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王 西 安
Chen Family Taijiquan Tuishou
Chenjiagou Wenxian County Henan, China
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
Published by INBI Matrix Pty Ltd po box 775, Maroubra 2035 NSW Australia English Edition © 2009 INBI Matrix Pty Ltd Copyright © 1998 Wang Xi’an
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retreival system, without permissing in writing from the publisher.
First edition, 2009 Printed in China
王 西 安
Project management & design: Roman Mukhortikov Editors: Juliana Ngiam, Tom Watson Translation: Zhang Yanping
ISBN-13: 978-1-87693-500-6 ISBN-10: 1-87693-500-6
Thoughts on Taiji
Ever since it came into being, Taiji has been passed down from generation to generation. Foremost among many historic figures, was Chen Zhaopi (1893-1972), who stands out for his determination to train young successors. Thus, today we witness a substantial and energetic development of Taiji in the Chen Village, from where its reputation has spread worldwide, inspiring both young and old in the practice of Taiji. Chen Zhaopi was passionate in sharing his heritage and knowledge. My only regret is that I failed to be more focused and to practice more diligently. As a successor of the Chen family heritage, I have undertaken to continue his legacy by writing this book, but despite all best attempts, I struggle to reveal all the subtleties in this vast body of knowledge. I sit with a lonely lamp, recalling the past and sigh to the sky.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vi .
indubitably a result of the efforts of Taiji followers in both countries.Preface to original edition I cannot express how excited I am on hearing the news that Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Techniques. In the spirit of Taiji’s original meaning. to consist of everything’. Japan 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 vii . I recall Master Wang working on two manuscripts which he carried around in his bag during his visit to Tokyo in November 1995. Atsuko Noguchi January 1998. newly written by Master Wang Xian. I look forward to Master Wang’s future works with great enthusiasm. an impressive feat of concentration and energy considering Master Wang’s teaching workload. belongs not only to China but to the rest of the world. Tokyo. ‘to exist everywhere. as an expression of the profound spirit inherent in all human beings. More than ever. is to be published. Indeed. the Japanese are coming to love Taijiquan and the great charm of Chinese culture. we believe that Taiji. his high disciplinary standards and outstanding martial arts techniques serves as an inspiration to all Taiji learners in Japan and we greatly appreciate his tremendous contribution to Sino-Japan Taiji relations and the spread of Taiji knowledge all over Japan in years past. One of the finished manuscripts resulted in this book. I shall always be greatful for Master Wang and Taijiquan for leading me to a totally different worldview and life.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 viii .
............ 2..........................................................................................10 5..................................................................... Palm Practice ........................................ 4................................................. Na (Seizing) Practices ........................................................................................ Ti (Raising) Energy .....................18 3. Zhan Nian Techniques.......................117 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 ix .............................................................13 Chapter Two: Interpretation on the Ten Forces of Tuishou 1................................................................................55 4...........................................................................3 Tuishou Practice – Going Inward....................................... Energy Explosion .............. Tuishou: the Only Criterion to Judge the Gongfu of Taiji... Feet Practice ......... Lian Sui Energies .... Step by Step ............ Na (Seizing) Techniques ......84 7...... Leg Practice ............................................................. Kao (Push) Practices....................................................... Misleading and Transforming Techniques ... Opening and Closing ........... The Relationship Between Three Stages of Taijiquan Practice and Tuishou .............................................................97 8...40 3..................................................................................................................................................................23 5.........................29 8............................. Listening to Energy ........................................26 7..........................................38 2...34 10..............25 6........................... Introduction .........................................16 2...........................................105 9........................... The Origin of Taijiquan Tuishou ........................................ Fist Practice ..................................21 4............... Reeling Silk ....................... Jietuo (Escape) Practices....................................................................................................................................................... 3.......................................................................................72 6..................................................35 Chapter Three: Single Form Practice 1....31 9...................................................... Dongjin – Realization of Energy ..........................Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction 1............................... Elbow Practice ............................................4 The Core of Tuishou ..........................63 5....
............................................................................214 2....... Solo Double-hand Flat Circle Wan Hua .......................... 157 Chapter Six: Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories 1................................................................................146 6..............................................195 5.... Hand Techniques in Tuishou Reeling............. Introduction .. Pair Practice in Shun Bu Tuishou................... San Ti Shi (Three Postures)................................239 9....................................142 5.................. Classifications of Tuishou ......................................................................... Single-hand Horizontal Wan Hua in Pair Practice ................................................................................... Solo Ping Yuanwan Hua .................... 215 3.....................................218 4...................... Solo Luan Cai Hua Tuishou . Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan (Returning to Wu Ji Zhuang) ......................... Shuang Shou Li Yuan Wan Hua...... Shun Bu Tuishou .................................................227 7.........................................193 4.................... Tuishou Footwork Techniques......220 5.....230 8................................................................................................................................... Solo Wan Hua ....................209 9............... Introduction ............179 5... Solo Double-hand Wan Hua in a Vertical Circle ............................. Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Zhuang) ...........168 2........... 133 3.210 Chapter Eight: Pair Practice in Tuisho 1................ 138 4..................................................... Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture).................................... Introduction ......................................................................................................................陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Chapter Four: Health and Qi Enhancement Practices 1............203 8......................... Tuishou Steps ................ Solo Tuishou With Static Footwork ......................................175 4.......154 Chapter Five: Practice for the Buttocks and Crotch ...............187 3............................. He Bu-Tuishou .................................................. Solo Danren Da Lü Tuishou ........................200 7........ Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) ........224 6.............................. Tuishou Handwork Techniques ................ Single-hand Vertical Circle Wan Hua in Pair Practice .......................197 6...............................186 2........................................... Shuang Shou Ping Yuanwan Hua ............ 183 Chapter Seven: Solo Practice in Tuishou 1................................................................................. Pair Practice in Da Lü Tuishou ................................................... Pair Practice in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou................................................................................149 7..132 2....240 王 西 安 x .........................................................................................171 3............. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) ................
CHAPTER ONE: inTRoDuCTion .
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 2 .
transforming. According to the book. throwing and striking. Chen Wangting. and will continue to do so in years to come. gender. Its creator. agility and flexibility. originally known as Jieshou or Dashou. Chen Wangting. Taiji Tuishou practice is not restricted by a practitioner’s age. China. reducing illness and prolonging a healthy life. he drew on the theories of the Yijing (I Ching.1 The Origin Of Taijiquan TuishOu Tuishou originated in the Chen Village. in the period between the Ming and Qing Dynasty. Wenxian County. Using the foundation of the 108 Form (Tongbei Changquan) which he inherited from previous generations and from other Ming period martial arts practitioners. it helps maintain fitness. catching. In doing so. Henan Province. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 3 . is a practical combat technique based on grabbing. sword and stick routines. as well as the principles of Yin and Yang. Tuishou. awareness of Taijiquan and Tuishou’s health & fitness benefits have spread far beyond China to all corners of the globe. (also known as Zouting) was a famous martial arts master. was the creator of Taijiquan and 9th generation head of the Chen Family. As a combat techniqiue. As it is not stressful to the body. the ‘Book of Changes’). With the accelerated pace of modern life. ‘The Family Tree of Chen’. the Huangdi Neijing (The Canon of Huangdi) and acupuncture. location or access to equipment. and he was recognized as the creator of Chen Family boxing.1. Chen Wangting developed the creative and athletic routines of Taijiquan and Taiji Tuishou. it helps build health and defence as well as to develop a sensitivity to movement.
from the realization of Jin. your entire body surface will become very sensitized and your ‘inner listening’ abilities very finely honed. followed by the double hand horizontal and vertical practice. Relaxation is fundamental.2 TuishOu pracTice – gOing inward. Note that adepts earn their title only when they attain the ability control and use combat techniques in an appropriate manner. you will be able to release explosive energy to both small and large targets. Learning Tuishou will quickly expose any weaknesses in one’s internal Gongfu. Less well known is Tuishou’s other application as a technique for internal transformation. Follow the circling movements with the whole body. Tuishou translates as ‘push hands’. be relaxed. and do not disconnect or oppose your partner’s energy. with greater efficacy and subtlety. and what it consists of. enabling you to throw opponents meters away without hurting them. You will not realize inner transformation. sTep-by-sTep To practice Tuishou. 王 西 安 4 . Become familiar with the single hand horizontal and vertical practice. A Taijiquan proverb pertains also to Tuishou. As you reach the level of adept. Literally. advance/retreat movements until your sense of touch develops to a level where your reactions to any external stimulus becomes immediate. such as grasping. nor will you be able to intuit your opponent’s energetic intention. Initially. to the Deity’. transformation is the basis. principles. that is. ‘From the familiarity of forms. intuitive and subconscious. Tuishou practice should be soft and modest. so much that you will be able to apply combat techniques. or appreciate the interplay of the slow/quick. to the realization of Jin.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. catching. pacing your learning step-bystep. an athletic activity based on mutual pushing. hard/ soft. With sustained practice over a period of time. and striking. you must know its significance. listen to each other’s energy flow. throwing.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 5 . mind and spirit with determination. combining your heart. imagine a partner practicing or competing with you. you will ultimately enhance your health and combat techniques. but never practice just in order to practice. To cultivate ‘inner listening’. In solo practice. force and speed in your actions.Remember that ‘inner listening’ is the one essential skill required to improve your technique. Practice makes perfect. As long as you practice persistently and make progress. your intention and commitment must be deeply held. be calm and concentrated in your demeanour. Skill arises from consistent and accumulated practice.
speed. continue. it will enable you to feel. your partner’s weight. When you can control these energies within yourself. distance and direction of energy. . At a more advanced stage. which are also the essential elements of Taiji. actions to the left or right. You will learn to follow your partner’s intention and forget your own. Nian. Movements alternate freely between Gang (hard) and Rou (soft). Tuishou practice is based on thirteen ‘forms’ or energies. follow) and Chansi Jin (Reeling Silk). opening or closing.3 The cOre Of TuishOu The core of Tuishou consists of Zhan. and so on. you will develop the capacity to subconsciously anticipate quick or slow changes. gathering or exploding. Kuai (quick) and Man (slow). while its theoretical basis builds on the philosophies of Yin and Yang. with the lightest of touches.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. adhere. attacks or retreats. Qing (light) and Zhong (heavy). Sui (stick. The thirteen forms are: • Ward off • Roll back • Press • Push • Pull down • Split • Elbow strike • Shoulder strike • Advance forward • Retreate back • Look backward • Gaze forward • Central equilibrium Peng Lü Ji An Cai Lie Zhou Kao Jin Tui Gu Pan Ding 王 西 安 6 Tuishou flows seamlessly between the application and combination of opposites. Lian. upward or downward movements.
Attack the opponent’s centre of gravity Use techniques such as ‘control a stronger opponent with weak force’ and ‘defeat weak points with a stronger force’. be calm and relaxed To release bursts of energy effectively. Like a balloon whose air has been exhausted. Note: friction forces are often applied in Tuishou – as you come in contact with the opponent’s hands. move before they do’ etc. Tuishou centers around ‘listening and following’ techniques: ‘react fast to fast attacks’. concentrate on one direction at a time. ‘if the opponent moves slightly. Note: by ‘elastic’ we mean energy that is able to return to its original state after compression. it is the force of friction that enables you to hold and seize their arms etc. don’t move’. Master the fundamentals 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Basically. expansion. stretching. this energy refills automatically to its original ‘full’ state.Points to remember: Move with great flexibility Change your movements constantly using elastic yet tense Neijin (internal energy). ‘utilize the opponent’s energy’ and ‘conquer the strong with the weak’. ‘if the opponent does not move. When releasing explosive energy. 王 西 安 7 . ‘follow slow attacks unhurriedly’. or other deformation. Use the forces of elasticity and friction Use these forces when applying techniques such as ‘draw the opponent into one’s orbit to destroy their centre of gravity’.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As stated in the General Song of Taijiquan by Chen Wangting (also known as the ‘Song of Taiji Practitioners’): “…remembering the principle of following. push or strike your opponent you do so without alerting them in order to capture their energy. utilizing the techniques of Kao. whether ascending or descending. whether they strike or twist. Even if attacked by a monster. yet few who can actually strike the enemy’s heart and ribs with agility and effectiveness’.” This technique. when you move forward in your turn to press. none of your opponents can defeat you. 王 西 安 8 . no matter how hard they press. known as Shang Long Xia Ti (which means to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to his or her upper body while lifting their lower body). I can conquer a force of a thousand jin with a tiny force of four Liang. I perform strictly to the principles so as to make me unassailable. I follow my partner. and they serve as concise and comprehensive guidelines for Taiji and Tuishou practice through the ages. results in the shaking off of the opponent’s upper body and lifting of their lower body. I always follow their intention. Using this. The canon of Taiji teachings is rich with such sayings. and is worth remembering. the 14th generation master. push or strike. Similarly. also states: “No one knows when I gather or stretch. As Chen Changxing says: ‘There are so many people who wear the mask of a hero.” Chen Changxing.
requiring us to further our exploration and improve our practice of it. I sincerely hope Taijiquan followers will embark on a serious study of this art and strive toward the as yet unbounded acme of this science. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 9 . One with two Yin and eight Yang is a San Shou One with three Yin and seven Yang is still considered tough. As a science.Another essay defines the five levels of Tuishou: One with one Yin and nine Yang is as stiff as a stick. the relative practice methods for each stage with differing ratios of Yin and Yang are clearly defined. One with four Yin and six Yang is among the group of the adepts. the study of Taijiquan Tuishou is a profound undertaking which knows no bounds. Here. Only one with five Yin and five Yang is called adept. In order to inherit and develop this Chinese cultural heritage.
The three stages of Taijiquan are: 1.4 The relaTiOnship beTween The Three sTages Of Taijiquan pracTice and TuishOu A brief description of the three stages of Taijiquan practice will be provided here. . Taiji Tuishou also consists of three stages with three respective practice methods: 王 西 安 10 1. Da Quan (big circle) This is the stage whereby ‘one-yin nine-yang. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 1. still regarded hard’ turns into ‘fouryin six-yang. Zhao Shu (familiarity with the forms) Outer form drives Qi. ‘Chen Style Taiji Laojia’ (Old Routine). Correspondingly. one comes into the group of the adepts’. ‘three-yin seven-yang. with fuller details available in Chapter Two of my book. Shen Ming (dual cultivation of inner energy and outer form) One is regarded as a Deity. as stiff as a stick’ evolves to ‘two-yin eight-yang. 2. Dong Jin (realizing the inner energy) Qi drives outer form. 2. is San Shou’. Zhong Quan (medium circle) At this stage.
