy release. Protruding the buttocks will impede Qi flow downwards, resulting in Qi blockage at the chest which affects the stability of a practitioner’s stance and may even be harmful to health. These key points in the above example need to be practised and applied assiduously during routine and Tuishou practice.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

王 西 安

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法

5.2  pracTices fOr The crOTch (dang)

5.2.1      Overview
Dang refers to the crotch area where the legs connect to the body. To open the Dang area, the thighs need to be stretched apart as much as possible so that the waist and crotch can rotate freely. Any obstruction of Dang movement will negatively affect routine and Tuishou practice. The opening-closing of Dang, that is, the transition between emptiness and solidity of the crotch area, has a direct impact on the flexibility of the practitioner’s body and his or her ability to change speed and weight. The shift between emptiness and solidity of the Dang area is used as a measure to monitor and adjust movement and speed of movement, and also serves as the key point to increase the power to be exploded. The firmness of Dang relates to their exertion of power and resistance. Mastery of Dang power and posture in routine and Tuishou practice helps increase flexibility, emptiness and stability of waist and legs, reinforces the foundation and enhances your practice. Adjustments to the waist and Dang are usually the first steps taken when you feel there is something not quite right with your movements routine or Tuishou practice. As Master Chen Xin said, “When you attain realization of Taiji, even a bird cannot fly out from under you during Taiji movement.” In other words, the openingclosing of Dang is key to increasing and exerting power. When Dang is closed, the whole body is directed toward closing (He); when Dang opens, the body opens. Hence, Dang is essential to Xu (gathering), He (closing), Yin (guiding), and Fang (releasing) in routine and Tuishou practice.

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are described below: 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 5. After humans evolved to the upright posture and started to walk. when the distribution between the weight-bearing leg and the other leg is at a ratio of 3:7 or 4:6.The Anus In the same way that the positioning of Dang is very precise. womb prolapse and so on. the positioning of the anus also needs careful attention. In Taiji practice. Ding Dang. This realization caused the ancients to suggest that “the ground door should be always closed”. To help you master correct Dang postures in routine and Tuishou practice. womb and so on. it was realized that the anus and perineum were two of the most vulnerable parts of the human body. This requires the left leg to be solid with the lower leg standing upright. and it became difficult for vena blood to flow to heart. 王 西 安 161 .2      Yuan Dang … Round Crotch Yuan Dang refers to the opening of the Dang area in a circular shape. rectocele. which means that the left leg bears 30% of body weight while the right leg bears 70% of body weight. the left knee and ankle vertically aligned to each other and the ground. anus contraction should only be slight and done in a natural way. the perineum and it’s soft tissue started to bear greater pressure from such internal organs as the liver. in the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture of the Chen style Taiji Lao Jia routine. Doing so over an extended period can have a positive effect in curing hemorrhoids.2. A brief introduction is provided below. For example. Yuan Dang. advocating contraction of the anus during physical exercise as a remedy. In ancient times. the weight distribution is 3:7. The right leg should be relaxed with the right knee inclined slightly outward and the Dang gathered inward so that both form a strong pair. a short introduction of key Dang movements. Jian Dang and Tang Dang.

Some perform better than others due to learning abilities. Hence. In traditional teaching methods. the right knee should incline outward. energy in the legs is strengthened and the body is well supported. the root of Dang should be relaxed. innate talents. That is.2. teachers do not typically correct their students’ mistakes as the emphasis was on students digesting teachings gradually and adjusting mistakes themselves. when the right leg moves to the side. This positioning of Dang also means that it fulfils the Taiji principle of “opening in closing”. there are many opportunities and responsibilities. “It is easy to teach but hard to change what is learnt. A practitioner trying to eliminate the habit of Ding Dang in his or her postures will require a long period of re-adjustment as the new correct Dang posture will initially feel very uncomfortable.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In this way. which means there will not be opening-closing power if he or she crouches in the Horse Stance. Yuan Dang reinforces the foundation and allows flexible body rotation in any direction. 5. “closing in opening” and that “Dang should open in a full circle”. it is very difficult to correct bad practice habits solidified with prolonged practice. If a practitioner is advised to relax. As for practitioners. These traditional teaching methods should be changed as implied by the adage.” Indeed. 王 西 安 162 . the body crouches as the right knee moves outward. Ding Dang arises when the area connecting the weight-bearing right leg to the crotch remains tight. This should be corrected at the earliest stages of learning. he or she will typically re-distribute weight between the legs to a ratio of 4:6 or 5:5.3      Ding Dang … Tight Crotch Ding Dang refers to a common mistake made by novice practitioners whereby one leg supports the body without relaxing. at the end of the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture. and at this moment Dang should open in a circle so that both legs can support all parts of the body. For example.

and quality and length of practice, rather than due to a teacher’s attention. Some practitioners are happy to help the teacher out and teach others, their intention being to allow the teacher more rest. Students are also happy to learn from co-practitioners as this may help to accelerate learning.

5.2.4      Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
In Jian Dang position, the Dang area is shaped like an inverted “A”, the bottom tip of the Dang area is tight and not relaxed. In this case, Dang cannot be lowered during routine and Tuishou practice, and Yuan Dang cannot be formed at all. Moreover, the Bow Step is hampered, one’s gait becomes unsteady, and the upper body becomes heavy while the lower body is unrooted, swaying to the right or left, while the feet are also unsteady. This mistake may be tolerated by the old and weak if their aim is just to improve health, but cannot be ignored by younger practitioners who want to improve combat skills. Because with Jian Dang, some get easily unrooted, some find they can’t get clear distribution of weight, some find it so hard to shift the weight because they put exceeded weight onto one leg. If the habit of Jian Dang is allowed to form over a period of time, practitioners will become used to it and feel comfortable in this incorrect stance, which should be avoided. On the contrary, one must learn to identify and cultivate the twin qualities of emptiness-solidity in the legs through the practice of Taiji routines. Novices practicing Dang will inevitably develop aching feet. This is no cause for worry, as these are normal physical indications of body development and they will disappear when you reach a certain level. For example, after a bout of Tuishou sparring, novice practitioners may feel a little ache in the arms and legs, and indeed, the whole body may ache after a little rest. This is because you are not used to the intense exercise and some capillary blood vessels may have been strained. This ache will lessen gradually after extended practise, as the body becomes stronger, blood circulation improves and lung capacity is increased. At this stage, any additional

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muscle ache resulting from further increase in practice will ease off more quickly. Hence, do not be deterred by any aches and apply Yuan Dang when practicing Taiji and Tuishou, so that Jian Dang may be prevented from developing. Without patience, Taiji skills cannot be improved.

5.2.5      Tang Dang 
Tang Dang happens when the legs are spread too far apart, out of proportion to the weight distribution required on the legs and the lowered Dang. As a result, the movements of the legs are hampered as they are not able to move forward and back or turn to the sides with natural ease. This situation is also called Ta Dang, meaning collapsing Dang. The Taijiquan routine is a whole body practice, suitable for people of all ages, body constitutions and those engaged in mental and physical work. Typically, practice methods for Taijiquan routines start from large circle movements to smaller ones, then from smaller circles to no-circle movements. However, the opposite is true for Dang practice, which starts with smaller scale movements, growing to larger-scaled practice. This requires Dang to be positioned a little higher in the beginning before becoming lower and wider gradually. As with Ding Dang and Jian Dang, be careful not to form the habit of committing to Tuishou movements that bring a lot of pressure to the knee joints, as Tang Dang not only increases pressure, but may also cause harm. This results in chronically tight muscles which will eventually cause bad blood circulation in the legs. The Tang Dang posture has particular impact on the stimulation of the on the nerves in the knee joint, so hindering the supply and renewal of blood in the leg muscles. Prolonged Tang Dang positioning will result in aching knee joints and a very heavy feeling in the legs. In some large-scale movements, Tang Dang

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may actually be intentionally applied, such as in the Seven Cun Kao movement, that is Kao applied in the Xie Xing or oblique walk where the distance between the ground and shoulder is seven cun (about 23 cm). Yet even in this movement, heavy pressure on the legs last only an instant and the legs can recover quickly, so Tang Dang poses no real issues. However, large-scale movements cannot be applied to the whole practice; hence Tang Dang is considered harmful to health and body combat if applied for extended periods in routine and Tuishou practice. Generally speaking, Dang practice should begin modestly with a slight lowering of the body, gradually growing to bigger movements. Most importantly, it should match the physical conditions of the practitioner and the requirements of body combat so that the practitioner does not incur any injury.

