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王 西 安
Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou
Chenjiagou Wenxian County Henan, China
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
Published by INBI Matrix Pty Ltd po box 775, Maroubra 2035 NSW Australia English Edition © 2009 INBI Matrix Pty Ltd Copyright © 1998 Wang Xi’an
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retreival system, without permissing in writing from the publisher.
First edition, 2009 Printed in China
王 西 安
Project management & design: Roman Mukhortikov Editors: Juliana Ngiam, Tom Watson Translation: Zhang Yanping
ISBN-13: 978-1-87693-500-6 ISBN-10: 1-87693-500-6
Thoughts on Taiji
Ever since it came into being, Taiji has been passed down from generation to generation. Foremost among many historic figures, was Chen Zhaopi (1893-1972), who stands out for his determination to train young successors. Thus, today we witness a substantial and energetic development of Taiji in the Chen Village, from where its reputation has spread worldwide, inspiring both young and old in the practice of Taiji. Chen Zhaopi was passionate in sharing his heritage and knowledge. My only regret is that I failed to be more focused and to practice more diligently. As a successor of the Chen family heritage, I have undertaken to continue his legacy by writing this book, but despite all best attempts, I struggle to reveal all the subtleties in this vast body of knowledge. I sit with a lonely lamp, recalling the past and sigh to the sky.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vi .
his high disciplinary standards and outstanding martial arts techniques serves as an inspiration to all Taiji learners in Japan and we greatly appreciate his tremendous contribution to Sino-Japan Taiji relations and the spread of Taiji knowledge all over Japan in years past. Atsuko Noguchi January 1998. Tokyo. the Japanese are coming to love Taijiquan and the great charm of Chinese culture. indubitably a result of the efforts of Taiji followers in both countries. belongs not only to China but to the rest of the world. More than ever. as an expression of the profound spirit inherent in all human beings. we believe that Taiji. I shall always be greatful for Master Wang and Taijiquan for leading me to a totally different worldview and life.Preface to original edition I cannot express how excited I am on hearing the news that Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Techniques. ‘to exist everywhere. Japan 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vii . newly written by Master Wang Xian. an impressive feat of concentration and energy considering Master Wang’s teaching workload. In the spirit of Taiji’s original meaning. I recall Master Wang working on two manuscripts which he carried around in his bag during his visit to Tokyo in November 1995. One of the finished manuscripts resulted in this book. Indeed. is to be published. I look forward to Master Wang’s future works with great enthusiasm. to consist of everything’.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 viii .
.... Ti (Raising) Energy .......................55 4............................................................................. The Origin of Taijiquan Tuishou ................................................................. Fist Practice .................72 6. Misleading and Transforming Techniques .....21 4.......................................................................................29 8................................................... Tuishou: the Only Criterion to Judge the Gongfu of Taiji...........................105 9.... Na (Seizing) Techniques ....................................................... Energy Explosion ......................16 2............................................84 7...............................4 The Core of Tuishou ............................................. Introduction ..................................................................................................................117 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 ix ......... Listening to Energy ..................... The Relationship Between Three Stages of Taijiquan Practice and Tuishou ................................................................25 6................ Lian Sui Energies .........................................................................34 10............38 2..... Palm Practice ........................................................... Dongjin – Realization of Energy ................................... 3............................................................... Step by Step ......... Kao (Push) Practices........................................................................................................................97 8................. Na (Seizing) Practices ....................................... Reeling Silk .......................... Feet Practice ................... 4...............................................................................................23 5.............................63 5..........................................................3 Tuishou Practice – Going Inward.......... Zhan Nian Techniques............... Leg Practice .35 Chapter Three: Single Form Practice 1...................................................................13 Chapter Two: Interpretation on the Ten Forces of Tuishou 1.....31 9.......................Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1................................18 3...............10 5......................................................................................................................... Elbow Practice ....................................................................40 3..... Opening and Closing ...... Jietuo (Escape) Practices................................................................................................................ 2..........26 7.......
..... Shun Bu Tuishou ................ Introduction ............. Solo Tuishou With Static Footwork .......................................... 215 3..................................................175 4....................227 7.................................................................................168 2........ Pair Practice in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou........................................................218 4.. He Bu-Tuishou ................................................... Tuishou Footwork Techniques.................186 2........................187 3...179 5.................................................................149 7........................................................................197 6....................................................200 7............................................................................210 Chapter Eight: Pair Practice in Tuisho 1........................ Solo Double-hand Flat Circle Wan Hua ...... Tuishou Handwork Techniques .....................154 Chapter Five: Practice for the Buttocks and Crotch ................ 138 4.....................................................................................203 8.................................................... Tuishou Steps ......陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Chapter Four: Health and Qi Enhancement Practices 1..........132 2....... Shuang Shou Li Yuan Wan Hua........................................146 6......................................................................................... Single-hand Horizontal Wan Hua in Pair Practice ......................................................... Solo Ping Yuanwan Hua .........193 4..................... 183 Chapter Seven: Solo Practice in Tuishou 1............... Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) ... Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan (Returning to Wu Ji Zhuang) ............................................. Solo Double-hand Wan Hua in a Vertical Circle ......................195 5...... Solo Danren Da Lü Tuishou ........................................... Introduction ...................................................230 8........................................................................................ 133 3.. San Ti Shi (Three Postures).................................. Classifications of Tuishou ..................... Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) ........ Single-hand Vertical Circle Wan Hua in Pair Practice ................ Solo Wan Hua ......142 5................................ Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture).................................. Shuang Shou Ping Yuanwan Hua . Solo Luan Cai Hua Tuishou ...................................... Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Zhuang) .....240 王 西 安 x ........... Introduction .................. Pair Practice in Da Lü Tuishou ............ 157 Chapter Six: Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories 1...........................171 3................224 6......................................239 9............................................................................................................................214 2.............................. Hand Techniques in Tuishou Reeling...........................................................................209 9.. Pair Practice in Shun Bu Tuishou...220 5....
CHAPTER ONE: inTRoDuCTion .
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 2 .
reducing illness and prolonging a healthy life. Using the foundation of the 108 Form (Tongbei Changquan) which he inherited from previous generations and from other Ming period martial arts practitioners. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 3 . transforming.1 The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu Tuishou originated in the Chen Village. In doing so. and will continue to do so in years to come. it helps build health and defence as well as to develop a sensitivity to movement. throwing and striking. awareness of Taijiquan and Tuishou’s health & fitness benefits have spread far beyond China to all corners of the globe. As it is not stressful to the body. China. in the period between the Ming and Qing Dynasty. he drew on the theories of the Yijing (I Ching. gender. Chen Wangting. the Huangdi Neijing (The Canon of Huangdi) and acupuncture. and he was recognized as the creator of Chen Family boxing. catching. the ‘Book of Changes’). is a practical combat technique based on grabbing. Wenxian County. With the accelerated pace of modern life. Taiji Tuishou practice is not restricted by a practitioner’s age. Its creator. it helps maintain fitness. location or access to equipment. According to the book. as well as the principles of Yin and Yang. ‘The Family Tree of Chen’. was the creator of Taijiquan and 9th generation head of the Chen Family. (also known as Zouting) was a famous martial arts master. sword and stick routines. Chen Wangting. agility and flexibility. Tuishou. As a combat techniqiue.1. Henan Province. Chen Wangting developed the creative and athletic routines of Taijiquan and Taiji Tuishou. originally known as Jieshou or Dashou.
you must know its significance. Relaxation is fundamental. to the Deity’. from the realization of Jin. and what it consists of. Less well known is Tuishou’s other application as a technique for internal transformation. followed by the double hand horizontal and vertical practice. listen to each other’s energy flow. catching. with greater efficacy and subtlety. advance/retreat movements until your sense of touch develops to a level where your reactions to any external stimulus becomes immediate. your entire body surface will become very sensitized and your ‘inner listening’ abilities very finely honed. and striking. As you reach the level of adept. Note that adepts earn their title only when they attain the ability control and use combat techniques in an appropriate manner. Tuishou translates as ‘push hands’.2 TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward. You will not realize inner transformation. be relaxed. or appreciate the interplay of the slow/quick. transformation is the basis. principles. such as grasping. you will be able to release explosive energy to both small and large targets. Learning Tuishou will quickly expose any weaknesses in one’s internal Gongfu. 王 西 安 4 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. hard/ soft. throwing. so much that you will be able to apply combat techniques. pacing your learning step-bystep. Tuishou practice should be soft and modest. Literally. and do not disconnect or oppose your partner’s energy. nor will you be able to intuit your opponent’s energetic intention. that is. A Taijiquan proverb pertains also to Tuishou. Initially. sTep-by-sTep To practice Tuishou. intuitive and subconscious. to the realization of Jin. ‘From the familiarity of forms. enabling you to throw opponents meters away without hurting them. Follow the circling movements with the whole body. With sustained practice over a period of time. Become familiar with the single hand horizontal and vertical practice. an athletic activity based on mutual pushing.
As long as you practice persistently and make progress. imagine a partner practicing or competing with you. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 5 .Remember that ‘inner listening’ is the one essential skill required to improve your technique. Skill arises from consistent and accumulated practice. be calm and concentrated in your demeanour. Practice makes perfect. mind and spirit with determination. your intention and commitment must be deeply held. but never practice just in order to practice. In solo practice. combining your heart. To cultivate ‘inner listening’. force and speed in your actions. you will ultimately enhance your health and combat techniques.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. it will enable you to feel. distance and direction of energy. Qing (light) and Zhong (heavy). with the lightest of touches. When you can control these energies within yourself. continue. actions to the left or right. At a more advanced stage.3 The cOre Of TuishOu The core of Tuishou consists of Zhan. Sui (stick. Lian. gathering or exploding. You will learn to follow your partner’s intention and forget your own. adhere. which are also the essential elements of Taiji. Tuishou practice is based on thirteen ‘forms’ or energies. upward or downward movements. . while its theoretical basis builds on the philosophies of Yin and Yang. speed. follow) and Chansi Jin (Reeling Silk). Movements alternate freely between Gang (hard) and Rou (soft). attacks or retreats. Kuai (quick) and Man (slow). and so on. opening or closing. The thirteen forms are: • Ward off • Roll back • Press • Push • Pull down • Split • Elbow strike • Shoulder strike • Advance forward • Retreate back • Look backward • Gaze forward • Central equilibrium Peng Lü Ji An Cai Lie Zhou Kao Jin Tui Gu Pan Ding 王 西 安 6 Tuishou flows seamlessly between the application and combination of opposites. Nian. your partner’s weight. you will develop the capacity to subconsciously anticipate quick or slow changes.
Use the forces of elasticity and friction Use these forces when applying techniques such as ‘draw the opponent into one’s orbit to destroy their centre of gravity’. concentrate on one direction at a time. Like a balloon whose air has been exhausted. expansion. or other deformation. ‘if the opponent moves slightly. stretching. Note: by ‘elastic’ we mean energy that is able to return to its original state after compression. When releasing explosive energy. Tuishou centers around ‘listening and following’ techniques: ‘react fast to fast attacks’.Points to remember: Move with great flexibility Change your movements constantly using elastic yet tense Neijin (internal energy). Master the fundamentals 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Basically. don’t move’. move before they do’ etc. be calm and relaxed To release bursts of energy effectively. Attack the opponent’s centre of gravity Use techniques such as ‘control a stronger opponent with weak force’ and ‘defeat weak points with a stronger force’. ‘utilize the opponent’s energy’ and ‘conquer the strong with the weak’. Note: friction forces are often applied in Tuishou – as you come in contact with the opponent’s hands. ‘follow slow attacks unhurriedly’. ‘if the opponent does not move. this energy refills automatically to its original ‘full’ state. 王 西 安 7 . it is the force of friction that enables you to hold and seize their arms etc.
Similarly.” This technique. Using this. and is worth remembering. none of your opponents can defeat you. I perform strictly to the principles so as to make me unassailable. Even if attacked by a monster. when you move forward in your turn to press. results in the shaking off of the opponent’s upper body and lifting of their lower body. and they serve as concise and comprehensive guidelines for Taiji and Tuishou practice through the ages. known as Shang Long Xia Ti (which means to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to his or her upper body while lifting their lower body). the 14th generation master. also states: “No one knows when I gather or stretch. utilizing the techniques of Kao. I always follow their intention. I follow my partner. push or strike. whether ascending or descending. As Chen Changxing says: ‘There are so many people who wear the mask of a hero. no matter how hard they press. I can conquer a force of a thousand jin with a tiny force of four Liang.” Chen Changxing. yet few who can actually strike the enemy’s heart and ribs with agility and effectiveness’. The canon of Taiji teachings is rich with such sayings.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As stated in the General Song of Taijiquan by Chen Wangting (also known as the ‘Song of Taiji Practitioners’): “…remembering the principle of following. push or strike your opponent you do so without alerting them in order to capture their energy. whether they strike or twist. 王 西 安 8 .
One with four Yin and six Yang is among the group of the adepts. One with two Yin and eight Yang is a San Shou One with three Yin and seven Yang is still considered tough. I sincerely hope Taijiquan followers will embark on a serious study of this art and strive toward the as yet unbounded acme of this science. requiring us to further our exploration and improve our practice of it. Here. the study of Taijiquan Tuishou is a profound undertaking which knows no bounds. As a science. the relative practice methods for each stage with differing ratios of Yin and Yang are clearly defined.Another essay defines the five levels of Tuishou: One with one Yin and nine Yang is as stiff as a stick. Only one with five Yin and five Yang is called adept. In order to inherit and develop this Chinese cultural heritage. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 9 .
with fuller details available in Chapter Two of my book. 3. ‘three-yin seven-yang. one comes into the group of the adepts’. Shen Ming (dual cultivation of inner energy and outer form) One is regarded as a Deity.4 The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu A brief description of the three stages of Taijiquan practice will be provided here. Zhao Shu (familiarity with the forms) Outer form drives Qi. ‘Chen Style Taiji Laojia’ (Old Routine). Zhong Quan (medium circle) At this stage. Da Quan (big circle) This is the stage whereby ‘one-yin nine-yang. as stiff as a stick’ evolves to ‘two-yin eight-yang. Taiji Tuishou also consists of three stages with three respective practice methods: 王 西 安 10 1. still regarded hard’ turns into ‘fouryin six-yang. 2. Dong Jin (realizing the inner energy) Qi drives outer form. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. The three stages of Taijiquan are: 1. 2. Correspondingly. is San Shou’.
Those who attain the level of Deity will be able to execute movements with tremendous flexibility and smoothness. We must pay attention to different methods during different stages of practice. the complete fusion of external form and internal spirit. By this stage. students will improve step-by-step and attain the ultimate stage of Deity or Xing Shen Jian Bei. The three stages of Taijiquan practice are interrelated with the three stages of Taiji Tuishou. That is to say. and be able to achieve constant internal changes between Xu and Shi (void and solid). in addition to a diligent assimilation of knowledge. Xiao Quan Naizhi Wuquan (small circle or even no circle) This is the final stage where ‘five-yin five-yang. At the third stage of Shenming (deity). Note that ‘no circle’ denotes a state of subtlety and skilfulness. medium and small circles. we practice Mingjin (apparent energy) by utilizing Yi Xing Dai Qi (external form guides internal Qi). along with the Tuishou practice of Da Quan (big circle). random alternations between states of energy gathering and releasing within a relaxed and elastic body. we practice An Jin (invisible force) through Yi Qi Cui Xing (external form driven by Qi). and does not mean total stillness. that is. that is. At the second stage of Dong Jin (realization of energy). one is regarded as a Deity’. at the first stage. along with the Tuishou practice of Zhong Quan (medium circle). as well as the combination of the respective techniques applied in the big. enjoy a feeling of lightness. an adept may say. ‘I hit with any part of my 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 11 . possess abundant internal energy.3. all parts of the body become as highly sensitized as finger tips so that when competing. we practice Ling Jin (spiritual force) through Nei Wai Jian Xiu (culitivation of both internal and external qualities). Following a correct program of practice as outlined above. with the practice of Xiao Quan Shenzhi Wuquan (small or even no circle).
even though I don’t know how I do it’. those who reach this stage posess energy without imbalance and can achieve Lianshen Huanxu (cultivation of Shen spirit and return to the void). as our ancestors tell us. This is not unattainable.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 body that is attacked by my opponent.” 王 西 安 12 . you surely go backwards. “Taiji practice is like rowing in the river. if you don’t make efforts to go forward. Also known as ‘Five-Yin Five-Yang’.
no techniques can be executed. These reflexes are faster than thought and only come with constant practice. In contrast with Quan (form) practice where the focus is on solo practice and developing self-awareness. In other words. This is called. Skilled practitioners rely on a highly developed sense of touch. try to feel the extent and speed of your partner’s motions with your sense of touch while ‘listening’ to their stance and angles of movement. it is also the key criterion against which one’s level of Taijiquan Gongfu can be measured. meaning ‘loss of energy’. The Only criTeriOn TO judge The gOngfu Of Taiji Not only is Tuishou a reliable test of one’s level in any martial art form. Ding meaning ‘stiff resistance’). hence it is essentially a competitive activity. try to feel your partner’s tracks of energy while controlling your own centre of gravity during practice. When they reach the level of ‘a good hand with invisible four-yin six-yang energy in medium circles’. or ‘losing tracking to the opponent’s energy’) or Ding (a common defect due to failure in relaxation. they are able to strike back instantly in response to an opponent’s movement using conditioned reflexes derived from highly sensitized skin alert to every minute stimulus. When forces are equally matched during competition. While appearing deceptively easy. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 13 . tough energy. four Liang defeats thousands of Jin’.5 TuishOu. nor is it just a matter of pitting one’s physical force against others. Remember too where your weight is placed to maintain control of your centre of gravity. Only by being fully aware of the changes in your partner’s movement can you react promptly to any attack. Hence. It simply requires practitioners to have sufficient physical force for competition. It is this dynamic that we need to explore during practice. ‘thousands of Jin’ (i. it doesn’t imply Diu (a common defect due to failure in Zhan Nian. Nevertheless. Without the latter. ‘Weak side strikes strong side. Tuishou actually requires a strong sense of balance and an ability to combine energy and force. softness can break through hard. However.1. the stronger force) also can defeat the weaker force.e. Tuishou develops one’s sensitivity to others.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 14 .
CHAPTER TWO: inTeRpReTaTions on The Ten FoRCes oF Taiji 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 15 .
filled with abundant internal Qi. feel your partner’s movements. alluding not only to listening with the ears. With your skin. sensing through the skin enables reaction in any manner within the rules. squeeze and press. the act of ‘listening’ has profound resonances. During Tuishou sparring.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. On receiving these signals. but also with the eyes. when an opponent touches one’s fine body hairs. Similarly. her changes in rotation. I know others and sweep all enemies aside. The level of one’s overall listening ability is determined by one’s internal energy (Gongfu). At this stage. allowing both body and mind to enter into the level of deity and transformation.1 lisTening TO energy In the context of Taiji and Tuishou. adhere. continue. no matter if the changes are in the opponent’s rotation. position and magnitude. ‘Without being known. What is listening with the bones? It is the ability to anticipate an attack by listening through the skin and responding swiftly to an opponent’s attempt to seize. When Wu-Yin Wu-Yang (energy equal and balanced) is attained. Hence the saying.’ 王 西 安 16 . the skin. every single hair is so delicate and sensitive it can detect a feather just before it touches the skin. a rise or fall in height or changes in weight. follow) as fundamentals. with the skin and with the fine hairs on the body surface. Listening can be divided into three areas: listening with the bones. The entire body surface of a high level practioner is highly sensitive. one’s force is injected into the marrow. What is listening with the skin? It means following the command of the heart and mind. One’s skin is the key weapon. her body light and flexible. and a highly-tuned awareness of sensations in the heart and nerves as well. a practioner’s body can react instantly with great accuracy and flexibility. any signals of attack will be transmitted as sensations through the minute hairs on one’s skin. and taking Zhan Nian Lian Sui (stick.
Only through accumulated practice can one’s sensations detect the smallest changes. solidity. rising to the upper body. This is why we recommend the practice of Zhan and Nian (stick and adhere) energies as a preparation for listening practice. While the majority of practitioners are able to listen with the bones. that is why it destroys the strongest of enemies”. making all one’s muscles stiff. ‘co-ordination of opening and closing’ and maintaining a fluid continuity between all these techniques. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 17 . listen without hearing. Without this preparation. In all this. Your reactions will become slow. descending. Listening is essential to Tuishou. very few achieve the ability to listen with the skin. Nervously. emptiness. calm. blood and breath. you fight back. which is essential for constant adjustments to frequently changing circumstances. opening and closing (快、慢、沉、稳、虚、实、 开、合). “The most super-human strategy is formless and soundless. How good it would be to attain this level. leading only to failure. ‘descending Qi and steady steps’. defending and attacking blindly. your judgement confused. let alone the attainment of energy for combat. where every knot of one’s body opens and stretches without crude force. Failure to do so will cause one’s energy to remain stuck in the chest. slow. special attention should be paid to ‘the intervals of fastness and slowness’. ‘clear manifestation of emptiness and solidness’. your listening untrue. so a practioner cannot generate energy for sparring if he or she is unable to listen.Finding a really peaceful place to practice will help concentration and improve one’s sensitivity to listening. It requires cultivation of a finely-honed sensitivity to the sensations on one’s minute body hairs. listening would be impossible. You will look without seeing. As Sunzi Bingfa says. Listening practice should strictly follow the Four Principles (Zhan Nian Lian Sui) as well as the Essential Formula – fast. Just as a deaf person is unable to comprehend a conversation as he cannot hear. until it is too late to repel danger.
Jia (stiff ). Teng (jump). Zhe (hide). Zhuan (cheat). length. An (press). this skill may eventually be attained with diligent practice and a good teacher. Peng. It is the ability to conquer one’s opponent by using proper rhythm and techniques such as Yin. While beginners may find this difficult to achieve.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. Without ‘hearing’ the energy of one’s partner. that is. Shi (tight). transform. Ba (seize by force). Ying (stiff ). Qin (intrude). Fa (引yin – lead. Meng (sudden). Zhi (straight). Qi (insult). Bo (move with hand). Even for those who achieve this skill. new challenges such as ‘being too fond of competing’. your posture too straight (Zhi). Hua. Failure to overcome these shortcomings would be to fail to realize energy. straightness and curvature. 发fa – explode) at the appropriate opportunity. Ke (knock). direction. Pai (squeeze out). Ba (pull out). magnitude and hitting point.2 dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy Realizing energy is a key concept in Taiji and Tuishou. Duo (escape). await them. Ting (stick out). you cannot note any of the above changes in the oponent. It is the ability to note present or potential changes in emptiness and solidity. Gou (hook). We call such shortcomings. vertical axis and flexibility. Zhan (chop). Li (leave). “faulty palms” or “faulty body”. 化hua – change. A further thirty-five shortcomings need to be overcome at this stage: Chou (draw). 王 西 安 18 . Cuo (rub). Ya (push down). You may find yourself being too stiff (Jiang). Lou (hold). 拿na – capture. Di (resist) and Gun (roll). Tui (push). Ling (pressing). Na. Be warned that mistakes will occur on this learning path. Realizing energy is based on listening. Shan (dodge or flash). Bing (defect) signifies the inability to follow principles such as maintaining one’s centre of gravity. hardness and softness. Gua (hang on). Hun (mix up). Ji (hit). you cannot realize it. your energy too resistant (Ding) or being lost unnecessarily (Diu). the ability to circle and the principles of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. speed. Dang (block off ).
the poplular stereotype of Taijiquan as a non-combat. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 19 . ultimately. no matter if they use the technique of Kao or twist. the Tuishou practitioner must aim to apply these techniques (seizing. look around and maintain an upright axis during Tuishou practice. rather than use them as disparate forces to enhance one’s attacking prowess. which is used not only in Tuishou. Concordant with the adage that ‘external forms are the method and the pathway’. striking. form and quality of Tuishou. Sanda can simply be taken as a higher evolution of Tuishou. The quality of one’s form practice and Tuishou level speaks for itself – it is reflected in one’s ability to freely move forward or backward. hence its continuing ties with Tuishou and. twisting. As Chen Changxing. these eight techniques form the method for Tuishou. In fact. and also in one’s facilitiy with the eight energies or techniques (Peng. When attacking.The practice for ‘realizing energy’ also tests one’s position. Hence. angle. ‘The Taijiquan Formula’: No one knows when I gather or stretch. grasping. they share the common practice of ‘realizing energy’. Sanda complies with basic Tuishou principles. Lie. Lü. dodging. falling. Cai. with Taijiquan. Tuishou is the combat application of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. 14th generation Taiji master from the Chen family. Ultimately. Ji. An. relaxation and health practice for the old and infirm. jumping. developed from further transformations of Tuishou routines. transforming. and shares many common principles with Sanda (free sparring). says in a verse from his book. In effect. Whilst acknowledged as a combat technique in its own right. changing one’s centre of gravity and flexibility) in synchronous movements. Whilst all Chinese martial arts possess unique characteristics. I follow my partner. is misleading and does not take into account its fundamental role across the Chinese martial arts. Zhou and Kao). but also in the combat arts and and Sanda (free sparring). utilizing the techniques of Kao in spiralling. I always keep remembering to follow their intention.
until I come to the level of Deity”. to the realization of energy.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 You need to go forward in order to chop. In addition to applying Master Chen Changxing’s advice. this verse confirms Taijiquan as a profoundly practical Martial Art. ‘listening and realizing energy’. we can clearly see that in all movements. yet who knows the tactful way to turn one’s back and dodge suddenly? From the above verse. and horizontal Cai are also irresistible. This ability is encapsulated in the phrase ‘Zhan Nian Lian Sui’. to forget about one’s own intentions and follow the opponent’s. leading to a wider understanding of the profound benefits and applications of Taijiquan. Li. Chen Changxing exhorts practitioners to maintain a keen awareness of self and other parties. “From the familiarity of forms. The attacks from me by twisting. press and hold back. It is through the practice of Tuishou and Sanshou that one garners the true meaning of Taijiquan. that is. to act naturally and follow one’s intention. one must also ‘realize energy’ through diligent practice and the exchange of ideas with one’s sparring partner. the Chinese martial arts have evolved into health and fitness promoting practices. strike. Everyone knows how to hook. step by step. Chen Xin once said. ward off. push or press. adaptable to both Tuishou and Sanshou. that is. along with the Four Essentials and ‘realizing energy’ techniques in Tuishou. Taijiquan and Sanshou are practiced synchronously today to enhance health and selfdefence skills. Indeed. Again. fourth and fifth sentences refer to the application of Taiji Sanshou. Hence. The author stressed the importance of ‘follow’. only with accumulated practice can one exert energy flexibly and 王 西 安 20 . Tuishou is a combat practice method designed to prevent injury to the body whilst Sanshou is the appliction of Tuishou in actual combat. As mentioned. The second sentence of the verse means to follow the other partner’s intention while circling them. The third. With the development of modern weapons.
so that he finds it hard to escape. and come to realize the laws of movement and force. This ability comes through great patients and a life-long perseverance of effort through the three stages. Zhan Nian energies work as a pair. At this point. with Zhan as the dominant force since without a 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 21 . this results in a deeper and more precise understanding of energy. on reaching the final stage of ‘deity’. like glue. direction and the position of a partner’s energy flow. in this way maintaining the upper hand at all times. 2. They are external manifestations of internal forces arising from prolonged ‘reeling silk’ practice. will be able to instantly sense the delicate changes in the movement. while Tuishou exposes the quality of Zhan Nian techniques. “Form practice is the essence of Zhan Nian training. that is. ‘Realizing energy’ is the middle stage of the three major phases in Taiji development. magnitude. Whilst it is said that form practice cultivates a capacity to know oneself.effectively. and its natural and intuitive use. Zhan Nian techniques develop one’s capacity for high precision. capturing and transforming his energy and using it to attack at the first opportunity. Only with the awareness of both oneself and others can others be conquered. extent.” Zhan literally means ‘stickiness’. Tuishou practice cultivates the capacity to know others. he or she will be able to prevent their opponent from escaping with zhan energy by following his intention. A practitioner. Conversely. This is why it is said. It is commonly used in attacking strategies. Nian means to chase and follow one’s opponent. Ultimately. to one’s opponent. Through reeling-silk practice. the adhesive force that allows a practitioner to become strongly attached.3 zhan nian Techniques Zhan & Nian are forces directed forward. the first being ‘familiarity with form’ and the last being ‘realizing deity’. with which one’s opponent will find difficult to escape.