By this stage. We must pay attention to different methods during different stages of practice. and be able to achieve constant internal changes between Xu and Shi (void and solid). Following a correct program of practice as outlined above. At the third stage of Shenming (deity). Those who attain the level of Deity will be able to execute movements with tremendous flexibility and smoothness. with the practice of Xiao Quan Shenzhi Wuquan (small or even no circle). ‘I hit with any part of my 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 11 .3. that is. we practice An Jin (invisible force) through Yi Qi Cui Xing (external form driven by Qi). students will improve step-by-step and attain the ultimate stage of Deity or Xing Shen Jian Bei. Note that ‘no circle’ denotes a state of subtlety and skilfulness. At the second stage of Dong Jin (realization of energy). and does not mean total stillness. possess abundant internal energy. Xiao Quan Naizhi Wuquan (small circle or even no circle) This is the final stage where ‘five-yin five-yang. in addition to a diligent assimilation of knowledge. The three stages of Taijiquan practice are interrelated with the three stages of Taiji Tuishou. along with the Tuishou practice of Da Quan (big circle). enjoy a feeling of lightness. that is. at the first stage. medium and small circles. an adept may say. the complete fusion of external form and internal spirit. random alternations between states of energy gathering and releasing within a relaxed and elastic body. along with the Tuishou practice of Zhong Quan (medium circle). all parts of the body become as highly sensitized as finger tips so that when competing. we practice Mingjin (apparent energy) by utilizing Yi Xing Dai Qi (external form guides internal Qi). one is regarded as a Deity’. That is to say. we practice Ling Jin (spiritual force) through Nei Wai Jian Xiu (culitivation of both internal and external qualities). as well as the combination of the respective techniques applied in the big.
even though I don’t know how I do it’. you surely go backwards.” 王 西 安 12 . This is not unattainable. Also known as ‘Five-Yin Five-Yang’. “Taiji practice is like rowing in the river. if you don’t make efforts to go forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 body that is attacked by my opponent. those who reach this stage posess energy without imbalance and can achieve Lianshen Huanxu (cultivation of Shen spirit and return to the void). as our ancestors tell us.
Remember too where your weight is placed to maintain control of your centre of gravity. Skilled practitioners rely on a highly developed sense of touch. When they reach the level of ‘a good hand with invisible four-yin six-yang energy in medium circles’. It is this dynamic that we need to explore during practice. While appearing deceptively easy.e. However. In other words. they are able to strike back instantly in response to an opponent’s movement using conditioned reflexes derived from highly sensitized skin alert to every minute stimulus. ‘Weak side strikes strong side. Without the latter. These reflexes are faster than thought and only come with constant practice. tough energy. Hence. softness can break through hard. hence it is essentially a competitive activity. it doesn’t imply Diu (a common defect due to failure in Zhan Nian. ‘thousands of Jin’ (i. The Only criTeriOn TO judge The gOngfu Of Taiji Not only is Tuishou a reliable test of one’s level in any martial art form. the stronger force) also can defeat the weaker force. nor is it just a matter of pitting one’s physical force against others. It simply requires practitioners to have sufficient physical force for competition. When forces are equally matched during competition. or ‘losing tracking to the opponent’s energy’) or Ding (a common defect due to failure in relaxation.5 TuishOu. This is called. Ding meaning ‘stiff resistance’). try to feel the extent and speed of your partner’s motions with your sense of touch while ‘listening’ to their stance and angles of movement. four Liang defeats thousands of Jin’. In contrast with Quan (form) practice where the focus is on solo practice and developing self-awareness. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 13 .1. no techniques can be executed. try to feel your partner’s tracks of energy while controlling your own centre of gravity during practice. Tuishou actually requires a strong sense of balance and an ability to combine energy and force. it is also the key criterion against which one’s level of Taijiquan Gongfu can be measured. meaning ‘loss of energy’. Only by being fully aware of the changes in your partner’s movement can you react promptly to any attack. Nevertheless. Tuishou develops one’s sensitivity to others.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 14 .
CHAPTER TWO: inTeRpReTaTions on The Ten FoRCes oF Taiji 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 15 .
One’s skin is the key weapon. squeeze and press. The level of one’s overall listening ability is determined by one’s internal energy (Gongfu). when an opponent touches one’s fine body hairs. a rise or fall in height or changes in weight. With your skin.1 lisTening TO energy In the context of Taiji and Tuishou. adhere. and taking Zhan Nian Lian Sui (stick. During Tuishou sparring. The entire body surface of a high level practioner is highly sensitive. feel your partner’s movements. Listening can be divided into three areas: listening with the bones. Hence the saying. her changes in rotation. one’s force is injected into the marrow. her body light and flexible. continue. Similarly. every single hair is so delicate and sensitive it can detect a feather just before it touches the skin. What is listening with the skin? It means following the command of the heart and mind. with the skin and with the fine hairs on the body surface. At this stage. On receiving these signals.’ 王 西 安 16 . sensing through the skin enables reaction in any manner within the rules. filled with abundant internal Qi. allowing both body and mind to enter into the level of deity and transformation. the act of ‘listening’ has profound resonances. When Wu-Yin Wu-Yang (energy equal and balanced) is attained. a practioner’s body can react instantly with great accuracy and flexibility. no matter if the changes are in the opponent’s rotation. any signals of attack will be transmitted as sensations through the minute hairs on one’s skin. I know others and sweep all enemies aside. but also with the eyes. ‘Without being known. and a highly-tuned awareness of sensations in the heart and nerves as well. alluding not only to listening with the ears. the skin.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. position and magnitude. follow) as fundamentals. What is listening with the bones? It is the ability to anticipate an attack by listening through the skin and responding swiftly to an opponent’s attempt to seize.
your judgement confused. ‘co-ordination of opening and closing’ and maintaining a fluid continuity between all these techniques. listen without hearing. It requires cultivation of a finely-honed sensitivity to the sensations on one’s minute body hairs. your listening untrue. rising to the upper body. Listening is essential to Tuishou. defending and attacking blindly. blood and breath. Only through accumulated practice can one’s sensations detect the smallest changes. Listening practice should strictly follow the Four Principles (Zhan Nian Lian Sui) as well as the Essential Formula – fast. solidity. While the majority of practitioners are able to listen with the bones. “The most super-human strategy is formless and soundless. where every knot of one’s body opens and stretches without crude force. Nervously. Just as a deaf person is unable to comprehend a conversation as he cannot hear. which is essential for constant adjustments to frequently changing circumstances. so a practioner cannot generate energy for sparring if he or she is unable to listen. Without this preparation. How good it would be to attain this level. This is why we recommend the practice of Zhan and Nian (stick and adhere) energies as a preparation for listening practice.Finding a really peaceful place to practice will help concentration and improve one’s sensitivity to listening. opening and closing (快、慢、沉、稳、虚、实、 开、合). you fight back. descending. In all this. ‘clear manifestation of emptiness and solidness’. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 17 . emptiness. Failure to do so will cause one’s energy to remain stuck in the chest. let alone the attainment of energy for combat. slow. special attention should be paid to ‘the intervals of fastness and slowness’. making all one’s muscles stiff. leading only to failure. As Sunzi Bingfa says. calm. that is why it destroys the strongest of enemies”. very few achieve the ability to listen with the skin. Your reactions will become slow. ‘descending Qi and steady steps’. until it is too late to repel danger. listening would be impossible. You will look without seeing.
Ji (hit). “faulty palms” or “faulty body”. Shan (dodge or flash).2 dOngjin – realizaTiOn Of energy Realizing energy is a key concept in Taiji and Tuishou. Zhe (hide). Cuo (rub). A further thirty-five shortcomings need to be overcome at this stage: Chou (draw). Zhuan (cheat). An (press). direction. Ying (stiff ). that is. Pai (squeeze out). your energy too resistant (Ding) or being lost unnecessarily (Diu). Realizing energy is based on listening. It is the ability to conquer one’s opponent by using proper rhythm and techniques such as Yin. 拿na – capture. Hun (mix up). Hua. Failure to overcome these shortcomings would be to fail to realize energy. await them. straightness and curvature. new challenges such as ‘being too fond of competing’. Bing (defect) signifies the inability to follow principles such as maintaining one’s centre of gravity. Na. Lou (hold). You may find yourself being too stiff (Jiang). you cannot note any of the above changes in the oponent. Even for those who achieve this skill. the ability to circle and the principles of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Ke (knock). transform. While beginners may find this difficult to achieve. this skill may eventually be attained with diligent practice and a good teacher. you cannot realize it. Gua (hang on). Gou (hook). hardness and softness. Ba (pull out).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. Ya (push down). speed. 化hua – change. Teng (jump). Peng. magnitude and hitting point. Ba (seize by force). 王 西 安 18 . Meng (sudden). Jia (stiff ). length. Without ‘hearing’ the energy of one’s partner. your posture too straight (Zhi). Di (resist) and Gun (roll). Qin (intrude). Shi (tight). Duo (escape). Zhan (chop). Tui (push). Li (leave). We call such shortcomings. 发fa – explode) at the appropriate opportunity. Zhi (straight). Be warned that mistakes will occur on this learning path. It is the ability to note present or potential changes in emptiness and solidity. Qi (insult). Dang (block off ). Ting (stick out). Fa (引yin – lead. vertical axis and flexibility. Ling (pressing). Bo (move with hand).
Lü. Ultimately. says in a verse from his book. Sanda complies with basic Tuishou principles. The quality of one’s form practice and Tuishou level speaks for itself – it is reflected in one’s ability to freely move forward or backward. the Tuishou practitioner must aim to apply these techniques (seizing. no matter if they use the technique of Kao or twist. changing one’s centre of gravity and flexibility) in synchronous movements. Sanda can simply be taken as a higher evolution of Tuishou. Concordant with the adage that ‘external forms are the method and the pathway’. transforming. jumping. twisting. Ji. developed from further transformations of Tuishou routines. 14th generation Taiji master from the Chen family. form and quality of Tuishou. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 19 . When attacking. As Chen Changxing. and also in one’s facilitiy with the eight energies or techniques (Peng. Zhou and Kao). hence its continuing ties with Tuishou and. I follow my partner. Lie. dodging. An. striking. I always keep remembering to follow their intention. rather than use them as disparate forces to enhance one’s attacking prowess. In fact. ultimately. utilizing the techniques of Kao in spiralling. look around and maintain an upright axis during Tuishou practice. which is used not only in Tuishou. the poplular stereotype of Taijiquan as a non-combat. ‘The Taijiquan Formula’: No one knows when I gather or stretch. with Taijiquan. Tuishou is the combat application of Zhan Nian Lian Sui. Cai. Hence.The practice for ‘realizing energy’ also tests one’s position. In effect. is misleading and does not take into account its fundamental role across the Chinese martial arts. falling. and shares many common principles with Sanda (free sparring). they share the common practice of ‘realizing energy’. Whilst all Chinese martial arts possess unique characteristics. relaxation and health practice for the old and infirm. these eight techniques form the method for Tuishou. angle. grasping. but also in the combat arts and and Sanda (free sparring). Whilst acknowledged as a combat technique in its own right.
The attacks from me by twisting. the Chinese martial arts have evolved into health and fitness promoting practices. only with accumulated practice can one exert energy flexibly and 王 西 安 20 . Chen Changxing exhorts practitioners to maintain a keen awareness of self and other parties. With the development of modern weapons. Indeed. Chen Xin once said. This ability is encapsulated in the phrase ‘Zhan Nian Lian Sui’. Hence. to act naturally and follow one’s intention. As mentioned. one must also ‘realize energy’ through diligent practice and the exchange of ideas with one’s sparring partner. until I come to the level of Deity”. ward off. It is through the practice of Tuishou and Sanshou that one garners the true meaning of Taijiquan. Li. strike. “From the familiarity of forms. along with the Four Essentials and ‘realizing energy’ techniques in Tuishou. this verse confirms Taijiquan as a profoundly practical Martial Art. The third. leading to a wider understanding of the profound benefits and applications of Taijiquan. that is. yet who knows the tactful way to turn one’s back and dodge suddenly? From the above verse. The second sentence of the verse means to follow the other partner’s intention while circling them. adaptable to both Tuishou and Sanshou. that is. to the realization of energy. In addition to applying Master Chen Changxing’s advice. push or press. and horizontal Cai are also irresistible. fourth and fifth sentences refer to the application of Taiji Sanshou. Everyone knows how to hook. The author stressed the importance of ‘follow’. Taijiquan and Sanshou are practiced synchronously today to enhance health and selfdefence skills. Tuishou is a combat practice method designed to prevent injury to the body whilst Sanshou is the appliction of Tuishou in actual combat. ‘listening and realizing energy’. step by step. press and hold back. we can clearly see that in all movements. Again.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 You need to go forward in order to chop. to forget about one’s own intentions and follow the opponent’s.
Tuishou practice cultivates the capacity to know others. ‘Realizing energy’ is the middle stage of the three major phases in Taiji development. he or she will be able to prevent their opponent from escaping with zhan energy by following his intention. in this way maintaining the upper hand at all times. magnitude. Through reeling-silk practice. and come to realize the laws of movement and force. They are external manifestations of internal forces arising from prolonged ‘reeling silk’ practice. Nian means to chase and follow one’s opponent. This ability comes through great patients and a life-long perseverance of effort through the three stages. 2. Whilst it is said that form practice cultivates a capacity to know oneself. Zhan Nian techniques develop one’s capacity for high precision.3 zhan nian Techniques Zhan & Nian are forces directed forward. Conversely. A practitioner. “Form practice is the essence of Zhan Nian training. Only with the awareness of both oneself and others can others be conquered. capturing and transforming his energy and using it to attack at the first opportunity. this results in a deeper and more precise understanding of energy. so that he finds it hard to escape. will be able to instantly sense the delicate changes in the movement.” Zhan literally means ‘stickiness’. the adhesive force that allows a practitioner to become strongly attached. extent. It is commonly used in attacking strategies. direction and the position of a partner’s energy flow.effectively. that is. and its natural and intuitive use. like glue. with which one’s opponent will find difficult to escape. the first being ‘familiarity with form’ and the last being ‘realizing deity’. At this point. Zhan Nian energies work as a pair. Ultimately. while Tuishou exposes the quality of Zhan Nian techniques. to one’s opponent. This is why it is said. on reaching the final stage of ‘deity’. with Zhan as the dominant force since without a 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 21 .