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Chen sTyle Taiji Tuishou CaTegoRies

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since both the attacking and defensive movements are interrelated and cannot be separated. For example. 王 西 安 168 . then strike back with Jian Kao. For example. you can defend using An (pressing). your opponent may respond defensively with Xiong Kao (Kao by chest). with attackers changing to defensive roles in an instant and back again without warning. if the opponent attacks using Jian Kao (Kao with shoulder). Tuishou is commonly divided into eight categories. While the combinations of Tuishou moves are infinite. In this chapter. the attack-defense stances change dynamically.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.1  Overview  Within the Chen style Taiji routine. if you advance using Ying Men Kao (Kao diagonally to the front). practitioners may master its secrets and principles with serious study. Indeed. we will describe how to apply these eight Tuishou techniques in sparring practice.

e. i. where the the practitioners are no longer oblidged to the sequences or fixed routines. Da Lü (larger scale movements) 7. Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with movable footwork. Shuang Shou Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Double Hands) 3.1. and any movements can be exerted by intention.1      Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories The Chen style Taiji Tuishou Routines can be divided into: 1. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 169 . Li Yuan and Ping Yuan (Vertical Coiling Flower and Horizontal Coiling Flower) 4. silk reeling in the shape of a flower) 2. which is regarded as the highest level of Tuishou. also known as Ding Bu Tuishou (Coiling Hand with Static Footwork) 5. normally a forward step then a backward step) 6.6. Jin San Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 3 steps. while Tuishou) 8. Luan Cai Hua (Picking Flower. He Bu Tuishou with static footwork. Dan Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Single Hand. while Tuishou) or Jin Wu Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 5 steps.

Bie. Xuan Wan (rotating wrists) 4. There are many categories of footwork techniques.2      Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork  Tuishou handwork is commonly divided into four classifications. Lian Jin Lian Tui (moving forward/back/right/left continuously) 4. Cha Bu (inserting steps) 6. and not be limited to one or the other. Duli Bu (standing on a single foot) 8. In moving footwork such as Shun Bu (walking backward and forward) and Da Lü. An) is usually applied. Lian Huan Zuoyou Xuanzhuan (moving continously with body rotation) 王 西 安 170 5. Shuang Tuishou (Tuishou with double hands) 3. these consist of the Cai. During sparring. or Kao hand techniques. Si Yu Shou hand techniques are always used. practitioners should be able to switch flexibly between Si Zheng Shou and Si Yu Shou techniques as circumstances require. Dan Tuishou (Tuishou with single hand) 2.1. as follows: 1.e. novices should start by learning one set at a time. Ding Bu (static footwork) 2. Lü. Zou.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Bing Bu (step touch. However. feet placed together ) 7. Si Zheng Shou (Peng. Ji. i. Dian Bu (stepping on toe-tips) . Huo Bu (moving footwork) 3. including: 1. Qie Zhang (palm chop) In static footwork.

Da (meet) and Sao (sweep) movements. 6. In single practice.2      Cutting with Palm This technique uses the edge of the palm to cut downward in a vertical or diagonal direction. In this posture. 6. with the forearm bent toward the upper arm at an angle of 450. 6. with the wrist lowered and fingers relaxed. when both players retreat after being mutually warded off.6. one arm is extended horizontally sideways. 6.2).2  TuishOu handwOrk Techniques 6.2. The elbow must be dropped. palm facing in. When cutting downward.2. you need to place the body in a crouching position.1 Fig. 6. Shuan (bind).1). it is also often used when pushing or rotating in various directions in both Shun and Ni reeling.2 171 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. the four fingers extended and joined together to form a slightly concave palm (Fig.1      Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground Li Zhang is used at the initial stages of a sparring bout. All these adjustments must be executed simultaneously so that power can reach the palm edge and hit the target clearly (Fig. it is also applied to Gun (roll). The roots of the fingers are relaxed. roll the chest slightly inward and lower the waist and shoulders.

4). This techniqueis often applied in Shun Chan (conforming reeling) and Yin Jin (drawing into your territory). 6. During sparring. 王 西 安 Fig. Xie Tuo Zhang is also applied in the process of Big Lü.4 172 . then reverse to the Ni direction when the hands arrive at his or her body. change your palm to Wa Long Palm as you follow your opponent and reel in the Shun direction as the palm rotates upward.3 Fig. 6. In this instance. 6. the little finger is used to guide energy and draw inward toward the thumb.2. when hands are rotating horizontally in a circle.4      Xie Tuo Zhan In this technique.3      Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm The Wa Long Palm is shaped like a Chinese roof tile where the sides curl upward and the middle is low. the hand is stretched upward to the sides (Fig. one player may guide the other to reel first in the Shun direction. if the opponent executes Lü on you. 6. As you rotate the hand downward or outward. The remaing three fingers turn slightly outward so that the palm becomes concave (Fig. The palm posture during this direction change is called Xie Tuo Zhang. For example.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. 6.3). where the raised hand lies above the middle of the upper arm. the power lies in the root of the palm.2.

• Cha Zhang is also adopted in Shun Bu Tuishou (see above) with moving footwork. see above). the hand is inserted upward or vertically/diagonally downward. • In Luan Cai Hua (palms reel in non-predictable angles. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. for example: • When you rotate both hands in vertical circles. Cha Zhang can be applied via the same application methods as with the Si Zheng Shou (stated above). 6. fingers slightly parted (Fig. separate them and switch to Cha Zhang. 6. as the hands insert downward. insert your hand downward and rotate it in the Shun direction.5 173 .6. • When the opponent executes Lü on your hand during Si Zheng Shou (handwork in four directions. then lower your shoulders and drop the elbows.5). and gradually press your hands toward the opponent. This technique is called Diagonally Upward Cha. Cha Zhang is widely used in Tuishou.2. see above).5      Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm In this technique.

and your partner exerts An to your hand.2.6 王 西 安 174 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. and the little finger bending inward.6      Ba Zi Shou Ba Zi Shou (hand posture in character ‘八’): separate the thumb and the index finger to form a “八” shape. while the thumb and the index finger form a “ 八” shape. you can rotate your arm with the middle finger. the ring finger.6). This type of hand is always used in Qin Na (arresting) and Tuishou with single hand in a horizontal circle. Fig. This way. it is called Ba Zi hand because “八” is pronounced ‘ba’ in Chinese (Fig. you find it earsier to eliminate the opponent’s power by rotating your waist outwards with relaxation. 6. 6. When you guide your partner via Shun reeling to the front of your chest.

the Yong Quan point should be empty while the Dang is open with the intention to close. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. This knee is turned slightly outward to provide a frame for all parts of the body. following the principle of ‘straightening in bending’. One knee is bent so that the body is in a half crouch. the sole fully touching the ground.7 王 西 安 175 .1      Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step This technique requires the soles of the feet to touch the ground.3  TuishOu fOOTwOrk Techniques 6. the thigh nearly parallel to the ground. following the principle of ‘closing in opening’. In this posture. The toe tips point slightly inward. 6.3. the knee positioned approximately above the tip of the foot (Fig.7). The other leg bends with the intention to straighten.6. 6. toe tips bent slightly inward.

Fig. Position both feet fully on the ground. toes grasping the ground. body weight is transferred from the front Bow leg to the back leg during in Shun Bu Tuishou pairwork. you can move your the weight back to transform their power by raising your toe tip and hence causing the heel to touch the ground naturally.3.8). 6. if the opponent presses on any part of your body with his or her hands or arms. Keep the Yong Quan point empty so the straightened leg can be lifted later if the body weight is kept on the Bow leg (Fig.2      Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step In this posture.8 6. 6. • This step is always used in Shun step. the heel touches the ground with the toes pointing up at about 450 (Fig.3      Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step In this step. 王 西 安 176 .3. knee bent slightly over the toe tips.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. 6. for example: • In Ping Yuan Tuishou (Tuishou in horizontal circles).9). It is applied widely in Tuishou. When the weight is completely transferred. straighten the front leg so that the back leg becomes the Bow leg. big Lü and Luan Cai Hua.