During Tuishou. but certainly achievable for diligent practitioners with good teachers. Zhan Nian energies can only be realized through thorough theoretical understanding and careful. inflexible muscles and joints. 王 西 安 22 . have failed to attain high proficiency in the art. This is why it is said that at this relatively high level. despite prolonged practice. ‘I move before them on feeling their slightest motion’. continuous and diligent practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 good mastery to ‘stickiness’ (Zhan). beginners find Zhan Nian energy difficult to comprehend let alone detect. When Zhan Nian techniques are applied. Simultaneously. and so on. Not an easy task for ordinary practitioners. ‘I win by striking after the enemy has struck (My fist starts late. contact with the opponent’s palms allows the practitioner to estimate the opponent’s circle of reach and the level of their energy for transformation. Understandably. Once the whole body is enveloped. yet arrives at the hitting point earlier than the opponent)’. one can never accomplish quality ‘chasing’ (Nian). victory or defeat is decided in an instant. but even many long-term practitioners find total understanding or realization elusive. Zhan techniques are fundamental to Tuishou – one needs to stick to the opponent to react appropriately. the opponent will find it difficult to detect any weaknesses and hence any opportunity for attack. as indicated by these teachings: ‘Follow my partner’s intention. the practitioner can exert Zhan Nian forces towards the opponent. Ultimately. as reflected in their stiff bodies and tense. especially those who. flow up the arms to the shoulders and back. and forget my own’. an internal energy manifesting externally. ‘Fast reactions to fast attacks. It is Zhan energy that envelops the body. ‘I don’t move if they don’t move’. these techniques will lead the opponent into faulty moves. slow reactions to slow attacks’. Zhan Nian energies can be detected by sensations that start at the palms. and then through the entire body.
and no chance to escape.2. slow reactions to slow attacks. follow and move in the same direction as one’s opponent. taking any opportunity to attack. It can be summarized as ‘co-relating to the opponent’. that is. misleading and upseting the opponent’s centre of gravity by attack and thus strike and ultimately conquer the opponent.4 lian sui energies Lian Sui energies are twin companions of Zhan Nian energies. there can be no Lian. Lian has a rich amalgam of meanings. adhesiveness. moving effortlessly between quick/slow and forward/ backward movements. including consistency. Used in concert with Zhan Nian energies. ‘to react while following’. can we execute Yin Jin Luo Kong efficiently. the opponent cannot escape because if one follows closely using Zhan Nian. another rises’. Lian Sui means to follow the partner constantly and closely thereby preventing their escape. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 23 . the act of connecting and maintaining the continuity of one’s movements with those of the opponent. non-forcing. so that ‘as one falls. emerges from the application of Lian. fast reactions to fast attacks. Sui. no resistance). In so doing. Lian is dependent on one’s use of Zhan. ‘Bu Diu Bu Ding’ (no loss of energy. Once palms come in contact. non-pressing. Unless one follow’s the opponent with Lian (co-relation). Only if we can achive quality work on Lian Sui (continue and follow) based on good mastery of Zhan Nian. how can Sui be achieved? Sui technique means to react. and can only exist in the presence of the latter. Their inter-dependence requires both Zhan Nian and Lian Sui energies to be used in concert to work effectively. Without Zhan’s adhesive force over the partner preventing escape. continuity. one observes and reacts to the opponent’s Zhan Nian techniques.
without any break in flexibility or continuity. so that they can ascertain if their energy levels match the purpose and intention of their actions. upper and lower coordinate any motion in the middle. Lian and Sui can never function without the other.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a teaching goes. It is vital that beginners are able to feel the movement of internal energy inside their bodies. on the other hand. whether through form practice or Tuishou”. Internal and external energy flows relay the most valuable quality inside those adepts who can coordinate their energies closely.” Here we refer to the ability to keep every part of the body functioning as an integrated whole. therefore it is advisable to practice the combined application of both. the basic ability to follow the opponent’s movements. Only with unimpeded energy flow and smooth internal co-ordination can one interact seamlessly with one’s Tuishou partner. Adepts. following their energy flow without interruption. As the teaching says. Beginners may attain the preliminary stage of Lian Sui. 王 西 安 24 . applying Lian Sui provides a good opportunity to observe the partner’s weaknesses: “Lian and Sui are the means to mislead the opponent into our territory and to put them into a passive position. “The lower body automatically follows any motions of the upper body. successfully use Lian and Sui to attack and prevent escape.
Once neutralized. Use these principles whether you are going backward or forward. Note that while applying Yin and Hua forces. if my partner presses my right arm with their palms. I lower my body then stretch my right foot toward his or her crotch. Hua is the transformative force. hips. While moving. and in this way mislead and neutralize your opponent’s energy. When we feel the changes in our opponent’s energy flow. Yin is the ability to draw the opponent’s energy into one’s control. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 25 . I apply Shun reeling downwards. and cannot exist without Yin first being applied. Literally meaning ‘to draw’ or ‘to lead’. the adept draws the opponent into his or her domain. so as to mislead my partner’s energy and upset their centre of gravity. neutralizing any opportunity for attack. we then use our shoulders. turning left or right. For instance. I use Yin Jin Luo Kong to constrain my partner’s energy while simultaneously gathering energy carefully to prepare for an explosive release of energy at any angle or position. hence ‘misleading’ and transforming the opponent’s energy.5 Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques Yin is the main force used to mislead opponents. palms. using Lian Sui to follow their energy flow. going up or down. “We strike by coordinating forces from different directions (Yin Jin Luo Kong). reeling my back inward before suddenly striking outward. one should avoid Diu and Ding (losing energy and resistance). knees. hands. A particularly effective combination is Luo Kong. using our arms. then gradually upwards. elbows. or feet to upset their centre of gravity. we should apply She Ji Cong Ren without being detected. When applying Yin. legs and so on”. Using these complementary techniques. As Chen Xin explains. striking the opponent with explosive energy while applying Yin Hua (literally to mislead and transform).2.
the more one stretches the bow. so as to accumulate and release energy effectively. and their pain penetrates right to the marrow. the further one’s arrow flies. my Taiji harmony within emerges so that even ghosts fail to predict my next move. look one way and go another”. Any hard fan guanjie (joint twisting. they are conquered. As Chen Xin suggests. sweep. In this way. touch. Opponents will feel as if their tendons and bones are about to break. hence rendering them helpless. I “roll over. tie up. continuous solo practice is required to absorb knowledge thoroughly before techniques can be put to effective use. he or she can easily capture his opponent through the combined use of all . Hua and Xu (gathering). “gather energy as if pulling on the bow. meaning the direction which hurts the natural structure of joint. I know my partner without being known. That is to say. depending on circumstances. i.6 na (seizing) Technique The Na technique or ‘Way of Seizing’ consists of seizing opponents by their arms. so that the opponent is hurt and caught) or low stances are not always necessary for a good practitioner to conquer opponents. elbows. When I attack. dodge. explode energy as if releasing the arrow”. It is important to remember that one must gather energy well before misleading one’s opponent. Instead. wrists or hands to inhibit their rotation or movement. destabilizing their centre of gravity and transforming their energy in order to conquer them. just as one should attack forcefully without hesitation. In Tuishou and San Shou. As Chen Changxing advises. shock. one must cultivate the forces of Yin. that of Taijiquan is accepted as the most refined.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Yin Hua can be applied in many ways. 2. rotate an opponent’s joint towards its unnatural direction. However. and hence the harder the opponent falls. using all these techniques to mislead my opponent.e. 王 西 安 26 While many martial arts schools may practice their own interpretation of the Na technique.
In Tuishou. Make sure Shun reeling and Ni reeling happens continuously when you utilize Na techniques. agile.’ as Sun Zi Bing Fa says. ‘is called the “best of the best”’. I utilize Na to prevent my partner from escaping or from transforming their energy. To apply Qing Ling Huo Qiao while seizing one’s opponent means to exert one’s spiral energy on them on contact. These recovery measures also depend on a light. Zhua (grabbing). applying the energy smoothly and judiciously without over-exertion.their gathered forces. There is a saying. flexible and skilful exertion of Zhan Nian Lian Sui as well as other techniques. so that I can strike them cleanly and successfully. flexibility and skilfulness). so that I may capture my opponent without hesitation or detection. Tuishou accentuates Taijiquan’s martial power. you still have the opportunity to move in quickly and seize them by their palms before they move away. in order to strike well. The seizing technique in Tuishou is very important. When utilizing Na. Hua (transforming) are all preconditions for striking (Da). Indeed. With the combined application of seizing. ‘Only this. transforming and striking. To apply Na effectively. you need to seize first’. This is called ‘dual-utilization of seizing and gathering’. strengthen your force so that your opponent finds it too difficult to escape or transform their energy. a Tuishou practitioner can exert the invincible might of Taiji. If he or she succeeds in escaping. Shuai (throw). I move using the principles of Qing Ling Huo Qiao (lightness. If you fail to attack lightly and skilfully and your intentions are detected. Na (seizing). ‘Na (seize) always goes with Da (strike). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 27 . you must react quickly and flexibly to any changes in your opponent. throwing. This is why it is said that Na is the pre-condition of Da. Only with the synchronous use of various techniques can a Tuishou practitioner put their opponent at a disadvantage position and conquer them. agility. techniques such as Zhan Nian Lian Sui. thus reaching their goal.
During practice. How then can you hope to seize another? Indeed. stomach and legs. If Qi ascends. application of appropriate angles and techniques. your centre of gravity destabilized and you will find it difficult to protect yourself. Miscalculations often result in injuries. seize him then guide his pressing force into your territory using Lü energy. you have no option but to relax your joints. Never let Qi float upward and never let your feet lose their roots. When relaxed. Na technique works together with Cai technique. Na is the synchronous manifestation of the internal and external. your chest rolls inward naturally. whether you exert Na by the co-ordination of your hand and chest or with your ribs. and all parts in a gathering motion. especially amongst beginners. stomach and the protruding and concaved parts of the shoulders. include controlling one’s speed and magnitude of attack. use the Na technique carefully to avoid hurting your sparring partner. releasing your force like bullets rushing out of a gun. if you want to seize your opponent. By relaxing. shoulders and crotch all gather downward in concert. If you fail to Peng (ward off ) your opponent adequately.’ 王 西 安 28 . Exert your energy first lightly then with force. your root will become unsteady. Using this will overcome the opponent without fail. both palms covering his right wrist. every part of your body works in harmonious cooperation. and sensing the amount of force the partner’s joints can withstand. Common problems. just as it is stated. In peace every part of my body moves at the time of movement’. he will be able to press forward. with no part tense. ‘No part of my body is not peaceful. making sure your hitting points are clearly defined. ‘Never be rude and rash when you begin to practice Na. Next. and your ribs. The combination of Na-Cai with gathered chest energy has a force twice more powerful than Na alone. in which case. twist his right arm inward with your left hand. Then strike directly forward in a spiral and hit your target accurately.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 When applying Na. hence it is advisable to heed the teaching. the targets for both being the arms. chest. remember to maintain a relaxed state by lowering your whole body.
2. As complementary opposites. often meaning to ‘guide and attack’ in the martial arts. just as Chen Xin mentioned in his works. Opening (Kai) means to stretch and reach. In all Tuishou and Taiji movements. OpeningClosing is a physical expression of Yin-Yang qualities: hardness versus softness. opening and closing illustrate the subtlety of Taijiquan. The opportunity to transform the partner’s energy lies in the process of movements in various directions’. preserve. OpeningClosing techniques. gathering versus exploding.Work on your technique step-by-step: develop a closed crotch. bend and gather. This is an important concept which bears deeper contemplation. ‘How can the circulation of stillness and movement have fixed directions? No matter under conditions of movement or stillness. one cannot ‘open’ without first being ‘closed’ and vice-versa. every part of the body is engaged in the action of opening and closing. Mengzi. Even masters of Chinese philosophy – Kungfuzi.7 Opening and clOsing In the martial arts. opening and closing imbues Taijiquan with a subtle elegance that is as difficult to define as the motion of snowflakes. hence this technique epitomizes the dual nature of Taiji – the opposite yet complementary. solid stomach and slightly concave chest. transform. Listen to the tracks of your opponent’s energy while applying Na and Bi (closing). Laozi and Zhuangzi – have been unable to describe the subtlety 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 29 . Closing (He) means to draw in. Keep every joint relaxed before you exert Na. Remember – to attack your target with agility and flexibility requires long accumulated practice. Sanda and form practice. are widely used in Tuishou. Inhale from the stomach so that it remains solid. As Chen Xin says. Indeed. relax the shoulders. making sure all movements are steered by the waist. Gather the ribs.
In practice. but also to coordinate the heart (Xin). these changing motions. Without closing well. This means your root will not be disturbed and the flexibility of your reactions may even be enhanced. and sometimes they disappear. forceful.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 and beauty in the opening-closing movements of Taijiquan. crude and slow. sometimes appear before our eyes. grasp the floor with the toes and soles. you will find your opening powerless. from the soles of the feet. The art of opening or exploding your energy is akin to setting off firecrackers – the tighter the paper is rolled. 王 西 安 30 . ‘Opening-Closing. The Opening-Closing technique starts from the closed state. so that your targets become accurately defined and attacks successful. since Yi (intention) follows wherever Xin (heart) goes. filling you with great vigor. external shape (Xing) and spirit (Shen). the louder the explosion. Likewise. you will find that Qi penetrates your whole body more smoothly and powerfully. swift and powerful. Yi moulds changes in external shape while Jin (force) rises with Qi. pressing the ground with your heels to empty the Yong Quan points. Closing not only means to bend and withdraw your upper body. if your energy is gathered and conserved well. your ‘opening’ explosion will be natural. Kai (opening) energy originates in the root of your body. Thus positioned. While standing. muscle energy (Qi). with the qualities of both solidity and emptiness. every part of your body follows suit. the rebounding force exerted by the ground can be used to energise any upward movement. In using Yi’s guiding qualities during form practice and opening-closing in Tuishou.’ Only diligent practitioners have the opportunity to experience this phenomenon. that is. this means that one needs to be closed first before one can open. The quality of the effort you put in to closing determines your ability to open with power and effect. your intention (Yi). Your heart acts as the guide and leader during energy explosion – when your heart opens. so that all parts of the body work together. As the saying attests.
After exploding energy. The explosion should be short. spirals up the legs to the waist control-center. To master this elastic force. To gather energy of this quality. Beyond this range. Exploding energy at close-range is best as Kai energy. Practitioners also need to build-up a reasonable level of muscular strength. the whole body returns to a state of softness and relaxation. presenting your partner with opportunities to attack. the energy released unhindered.8 energy explOsiOn Energy explosions consist of either long or short energy (Doujin or vibrating power). Exploding Doujin comes from releasing energy gathered during a state of relaxation when energy permeates the whole body. then spiral your internal energy up the legs to the waist. roll your chest slightly inward. Doujin is also known as ‘cun jin’ (very short energy) as cun is the Chinese unit of measurement for small lengths equivalent to 3. your centre of gravity may be lost. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 31 . keep your elbows down. which then distributes it to the other extremities. lower your waist and let Qi flow along the spine. is limited by its short duration and small coverage which extends only as far as your body. you will need to drop and relax the shoulders. albeit swift and powerful. This energy originates from the soles of the feet. strikes may not find their mark. or worse still. The solution is to make your energy round.33 cm. and to develop high sensitivity and rapid responses to external stimuli. land on the ground on your in-steps. or you may find your Kai technique lacking in power and precision.As you explode energy. while being mindful of the adage. Exploded energy is an elastic force which can only be controlled through intense concentration and physical flexibility only attained through accumulated practice. you need to train your muscles in relaxation and gathering. then to every corner of the body. flexible and compact enough to mislead and upset your opponent’s centre of gravity. 2.
The external force of both parties affects each’s internal energy flow. but also that of your internal energy and combat strategy. which manifests as our weight. spiral forces. your opponent is vanquished. consistent good performances will not be achievable. one must explode energy smoothly. However. frictional forces. straight forces. though random wins may happen. that you are unable to neutralize. When doing Tuishou exercises. Gathering.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 “use thought and intention. abundant internal energy and intense physical and energetic concentration. you must practice Changjin 王 西 安 32 . not relying on rigid or crude force. Failure to counter your partner’s force means. counter forces. Transforming and gathering are complementary and cannot function without each other. Without these. in effect. flexibly and harmoniously. transforming and attacking are closely related. not strength”. The force that you and your partner exert on each other in Tuishou is external force. which are characterized by firm and ferocious attacks where internal energy is released with an explosive ‘Ha!’ sound. To do this. Daily cultivation of Yuan Qi (primordial Qi) and vital energy flow throughout the body are essential for decisive wins. internal forces. together with the abovementioned techniques of grasping the ground as energy explodes using the earth’s rebounding power. and to explore the interactive relationship between them. it is necessary to distinguish clearly the respective functions of internal force and external force. To combine the power of the three. Transforming and gathering are preconditions for energy explosions used in attacks – striking without transforming energy leads to stiff explosions while transforming without gathering results in powerless ones. skilfully. Your performance in competition depends not only on the quality of your sensitivity. all these are prerequisites to “destroy something already in a state of ruin”. and exploding energy with elastic vibrations. there are also a myriad of other forces which influence our bodies – supporting forces. The main external force that we humans experience is gravitational force from the earth. dissipate or absorb her external force. and with that outburst. utilize. Constant diligence. horizontal forces and so on.
the medium circle practice. Continue developing these techniques step-by-step until the level of deity is reached. below which energy flows downward and above which energy flows upward. quick. elastic or vibrating variations. and the small or no circle practice. there would be no striking the partner from one inch”. At this level of Gongfu. a quality leveraged for precise attacks: upward energy is used to explode energy vigorously. will find the opponent flung far and wide. For example. “Without striking the partner from a distance of three metres. as their attacks flow naturally from their heart and intention. At the transitional stage between ‘Three-Yin Seven-Yang. leading to very smooth and swift responses. Upward energy and downward energy exist in opposition to each other. despite its ferocity. you will find it easier to hit targets more accurately and swiftly. An attack. Only very high-level practitioners may achieve this. even with the slightest touch. the whole body moves as a synchronized force to follow the slightest movement of intention.(long energy) and Duanjin (elastic short energy) by doing stretching and relaxation. imagine a line between the navel and Mingmen. one should not attack at close target. during Tiaozhou practice (upward strike with elbow). By mastering the key points of energy explosion. Alternate between these three with slow. Good Hands’. easy conquest of the opponent does not necessarily follow. it is not advisable to exert Changjin (long energy). beginners need to do the following: do the big circle practice. especially exhaling-inhaling and opening-closing motions. Still Tough’ and ‘Four-Yin Six-Yang. To reach this level. and even when elastic cunjin (hitting a target at very close range) is executed. instantaneous. As it is said. This means that if one finds it difficult to attack from a distance. while downward flowing energy helps maintain a firm and stable root. Close-range attacks require a high-level of competence. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 33 .
rotate your Dantian so that your body lifts with greater speed and accuracy. To lift your opponent up with Ti requires the combined effort of legs. and intention into one entity. To apply Ti successfully requires the whole body to work in coordination. Remember Master Chen Changxing’s advice to “hold [your opponent’s] upper body under your control before you lift his lower body.9 Ti (raising) fOrce Ti means to ‘rise spirally’. First. then your instant and precise attack can never fail”. combine your rising force with your elastic force. you lift your partner with spiralling energy to destabilize their centre of gravity and draw them into your control. powered by upward spiralling energy. and may lead to loss of control.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. you need to destabilize your opponent’s centre of gravity by inserting one leg between your opponent’s legs and lifting it quickly outward using spiralling energy. Even if not thrown completely off balance. shadow your opponent with agile steps. keep agile so that the opponent may not detect your energy flow and will thus be unprepared for escape. This means that no matter what Tuishou techniques you use. skilfully changing your tack to distract them from your true intentions until you have destabilized their centre of gravity and they are caught off-balance. Pay attention to defending your territory – it is better to relinquish victory than to lose territory 王 西 安 34 . never let your partner know your intention before you act. Instead. Using Zhan Nian Lian Sui. while you keep your intentions and energy flow undetected. while you maintain a state of relaxation. As Qi flows up the spine. The rising force is difficult to use if forced. When applying Ti. your opponent’s upper body will shift out of their control. spiral your forearms upward with guidance from the waist toward your opponent’s upper body. To conquer your opponent. Remember to maintain full concentration. The arms and legs work together. heart. keeping your axis upright and combine your eyes. waist and arms. Remember to maintain your centre of gravity with the coordination of the other leg. At the same time. at which point you quickly change to exert Lü and Cai downward to throw them to the ground.
follow the primary principles and develop your skills stepby-step. walk with such assurance as to shock evil spirits. their root and they will certainly fall. your attacks will never fail. reeling in big or 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 35 . revolving energy which originates internally in the body. Mastering this energy requires much effort and practice. you will come to sense it with practice. until it reaches the fine hairs of the skin. and not even know from whence your power emanates. mislead. touch or sweep in response to the circumstances and you remain always observant and alert. your force will reach its target just with intention. on the verge of losing their centre of gravity. reeling outward. transform and defeat your opponent’s attacking energy. When this happens. so you feel able to “protect your descendents and kill the rebels”. you will lose awareness of your physical body and location. Adequate practice will naturally lead to success. you will find it easier to follow. Do not try to strike others before you have attained a reasonable level of competence. but once attained. The Reeling Silk consists of great varieties: reeling inward. For beginners. Attaining high-level skills will make you braver. tie. reeling to the left or reeling to the right. Your incredible speed allows you to gain ground easily while your opponent feels as if they are fighting perched on a ball. you will be able to transform energy while striking. This energy is created using the Reeling Silk technique and penetrates all movements during form practice.10 reeling silk Reeling Silk is a spiralling. 2. and manifests externally as it permeates through to the fine hairs on the skin. You roll. passes through the legs up the spine and arms. reeling upward. whether you rise or descend.and power. You will attack like a flying dragon. Though undiscernible initially. as it emerges from the feet. go forward or backward.
Yin (guiding. collapse the waist and establish a stable centre of gravity in the legs. The principle of ‘Circulation between Yin and Yang’ clearly dominates the reeling process. Be humble and respectful during form practice. one must avoid being too soft or too tough. When using Reeling Silk energy. focusing your energy internally and guiding the flow of your responses from Yin to Yang. all these reeling movements are always comprehensively combined together and closely connected. remember to keep your Zhongqi (energy to keep your axis upright). maintain the interplay between solidness and emptiness. and so on. When being utlilized. 王 西 安 36 . and apply opening and closing techniques. remain balanced. excessive toughness makes you get too rigid. Shun reeling (conforming) and Ni reeling (contrary). misleading) always comes with Jin (approaching forward or attacking) and vice versa. Excessive softness (Ruanshou or weak hands) makes you too weak to fight. and thus renders you unable to react properly and to be easily manipulated by the opponent. apply the principle of Dingjin (suspending force): hold the neck upright and relaxed.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 small circles. reeling horizontally or reeling vertically. reeling to the front or reeling aside. The solution lies in the middle path: keep a balance between softness and toughness. Keep a firm root. As for posture. quiet and calm. While reeling. reeling forward and backward.
CHAPTER THREE: single FoRm pRaCTiCe 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 37 .