Zhan Nian energies can only be realized through thorough theoretical understanding and careful. flow up the arms to the shoulders and back. Understandably. It is Zhan energy that envelops the body. slow reactions to slow attacks’. ‘I win by striking after the enemy has struck (My fist starts late. have failed to attain high proficiency in the art. these techniques will lead the opponent into faulty moves. beginners find Zhan Nian energy difficult to comprehend let alone detect. ‘I move before them on feeling their slightest motion’. ‘Fast reactions to fast attacks. the practitioner can exert Zhan Nian forces towards the opponent. victory or defeat is decided in an instant. This is why it is said that at this relatively high level. During Tuishou. especially those who. Zhan Nian energies can be detected by sensations that start at the palms. as reflected in their stiff bodies and tense. yet arrives at the hitting point earlier than the opponent)’. but even many long-term practitioners find total understanding or realization elusive. ‘I don’t move if they don’t move’. and so on. the opponent will find it difficult to detect any weaknesses and hence any opportunity for attack. but certainly achievable for diligent practitioners with good teachers. one can never accomplish quality ‘chasing’ (Nian).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 good mastery to ‘stickiness’ (Zhan). 王 西 安 22 . contact with the opponent’s palms allows the practitioner to estimate the opponent’s circle of reach and the level of their energy for transformation. despite prolonged practice. and then through the entire body. Zhan techniques are fundamental to Tuishou – one needs to stick to the opponent to react appropriately. an internal energy manifesting externally. Simultaneously. as indicated by these teachings: ‘Follow my partner’s intention. and forget my own’. Ultimately. continuous and diligent practice. inflexible muscles and joints. Once the whole body is enveloped. Not an easy task for ordinary practitioners. When Zhan Nian techniques are applied.
Lian Sui means to follow the partner constantly and closely thereby preventing their escape. slow reactions to slow attacks. Lian has a rich amalgam of meanings. Lian is dependent on one’s use of Zhan. another rises’. misleading and upseting the opponent’s centre of gravity by attack and thus strike and ultimately conquer the opponent. there can be no Lian. the opponent cannot escape because if one follows closely using Zhan Nian. moving effortlessly between quick/slow and forward/ backward movements. one observes and reacts to the opponent’s Zhan Nian techniques. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 23 . Used in concert with Zhan Nian energies. that is. follow and move in the same direction as one’s opponent. fast reactions to fast attacks. non-pressing. no resistance). can we execute Yin Jin Luo Kong efficiently. Unless one follow’s the opponent with Lian (co-relation). adhesiveness.2. including consistency. continuity. non-forcing. Only if we can achive quality work on Lian Sui (continue and follow) based on good mastery of Zhan Nian. so that ‘as one falls. Their inter-dependence requires both Zhan Nian and Lian Sui energies to be used in concert to work effectively. and can only exist in the presence of the latter. Sui. how can Sui be achieved? Sui technique means to react. and no chance to escape.4 lian sui energies Lian Sui energies are twin companions of Zhan Nian energies. ‘Bu Diu Bu Ding’ (no loss of energy. taking any opportunity to attack. emerges from the application of Lian. Without Zhan’s adhesive force over the partner preventing escape. It can be summarized as ‘co-relating to the opponent’. Once palms come in contact. In so doing. ‘to react while following’. the act of connecting and maintaining the continuity of one’s movements with those of the opponent.
Only with unimpeded energy flow and smooth internal co-ordination can one interact seamlessly with one’s Tuishou partner.” Here we refer to the ability to keep every part of the body functioning as an integrated whole. It is vital that beginners are able to feel the movement of internal energy inside their bodies. Lian and Sui can never function without the other. so that they can ascertain if their energy levels match the purpose and intention of their actions. Beginners may attain the preliminary stage of Lian Sui. applying Lian Sui provides a good opportunity to observe the partner’s weaknesses: “Lian and Sui are the means to mislead the opponent into our territory and to put them into a passive position. upper and lower coordinate any motion in the middle. “The lower body automatically follows any motions of the upper body. Internal and external energy flows relay the most valuable quality inside those adepts who can coordinate their energies closely. whether through form practice or Tuishou”.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a teaching goes. 王 西 安 24 . on the other hand. As the teaching says. successfully use Lian and Sui to attack and prevent escape. therefore it is advisable to practice the combined application of both. the basic ability to follow the opponent’s movements. without any break in flexibility or continuity. Adepts. following their energy flow without interruption.
using Lian Sui to follow their energy flow. using our arms. neutralizing any opportunity for attack. Once neutralized. so as to mislead my partner’s energy and upset their centre of gravity. For instance. I apply Shun reeling downwards. Literally meaning ‘to draw’ or ‘to lead’. one should avoid Diu and Ding (losing energy and resistance). As Chen Xin explains. “We strike by coordinating forces from different directions (Yin Jin Luo Kong). reeling my back inward before suddenly striking outward. and in this way mislead and neutralize your opponent’s energy. Using these complementary techniques. turning left or right. we then use our shoulders. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 25 . When applying Yin. Yin is the ability to draw the opponent’s energy into one’s control. palms. the adept draws the opponent into his or her domain. A particularly effective combination is Luo Kong. When we feel the changes in our opponent’s energy flow. hips. elbows. hence ‘misleading’ and transforming the opponent’s energy. then gradually upwards.5 Misleading and TransfOrMing Techniques Yin is the main force used to mislead opponents. I use Yin Jin Luo Kong to constrain my partner’s energy while simultaneously gathering energy carefully to prepare for an explosive release of energy at any angle or position. going up or down. or feet to upset their centre of gravity. we should apply She Ji Cong Ren without being detected. Hua is the transformative force. legs and so on”. Use these principles whether you are going backward or forward. Note that while applying Yin and Hua forces. hands. While moving. knees. striking the opponent with explosive energy while applying Yin Hua (literally to mislead and transform). and cannot exist without Yin first being applied. I lower my body then stretch my right foot toward his or her crotch.2. if my partner presses my right arm with their palms.
dodge. look one way and go another”. they are conquered. the further one’s arrow flies. just as one should attack forcefully without hesitation. 王 西 安 26 While many martial arts schools may practice their own interpretation of the Na technique. using all these techniques to mislead my opponent. meaning the direction which hurts the natural structure of joint. i. explode energy as if releasing the arrow”. However. the more one stretches the bow. In this way.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Yin Hua can be applied in many ways. so as to accumulate and release energy effectively.6 na (seizing) Technique The Na technique or ‘Way of Seizing’ consists of seizing opponents by their arms. As Chen Changxing advises. and hence the harder the opponent falls. I know my partner without being known. Hua and Xu (gathering). shock. rotate an opponent’s joint towards its unnatural direction. “gather energy as if pulling on the bow. elbows. sweep. touch. As Chen Xin suggests. 2. my Taiji harmony within emerges so that even ghosts fail to predict my next move. When I attack. Instead. It is important to remember that one must gather energy well before misleading one’s opponent. and their pain penetrates right to the marrow. he or she can easily capture his opponent through the combined use of all . That is to say. I “roll over. In Tuishou and San Shou. one must cultivate the forces of Yin. tie up. Opponents will feel as if their tendons and bones are about to break.e. Any hard fan guanjie (joint twisting. hence rendering them helpless. destabilizing their centre of gravity and transforming their energy in order to conquer them. so that the opponent is hurt and caught) or low stances are not always necessary for a good practitioner to conquer opponents. continuous solo practice is required to absorb knowledge thoroughly before techniques can be put to effective use. that of Taijiquan is accepted as the most refined. depending on circumstances. wrists or hands to inhibit their rotation or movement.
agility. Hua (transforming) are all preconditions for striking (Da). With the combined application of seizing.’ as Sun Zi Bing Fa says. strengthen your force so that your opponent finds it too difficult to escape or transform their energy. I move using the principles of Qing Ling Huo Qiao (lightness. When utilizing Na. If you fail to attack lightly and skilfully and your intentions are detected. This is called ‘dual-utilization of seizing and gathering’. Tuishou accentuates Taijiquan’s martial power. techniques such as Zhan Nian Lian Sui. I utilize Na to prevent my partner from escaping or from transforming their energy. in order to strike well. throwing. a Tuishou practitioner can exert the invincible might of Taiji. transforming and striking. you need to seize first’. applying the energy smoothly and judiciously without over-exertion. If he or she succeeds in escaping. flexible and skilful exertion of Zhan Nian Lian Sui as well as other techniques. you must react quickly and flexibly to any changes in your opponent. The seizing technique in Tuishou is very important. There is a saying. Indeed. Zhua (grabbing).their gathered forces. so that I may capture my opponent without hesitation or detection. Make sure Shun reeling and Ni reeling happens continuously when you utilize Na techniques. This is why it is said that Na is the pre-condition of Da. you still have the opportunity to move in quickly and seize them by their palms before they move away. thus reaching their goal. so that I can strike them cleanly and successfully. To apply Na effectively. To apply Qing Ling Huo Qiao while seizing one’s opponent means to exert one’s spiral energy on them on contact. In Tuishou. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 27 . Na (seizing). ‘is called the “best of the best”’. ‘Only this. Only with the synchronous use of various techniques can a Tuishou practitioner put their opponent at a disadvantage position and conquer them. ‘Na (seize) always goes with Da (strike). These recovery measures also depend on a light. flexibility and skilfulness). agile. Shuai (throw).
Na technique works together with Cai technique. he will be able to press forward. every part of your body works in harmonious cooperation. stomach and the protruding and concaved parts of the shoulders. just as it is stated. include controlling one’s speed and magnitude of attack. shoulders and crotch all gather downward in concert. remember to maintain a relaxed state by lowering your whole body. Using this will overcome the opponent without fail. When relaxed. if you want to seize your opponent. application of appropriate angles and techniques. with no part tense. in which case. Common problems. seize him then guide his pressing force into your territory using Lü energy. releasing your force like bullets rushing out of a gun. twist his right arm inward with your left hand. Then strike directly forward in a spiral and hit your target accurately. Na is the synchronous manifestation of the internal and external. Never let Qi float upward and never let your feet lose their roots. your chest rolls inward naturally. and your ribs. stomach and legs. and sensing the amount of force the partner’s joints can withstand. both palms covering his right wrist. Exert your energy first lightly then with force. The combination of Na-Cai with gathered chest energy has a force twice more powerful than Na alone. Miscalculations often result in injuries. your root will become unsteady. If you fail to Peng (ward off ) your opponent adequately.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 When applying Na. the targets for both being the arms. and all parts in a gathering motion. you have no option but to relax your joints. especially amongst beginners. How then can you hope to seize another? Indeed. use the Na technique carefully to avoid hurting your sparring partner. chest. By relaxing. ‘Never be rude and rash when you begin to practice Na. hence it is advisable to heed the teaching. making sure your hitting points are clearly defined. If Qi ascends. your centre of gravity destabilized and you will find it difficult to protect yourself. Next. ‘No part of my body is not peaceful. In peace every part of my body moves at the time of movement’.’ 王 西 安 28 . whether you exert Na by the co-ordination of your hand and chest or with your ribs. During practice.
Even masters of Chinese philosophy – Kungfuzi. Gather the ribs. In all Tuishou and Taiji movements. are widely used in Tuishou. OpeningClosing is a physical expression of Yin-Yang qualities: hardness versus softness. opening and closing imbues Taijiquan with a subtle elegance that is as difficult to define as the motion of snowflakes. Inhale from the stomach so that it remains solid. opening and closing illustrate the subtlety of Taijiquan. ‘How can the circulation of stillness and movement have fixed directions? No matter under conditions of movement or stillness. Indeed. Mengzi. OpeningClosing techniques. hence this technique epitomizes the dual nature of Taiji – the opposite yet complementary. making sure all movements are steered by the waist. gathering versus exploding. As complementary opposites. Remember – to attack your target with agility and flexibility requires long accumulated practice. preserve. just as Chen Xin mentioned in his works. As Chen Xin says. Laozi and Zhuangzi – have been unable to describe the subtlety 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 29 . This is an important concept which bears deeper contemplation. relax the shoulders. transform. often meaning to ‘guide and attack’ in the martial arts.7 Opening and clOsing In the martial arts. 2. Listen to the tracks of your opponent’s energy while applying Na and Bi (closing). every part of the body is engaged in the action of opening and closing.Work on your technique step-by-step: develop a closed crotch. one cannot ‘open’ without first being ‘closed’ and vice-versa. Opening (Kai) means to stretch and reach. Sanda and form practice. bend and gather. The opportunity to transform the partner’s energy lies in the process of movements in various directions’. solid stomach and slightly concave chest. Keep every joint relaxed before you exert Na. Closing (He) means to draw in.
grasp the floor with the toes and soles. In practice. The art of opening or exploding your energy is akin to setting off firecrackers – the tighter the paper is rolled. crude and slow. Closing not only means to bend and withdraw your upper body. that is. the rebounding force exerted by the ground can be used to energise any upward movement. so that all parts of the body work together. these changing motions. this means that one needs to be closed first before one can open. so that your targets become accurately defined and attacks successful. In using Yi’s guiding qualities during form practice and opening-closing in Tuishou. pressing the ground with your heels to empty the Yong Quan points. filling you with great vigor. external shape (Xing) and spirit (Shen). muscle energy (Qi). Likewise. As the saying attests. you will find your opening powerless. from the soles of the feet. While standing. if your energy is gathered and conserved well. you will find that Qi penetrates your whole body more smoothly and powerfully. forceful. Your heart acts as the guide and leader during energy explosion – when your heart opens. every part of your body follows suit. your ‘opening’ explosion will be natural. The quality of the effort you put in to closing determines your ability to open with power and effect. Without closing well.’ Only diligent practitioners have the opportunity to experience this phenomenon. since Yi (intention) follows wherever Xin (heart) goes. Thus positioned. Kai (opening) energy originates in the root of your body. This means your root will not be disturbed and the flexibility of your reactions may even be enhanced. the louder the explosion. with the qualities of both solidity and emptiness. 王 西 安 30 . The Opening-Closing technique starts from the closed state. sometimes appear before our eyes.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 and beauty in the opening-closing movements of Taijiquan. but also to coordinate the heart (Xin). ‘Opening-Closing. and sometimes they disappear. your intention (Yi). Yi moulds changes in external shape while Jin (force) rises with Qi. swift and powerful.