9 6.4      Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step This step is applied in three Tuishou techniques: a) Shun Bu –Tuishou big Lü. 6.Fig.3. move your weight back and withdraw the front leg backward by stepping the toe tip back first. followed by the sole then heel (Fig. 6. if an opponent applies Lü on you. 6.10). and Luan Cai Hua For example.10 177 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

e. 6. For example. Lü applied through large-scale movements) (Fig. in the ‘Dragon sweeps ground’ form.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 6.12 . 王 西 安 178 Fig. 12). Hence the name ‘Falling Step’. and is widely used in forward or backward movements (Fig. which now lies close to the ground. 6.11). 6. quickly ‘fall’ to the ground with a large-scale ground sweep of the Bow leg. c) Duli Bu (Standing on Single Foot) Duli Bu refers to having one foot raised while the other stands on the ground. When the opponent applies Big Lü on you.11 b) Pu Bu (Falling Step) Pu Bu is only applied to Big Lü (i. Big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. This posture is applied to Shun step.

1      Shun Chan … Conforming reeling In Taijiquan.13 179 .4  hand Techniques in TuishOu reeling 6. you can use Shun Chan to gather energy and edge into the opponent’s territory. enters the bone marrow through gaps in the scapula and travels down the arms. power rises from the heels up the legs. you can also use Shun Chan to attack to the side or directly on to the opponent after drawing them into your territory. when the opponent executes Lü on you. 6. you draw the opponent inward into your territory. while simultaneously executing Kao on the opponent. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. The principle of Shun Chan is that with the elbows guiding the hands. This move is called Shun Ji Shun Fa (i. the shoulders guiding the elbows and the waist guiding the shoulders. where it returns to its original position of circulation. with the other fingers slightly turned outward. In Silk Reeling technique. It then rises from the internal to manifest externally through the skin and fine hairs until it reaches the fingers. the term ‘reeling’ means to spiral energy. with the little finger guiding energy as it points to the thumb when it is drawn inward. In addition. in Bei Zhe Kao (Lean with back).6. spirals around the waist and shoulders.e.4. For example. exerting Ji and Na in confronting reelings). Shun Chan means to spiral energy from the outside to the inside.

6.4. In horizontal circle rotations with single hand. 王 西 安 Fig.2      Ni Chan … Reverse reeling Ni Chan is the reverse of Shun Chan and may also be called ‘Ni Silk Reeling Outwards’. the shoulders to urge on the elbows and the elbows guiding the hands. concentrate you energy in the wrist.3      Shun Ni Zuo Wan   Wrist descending in Shun and Ni directions This technique consists of lowering the wrist gradually during the transition from Shun to Ni Chan. by using the waist to urge the shoulder. 6. roll your chest slightly inward and lower your waist. Here. while the other fingers turn out slightly (Fig.14 Fig.4. In Ni Chan. Ni Chan is used to open outward. 6. Zuo Wan (descending wrist) technique is adopted (Fig. the thumb gathers inward and guides the little finger. shoulders and elbows.15). 6.14).15 180 . extend your right hand and guide the opponent to rotate in Shun reelings towards your leftside. You then Ni reel to your right ribs and change the attacking hand into ‘八’ shape so that you can easily capture your opponent. 6. Note: to apply this technique precisely.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.

Cai.6. Zhou. Diao Wan is also widely applied in response to a Lü attack. which is formed by pointing the little.4. At this point. 6. and adhere to him or her. Lü. by holding on to the opponent by the hand. while trying to ‘listen’. then quickly switches to Shun reeling and you easily seize the wrist of your partner by hooking hand. 6. in case of single hand rotation in the horizontal circle. The wrist is drawn inward to form a Diao Wan (Hooked Wrist). Diao Wan has two functions: • Diao Wan can be used as one option to enhance the ability of Zhan Nian (adhering to the opponent). to provide a closing and opposing force with the three fingers (Fig.16 181 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.16). Ji. Lie. ring and middle fingers vertically downward while the thumb and the index finger form a ‘八’ shape (Ba Zi).4      Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist This technique is often used when the Ni Chan changes to Shun Chan. • For example. through any of the four front-oriented Si Zheng Shou techniques (Si Zheng Shou Peng. Kao). the Shun hand changes to Diao Shou (Hooked Hand). your right hand rotates at 90o towards the right side of body in Ni reeling. An) or four side-oriented Si Yu Shou techniques (Si Yu Shou.

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6.4.5      Shun Chan Yang Zhang   Raised palm in conforming reeling
This can be divided into inward Yang (palm rising) and outward Yang (palm rising), which are always used in the four front oriented techniques (called ‘Si Zheng Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Peng, Lü, Ji, An) and four side oriented techniques (called ‘Si Yu Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). First, if the partner executes Lü on your right arm, you insert loosely in Ni reeling, and then advance and press inwards by Shun reeling, raising the hand while advancing. It is called Yi Yang Zhang (palm raised inward), because at this time the palm is facing inward and upward. Second, if you guide the partner and withdraw your step, the partner will likely expose some weak point after you raise your palm in Ni reeling. To lift the partner in this ‘openning’ provides preparation for your ‘closing’, i.e. to capture your partner in Shun reeling quickly. At this time your palm is facing upper outward, so it is called Wai Yang Zhang (palm raised outward) Internally, whether in outward Yang or inward Yang, you should coordinate whole body movements coherently. Yang is a kind of opening, so at this time the body should close, so as to support each other and not be separated. Practitioners must pay attention to these principles in practice.

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Fig. 6.17


6.5  TuishOu sTeps 6.5.1      Shang Bu … Forward Step
Shang Bu is a forward step with one foot, and begins with both a step forward and the bending of the knees so that the body is slightly crouched, five toes grasping the ground (Fig. 6.18). This preparatory posture resembles a cat ready to pounce on a rat, and allows you to step forward lightly and flexibly. Like a cat, you should prepare first by gathering energy, then extending the foot while listening and feeling intently. Step first with the heel then uncurling the rest of the foot flat on the ground. This procedure will limit your vulnerability.

6.5.2      Tui Bu … Retreating Step
The Tui step consists of moving one leg backward in an arc, and it can consist of more than one step (Fig. 6.19). Key to the Tui Bu is the bending of the weight-bearing knee. How much this knee bends and hence how much your body squats depends on the size of the Tui step. The bigger your retreating step, the lower you will have to bend your knee. However, it also depends on your body condition. Whatever the case, the Tui step has to be done flexibly and lightly and not with stiffness.

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Fig. 6.18 Fig. 6.19


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6.5.3      Gen Bu … Following Step
The Gen Bu can also be called the Dian (adding) Step (Fig. 6.20). This step is used in the situation where one normal step is too small to reach the target while two steps too excessive. In this instance, one is said to Gen (follow) or Dian (add) a small step after a normal step to reach the target distance. Gen is applied to the four front orientated techniques, Si Zheng Shou (Peng, Lü, Ji, An), big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. The main purpose of Gen Bu is to get closer to the opponent to decrease their chances of escape. However, note that the Gen step is completed without the opponent’s awareness, a technique called Die Fa (a general concept of body combat techniques, referring to the comprehensive techniques and strategies to defeat the opponents, on the basis of quality ‘listening’ to their speed, weight and power in Tuishou). The importance the Gen step in Tuishou is reflected in the saying, “You cannot reach the depth and secrets of Tuishou without understanding Die Fa.”

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Fig. 6.20


solo pRaCTiCe in Tuishou

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7.1  inTrOducTiOn 
Solo Tuishou practice consists of individual practices useful for improving flexibility, agility and responsiveness to combat. Typically, body movements are initially executed at a high stance, gradually lowering to mid then lower stances. However, practitioners should practise according to their body condition. Likewise, beginners should start with practicing at slow speed, gradually working up to faster then very swift movements. At each stage, slow movements should not become blocked, fast movements not energy-losing, and very fast movements not chaotic. In other words, you should not lose energy in slow practice, nor be obstructed in fast movements. On the contrary, you should keep the consistency, coherence and Liu He (the Closing and Consistency of six parts of the body), and avoid any disorder and energy loss.When one part of body moves, all other parts follow and coordinate. In solo Tuishou, you should act as though following your partner neatly, and always keep attention concentrated, shoulder blades relaxed, and movements flexible. Execute solo practice as if you were actually fighting with a partner, with the fight so vivid that it brings you more interest in your practice. As a result, after thorough sole practice, the whole body moves flexibly, neatly and smoothly, and you are able to do well in actual paired Tuishou.