Keep learning and eventually you will be able to use intention (Yinian) alone to execute techniques appropriate to each circumstance rather than conscious thought. interlinks the Santian (the three Dantian) and reaches the Yong Quan point. Because Yilu lacks speed and Gang (tough) energy. 王 西 安 38 . As we know. An. goes through the Sanguan (Three Gates). movements gradually become agile and flexible. full relaxation of the joints. 3. medium and high-level stages.1. the purpose of form practice is to ‘get energy to reach the tips of the four limbs’. where ‘Qi spreads to the whole body. keeping your energy tracks undetected by the opponent. who is then inevitably conquered. Da. so the Single Form Practice and Erlu help to compensate for this disadvantage. as well as techniques focussing on various target areas of the body.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. This practice requires a solid foundation in preparatory exercises. you need to execute Jin (go forward). for example. Hua (transform) and Na. Kao. Lie. Faji (attack) effectively under any conditions. Qi will flow around the body to the extremities and skin.’ In this way. This means that Yilu fosters Zhongqi so that. Erlu and Single Form practice help to accumulate and strengthen Gang. Yilu (First Form) cultivates energy while Erlu (Second Form) releases it. It also demands a period of diligent practice to ascend gradually through the primary.1 inTrOducTiOn This is a practical lesson in combat practice. Zhan (battle). Erlu explodes In this technique. Cai. To win.1 Yilu cultivates Qi. and exerting energy too forcefully (Ding) while exploding energy. Zhou. Single Form practice is essential for developing techniques which form the basis of Taiji Tuishou: Peng. Shuai (fall). Lü. A wide variety of single movements must be practiced repeatedly. Take special care to avoid losing energy (Diu) while practicing relaxation (Song). Ji. Ti. relaxed and soft. Tui (go backward). Shan (dodge). Single Form practice is vital for hand-to-hand Gongfu combat. if practice is diligent.
inner meanings of the mysterious art rather than a competition. He was known to say that he found throwing partners too easy. the throwing technique of Zhang Zhidie and Master Dong Hai’s Baguazhang technique of ‘[striking] the world by a half-step Beng (burst apart)’. 搭Da (touch) and 扫Sao (sweep). Lastly. the seizing techniques of Eagle Claw King. Also legendary is Master Chen Fadou’s ability to vanquish competition partners with just a touch. The world of Taiji is replete with pithy sayings that provide useful guidance to the attentive practitioner. hands. as well as for his subtle and delicate jinlu (energy tracks) in Qinna (arresting). These clearly advise diligent practice of the shoulders. sober movements and his relaxed yet vigorous energy explosions. Well known examples include the foot techniques of Li Bantian. you fail’ and so on. elbows. they always got hit and thrown to the ground. such as: ‘Profound principles emerge by themselves. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 39 . Significant gains may be attained by practicing the single forms step-by-step. you don’t. after you practice the form ten thousand times’. Hence. be they exponents in internal Gongfu or external Gongfu. back. If prolonged. Though widely differing in style. Master Chen Zhaokui was celebrated for his sudden dodges and incredibly small rebounding circles. ‘You practice. each have their own unique combat style drawn from continuous tempering in their practice. you harvest. To do otherwise would be to ‘attend to trifles and neglect the essentials’. so that the path to deeper understanding and realization may be paved. neglectful practice becomes increasingly difficult to rectify.Gongfu masters. resulting in loss of vigor and effectiveness. legs and hips using relevant principles. more like a relaxing stretch to enjoy the subtle. these masters have attained their expertise through a shared and unwavering focus in Single Form practice. ‘Skills come naturally when you are familiar with forms’. 拴Shuan (tie). Chen Zhaopi was the undisputed master of 滚Gun (rolling). Single Form practice is of vital importance. No matter how steady his partners stood in the beginning of a fight. we have Master Feng Zhiqiang who is venerated for his steady.
王 西 安 40 Fig. stomach gathered and head suspended from above. With one hip relaxed and the opposite foot slightly touching the ground. bend and raise your knee slightly. trampling. upwards and sideways. face to the front.2. horizontally.1 . alternating between both legs: kicking forward. swinging up and down and so on. 3. pedalling forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.1 Exercise One • • Squat slightly. 3.2 feeT pracTice Feet practice includes the following movements. chest rolled slightly inward.
collecting the energy at the abdomen. • Relax the feet so energy can reach the toes where it is required. up and down. make sure your in-step is stretched moderately tightly. pedaling. sideways. • Kicking smoothly. horizontal. upward and downward swing. • Roll the chest inward and aggregate energy with the whole body. 3.3. stepping. Descriptions of some of these exercises are provided below. feet hanging backward and so on.2 Exercise Two This is actually a series of exercises focusing on various kicking movements: forward. a) Forward Kick The Forward Kick consists of kicking directly forward at mid-level and to the left and right.2.2 41 . bend the other leg with toes grasping the ground to maintain a firm centre of gravity. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.
except that the Horizontal Kick is higher and targets the opponent’s pubic region and lower abdomen. 3. if you kick with the right leg. your left foot prepares to kick with the toes or instep as the right foot lands. Beginners should practice slowly. At this point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. edges of the foot plate and the sole (Fig.3 • This technique is applicable to the toes. 3. On landing with either foot.5). It should be practiced with both feet so that. b) Horizontal Kick 王 西 安 42 The key points of the Horizontal Kick are basically the same as those of the Forward Kick. use the rebounding force of the earth to bounce up and propel your kick (Fig. . gradually developing until they reach the point of whole body integrity with the unification of Yi-Qi-Xing (intention-energy-form). for example.4.3). 3. they will be able to direct energy explosions to targets with precision and ferocity. 3.
3. 3.5 c) Upward Kick (Shang Ti Jiao) 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.6 43 .Fig.4 Fig.
3. a principle also applicable to the Double Kick (Er Qi Jiao). The whole body must be kept balanced and straight when kicking upwards. Only if one’s kick is quick and powerful can kicking be initiated precisely and the target hit cleanly. . The Upward Kick should match the rhythm of the hands’ movements. • Switch your centre of gravity to the left foot. flexible and quick. practice kicking with each foot sequentially. instead. 王 西 安 44 d) Stepping Down (Xia Cai Jiao) Follow the sequences as follows: • Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. usually the opponent’s chin.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.7 The Upward Kick is used for high targets. There is no jumping in the Upward Kick. The kick should be light.
As your right foot explodes energy stamping downward. standing with left leg. cup your right fist and left wrist together in front of the chest. exploding energy as quickly and fiercely as you can. gathering the stomach and collapsing the waist to ensure you stand with the left foot firmly rooted.8 • • • Then stamp your right foot on the ground. Then empty the Yong Quan point. raise the right knee gradually (Fig. grasp the ground with the left toes and.• Bend the left knee.8). keeping the right foot at the same distance from the left foot as before. but try to keep some weight in the un-weighted side as well. 3. feet firmly grasping the ground. 王 西 安 45 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Make sure that your centre of gravity does not switch to your right foot right after it touches the ground. all the while rolling the chest slightly inward. 3.
remember to follow instantly and quickly with the other leg. 王 西 安 46 .10).9). The key points here are the same as those for the previous segments. and then withdraws elastically like a rubber band springing back into shape. e) Forward Kick This consists of a straight kick forward with the sole of the foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. practice with the left leg) (Fig. 3. including the alternating use of the legs (Fig.9 Regardless of which leg steps forward first. The distance of the kick depends on your skill level – a good kick hits the opponent at an angle of 25o from the horizontal. 3. Kick as high as your opponent’s stomach and chest. you can practice with the alternation of legs (after praciticing with the right leg for a while. 3. In Single Form exercise.
sometimes with the soles. Before kicking. prepare well by relaxing the chest and stomach to ensure your kick is fast.11).13). fierce and perfectly targeted.11 Kick mainly with the heels. 3. As you reach a higher level of skill. your reach will grow naturally and you will find it easier to execute kicks with greater ease (Fig.Fig.12) and the Outward Kick (Fig. 3.10 Fig. f) Sideways Kick The Sideways Kick consists of the Inward Kick (Fig. 王 西 安 47 . • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The Inward Kick is executed upwardly to the front. 3. with hitting points mainly on the inside of the foot (with the occasional use of the outside). 3. Avoid leaning backward when kicking – keep your axis upright to maintain your centre of gravity. 3.
as bending exists in straightness (meaning the body becomes bent when gathering (preparing for kicking). with the hitting points mainly on the outside of the foot (occasionally inside). the whole body gathers together then opens up with an explosion of energy. 3. This emphasises the importance of good quality energy gathering as a precondition for fast and powerful kicking. Bend the kicking leg about 25o and lean slightly backwards as you kick to maintain a stable root and ensure ‘straightness exists in bending.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. while the body becomes straightened when kick is streched).12 Fig.13 • The Outward Kick is executed outward and upwardly. In the Sideways Kick. as instructed in the ‘Essay on Quan’: “Gather energy like stretching a bow. 王 西 安 48 • . explode energy like releasing the arrow”. 3. this reflects the relationship between Yin and Yang’.
smack the foot with your hand to ensure the integrity of the energy. Always coordinate the kick with your hands. Kick upward with the back foot. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. If kicking with the right foot. toes grasping the ground and all muscles of the body relaxed. Your swinging foot is targeted at the back of the opponent’s head. Before kicking. Eye your target and prepare for the kick by gathering your internal energy and lowering it.14 49 . 3. Squat slightly. 3.14).15). then swing it outward in a natural arc. while your hands are targeted at the face. While swinging outward to the level of the shoulder. then bring it backward (Fig. which allows you to use quick and continous forward steps.g) Upwards Swinging Kick • • • • • • Place one foot in front of the other. use the Gen Bu (follow-on Steps). 3. be it with the right or left foot. turn the body to the left to ensure a smooth and powerful forward swing of the foot and vice versa (Fig.
And kick upward along with palms coordinated with Lü. 王 西 安 50 Practice these kicks repeatedly so that they become smooth and continous and you may eventually hit distant targets using a combination of kicks with agility.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a Tuishou poem states: Fig. 3. I smack in the air by switching into the track of a swing arc. . And smash enemies to pieces.15 With openings and closings. I take the back of the opponent’s head as target.
• Lower the back hanging foot to the ground then switch the front foot to Tou Bu (sneaking step) and move it forward. You should finish Lü. otherwise the power will become Ding force (a deadly disadvantage: energy going up) and you will be defeated. The powers of hand and foot combine together. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 51 .h) Back Hanging Foot (Hou Guan Jiao) This kick is widely applied in Huo Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with Moving Footwork). During solo practice. • Meanwhile the hand assists the foot hanging and covers towards the chest of the opponent. No matter which you use. • Hang one foot backward. keep your footwork flexible and neat. • Use both hands to execute Lü on one arm of opponent behind the body. Gua (hanging) and Gai (covering) in a second. rotating it slightly so that it slants to one side. coordinating both with Tou Bu (sneaking steps). Backward Hanging Foot can be used as an initial step or as a follow-on (Gen Bu) to initial approaches toward the opponent. • Pay attention to that you finish this action with the guiding of the waist and back. palms facing outward. • The foot hangs to the calf suddenly to make the opponent lose his balance. • Swing both hands backward to the side of the back hanging Foot. meanwhile two hands attack the chest of the opponent and strike the opponent down to the earth. • Hold the body in a squatting position for the next few movements. depending on the distance between you. • The action must be quick and powerful. remember to balance upward Long (close) movements with downward Ti (raise).
Then lower your foot to the ground. Move forward with Tou Bu (Sneaking Steps). 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.16). twisting the waist and rotating the back to exert more power (Fig. Hold your position and collect yourself enough to kick upward then swing downward. 3. As a Tuishou poem states: With Yin and then Jin techniques.16 • • • • Start by executing Yin (guiding) then move forward to attack with Jin (forwarding and attacking) force. 王 西 安 52 The secret of Back Hanging Foot is to plot the method to seize the opponent down and to fiercly bring him under your control without detection. your face looking upward. . I take the opponent’s upper body and chest as target. And kick upward along with palms smashing downward. I explode my energy with the rotation of my waist. And enemies fall to the ground with face to the air.
18.17). 3. 20:80). 30:70. the other should not leave the ground until the centre of gravity is transferred to the heel of the front foot to lighten its weight. Use Front Bow Steps to practice this movement (Fig. since these are in a constant state of flux depending on the circumstances.17 i) Downward Swinging Kick • • • • Take one step forward and switch your centre of gravity to the front leg (Fig 3.g. 3. Practice this transfer of weight by alternating the legs.19). Note that while weight distribution ratios may be used as a guide (e. The attacking leg must be flexible enough to swing to the left or right. these may not provide an accurate picture of weight changes required in practice or combat. 40:60. mindful that while one is in the air. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 53 . 3..Fig.
Avoid using long energy as it is likely to dissipate the concentration and power of your attack. shock their lower limbs and unbalance their upper body with my feet. ‘seize the upper body’ or ‘coordinate an outward strike with internal energy gathering’.18 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. waist and hands. 3. making your intention easily anticipated. . 3. I explode and shock the ghosts. Moving my feet in Ni (reverse) circles and my body in Shun (conforming) circles.19 Using Short Energy: Short energy should be used in both inward and outward kicks. As one master said: 王 西 安 54 I move my centre of gravity. Short energy attacks are often used to ‘give a shock to the lower limbs’. so that the strikes are as rapid and powerful as possible.
When the right foot lands fully on the ground. then squat and step out with your right foot. Lihe Tui (Inward Knee Strike). a shoulder width apart from the left foot. Nichan Tui (Legs Reeling in Ni Circles). change the weight to the right and step out with the left foot.3 leg pracTice Leg practice includes Shunchan Tui (Legs Reeling in Shun Circles). toward the target. Keep your legs reeling from left to right. As the toes touch the ground. that is. Change your weight to the left. Lower the tip of the toes of your unweighted right foot to the ground. Zhuangxi Tui (Strike with the Knee) and Houbai Tui (Backward Swinging Kick). 3. • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Note: When stepping forward. Practice continuously alternating both legs. just as in form practice. Xiacai Tui (Downward Cai energy). Begin with slow practice.3. making sure your leg is no higher than 15 cm above the ground.1 Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles • • • Stand with the feet a shoulder-width apart. repeating the movements while keeping reeling from the left to right. Relax your legs and inject energy into the heels with Chun Chan for smooth and easy reeling. Use intention (Yi) rather than physical force (Li). look in the direction of the moving leg. Move the left foot half a step to the left. ‘Yong Yi Bu Yong Li’. Waibai Tui (Legs Swinging Outward). 王 西 安 55 .3. working up your speed in gradual stages. step your right foot 40 cm forward to the right.
rotate to the left forward at an angle of 360o. step forward 40 cm with the right foot. transferring all your weight to the left. You also need to practice Nichan and Shunchan with both legs. Practice these steps in continuous alternating cycles. striking to both sides with each leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. continuous practice. 3.20). Next. Note: It is best to practice Shunchan and Nichan by varying the distance between you and your partner. Step the right foot forward.20 56 . and then rotate 360o left stepping on the toes (Fig. Inner knowledge can only develop with concerted. then step forward 40 cm to the left. transferring all your weight to the right. remembering that the inner side of the heel is the striking point. 王 西 安 Fig.3.2 Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles • • • • • Step the left foot leftward so that the feet are a shoulder-width apart. Raise the left foot. 3.
3 Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike Lihe Tui is an inward strike using the inner side of the knee and is widely used in Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps) and Ban Gong Bu (Half Bow Steps). 3. In Huobu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking).21).3.3. change your weight to the front foot. practice with both legs and with change of directions. • While practicing. whilst in Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking back and forth) Lihe is usually applied with the left leg. 3. we usually attack with Lihe Tui using the right leg.22). 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Combine Lihe Tui with the rotation of the waist and spine. attack with Lihe and then move 90% of your weight to the back leg (Fig.21 Fig. 3. As such.22 57 . • Stand at attention. then transfer your weight to the left before moving the right foot forward (Fig.
Through diligent solo Tuishou practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.23 Fig. Practice this technique with both legs alternately once you feel your energy flowing smoothly (Fig.24 58 . 3. Waibai Tui is usually applied during Da Lü (Lü in large scale movement) and the best way is to seek out opportunities for attack is while moving. 3. regardless of whether you practice day and night (Fig.24). and requires a sudden outward swing of the leg as weight is transferred. step forward with one leg and swing the other outward and then closing inward.23). practitioners will come to realize the deep significance of their efforts.4 Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward Waibai Tui is based on Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps). 王 西 安 Fig. Being content with a superficial understanding is fruitless. 3. Take care not to exert too much energy in the arms and legs to initiate the swing or your intention will be anticipated by your partner. 3. During practicing Waibai Tui.3.
• Start with your centre of gravity at the back leg. then Cai (pull down) with Ni (reverse circles) at an angle of 180o from the inside out. • Targets of this technique are typically the upper and middle parts of the inner side of the lower leg of the opponent.3. The outer side can also be targeted once your ability improves. placing your toes slightly outward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Cai to the right. Shun Cai (Pulling Down in Conforming Circles) and Ni Cai (Pulling down in Reverse Circles). 3. • To do Shun Cai: Cai downwards from the outside in using Shun Chan (conforming circles). Shun Cai and Ni Cai are based on Front Bow Steps. Xiacai Tui consists of Cai to the left. • To do Ni Cai: move the back leg forward.3. 3.5 Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy Cai means to pull down.26 59 .25 Fig. placing your toes slightly inward.
Practice with alternating legs during Single Form practice. striking inward and striking outward. keep ankles relaxed and Qi descending (Fig. bending consists of stretching’.3. 3. Bend your knees about 40o – more than this and you will lose your centre of gravity. With a spiralling move forward.6 Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee Zhuangxi Tui consists of four types of strikes: striking left and right.26).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While applying Cai (pulling down). 3.28 60 . you can enter the opponent’s territory (Fig. Train your body to understand the meaning of ‘stretching consists in bending. Deepen your understanding of Jin Li (energy and force distribution).27 Fig. 3.25). 王 西 安 Fig. striking to the front. 3. 3.
• • •
All the above incorporate shifting of weight forward and back. Move the left foot forward then strike out the right knee, aiming it at the partner’s crotch (Fig. 3.27). While striking forward, roll the chest slightly inward and gather energy in the abdomen. Also, keep the hip and ankle relaxed, focusing your energy exertion on the target. Change your weight to the front, raise the knee, then strike it with an open palm (Fig. 3.28).
Li He Bu (Tuishou with Static Footwork) requires you to bend your knee, strike to the left, hit the inner side of partner’s right leg or the outer side of his left leg. (Fig. 3.29). Striking up and outward is called Waizhuang (Striking Outward). Key points are the same as in the previous striking practice (Fig. 3.30).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
3.3.7 Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
This is a wide-spanning movement and beginners are advised to imagine an opponent or target as they perform the technique during solo practice. • Lift the right foot to step forward and as you lean forward, swing the right leg backward using both the waist and spine. • As the right leg swings backward, fend off the opponent’s arm and attack with both hands. This technique of ‘attacking the upper parts and shocking the lower parts’ is often used to throw opponents to the ground (Fig. 3.31). Key points to remember are the same as in preceding techniques, all of which require whole body involvement.
王 西 安
3.4 fisT pracTice 3.4.1 Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
This technique consists of striking either fist spirally upward. • Step forward with the left leg, bending your knees slightly to transfer your centre of gravity to the left leg, then strike with the right fist using the ‘Ligou Quan’ (Fist Hooking Inward) technique, taking care not to overshoot your blow above the opponent’s head. • Simultaneously, use your bent right knee to hit at the opponent’s crotch (Fig. 3.32). • Integrate both fist and knee strikes with practice principles of rolling the chest slightly inward (Hanxiong), lowering the waist (Tayao), relaxing the stomach (Songfu), and drawing up the anus (Tigang). • Strengthen your centre of gravity to improve your accuracy by ensuring your left leg is slightly bent with toes grasping the ground (Fig. 3.33).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
3.4.2 Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
This technique encompasses a downward strike with either fist at any angle. For example: • If the right leg goes forward, transfer your centre of gravity from the right to the left leg. • Clench the right hand into a fist, thumb tucked inside neither too tightly nor too loosely. • Strike the opponent’s upper body with the right fist, using your left arm to balance your movement. • You can also use the Bei Kao technique or attack with the elbows as well. • Again, effectiveness of this technique requires involvement of the whole body in the movement: ‘once you move, your whole body follows’ (Fig. 3.34).
王 西 安
3.4.3 Shuang Fen Quan Splitting Fists or Double Bursting Fists
• • • •
Take a half-step to the left (or right). Bend your knees slightly and gather both fists to the chest, centres (Quanxin) facing downward (Fig. 3.35). Prepare to strike by gathering in the crotch and knees, and rolling the chest and shoulders slightly inward. To strike, transfer your weight to the right (or the opposite leg) and simultaneously split both fists explosively from the chest to either side of the torso, fists facing upward. As you strike, open the crotch, knees, chest and shoulders. Remember to keep the external and internal energy consistent, and the energy flow smooth (Fig. 3.36).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
4 Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward Fists Smashing Downward shares many common traits with Splitting Fists: both strike with the back of the fists and require practitioners to look to the side of the stepping foot. 3. 3. at the same time hooking the left fist upward. Rotate the right toes slightly outward as the foot lands. 王 西 安 66 Fig. Rotate the body to the right then strike downward with the back of the right fist. there are three main distinctions: the trajectory of the fists and target differ with Fists Smashing Downward and one or both fists may be used. Hold the right fist close to the left side of the chest. • • • • • • Take a half step to the right with the right foot. change your weight to the right leg and step your left foot forward.37 . fist centre facing inward.37). Rest the left fist beside the left leg (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.4. Next. However.
After striking.39) 王 西 安 67 . as the left foot steps forward (weight on the right). and lower the left fist from its upward strike position back to the left side of the body). Then repeat with the other foot. step the left foot horizontally over the right one. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. Return both fists to their original positions (raise the right fist from its downward strike position back to the left side of the chest.38 Fig.Fig. the right fist is raised above the left side of the chest for more power and then smashes down to the right. alternating both sides continuously (Fig. the fists are raised from the sides across the chest as one foot steps horizontally in front of the other. Practice these steps. involve your whole body in the attack.38). (Fig. For each step. For example. downwards on the right and upward on the left. 3. both left and right fists rise and descend at the same time. 3. Likewise. 3. stepping the right foot forward and exploding the fists before landing. when the right foot steps forward (weight on the left). the left fist rises above the right side of the chest and smashes down to the left. 3.39 • • • • • Again.
fingers vertical. 3. Make efforts to cultivate both internal and external energies (Neiwai Jianxiu) and you will develop power.40). This counter-balancing movement helps to accelerate the punch of the right fist. then guided outward with Yinian (intention) to manifest in a ‘quivering punch’. stretching the left hand upward.41 68 . 3.40 Fig. the left arm gathers inward and strikes backward to the left with the elbow. 王 西 安 Fig. • Then fling the right fist forward in Ni reeling. • Sink your weight into the right foot and rotate the waist to the right to gather energy. concentrating your power in the Quanding (the front of the fist). Practice this technique on both sides. • Gather the right fist under the right rib (Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.41). 3. • Step the left foot forward. avoid the temptation of focusing too much on the external ‘look’ of the punch – this will lead to nothing but the loss of energy (Fig.5 Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist Single Fling Fist is a forward punch unique to Taijiquan in that its power is generated by rotating spiral energy at the waist and back. • Sychronise both arms so that while the right fist flings forward.4.
• • • • Step the right foot forward. Then step the left foot forward. 3. 3.43 69 . so that the strike manifests within a narrow range yet internally it contains great power and flexibility. and practice alternating both sides.6 Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist Baokong refers to the half-moon shape that is formed by the arms as you strike the centre of one palm with the other fist. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. the main difference being that in the former.3. Instead. only about 40% of the jin force generated is exerted as short rather than long energy. Repeat with the other side.42). energy does not manifest externally. Baokong Fist shares the same characteristics as Zhichong Quan (Fling Fist). 3.43). Transfer your centre of gravity from the back to the front and hit the right fist into the centre of the left palm (Fig.4.42 Fig. 3. bringing the left palm to the front of the body (Fig. The power of this technique depends very much on the practitioner’s physical condition. simultaneously gathering the right fist beside the right ribs.
44). 王 西 安 70 Fig. 3. up or down. • Strike with force and ferocity with this fist using short energy.7 Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist Dianxue refers to the internal injury caused by hitting a specific acupuncture point with a sharp force. • Attack to the left or right. • Clench your fist so the middle joint of the middle finger protrudes. • Brace the middle finger with the index and ring fingers. and press the tip of the thumb against the middle fingernail. This makes the fist ‘peak’ stable and solid. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. This forms the ‘peak’ of the fist.44 . like hammering a nail. using small agile steps (Fig.4.
Guanyang means to hit the temples with two nails. Place your weight on one leg. Bring the fists together in the middle about 25 cm apart.45). Form two nail-shaped fists and strike from both sides using short energy. Bend the other leg then strike both fists upward together. hence creating a dual attack with both fists and knee (Fig.45 Fig. 3. Method 1 • • Method 2 • • • Step forward with either leg. 3. 3. Practice both methods using both legs. 3.46 71 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. gather the ribs and lower your energy to the Dantian (Fig. Roll the chest and shoulders slightly inward.8 Dingzi Quan Guanyang Nail-shaped Fists targeting acupoints on the temple Dingzi Quan is also another term meaning ‘Nail-shaped Fist’.46).3.4.
• Strike forward with both palms. practice using long energy first. 3.5. the ribs gathered. fingers pointing up (Fig. and lower the energy to the abdomen (Fig.47 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. the chest rolled slightly inward and the spine slightly lifted. though in the initial stages. palms facing forward. transferring your weight to the front.5 palM pracTice 3.1 Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms This technique includes shaking palms with both short and long energy. • Place your hands in front of the chest. 3. while making sure the chest is relaxed. • Step forward with either leg. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. thrusting them forward with explosive force. • Prepare for the strike by ensuring your axis is upright.48).47).48 72 . 3. • Step forward with the other leg.