you will need to drop and relax the shoulders. or worse still. then to every corner of the body. The explosion should be short. Beyond this range.33 cm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 31 . albeit swift and powerful. flexible and compact enough to mislead and upset your opponent’s centre of gravity. Practitioners also need to build-up a reasonable level of muscular strength. you need to train your muscles in relaxation and gathering. land on the ground on your in-steps. presenting your partner with opportunities to attack. spirals up the legs to the waist control-center. To gather energy of this quality. lower your waist and let Qi flow along the spine. keep your elbows down. Exploding energy at close-range is best as Kai energy.As you explode energy.8 energy explOsiOn Energy explosions consist of either long or short energy (Doujin or vibrating power). and to develop high sensitivity and rapid responses to external stimuli. After exploding energy. or you may find your Kai technique lacking in power and precision. Exploded energy is an elastic force which can only be controlled through intense concentration and physical flexibility only attained through accumulated practice. the whole body returns to a state of softness and relaxation. roll your chest slightly inward. is limited by its short duration and small coverage which extends only as far as your body. This energy originates from the soles of the feet. The solution is to make your energy round. then spiral your internal energy up the legs to the waist. 2. Doujin is also known as ‘cun jin’ (very short energy) as cun is the Chinese unit of measurement for small lengths equivalent to 3. which then distributes it to the other extremities. strikes may not find their mark. while being mindful of the adage. To master this elastic force. your centre of gravity may be lost. Exploding Doujin comes from releasing energy gathered during a state of relaxation when energy permeates the whole body. the energy released unhindered.
Your performance in competition depends not only on the quality of your sensitivity. straight forces. To do this. The force that you and your partner exert on each other in Tuishou is external force. internal forces. transforming and attacking are closely related. abundant internal energy and intense physical and energetic concentration. consistent good performances will not be achievable. dissipate or absorb her external force. and to explore the interactive relationship between them. utilize. spiral forces. which are characterized by firm and ferocious attacks where internal energy is released with an explosive ‘Ha!’ sound. it is necessary to distinguish clearly the respective functions of internal force and external force. Failure to counter your partner’s force means. in effect. Constant diligence. but also that of your internal energy and combat strategy. However. though random wins may happen. Daily cultivation of Yuan Qi (primordial Qi) and vital energy flow throughout the body are essential for decisive wins. counter forces. that you are unable to neutralize. there are also a myriad of other forces which influence our bodies – supporting forces. Transforming and gathering are complementary and cannot function without each other. Transforming and gathering are preconditions for energy explosions used in attacks – striking without transforming energy leads to stiff explosions while transforming without gathering results in powerless ones. not strength”. your opponent is vanquished. To combine the power of the three. and with that outburst. horizontal forces and so on.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 “use thought and intention. When doing Tuishou exercises. together with the abovementioned techniques of grasping the ground as energy explodes using the earth’s rebounding power. frictional forces. all these are prerequisites to “destroy something already in a state of ruin”. one must explode energy smoothly. The external force of both parties affects each’s internal energy flow. flexibly and harmoniously. The main external force that we humans experience is gravitational force from the earth. skilfully. and exploding energy with elastic vibrations. which manifests as our weight. you must practice Changjin 王 西 安 32 . not relying on rigid or crude force. Gathering. Without these.
An attack. as their attacks flow naturally from their heart and intention. will find the opponent flung far and wide. a quality leveraged for precise attacks: upward energy is used to explode energy vigorously.(long energy) and Duanjin (elastic short energy) by doing stretching and relaxation. during Tiaozhou practice (upward strike with elbow). quick. the medium circle practice. especially exhaling-inhaling and opening-closing motions. Continue developing these techniques step-by-step until the level of deity is reached. it is not advisable to exert Changjin (long energy). below which energy flows downward and above which energy flows upward. there would be no striking the partner from one inch”. At the transitional stage between ‘Three-Yin Seven-Yang. and even when elastic cunjin (hitting a target at very close range) is executed. By mastering the key points of energy explosion. beginners need to do the following: do the big circle practice. while downward flowing energy helps maintain a firm and stable root. imagine a line between the navel and Mingmen. Only very high-level practitioners may achieve this. you will find it easier to hit targets more accurately and swiftly. instantaneous. To reach this level. Still Tough’ and ‘Four-Yin Six-Yang. the whole body moves as a synchronized force to follow the slightest movement of intention. As it is said. This means that if one finds it difficult to attack from a distance. Upward energy and downward energy exist in opposition to each other. one should not attack at close target. At this level of Gongfu. leading to very smooth and swift responses. Alternate between these three with slow. Good Hands’. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 33 . despite its ferocity. Close-range attacks require a high-level of competence. even with the slightest touch. “Without striking the partner from a distance of three metres. easy conquest of the opponent does not necessarily follow. elastic or vibrating variations. and the small or no circle practice. For example.
As Qi flows up the spine. Using Zhan Nian Lian Sui. To lift your opponent up with Ti requires the combined effort of legs. while you keep your intentions and energy flow undetected. you need to destabilize your opponent’s centre of gravity by inserting one leg between your opponent’s legs and lifting it quickly outward using spiralling energy. then your instant and precise attack can never fail”. First. shadow your opponent with agile steps. When applying Ti. The arms and legs work together. To conquer your opponent. waist and arms. while you maintain a state of relaxation. spiral your forearms upward with guidance from the waist toward your opponent’s upper body. This means that no matter what Tuishou techniques you use. The rising force is difficult to use if forced. Even if not thrown completely off balance. To apply Ti successfully requires the whole body to work in coordination. Instead. never let your partner know your intention before you act. and may lead to loss of control.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. and intention into one entity. you lift your partner with spiralling energy to destabilize their centre of gravity and draw them into your control. your opponent’s upper body will shift out of their control. combine your rising force with your elastic force. heart. powered by upward spiralling energy. Pay attention to defending your territory – it is better to relinquish victory than to lose territory 王 西 安 34 . Remember Master Chen Changxing’s advice to “hold [your opponent’s] upper body under your control before you lift his lower body. Remember to maintain full concentration. keeping your axis upright and combine your eyes. at which point you quickly change to exert Lü and Cai downward to throw them to the ground.9 Ti (raising) fOrce Ti means to ‘rise spirally’. skilfully changing your tack to distract them from your true intentions until you have destabilized their centre of gravity and they are caught off-balance. keep agile so that the opponent may not detect your energy flow and will thus be unprepared for escape. Remember to maintain your centre of gravity with the coordination of the other leg. rotate your Dantian so that your body lifts with greater speed and accuracy. At the same time.
You will attack like a flying dragon. until it reaches the fine hairs of the skin. walk with such assurance as to shock evil spirits. You roll. Your incredible speed allows you to gain ground easily while your opponent feels as if they are fighting perched on a ball. transform and defeat your opponent’s attacking energy. tie. reeling in big or 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 35 . their root and they will certainly fall. reeling outward. so you feel able to “protect your descendents and kill the rebels”. Attaining high-level skills will make you braver. revolving energy which originates internally in the body. and not even know from whence your power emanates. touch or sweep in response to the circumstances and you remain always observant and alert.and power. Adequate practice will naturally lead to success. reeling to the left or reeling to the right. This energy is created using the Reeling Silk technique and penetrates all movements during form practice. follow the primary principles and develop your skills stepby-step. you will come to sense it with practice. The Reeling Silk consists of great varieties: reeling inward. and manifests externally as it permeates through to the fine hairs on the skin. Though undiscernible initially. passes through the legs up the spine and arms. reeling upward. your attacks will never fail. Do not try to strike others before you have attained a reasonable level of competence. but once attained. 2. whether you rise or descend. When this happens. mislead. Mastering this energy requires much effort and practice. For beginners.10 reeling silk Reeling Silk is a spiralling. your force will reach its target just with intention. you will be able to transform energy while striking. go forward or backward. you will find it easier to follow. as it emerges from the feet. on the verge of losing their centre of gravity. you will lose awareness of your physical body and location.
Be humble and respectful during form practice. The solution lies in the middle path: keep a balance between softness and toughness. reeling to the front or reeling aside. The principle of ‘Circulation between Yin and Yang’ clearly dominates the reeling process. and so on. focusing your energy internally and guiding the flow of your responses from Yin to Yang. misleading) always comes with Jin (approaching forward or attacking) and vice versa. reeling horizontally or reeling vertically. When being utlilized. maintain the interplay between solidness and emptiness. 王 西 安 36 . remain balanced. As for posture.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 small circles. remember to keep your Zhongqi (energy to keep your axis upright). Shun reeling (conforming) and Ni reeling (contrary). Yin (guiding. collapse the waist and establish a stable centre of gravity in the legs. and apply opening and closing techniques. apply the principle of Dingjin (suspending force): hold the neck upright and relaxed. one must avoid being too soft or too tough. quiet and calm. Excessive softness (Ruanshou or weak hands) makes you too weak to fight. reeling forward and backward. While reeling. Keep a firm root. and thus renders you unable to react properly and to be easily manipulated by the opponent. all these reeling movements are always comprehensively combined together and closely connected. excessive toughness makes you get too rigid. When using Reeling Silk energy.
CHAPTER THREE: single FoRm pRaCTiCe 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 37 .
if practice is diligent. Single Form practice is vital for hand-to-hand Gongfu combat. movements gradually become agile and flexible. 3. It also demands a period of diligent practice to ascend gradually through the primary. Kao. Erlu and Single Form practice help to accumulate and strengthen Gang. Cai. who is then inevitably conquered. Qi will flow around the body to the extremities and skin.1 inTrOducTiOn This is a practical lesson in combat practice. Shan (dodge).1. you need to execute Jin (go forward).1 Yilu cultivates Qi. This means that Yilu fosters Zhongqi so that. 王 西 安 38 . Tui (go backward). Take special care to avoid losing energy (Diu) while practicing relaxation (Song). Lie. To win. Faji (attack) effectively under any conditions. for example. A wide variety of single movements must be practiced repeatedly. and exerting energy too forcefully (Ding) while exploding energy. Single Form practice is essential for developing techniques which form the basis of Taiji Tuishou: Peng. Keep learning and eventually you will be able to use intention (Yinian) alone to execute techniques appropriate to each circumstance rather than conscious thought. Hua (transform) and Na. Ji.’ In this way. relaxed and soft. An. Because Yilu lacks speed and Gang (tough) energy. goes through the Sanguan (Three Gates). Shuai (fall). Erlu explodes In this technique. as well as techniques focussing on various target areas of the body. This practice requires a solid foundation in preparatory exercises. medium and high-level stages. keeping your energy tracks undetected by the opponent. full relaxation of the joints. Lü. As we know. Yilu (First Form) cultivates energy while Erlu (Second Form) releases it. so the Single Form Practice and Erlu help to compensate for this disadvantage. where ‘Qi spreads to the whole body. Zhou. Ti.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Zhan (battle). the purpose of form practice is to ‘get energy to reach the tips of the four limbs’. Da. interlinks the Santian (the three Dantian) and reaches the Yong Quan point.
as well as for his subtle and delicate jinlu (energy tracks) in Qinna (arresting). the seizing techniques of Eagle Claw King. inner meanings of the mysterious art rather than a competition. the throwing technique of Zhang Zhidie and Master Dong Hai’s Baguazhang technique of ‘[striking] the world by a half-step Beng (burst apart)’. sober movements and his relaxed yet vigorous energy explosions.Gongfu masters. you fail’ and so on. Master Chen Zhaokui was celebrated for his sudden dodges and incredibly small rebounding circles. they always got hit and thrown to the ground. Significant gains may be attained by practicing the single forms step-by-step. No matter how steady his partners stood in the beginning of a fight. resulting in loss of vigor and effectiveness. after you practice the form ten thousand times’. 拴Shuan (tie). such as: ‘Profound principles emerge by themselves. back. 搭Da (touch) and 扫Sao (sweep). Hence. elbows. each have their own unique combat style drawn from continuous tempering in their practice. neglectful practice becomes increasingly difficult to rectify. These clearly advise diligent practice of the shoulders. To do otherwise would be to ‘attend to trifles and neglect the essentials’. more like a relaxing stretch to enjoy the subtle. Chen Zhaopi was the undisputed master of 滚Gun (rolling). If prolonged. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 39 . Single Form practice is of vital importance. Well known examples include the foot techniques of Li Bantian. Also legendary is Master Chen Fadou’s ability to vanquish competition partners with just a touch. you harvest. you don’t. these masters have attained their expertise through a shared and unwavering focus in Single Form practice. be they exponents in internal Gongfu or external Gongfu. legs and hips using relevant principles. ‘You practice. Though widely differing in style. ‘Skills come naturally when you are familiar with forms’. we have Master Feng Zhiqiang who is venerated for his steady. hands. Lastly. He was known to say that he found throwing partners too easy. The world of Taiji is replete with pithy sayings that provide useful guidance to the attentive practitioner. so that the path to deeper understanding and realization may be paved.
With one hip relaxed and the opposite foot slightly touching the ground. swinging up and down and so on.2. chest rolled slightly inward. bend and raise your knee slightly. alternating between both legs: kicking forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 40 Fig.2 feeT pracTice Feet practice includes the following movements. face to the front. upwards and sideways. 3. 3.1 Exercise One • • Squat slightly.1 . stomach gathered and head suspended from above. trampling. horizontally. pedalling forward.