王 西 安

Your step should be light. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7.3).1).2).2  sOlO ping yuanwan hua (sOlO hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer) 7. palms lightly touching the sides of the legs. relax the crotch and lift the right knee. stepping without thought) (Fig.7. 7. As your weight shifts. then slowly roll down the rest of the foot to the ground. 7.2.e.3      Part 3 • • • Maintain the vertical axis and lift the top of the head slightly. 7.1      Part 1 • • • Stand at attention with toe tips pointing slightly outward to form a “八” shape. Step the right foot forward. eyes looking forward (Fig.2      Part 2 • • • • Relax the crotch and bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. Maintain the vertical axis. Relax the arms and hang them at the sides. straightening the neck and lifting the top of the head. the left toes grasping the ground. empty the Yong Quan point. heel first with toes pointed up.2. bend the left knee and draw in the lower abdomen slightly to stabilize the weight-bearing left leg. so as to avoid empty stepping (i. 王 西 安 187 .2. 7. Shift your weight slowly to the left leg. in preparation for the right leg step forward lightly. Point the right toe tips down naturally as your weight shifts completely to the left and you stand with a left leg posture (Fig. precise and full of intention of listening. Continue relaxing the crotch.

 7.3 7. 7. . right elbow and wrist.2 Fig. thumb behind the fingers (Fig. relax the left arm so that the left hand hangs down.4).4      Part 4 • • • Shift your weight slowly to the right leg to form a right Bow step. As the weight shifts. the left elbow and the right hand should move coherently in collaboration with each other. extend the right arm forward then bend the forearm about 450 inward while also lowering the shoulders.1 Fig. 王 西 安 188 Note: in later movements. 7. 7.2.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Complete the movement by raising the right fingers to form the Li (erect) palm. While the right arm moves.

5 7.4 Fig.2. 7. 7. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight slowly to the left so that the inner side of the right foot touches the ground.5). 7. The right knee follows the movement of the right hand and rotates inward at the same speed (Fig.Fig. As you reel.5      Part 5 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Focusing your right hand on the imaginary partner move it about 900 in Shun reeling to the left of the body. 王 西 安 189 .

6 Fig. 7. 7. 7. 7.2.7). right palm facing down and wrist bending 450 inward using the little finger as a guide.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. the weight shifts completely to the left. At this point. the elbow in a slightly warding off (Peng) position in coordination with the little finger.6      Part 6 • • 王 西 安 190 • • As the right hand completes its reel to the left. This gesture enhances the movement by making the downward movement of the arm more precise and structured (Fig. change from Shun reeling to Ni reeling and continue moving in a downward arc to the front of the left ribs. When the right arm moves downward. The other fingers reel outwards in coordination with the elbow (Fig.6). Step the right foot either flatly on the ground or with toe tips pointing up.7 7. The right forearm now moves transversely in front of the abdomen. . draw the right knee slightly inward to prepare for an increased range of movement in the ensuing steps.

9      Part 9 • • Now using Ni reeling. Then place the palm downward (Fig. until it reaches the front of the right ribs.7      Part 7 • • • • Using the little finger to guide the energy. power is most concentrated and exerted on the external side of the thumb and index finger. 7. While the right arm reels.8). Shun. 7.2. 7. 7. 王 西 安 191 . pointing the right knee slightly outward and moving it in a helix. bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. Ni. Rotate the waist to the right. Ni. As the arm changes to Ni reeling. Return the bent arm and the bow leg to their original positions (Fig. followed by the hand. continue reeling the right arm outward until the palm faces upward and the thumb and the first finger form a “八” shape.7. shift your weight to the right. Shun. then draw an arc to the left where you met yourtpartner at the beginning the posture of palms. The 3600 rotation of the arm follows this sequence of changes: Shun. extend the right hand slightly forward.9). draw the chest slightly inward and relax the right side of the crotch. changing into Ni reeling. At this point.2. using it as a pivot to rotate the right shoulder rightward. three Shun reelings and two Ni reelings. a 900 arc to the right side of body.8      Part 8 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 With the right hand. Use the rightward rotation of the waist and torso to steer and guide the partner’s power into your territory towards your right side so you can eliminate it. that is.2.

Shun. The movement of every part of the body should be continuous and synchronised – when the upper body moves. that is. Ni. The middle body moves in coordination with the upper and lower bodies. When you feel tired practicing on the right.8 Fig. that is.9 • The left arm rotates from the left. the arms rotate with the waist and the axis while the hand guides the energy. Ni. Relax the waist and shoulders. the upper body guides the lower body’s movement. 7. Practice alternating rotations with both arms so that there is a feeling of balance. the reeling sequence being Ni. 王 西 安 192 . all parts moving together collectively. the lower body follows. Shun. three Ni reelings and two Shun reelings. Practice until you reach a level where when one body part keeps still then all other body parts keep still. and ensure your body weight moves back and forth in synch with the body movements. Notes In these horizontal-circle rotations. practice on the left by switching to the left leg and the left hand. rotate the wrist. when one body part moves then all other body part follow. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.

Finally. This vertical rotation may be developed to the quality of Silk Reeling and may be used as a combat technique or for listening practice. drawing an arc of about 180o which goes downward and then up to the right. palm slanting upward with intention to gently guide and draw in. Next. Extend the right arm forward (either below or above the head) with the arm bending inward about 45o and with the left hand akimbo. 7. Bend the left leg so that you squat slightly. heel first with the right foot. Focus the eyes on the right palm (Fig.7. with eyes looking forward (Fig. return your hand to the original Da Shou position (meet the opponent with the hand) (Fig. 7. with the rest of the foot gradually fully touching the ground. • • • • • Keep your body weight on the left leg and step forward. then switching to 90o Shun reeling. switch to Ni reeling. Next.10). 7.3  sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle This is a single hand practice involving movements of a smaller range.11). It only requires vertial hand revolution and very small shifts in weight.12). These shifts are not immediately apparent as they occur mainly between the front and back sides of the legs and feet. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 193 . then turn the body to the left and raise the right hand in Shun reeling. drawing an arc of about 90o to the left. The range and intensity in the arm rotations may be increased gradually depending of the level of the practitioner. lower your Qi. relax the left side of the crotch. The whole movement is mainly guided by the rotating waist and relaxed shoulders.

then draw a 180o arc to the left side of the body with palm facing left and finger tips slanted upward. 王 西 安 194 . Notes The single-hand vertical circle is not completely vertical but slightly slanted at an angle to allow you to guide and draw the opponent in. 7. 7.11 Fig. Finally. Vertical arm rotation is guided by spiraling movements of the waist and back.12 • • When rotating in the opposite direction. reel in Ni to the right at 90o. then reel in Shun.10 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. return to the Da Shou position (meeting the opponent with your hand) by a 90o upward arc in Ni reeling. 7. Practice rotating both arms in turn.

in preparation for action (Fig.7.15 195 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Relax the left crotch and while focussing on the right crotch. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance. the palms should move forward at an inclined angle (see picture). otherwise the shape of the posture will be lost (Fig. Note: when applying Tui Palm. toes relaxed and pointing downward (Fig. 7.14 Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. palms facing to each other. 7.16). 7. 7.15). 7.13 Fig. then raise the right foot.14). shift your the weight gradually forward. 7. pushing both palms forward (Tui Palm) at the same time.4  dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua • • • • Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed.13). eyes facing the front (Fig. 7. Also. the forward shift of the body should stop once the palms reach their natural end position. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. Raise the forearms 90o upward. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. shift your weight backward and separate both hands to the sides of the body.17). then pushing both hands forward. 7.16 Fig. imagining the hands seizing the opponent’s wrists by Diao (Fig. Practice this cycle. then lowering to the front of the abdomen. Repeat the Tui Palm movement again. 7. 7.15) by drawing a circle by the sides of the body.17 • • • Next. 王 西 安 196 . Continue shifting your weight backward while both hands return to the original position in front of the abdomen (Fig. this time relaxing the right crotch and focussing on the left crotch. 7. palms vertical.