5. 3. gather the chest and stomach like a cat stalking a rat. Just before the explosive strike. As the energy reaches the wrists. while the Single Palm Push requires the rotation of waist and back to exert a frontal or inclining push. 3. • At the same time step forward with the left leg. 3.50. a Double Palm Push needs to be sudden and exerted directly forward. The power.49).Fig. elbows and wrists are lowered. • Thrust the right palm forward or diagonally to the side. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Make sure your shoulder. 王 西 安 73 .2 Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique This technique consists of the Single Palm Explosion with Shun Bu (walking forward and back). energy range and flexibility of movement of both Single and Double Palm Push all rely on the practitioner’s abilities and internal energy.49 When practicing with short energy. 3. using long or short energy (Fig. • Repeat using the left palm. speed.51. To be effective. thrust your arms out about 50% (Fig.52). lower your energy abruptly and push forward with short energy using small steps. 3.
52 . 3. 3.50 王 西 安 74 Fig. you will be able to explode energy with natural ease by combining both external form and internal spirit. abruptness and power of the push. With continuous practice. gradually increasing the speed. Fig. and hence conquer your opponents without effort.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Start this practice slowly.51 Fig. 3.
53 Fig.3 Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off This technique is used to fend off an arm strike from the opponent with an upward hand strike. enabling you to hit your target with more precision and power (Fig. Direct energy above the waist upward and energy below the waist downward. whilst using the other palm to push at the opponent’s chest or strike at their stomach. 3.5.54). 3. 3. • • Step one foot forward and ward off an arm attack with one hand. while gathering the other hand beside the ribs (Fig.53). This creates an energy balance that stabilizes your centre of gravity.54 王 西 安 75 . 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.3.
• Keep the hips relaxed. the stomach gathered and the chest rolled inward (Fig.55 76 . and then straighten it while pushing the right palm upward. Explode this energy through the right side of body out through the right palm. • As you push upward. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig. open the right side of the chest and stomach.4 Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push This technique uses the inner side of the root of the palm (Zhanggen) to push upward. • At the same time. press downward with the left hand as a counterbalance between the upper and lower body (taking the waist as the dividing line).55).5. while gathering energy on the left side. • To push with the right palm: bend the right knee. 3. first at an angle then vertically upward.
then quickly striking their chest with your right palm (Fig. rotate your body to the right.58). 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.56 Fig. stepping forward with the left foot and extending the left hand forward in Ni Shun reeling (Ni means ‘first’. 3.56). Keep your body and energy lowered while doing this. • Then swiftly draw the opponent into your domain by touching their back with your left hand.5. 3. Shun means ‘sequence’) (Fig.5 Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang Attack with Both Palms This is also called the ‘Attack with One Palm Guiding and Other Hand Pushing. • At the same time.57 77 .’ Apply this technique during Single Palm practice. • Step the right foot forward and extend the right hand outward to ward off the opponent’s attack (Fig. 3.3.57).
3. if the opponent seizes your right hand and twists it outwards with Shun reeling. and gather the ribs and dantian. moving the body quickly forward.5. For example. This helps to concentrate energy in the palms. 王 西 安 78 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.6 Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang Push Partner’s Waist with Shun or Ni Reeling This technique enables you to push the opponent to either side using both Shun and Ni reeling. • As you lower the body. incline your body outward with Ni reeling whilst following the opponent’s Shun reeling. left and right.58 • • Also apply the usual principles: roll the chest inward. apply the following steps: • Step your right foot forward and lower your body and centre of gravity to the right. lower the shoulders. Coordinate the movements of your body with those of the palms. 3.
59 Fig. extending the thumb and fingers (Fig. lower your body then extend it forward with Shun reeling.59). 3. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s ribs.60). lure the opponent into your territory to destabilize his centre of gravity (Yinjin Luokong) by swiftly moving your right foot further forward and lowering the body while your right hand reaches forward. Unify the three actions of stepping forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 If the opponent seizes your left hand and twists it with Ni reeling. this time at the left side with your right hand. inclining outward and exploding with the left palm (Fig. Next.60 • • • As you do this. 3. thrust forcefully at the opponent’s right ribs by exploding energy with your left hand. • Key points are the same as with the left hand push above. • Again.Fig. 3. 3. respond in this way: • Step forward with the left foot. 王 西 安 79 .
goes through legs. roll your chest slightly inward and bend your right arm inward. • As you seize. 3.61 Increase the effective of solo practice by sparring with an imaginary enemy in mind. regardless of the technique or force used. so that energy flows to the very tips of the body. change your centre of gravity from the left to the right. Also.5. “Energy comes from heels. 3.” 3.7 Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa Shun or Ni Reeling with Single Palm 王 西 安 80 This technique consists of using either hand to seize the opponent using Shun or Ni short spiralling energy.61). Relax your joints to enhance energy application. especially when stepping forward and exploding energy (Fig. dominates the waist and penetrates to every part of body. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. • Step the right foot forward and seize (Na) the opponent’s hand with your left hand while reeling downward in Shun circles. coordinate the waist and legs when exploding energy. as advised in an essay.
guide or bring along . 3. 3. If the opponent escapes. listening closely to your partner as you do so.8 Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa Double Dai Palms Single Form Practice Step your right foot forward and transfer your centre of gravity to the front. reach out with your left palm and guide your opponent to the left by reeling in Shun circles with thumb extended. change sides so that your right hand seizes the opponent by Ni reeling and the left by Shun reeling (Fig. • At the same time.63 • • • With your right arm.62 Fig. reach under your opponent’s front arm.5. 王 西 安 81  ‘Dai’ means to lead. 3. Thus. Change your right hand to Shun reeling and your left to Ni reeling.62). 3. palm open. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. practice alternating the seizing between right and left hands. To speed up your response. you are able to use both palms to seize the opponent (Fig.Fig.63).
王 西 安 82 3. moving your arms to stabilize this rotation. As your step forward. . Clench the left hand into a loose fist and push it forward. gather the right hand beside the ribs. face the left palm outward. 3. 3. Transfer your centre of gravity to the front.66). fingers up.65 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. Then hit the opponent with the right arm (Fig. fingers pointing to the front (Fig. Change your weight to the back and turn to the right.64 Fig.5. 3. 3.65). Bend your right arm 90o inward and form a fist with your right hand. Practice on both sides. palm up. 3. fingers to the front (Fig.9 Qianchuan Zhang Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice • • Step the left foot forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.64).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Practice alternating the position of both palms. left under right and right under left (Fig. 3. and then explode both palms forward with a piercing thrust. Return the hands to their original positions before the next energy explosion. coordinate the waist and spine when shaking the right palm forward in Shun reeling. to increase the speed and power of the explosion. Next. place the left thumb and little finger in opposition while the remaining fingers face forward. Also.66 Fig.Fig. 3.67 • • • • • • Lift the left palm over the right. To increase the precision and power of the fingers. move the left hand and foot quickly forward together. reel the right hand in Shun reeling to the right and step the right foot forward. 3.67). As the right foot lands on the ground. 王 西 安 83 .
69 84 . Remember to apply long energy before you apply short energy (Fig. In this case. Practice striking with both elbows with corresponding weight changes to either side.69). 3. bend both arms at 900 and gather both hands into fists close to the ribs to either side of the body. strike forward with the right elbow while hitting backward with the left elbow.6 elbOw pracTice 3.69).1 Li Zhou … Standing Elbows • • • • • Step forward with the left foot.68 Fig. the left arm counter-balances the movement of the right. At the same time. 王 西 安 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. As you change your weight to the front. 3. 3. 3.6. palms facing in (Fig.
3. wrist turned inward and the palm facing backward. Alternatively. 3.71 85 . Prepare for the downward elbow strike by raising the right arm while touching the back of the right fist with the left hand (Fig.2 Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows • • • • • • • • • Change your weight to the left and turn the body to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. At the same. 3. 3.6. As the right elbow descends. slap the right shoulder with the left palm. gather it close to the right ribs. Step the right foot forward and strike the right elbow down forcefully as the foot lands. Then strike the right elbow down for the second time (Fig. After the strike. Lift the left hand when the right elbow completes 90o of its descent.70 Fig.3. At the same time. palm up. step the right foot forward again and extend the left arm forward. take a small step forward with the left foot. and clench the right hand into a fist.71).70). bend the right elbow inward. return the elbow to the right side.
73 Fig.72 王 西 安 Fig.3 Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist • • Step the right foot forward. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.6. then turn right with the right toes facing slightly out. Fig. 3. Rotate slightly to the left.74 86 . 3.
Lower right fist to the left side of the body so that the right arm is held at 900 while stepping the left foot forward (Fig. Remember that the right leg moves forward with the right arm and vice-versa. then step forward with the right foot. clasping the right forearm with the left palm.75).4 Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block • • • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Roll the chest slightly inward so that it is concave. Move the body to the left and transfer your centre of gravity to the right and back. Gather the body to prepare for attack by lowering the body slightly (Fig. Focus on ‘hitting upward’ with your right elbow so as to destabilize the opponent’s centre of gravity and lift them off from the ground (Fig. 3. 王 西 安 87 . Gather the body by bending it slightly. clasping the right forearm with the left palm. Turn to the left and strike out explosively with the right elbow. so that both feet are approximately 50 cm apart. 3. clench the right hand into a fist. As you do this. as if warding off (Fig. raise the right hand across the front of the chest to the left in an upward arc. 3. gather the ribs and lower your Qi. Step the left foot forward.6.74). 3. palm facing in.73).72).• At the same time. 3. transferring your centre of gravity to the left. • • • Practice with the other arm. toe tips slightly touching the ground. Step the right foot to the left and bend the right arm.
Practice with both sides (Fig. Footwork and hand movements are similar to those of Shun Lan Zhou (Smooth Elbow Block). balancing this movement with the left hand. the right fist lowered to front of the left armpit. strike the right elbow to the right. Next. turning the body to the right.76). Once familiar with the practice. 3.75 Fig.6. 3. 王 西 安 88 3. gathering it horizontally in front of the chest.76 • Spiral the right arm forward with Ni reeling.5 Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow This technique consists of an elbow strike at the heart. • In the initial stages.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Simultaneously. practice with long and slow energy. 3. palm down. use short and fast energy. step right with the right foot. with the following differences: .
6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 89 . 3. extend your left palm forward. palm down. Before the foot lands.78). 3. palm facing right. In Xin Zhou the left palm touches and lightly holds the right wrist as the right elbow strikes (Fig.78 3. toe tips on the ground. jump slightly with the right foot.77). fingers pointing up. 3.• • Shun Lan Zhou is aimed slightly to the back. • Simultaneously. Touch the right knee with the right palm. • Jump the left foot half a step to the left. 3.77 Fig. • Turn the body to the right and reel the right palm across the chest to the right.6 Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow This technique consists of concentrating energy in the elbow and striking upward with it. • Stand at attention with the arms relaxed at the sides. landing approximately 50 cm apart from the left foot. while Xin Zhou is targeted to the front (Fig.
As you change weight. step the right foot forward. 3. gather the left side of the body so that your attack will have a clear division of Xu (emptiness) and Shi (solidity). 3. 3. toe tips touching the ground (Fig. clench both palms into fists. then gradually using short and fast energy. avoid letting all your energy flow upward as this will destabilize your root. While striking on the right.81 • • • • • 王 西 安 90 • • Prepare to explode energy by looking to the right and gathering the body (Fig.80). 3. followed by the right foot. Look to the right side of body while striking upward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. balance the energy between the upper and lower body. starting with slow movements initially until the steps become familiar. Practice on both sides. step the left foot to the left. Next.80 Fig.79 Fig. taking the waist as the dividing line. 3. . After the strike. placing the left fist below the right. Also. 3. toe-tips on the ground. then transfer your centre of gravity to the right. Move the right fist toward the right shoulder using Shun reeling. Instead.81). Return the left fist beside the right ribs (Fig.79). bending the wrist before striking upward quickly with the back of the right fist.
3. If you stepped to the left. Gather the fists close to the chest (Fig. 3. Practice alternating both sides. then exploding both elbows horizontally. looking to the left and concentrating energy in the elbow tips (Fig. place the left arm inside the right.82).6. the right elbow executes the dominant attack. then strike with the right elbow.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. In this position.82 Fig. 3.7 Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows This technique consists of striking simultaneously with both elbows by holding the arms in front of the chest.83 王 西 安 91 . Change your weight to the left. 3. • • • • Step to one side with either leg.83). while the left the supplementary strike.
As your weight transfers to the front. 3. Try to feel the effect of this preparation during practice (Fig.85 . holding fists on either side of the ribs (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. prepare for the stike by gathering the wrists inward. This increases the force of your attack. 3. looking to the front and rolling the chest and shoulders inward.8 Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou Double Closing Elbows This technique consists of a center strike with both elbows.84).84 Fig. 3. • • Step one foot forward.6. 王 西 安 92 Fig.85).
3.9 Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow • • • • • Step the left foot forward and extend your left hand forward simultaneouly. clench the left palm into a half fist and place it beside the left leg.87). then lift it so that the right elbow is positioned over the right knee (Fig.3. Practice alternating both sides. take a big step forward with the right foot in front of the left.86 Fig. As your centre of gravity shifts to the left.87 93 . extend the left hand forward and simultaneously strike the right elbow downward past the back (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. palm facing inward and inclining backward. Simultaneously. You can begin a new round by stepping forward with the other foot and repeating the movements on the other side. rotate the body to the right. As the weight shifts to the left. clench the right hand into a fist.86). palm to the front. At the same time.6. 3. 3. 3.
then lower it over the right knee.6. In this way. Make sure both hands move and arrive at their destinations simultaneously. moving it beside the left ribs. shifting your centre of gravity to the front. you apply Pie (Pushing Aside) force by meeting conforming force with the transverse force of your arms. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. strike forward explosively with the right forearm using a short-energy (Fig. Shape the right hand into a hook (Diao Shou) and place it in front of the left thumb.88 94 . • At the same time. • Step the right foot forward. As one of the Eight Forces. the legs should be parallel to each other. • Extend the right hand outward.10 Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow Pie Zhou signifies conquering conforming force (Shun Jin) with transverse force (Heng Jin). • All movements are guided by the rotation of the waist and spine.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. the aim of Pie Zhou is to convert conforming force into transverse force (Shun Zhong Qiu Heng).88). palm up. • Change your weight to the left. • After exerting Pie force. • Shift your weight abruptly to the right and form a half fist with the left palm.
closing it slightly. lower the left hand from the front of the chest to the left ribs.6. The thumb and index finger form the character Ba ‘八’. palm up. coordinating the explosion of energy with a twisting of the crotch and rotation of the waist and spine. • While lowering the left hand.89 95 . 3. ring and middle fingers. using downward Ni reeling.11 Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow This is a capturing and immobilising technique using the elbow.3. In this way. using guiding energy from the little finger. and extend the left hand forward to the right. use Cai technique to strike out explosively with the outside of the right forearm and elbow. • Then. • Step backward with the left foot shifting your weight to the left. 3. • Keep the left hand open so the thumb is separated from the fingers. • Raise the right hand from the right side. Shift your weight more to the left as you do this (Fig.89). bending the elbow. Form a hook (Diao Shou) with the right hand with the little. both internal and external movements are integrated with the movements of the body and limbs. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.
especially useful as a defensive move when being attacked while in a passive situation.90 Fig. Note: For maximum effectiveness. 3.12 Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow This technique consists of using the elbow to strike backward. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.90). 3. Relax the crotch and incline (Xia Fu) the body abruptly forward using Pie technique. 王 西 安 96 Fig. At the same time. 3. While transferring weight.91). make sure power is gathered properly through the whole body and that your timing is correct before you strike. you raise the right hand in Ni reeling to descend the elbow (Fig. and then.91 . moving your weight to the right (Fig. the right thumb guides energy flow. and extend the right leg backward. strike the right elbow backward at an upward angle (Shang Chuan Zhou). • • • • Bend the left knee. toes grasping the ground.6.
Ying Men Kao. Ce Jian Kao. The right foot and right arm should reach their positions at the same time (Fig.1 Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push • • Step the right foot forward. Xiong Kao. 3. 3.7.7 kaO (push) pracTices Kao practices can be divided into seven techniques: Qian Zai Kao. Shuang Bei Kao and Qi Cun Kao. 3.93 97 .92).3. 3. bend the right arm inward to position the right shoulder in readiness to execute Zai Kao. As you shift your weight to the right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.92 Fig. and bend the right arm over the inside of the right leg while the left hand rests gently on the outside of the right arm.
Note: Only push when you are in the correct position. use the outside of the right shoulder to execute Qian Zai Kao. take care to maintain your centre of gravity by not stretching too far forward (Fig. quickly pushing the front of the right shoulder forward to execute Ce Jian Kao (Fig.93). 3. As the heel touches the ground. pushing it forward and down.7. Then take another big step forward with the right foot.94). Then step the right foot forward again to execute Zai Kao for a second time. On completion of the shoulder push. The left hand follows the right hand in support and comes to a rest in front of the right shoulder. Repeat these steps for both sides. After executing the above. 3. if you find you get into an appropriate space for attacking. 3. raise the right hand from the inside to fend off and steer the opponent’s hand to the right. .2 Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push This technique consists of pushing the shoulder at the opponent’s ribs. • • 王 西 安 98 • • Step forward with the right foot (Shang Bu). step forward with the left foot and place it next to the right foot. you can choose not to use Follow-on Steps (Dian Bu) as this will result in Ce Jian Kao being pitched too directly forward. As the body inclines forward significantly during this move. Do not make the mistake of weakening your defences by being too eager to attack and moving beyond your territory.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Then.
When firmly closed.3 Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder Ying Men Kao refers to the ancient tradition of comparing the arms to two iron doors. This only comes with closely combining the Yin (guide).94 Notes: • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Finding the right rhythmic flow to your movements is key to effective attacks. arms are a defense against attacks. 3. lowering down but not stiff. 王 西 安 99 . 3. light but not floating” . conversely if one is able to ‘open’ the doors of the opponent. Dai (lead and pull) and Ji (attack) energies together. Work consistently to master the key points until you are able to execute the movements in a way that is “quick but not loose.7. then techniques such as Ying Men Kao can be used to penetrate defences and attack.Fig.
fingers pointing up and palms facing the sides of the body. It is easier to hurt the partner using a narrower attacking surface. Note: There are two ways your can attack with Ying Men Kao: • You can lower your power slightly so that the tip of the shoulder protrudes more. Next. move the left foot forward parallel to the right foot and repeat the sequence for another attack.96 • • • • • • 王 西 安 100 Take a large step forward with the right foot. cross the hands in front of the chest. move both arms to each side of the body and push the right shoulder forward in attack (Fig. At the same time.96). 3.95). Once the attack is completed.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. The success of this technique depends on the extent of coherency and how quickly and smoothly the steps can be executed. the right hand above the left. . • You can use more of the shoulder surface in the attack. 3. 3. Practice the steps in alternating rounds between right and left until you can execute the technique with speed and power. 3.95 Fig. Separate the hands of the opponent to expose his chest (Fig.
• After this move is completed. A good sense of timing is essential for defeating the opponent.4 Xiong Kao … Chest Push This technique uses the chest to push at the opponent. • Practice this technique in rounds by stepping the right foot forward again and repeating the sequence above. 3. 3. Only with a thorough mastery of this technique. using this shift to deliver a sudden push with the chest (Fig. • Then roll the chest inward and shift your weight quickly from left to right. shifting your weight to the front. • Change your weight to the left while pulling the opponent toward your chest using your palms (Fig.98 101 . the chest and waist are in a collapsed position. can you execute it in actual combat (because you may easily hurt yourself ).7. • Step the right foot forward. 3.97). move the left foot parallel to the right.3. 3. • To begin. Note: Focus on sharpening your sense of timing during practice.98). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Extend both arms from the sides to the front in an embracing gesture.97 Fig.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. a capability that comes only with extended Quan practice. • Stand with feet parallel. shoulders slightly concave and with power guided by the thumbs (Fig.5 Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders This technique consists of a simultaneous attack from both shoulders. This technique also uses Duan Jing (short power). • When the whole body holds and collects to a moderate extent. Shuang Bei Kao requires Duan Tan Dou Jing prowess (short. • Gently rotate backwards with both palms facing backwards. Note: As mentioned in previous techniques. 王 西 安 Fig. remember to gather and withhold energy before delivering the strike. • When the weight moves forward the chest rolls inwards.100 102 .99 Fig. 3. 3. rebounding and shaking power).100). You may lead with either leg. 3.7. take a sudden breath in and push the chest forward quickly. and the shoulders execute Bei Kao to the right .99). 3. as the shoulders deliver Bei Kao backwards (Fig.
3.101). • Once your root is stabilized. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. extend the distance of your Kao slightly.101 103 . and at the same time deliver a forceful backward push (Hou Bei Kao Jing) with the right arm and shoulder (Fig.7.6 Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back To attack by moving backwards is called Bei Zhe Kao. • Start doing Shun reeling with your right hand as you move your weight slightly to the front. continue to transfer your weight to the right. • Extend the right foot and arm forward. fingers pointing down. use short power in your push. • Practice pushing from both the right and left sides. 3. if further away.3. • Turn the body slightly to the left as the right hand rises. Note: If the opponent is at close-range. Find a stable centre of gravity with the body and gather your body in this position. This technique consists of drawing your partner into your territory (Yin Jin) while you move backwards to attack. • Gradually move the right arm downward toward to the inside of the right leg.
This technique is particularly difficult to apply in combat and can only be executed successfully if real efforts are made during practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.7 Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao The name of this technique indicates that the body should be seven cun (approximately 23 cm) above the ground. 3.102). Note: Power applied in the initial stages should be slow rather than quick. • • • • Take a large step diagonally forward with the left or right leg. 王 西 安 Fig. Practice this sequence in rounds from left to right. 3.7. Place the elbow below the knee (Fig. Incline the body forward in the same direction. This technique uses largescale movements and requires the body to be inclined while keeping the suspending upright power (Ding Jing).102 104 .
Xiong Na. • Rest the right hand near the right ribs.104).103 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • At same time. 3. and Shuang He Na. draw the right hand inward in Shun reeling toward the left hand and seize forcefully (Fig.3. Shuang He Fu Cai Na.1 Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling This seizing technique employs both Shun and Ni reeling. • Take the left thumb as the guidance of energy flow and reel the left hand in Ni direction from outside in. 3. 3. Diao gai Na. Chan Rao Na.8. 3.104 105 . Tui Na.8 na (seizing) pracTices Na practices can be divided into eight techniques: Shun Ni Na. 3.103). palm facing in. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight forward to the left. • Extend the left foot and left hand forward. Fu Na. palm up (Fig.
王 西 安 106 Closing with the left while seizing with the right and vice versa. tighten the ribs. Shun reel with the right hand and Ni reel with the left. changing the weight from left to right. you should use short power so that with one closing and one opening you can quickly reach the right position before the partner. roll the chest in. Try to relax at every step while applying the seizing action firmly. After seizing. When seizing. . If you try to seize the opponent using Shun reeling on the left hand and Ni reeling on the right. i. Observe your opponent’s changes and respond accordingly: if the opponent uses long power. this time reeling in Shun direction with the left hand and Ni direction with the right. Seizing techniques are quite difficult to practice. spread the energy up and down the length of your body like a bow so that power is distributed everywhere. drop the elbow. and lower your waist and Qi. With practice. move the weight slightly backward then move forward again. then you must respond promptly by swapping the reelings to the opposite hands. you will be able to execute these changes quickly and smoothly. if you practice each side diligently. even though you deliver the power later than the partner. lower the shoulders. but she evades your attack by ducking down.e. Your moves will become more effective as your internal Qi integrates more closely with the external movements. Repeat the above sequence. you’ll be able to apply this technique automatically and even defeat your opponent if you apply it well. in order to block the opponent’s energy path.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While seizing with both hands. Note: Shun and Ni reeling are interdependent and cannot be separated.
8. tighten the ribs. 3.105). Then lower the right hand to the right ribs.107 王 西 安 107 .105 Fig. 3. As you do this. 3. At the same time. and clench the right hand into a fist. placing it in front of the chest. Then rotate the right hand and body to the right.106).106 Fig. 3. The shift to the left enables you to hit the target clearly (Fig. Relax the left side of the crotch.107). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. and shift your weight to the right side. 3. • • • • • Step forward with the left foot and move the right hand in front of chest to fend the opponent off upwards to the right at head level (Fig. Again. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left. roll the chest in.3. palm out. lower the Qi. extend the left hand forward to rest in front of the body (Fig.2 Xiong Na … Seize with Chest This seizing technique uses the Cai power of the chest with the help of the hands.
palm facing right (Fig. Relax the crotch. Shift your weight forward and accumulate power well. The left hand leads by closing the power causing the right hand to follow. • Step the left foot forward and extend the left hand to the front. reel with both hands in a Shun direction. • At the same time. Make sure to keep your own axis when seizing the opponent. palm facing left (Fig. Move the whole body in a natural and relaxed state. roll the chest slightly inward and gather the ribs. extending it forward in an arc until it comes to a rest in the front of the right side of the abdomen.108). 3. and gather energy in the ribs. the palm forming a “八” (Ba) shape.3 Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen This technique consists of seizing with the abdomen filled with descending Qi with the assistance of the hands. 王 西 安 108 . 3. • Close the crotch. • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the left side of the body. while the two hands serve as supports. • As the weight shifts to the left.” 3. the force of upward suspension maintains the axis. As it states in the poem: “Raise the left hand and extend the right hand upward to draw a circle. rotate the body. The strike is actually applied by the left side of the chest.109). Move quickly and follow your partner but do not lose power.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Remember that Qi gathers in the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) unify to become one power. Match the speed of your movements to that of your partner. Draw the arc with the intention of meeting the opponent’s hand. lower Qi to the abdomen in preparation for the inward roll and seizing.8. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left by stepping the right foot on the ground.
3.108 • • As the Qi descends. the left hand moves lightly and assists the right. The eyes look forward and to the left. 3. whose movement is heavier (Fig. clench the left hand.110 109 . seize with the right and roll the abdomen – these three actions combine to become one power. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. 3.109 Fig.Fig. The abdomen provides the main supporting element.110).