3. feet hanging backward and so on.3. • Relax the feet so energy can reach the toes where it is required. upward and downward swing. sideways. make sure your in-step is stretched moderately tightly. • Roll the chest inward and aggregate energy with the whole body. up and down.2 41 . Descriptions of some of these exercises are provided below.2 Exercise Two This is actually a series of exercises focusing on various kicking movements: forward. collecting the energy at the abdomen. stepping. horizontal. pedaling. a) Forward Kick The Forward Kick consists of kicking directly forward at mid-level and to the left and right. bend the other leg with toes grasping the ground to maintain a firm centre of gravity. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.2. • Kicking smoothly.
b) Horizontal Kick 王 西 安 42 The key points of the Horizontal Kick are basically the same as those of the Forward Kick. if you kick with the right leg. for example. .4. At this point. On landing with either foot.3 • This technique is applicable to the toes. your left foot prepares to kick with the toes or instep as the right foot lands. Beginners should practice slowly.3). It should be practiced with both feet so that. 3. 3. except that the Horizontal Kick is higher and targets the opponent’s pubic region and lower abdomen.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. gradually developing until they reach the point of whole body integrity with the unification of Yi-Qi-Xing (intention-energy-form). use the rebounding force of the earth to bounce up and propel your kick (Fig. 3.5). they will be able to direct energy explosions to targets with precision and ferocity. edges of the foot plate and the sole (Fig.
3. 3.6 43 . 3.Fig.4 Fig.5 c) Upward Kick (Shang Ti Jiao) 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.
• Switch your centre of gravity to the left foot. practice kicking with each foot sequentially. The Upward Kick should match the rhythm of the hands’ movements.7 The Upward Kick is used for high targets. Only if one’s kick is quick and powerful can kicking be initiated precisely and the target hit cleanly. There is no jumping in the Upward Kick. The kick should be light. usually the opponent’s chin. . The whole body must be kept balanced and straight when kicking upwards. 王 西 安 44 d) Stepping Down (Xia Cai Jiao) Follow the sequences as follows: • Stand with the feet shoulder width apart. a principle also applicable to the Double Kick (Er Qi Jiao). 3. flexible and quick.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. instead.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. all the while rolling the chest slightly inward. exploding energy as quickly and fiercely as you can. 3. gathering the stomach and collapsing the waist to ensure you stand with the left foot firmly rooted. feet firmly grasping the ground. As your right foot explodes energy stamping downward. 3. keeping the right foot at the same distance from the left foot as before.• Bend the left knee. grasp the ground with the left toes and. 王 西 安 45 .8 • • • Then stamp your right foot on the ground. raise the right knee gradually (Fig. but try to keep some weight in the un-weighted side as well. cup your right fist and left wrist together in front of the chest. Then empty the Yong Quan point.8). standing with left leg. Make sure that your centre of gravity does not switch to your right foot right after it touches the ground.
you can practice with the alternation of legs (after praciticing with the right leg for a while. and then withdraws elastically like a rubber band springing back into shape. 王 西 安 46 . e) Forward Kick This consists of a straight kick forward with the sole of the foot. 3.10).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.9 Regardless of which leg steps forward first. Kick as high as your opponent’s stomach and chest. including the alternating use of the legs (Fig. 3.9). In Single Form exercise. practice with the left leg) (Fig. 3. The distance of the kick depends on your skill level – a good kick hits the opponent at an angle of 25o from the horizontal. remember to follow instantly and quickly with the other leg. The key points here are the same as those for the previous segments.
Avoid leaning backward when kicking – keep your axis upright to maintain your centre of gravity. 3.13).Fig. your reach will grow naturally and you will find it easier to execute kicks with greater ease (Fig. Before kicking. 王 西 安 47 . 3.10 Fig. As you reach a higher level of skill.11 Kick mainly with the heels.12) and the Outward Kick (Fig. 3. f) Sideways Kick The Sideways Kick consists of the Inward Kick (Fig. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The Inward Kick is executed upwardly to the front. 3.11). prepare well by relaxing the chest and stomach to ensure your kick is fast. fierce and perfectly targeted. with hitting points mainly on the inside of the foot (with the occasional use of the outside). sometimes with the soles. 3.
王 西 安 48 • . this reflects the relationship between Yin and Yang’. while the body becomes straightened when kick is streched).12 Fig. Bend the kicking leg about 25o and lean slightly backwards as you kick to maintain a stable root and ensure ‘straightness exists in bending. the whole body gathers together then opens up with an explosion of energy. as instructed in the ‘Essay on Quan’: “Gather energy like stretching a bow. This emphasises the importance of good quality energy gathering as a precondition for fast and powerful kicking. 3.13 • The Outward Kick is executed outward and upwardly. as bending exists in straightness (meaning the body becomes bent when gathering (preparing for kicking). In the Sideways Kick.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. with the hitting points mainly on the outside of the foot (occasionally inside). explode energy like releasing the arrow”. 3.
which allows you to use quick and continous forward steps. smack the foot with your hand to ensure the integrity of the energy. Eye your target and prepare for the kick by gathering your internal energy and lowering it. 3.g) Upwards Swinging Kick • • • • • • Place one foot in front of the other. 3. while your hands are targeted at the face. toes grasping the ground and all muscles of the body relaxed. 3.14). Kick upward with the back foot. While swinging outward to the level of the shoulder. Your swinging foot is targeted at the back of the opponent’s head. Squat slightly. Before kicking. then bring it backward (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.14 49 .15). be it with the right or left foot. turn the body to the left to ensure a smooth and powerful forward swing of the foot and vice versa (Fig. If kicking with the right foot. then swing it outward in a natural arc. Always coordinate the kick with your hands. use the Gen Bu (follow-on Steps).
15 With openings and closings. And smash enemies to pieces. I smack in the air by switching into the track of a swing arc. And kick upward along with palms coordinated with Lü. I take the back of the opponent’s head as target. .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As a Tuishou poem states: Fig. 3. 王 西 安 50 Practice these kicks repeatedly so that they become smooth and continous and you may eventually hit distant targets using a combination of kicks with agility.
h) Back Hanging Foot (Hou Guan Jiao) This kick is widely applied in Huo Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with Moving Footwork). Backward Hanging Foot can be used as an initial step or as a follow-on (Gen Bu) to initial approaches toward the opponent. palms facing outward. otherwise the power will become Ding force (a deadly disadvantage: energy going up) and you will be defeated. • Lower the back hanging foot to the ground then switch the front foot to Tou Bu (sneaking step) and move it forward. • Pay attention to that you finish this action with the guiding of the waist and back. • Hang one foot backward. No matter which you use. • Hold the body in a squatting position for the next few movements. coordinating both with Tou Bu (sneaking steps). keep your footwork flexible and neat. • Swing both hands backward to the side of the back hanging Foot. During solo practice. remember to balance upward Long (close) movements with downward Ti (raise). • Meanwhile the hand assists the foot hanging and covers towards the chest of the opponent. • The action must be quick and powerful. rotating it slightly so that it slants to one side. depending on the distance between you. • Use both hands to execute Lü on one arm of opponent behind the body. The powers of hand and foot combine together. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 51 . Gua (hanging) and Gai (covering) in a second. meanwhile two hands attack the chest of the opponent and strike the opponent down to the earth. You should finish Lü. • The foot hangs to the calf suddenly to make the opponent lose his balance.
3. And kick upward along with palms smashing downward. your face looking upward. And enemies fall to the ground with face to the air.16). As a Tuishou poem states: With Yin and then Jin techniques.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Then lower your foot to the ground. 3. Hold your position and collect yourself enough to kick upward then swing downward. Move forward with Tou Bu (Sneaking Steps). I take the opponent’s upper body and chest as target.16 • • • • Start by executing Yin (guiding) then move forward to attack with Jin (forwarding and attacking) force. I explode my energy with the rotation of my waist. 王 西 安 52 The secret of Back Hanging Foot is to plot the method to seize the opponent down and to fiercly bring him under your control without detection. . twisting the waist and rotating the back to exert more power (Fig.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 53 . 3. 3. 30:70.18. these may not provide an accurate picture of weight changes required in practice or combat. Use Front Bow Steps to practice this movement (Fig.g. 40:60.19). 3. Practice this transfer of weight by alternating the legs. since these are in a constant state of flux depending on the circumstances. the other should not leave the ground until the centre of gravity is transferred to the heel of the front foot to lighten its weight. mindful that while one is in the air. The attacking leg must be flexible enough to swing to the left or right. Note that while weight distribution ratios may be used as a guide (e. 20:80).17).Fig..17 i) Downward Swinging Kick • • • • Take one step forward and switch your centre of gravity to the front leg (Fig 3.
I explode and shock the ghosts. . making your intention easily anticipated. shock their lower limbs and unbalance their upper body with my feet. As one master said: 王 西 安 54 I move my centre of gravity.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Moving my feet in Ni (reverse) circles and my body in Shun (conforming) circles. 3. Avoid using long energy as it is likely to dissipate the concentration and power of your attack. 3. so that the strikes are as rapid and powerful as possible.19 Using Short Energy: Short energy should be used in both inward and outward kicks. Short energy attacks are often used to ‘give a shock to the lower limbs’. waist and hands.18 Fig. ‘seize the upper body’ or ‘coordinate an outward strike with internal energy gathering’.
• • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Note: When stepping forward. that is. working up your speed in gradual stages. Nichan Tui (Legs Reeling in Ni Circles). look in the direction of the moving leg. As the toes touch the ground. Lihe Tui (Inward Knee Strike). making sure your leg is no higher than 15 cm above the ground.3 leg pracTice Leg practice includes Shunchan Tui (Legs Reeling in Shun Circles). a shoulder width apart from the left foot.3. toward the target. 3. Zhuangxi Tui (Strike with the Knee) and Houbai Tui (Backward Swinging Kick). Begin with slow practice. ‘Yong Yi Bu Yong Li’.3. then squat and step out with your right foot. When the right foot lands fully on the ground. Use intention (Yi) rather than physical force (Li). Change your weight to the left. Relax your legs and inject energy into the heels with Chun Chan for smooth and easy reeling. Move the left foot half a step to the left. Waibai Tui (Legs Swinging Outward). change the weight to the right and step out with the left foot. Xiacai Tui (Downward Cai energy). 王 西 安 55 . just as in form practice. Lower the tip of the toes of your unweighted right foot to the ground. Practice continuously alternating both legs. repeating the movements while keeping reeling from the left to right.1 Shunchan Tui … Legs Reeling in Shun Circles • • • Stand with the feet a shoulder-width apart. Keep your legs reeling from left to right. step your right foot 40 cm forward to the right.
Raise the left foot. 3. 3. and then rotate 360o left stepping on the toes (Fig.2 Nichan Tui … Legs Reeling in Ni Circles • • • • • Step the left foot leftward so that the feet are a shoulder-width apart. step forward 40 cm with the right foot. remembering that the inner side of the heel is the striking point. striking to both sides with each leg. You also need to practice Nichan and Shunchan with both legs. transferring all your weight to the left.20 56 . Inner knowledge can only develop with concerted. continuous practice. Step the right foot forward. Note: It is best to practice Shunchan and Nichan by varying the distance between you and your partner. transferring all your weight to the right. then step forward 40 cm to the left. rotate to the left forward at an angle of 360o.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig.3.20). Next. Practice these steps in continuous alternating cycles.
• Combine Lihe Tui with the rotation of the waist and spine.22 57 . then transfer your weight to the left before moving the right foot forward (Fig. 3. practice with both legs and with change of directions.21 Fig.3 Lihe Tui … Inward Knee Strike Lihe Tui is an inward strike using the inner side of the knee and is widely used in Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps) and Ban Gong Bu (Half Bow Steps). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3.3. we usually attack with Lihe Tui using the right leg. change your weight to the front foot.3. whilst in Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking back and forth) Lihe is usually applied with the left leg. • Stand at attention. In Huobu Tuishou (Tuishou while walking). attack with Lihe and then move 90% of your weight to the back leg (Fig.21).22). 3. • While practicing. As such. 3.
Through diligent solo Tuishou practice.4 Waibai Tui … Legs Swinging Outward Waibai Tui is based on Qian Gong Bu (Front Bow Steps). During practicing Waibai Tui. practitioners will come to realize the deep significance of their efforts. 3. Practice this technique with both legs alternately once you feel your energy flowing smoothly (Fig.23 Fig. 王 西 安 Fig. 3. 3. regardless of whether you practice day and night (Fig.23). and requires a sudden outward swing of the leg as weight is transferred.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Take care not to exert too much energy in the arms and legs to initiate the swing or your intention will be anticipated by your partner.24 58 . Waibai Tui is usually applied during Da Lü (Lü in large scale movement) and the best way is to seek out opportunities for attack is while moving. Being content with a superficial understanding is fruitless. step forward with one leg and swing the other outward and then closing inward.24). 3.3.
• To do Shun Cai: Cai downwards from the outside in using Shun Chan (conforming circles).25 Fig.26 59 . Xiacai Tui consists of Cai to the left. Shun Cai and Ni Cai are based on Front Bow Steps. • Targets of this technique are typically the upper and middle parts of the inner side of the lower leg of the opponent. 3. placing your toes slightly inward. 3. Cai to the right. Shun Cai (Pulling Down in Conforming Circles) and Ni Cai (Pulling down in Reverse Circles). • Start with your centre of gravity at the back leg.5 Xiacai Tui … Downward Cai Energy Cai means to pull down.3. The outer side can also be targeted once your ability improves. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. then Cai (pull down) with Ni (reverse circles) at an angle of 180o from the inside out. • To do Ni Cai: move the back leg forward. placing your toes slightly outward.3.
Deepen your understanding of Jin Li (energy and force distribution). 3. keep ankles relaxed and Qi descending (Fig. 王 西 安 Fig. you can enter the opponent’s territory (Fig.6 Zhuangxi Tui … Strike with the Knee Zhuangxi Tui consists of four types of strikes: striking left and right. Bend your knees about 40o – more than this and you will lose your centre of gravity. 3.3. With a spiralling move forward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While applying Cai (pulling down). bending consists of stretching’.28 60 . 3. Practice with alternating legs during Single Form practice. 3.27 Fig.26). Train your body to understand the meaning of ‘stretching consists in bending. striking inward and striking outward. 3.25). striking to the front.