7. in preparation for action (Fig.7. stated as follows: Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance.5  sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle One cycle consists of one Shun reeling plus one Ni reeling of each hand. Grasp the ground lightly with the toes and face the eyes forward (Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. toes relaxed and pointing downward (see Fig. draw the chest inward. Raise the forearms 90o upward.18 Fig. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. lower the waist and shoulders. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. 7. palms facing to each other. eyes facing the front. 7.19). 7. then raise the right foot. • • • • Preparation postures are the same as those of Double Hand Horizontal Wan Hua. 7.14).18). While raising the hands. drop the elbows and sink the Qi downward.19 197 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

palms facing forward. step the left foot on the ground and shift your weight forward (Fig. stopping at shoulder level (Fig. 7. continue to draw your chest inward. As both hands separate upwards. At the same time. with the intention of supporting something upward. push the crossed palms over the head in Ni reeling. cross both hands slowly in Shun reeling.20). Extend both hands forward in an ‘offering’ stance. . 7. open your back slightly and withdraw the elbows slightly inward so that power can easily reach the inner edges of the hands. Then. 7. after another small Ni reeling upward. extending the hands forward so that the left hand crosses over the inner side of the right wrist.20 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. During this process. Next.21 • • • • 王 西 安 198 • Next.21). the palms descend to the sides. finish the weight shift to your right leg. both palms facing inward. 7.

upper arm. forearm. only that palms in the latter move horizontally. then hands. With body gathering. shoulders. palms cross together. Closing form: palms continue to Shun reel. palms facing each other. strike out in succession to the sides so that the arms become a pulled bow. each associated body part strikes out in a Peng attack (Ward Off ) from the sides of the body. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 199 .Note: as both hands separate outward. the chest. so as to start a new cycle. Note: Hand techniques are of the same as that of Solo Ping Yuan Wan Hua. while weight totally switches to the left. that is. • • Now the left hand reels in Ni while the right hand reels in Shun. finger-tips pointing down. Both hands then draw a downward arc to fall to each side of the abdomen. You will feel the power after long practice.

extend the right hand diagonally forward to the right. Ji. then bend it inward 45o. Extend the left hand transversely and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. and An. Lü. 7. When practicing. Open every body part to make your rotations natural and flexible. palm facing in. heel first. Note that one should practice with intention rather than by force. The key points are the same as those of solo Tuishou.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. 王 西 安 Fig. act as if sparring with a partner. • Shift your weight to the left leg and lift the right foot to step forward. palm facing forward. body and steps. Coordinate the movements of your hands. 7.23 200 .22 Fig. eyes.6  sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk Solo practice for He Bu Tuishou with static footwork is based on the four Zheng hands: Peng. with the foot gradually stepping fully on the ground. • As the weight shifts. • Stand at attention. thumb pointing down and the little finger pointing upward.

25 201 . As the left hand rises. the arm opens like a circle. 7. 7. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Meanwhile.24 Fig.24).23). Relax the right crotch and turn the body to the right. Shift your weight to the left slightly then to right. coordinate and execution of Ji forward to the right with the right hand acting as a joint force (Fig. and the eyes look forward to the right (Fig. relax the left crotch.22). and so continue to Peng upward before executing Lü. focus your intention on meeting and holding the opponent’s hand. lower the right shoulder and drop the right elbow. the left hand ahead of the right. At the same time. 7. Next. visualize placing the outer edge of the right hand on the outside of the opponent’s elbow joint Then execute Lü with both hands slowly to the left side of the body until the right hand reaches the front of the right breast. Move the right hand in Shun reeling. During this process. shift your weight left and focus your eyes on the front of the right hand (Fig.• • • • • The left arm intends to Peng outward. as the left hand moves inward in Ni reelings. raise both hands in Ni reeling. 7. the wrist bent slightly inward and palm facing inward.

You will also need to use your left shoulder to push and use the right hand to help press forward. eyes looking forward. alternating left and right sides. visualize your left hand pressing down on the hand of the opponent. Peng and An are transitional actions executed in 王 西 安 202 . This is the same as the starting posture of Da Shou posture. Now withdraw the left hand quickly and imagine placing it on the middle of the right upper arm of your partner (Fig.22). The right hand reels in Ni direction also with the intention to push outward (Fig. Note: In this movement.25). pushing it outward. If the left leg is in the front. 7. Execute An forward with both hands the palms facing each other about 33 cm apart. shift your weight forward to the right leg. Repeat the process. the right hand executes Peng. The edges of the hands become power-exerting points.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right as the upper body moves and turns right. At this point. an instant. As this happens. and the left hand helps the right to execute Lü. 7.

moving forward is combined with Ji and An hand movements. • • • • Step forward with the right foot then shift your weight forward. outward. moving backward uses Peng and Lü hand movements. Lü. Ji and An. Step the left foot on the ground with the inner side of the foot touching the ground. 7. Hand movements consist of four Zheng hands: Peng. sink the shoulder downward and drop the elbows. raise both hands to attack by pushing them to the front right of the body. Face the outer hand edges. 7.27 203 . draw the chest inward. 7. In practice. Lower the waist. Keep the eyes looking to the front right (Fig. where the pushing power is exerted.7  shun bu TuishOu  (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep) Shun Bu Tuishou consists of two basic steps – one moving forward and one moving backward.26). These actions drive two the hands forward. As the weight moves forward.7.26 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.

7. At the same time. Note that Qi should not be allowed to float upward. shift your weight to the left and lift the right foot. with the intention to close before opening. As this happens. the right hand moves upward in Ni reeling while the right foot takes a step backward without turning the body. and in preparation for moving. Raise the right hand in Shun reeling. Push the shoulder forward. . rotate the right hand slightly downward in Ni reeling. 7. Relax the left crotch after pushing and shift the weight to the left.28).27). 7. followed by the arm and the hand (Fig. turning the right elbow out and upward. The body moves forward following the shift in weight.29 • • • • • 王 西 安 204 • • • After the pushing attack. 7. toes pointing down (Fig. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. thumb pointing down and palm facing down.28 Fig. tiptoe first. withdraw the left hand gradually and place it on the middle of the right upper arm.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. At the same time. move the left hand downward then draw a forward arc to form a Lü posture with the right hand.29). As the arm moves. 7. Bend the left leg to squat further and extend the right foot forward.

Fig. 7. thumb pointing down and palm facing forward. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. Both hands are about 33 cm apart (Fig. Visualize sending the opponent’s right hand out to the left side of your body. then shift your weight to the right.33). 7. the upper and lower body form a balanced block of strength with the waist as the boundary. Then the right hand switches to Lü. The front push of the right hand provides an instant defense. Raise the right foot and take a step backwards to the right. then draw a circle downward. then in Shun direction downward to the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 205 .31). Next. raise the right hand quickly to push forward together with the left hand toward the left side of the body.31 • • • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left.30 Fig. Eyes look to the left (Fig. gradually squat the body. 7. Reel the left hand first in Ni direction. While the right hand switches to Lü.32). Next. 7. Withdraw the right hand quickly in Ni reeling and place it on the middle of the left upper arm. 7. As the weight shifts. 7. raise the left hand in a spiral to form a Lü movement with the right hand. Eyes look to the front left (Fig.30).which takes place in an instant. The outer edges of the hands are power-exerting points.

7.32 Fig. take a step forward with the right foot. extend the right hand to the right front of the body following the right foot.35 206 . 7. As the weight shifts.34 Fig. At the same time. 7. the right arm then bends to 450 inward. until the left hand reaches the middle line of the body.34).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. Raise the body gradually and slowly shift your weight to the left leg. 王 西 安 Fig. 7.33 • • • Both hands execute Lü from left to right following the body.

Continue shifting your weight to the right while pressing the right arm forward in a relaxed manner with descending energy. 7. place the left hand on the right upper arm. 7. 7. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.38 Fig.37 • • Simultaneously.36).35). 7.36 Fig. Note that the waist power descends to the left first then the right. 7.Fig. 7. thumb pointing down.39 207 . Then shift your weight slightly rightward.