As you seize. and gather them towards you (Fig.112). . move the palms up to chest level and seize the opponent’s elbows using Na power. 3. Continue to shift your weight forward. extend both arms to the front. immobilizes their wrists by bending them outwards. followed by the left. push the abdomen out suddenly (Fig. whereby the abdomen gathers power to support the hands. As your weight shifts. Direct the eyes to the front. and commence shifting your weight forward.8.111). 3. while the hands use Na (seizing) power to collect inward. At the same time. 3. facing in so that the fingers are directed towards each other. keep your intention firm for victory or failure will be decided in a second. Move swiftly without hesitation. the right foot steps forward. Concentrate your energies then pounce on your opponent like an agile cat. do not be kind to the foe for the opportunity to attack comes just once. • • • • 王 西 安 110 • • Take a half step forward with the right foot. gather the ribs and lower Qi to the abdomen so that internal strength flows through the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) may unify to guide the attack. and both feet standing steadily as the hands move. roll the chest slightly inward.4 Shuang He Fu Cai Na Seize from Both Sides with Abdomen This seizing technique uses the combined efforts of the abdomen and hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. palms about 10 cm from the lower abdomen. bending them at the elbows. Both hands extend forward in sequence. the right hand moving down while the left moves up. capture and immobilize the opponent.
5 Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling This technique uses the gathering power of one hand to seize while the other reels from the inner side of the opponent. Step the left foot forward and shift your weight to the left. 3. 王 西 安 111 .111 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Reel the left hand forward. 3. supported by the warding right hand. fending the opponent off upward to the right (Fig.8. • • • • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the chest.113). so that you respond by moving your weight forward.Fig. 3. and lower Qi in your abdomen before protruding it forward. Lower the right hand then cover it with the left.112 Note: It pays to practice as if sparring with a partner who is pushing forward with his or her hands on your abdomen.
by taking a step forward (Shang Bu) each time. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.113 Fig. Collect the body by rolling the chest slightly inward.114 • • • • Put your body in a squatting position by bending the knees slightly. . bones. gathering the ribs and lowering the waist and Qi. But remember: practice like an adept. not like a thug. 3. tendons and veins. 王 西 安 112 Note: If Qi descends smoothly. Alternate practice on both right and left sides. this technique can be used effectively to break wrists. 3. Collect the hands inward to about 15 cm in front of the chest.114). Combine them with the power of chest to become one power (Fig. Step the right foot forward again and repeat the above steps.
The powers of the left arm and right hand unify as one. fingers pointing forward.115 Fig. and move both hands to assist the left leg.6 Tui Na … Seize with the Leg This technique uses the combined power of both hands and one leg. Lower your Qi. • As the knee swings inward.116 113 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Bend the left arm inward to gather both palms. • As soon as the right hand reaches the level of the left leg.8. 3.115). relax the crotch. 3. lower the left arm in a downward arc using Shun reeling and extend the right hand forward in Ni reeling to seize downward from the right side. roll the chest in and gather the ribs (Fig. • As the weight moves forward. the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) combine to seize the opponent. swing the left knee inward to gather the left leg so that it serves as a supporting point during the seizing. • As you step. In this way.3. 3. • Step forward with the left foot and extend the left arm to the front. shift your weight forward and bend the knees slightly so that the body squats like a bent bow.
3.117). gradually guiding it inward to rest in front of the right ribs. 王 西 安 Fig. shift your weight quickly to the left and step forward with the right foot. • Step forward with the right foot. • At the same time. Then step forward with the left foot. 3.117 Fig. 3. As you step forward. The changing of the legs happens quickly. 3. shift your weight to the front and extend the left arm again to repeat the steps and seize once more. • Then lower the right arm by executing Lü downward in Ni reeling. spiral the right hand up from the right side into an arc. guiding it to the right ribs for support (Fig.8.116).7 Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands This technique uses both hands to seize: the right hand moves up from the right to grasp the opponent’s arm from the bottom while the left presses down from the top.118 114 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • After seizing. 3. extend the right arm and pass it from the upper left side of the body to the right in a warding off motion (Fig.
119 • • • • • • As soon as the right foot touches on the ground. Then extend the right hand forward to cover and seize with both hands with Gai power (Fig. 3.118). As the hands move. the left palm moves down in Shun reeling to cover the the arm of the opponent so that the forces of both arms work as one. shift your weight to the right and move the left foot and hand forward (Fig. 3. When the right hand moves up. Continue to move the right hand and foot forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 115 . The intention is to have the whole body collecting and seizing together with the hands. Then move the right hand forward in Shun reeling until it reaches the same level as the nose. As the right foot touches the ground. 3. shift your weight to the right and step forward with the left foot. roll the chest slightly inward and bend the knees slightly into a squatting position.Fig.119). lower the shoulders.
8. Make sure you have a clear line to your target by lowering the shoulders and elbows before seizing downward (Fig. Prepare for the seizing by lowering Qi to the Dantian. 3. step forward with the left foot and shift your weight to the front.121). This step marks the transformation of Peng (ward off ) to Na (seizing).121 116 . 3.120 Fig. 3. rolling the chest inward and tightening the ribs. Bend your knees so your body squats like a bending bow. Combine this with the power gathered in both hands and seize with one force. strengthed by whole body coordination. • • • • • Sweep the right hand from left to right in a warding off movement (Peng) to fend the opponent’s arm out and upward (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. then gather both hands and grasp the opponent’s wrist firmly downwards.8 Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands This technique uses the gathering power of both hands to seize. At the same time. 3. 王 西 安 Fig.120).
‘Wars Among Three Countries’ by Guan Yu. then the ring finger. • Next. Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie 7.122). the Guan Gong Jie Dai technique is said to be named after its creator. Guan Gong Jie Dai 2. 3. then exhale as you bend the knees slightly to put the body in a squatting position (Fig. eyes looking forward. Chuan Zhang Jie 5.9 jie TuO (escape) pracTices The practice of Jie Tuo is divided into nine techniques: 1. curve the fingers into hooks and raise them in front of the ribs with the little finger leading. Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo 3. Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. shoulder-width apart. and finally the index finger. 王 西 安 117 . Qu Wan Fan Na Jie 6.3. Guan Gong. Shan Jing Zhen Zhang Jie 8. • Move Qi in from the outside and lower it to the Dantian.1 Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape According to the book. • Stand with both feet in parallel. Shuang Wan Zhi Jie 4. • Inhale. middle finger. Fan Na Cu Bu Jie 9. • Hang the hands naturally at the sides. This technique enables a practitioner to avoid capture or break a hold. such as a waist grasp from the rear to throw you down.9.
123 • Synchronise the speed of this movement with that of the body. This technique becomes effective only after extended practice.9. 3.123). . and also with the speed of Qi descending. the squatting of the body. hook the wrist and bend the fingers to escape. the gathering of the ribs and the hooking of fingers should combine to become one unit. In this way.2 Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo Escape by Hooking Wrist & Bending Fingers This technique is especially useful to release a hand hold by an opponent. This technique is always applied to Liu Feng Si Bi Dan Bian (Six Sealing and Four Closing Single Whip).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. 王 西 安 118 3. If the fingers are being held. otherwise it is not easy to unfold (Fig.122 Fig. 3.
Practice these steps with both hands in turn. 3. and lowering your Qi as you do so. join the fingers of your hand together and point them diagonally upward to the right (Fig.125). rolling the chest inward. slowly bend the wrist and fingers.124). so that Tuo (escaping) power can reach the fingers effectively. 3. 王 西 安 119 . lowering the elbows. 3.124 Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 This technique is only to be used if you have become proficient in it after extended solo practice. By doing this. 3. By the end of your movement. unblocking the arm area being attacked. As you move. relaxing the shoulders. your conjoined fingertips and knuckles should be able to escape with ease (Fig.125 • • • • • If the fingers of one hand are seized by the opponent.Fig. you relax and elongate your encaptured arm. Move your body to transform the attacking power.
roll the chest inward. then move your arms forward and upward as your weight shifts forward (Fig. bend the arms.3 Shuang Wan Zhi Jie Escape by Spiralling Wrists Upward This technique is used to escape a double wrist-hold. • • • Step one foot forward and shift your weight to the other leg (Fig. closing your hands while opening the opponent’s. It is not necessary to use large movements in this technique.126). clench both hands into fists. 3. lower the shoulders and elbows. 王 西 安 Fig. While doing this. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. It consists of spiralling the inner sides of both wrists upward to force the opponent to open his hand. tighten the ribs. 3.126 Fig. Just focus on relaxing and lower the Qi. 3.127 120 . and lower the Qi so that power can flow smoothly to the inner side of the wrists.127).9. At the same time.
tighten the ribs.129 121 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. elbows.128). • Two feet stand flatly and the body stands straight.128 Fig.9.3. 3. placing the right hand on the left (Fig. • Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. two eyes look forward horizontally. 3.4 Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo Escape by Crossing the Hands before the Chest This technique consists of crossing both hands before the chest when you move to the left or right to transform power. and lower the shoulders. • Bend both arms 90o inward and cross them in front of the chest. It is most often used in the transition between the Jin Gang Dao Zhui posture (Buddha’s Warrior Attendant Pounds Mortar) and the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying Coat). and roll the chest inward. and Qi. 3.
Then ward off (Peng) by pushing both palms outward. If you choose to turn to the right: rotate the body to the right then left. 王 西 安 Fig. then rotate forward again. 3.5 Qu Wan Fan Na Jie Escape by Bending the Wrist and Seize the Opponent This technique is used to counter-attack a hold on the right fingers. It requires you to twist the captured fingers outward in Shun reeling.129).9. swapping the Shun and Ni reeling to the opposite hands. 3. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • If you choose to turn to the left: rotate the body to the left then right. and move the right hand in Shun reeling while the left does Ni reeling. Do not rush forward but defend you territory in straight postures (Fig. 3. and lock the palms of the opponent.131 122 . then to follow your opponent by bending your wrist in Ni reeling while you rotate to the right position so as to extend the left hand and seize with the right.130 Fig.
it will be difficult for opponents to overcome your attacks. Apply the principle of constant change and flexibility in Taiji circles. raise the elbows. step the right foot forward (Fig. then bend it about 450. open the joints throughout the body and stretch the muscles so that power can flow through to the wrist and move to its end point more smoothly.131). As the right toes touch the ground. While rotating the arm.130). 3.132). Rotate the arm about 1800 outward in Ni reeling.132 Fig. 3. palm facing left (Fig. wrist bent inward in readiness to seize and fend off danger (Fig. 3. 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Note: Use the waist as the boundary dividing rising energy above the waist and descending energy below the waist.Fig. relax the shoulders.133 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward.133). As you do this. Your movements should be relaxed and executed with power at all times. 王 西 安 123 . 3. If you practice diligently. extend the left hand forward to support the right hand as it seizes downward (Fig.
palm facing right. you should rotate externally and upward in Ni reeling. so that the power of the left hand combines with the right to become one.9. 3. right fingertips initially pointing downward. roll the chest inward. Together. • The right wrist bends inward with the arm to rotate the hand in Ni reeling. Next.135 124 . coordinating it with the lifting of the back and the descending Qi. then move swiftly to the right to destabilize the opponent.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • Simultaneously. the palm gradually guided by Ni reeling to slant externally to the right. In response.134 Fig. • Extend the right arm horizontally and bend it 900 inward. • As the right palm reels outward. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. move the left hand rightward to the front of the chest. incline the body and attack with the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). this sequence of movements make up the Shan Jing Ce Shen Jie technique.6 Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back This technique is applied when the opponent seizes your wrist in Shun reeling.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. then bend your knees slightly to place your body in a squatting position so that you can collect and hold energy. The force of this attack can help wrest you free from the opponent’s grip and dislodge your wrist from his or her grasp. shift your weight to the left . then quickly step the right foot forward (Shang Bu). 3. Project your shoulder forward using Shan Jing (Sudden Flash Back) and it will break the copper wall. touching the ground with the toe tips (Fig. Almost at the same time. because with these. If the opponent seizes your forearms: • Retreat half-a-step with the left foot. All the above movements of the hands. 3.7 Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie Quick Shaking Palm Stun This technique uses very swift abrupt (Shan) power to stun the opponent. Note: Move in Ni reeling while the opponent moves in Shun reeling.134).9. you find it easy to execute Zhen Zhang (Shaking Palm) and thus to escape.135). 王 西 安 125 . giving him a sense of losing of Qi. So Shan and Jing serve as the pre-condition of escaping. feet and shoulder should integrate into one resolute force and terminate at the same moment (Fig. and thus enabling one to evade capture. Use your whole body to collect energy and attack: the Yin force (guiding) from the upper body and Jin force (inserting and attacking) from the lower body. The above movements of both arms and the right foot should occur in one very smooth and swift motion.• • • As your left hand moves. then project the right shoulder forward to push at the opponent’s right rib using the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). make a big step forward with the right foot.
3. When the body and two hands send the Dou power. This power should be quick and strong.137). clench the hands into fists and place them at the sides of the body (Fig. palms facing up and eyes looking forward. the body squats.138). then Shang Bu (take a step forward).136 Fig.138 126 .136).137 Fig. At the same time. Next. 3. 3. palms facing up and the two little fingers placed on the middle of each arm. As soon as you surprise and destabilize them with your moves. 王 西 安 Fig. open both fists and shift them away from the sides of the body. 3. slowly raise both hands and bend them inward about 1800. 3. use both hands to draw the opponent’s arm toward you and destabilise their center of gravity. then the whole body sends a Dou in a circle in Shun reeling (short power). step forward quickly and attack with the palm (Fig. 3. Shift your weight forward and extend both arms forward to break the power of the opponent’s grip on your forearms (Fig. and both palms draw inward. Simultaneously.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • • At the same time. and the extending palm reaches the right position at the same time.
fingertips slanting up (Fig. 3. 王 西 安 127 . extend the right hand diagonally forward to the side. thumb separated from the fingers (Fig. and attacking by the Cu Bu or Dun Bu technique (stomping). • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Step forward with the right foot and commence Shun reeling with the right arm. Two elbows draw inward and hands move outwards.It is just like the poem reads: ‘It is not a failure if you retreat your pace. palm facing out. since he or she can easily twist your fingers and get you caught’. Step diagonally right with the right foot. first bending it inward then moving it outward to the right. Then push the left palm to the right. Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. extend the left hand from left to right. 3.8 Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping This is a composite technique consisting of seizing and twisting the opponent’s joints (Fan Na) using the Fan Guanjie (Reverse Joints) technique. you find escaping easy. because sometimes appropriate retreating gives one a closing power. With Shan and Jing. then shift your weight to the left and inclining the body to the right to hold and collect.9. As the right foot steps on the ground.139). At the same time. It is not wise to grasp the opponent’s elbow with your fingers.140). holding and collecting a quicker speed. 3. which is against principle. the partner cannot reach you though his attacking power is strong.
3. from slow to quick. Incline your body and explode the energy with great unity by stomping with the right foot. 王 西 安 128 . Stand rooted like a big tree. only by this will you increase in strength.139 Fig. side pushing with the left palm and exhaling at one time. This power can only be gathered with greatly unified power. from long power to short power. During the practice. the body should move from high to low. Even if you sense the opponent’s intention to move. paying attention to the upper and lower body and your surroundings. 3. do not react or become anxious but remain confident in your prowess.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.140 Notes The Cu Bu stomp requires a large incline to the side to project an abrupt burst of power. Be patient and diligent with practice. Then you will free yourself from capture.
• Then bend both wrists inward. roll the chest in.142 129 . eyes looking forward (Fig. • Next. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. palms facing in (Fig. separate the hands to the sides of the body. 3. bending inward about 90o.142). lower the shoulders and elbows. tighten the ribs and lower Qi to the Dantian. breathing in as you do this. 3.9. 3. 3. the left hand in Ni reeling and the right in Shun reeling.3. • Step the right foot forward.9 Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie Escaping by separating hands This technique is used to wrest free of a double wrist grip by separating the arms. exhale.141 Fig. the hands wrest free of the opponent’s wrist grip. • In this way. As you do this. palms facing each other.141). • Extend both arms forward.
143 Fig. finally returning them to the front of the chest to repeat the cycle (Fig. then you transform and eliminate the seizing on your wrists. If you cannot push the opponent’s hands away. 3. If you still can’t free your wrists with this technique. You can escape from seizing by one closing and one opening. 3. keeping both arms tightly together like pincers. Palm Inserting Down) (Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.144 Notes The extent to which you separate your hands depends on the opponent’s grip. 王 西 安 130 . then raise your hands. get your wrists free by moving the right hand in Shun reeling and the left hand in Ni reeling.144).143). During practice. insert both palms downward (Xia Cha Zhang. 3. then separate them to each side.
CHAPTER FOUR healTh anD qi enhanCemenT pRaCTiCes 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 131 .
. Ji and An. Chen Xin. states: “If a tree has deep and strong roots.1 inTrOducTiOn Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is a collection of health and Qi enhancement practices essential for the formation of robust Taiji and Tuishou techniques.” Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is an extension of Jing Qigong (Quiet Qigong). San Ti Shi (Three Postures) 5. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) 王 西 安 132 3. opening and closing. incorporating both movements inner quietness and more active techniques such as the Wu Ji posture. This group of practices is used to strengthen the Prenatal and Postnatal systems of the body. As Qing Dynasty Taiji Master. rising and falling. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) 6. Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture) 2. unblocking the whole vessel system by enhancing Qi and blood flow through the body and helping the accumulation of Qi in the Yong Quan point (known as the ‘Bubbling Spring’ located on the sole of the foot). each of which can be practiced individually or in sequence: 1. its leaves and branches must flourish. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Posture) 4. Peng. Lü. Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong can be divided into six postures.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan Zhuang (Returning to Wu Ji stance) Diligent practice and application of all the postures in these six groups of Qigong practices will yield great results for Taiji and Tuishou practitioners. It also incorporates Qigong and body combat techniques and may be regarded as an advanced form of Qigong. These movements are applied throughout the whole system of Taiji and Tuishou practices.
4. Hang both arms at the side of the body and relax.2 wu ji zhuang (wu ji pOsTure) 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.1 Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Stand upright. breathing gently and slowly.1 133 . feet parallel and shoulder width apart. keeping your mind relaxed. eyes closed. Concentrate your intention (Yi) in the Dantian.2. Open your eyes gradually.4.
do not do it so gently that Qi becomes too soft and weak to reach every part of the body. 4. On the other hand. Take care of these points and you will not lose power (Diu Jin) unnecessarily.2). Try to expand your arms moderately.3).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 b) Posture 2 • • Raise the arms to the sides. the right hand rotating in Shun reeling and the left in Ni reeling. Lower the hands onto the abdomen. 4. the reverse for females (Fig. 4. 4. Maintain the hands at shoulder height. c) Posture 3 • • Curl the little fingers towards the thumb and slowly draw the arms down to the middle of the body. Overdoing this will raise your Qi to your upper body so that it becomes blocked in your chest and destabilizes your feet. palms facing downward and slanted diagonally (Fig.2 Fig. the right over the left for male practitioners.3 134 . when it should actually be solid. 王 西 安 Fig.
until they reach the lower Dantian. Your elbow joints should be lowered. 4. Let the Ren Mai and Du Mai meet during breathing: then lower the tip of tongue.2.2. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 135 . The whole body will be steady if you gather the internal organs consistently. The Yong Quan point should be kept empty and relaxed so that any stagnant Qi can flow through smoothly when it descends. 3. It is important to practice this diligently to unblock both the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation. The neck should be firm and straight. Relax the crotch so that the inner and middle parts of the lower limbs are also relaxed. lower it when exhaling. Lift the buttocks and anus up a little.4. 2. Gather the chest and ribs inward. Concentrate your intention (Yi) at the Bai Hui point and apply power to this point. 4. Pay attention to the following points when practicing the Zhuang posture: 1. inhale and then swallow saliva down into the stomach. Your shoulders should be loose and slightly lowered. the mind and facial muscles naturally relaxed.3 Breathing Breathing is one of the main elements of the Zhan Zhuang (Standing Posture). Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth The tip of the tongue should touch the palate when inhaling. guiding the Qi and saliva through to the middle Dantian. bend the knees slightly and grasp the ground gently with the toes. The palate is the commencing point of Du Mai while the tip of the tongue is the beginning of Ren Mai.2 The requirements for every part of the body 1. so that the waist descends naturally.
By practising the above key points. leading to Qi filling and blocking the chest. 3. which will help with the distribution of Qi around the body. Practice also enhances your ability to guide Qi with Yi (intention). including the internal organs. Raise your Yi (intention) from the Hui Yin point (perineum). roll the chest slightly inward. While lowering the internal Qi. skin and fine hairs opening as the Qi rises. While inhaling Gather your chest and abdomen inward while breathing in Qi. 王 西 安 136 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. until it reaches the Bai Hui point. through the Wei Lü Guan point. Note: Do not press the abdomen down too much as it will swell naturally as it lowers. you will enlarge your vital capacity and exercise the diaphragm muscles. Feel the sensation of all the body joints. Do not lift the back too much while the Qi rises as this causes both the Qi and blood to rise even further. keeping your body upright and lifting your back slightly. While exhaling Lower every part of the body. so that they all have the same rhythm. and ease the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation (Da Zhou Tian and Xiao Zhou Tian). lower the waist and gather the Qi in the Dantian. Maintain your vertical axis. across the Yu Zhen point. up along the spine.
so it is recommended that they do not practice Yi and Qi until they become familliar with the form. However.2. Beginners generally find it difficult to remember the postures and key points. Qi cannot be separated from Yi (intention). can the mind obtain full rest and be adjusted so that every organ system may be well promoted. Practitioners should modify the scope of their practice according to their level and progress. these can be accomplished only by hard learning. consciousness. Qi follows Yi.4 Additional Notes • In Taiji Yangsheng Zeng Qigong. and achieve the smooth Zhoutian circulation and help with body combat. and emotions. thinking. Only through mastering your mental activities such as intention. patients and the correct mastery of key points. quietude and concentration. During Wu Ji Zhuang. just as Xing (posture. external movements) follows Qi. Only these can guarantee normal and healthy internal Qi circulation. The key requirements for practice are relaxation. you need to concentrate your intention on the Dantian so that all other distracting ideas may be replaced (Yi Yinian Dai Wannian). • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 137 .4.
4.4 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. 4.3. 4. people who practice Taiji will make more progress only if they practice not only routines but also Zhuang skill.” and “Practicing Martial Art routines without practicing Zhuang skill is like a house without pillars. is an important basic skill in Chinese Martial Arts. also known as ‘Standing Zhuang’ or ‘Standing like a tree’ Qigong meditation.” Hence. as reflected in the following sayings: “You won’t make progress if you practice Chinese Martial Art forms without praticing basic skills.5 138 .1 Postures 王 西 安 Fig.3 hunyuan zhuang (circle pOsTure) Zhuang skill.
3. Keep the fingers evenly open and slightly bent as if half grasping a sphere. Lower the elbows and shoulders slightly. Keep the head naturally erect. if closed. focus your attention on the Dantian (Fig. Stand with your feet parallel. The upper body should be kept upright. Relax the shoulders. The palms face each other. focus on a static object at the same level as your eyes. the neck. 王 西 安 139 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. b) Posture 2 • • • Separate the hands when the left foot reaches ground. with practice duration increasing gradually from short to long. If your eyes are open. Bend the knees so that the body is squatting a little.2 Body requirements a) Zhuang Skill Adjustment Hunyuan Zhuang can be practiced at three levels of body stance: high.5). 4. Execute the posture as if embracing a big tree. mid-level and low.4). Leave your eyes naturally open or close them. Next. waist and crotch. waist and back straight. 4. The old and weak may practice using a high body stance. fingers pointing at their counterparts about 30 cm apart. then move them back to the middle. then lower the waist (Fig. a little more than shoulder-width apart.a) Posture 1 • • • • • Start with the same initial posture as the previous posture. shift your weight to the right and lift the left foot and take half a step to the left.
until it reaches the Baihui point. then lower your body again. the thigh muscles and even the whole body may tremble rhythmically. past the Yu Zhen point. At the same time. In this case. 王 西 安 140 . b) Rising and Falling Method This method refers to the subtle rise and fall of the body during Standing Zhuang following the rhythm of the breath. Que Qiao. and guide the saliva down to the middle and lower Dantian. then a low stance. when doing Standing Zhuang at a high stance. then bend the knees to lower the body until the buttocks are at the same level as the knees. The trembling may only be detected by touch or by close observation of the leg muscles. Continue standing for as long as you can as this helps build fatigue resistance and enhances control of the muscles.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The young and strong should start with a high stance. you should raise your stance slightly to rest. This relieves or may even stop the trembling for a period. Practice duration can last just a few minutes in the initial stages. and slight trembling may occur. increasing to thirty or forty minutes at later stages. although this may become more obvious with prolonged practicing at mid or low stances. swallowing your breath with saliva. Inhale again as the body rises. raise Qi from the heels up the legs. More benefits may be gained if initial practice lasts for at least ten to fifteen minutes. intention and internal strength join together at the end of Du Mai (which is also the beginning of Ren Mai). inhale slowly first. At this point. up the spine. Now lower the tongue and inhale. through the Ren Mai. graduating to midlevel. Wei Lü Guan. Du Mai. becoming gradually longer. For example. Beginners will find that the thighs may ache after two weeks of practice. touch the palate with the tip of the tongue. Should this happen.
Standing on the ground steadily like a mountain. The upper body is Xu (void) while the lower part is Shi (solid) with feet grasping the ground. like a wild goose flies off and falls. but the apparent non-activity is misleading.3 Breathing Breathing is an important element of Zhuang skill. Practice this process repeatedly. 4. the body lowers slightly and Qi moves down to the Yong Quan point along the inner sides of the legs. breathing motions and digesting processes. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 141 . This is explained in the Song of Huanyuan Zhuang: The body ascends or descends corresponding with the breath. Zhuang skill is actually a practice using static strength and tension. the body quivers in a relaxed and peaceful state of mind. The body weight is always subtly moving in various directions. It rises and falls like a boat in the ocean.3. as it responds to the circulating blood.As you exhale slowly.