• • •
All the above incorporate shifting of weight forward and back. Move the left foot forward then strike out the right knee, aiming it at the partner’s crotch (Fig. 3.27). While striking forward, roll the chest slightly inward and gather energy in the abdomen. Also, keep the hip and ankle relaxed, focusing your energy exertion on the target. Change your weight to the front, raise the knee, then strike it with an open palm (Fig. 3.28).
Li He Bu (Tuishou with Static Footwork) requires you to bend your knee, strike to the left, hit the inner side of partner’s right leg or the outer side of his left leg. (Fig. 3.29). Striking up and outward is called Waizhuang (Striking Outward). Key points are the same as in the previous striking practice (Fig. 3.30).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.30
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
3.3.7 Houbai Tui … Backward Swinging Kick
This is a wide-spanning movement and beginners are advised to imagine an opponent or target as they perform the technique during solo practice. • Lift the right foot to step forward and as you lean forward, swing the right leg backward using both the waist and spine. • As the right leg swings backward, fend off the opponent’s arm and attack with both hands. This technique of ‘attacking the upper parts and shocking the lower parts’ is often used to throw opponents to the ground (Fig. 3.31). Key points to remember are the same as in preceding techniques, all of which require whole body involvement.
王 西 安
3.4 fisT pracTice 3.4.1 Shangchong Quan … Fist Striking Upward
This technique consists of striking either fist spirally upward. • Step forward with the left leg, bending your knees slightly to transfer your centre of gravity to the left leg, then strike with the right fist using the ‘Ligou Quan’ (Fist Hooking Inward) technique, taking care not to overshoot your blow above the opponent’s head. • Simultaneously, use your bent right knee to hit at the opponent’s crotch (Fig. 3.32). • Integrate both fist and knee strikes with practice principles of rolling the chest slightly inward (Hanxiong), lowering the waist (Tayao), relaxing the stomach (Songfu), and drawing up the anus (Tigang). • Strengthen your centre of gravity to improve your accuracy by ensuring your left leg is slightly bent with toes grasping the ground (Fig. 3.33).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 3.32 Fig. 3.33
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
3.4.2 Xia Zai Quan … Fist Striking Downward
This technique encompasses a downward strike with either fist at any angle. For example: • If the right leg goes forward, transfer your centre of gravity from the right to the left leg. • Clench the right hand into a fist, thumb tucked inside neither too tightly nor too loosely. • Strike the opponent’s upper body with the right fist, using your left arm to balance your movement. • You can also use the Bei Kao technique or attack with the elbows as well. • Again, effectiveness of this technique requires involvement of the whole body in the movement: ‘once you move, your whole body follows’ (Fig. 3.34).
王 西 安
3.4.3 Shuang Fen Quan Splitting Fists or Double Bursting Fists
• • • •
Take a half-step to the left (or right). Bend your knees slightly and gather both fists to the chest, centres (Quanxin) facing downward (Fig. 3.35). Prepare to strike by gathering in the crotch and knees, and rolling the chest and shoulders slightly inward. To strike, transfer your weight to the right (or the opposite leg) and simultaneously split both fists explosively from the chest to either side of the torso, fists facing upward. As you strike, open the crotch, knees, chest and shoulders. Remember to keep the external and internal energy consistent, and the energy flow smooth (Fig. 3.36).
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Hold the right fist close to the left side of the chest. 王 西 安 66 Fig. • • • • • • Take a half step to the right with the right foot. there are three main distinctions: the trajectory of the fists and target differ with Fists Smashing Downward and one or both fists may be used. 3.37). fist centre facing inward. Next. However. 3. at the same time hooking the left fist upward.4.4 Xia Za Quan … Fists Smashing Downward Fists Smashing Downward shares many common traits with Splitting Fists: both strike with the back of the fists and require practitioners to look to the side of the stepping foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. change your weight to the right leg and step your left foot forward. Rotate the right toes slightly outward as the foot lands. Rotate the body to the right then strike downward with the back of the right fist.37 . Rest the left fist beside the left leg (Fig.
alternating both sides continuously (Fig. 3. (Fig. the fists are raised from the sides across the chest as one foot steps horizontally in front of the other. 3. Then repeat with the other foot. Return both fists to their original positions (raise the right fist from its downward strike position back to the left side of the chest. Likewise. and lower the left fist from its upward strike position back to the left side of the body). Practice these steps. the right fist is raised above the left side of the chest for more power and then smashes down to the right. both left and right fists rise and descend at the same time. For each step. 3. After striking.39 • • • • • Again.38 Fig. when the right foot steps forward (weight on the left). For example.38). involve your whole body in the attack. step the left foot horizontally over the right one. stepping the right foot forward and exploding the fists before landing. downwards on the right and upward on the left. the left fist rises above the right side of the chest and smashes down to the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. 3. as the left foot steps forward (weight on the right).39) 王 西 安 67 .Fig.
40).4. 王 西 安 Fig. avoid the temptation of focusing too much on the external ‘look’ of the punch – this will lead to nothing but the loss of energy (Fig.40 Fig. then guided outward with Yinian (intention) to manifest in a ‘quivering punch’. 3. • Gather the right fist under the right rib (Fig. Practice this technique on both sides. Make efforts to cultivate both internal and external energies (Neiwai Jianxiu) and you will develop power. fingers vertical. • Sink your weight into the right foot and rotate the waist to the right to gather energy. 3. 3. This counter-balancing movement helps to accelerate the punch of the right fist. the left arm gathers inward and strikes backward to the left with the elbow.5 Dan Bi Zhi Chong Quan … Single Fling Fist Single Fling Fist is a forward punch unique to Taijiquan in that its power is generated by rotating spiral energy at the waist and back. stretching the left hand upward. 3. concentrating your power in the Quanding (the front of the fist).41 68 . • Sychronise both arms so that while the right fist flings forward. • Then fling the right fist forward in Ni reeling.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. • Step the left foot forward.41).
Transfer your centre of gravity from the back to the front and hit the right fist into the centre of the left palm (Fig. • • • • Step the right foot forward.42 Fig. The power of this technique depends very much on the practitioner’s physical condition. simultaneously gathering the right fist beside the right ribs.43). 3. Instead. bringing the left palm to the front of the body (Fig. 3. Then step the left foot forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.4. so that the strike manifests within a narrow range yet internally it contains great power and flexibility.3. only about 40% of the jin force generated is exerted as short rather than long energy. Baokong Fist shares the same characteristics as Zhichong Quan (Fling Fist).43 69 .6 Baokong Quan … Half-Moon Fist Baokong refers to the half-moon shape that is formed by the arms as you strike the centre of one palm with the other fist. and practice alternating both sides. the main difference being that in the former. energy does not manifest externally. Repeat with the other side. 3.42). 3.
• Strike with force and ferocity with this fist using short energy.44).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. like hammering a nail. This forms the ‘peak’ of the fist.44 . 王 西 安 70 Fig. 3.7 Dianxue Quan … Nail-Shaped Fist Dianxue refers to the internal injury caused by hitting a specific acupuncture point with a sharp force. • Attack to the left or right. 3.4. • Clench your fist so the middle joint of the middle finger protrudes. • Brace the middle finger with the index and ring fingers. up or down. and press the tip of the thumb against the middle fingernail. using small agile steps (Fig. This makes the fist ‘peak’ stable and solid.
46 71 . Roll the chest and shoulders slightly inward.45 Fig. gather the ribs and lower your energy to the Dantian (Fig. 3.8 Dingzi Quan Guanyang Nail-shaped Fists targeting acupoints on the temple Dingzi Quan is also another term meaning ‘Nail-shaped Fist’. 3. Bring the fists together in the middle about 25 cm apart. Practice both methods using both legs. Method 1 • • Method 2 • • • Step forward with either leg. hence creating a dual attack with both fists and knee (Fig. Bend the other leg then strike both fists upward together. 3.3.4. 3.46). Place your weight on one leg.45). Form two nail-shaped fists and strike from both sides using short energy. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Guanyang means to hit the temples with two nails.
transferring your weight to the front. • Step forward with either leg.48 72 . the ribs gathered.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. practice using long energy first. the chest rolled slightly inward and the spine slightly lifted. while making sure the chest is relaxed. 王 西 安 Fig.47). thrusting them forward with explosive force. and lower the energy to the abdomen (Fig. 3. 3. 3. • Place your hands in front of the chest.1 Shuang Zhen Zhang … Double Shaking Palms This technique includes shaking palms with both short and long energy. • Step forward with the other leg. palms facing forward.5. • Prepare for the strike by ensuring your axis is upright. 3.47 Fig. • Strike forward with both palms.5 palM pracTice 3. fingers pointing up (Fig. though in the initial stages.48).
50. The power. 3.49 When practicing with short energy. • At the same time step forward with the left leg. speed. 3. elbows and wrists are lowered. thrust your arms out about 50% (Fig. Make sure your shoulder. gather the chest and stomach like a cat stalking a rat. To be effective.49). 3. while the Single Palm Push requires the rotation of waist and back to exert a frontal or inclining push. 3. 3. energy range and flexibility of movement of both Single and Double Palm Push all rely on the practitioner’s abilities and internal energy. • Repeat using the left palm. Just before the explosive strike. lower your energy abruptly and push forward with short energy using small steps. 王 西 安 73 . a Double Palm Push needs to be sudden and exerted directly forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. As the energy reaches the wrists. • Thrust the right palm forward or diagonally to the side.51.5.2 Danzhang Xunlianfa … Single Palm Technique This technique consists of the Single Palm Explosion with Shun Bu (walking forward and back).52).Fig. using long or short energy (Fig.
abruptness and power of the push. and hence conquer your opponents without effort. 3. gradually increasing the speed.52 . 3. Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Start this practice slowly.51 Fig. With continuous practice.50 王 西 安 74 Fig. 3. you will be able to explode energy with natural ease by combining both external form and internal spirit.
53 Fig. 3. 3.53). whilst using the other palm to push at the opponent’s chest or strike at their stomach. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.3. Direct energy above the waist upward and energy below the waist downward.3 Bi Peng Qiantui Zhang … Push with Ward-Off This technique is used to fend off an arm strike from the opponent with an upward hand strike. while gathering the other hand beside the ribs (Fig.5. 3. enabling you to hit your target with more precision and power (Fig. • • Step one foot forward and ward off an arm attack with one hand. This creates an energy balance that stabilizes your centre of gravity.54 王 西 安 75 .54).
the stomach gathered and the chest rolled inward (Fig. press downward with the left hand as a counterbalance between the upper and lower body (taking the waist as the dividing line).5.55 76 . • As you push upward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. open the right side of the chest and stomach. first at an angle then vertically upward. • Keep the hips relaxed. • At the same time. while gathering energy on the left side.55). • To push with the right palm: bend the right knee. Explode this energy through the right side of body out through the right palm. 3. 3. and then straighten it while pushing the right palm upward.4 Danshou Tuo Zhang … Single Palm Upward Push This technique uses the inner side of the root of the palm (Zhanggen) to push upward. 王 西 安 Fig.
56). 3.57 77 . • Step the right foot forward and extend the right hand outward to ward off the opponent’s attack (Fig. Keep your body and energy lowered while doing this. rotate your body to the right.3. 3. 3.5 Zuoyou Lianhuan Shuangji Zhang Attack with Both Palms This is also called the ‘Attack with One Palm Guiding and Other Hand Pushing. stepping forward with the left foot and extending the left hand forward in Ni Shun reeling (Ni means ‘first’. then quickly striking their chest with your right palm (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • At the same time. 3. 3. Shun means ‘sequence’) (Fig. • Then swiftly draw the opponent into your domain by touching their back with your left hand.5.’ Apply this technique during Single Palm practice.58).57).56 Fig.
3. and gather the ribs and dantian. Coordinate the movements of your body with those of the palms. moving the body quickly forward. For example. incline your body outward with Ni reeling whilst following the opponent’s Shun reeling.6 Shunni Tuo Yao Zhang Push Partner’s Waist with Shun or Ni Reeling This technique enables you to push the opponent to either side using both Shun and Ni reeling.58 • • Also apply the usual principles: roll the chest inward.5. • As you lower the body. This helps to concentrate energy in the palms. lower the shoulders. left and right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. if the opponent seizes your right hand and twists it outwards with Shun reeling. apply the following steps: • Step your right foot forward and lower your body and centre of gravity to the right. 3. 王 西 安 78 .
thrust forcefully at the opponent’s right ribs by exploding energy with your left hand.60 • • • As you do this. this time at the left side with your right hand.59 Fig.60). thrust forcefully at the opponent’s ribs. 王 西 安 79 . • Key points are the same as with the left hand push above. respond in this way: • Step forward with the left foot. 3. 3. extending the thumb and fingers (Fig. 3.59). • Again.Fig. lure the opponent into your territory to destabilize his centre of gravity (Yinjin Luokong) by swiftly moving your right foot further forward and lowering the body while your right hand reaches forward. Unify the three actions of stepping forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 If the opponent seizes your left hand and twists it with Ni reeling. Next. lower your body then extend it forward with Shun reeling. inclining outward and exploding with the left palm (Fig. 3.
5. change your centre of gravity from the left to the right. regardless of the technique or force used. • As you seize.61).” 3. 3. as advised in an essay. 3. dominates the waist and penetrates to every part of body. so that energy flows to the very tips of the body. “Energy comes from heels. • Step the right foot forward and seize (Na) the opponent’s hand with your left hand while reeling downward in Shun circles.61 Increase the effective of solo practice by sparring with an imaginary enemy in mind. especially when stepping forward and exploding energy (Fig. Relax your joints to enhance energy application.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.7 Danzhang Shunni Chan Fa Shun or Ni Reeling with Single Palm 王 西 安 80 This technique consists of using either hand to seize the opponent using Shun or Ni short spiralling energy. . Also. goes through legs. roll your chest slightly inward and bend your right arm inward. coordinate the waist and legs when exploding energy.
listening closely to your partner as you do so. Thus.62). To speed up your response. change sides so that your right hand seizes the opponent by Ni reeling and the left by Shun reeling (Fig. 3.63 • • • With your right arm. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. palm open.Fig. Change your right hand to Shun reeling and your left to Ni reeling. reach out with your left palm and guide your opponent to the left by reeling in Shun circles with thumb extended. practice alternating the seizing between right and left hands. 3. • At the same time. reach under your opponent’s front arm.62 Fig.63). 王 西 安 81  ‘Dai’ means to lead. If the opponent escapes.8 Shuang Dai Zhang Danshi Yanlian Fa Double Dai Palms Single Form Practice Step your right foot forward and transfer your centre of gravity to the front. 3.5. you are able to use both palms to seize the opponent (Fig. guide or bring along .