As soon as both arms finish pressing forward. 王 西 安 208 . Next. Eyes look to the right (Fig. At the same time. Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right. then move it out to the right.39). execute Lü downward with the left hand. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.38).37). 7. raise the right hand quickly and exert An forward with power. 7. move the right hand in front of the left hand quickly. 7. Start a new cycle (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. visualizing that you are pushing the opponent’s hand outward to the right. then execute Lü movement with both hands to the left side of the body until the right hand moves in front of the right breast.

The circulating of steps in Da Lü when practicing Peng. One is Da Pu Bu. like the “dragon sweeps ground” routine in which Player A executes Lü on Player B. Lü Ji and An. then the fives methods of solo Tuishou practice.41 209 . Zhou. The other movements are the same as the movements in Shun Step (forward or backward step). a good foundation in Taijiquan and solo Tuishou is required before you can become proficient in using Cai. and Kao. the whole body will become stiff when you try to squat down in the big body movements. If not. The other picture demonstrates the big Frontward Bow Step. we will only refer to two main Da Lü postures as shown in the pictures which follow.8  sOlO danren da lü TuishOu Da Lü is based on four hand techniques in the main directions – Peng. Bie. Bie Zou. 7. the only difference being that the extent of the steps in Da Lü is bigger. As such. Zou. and Kao. In this chapter. whereby Player B executes Lü on Player A.40 Fig. a major weakness with which you cannot even hope to attack the opponent. beginners should first practise the routines. Lie. It uses the combat techniques of the four hand techniques in corner directions – Cai. It is not easy to practice Cai. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Lü. literally meaning “big falling step”. 7. Furthermore. Ji and An is the same to those in Shun Step (forward or backwards Step). Kao with large-scaled body movements.7.

42. and flexible.42 210 . In the Luan Cai Hua Tuishou practice. See how to execute Dian step in Figure 7. Ji. This way you will not lose energy unnecessarily nor become stiff. and also uses the Si Zheng Shou. you should pay attention to the following points.9  sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu The gait in Luan Cai Hu is called San Bu (scattered steps) or Hua Jiao Bu (steps in flower tracks). The body movement and gait should be neat and swift. Lü. You need to rotate neatly when executing a step forward as the partner changes his or her direction. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. Luan Cai Hua is also built on the foundation of Peng. and An. 王 西 安 Fig. It’s features include free movement with no fixed direction. You should adjust your direction and position by applying small Gen steps so that you can stick to the partner tightly and prevent their escape. precise rotation.

and thus impede any progress in Tuishou. If you are able to put the partner in a passive position you can fullfil your intention without being noticed. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 211 . and entice the partner to advance and show his or her weak points. You should practice listening repeatedly. the steps are small but the speed is fast. Ji.In this technique. The steps and gestures in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou are the same as Da Lü and in Shun Step. getting close to their upper body while causing them to raise their lower body or slant it. You try to sense the partner’s intention by through pressing and pushing precisely and lightly. An). heavy but not stiff. Lü. When circulating the four Zheng hand techniques (Peng. the only difference being in the stances of the body. It is not easy to apply Die Fa. looking for the attacking opportunity. When you apply Luan Cai Hua in Tuishou sparring. the extent of the arm rotations should be small to match the changes in gestures and the revolving steps. light but not empty and floating. Do not just practice at fast speeds or you will lose your energy or get stiff. Your movements should be quick but not chaotic. you feel the partner’s energy as you rotate.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 212 .

CHAPTER 8 paiR pRaCTiCe in Tuishou 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 213 .

Lian (connecting) and finally Sui (following). movements in pair practice should start simply before gaining in complexity. agile.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Lastly. In addition. similarly. Faster progress may be made if your partner is proficient in Taiji. moving as the partner moves. the practice stance should start high. Pair Tuishou embodies the essence of Taiji Tuishou. Nian (sticking). If solo Tuishou is described as “imagining you are fighting with a person though you are practicing alone”. gathering speed in the later stages. pair practice should start slowly. development should follow the stages of San Shou to Zhan (coherence). lowering to mid-height then low stance. If possible. try to choose a partner of similar level for pair practice. 王 西 安 214 . then pair Tuishou may be described as “acting as if there is no partner although you have one”. whereby your actions should be precise. Partners should pay attention to co-operating with each other and using different practice methods at different stages in pair practice. flexible and without weaknesses. If both partners have Taiji proficiency. Pair practice Tuishou improves combat skills. pair practice becomes beautiful to watch. I hope that the reader will use this to practice diligently and master the key points. like a flowing river: smooth.1  inTrOducTiOn  Pair practice in Tuishou consists of applying a combination of techniques with partners and sparring. so you must strive to concentrate. An introduction to Tuishou pair practices has been provided in the following pages. flexible and rapid. Like solo practice.

toes pointing slightly outward to form a 八 shape.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8. gradually forming a front Bow Step.1 Both players take a step forward with their right feet.2. These may be shortened to ‘A’ and ‘B’.8. an arms length from each other so that their fists touch when arms are outstretched.2  single-hand hOrizOnTal wan hua in pair pracTice Player A refers to the male practitioner dressed in a dark blue. 王 西 安 215 . arms hanging relaxed by the sides. Player B refers to the female practitioner dressed in red. Their bodies are upright. 8. The distance between both right feet should be about 10 cm.

Alternatively.2 8. the left hand can also be placed naturally along side the body. Fig. and his body crouches slightly to form a closing power. with the middle fingers at nose level. B’s weight continues to move forward to form a single-hand An (pushing) power. both players raise their right palm and extend it forward. corresponding with the rotation of the waist. eyes focussed on the right hands. 8. As both players draw this arc. using the middle line of the nose as the boundary.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 While the right feet step forward. The right hand extends forward with the left hand akimbo. Both players watch their hands throughout this step.2. . and B continues to reel 90o in the Ni direction until her hand falls to the front of A’s lower abdomen.2      Posture 3 王 西 安 216 Player A guides Player B to draw a 90o arc from the waist midline toward his left. A’s weight shifts backward. The back of the palms touch each other.

then Ni reels 90o to the front of Player B’s abdomen.2. 8.Fig.3 8.3      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and Shun reels 90o to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. B shifts her weight gradually backward while her hand draws an arc following Player A. then she guides A’s hand to the front of his abdomen. 8. At the same time. Repeat this cycle.4 217 .

3. Player A guides Player B to move first in Shun reeling. the only difference being that here the Da Shou (meet partner with hand) position is higher. Both players then rise. both hands perpendicular to each other and eyes looking forward. then then draws a 90o arc to the left.2      Posture 2 王 西 安 218 After both players complete a Da Shou (meet partner with hand).1      Posture 1 The preparation postures are the same as that of single-hand horizontal circle rotation. 8.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.3  single-hand verTical circle wan hua in pair pracTice 8. . before crouching again as they Ni reel downward 90o until their hands reach the front of the lower abdomen.5  8.3. Fig.

 8.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.6  8.Fig.7 219 . when A draws an arc to the right side. B always adheres to A. For example. 8. turning to the right (B’s left side). with eyes looking at the same direction. During the above process. A continues to Shun reel a 900 arc upward until he returns to the original Da Shou position. Partner B relaxes the left crotch. guiding Player B to Ni reel 900 to his right side.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body to the right.