Gather the chest and abdomen. the palms face inward and the eyes are slightly closed (see Fig. 4.8). relax and open the internal organs. extend your breath slowly through the practice process. The distance between both arms starts short then grows longer.4 kai he zhuang (Opening and clOsing zhuang) The standing posture of Kai He Zhuang is the same as Hunyuan Zhuang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. the body rises slightly with the inhalation. the breath is usually short. In the initial stages of practice. At the same time.4. 王 西 安 Fig.6 Fig. as are the requirements and key points for the body parts.1 Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Inhale and slowly separate both arms to each side. The navel and Ming Men are in the same rhythm. 4. 4. The only difference is that in this posture.7 142 . 4. the middle fingers connect.
crouch down and lower the elbows.Note: when you inhale and open up. you will detect a current of energy released from both palms which seems to be difficult to gather at this point. Roll the chest slightly inward. Drop the wrists and hold the palms facing inwards in a concave shape. At the same time. the navel and the Ming Men Mai swell out. Guide this Qi from the fingertips and palms into the ‘sphere’ in front of your abdomen. Qi appears between finger tips of both hands like a magnetic force.8 143 . b) Posture 2 • • • • • • Exhale and gather the organs. using your intention (Yi). Acting slowly. Do this practice slowly. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. All internal organs are filled with strength. use your intention to guide the current outward. Relax the body. lower the waist and gather the rib muscles. Focusing on your intention (Yi).
For thought (or attention) to combine with intention.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The main aim of practising Kai He Zhuang is to enhance the strength of the lower limbs and to promote the shrinking and expanding abilities of the navel and Ming Men. if you require the breath to be slow. In this way.2 The relationship between Thought. Lastly. . For example. intention and Qi. gentle and even. only when you can mentally trust that you feel the Qi in your hands can you apply the practice techniques to good effect. Intention and Qi Kai He Zhuang is directly related to the Three Internal Combinations: thought and intention. then your strength must be soft. when extending the hands. This is called.4. 4. 王 西 安 144 Qi combines with strength when Qi descends – the whole body and internal organs relax. Qi and strength. the ebb and flow of Qi and strength (or power) are in synch with each other. Qi here refers to the fresh air exchanged between the lungs and the outside. “the internal Qi moves inside”. and also helps the practitioner build skills in relaxation and quietness. one’s thoughts need to implement intention consistently. as well as breath control. To combine intention with Qi means to guide Qi so that it follows your intention as you practice Zhuang techniques. For example. and when Qi rises – the body and internal organs gather slightly. as well as the internal Qi moving in the body with the guidance of your intention. This practice also strengthens the practitioner’s ‘root’. It will take some practice before you will be able to sense Qi and feel it move with the rhythm of your breath. it also helps increase internal strength and distributes Qi around the whole body.
With practice. In particular. and are one of the main requirements in Zhuang skill. abdomen and back. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 145 . the chest. you will reach the point where internal Qi may be guided by intention to move freely in your body along desired routes.The relaxing and gathering of the internal organs mentioned here refers to the activities of the internal organs and the muscles around the midriff area – under the ribs. the regular up-down movement of the midriff muscles are very important in Kai He Zhuang. Guided by intention. Its purpose is to stimulate the nerve system by muscle movement. this movement becomes a conditioned reflex and helps move muscles which are normally static.
The fingers are poised as if grasping the air. Purify this saliva with your intention. the right hand in front of the left. a) Posture 1 • • • • • • • • 王 西 安 146 • Stand with feet parallel and take a step forward with the right foot. Expand the crotch like a circle. This posture could also be called a sideways Bow Step (Fig. 4. The rhythm of the navel and Ming Men should be consistent with the breathing in and drawing in. Start the posture with your eyes closed. When inhaling. make sure your eyes are drawn inward to looking internally. focusing your intention in the Dantian. At the same time.5 san Ti shi (Three pOsTures) The core content of San Ti posture is the method of drawing in and pushing forward. fill the body with strength and withdraw the limbs to prepare for the next pushing posture. 4. then open your eyes and look into the distance. Swallow the fresh air inhaled. suffusing it with saliva and Qi and lower it to the middle and lower Dantian. then shift your weight forward from the left foot to the right knee. raise both hands above the right leg. then breathe it out slowly as you move forward (Fig. The length of inhalation should match the speed of the weight shift. Gather the Lao Gong points of both hands inward. Next. .9). inhale and move your weight backward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.10). When the weight shifts completely to the left leg.
11). Repeat this process alternating the left and right sides. then push both hands forward slowly (Fig. 4. As you exhale and shift your weight forward.11 147 . 4. You need to have the feeling of closing before opening.Fig.9 b) Posture 2 • • As Qi is lowered into the Dantian. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 4. lower the waist. close and fold your strength into your chest and waist.10 Fig. 4.
with confidence and determination. Indeed. Beginners tend not to have much confidence or belief in Zhuang skills because their practice has only just begun. your practice hesitant and inconsistent. your belief is half-hearted. and persistence. 王 西 安 148 . You can persevere only if you firmly believe in the benefits of Zhuang skills. If. leading to progress and experience of the benefits. then your progress will be poor. determination. and hold firm to these attributes throughout path of practice and study. Through serious dedication. confidence is a critical prerequisite. In sum.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Notes: Remember to cultivate and apply the Three Spirits: confidence. With confidence comes determination. Practitioners who apply the Three Spirits can develop good Zhuang skills and attain the expected results. Confidence in Zhuang skills grows with practice as difficulties are overcome. and great determination. Only after prolonged practice can confidence be nurtured. on the contrary. So where does confidence come from? From practice. persistence may be engendered. practioners will make the expected progress. confident and diligent practice. practitioners are required to cultivate their Three Spirits when they begin practice.
1 The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang a) Posture 1 • • Step forward with the right foot and shift your weight forward. • The fingers of the both hands point to each other.6 chan si zhuang (reeling silk pOsTure) Chan Si power generated by practising Chan Si Zhuang is the core content of Chen Style Taijiquan. extend both hands forward with the right hand before the left.6. 4. Peng force is maintained while the foundation of the body is reinforced as well. both palms facing forward.12). 王 西 安 149 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The difference of this posture from that of San Ti posture is: • Both hands extend outward with Peng energy to prepare for the opponent’s Lü gesture. Chan Si Zhuang refers to practices using silkreeling power built on the foundation of Zhuang skill.4. inhaling all the while (Fig. 4. relax the chest and midriff muscles to provide balanced strength between the upper and lower bodies (with the waist as the dividing line). As you step forward. In this way. • At the same time.
13 Fig. 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 4. 4.14 .12 王 西 安 150 Fig.
4. otherwize. you will lose your weight and axis). relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left Move the left hand down in Ni (contrary) reeling and the right hand down in Shun (conforming) reeling. drop the elbows. rotate the left hand in Shun reeling in front of the lowered abdomen. When the left hand executes Lü (roll back) to the middle of the body. Apply Peng (ward off ) and Ji (press) outwards with both hands as you shift weight and exhale (Fig. suffusing it with Qi before lowering it down to the middle and then lower Dantian. the right hand in front of the left.13). relax both arms. As the weight shifts. At the same time. Both hands make a half fist when reeling. keeping the left hand inside and the right outside (Fig. turn the waist and twist the crotch. When both hands reach their full extent (your Peng and Ji can’t exceed your orbit or territory. open both fists into palms facing inward. As you shift your weight. When this happens. gather and close the whole body so it forms a posture prepared for opening activities. 4. relax the right crotch and shift your weight gradually to the right. withdraw the right hand so it intersects the left. you start to repeat the sequence. step the right foot on the ground.14). As this happens. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 c) Posture 3 • • • Next. inhale and crouch the body slightly. 王 西 安 151 . lower the shoulders.b) Posture 2 • • • • • • • Next. Inhale and swallow saliva.
your breath should be natural and of the proper duration so that it enhances body combat and health. you should focus on increasing the duration and depth of your breath. This phenomena of “connected arteries. Inhalations and exhalations should be of proper length. The purpose of deep breathing is to make sure every small cell of your lungs takes part in the breathing. you will feel your key joints and your arteries and veins become unblocked and re-connected. When you practise Zhuang skills to a certain level. so that your lung capacity is enlarged and the contact area between the capillary vessels of the alveolus and fresh air is increased. Only by this can you avoid errors and side effects. veins and joints” is known as the “connected Ren Mai and Du Mai” in Zhuang skill terminology. The normal breath frequency of adults is six to twenty times per minute. decreasing to seven or ten breaths per minute. It is incorrect to exhale with a long breath and inhale with a short breath (known as “too much Yin”) or vice-versa (“too much Yang”). After mastering the key principle of natural breath. inhalation/exhalation being one breath.2 Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang When practicing Zhuang skill. and comes only after accumulated practice. After practicing Zhuang skills for a period.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. Dual practice with Yi (intention) and Qi connects the whole body. This is a primary sign of beneficial Zhuang practice.6. Ren Mai and Du Mai are two of the eight channels (Ji Jing Ba Mai). This helps in the exchange of carbon dioxide and promotes metabolism in the body. Ren Mai starts 王 西 安 152 . and even to one or two times per minute. the breath can become slower and longer. Therefore. then to five times per minute. the most essential principles to apply when practicing Zhuang skill is intentional natural breathing and intentional technical coordination.
In Da Zhou Tian. more gentle. is called Xiao Zhou Tian (Minor Zhoutian) of Yin Yang circulation. Da Zhou Tian (Major Zhoutian) is an extension of Xiao Zhou Tian. For both. Jia Gu Guan. and Yu Zhen Guan. reaches the Bai Hui point through Wei Lü Guan. even and quiet. then infusing Qi into the Dantian. then rises through the backs of the legs before joining the routes of Xiao Zhou Tian. the body should be relaxed. The Qi of Da Zhou Tian originates from the Yong Quan point. the five sense organs internally gathered.from the tip of the tongue. The practice method for Da Zhou Tian is the same as that for Xiao Zhou Tian. all channels extended and unfolded. The whole process of moving Qi through Ren Mai and Du Mai. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 153 . deeper. except that the breathing in the former is longer. then reaches the maxilla through the ears and cheeks to finally connect to the tip of the tongue. Qi descends to the Yong Quan point through the inner sides of both legs after which it returns to the Dantian. the difference being that Da Zhou Tian extends Qi to the lower limbs. and Yi and Qi should move in the required routes. reaches the perineum through the Dantian and then connects to Du Mai. Du Mai starts at the perineum.
15). Swallow Qi down with saliva and guide it down to the middle Dantian. 4.16 154 . bring in the arms and place both palms in front of the abdomen (Fig. 王 西 安 Fig. Leave it there for a little while to nourish the Dantian before disgorging the Qi slowly. 4.15 Fig. 4. then infuse it into the lower Dantian. close your eyes and inhale. At the same time.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.7 wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang) Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan is also called “Closing Practice”. Its practicing method can be summarized thus: when you finish Peng and Ji outwards with both arms in Chan Si Zhuang. then bring in the right foot so that both feet are a shoulder-width apart. a) Posture 1 • • • Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.
Relax the whole body and raise it up slightly to open the joints throughout the body (Fig.18). separate the arms to the sides. pointing the fingertips upward.18 155 . swallow Qi and saliva and infuse them into the lower Dantian (Fig. fingertips pointing obliquely down. palms facing in (Fig. As the body lowers. 4. palms facing each other. 4.17).16). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. finally placing them in front of the shoulders. Clench both hands into fists and lower them to ear level as the body lowers. lift both arms upright.b) Posture 2 • • • • • Inhale and with thumbs guiding the energy flow. 4. 4.17 Fig. 4. Then using the little fingers to guide the energy.
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c) Posture 3
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Lower the body into a crouch and open the fists into palms. Move them slowly to the outside of the legs and push down slowly while exhaling. Stop pushing when exhalation is complete (Fig. 4.19). Inhale again and slowly raise the body, extending the arms to the sides and lift them upright again. Repeat this process six times. When you finish, detach the tip of the tongue from the palate, open your eyes slowly. Join the hands together and heat them up by rubbing. Then use your warm hands to rub your face, neck, chest and other parts of the body. This method of warming helps relax the acupoint channels, stretches the tendons and muscles, and promotes the generation of Qi (Fig. 4.20).
pRaCTiCes FoR The BuTToCks anD CRoTCh
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5.1 pracTice fOr The buTTOcks
The requirements for positioning the buttocks in Taijiquan practice are very strict. It requires the practitioner to put Wei Lü (coccygeal end, at the end of spine) in an upright position when practicing, gathering and raising it naturally so that the buttocks do not protrude nor swing too much, otherwise the buttocks will be unable to rise and lower naturally. Taijiquan novices sometimes err on over-gathering or raising the buttocks, which can result in various negative effects. For example, if the buttocks are gathered too far forward, the posture will become unnaturally stiff and not follow the natural straight alignment of the body; in addition, this posture may also impede natural breathing as it blocks smooth circulation of Qi throughout the body and may even destabilize the firmness of the weight of the lower limbs. Gathering or raising buttocks in routine and Tuishou practice must be applied in accordance with each specific practice and not generalized. For example, while relaxing the the joints and muscles in the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying One’s Coat), the buttocks should be raised slightly as the waist is lowered so that Qi can descend smoothly into the Dantian. If the buttocks are pushed too far forward, the lowering of the waist is impeded and consequently, Qi cannot cannot descend through the Dantian and separate into two streams to flow through the Yong Quan point through to the legs.
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5.1.2 Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
An example of applying this principle in Tuishou sparring is as follows: if the opponent executes Lü on you, you need to relax, lower your Qi and gather your buttocks before executing the Bei Kao move (Kao with the back). In this move, gathering the buttocks helps to concentrate power drawn from the heels and transported up the legs before it is unleashed at the target. In contrast, raising rather than gathering buttocks at this point will hinder full release of striking power and thwarts any attempt to transform the opponent’s energy. Bei Kao is an opening-closing move, consisting of lightening-quick power exertion and rebound, during which you need to guide Qi upward to explode energy. To do this, you need to roll the chest slightly inward and bend knees a little, then stamp on the ground to generate rebounding power and ascending Qi. The gathering of buttocks at this point is essential so that Qi can descend instantaneously after energy release. Protruding the buttocks will impede Qi flow downwards, resulting in Qi blockage at the chest which affects the stability of a practitioner’s stance and may even be harmful to health. These key points in the above example need to be practised and applied assiduously during routine and Tuishou practice.
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5.2 pracTices fOr The crOTch (dang)
Dang refers to the crotch area where the legs connect to the body. To open the Dang area, the thighs need to be stretched apart as much as possible so that the waist and crotch can rotate freely. Any obstruction of Dang movement will negatively affect routine and Tuishou practice. The opening-closing of Dang, that is, the transition between emptiness and solidity of the crotch area, has a direct impact on the flexibility of the practitioner’s body and his or her ability to change speed and weight. The shift between emptiness and solidity of the Dang area is used as a measure to monitor and adjust movement and speed of movement, and also serves as the key point to increase the power to be exploded. The firmness of Dang relates to their exertion of power and resistance. Mastery of Dang power and posture in routine and Tuishou practice helps increase flexibility, emptiness and stability of waist and legs, reinforces the foundation and enhances your practice. Adjustments to the waist and Dang are usually the first steps taken when you feel there is something not quite right with your movements routine or Tuishou practice. As Master Chen Xin said, “When you attain realization of Taiji, even a bird cannot fly out from under you during Taiji movement.” In other words, the openingclosing of Dang is key to increasing and exerting power. When Dang is closed, the whole body is directed toward closing (He); when Dang opens, the body opens. Hence, Dang is essential to Xu (gathering), He (closing), Yin (guiding), and Fang (releasing) in routine and Tuishou practice.
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when the distribution between the weight-bearing leg and the other leg is at a ratio of 3:7 or 4:6. a short introduction of key Dang movements. A brief introduction is provided below. Doing so over an extended period can have a positive effect in curing hemorrhoids. the positioning of the anus also needs careful attention. Yuan Dang. it was realized that the anus and perineum were two of the most vulnerable parts of the human body. in the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture of the Chen style Taiji Lao Jia routine. which means that the left leg bears 30% of body weight while the right leg bears 70% of body weight.2 Yuan Dang … Round Crotch Yuan Dang refers to the opening of the Dang area in a circular shape. This requires the left leg to be solid with the lower leg standing upright. womb and so on. Ding Dang. Jian Dang and Tang Dang. After humans evolved to the upright posture and started to walk. womb prolapse and so on. the left knee and ankle vertically aligned to each other and the ground. are described below: 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 5. In ancient times. The right leg should be relaxed with the right knee inclined slightly outward and the Dang gathered inward so that both form a strong pair. In Taiji practice. and it became difficult for vena blood to flow to heart. advocating contraction of the anus during physical exercise as a remedy. To help you master correct Dang postures in routine and Tuishou practice. For example.The Anus In the same way that the positioning of Dang is very precise.2. This realization caused the ancients to suggest that “the ground door should be always closed”. the perineum and it’s soft tissue started to bear greater pressure from such internal organs as the liver. anus contraction should only be slight and done in a natural way. the weight distribution is 3:7. rectocele. 王 西 安 161 .
For example. In traditional teaching methods. 王 西 安 162 . That is. Yuan Dang reinforces the foundation and allows flexible body rotation in any direction. Ding Dang arises when the area connecting the weight-bearing right leg to the crotch remains tight. it is very difficult to correct bad practice habits solidified with prolonged practice. As for practitioners. These traditional teaching methods should be changed as implied by the adage. the body crouches as the right knee moves outward. “It is easy to teach but hard to change what is learnt. A practitioner trying to eliminate the habit of Ding Dang in his or her postures will require a long period of re-adjustment as the new correct Dang posture will initially feel very uncomfortable.3 Ding Dang … Tight Crotch Ding Dang refers to a common mistake made by novice practitioners whereby one leg supports the body without relaxing. This should be corrected at the earliest stages of learning. If a practitioner is advised to relax. which means there will not be opening-closing power if he or she crouches in the Horse Stance. he or she will typically re-distribute weight between the legs to a ratio of 4:6 or 5:5. at the end of the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture. This positioning of Dang also means that it fulfils the Taiji principle of “opening in closing”. there are many opportunities and responsibilities. “closing in opening” and that “Dang should open in a full circle”.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In this way. when the right leg moves to the side. 5.” Indeed. the root of Dang should be relaxed. teachers do not typically correct their students’ mistakes as the emphasis was on students digesting teachings gradually and adjusting mistakes themselves. energy in the legs is strengthened and the body is well supported. the right knee should incline outward. Hence.2. and at this moment Dang should open in a circle so that both legs can support all parts of the body. innate talents. Some perform better than others due to learning abilities.
and quality and length of practice, rather than due to a teacher’s attention. Some practitioners are happy to help the teacher out and teach others, their intention being to allow the teacher more rest. Students are also happy to learn from co-practitioners as this may help to accelerate learning.
5.2.4 Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
In Jian Dang position, the Dang area is shaped like an inverted “A”, the bottom tip of the Dang area is tight and not relaxed. In this case, Dang cannot be lowered during routine and Tuishou practice, and Yuan Dang cannot be formed at all. Moreover, the Bow Step is hampered, one’s gait becomes unsteady, and the upper body becomes heavy while the lower body is unrooted, swaying to the right or left, while the feet are also unsteady. This mistake may be tolerated by the old and weak if their aim is just to improve health, but cannot be ignored by younger practitioners who want to improve combat skills. Because with Jian Dang, some get easily unrooted, some find they can’t get clear distribution of weight, some find it so hard to shift the weight because they put exceeded weight onto one leg. If the habit of Jian Dang is allowed to form over a period of time, practitioners will become used to it and feel comfortable in this incorrect stance, which should be avoided. On the contrary, one must learn to identify and cultivate the twin qualities of emptiness-solidity in the legs through the practice of Taiji routines. Novices practicing Dang will inevitably develop aching feet. This is no cause for worry, as these are normal physical indications of body development and they will disappear when you reach a certain level. For example, after a bout of Tuishou sparring, novice practitioners may feel a little ache in the arms and legs, and indeed, the whole body may ache after a little rest. This is because you are not used to the intense exercise and some capillary blood vessels may have been strained. This ache will lessen gradually after extended practise, as the body becomes stronger, blood circulation improves and lung capacity is increased. At this stage, any additional
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muscle ache resulting from further increase in practice will ease off more quickly. Hence, do not be deterred by any aches and apply Yuan Dang when practicing Taiji and Tuishou, so that Jian Dang may be prevented from developing. Without patience, Taiji skills cannot be improved.
5.2.5 Tang Dang
Tang Dang happens when the legs are spread too far apart, out of proportion to the weight distribution required on the legs and the lowered Dang. As a result, the movements of the legs are hampered as they are not able to move forward and back or turn to the sides with natural ease. This situation is also called Ta Dang, meaning collapsing Dang. The Taijiquan routine is a whole body practice, suitable for people of all ages, body constitutions and those engaged in mental and physical work. Typically, practice methods for Taijiquan routines start from large circle movements to smaller ones, then from smaller circles to no-circle movements. However, the opposite is true for Dang practice, which starts with smaller scale movements, growing to larger-scaled practice. This requires Dang to be positioned a little higher in the beginning before becoming lower and wider gradually. As with Ding Dang and Jian Dang, be careful not to form the habit of committing to Tuishou movements that bring a lot of pressure to the knee joints, as Tang Dang not only increases pressure, but may also cause harm. This results in chronically tight muscles which will eventually cause bad blood circulation in the legs. The Tang Dang posture has particular impact on the stimulation of the on the nerves in the knee joint, so hindering the supply and renewal of blood in the leg muscles. Prolonged Tang Dang positioning will result in aching knee joints and a very heavy feeling in the legs. In some large-scale movements, Tang Dang
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may actually be intentionally applied, such as in the Seven Cun Kao movement, that is Kao applied in the Xie Xing or oblique walk where the distance between the ground and shoulder is seven cun (about 23 cm). Yet even in this movement, heavy pressure on the legs last only an instant and the legs can recover quickly, so Tang Dang poses no real issues. However, large-scale movements cannot be applied to the whole practice; hence Tang Dang is considered harmful to health and body combat if applied for extended periods in routine and Tuishou practice. Generally speaking, Dang practice should begin modestly with a slight lowering of the body, gradually growing to bigger movements. Most importantly, it should match the physical conditions of the practitioner and the requirements of body combat so that the practitioner does not incur any injury.
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Chen sTyle Taiji Tuishou CaTegoRies
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While the combinations of Tuishou moves are infinite. if the opponent attacks using Jian Kao (Kao with shoulder). practitioners may master its secrets and principles with serious study. Tuishou is commonly divided into eight categories. Indeed. if you advance using Ying Men Kao (Kao diagonally to the front).1 Overview Within the Chen style Taiji routine. For example. you can defend using An (pressing). the attack-defense stances change dynamically. your opponent may respond defensively with Xiong Kao (Kao by chest). since both the attacking and defensive movements are interrelated and cannot be separated. In this chapter. 王 西 安 168 . we will describe how to apply these eight Tuishou techniques in sparring practice. with attackers changing to defensive roles in an instant and back again without warning. For example. then strike back with Jian Kao.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.
i. Shuang Shou Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Double Hands) 3. which is regarded as the highest level of Tuishou. Jin San Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 3 steps.1 Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories The Chen style Taiji Tuishou Routines can be divided into: 1. Dan Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Single Hand. silk reeling in the shape of a flower) 2. and any movements can be exerted by intention. normally a forward step then a backward step) 6. Da Lü (larger scale movements) 7. while Tuishou) or Jin Wu Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 5 steps.6. Li Yuan and Ping Yuan (Vertical Coiling Flower and Horizontal Coiling Flower) 4. also known as Ding Bu Tuishou (Coiling Hand with Static Footwork) 5.e. where the the practitioners are no longer oblidged to the sequences or fixed routines.1. Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with movable footwork. Luan Cai Hua (Picking Flower. He Bu Tuishou with static footwork. while Tuishou) 8. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 169 .
There are many categories of footwork techniques. Si Yu Shou hand techniques are always used. as follows: 1. Bing Bu (step touch.1. these consist of the Cai. Lian Huan Zuoyou Xuanzhuan (moving continously with body rotation) 王 西 安 170 5. During sparring. including: 1. Ji.2 Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork Tuishou handwork is commonly divided into four classifications. Shuang Tuishou (Tuishou with double hands) 3. Zou. practitioners should be able to switch flexibly between Si Zheng Shou and Si Yu Shou techniques as circumstances require. i. Dan Tuishou (Tuishou with single hand) 2. novices should start by learning one set at a time. In moving footwork such as Shun Bu (walking backward and forward) and Da Lü. Dian Bu (stepping on toe-tips) . feet placed together ) 7.e. or Kao hand techniques. Xuan Wan (rotating wrists) 4. Huo Bu (moving footwork) 3. However. Bie. Duli Bu (standing on a single foot) 8.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Cha Bu (inserting steps) 6. Lian Jin Lian Tui (moving forward/back/right/left continuously) 4. Si Zheng Shou (Peng. and not be limited to one or the other. Lü. Ding Bu (static footwork) 2. An) is usually applied. Qie Zhang (palm chop) In static footwork.
2 171 . In this posture. Shuan (bind).1 Fig. All these adjustments must be executed simultaneously so that power can reach the palm edge and hit the target clearly (Fig. In single practice. with the wrist lowered and fingers relaxed.2 TuishOu handwOrk Techniques 6.2.2 Cutting with Palm This technique uses the edge of the palm to cut downward in a vertical or diagonal direction. with the forearm bent toward the upper arm at an angle of 450. one arm is extended horizontally sideways. palm facing in. 6. the four fingers extended and joined together to form a slightly concave palm (Fig. you need to place the body in a crouching position. 6. When cutting downward. it is also applied to Gun (roll).1 Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground Li Zhang is used at the initial stages of a sparring bout. it is also often used when pushing or rotating in various directions in both Shun and Ni reeling. roll the chest slightly inward and lower the waist and shoulders.6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. The roots of the fingers are relaxed. 6. 6.1). when both players retreat after being mutually warded off. Da (meet) and Sao (sweep) movements. The elbow must be dropped.2. 6.2).