Change your weight to the back and turn to the right. gather the right hand beside the ribs.9 Qianchuan Zhang Forward Piercing Palms Single Form Practice • • Step the left foot forward. Then hit the opponent with the right arm (Fig. fingers to the front (Fig. moving your arms to stabilize this rotation. Bend your right arm 90o inward and form a fist with your right hand.64 Fig. 3. Clench the left hand into a loose fist and push it forward. Transfer your centre of gravity to the front. 3. fingers up. 3. As your step forward.65).66). .64). 3.65 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward. Practice on both sides. 3.5.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. fingers pointing to the front (Fig. palm up. 王 西 安 82 3. face the left palm outward.
3. Return the hands to their original positions before the next energy explosion. left under right and right under left (Fig.Fig. 3. 王 西 安 83 . reel the right hand in Shun reeling to the right and step the right foot forward. 3. and then explode both palms forward with a piercing thrust. coordinate the waist and spine when shaking the right palm forward in Shun reeling. move the left hand and foot quickly forward together. As the right foot lands on the ground.67 • • • • • • Lift the left palm over the right. Next. place the left thumb and little finger in opposition while the remaining fingers face forward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Practice alternating the position of both palms.66 Fig. to increase the speed and power of the explosion. Also.67). To increase the precision and power of the fingers.
Remember to apply long energy before you apply short energy (Fig.68 Fig.69).69). As you change your weight to the front. palms facing in (Fig. strike forward with the right elbow while hitting backward with the left elbow. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. At the same time.69 84 . 3.6 elbOw pracTice 3. the left arm counter-balances the movement of the right. Practice striking with both elbows with corresponding weight changes to either side.6.1 Li Zhou … Standing Elbows • • • • • Step forward with the left foot. bend both arms at 900 and gather both hands into fists close to the ribs to either side of the body. In this case. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.
At the same time. and clench the right hand into a fist. Lift the left hand when the right elbow completes 90o of its descent. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Then strike the right elbow down for the second time (Fig. step the right foot forward again and extend the left arm forward. After the strike. At the same. wrist turned inward and the palm facing backward. As the right elbow descends. gather it close to the right ribs. Alternatively. 3.3. return the elbow to the right side.71 85 . Prepare for the downward elbow strike by raising the right arm while touching the back of the right fist with the left hand (Fig.70 Fig. take a small step forward with the left foot. Step the right foot forward and strike the right elbow down forcefully as the foot lands. 3. 3. bend the right elbow inward.70).6.2 Qian Zai Zhou … Falling Front Elbows • • • • • • • • • Change your weight to the left and turn the body to the right. slap the right shoulder with the left palm.71). 3. palm up.
Rotate slightly to the left.72 王 西 安 Fig.6. 3. 3.74 86 .73 Fig.3 Yao Lan Zhou … Elbow Block at Waist • • Step the right foot forward. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Fig. then turn right with the right toes facing slightly out.
gather the ribs and lower your Qi. toe tips slightly touching the ground. transferring your centre of gravity to the left. then step forward with the right foot. • • • Practice with the other arm. 3. Focus on ‘hitting upward’ with your right elbow so as to destabilize the opponent’s centre of gravity and lift them off from the ground (Fig.6.• At the same time. Turn to the left and strike out explosively with the right elbow. raise the right hand across the front of the chest to the left in an upward arc. Gather the body to prepare for attack by lowering the body slightly (Fig.72). 3. palm facing in. 3.4 Shun Lan Zhou … Smooth Elbow Block • • • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Roll the chest slightly inward so that it is concave. Remember that the right leg moves forward with the right arm and vice-versa.74).73). clasping the right forearm with the left palm. Lower right fist to the left side of the body so that the right arm is held at 900 while stepping the left foot forward (Fig. Step the left foot forward. as if warding off (Fig. Move the body to the left and transfer your centre of gravity to the right and back. 王 西 安 87 . Gather the body by bending it slightly. Step the right foot to the left and bend the right arm. 3. clasping the right forearm with the left palm.75). As you do this. 3. clench the right hand into a fist. so that both feet are approximately 50 cm apart.
balancing this movement with the left hand.76). Practice with both sides (Fig. Next.75 Fig. with the following differences: . gathering it horizontally in front of the chest.6. 3.5 Xin Zhou Technique … Heart Piercing Elbow This technique consists of an elbow strike at the heart.76 • Spiral the right arm forward with Ni reeling. step right with the right foot. 3. Simultaneously. use short and fast energy.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 88 3. • In the initial stages. turning the body to the right. Footwork and hand movements are similar to those of Shun Lan Zhou (Smooth Elbow Block). palm down. 3. strike the right elbow to the right. Once familiar with the practice. practice with long and slow energy. the right fist lowered to front of the left armpit.
77). 3. extend your left palm forward. fingers pointing up.6 Shang Tiao Zhou … Upward Striking Elbow This technique consists of concentrating energy in the elbow and striking upward with it. Before the foot lands. palm facing right. • Stand at attention with the arms relaxed at the sides.78 3. 3. In Xin Zhou the left palm touches and lightly holds the right wrist as the right elbow strikes (Fig. 3. jump slightly with the right foot.6. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 89 . 3.77 Fig.• • Shun Lan Zhou is aimed slightly to the back. • Turn the body to the right and reel the right palm across the chest to the right. while Xin Zhou is targeted to the front (Fig. Touch the right knee with the right palm.78). toe tips on the ground. palm down. • Simultaneously. • Jump the left foot half a step to the left. landing approximately 50 cm apart from the left foot.
Instead. As you change weight.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. balance the energy between the upper and lower body. While striking on the right. 3. step the left foot to the left. gather the left side of the body so that your attack will have a clear division of Xu (emptiness) and Shi (solidity). taking the waist as the dividing line. Look to the right side of body while striking upward. After the strike. placing the left fist below the right.81 • • • • • 王 西 安 90 • • Prepare to explode energy by looking to the right and gathering the body (Fig. step the right foot forward. . followed by the right foot. clench both palms into fists. 3. Next. toe-tips on the ground. 3. toe tips touching the ground (Fig. 3.80 Fig.80). then transfer your centre of gravity to the right.79 Fig. avoid letting all your energy flow upward as this will destabilize your root. Practice on both sides.81). Return the left fist beside the right ribs (Fig. Move the right fist toward the right shoulder using Shun reeling. then gradually using short and fast energy. bending the wrist before striking upward quickly with the back of the right fist. starting with slow movements initially until the steps become familiar. 3.79). Also.
7 Shuang Kai Zhou … Double Open Elbows This technique consists of striking simultaneously with both elbows by holding the arms in front of the chest. Practice alternating both sides. then strike with the right elbow.6. If you stepped to the left. 3. 3.3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. looking to the left and concentrating energy in the elbow tips (Fig. Change your weight to the left. • • • • Step to one side with either leg. 3. while the left the supplementary strike.83 王 西 安 91 . the right elbow executes the dominant attack. 3. Gather the fists close to the chest (Fig. then exploding both elbows horizontally.82). In this position.82 Fig. place the left arm inside the right.83).
looking to the front and rolling the chest and shoulders inward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. holding fists on either side of the ribs (Fig.85).85 . 3.84).8 Shuang Kou Zhou or Shuang He Zhou Double Closing Elbows This technique consists of a center strike with both elbows.84 Fig. 王 西 安 92 Fig. Try to feel the effect of this preparation during practice (Fig.6. As your weight transfers to the front. prepare for the stike by gathering the wrists inward. 3. 3. 3. This increases the force of your attack. • • Step one foot forward.
3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. palm to the front.86 Fig. 3. Simultaneously.86). As the weight shifts to the left. then lift it so that the right elbow is positioned over the right knee (Fig. As your centre of gravity shifts to the left. 3. clench the right hand into a fist. rotate the body to the right. Practice alternating both sides.87).87 93 .9 Gua Zhou … Hanging Elbow • • • • • Step the left foot forward and extend your left hand forward simultaneouly. 3. clench the left palm into a half fist and place it beside the left leg. You can begin a new round by stepping forward with the other foot and repeating the movements on the other side. extend the left hand forward and simultaneously strike the right elbow downward past the back (Fig. palm facing inward and inclining backward.6. At the same time.3. take a big step forward with the right foot in front of the left.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.10 Pie Zhou Technique … Pushing Aside with Elbow Pie Zhou signifies conquering conforming force (Shun Jin) with transverse force (Heng Jin). • Shift your weight abruptly to the right and form a half fist with the left palm. the legs should be parallel to each other. you apply Pie (Pushing Aside) force by meeting conforming force with the transverse force of your arms. strike forward explosively with the right forearm using a short-energy (Fig. moving it beside the left ribs. Make sure both hands move and arrive at their destinations simultaneously. As one of the Eight Forces. then lower it over the right knee. • After exerting Pie force. • Step the right foot forward.88). palm up.88 94 . the aim of Pie Zhou is to convert conforming force into transverse force (Shun Zhong Qiu Heng). Shape the right hand into a hook (Diao Shou) and place it in front of the left thumb. • Extend the right hand outward. • Change your weight to the left. In this way. • All movements are guided by the rotation of the waist and spine. shifting your centre of gravity to the front.6. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. • At the same time. 3.
Shift your weight more to the left as you do this (Fig. • While lowering the left hand. bending the elbow. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • Step backward with the left foot shifting your weight to the left. using downward Ni reeling. closing it slightly. using guiding energy from the little finger. 3. • Keep the left hand open so the thumb is separated from the fingers. lower the left hand from the front of the chest to the left ribs. both internal and external movements are integrated with the movements of the body and limbs. use Cai technique to strike out explosively with the outside of the right forearm and elbow. coordinating the explosion of energy with a twisting of the crotch and rotation of the waist and spine.6. ring and middle fingers.11 Cai Zhou … Snatching Elbow This is a capturing and immobilising technique using the elbow. The thumb and index finger form the character Ba ‘八’. and extend the left hand forward to the right. palm up. 3. In this way.89). • Raise the right hand from the right side.89 95 . • Then. Form a hook (Diao Shou) with the right hand with the little.3.
91 . Relax the crotch and incline (Xia Fu) the body abruptly forward using Pie technique. 3. make sure power is gathered properly through the whole body and that your timing is correct before you strike.12 Xie Chuan Zhou … Slanted Piercing Elbow This technique consists of using the elbow to strike backward. 3. 3.91). and then. you raise the right hand in Ni reeling to descend the elbow (Fig. 王 西 安 96 Fig. strike the right elbow backward at an upward angle (Shang Chuan Zhou). Note: For maximum effectiveness. and extend the right leg backward. While transferring weight. the right thumb guides energy flow. 3.90).90 Fig. • • • • Bend the left knee. toes grasping the ground. moving your weight to the right (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. especially useful as a defensive move when being attacked while in a passive situation. At the same time.6.
and bend the right arm over the inside of the right leg while the left hand rests gently on the outside of the right arm.93 97 . As you shift your weight to the right. 3.1 Qian Zai Kao … Front Shoulder Push • • Step the right foot forward. 3. bend the right arm inward to position the right shoulder in readiness to execute Zai Kao. Ce Jian Kao.3.7. Xiong Kao. 3.7 kaO (push) pracTices Kao practices can be divided into seven techniques: Qian Zai Kao.92 Fig. 3. Shuang Bei Kao and Qi Cun Kao. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.92). The right foot and right arm should reach their positions at the same time (Fig. Ying Men Kao.
93). Repeat these steps for both sides. pushing it forward and down. take care to maintain your centre of gravity by not stretching too far forward (Fig. • • 王 西 安 98 • • Step forward with the right foot (Shang Bu).7. On completion of the shoulder push. Then take another big step forward with the right foot. As the body inclines forward significantly during this move. 3. Then step the right foot forward again to execute Zai Kao for a second time. As the heel touches the ground. quickly pushing the front of the right shoulder forward to execute Ce Jian Kao (Fig. 3. Do not make the mistake of weakening your defences by being too eager to attack and moving beyond your territory.94). you can choose not to use Follow-on Steps (Dian Bu) as this will result in Ce Jian Kao being pitched too directly forward. if you find you get into an appropriate space for attacking.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • Then. use the outside of the right shoulder to execute Qian Zai Kao. 3.2 Ce Jian Kao … Side Shoulder Push This technique consists of pushing the shoulder at the opponent’s ribs. Note: Only push when you are in the correct position. After executing the above. The left hand follows the right hand in support and comes to a rest in front of the right shoulder. raise the right hand from the inside to fend off and steer the opponent’s hand to the right. step forward with the left foot and place it next to the right foot. .
light but not floating” . lowering down but not stiff. Dai (lead and pull) and Ji (attack) energies together. arms are a defense against attacks. then techniques such as Ying Men Kao can be used to penetrate defences and attack.3 Ying Men Kao … Door Push with Shoulder Ying Men Kao refers to the ancient tradition of comparing the arms to two iron doors. This only comes with closely combining the Yin (guide).Fig. 王 西 安 99 .7. conversely if one is able to ‘open’ the doors of the opponent.94 Notes: • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Finding the right rhythmic flow to your movements is key to effective attacks. When firmly closed. Work consistently to master the key points until you are able to execute the movements in a way that is “quick but not loose. 3. 3.
Separate the hands of the opponent to expose his chest (Fig.96).96 • • • • • • 王 西 安 100 Take a large step forward with the right foot. The success of this technique depends on the extent of coherency and how quickly and smoothly the steps can be executed. move both arms to each side of the body and push the right shoulder forward in attack (Fig. 3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. At the same time. Note: There are two ways your can attack with Ying Men Kao: • You can lower your power slightly so that the tip of the shoulder protrudes more. the right hand above the left. 3. 3. move the left foot forward parallel to the right foot and repeat the sequence for another attack. • You can use more of the shoulder surface in the attack.95 Fig. Practice the steps in alternating rounds between right and left until you can execute the technique with speed and power. Once the attack is completed. . 3. Next. cross the hands in front of the chest. It is easier to hurt the partner using a narrower attacking surface. fingers pointing up and palms facing the sides of the body.95).