王 西 安 Fig. heel first. Both players step forward simultaneously with their right foot. Then Player B extends her hands forward.8 220 . Both right feet start to uncurl to the ground. lower the shoulders and drop the elbows. placing them outside A’s hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.4  shuang shOu ping yuanwan hua (hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. eyes looking forward. While waiting.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. ready to move and attack if hands touch. 8. Player A raises two hands in front of his chest. toes turned up (optional).4. having first shifted their weight onto the left leg. Now both players wait in a defensive mode. with aim to form a front Bow Step. they lower their waists. draw their chests inward and gather their ribs.

her hands reel in Shun. He stops pushing when his hands are 20 cm away from Player B’s chest. As Player A pushes his hands forward.9 王 西 安 221 . In other words. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8. A’s weight shift to the right foot has been fully completed. As B’s weight moves backward. with her little finger lightly hanging on A’s wrists to guard against any sudden attacks. Here. B’s little fingers “stick” to A throughout the process.4. Player B “listens” to A’s power and shifts her weight backward to force A to increase his pushing distance.8.2      Posture 2 Player A relaxes his right crotch and continues to shift his weight forward while pushing his hands forward in Ni reeling.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. B moves her weight forward to form a Bow Step.4. B senses the speed of A’s pushing and separating power as her hands are tightly guided by his hands and separated by them to the sides. While A draws arcs.10  8. She relaxes her chest as her hands separate. Then both players return to the original position.4. his little fingers catching Player B’s wrists to the sides of the body as the two hands draw arcs. 8. Fig. 王 西 安 222 .4      Posture 4 Player A switches to Shun reeling and draws an arc inward. using the outer edges of his palms. then separates Player B’s hands to the sides of her body at shoulderlevel. He shifts his weight backward.3      Posture 3 Player A pushes first and then separates his hands by reeling in a Ni direction. While Player A separates.

Fig.11 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 223 . 8.

Both players extend and raise their hands in front of their bodies with Player B’s hands placed on the outer edges of Partner A’s hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. .1      Posture 1 Player A and B stand facing each other. the weight for both parties starts to shift to the right.12  王 西 安 224 8. all eyes look forward. Fig. guiding Partner B to raise her hands. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. Now.2      Posture 2 Player A reels in the Ni directon and contitues to shift his weight forward. The two parties’ eyes always follow their movements. B has been shifting her weight to the left.5. then step their right feet forward simultaneously. The positions of all hands are higher than the eyes. 8. and separate hands to the sides of the body at shoulder level. draw a vertical circle outward. Now. A’s weight is all at the right foot.5.5  shuang shOu li yuan wan hua  (verTical cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands)  8.

Both players’ eyes face forward.Fig.14 225 . his little fingers slightly catching Player B’s wrists.5. While Player B rotates her arms downward following Player A. while he shifts his weight backward.13  8. and draw arcs to the lower abdomen. she shifts her weight forward to form a front Bow Step. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Player A draws outwards while Partner B draws inwards.3      Posture 3 Player A switches to Shun reeling. 8. 8.

Player B follows Player A closely and feels his change. his hands crossing before the chest with both palms facing in. Note: The steps are the same. the body squats to prepare for openning.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. 王 西 安 226 . and continues to move her weight forward. Repeat this cycle.4      Posture 4 Player A continues Shun reeling. Both players can practice this in turn. Then Player A returns to the original position by Ni reeling and separating his arms outward. whether Player A separates B or vice versa. Both players face forward.5.

 8.1      Posture 1 The gait of He Bu Tuishou is the same to that of the Vertical Coiling Flower with Double Hands.6  he bu TuishOu   (TuishOu wiTh cOiling hands and sTaTic fOOTwOrk) 8.8. and then extend their right hands forward so they cross each other. Player A and B stand facing each other. then step their right feet forward simultaneously.15 王 西 安 227 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Both players then shift a little more weight to the right. backs of the hands touching. eyes looking forward. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. the weight for both parties are both in the left. Now.6. yet start to shift to the right.

then turns his right hand left in Shun reeling following the turn of his body.2      Posture 2 Player A shifts his weight forward.3      Posture 3 王 西 安 228 Player A holds the left hand of Player B to ward it off outward. palm facing out and thumb pointing down so that both arms form an outward Peng (ward off ) power posture. Fig. At the same time. During this process.6. Her right hand presses Player A’s right hand slightly downward. he places his left hand on the middle of the right upper arm. gradually switching from Peng (ward off ) to Lü leftward. . While the right arm turns.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.6. Player A relaxes his left crotch and moves his weight slightly leftward. In this way.16  8. 8. then extends forward to press against A’s left forearm. Player B withdraws her left hand quickly when Player A executes Peng and puts it on the middle of her own right upper arm. Player B places her left hand on the right upper arm of Player A as he moves. both of B’s arms form an An (Pushing) power. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm.

In response.Fig. 8. and executes Lü (roll back) again. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.17 8.4      Posture 4 Player B executes Ji (press) on Player A. thus returning to the original position. In response. Player A executes Lü on B’s hand and presses it downward.18 229 . Player B switches from An (push) to Peng (ward off ). Then Player B wards off Player A’s left hand upward. Repeat this cycle. 8. shifting his weight forward to add more pressure. Partner A withdraws his pressing hand and places it on his own right upper arm.6. then moves quickly forward to press the middle of Player B’s right upper arm with his left hand.

陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Both players look at each other from the side. and places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. bending it 450 inward. Player A steps his right foot forward to form a front Bow Step. Player A raises his right arm as his right leg moves.7  pair pracTice in shun bu TuishOu  (TuishOu wiTh MOveable fOOTwOrk) 8. Player B steps her right foot forward at the same time.1      Posture 1 Both players stand at attention. placing it on the outside of A’s right leg.7. so that both knees touch (A’s inner knee and B’s outer knee). palm facing outward. 8. then places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm.19 230 . 王 西 安 Fig. Player B’s right hand crosses the outside of A’s right hand. A’s left hand then crosses with B’s left hand.

he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm.8. then withdraws her right hand and puts it on the middle of her right upper arm to form a Ji (press) power to counter Partner A quickly. and moves his weight leftward. and then wards off Player B’s left hand upwards. At the same time.20  8. As Player A’s body turns right. Player B shifts her weight forward to double her pressing power.7. Both players look to the front and gather themselves to prepare for futher movements. 王 西 安 231 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. executing Lü (roll back) with his right hand. Both players look to the front. and switches both hands to double-hand Shun reeling to ward off outward gradually. This switch from Peng to Lü happens in an instant.7. he lowers his left shoulder and left elbow. 8. shifts his weight slightly to the right.3      Posture 3 Player A relaxes his left crotch first. turns his body to the right. Simultaneously.2      Posture 2 Player A then relaxes his right crotch. Player B continues to move her weight forward when Player A applies Lü. raises his left hand.

A then extends his left hand up and forward and presses the middle of Partner B’s right hand. When Player A presses downward. 8. 8. with the coordination of his right hand.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Player B exerts a strong Peng force to Player A’s right upper arm touching A’s right hand with her right hand. forming an An force. 王 西 安 Fig. he presses Player B’s left hand downward to the front of her lower abdomen. with the aim of getting her to fall to his right side.7. then pushes her left hand rightward.21 8. At the same time.4      Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body slightly to the right.22 232 .

her right crotch relaxes and she shifts her weight to the right. tiptoe first. He then pushes his shoulder and upper arm towards B’s chest in response to B’s Lü. both her hands follow the body and turn right to execute Lü (roll back) on the right side of Player A’s right arm until her left hand reaches the mid-line of her body. A’s upper and lower body move as one. Player A moves his weight first to the left and lifts his right foot quickly to step forward. As Player B executes Lü.23  8.7. 8. Note: both players should not move too quickly as this would hinder the rotation of the arms and result in blockages. and his forward push corresponds to the hardness or softness and speed of B’s Lü power.6      Posture 6 Player A shifts his weight back to the left leg after pushing. At the same time. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 233 .8. then her foot gradually steps on the ground fully. In this move. At the same time.5      Posture 5 Player B’s left foot steps on the ground. his right hand switches to Ni reeling to force Player B to step backward.7.

and steps within A’s left leg so that their two knees connect.24  8. B also places her left hand on the middle of her right upper arm. In response. Both players look diagonally to the front. Player B wards off slowly outwards with both hands in Shun reeling. then pushes Player B’s right hand first down then left using the pressing power of his left hand. shifting her weight gradually rightward.7. While this happens. to form Ji (press) power with her right arm. Player B relaxes her left crotch. Both players look to the side at each other. palm out. 8. so as to form Peng and Lü with both of his hands. Fig. then takes a step forward with her right foot. . B steps forward in synch with A’s guiding hand. Simultaneously. Player A places his left hand on B’s right upper arm.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 At the same time.7      Posture 7 王 西 安 234 Player A relaxes his left crotch. shifts her weight leftward. turns his body slightly left and shifts his weight slightly leftward.