6. 6.3). change your palm to Wa Long Palm as you follow your opponent and reel in the Shun direction as the palm rotates upward. 王 西 安 Fig.3 Fig. Xie Tuo Zhang is also applied in the process of Big Lü.2. then reverse to the Ni direction when the hands arrive at his or her body. The remaing three fingers turn slightly outward so that the palm becomes concave (Fig. one player may guide the other to reel first in the Shun direction.2.4). This techniqueis often applied in Shun Chan (conforming reeling) and Yin Jin (drawing into your territory).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. In this instance.3 Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm The Wa Long Palm is shaped like a Chinese roof tile where the sides curl upward and the middle is low. 6. when hands are rotating horizontally in a circle. During sparring. 6.4 172 . the power lies in the root of the palm. For example.4 Xie Tuo Zhan In this technique. where the raised hand lies above the middle of the upper arm. The palm posture during this direction change is called Xie Tuo Zhang. the hand is stretched upward to the sides (Fig. if the opponent executes Lü on you. the little finger is used to guide energy and draw inward toward the thumb. 6. As you rotate the hand downward or outward.
5 173 .2. separate them and switch to Cha Zhang. insert your hand downward and rotate it in the Shun direction. see above). • Cha Zhang is also adopted in Shun Bu Tuishou (see above) with moving footwork.5 Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm In this technique. • In Luan Cai Hua (palms reel in non-predictable angles. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Cha Zhang can be applied via the same application methods as with the Si Zheng Shou (stated above). then lower your shoulders and drop the elbows.6. Cha Zhang is widely used in Tuishou. • When the opponent executes Lü on your hand during Si Zheng Shou (handwork in four directions. as the hands insert downward. 6. and gradually press your hands toward the opponent. This technique is called Diagonally Upward Cha.5). the hand is inserted upward or vertically/diagonally downward. see above). for example: • When you rotate both hands in vertical circles. fingers slightly parted (Fig. 6.
When you guide your partner via Shun reeling to the front of your chest.6 王 西 安 174 . This type of hand is always used in Qin Na (arresting) and Tuishou with single hand in a horizontal circle. you can rotate your arm with the middle finger. This way. Fig. 6.6 Ba Zi Shou Ba Zi Shou (hand posture in character ‘八’): separate the thumb and the index finger to form a “八” shape. 6. the ring finger.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. and your partner exerts An to your hand. it is called Ba Zi hand because “八” is pronounced ‘ba’ in Chinese (Fig. you find it earsier to eliminate the opponent’s power by rotating your waist outwards with relaxation.2.6). and the little finger bending inward. while the thumb and the index finger form a “ 八” shape.
6. the sole fully touching the ground. The other leg bends with the intention to straighten. This knee is turned slightly outward to provide a frame for all parts of the body. toe tips bent slightly inward.7). following the principle of ‘closing in opening’. The toe tips point slightly inward. the thigh nearly parallel to the ground. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.1 Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step This technique requires the soles of the feet to touch the ground.3. In this posture.3 TuishOu fOOTwOrk Techniques 6. 6. One knee is bent so that the body is in a half crouch. the knee positioned approximately above the tip of the foot (Fig.7 王 西 安 175 . the Yong Quan point should be empty while the Dang is open with the intention to close. following the principle of ‘straightening in bending’. 6.
straighten the front leg so that the back leg becomes the Bow leg.8 6. Fig.8). the heel touches the ground with the toes pointing up at about 450 (Fig.3 Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step In this step. body weight is transferred from the front Bow leg to the back leg during in Shun Bu Tuishou pairwork. 6. When the weight is completely transferred.2 Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step In this posture.9). you can move your the weight back to transform their power by raising your toe tip and hence causing the heel to touch the ground naturally. toes grasping the ground.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.3. 6. • This step is always used in Shun step.3. Position both feet fully on the ground. 王 西 安 176 . big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. knee bent slightly over the toe tips. It is applied widely in Tuishou. if the opponent presses on any part of your body with his or her hands or arms. Keep the Yong Quan point empty so the straightened leg can be lifted later if the body weight is kept on the Bow leg (Fig. for example: • In Ping Yuan Tuishou (Tuishou in horizontal circles). 6.
Fig. move your weight back and withdraw the front leg backward by stepping the toe tip back first. 6. followed by the sole then heel (Fig. if an opponent applies Lü on you.3.10 177 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 6. 6.10).9 6.4 Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step This step is applied in three Tuishou techniques: a) Shun Bu –Tuishou big Lü. and Luan Cai Hua For example.
Lü applied through large-scale movements) (Fig. 12). 王 西 安 178 Fig.12 . Big Lü and Luan Cai Hua.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. and is widely used in forward or backward movements (Fig. c) Duli Bu (Standing on Single Foot) Duli Bu refers to having one foot raised while the other stands on the ground. 6. 6. in the ‘Dragon sweeps ground’ form. When the opponent applies Big Lü on you. which now lies close to the ground.11). 6. Hence the name ‘Falling Step’. This posture is applied to Shun step. For example. 6.e.11 b) Pu Bu (Falling Step) Pu Bu is only applied to Big Lü (i. quickly ‘fall’ to the ground with a large-scale ground sweep of the Bow leg.
spirals around the waist and shoulders. the shoulders guiding the elbows and the waist guiding the shoulders. where it returns to its original position of circulation. you can use Shun Chan to gather energy and edge into the opponent’s territory. power rises from the heels up the legs. in Bei Zhe Kao (Lean with back). This move is called Shun Ji Shun Fa (i. when the opponent executes Lü on you. 6. you can also use Shun Chan to attack to the side or directly on to the opponent after drawing them into your territory.13 179 .6. with the other fingers slightly turned outward.4 hand Techniques in TuishOu reeling 6.4. you draw the opponent inward into your territory. exerting Ji and Na in confronting reelings). For example.1 Shun Chan … Conforming reeling In Taijiquan. enters the bone marrow through gaps in the scapula and travels down the arms. with the little finger guiding energy as it points to the thumb when it is drawn inward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. while simultaneously executing Kao on the opponent.e. In Silk Reeling technique. Shun Chan means to spiral energy from the outside to the inside. It then rises from the internal to manifest externally through the skin and fine hairs until it reaches the fingers. The principle of Shun Chan is that with the elbows guiding the hands. In addition. the term ‘reeling’ means to spiral energy.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Note: to apply this technique precisely. Here.2 Ni Chan … Reverse reeling Ni Chan is the reverse of Shun Chan and may also be called ‘Ni Silk Reeling Outwards’.14). Zuo Wan (descending wrist) technique is adopted (Fig.15). In Ni Chan. extend your right hand and guide the opponent to rotate in Shun reelings towards your leftside. shoulders and elbows. 6. concentrate you energy in the wrist.3 Shun Ni Zuo Wan Wrist descending in Shun and Ni directions This technique consists of lowering the wrist gradually during the transition from Shun to Ni Chan. while the other fingers turn out slightly (Fig.14 Fig. You then Ni reel to your right ribs and change the attacking hand into ‘八’ shape so that you can easily capture your opponent. In horizontal circle rotations with single hand. 王 西 安 Fig. the shoulders to urge on the elbows and the elbows guiding the hands.4. 6. the thumb gathers inward and guides the little finger.4.15 180 . 6. 6. by using the waist to urge the shoulder. 6. roll your chest slightly inward and lower your waist. Ni Chan is used to open outward.
• For example. ring and middle fingers vertically downward while the thumb and the index finger form a ‘八’ shape (Ba Zi).4 Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist This technique is often used when the Ni Chan changes to Shun Chan. then quickly switches to Shun reeling and you easily seize the wrist of your partner by hooking hand. Cai. in case of single hand rotation in the horizontal circle. the Shun hand changes to Diao Shou (Hooked Hand). which is formed by pointing the little.6. An) or four side-oriented Si Yu Shou techniques (Si Yu Shou. Ji. Diao Wan has two functions: • Diao Wan can be used as one option to enhance the ability of Zhan Nian (adhering to the opponent). Lü.4. 6. Lie.16 181 . through any of the four front-oriented Si Zheng Shou techniques (Si Zheng Shou Peng. while trying to ‘listen’. and adhere to him or her. 6. At this point. to provide a closing and opposing force with the three fingers (Fig. by holding on to the opponent by the hand. The wrist is drawn inward to form a Diao Wan (Hooked Wrist). Kao).16). Zhou. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Diao Wan is also widely applied in response to a Lü attack. your right hand rotates at 90o towards the right side of body in Ni reeling.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
6.4.5 Shun Chan Yang Zhang Raised palm in conforming reeling
This can be divided into inward Yang (palm rising) and outward Yang (palm rising), which are always used in the four front oriented techniques (called ‘Si Zheng Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Peng, Lü, Ji, An) and four side oriented techniques (called ‘Si Yu Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). First, if the partner executes Lü on your right arm, you insert loosely in Ni reeling, and then advance and press inwards by Shun reeling, raising the hand while advancing. It is called Yi Yang Zhang (palm raised inward), because at this time the palm is facing inward and upward. Second, if you guide the partner and withdraw your step, the partner will likely expose some weak point after you raise your palm in Ni reeling. To lift the partner in this ‘openning’ provides preparation for your ‘closing’, i.e. to capture your partner in Shun reeling quickly. At this time your palm is facing upper outward, so it is called Wai Yang Zhang (palm raised outward) Internally, whether in outward Yang or inward Yang, you should coordinate whole body movements coherently. Yang is a kind of opening, so at this time the body should close, so as to support each other and not be separated. Practitioners must pay attention to these principles in practice.
王 西 安
6.5 TuishOu sTeps 6.5.1 Shang Bu … Forward Step
Shang Bu is a forward step with one foot, and begins with both a step forward and the bending of the knees so that the body is slightly crouched, five toes grasping the ground (Fig. 6.18). This preparatory posture resembles a cat ready to pounce on a rat, and allows you to step forward lightly and flexibly. Like a cat, you should prepare first by gathering energy, then extending the foot while listening and feeling intently. Step first with the heel then uncurling the rest of the foot flat on the ground. This procedure will limit your vulnerability.
6.5.2 Tui Bu … Retreating Step
The Tui step consists of moving one leg backward in an arc, and it can consist of more than one step (Fig. 6.19). Key to the Tui Bu is the bending of the weight-bearing knee. How much this knee bends and hence how much your body squats depends on the size of the Tui step. The bigger your retreating step, the lower you will have to bend your knee. However, it also depends on your body condition. Whatever the case, the Tui step has to be done flexibly and lightly and not with stiffness.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 6.18 Fig. 6.19
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
6.5.3 Gen Bu … Following Step
The Gen Bu can also be called the Dian (adding) Step (Fig. 6.20). This step is used in the situation where one normal step is too small to reach the target while two steps too excessive. In this instance, one is said to Gen (follow) or Dian (add) a small step after a normal step to reach the target distance. Gen is applied to the four front orientated techniques, Si Zheng Shou (Peng, Lü, Ji, An), big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. The main purpose of Gen Bu is to get closer to the opponent to decrease their chances of escape. However, note that the Gen step is completed without the opponent’s awareness, a technique called Die Fa (a general concept of body combat techniques, referring to the comprehensive techniques and strategies to defeat the opponents, on the basis of quality ‘listening’ to their speed, weight and power in Tuishou). The importance the Gen step in Tuishou is reflected in the saying, “You cannot reach the depth and secrets of Tuishou without understanding Die Fa.”
王 西 安
solo pRaCTiCe in Tuishou
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
Solo Tuishou practice consists of individual practices useful for improving flexibility, agility and responsiveness to combat. Typically, body movements are initially executed at a high stance, gradually lowering to mid then lower stances. However, practitioners should practise according to their body condition. Likewise, beginners should start with practicing at slow speed, gradually working up to faster then very swift movements. At each stage, slow movements should not become blocked, fast movements not energy-losing, and very fast movements not chaotic. In other words, you should not lose energy in slow practice, nor be obstructed in fast movements. On the contrary, you should keep the consistency, coherence and Liu He (the Closing and Consistency of six parts of the body), and avoid any disorder and energy loss.When one part of body moves, all other parts follow and coordinate. In solo Tuishou, you should act as though following your partner neatly, and always keep attention concentrated, shoulder blades relaxed, and movements flexible. Execute solo practice as if you were actually fighting with a partner, with the fight so vivid that it brings you more interest in your practice. As a result, after thorough sole practice, the whole body moves flexibly, neatly and smoothly, and you are able to do well in actual paired Tuishou.
王 西 安
so as to avoid empty stepping (i.1 Part 1 • • • Stand at attention with toe tips pointing slightly outward to form a “八” shape. then slowly roll down the rest of the foot to the ground. 7. Your step should be light.2 Part 2 • • • • Relax the crotch and bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position.2. palms lightly touching the sides of the legs.2 sOlO ping yuanwan hua (sOlO hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer) 7. 7. 7. Maintain the vertical axis. in preparation for the right leg step forward lightly. relax the crotch and lift the right knee.3 Part 3 • • • Maintain the vertical axis and lift the top of the head slightly.2. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7.2). the left toes grasping the ground. 7. Point the right toe tips down naturally as your weight shifts completely to the left and you stand with a left leg posture (Fig. bend the left knee and draw in the lower abdomen slightly to stabilize the weight-bearing left leg. 王 西 安 187 . empty the Yong Quan point. stepping without thought) (Fig. straightening the neck and lifting the top of the head.e. precise and full of intention of listening. Continue relaxing the crotch. heel first with toes pointed up.3). Shift your weight slowly to the left leg. eyes looking forward (Fig.7.2. Relax the arms and hang them at the sides.1). Step the right foot forward. As your weight shifts.
7.2.2 Fig. 7. While the right arm moves.3 7.4 Part 4 • • • Shift your weight slowly to the right leg to form a right Bow step. 7. . the left elbow and the right hand should move coherently in collaboration with each other.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. right elbow and wrist.4). Complete the movement by raising the right fingers to form the Li (erect) palm. 王 西 安 188 Note: in later movements. extend the right arm forward then bend the forearm about 450 inward while also lowering the shoulders. As the weight shifts. 7.1 Fig. thumb behind the fingers (Fig. relax the left arm so that the left hand hangs down.
7. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight slowly to the left so that the inner side of the right foot touches the ground. As you reel. The right knee follows the movement of the right hand and rotates inward at the same speed (Fig.5).Fig. 7. 7. 王 西 安 189 .4 Fig.5 Part 5 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Focusing your right hand on the imaginary partner move it about 900 in Shun reeling to the left of the body.5 7.2.
7 7.6 Part 6 • • 王 西 安 190 • • As the right hand completes its reel to the left. the elbow in a slightly warding off (Peng) position in coordination with the little finger. Step the right foot either flatly on the ground or with toe tips pointing up. change from Shun reeling to Ni reeling and continue moving in a downward arc to the front of the left ribs. draw the right knee slightly inward to prepare for an increased range of movement in the ensuing steps.6).2.7).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. At this point. When the right arm moves downward. The other fingers reel outwards in coordination with the elbow (Fig. . 7.6 Fig. the weight shifts completely to the left. The right forearm now moves transversely in front of the abdomen. This gesture enhances the movement by making the downward movement of the arm more precise and structured (Fig. 7. 7. right palm facing down and wrist bending 450 inward using the little finger as a guide.
8 Part 8 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 With the right hand.8). As the arm changes to Ni reeling. The 3600 rotation of the arm follows this sequence of changes: Shun.7. At this point. Rotate the waist to the right. changing into Ni reeling. shift your weight to the right. Return the bent arm and the bow leg to their original positions (Fig. until it reaches the front of the right ribs.2.7 Part 7 • • • • Using the little finger to guide the energy. While the right arm reels.9). continue reeling the right arm outward until the palm faces upward and the thumb and the first finger form a “八” shape. Ni. extend the right hand slightly forward. power is most concentrated and exerted on the external side of the thumb and index finger. using it as a pivot to rotate the right shoulder rightward. three Shun reelings and two Ni reelings. 7. 7. Use the rightward rotation of the waist and torso to steer and guide the partner’s power into your territory towards your right side so you can eliminate it. a 900 arc to the right side of body. 王 西 安 191 . that is. then draw an arc to the left where you met yourtpartner at the beginning the posture of palms. followed by the hand. Ni.2. bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. Shun.9 Part 9 • • Now using Ni reeling. Then place the palm downward (Fig.2. 7. 7. draw the chest slightly inward and relax the right side of the crotch. Shun. pointing the right knee slightly outward and moving it in a helix.
that is. Relax the waist and shoulders. 王 西 安 192 . the reeling sequence being Ni. 7. The movement of every part of the body should be continuous and synchronised – when the upper body moves. Practice alternating rotations with both arms so that there is a feeling of balance.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. The middle body moves in coordination with the upper and lower bodies. Shun. three Ni reelings and two Shun reelings. and ensure your body weight moves back and forth in synch with the body movements. the arms rotate with the waist and the axis while the hand guides the energy. that is. all parts moving together collectively.8 Fig. when one body part moves then all other body part follow. Ni. Ni. practice on the left by switching to the left leg and the left hand. 7.9 • The left arm rotates from the left. the upper body guides the lower body’s movement. the lower body follows. Notes In these horizontal-circle rotations. Practice until you reach a level where when one body part keeps still then all other body parts keep still. When you feel tired practicing on the right. Shun. rotate the wrist.
12). Focus the eyes on the right palm (Fig. relax the left side of the crotch. heel first with the right foot. 7.10). • • • • • Keep your body weight on the left leg and step forward.11). The whole movement is mainly guided by the rotating waist and relaxed shoulders. drawing an arc of about 180o which goes downward and then up to the right. drawing an arc of about 90o to the left. Next. with the rest of the foot gradually fully touching the ground. palm slanting upward with intention to gently guide and draw in. Bend the left leg so that you squat slightly. lower your Qi. These shifts are not immediately apparent as they occur mainly between the front and back sides of the legs and feet. switch to Ni reeling. return your hand to the original Da Shou position (meet the opponent with the hand) (Fig. then turn the body to the left and raise the right hand in Shun reeling. Finally. 7. It only requires vertial hand revolution and very small shifts in weight. then switching to 90o Shun reeling.3 sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle This is a single hand practice involving movements of a smaller range. Extend the right arm forward (either below or above the head) with the arm bending inward about 45o and with the left hand akimbo. 7. Next. This vertical rotation may be developed to the quality of Silk Reeling and may be used as a combat technique or for listening practice. with eyes looking forward (Fig. The range and intensity in the arm rotations may be increased gradually depending of the level of the practitioner. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 193 .7.
王 西 安 194 .10 Fig. Vertical arm rotation is guided by spiraling movements of the waist and back. then reel in Shun. 7. Finally. 7.12 • • When rotating in the opposite direction. reel in Ni to the right at 90o.11 Fig. Practice rotating both arms in turn.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. return to the Da Shou position (meeting the opponent with your hand) by a 90o upward arc in Ni reeling. Notes The single-hand vertical circle is not completely vertical but slightly slanted at an angle to allow you to guide and draw the opponent in. then draw a 180o arc to the left side of the body with palm facing left and finger tips slanted upward.
7. the palms should move forward at an inclined angle (see picture). 7.15). Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance. otherwise the shape of the posture will be lost (Fig. palms facing to each other. Relax the left crotch and while focussing on the right crotch. 7.15 195 .14 Fig.7.13 Fig. 7. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. 7.16). then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. shift your the weight gradually forward. pushing both palms forward (Tui Palm) at the same time.13). then raise the right foot. Also. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. 7. Note: when applying Tui Palm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. the forward shift of the body should stop once the palms reach their natural end position. eyes facing the front (Fig. in preparation for action (Fig.14).4 dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua • • • • Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. 7. toes relaxed and pointing downward (Fig. Raise the forearms 90o upward.
Practice this cycle. 7.16 Fig. 7.15) by drawing a circle by the sides of the body. this time relaxing the right crotch and focussing on the left crotch. then pushing both hands forward. shift your weight backward and separate both hands to the sides of the body. imagining the hands seizing the opponent’s wrists by Diao (Fig.17). Continue shifting your weight backward while both hands return to the original position in front of the abdomen (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. palms vertical. 7. Repeat the Tui Palm movement again. 王 西 安 196 . then lowering to the front of the abdomen.17 • • • Next.
This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. While raising the hands. then raise the right foot. 7. Grasp the ground lightly with the toes and face the eyes forward (Fig. Raise the forearms 90o upward.7.19). palms facing to each other. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance.19 197 . drop the elbows and sink the Qi downward. draw the chest inward. stated as follows: Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. toes relaxed and pointing downward (see Fig. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg. 7.5 sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle One cycle consists of one Shun reeling plus one Ni reeling of each hand. lower the waist and shoulders.18 Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. 7.14). 7. eyes facing the front. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 7. in preparation for action (Fig.18). • • • • Preparation postures are the same as those of Double Hand Horizontal Wan Hua.
7. the palms descend to the sides. 7. after another small Ni reeling upward.21 • • • • 王 西 安 198 • Next. open your back slightly and withdraw the elbows slightly inward so that power can easily reach the inner edges of the hands. stopping at shoulder level (Fig.20 Fig. extending the hands forward so that the left hand crosses over the inner side of the right wrist. step the left foot on the ground and shift your weight forward (Fig. both palms facing inward. push the crossed palms over the head in Ni reeling.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. cross both hands slowly in Shun reeling. Extend both hands forward in an ‘offering’ stance. Next. Then. At the same time. with the intention of supporting something upward. As both hands separate upwards. finish the weight shift to your right leg.21). continue to draw your chest inward. During this process. .20). 7. palms facing forward.
Note: Hand techniques are of the same as that of Solo Ping Yuan Wan Hua. that is. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 199 . strike out in succession to the sides so that the arms become a pulled bow. each associated body part strikes out in a Peng attack (Ward Off ) from the sides of the body. so as to start a new cycle. Closing form: palms continue to Shun reel. With body gathering. You will feel the power after long practice. forearm. finger-tips pointing down. palms cross together. the chest. palms facing each other. while weight totally switches to the left.Note: as both hands separate outward. Both hands then draw a downward arc to fall to each side of the abdomen. shoulders. • • Now the left hand reels in Ni while the right hand reels in Shun. only that palms in the latter move horizontally. then hands. upper arm.
Coordinate the movements of your hands. • As the weight shifts. with the foot gradually stepping fully on the ground. then bend it inward 45o. Extend the left hand transversely and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. heel first.23 200 . and An. When practicing. Lü. palm facing in. 王 西 安 Fig. Note that one should practice with intention rather than by force. act as if sparring with a partner. • Shift your weight to the left leg and lift the right foot to step forward. The key points are the same as those of solo Tuishou. palm facing forward. Ji.6 sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk Solo practice for He Bu Tuishou with static footwork is based on the four Zheng hands: Peng. eyes.22 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. • Stand at attention. body and steps. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the right. thumb pointing down and the little finger pointing upward. 7. 7. Open every body part to make your rotations natural and flexible.
22). and so continue to Peng upward before executing Lü. as the left hand moves inward in Ni reelings. Shift your weight to the left slightly then to right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 7. Move the right hand in Shun reeling. 7. 7. the left hand ahead of the right. 7. Meanwhile. lower the right shoulder and drop the right elbow.• • • • • The left arm intends to Peng outward. Next. As the left hand rises. and the eyes look forward to the right (Fig.24 Fig. the arm opens like a circle. coordinate and execution of Ji forward to the right with the right hand acting as a joint force (Fig. At the same time. visualize placing the outer edge of the right hand on the outside of the opponent’s elbow joint Then execute Lü with both hands slowly to the left side of the body until the right hand reaches the front of the right breast.25 201 .23). relax the left crotch. raise both hands in Ni reeling. Relax the right crotch and turn the body to the right. shift your weight left and focus your eyes on the front of the right hand (Fig. 7. During this process. the wrist bent slightly inward and palm facing inward.24). focus your intention on meeting and holding the opponent’s hand.
Repeat the process.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right as the upper body moves and turns right. visualize your left hand pressing down on the hand of the opponent. Note: In this movement. Now withdraw the left hand quickly and imagine placing it on the middle of the right upper arm of your partner (Fig. alternating left and right sides. Peng and An are transitional actions executed in 王 西 安 202 . The right hand reels in Ni direction also with the intention to push outward (Fig. the right hand executes Peng. If the left leg is in the front. This is the same as the starting posture of Da Shou posture.22). and the left hand helps the right to execute Lü. At this point. 7. As this happens. Execute An forward with both hands the palms facing each other about 33 cm apart. an instant. The edges of the hands become power-exerting points. 7. eyes looking forward. shift your weight forward to the right leg. pushing it outward. You will also need to use your left shoulder to push and use the right hand to help press forward.25).
Hand movements consist of four Zheng hands: Peng.7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Lower the waist. As the weight moves forward. Step the left foot on the ground with the inner side of the foot touching the ground. Ji and An. 7. These actions drive two the hands forward. • • • • Step forward with the right foot then shift your weight forward. moving forward is combined with Ji and An hand movements. sink the shoulder downward and drop the elbows.26 Fig. Keep the eyes looking to the front right (Fig. In practice. draw the chest inward. 7. where the pushing power is exerted. 7. raise both hands to attack by pushing them to the front right of the body. outward.27 203 . Lü.7 shun bu TuishOu (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep) Shun Bu Tuishou consists of two basic steps – one moving forward and one moving backward. moving backward uses Peng and Lü hand movements. Face the outer hand edges.26).
. tiptoe first. 7. 7.28 Fig. The body moves forward following the shift in weight. shift your weight to the left and lift the right foot. turning the right elbow out and upward. Bend the left leg to squat further and extend the right foot forward. with the intention to close before opening. At the same time. Raise the right hand in Shun reeling. 7. withdraw the left hand gradually and place it on the middle of the right upper arm.27). followed by the arm and the hand (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Note that Qi should not be allowed to float upward. move the left hand downward then draw a forward arc to form a Lü posture with the right hand. As this happens. toes pointing down (Fig. rotate the right hand slightly downward in Ni reeling. thumb pointing down and palm facing down. 7. As the arm moves. Push the shoulder forward. At the same time.29). the right hand moves upward in Ni reeling while the right foot takes a step backward without turning the body. 7. and in preparation for moving.29 • • • • • 王 西 安 204 • • • After the pushing attack.28). Eyes look to the front right (Fig. Relax the left crotch after pushing and shift the weight to the left.
Fig. 7. the upper and lower body form a balanced block of strength with the waist as the boundary. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. 7. gradually squat the body. then in Shun direction downward to the left. Then the right hand switches to Lü. 7. Both hands are about 33 cm apart (Fig.31). 7. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. 7. Withdraw the right hand quickly in Ni reeling and place it on the middle of the left upper arm. 7. Next. then shift your weight to the right. The front push of the right hand provides an instant defense. then draw a circle downward. Visualize sending the opponent’s right hand out to the left side of your body. The outer edges of the hands are power-exerting points. While the right hand switches to Lü. thumb pointing down and palm facing forward.30). As the weight shifts. Eyes look to the left (Fig. Reel the left hand first in Ni direction.which takes place in an instant. Raise the right foot and take a step backwards to the right.32). Next. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 205 . raise the right hand quickly to push forward together with the left hand toward the left side of the body. raise the left hand in a spiral to form a Lü movement with the right hand.33).31 • • • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left.30 Fig.
Raise the body gradually and slowly shift your weight to the left leg. As the weight shifts.33 • • • Both hands execute Lü from left to right following the body.32 Fig. 王 西 安 Fig.34). 7. extend the right hand to the right front of the body following the right foot. 7. 7. 7.35 206 . Eyes look to the front left (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. At the same time. until the left hand reaches the middle line of the body.34 Fig. take a step forward with the right foot. 7. the right arm then bends to 450 inward.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 7. Continue shifting your weight to the right while pressing the right arm forward in a relaxed manner with descending energy. 7. 7.Fig.38 Fig. Then shift your weight slightly rightward. thumb pointing down. place the left hand on the right upper arm. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.35). 7. 7.36 Fig.39 207 . 7. Note that the waist power descends to the left first then the right. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.37 • • Simultaneously.36).
At the same time. execute Lü downward with the left hand. visualizing that you are pushing the opponent’s hand outward to the right. Start a new cycle (Fig. raise the right hand quickly and exert An forward with power. 7. As soon as both arms finish pressing forward. 7. Eyes look to the right (Fig.39). Next. 王 西 安 208 . move the right hand in front of the left hand quickly. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 7. then execute Lü movement with both hands to the left side of the body until the right hand moves in front of the right breast. then move it out to the right.37).38). Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left.
It is not easy to practice Cai. Furthermore. whereby Player B executes Lü on Player A. Zhou. The other movements are the same as the movements in Shun Step (forward or backward step).7. like the “dragon sweeps ground” routine in which Player A executes Lü on Player B. the only difference being that the extent of the steps in Da Lü is bigger. Lü. Lü Ji and An. and Kao. Bie.8 sOlO danren da lü TuishOu Da Lü is based on four hand techniques in the main directions – Peng. It uses the combat techniques of the four hand techniques in corner directions – Cai. Lie. beginners should first practise the routines. One is Da Pu Bu. The circulating of steps in Da Lü when practicing Peng. Zou. 7. and Kao. Ji and An is the same to those in Shun Step (forward or backwards Step). The other picture demonstrates the big Frontward Bow Step.40 Fig. a major weakness with which you cannot even hope to attack the opponent. Bie Zou. As such. In this chapter. then the fives methods of solo Tuishou practice.41 209 . a good foundation in Taijiquan and solo Tuishou is required before you can become proficient in using Cai. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. If not. the whole body will become stiff when you try to squat down in the big body movements. Kao with large-scaled body movements. literally meaning “big falling step”. we will only refer to two main Da Lü postures as shown in the pictures which follow.
you should pay attention to the following points.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. In the Luan Cai Hua Tuishou practice. 7. and An. 王 西 安 Fig. Lü.42. precise rotation.9 sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu The gait in Luan Cai Hu is called San Bu (scattered steps) or Hua Jiao Bu (steps in flower tracks). See how to execute Dian step in Figure 7. You should adjust your direction and position by applying small Gen steps so that you can stick to the partner tightly and prevent their escape. Ji.42 210 . This way you will not lose energy unnecessarily nor become stiff. Luan Cai Hua is also built on the foundation of Peng. You need to rotate neatly when executing a step forward as the partner changes his or her direction. It’s features include free movement with no fixed direction. and flexible. and also uses the Si Zheng Shou. The body movement and gait should be neat and swift.
heavy but not stiff. Ji.In this technique. You should practice listening repeatedly. the extent of the arm rotations should be small to match the changes in gestures and the revolving steps. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 211 . Do not just practice at fast speeds or you will lose your energy or get stiff. the steps are small but the speed is fast. light but not empty and floating. and thus impede any progress in Tuishou. When circulating the four Zheng hand techniques (Peng. getting close to their upper body while causing them to raise their lower body or slant it. If you are able to put the partner in a passive position you can fullfil your intention without being noticed. When you apply Luan Cai Hua in Tuishou sparring. You try to sense the partner’s intention by through pressing and pushing precisely and lightly. Lü. An). looking for the attacking opportunity. and entice the partner to advance and show his or her weak points. you feel the partner’s energy as you rotate. It is not easy to apply Die Fa. the only difference being in the stances of the body. The steps and gestures in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou are the same as Da Lü and in Shun Step. Your movements should be quick but not chaotic.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 212 .
CHAPTER 8 paiR pRaCTiCe in Tuishou 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 213 .
agile. similarly. Partners should pay attention to co-operating with each other and using different practice methods at different stages in pair practice. Like solo practice. flexible and rapid. try to choose a partner of similar level for pair practice. pair practice becomes beautiful to watch. gathering speed in the later stages. If solo Tuishou is described as “imagining you are fighting with a person though you are practicing alone”. Pair practice Tuishou improves combat skills. pair practice should start slowly. If possible. Lastly. development should follow the stages of San Shou to Zhan (coherence).1 inTrOducTiOn Pair practice in Tuishou consists of applying a combination of techniques with partners and sparring. lowering to mid-height then low stance. If both partners have Taiji proficiency. 王 西 安 214 . the practice stance should start high. Lian (connecting) and finally Sui (following). then pair Tuishou may be described as “acting as if there is no partner although you have one”. like a flowing river: smooth. moving as the partner moves. so you must strive to concentrate. Faster progress may be made if your partner is proficient in Taiji. flexible and without weaknesses. I hope that the reader will use this to practice diligently and master the key points. Pair Tuishou embodies the essence of Taiji Tuishou. In addition. An introduction to Tuishou pair practices has been provided in the following pages. Nian (sticking).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. movements in pair practice should start simply before gaining in complexity. whereby your actions should be precise.
These may be shortened to ‘A’ and ‘B’.2. The distance between both right feet should be about 10 cm. arms hanging relaxed by the sides.1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. 8.1 Both players take a step forward with their right feet.2 single-hand hOrizOnTal wan hua in pair pracTice Player A refers to the male practitioner dressed in a dark blue. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. toes pointing slightly outward to form a 八 shape.8. 8. Player B refers to the female practitioner dressed in red. 王 西 安 215 . Their bodies are upright. an arms length from each other so that their fists touch when arms are outstretched. gradually forming a front Bow Step.
eyes focussed on the right hands.2 Posture 3 王 西 安 216 Player A guides Player B to draw a 90o arc from the waist midline toward his left. and B continues to reel 90o in the Ni direction until her hand falls to the front of A’s lower abdomen. Alternatively. 8. A’s weight shifts backward. . both players raise their right palm and extend it forward. The back of the palms touch each other. the left hand can also be placed naturally along side the body. with the middle fingers at nose level. B’s weight continues to move forward to form a single-hand An (pushing) power. and his body crouches slightly to form a closing power. As both players draw this arc. using the middle line of the nose as the boundary. Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 While the right feet step forward.2. The right hand extends forward with the left hand akimbo. corresponding with the rotation of the waist. Both players watch their hands throughout this step.2 8.
Repeat this cycle.2. At the same time. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 8. B shifts her weight gradually backward while her hand draws an arc following Player A.3 8. then Ni reels 90o to the front of Player B’s abdomen. then she guides A’s hand to the front of his abdomen.3 Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and Shun reels 90o to the right. 8.4 217 .Fig.
Fig. the only difference being that here the Da Shou (meet partner with hand) position is higher.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.3 single-hand verTical circle wan hua in pair pracTice 8. 8.5 8. Both players then rise.3.1 Posture 1 The preparation postures are the same as that of single-hand horizontal circle rotation.3. before crouching again as they Ni reel downward 90o until their hands reach the front of the lower abdomen. Player A guides Player B to move first in Shun reeling.2 Posture 2 王 西 安 218 After both players complete a Da Shou (meet partner with hand). then then draws a 90o arc to the left. . both hands perpendicular to each other and eyes looking forward.
During the above process. guiding Player B to Ni reel 900 to his right side. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. A continues to Shun reel a 900 arc upward until he returns to the original Da Shou position. B always adheres to A. turning to the right (B’s left side).6 8.7 219 . with eyes looking at the same direction.Fig.3.3 Posture 3 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body to the right. when A draws an arc to the right side. 8. 8. Partner B relaxes the left crotch. For example.
draw their chests inward and gather their ribs.4.1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. heel first. with aim to form a front Bow Step. they lower their waists. placing them outside A’s hands. Player A raises two hands in front of his chest. Now both players wait in a defensive mode.8 220 . eyes looking forward.4 shuang shOu ping yuanwan hua (hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. toes turned up (optional). Both players step forward simultaneously with their right foot. having first shifted their weight onto the left leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. lower the shoulders and drop the elbows. 王 西 安 Fig. 8. ready to move and attack if hands touch. While waiting. Then Player B extends her hands forward. Both right feet start to uncurl to the ground.
B’s little fingers “stick” to A throughout the process. As B’s weight moves backward. 8.8. As Player A pushes his hands forward.4. Here. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.2 Posture 2 Player A relaxes his right crotch and continues to shift his weight forward while pushing his hands forward in Ni reeling.9 王 西 安 221 . Player B “listens” to A’s power and shifts her weight backward to force A to increase his pushing distance. with her little finger lightly hanging on A’s wrists to guard against any sudden attacks. He stops pushing when his hands are 20 cm away from Player B’s chest. A’s weight shift to the right foot has been fully completed. her hands reel in Shun. In other words.
B senses the speed of A’s pushing and separating power as her hands are tightly guided by his hands and separated by them to the sides.4. He shifts his weight backward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. 8. While Player A separates. While A draws arcs.4. Then both players return to the original position.3 Posture 3 Player A pushes first and then separates his hands by reeling in a Ni direction. B moves her weight forward to form a Bow Step. 王 西 安 222 .4 Posture 4 Player A switches to Shun reeling and draws an arc inward. his little fingers catching Player B’s wrists to the sides of the body as the two hands draw arcs. Fig. then separates Player B’s hands to the sides of her body at shoulderlevel.10 8. using the outer edges of his palms. She relaxes her chest as her hands separate.
8.11 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 223 .Fig.
then step their right feet forward simultaneously.5 shuang shOu li yuan wan hua (verTical cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. 8. and separate hands to the sides of the body at shoulder level.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. The two parties’ eyes always follow their movements. the weight for both parties starts to shift to the right.12 王 西 安 224 8.5.1 Posture 1 Player A and B stand facing each other.2 Posture 2 Player A reels in the Ni directon and contitues to shift his weight forward. all eyes look forward. A’s weight is all at the right foot. The positions of all hands are higher than the eyes. . Now. draw a vertical circle outward. B has been shifting her weight to the left. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. Now. guiding Partner B to raise her hands.5. Fig. Both players extend and raise their hands in front of their bodies with Player B’s hands placed on the outer edges of Partner A’s hands.
Fig. Player A draws outwards while Partner B draws inwards.14 225 . 8. his little fingers slightly catching Player B’s wrists.3 Posture 3 Player A switches to Shun reeling. she shifts her weight forward to form a front Bow Step. 8. While Player B rotates her arms downward following Player A. and draw arcs to the lower abdomen. while he shifts his weight backward.5.13 8. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Both players’ eyes face forward.
4 Posture 4 Player A continues Shun reeling. Player B follows Player A closely and feels his change. Both players face forward. Both players can practice this in turn. Then Player A returns to the original position by Ni reeling and separating his arms outward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. 王 西 安 226 . his hands crossing before the chest with both palms facing in. Note: The steps are the same. the body squats to prepare for openning. whether Player A separates B or vice versa. and continues to move her weight forward.5. Repeat this cycle.
6 he bu TuishOu (TuishOu wiTh cOiling hands and sTaTic fOOTwOrk) 8.8. then step their right feet forward simultaneously.6. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. and then extend their right hands forward so they cross each other. Both players then shift a little more weight to the right. eyes looking forward. Now. Player A and B stand facing each other. 8. the weight for both parties are both in the left. yet start to shift to the right. backs of the hands touching.15 王 西 安 227 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.1 Posture 1 The gait of He Bu Tuishou is the same to that of the Vertical Coiling Flower with Double Hands.
Player B withdraws her left hand quickly when Player A executes Peng and puts it on the middle of her own right upper arm. Her right hand presses Player A’s right hand slightly downward. Fig. While the right arm turns.6. both of B’s arms form an An (Pushing) power. then extends forward to press against A’s left forearm. At the same time. Player B places her left hand on the right upper arm of Player A as he moves. . 8.6. Player A relaxes his left crotch and moves his weight slightly leftward. he places his left hand on the middle of the right upper arm. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. palm facing out and thumb pointing down so that both arms form an outward Peng (ward off ) power posture. gradually switching from Peng (ward off ) to Lü leftward.3 Posture 3 王 西 安 228 Player A holds the left hand of Player B to ward it off outward. In this way.16 8. During this process. then turns his right hand left in Shun reeling following the turn of his body.2 Posture 2 Player A shifts his weight forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.
8. and executes Lü (roll back) again.18 229 . Player B switches from An (push) to Peng (ward off ). Repeat this cycle.17 8. shifting his weight forward to add more pressure. Then Player B wards off Player A’s left hand upward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. In response. then moves quickly forward to press the middle of Player B’s right upper arm with his left hand. In response.6. 8.4 Posture 4 Player B executes Ji (press) on Player A. Player A executes Lü on B’s hand and presses it downward.Fig. Partner A withdraws his pressing hand and places it on his own right upper arm. thus returning to the original position.
7. A’s left hand then crosses with B’s left hand. 王 西 安 Fig. placing it on the outside of A’s right leg. so that both knees touch (A’s inner knee and B’s outer knee).1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention. Player B’s right hand crosses the outside of A’s right hand. then places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. Player A raises his right arm as his right leg moves.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. 8.19 230 . palm facing outward. Player B steps her right foot forward at the same time.7 pair pracTice in shun bu TuishOu (TuishOu wiTh MOveable fOOTwOrk) 8. Both players look at each other from the side. Player A steps his right foot forward to form a front Bow Step. bending it 450 inward. and places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.
he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. and moves his weight leftward.2 Posture 2 Player A then relaxes his right crotch. Both players look to the front and gather themselves to prepare for futher movements. and switches both hands to double-hand Shun reeling to ward off outward gradually. Both players look to the front. raises his left hand. 王 西 安 231 .20 8. executing Lü (roll back) with his right hand. then withdraws her right hand and puts it on the middle of her right upper arm to form a Ji (press) power to counter Partner A quickly.8. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. and then wards off Player B’s left hand upwards. Player B continues to move her weight forward when Player A applies Lü. This switch from Peng to Lü happens in an instant.7. At the same time. Player B shifts her weight forward to double her pressing power. As Player A’s body turns right.3 Posture 3 Player A relaxes his left crotch first. shifts his weight slightly to the right. he lowers his left shoulder and left elbow.7. 8. turns his body to the right. Simultaneously.
with the coordination of his right hand. with the aim of getting her to fall to his right side.7. At the same time. 8. A then extends his left hand up and forward and presses the middle of Partner B’s right hand. then pushes her left hand rightward. When Player A presses downward.22 232 . forming an An force.21 8. he presses Player B’s left hand downward to the front of her lower abdomen. Player B exerts a strong Peng force to Player A’s right upper arm touching A’s right hand with her right hand.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.4 Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body slightly to the right. 王 西 安 Fig. 8.
He then pushes his shoulder and upper arm towards B’s chest in response to B’s Lü. At the same time. In this move. Player A moves his weight first to the left and lifts his right foot quickly to step forward.23 8. both her hands follow the body and turn right to execute Lü (roll back) on the right side of Player A’s right arm until her left hand reaches the mid-line of her body.5 Posture 5 Player B’s left foot steps on the ground. 8.7. As Player B executes Lü. her right crotch relaxes and she shifts her weight to the right.6 Posture 6 Player A shifts his weight back to the left leg after pushing. At the same time. 王 西 安 233 .7.8. A’s upper and lower body move as one. his right hand switches to Ni reeling to force Player B to step backward. and his forward push corresponds to the hardness or softness and speed of B’s Lü power. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Note: both players should not move too quickly as this would hinder the rotation of the arms and result in blockages. tiptoe first. then her foot gradually steps on the ground fully.
Player B relaxes her left crotch. In response. palm out. then pushes Player B’s right hand first down then left using the pressing power of his left hand. turns his body slightly left and shifts his weight slightly leftward. to form Ji (press) power with her right arm. Both players look to the side at each other. then takes a step forward with her right foot.7 Posture 7 王 西 安 234 Player A relaxes his left crotch. so as to form Peng and Lü with both of his hands.7. . B steps forward in synch with A’s guiding hand. Simultaneously. While this happens. 8. shifts her weight leftward. Fig.24 8. Player A places his left hand on B’s right upper arm. shifting her weight gradually rightward. Player B wards off slowly outwards with both hands in Shun reeling.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 At the same time. B also places her left hand on the middle of her right upper arm. and steps within A’s left leg so that their two knees connect. Both players look diagonally to the front.
At the same time.7.8 Posture 8 Player A relaxes his left crotch then shifts his weight to the left.25 8. Player B lowers her left shoulder and left elbow. 8. 8. then switches her left hand instantly from Peng to Lü. then raises her left hand in an upward Peng on A’s left hand.Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.26 235 . Simultaneously. B also places her right hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.
Both B’s hands work together to form an upward pressure pose. then quickly forms a pushing power towards B. Both players look to the sides. 8. she presses forward on the middle of A’s right lower arm. 王 西 安 Fig. Both players look diagonally to the front. then to her left. 8. Player A continues to shift his weight forward.9 Posture 9 Player B relaxes her right crotch and turns her body slightly to the right.27 236 . Then with her left hand. then raising his left hand upward onto B’s right upper arm to warding off (Peng). both A’s arms form an outward Peng power. As Player B pushes A’s left hand downward. then withdraws his right hand to place it on the middle of his left upper arm.7. A responds first by flowing downward. she presses Player A’s left hand first down to the front of his lower abdomen.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As this happens. His right hand then comes into contact with B’s right hand. At the same time. In this instance.
王 西 安 237 . 8. following A’s Lü power. He moves in Lü until his left hand reaches the mid-line of his body. shifts his weight to the right and rotates both hands to the right following the body to execute Lü on the right side of Player B’s right arm.7. leading to increased exposure to attacks. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.8. Player B shifts her weight first to the left. Both players should defend and stick to defend their own territory. then steps forward quickly with her right foot and pushes her shoulder and upper arm forward toward A’s chest.28 Notes: Player B’s upper and lower body should follow each other when pushing forward. Player A steps his left foot on the ground. relaxes his left crotch. taking care not to go beyond their territory as this would mean that the transferring and changing of movements would not be as quick and flexible. In response to A’s Lü.10 Posture 10 Both players keep moving and rotating. and the speed and extent of her forward push should be dependent on the speed and hardness or softness of Partner A’s Lü.
11 Posture 11 After pushing forward. Ji and An. Player B shifts her weight backward to her left leg. 8. Both their knees connect. for both of the two players. then takes a step forward (Shang Bu) with his right foot to step on the inside of B’s leg. as well as an accomplishment of one cycle of Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. and are ready to start a new cycle. At the same time.26. B places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. The rotating methods are the same as those on Figures 8. her two hands forming a Lü posture. and 8.28. You may have found that. Player A places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. Posture 11 is the same as Shun Bu (moving forward and back in one step) Tuishou. Simultaneously. tiptoe first.25.7. to form a Ji power with his right arm. Finally. 8.27. one full cycle consists of one step forward and one step backward. both players return to their original positions. Lü. shifts his weight leftward. As B shifts her weight backward. Both playesr look diagonally to the front. 王 西 安 238 . her right hand changes to Ni reeling to force Player A to step back. At the same time. foot gradually steps fully on the ground. palm out. A relaxes his left crotch.
In this low body movement. which is Cai. and is based on Shun Bu Tuishou. Bie. The practice of Da Lü movements is very important in learning how to apply low body movements in combat without impacting on other combat movements or losing agility and flexibility. you should combine Si Zheng Shou practice with Si Yu Shou. 8. requiring both players to crouch on one leg while extending the other fully forward with calf touching the ground.8. This technique consists of larger scale body movement.29 王 西 安 239 .8 pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu) Da Lü Tuishou pair practice is the fourth technique of of Chen-style Taiji Tuishou. Zhou and Kao. which is aimed at reinforcing your lower body stance and leg power in this technique. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.
hence sweeping your arm horinzontally left and right after meeting your opponent in Da Shou (meet partner with hand). Sao means to sweep or clear away.9 pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu (cOiling flOwer TuishOu) Luan Cai Hua is also known as Hua Jiao Bu. This Tuishou technique combines the handwork of Si Zheng Shou and the footwork of Shang Xia Bu (moving forward and backward) in varying degrees.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. so as to transform the opponent’s power. Da means to put your hand on the hand of the opponent with the intention of using it as a touchpoint and support. left and right. can you win consistently. Gun Shuan (roll and seize). to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to the upper part of their body while lifting their lower body). During combat. depending on the circumstances. nor the location of your body weight. The technique also uses the deft and precise handwork of Shang Long Xia Ti (which means. From this position. try to feel the Gongfu level gap between you and your opponent by listening. Bi Ya (push and press) and so on. 王 西 安 240 . push and press against the opponent to force them into a defensive mode. Gun Shuan is an extension of Da Sao. In Da Sao. Other handwork techniques used to render opponents passive are: Da Sao (support and sweep). or power direction. up and down. Shuan means to put an arm across the chest like a locked door bolt to protect against attack. use your elbow or Kao (shoulder strike) to attack when you find a weak point. reel them in Shun and Ni directions. Only this way. the opponent cannot discern your target. With this method. Instead of sweeping the arms horizontally. If you choose not to attack under some circumstances.
30 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Your Dian Bu should be light. Apply Ti (lift) and Long (holding close) unpredictably and precisely. Fig.31 王 西 安 241 . Your footwork should be based on the speed. For example.Your footwork should be coordinated with your handwork. Combine the power of both your hands so that they become one indivisible power.32 Fig. Place yourself in a strong and active position by applying Dian Bu (adding half paces) continuously when executing Shang Bu (stepping forward). flexible. direction and angle of changes. 8. 8. which you think harmful to your opponent. Actually. These are the main methods and purpose of Luan Cai Hua pair practice. coordinated with Shang Long Xia Ti. transforming the power of your opponent so that he or she becomes trapped in a passive position unawares. 8. agile and swift. if the opponent retreats one step. you can advance two or three steps to gain a territorial advantage. there are no restrictions in the application during practical body combat. This is an example of the Die Fa.
While the Taiji form has undergone many changes through the ages. According to this philosophy. we shall focus on the Yang Style for the purposes of this book as because this style best illustrates the Yin and Yang principles of Taiji philosophy. each action or form occurs as a result of a certain combination of forces which are generated by Heaven. At its foundation. the philosophy of Taiji attempts to explain the workings of the universe. opposing and complementary. one of the pre-eminent representatives of Yang Taiji family. Sun and Wu Styles. through Taiji forms and postures. Earth or Human realms. Yang. This philosophy provides an alternative and deeply sophisticated paradigm of how human beings may be perceived in relation to their position within the cosmos. that is. culminating in the modern-day Chen.Other books by INBI World: OLEG TCHERNE philosophy of Taiji The philosophy of Taiji was developed in China at the height of the Daoist era between 700 bc to 200 ad. Taiji Philosophy is most easily expressed and understood through the use of body language. . much of the theory in this book is based on the guidelines written by Yang Chengfu. our world and the human body through the interactions. and offered new ways of understanding humans as a microcosmic blueprint of the Universe. of two fundamental forces: Yin and Yang. For this reason.
The English translation of this canon marks the first ever attempt to translate into English Chen Xin’s highly esoteric and detailed technical explanations of Chen-style Taijiquan techniques. A work of intense scholarship which took over fourteen years to complete.com .inbiworld. and a referential resource for Taiji instructors and practitioners for generations to follow. including his meticulous inscriptions for over 400 illustrations. www. this tome was intended by its author to be both the first ever written repository of Taiji lore.CHEN XIN The illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan “The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan” is universally acknowledged by the Taoist community and Taiji practitioners as the seminal sourcebook of Taiji philosophy and techniques.
By proceeds from the purchase of Master Chen Xiaowang’s calligraphy or through direct contributions. Wenxian. founder of the Yang style. China. Through the website below and in person at Master Chen Xiaowang’s seminars worldwide.chenxiaowang. An effort to preserve the heritage of Taijiquan by restoring Chen Changxing’s home in Chen Village. Henan Province. Chen Changxing was the fourteenth generation Master of Chen family Taijiquan who taught Yang Lu Chan. www. What is the Chen Changxing - Chen Village Restoration Project? A. Q. How is the project being funded? A. Q.Chen Village Restoration Project • Q. All people who buy calligraphy or make a direct contribution will have their name and the amount carved into a stone tablet to be displayed in Chen village. Q. How do I purchase calligraphy or make a contribution A. Who was Chen Changxing? A.com .
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