At the same time. 8.26 235 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.25  8.7. then switches her left hand instantly from Peng to Lü.8      Posture 8 Player A relaxes his left crotch then shifts his weight to the left. Simultaneously. 8. then raises her left hand in an upward Peng on A’s left hand. Player B lowers her left shoulder and left elbow. B also places her right hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.Fig.

she presses forward on the middle of A’s right lower arm.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As this happens.7. she presses Player A’s left hand first down to the front of his lower abdomen. Player A continues to shift his weight forward. then withdraws his right hand to place it on the middle of his left upper arm. A responds first by flowing downward. Both players look to the sides. Then with her left hand. In this instance. 王 西 安 Fig. Both B’s hands work together to form an upward pressure pose. As Player B pushes A’s left hand downward.9      Posture 9 Player B relaxes her right crotch and turns her body slightly to the right. His right hand then comes into contact with B’s right hand. both A’s arms form an outward Peng power. then to her left. then quickly forms a pushing power towards B. then raising his left hand upward onto B’s right upper arm to warding off (Peng). At the same time. 8. Both players look diagonally to the front.27 236 . 8.

Both players should defend and stick to defend their own territory.10      Posture 10 Both players keep moving and rotating. Player B shifts her weight first to the left. following A’s Lü power. 8. Player A steps his left foot on the ground. He moves in Lü until his left hand reaches the mid-line of his body.28 Notes: Player B’s upper and lower body should follow each other when pushing forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. shifts his weight to the right and rotates both hands to the right following the body to execute Lü on the right side of Player B’s right arm. 王 西 安 237 .8. In response to A’s Lü. then steps forward quickly with her right foot and pushes her shoulder and upper arm forward toward A’s chest. relaxes his left crotch. taking care not to go beyond their territory as this would mean that the transferring and changing of movements would not be as quick and flexible. leading to increased exposure to attacks.7. and the speed and extent of her forward push should be dependent on the speed and hardness or softness of Partner A’s Lü.

At the same time. and are ready to start a new cycle. for both of the two players. The rotating methods are the same as those on Figures 8. Lü. her two hands forming a Lü posture. and 8. one full cycle consists of one step forward and one step backward. 8. Finally. 8.11      Posture 11  After pushing forward. Player B shifts her weight backward to her left leg.28. foot gradually steps fully on the ground.7. Posture 11 is the same as Shun Bu (moving forward and back in one step) Tuishou.26. as well as an accomplishment of one cycle of Peng. Player A places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. At the same time. B places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. tiptoe first. Ji and An. then takes a step forward (Shang Bu) with his right foot to step on the inside of B’s leg. to form a Ji power with his right arm. 王 西 安 238 . her right hand changes to Ni reeling to force Player A to step back. Simultaneously.27. palm out.25. Both their knees connect. both players return to their original positions. You may have found that. Both playesr look diagonally to the front. A relaxes his left crotch. As B shifts her weight backward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. shifts his weight leftward.

The practice of Da Lü movements is very important in learning how to apply low body movements in combat without impacting on other combat movements or losing agility and flexibility. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Zhou and Kao.8  pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu) Da Lü Tuishou pair practice is the fourth technique of of Chen-style Taiji Tuishou. This technique consists of larger scale body movement. requiring both players to crouch on one leg while extending the other fully forward with calf touching the ground. and is based on Shun Bu Tuishou.29 王 西 安 239 . which is aimed at reinforcing your lower body stance and leg power in this technique. 8. you should combine Si Zheng Shou practice with Si Yu Shou. which is Cai.8. In this low body movement. Bie.

Sao means to sweep or clear away. 王 西 安 240 . Gun Shuan (roll and seize). During combat. can you win consistently. Other handwork techniques used to render opponents passive are: Da Sao (support and sweep). Bi Ya (push and press) and so on.9  pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu   (cOiling flOwer TuishOu) Luan Cai Hua is also known as Hua Jiao Bu. push and press against the opponent to force them into a defensive mode. Gun Shuan is an extension of Da Sao. With this method. left and right. so as to transform the opponent’s power. Only this way. The technique also uses the deft and precise handwork of Shang Long Xia Ti (which means. use your elbow or Kao (shoulder strike) to attack when you find a weak point. Da means to put your hand on the hand of the opponent with the intention of using it as a touchpoint and support. Instead of sweeping the arms horizontally. nor the location of your body weight. This Tuishou technique combines the handwork of Si Zheng Shou and the footwork of Shang Xia Bu (moving forward and backward) in varying degrees. depending on the circumstances. reel them in Shun and Ni directions. In Da Sao. Shuan means to put an arm across the chest like a locked door bolt to protect against attack. From this position.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to the upper part of their body while lifting their lower body). the opponent cannot discern your target. or power direction. hence sweeping your arm horinzontally left and right after meeting your opponent in Da Shou (meet partner with hand). up and down. If you choose not to attack under some circumstances. try to feel the Gongfu level gap between you and your opponent by listening.

Your footwork should be based on the speed. direction and angle of changes. transforming the power of your opponent so that he or she becomes trapped in a passive position unawares. you can advance two or three steps to gain a territorial advantage.32 Fig.Your footwork should be coordinated with your handwork. Place yourself in a strong and active position by applying Dian Bu (adding half paces) continuously when executing Shang Bu (stepping forward). These are the main methods and purpose of Luan Cai Hua pair practice. Actually. Combine the power of both your hands so that they become one indivisible power. Fig. agile and swift. which you think harmful to your opponent. 8. if the opponent retreats one step. flexible. there are no restrictions in the application during practical body combat. Apply Ti (lift) and Long (holding close) unpredictably and precisely. 8. For example. coordinated with Shang Long Xia Ti. This is an example of the Die Fa. 8. Your Dian Bu should be light.30 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.31 王 西 安 241 .

At its foundation. each action or form occurs as a result of a certain combination of forces which are generated by Heaven. culminating in the modern-day Chen. much of the theory in this book is based on the guidelines written by Yang Chengfu. of two fundamental forces: Yin and Yang. the philosophy of Taiji attempts to explain the workings of the universe. we shall focus on the Yang Style for the purposes of this book as because this style best illustrates the Yin and Yang principles of Taiji philosophy. This philosophy provides an alternative and deeply sophisticated paradigm of how human beings may be perceived in relation to their position within the cosmos. opposing and complementary. Yang. According to this philosophy. While the Taiji form has undergone many changes through the ages. that is. Sun and Wu Styles. Taiji Philosophy is most easily expressed and understood through the use of body language.Other books by INBI World: OLEG TCHERNE philosophy of Taiji The philosophy of Taiji was developed in China at the height of the Daoist era between 700 bc to 200 ad. our world and the human body through the interactions. one of the pre-eminent representatives of Yang Taiji family. . For this reason. and offered new ways of understanding humans as a microcosmic blueprint of the Universe. Earth or Human realms. through Taiji forms and postures.

inbiworld. and a referential resource for Taiji instructors and practitioners for generations to follow. including his meticulous inscriptions for over 400 illustrations.com . A work of intense scholarship which took over fourteen years to complete. this tome was intended by its author to be both the first ever written repository of Taiji lore. www. The English translation of this canon marks the first ever attempt to translate into English Chen Xin’s highly esoteric and detailed technical explanations of Chen-style Taijiquan techniques.CHEN XIN The illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan “The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan” is universally acknowledged by the Taoist community and Taiji practitioners as the seminal sourcebook of Taiji philosophy and techniques.



www. Chen Changxing was the fourteenth generation Master of Chen family Taijiquan who taught Yang Lu Chan. By proceeds from the purchase of Master Chen Xiaowang’s calligraphy or through direct contributions. Through the website below and in person at Master Chen Xiaowang’s seminars worldwide. How is the project being funded? A.com . China. All people who buy calligraphy or make a direct contribution will have their name and the amount carved into a stone tablet to be displayed in Chen village.chenxiaowang. What is the Chen Changxing - Chen Village Restoration Project? A.Chen Village Restoration Project • Q. An effort to preserve the heritage of Taijiquan by restoring Chen Changxing’s home in Chen Village. Q. founder of the Yang style. Henan Province. Wenxian. How do I purchase calligraphy or make a contribution A. Q. Who was Chen Changxing? A. Q.

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