• To begin. A good sense of timing is essential for defeating the opponent. • Extend both arms from the sides to the front in an embracing gesture. 3. • Then roll the chest inward and shift your weight quickly from left to right. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.98). • Change your weight to the left while pulling the opponent toward your chest using your palms (Fig. using this shift to deliver a sudden push with the chest (Fig.3. • After this move is completed. 3.7.97).98 101 . the chest and waist are in a collapsed position. can you execute it in actual combat (because you may easily hurt yourself ). • Step the right foot forward. shifting your weight to the front. Only with a thorough mastery of this technique. 3.4 Xiong Kao … Chest Push This technique uses the chest to push at the opponent. Note: Focus on sharpening your sense of timing during practice. • Practice this technique in rounds by stepping the right foot forward again and repeating the sequence above.97 Fig. move the left foot parallel to the right. 3.
7. take a sudden breath in and push the chest forward quickly. rebounding and shaking power).100). Note: As mentioned in previous techniques.100 102 .99). 3. This technique also uses Duan Jing (short power). 3. a capability that comes only with extended Quan practice. shoulders slightly concave and with power guided by the thumbs (Fig. as the shoulders deliver Bei Kao backwards (Fig. 3. • Gently rotate backwards with both palms facing backwards. Shuang Bei Kao requires Duan Tan Dou Jing prowess (short.99 Fig. and the shoulders execute Bei Kao to the right . • Stand with feet parallel. 3. remember to gather and withhold energy before delivering the strike. You may lead with either leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig.5 Shuang Bei Kao … Push with Both Shoulders This technique consists of a simultaneous attack from both shoulders. • When the whole body holds and collects to a moderate extent. • When the weight moves forward the chest rolls inwards.
101). and at the same time deliver a forceful backward push (Hou Bei Kao Jing) with the right arm and shoulder (Fig.7.6 Bei Zhe Kao … Lean with back To attack by moving backwards is called Bei Zhe Kao. if further away. fingers pointing down. • Once your root is stabilized. This technique consists of drawing your partner into your territory (Yin Jin) while you move backwards to attack. • Extend the right foot and arm forward.101 103 . 3.3. Note: If the opponent is at close-range. 3. continue to transfer your weight to the right. • Practice pushing from both the right and left sides. • Gradually move the right arm downward toward to the inside of the right leg. extend the distance of your Kao slightly. Find a stable centre of gravity with the body and gather your body in this position. • Start doing Shun reeling with your right hand as you move your weight slightly to the front. use short power in your push. • Turn the body slightly to the left as the right hand rises. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.
Place the elbow below the knee (Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. This technique is particularly difficult to apply in combat and can only be executed successfully if real efforts are made during practice. 3. Note: Power applied in the initial stages should be slow rather than quick. • • • • Take a large step diagonally forward with the left or right leg.102).7 Qi Cun Kao … Seven Cun Kao The name of this technique indicates that the body should be seven cun (approximately 23 cm) above the ground. Incline the body forward in the same direction. 3.7.102 104 . Practice this sequence in rounds from left to right. This technique uses largescale movements and requires the body to be inclined while keeping the suspending upright power (Ding Jing). 王 西 安 Fig.
and Shuang He Na. 3. Diao gai Na. 3. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight forward to the left.8. palm facing in. Tui Na.8 na (seizing) pracTices Na practices can be divided into eight techniques: Shun Ni Na.103 Fig. 3. • Take the left thumb as the guidance of energy flow and reel the left hand in Ni direction from outside in.104). draw the right hand inward in Shun reeling toward the left hand and seize forcefully (Fig. • Extend the left foot and left hand forward. 3. Fu Na. palm up (Fig.104 105 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. • At same time. • Rest the right hand near the right ribs.103). Chan Rao Na.1 Shun Ni Na … Seizing in Shun and Ni reeling This seizing technique employs both Shun and Ni reeling. Xiong Na. Shuang He Fu Cai Na.3. 3.
drop the elbow. . changing the weight from left to right. Seizing techniques are quite difficult to practice. move the weight slightly backward then move forward again. tighten the ribs. even though you deliver the power later than the partner. Your moves will become more effective as your internal Qi integrates more closely with the external movements. roll the chest in. i. Note: Shun and Ni reeling are interdependent and cannot be separated. if you practice each side diligently. Try to relax at every step while applying the seizing action firmly. Repeat the above sequence. After seizing. spread the energy up and down the length of your body like a bow so that power is distributed everywhere. you will be able to execute these changes quickly and smoothly. in order to block the opponent’s energy path. this time reeling in Shun direction with the left hand and Ni direction with the right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • While seizing with both hands. lower the shoulders. then you must respond promptly by swapping the reelings to the opposite hands. Observe your opponent’s changes and respond accordingly: if the opponent uses long power. With practice. When seizing. you should use short power so that with one closing and one opening you can quickly reach the right position before the partner. and lower your waist and Qi. 王 西 安 106 Closing with the left while seizing with the right and vice versa. Shun reel with the right hand and Ni reel with the left. you’ll be able to apply this technique automatically and even defeat your opponent if you apply it well.e. If you try to seize the opponent using Shun reeling on the left hand and Ni reeling on the right. but she evades your attack by ducking down.
roll the chest in. Then rotate the right hand and body to the right.107 王 西 安 107 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 3. 3.106). and shift your weight to the right side.105). tighten the ribs.2 Xiong Na … Seize with Chest This seizing technique uses the Cai power of the chest with the help of the hands. and clench the right hand into a fist. placing it in front of the chest. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left.8.105 Fig.3. 3. 3. The shift to the left enables you to hit the target clearly (Fig.106 Fig. • • • • • Step forward with the left foot and move the right hand in front of chest to fend the opponent off upwards to the right at head level (Fig. Then lower the right hand to the right ribs. 3.107). As you do this. extend the left hand forward to rest in front of the body (Fig. Again. At the same time. Relax the left side of the crotch. 3. palm out. lower the Qi.
109). The left hand leads by closing the power causing the right hand to follow. • Relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight to the left by stepping the right foot on the ground. reel with both hands in a Shun direction. lower Qi to the abdomen in preparation for the inward roll and seizing. and gather energy in the ribs. As it states in the poem: “Raise the left hand and extend the right hand upward to draw a circle. • Close the crotch. 3. roll the chest slightly inward and gather the ribs. Relax the crotch.8.108). 3.3 Fu Nang … Seize with the Abdomen This technique consists of seizing with the abdomen filled with descending Qi with the assistance of the hands. the palm forming a “八” (Ba) shape. • Step the left foot forward and extend the left hand to the front.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Remember that Qi gathers in the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) unify to become one power. • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the left side of the body. the force of upward suspension maintains the axis. palm facing left (Fig. palm facing right (Fig. Shift your weight forward and accumulate power well. The strike is actually applied by the left side of the chest.” 3. extending it forward in an arc until it comes to a rest in the front of the right side of the abdomen. Move the whole body in a natural and relaxed state. • At the same time. Match the speed of your movements to that of your partner. while the two hands serve as supports. • As the weight shifts to the left. rotate the body. Make sure to keep your own axis when seizing the opponent. Move quickly and follow your partner but do not lose power. 王 西 安 108 . Draw the arc with the intention of meeting the opponent’s hand.
109 Fig. clench the left hand.110 109 . the left hand moves lightly and assists the right. The abdomen provides the main supporting element.110).108 • • As the Qi descends. whose movement is heavier (Fig. 3. seize with the right and roll the abdomen – these three actions combine to become one power. 3. The eyes look forward and to the left.Fig. 3. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In summary. push the abdomen out suddenly (Fig. and both feet standing steadily as the hands move. extend both arms to the front. keep your intention firm for victory or failure will be decided in a second. Continue to shift your weight forward. roll the chest slightly inward. 3. and gather them towards you (Fig. capture and immobilize the opponent. As your weight shifts. gather the ribs and lower Qi to the abdomen so that internal strength flows through the Dantian and the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) may unify to guide the attack. the right foot steps forward. 3. palms about 10 cm from the lower abdomen. 3.111). move the palms up to chest level and seize the opponent’s elbows using Na power. immobilizes their wrists by bending them outwards. Concentrate your energies then pounce on your opponent like an agile cat.112). Both hands extend forward in sequence. bending them at the elbows.8. while the hands use Na (seizing) power to collect inward. Move swiftly without hesitation. facing in so that the fingers are directed towards each other.4 Shuang He Fu Cai Na Seize from Both Sides with Abdomen This seizing technique uses the combined efforts of the abdomen and hands. As you seize. followed by the left. . • • • • 王 西 安 110 • • Take a half step forward with the right foot. At the same time. the right hand moving down while the left moves up. whereby the abdomen gathers power to support the hands. Direct the eyes to the front. and commence shifting your weight forward. do not be kind to the foe for the opportunity to attack comes just once.
and lower Qi in your abdomen before protruding it forward. 3. fending the opponent off upward to the right (Fig.5 Chan Rao Na … Seize by Reeling This technique uses the gathering power of one hand to seize while the other reels from the inner side of the opponent. 3.Fig.112 Note: It pays to practice as if sparring with a partner who is pushing forward with his or her hands on your abdomen.111 Fig.113). supported by the warding right hand. • • • • Step the right foot forward and pass the right hand across the chest. 王 西 安 111 . Step the left foot forward and shift your weight to the left.8. so that you respond by moving your weight forward. Reel the left hand forward. Lower the right hand then cover it with the left. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3.
tendons and veins. 3. 3. Alternate practice on both right and left sides. Collect the body by rolling the chest slightly inward. 3. bones. Collect the hands inward to about 15 cm in front of the chest. by taking a step forward (Shang Bu) each time. . not like a thug. this technique can be used effectively to break wrists. gathering the ribs and lowering the waist and Qi. Combine them with the power of chest to become one power (Fig. Step the right foot forward again and repeat the above steps. But remember: practice like an adept.114 • • • • Put your body in a squatting position by bending the knees slightly. 王 西 安 112 Note: If Qi descends smoothly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.114).113 Fig.
• As you step. Lower your Qi. the Three Powers (Jing Qi Shen) combine to seize the opponent. • As the knee swings inward. 3. shift your weight forward and bend the knees slightly so that the body squats like a bent bow. 3. and move both hands to assist the left leg. • Bend the left arm inward to gather both palms.6 Tui Na … Seize with the Leg This technique uses the combined power of both hands and one leg. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.3. relax the crotch.115). • As soon as the right hand reaches the level of the left leg.8.116 113 . The powers of the left arm and right hand unify as one. • Step forward with the left foot and extend the left arm to the front. lower the left arm in a downward arc using Shun reeling and extend the right hand forward in Ni reeling to seize downward from the right side. roll the chest in and gather the ribs (Fig. In this way. swing the left knee inward to gather the left leg so that it serves as a supporting point during the seizing. fingers pointing forward. • As the weight moves forward.115 Fig.
117 Fig.116). 3. • Step forward with the right foot.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • After seizing. 王 西 安 Fig. • At the same time.7 Diao Gai Na … Seizing with Both Hands This technique uses both hands to seize: the right hand moves up from the right to grasp the opponent’s arm from the bottom while the left presses down from the top. Then step forward with the left foot. guiding it to the right ribs for support (Fig. extend the right arm and pass it from the upper left side of the body to the right in a warding off motion (Fig. • Then lower the right arm by executing Lü downward in Ni reeling. spiral the right hand up from the right side into an arc. gradually guiding it inward to rest in front of the right ribs. 3. As you step forward. The changing of the legs happens quickly. 3. shift your weight quickly to the left and step forward with the right foot.117). 3.8.118 114 . 3. shift your weight to the front and extend the left arm again to repeat the steps and seize once more.
3. shift your weight to the right and step forward with the left foot. 3. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 115 . shift your weight to the right and move the left foot and hand forward (Fig. the left palm moves down in Shun reeling to cover the the arm of the opponent so that the forces of both arms work as one.119 • • • • • • As soon as the right foot touches on the ground. As the right foot touches the ground. Continue to move the right hand and foot forward. The intention is to have the whole body collecting and seizing together with the hands. roll the chest slightly inward and bend the knees slightly into a squatting position.119).Fig. 3. When the right hand moves up.118). Then move the right hand forward in Shun reeling until it reaches the same level as the nose. As the hands move. Then extend the right hand forward to cover and seize with both hands with Gai power (Fig. lower the shoulders.
step forward with the left foot and shift your weight to the front. Prepare for the seizing by lowering Qi to the Dantian. This step marks the transformation of Peng (ward off ) to Na (seizing). 王 西 安 Fig.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 3. 3.121 116 . At the same time. then gather both hands and grasp the opponent’s wrist firmly downwards.8. Combine this with the power gathered in both hands and seize with one force. 3. Make sure you have a clear line to your target by lowering the shoulders and elbows before seizing downward (Fig.121). • • • • • Sweep the right hand from left to right in a warding off movement (Peng) to fend the opponent’s arm out and upward (Fig. strengthed by whole body coordination.120).8 Shuang He Na … Seize by Gathering Both Hands This technique uses the gathering power of both hands to seize.120 Fig. rolling the chest inward and tightening the ribs. 3. Bend your knees so your body squats like a bending bow.
• Next. This technique enables a practitioner to avoid capture or break a hold. middle finger. Shan Jing Zhen Zhang Jie 8. • Stand with both feet in parallel. curve the fingers into hooks and raise them in front of the ribs with the little finger leading. 3. • Move Qi in from the outside and lower it to the Dantian.122). eyes looking forward. Guan Gong. then the ring finger. Guan Gong Jie Dai 2. the Guan Gong Jie Dai technique is said to be named after its creator. Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie 7. shoulder-width apart.1 Guan Gong Jie Dai … Guan Gong Style Escape According to the book. • Inhale. Fan Na Cu Bu Jie 9. then exhale as you bend the knees slightly to put the body in a squatting position (Fig. Chuan Zhang Jie 5.9 jie TuO (escape) pracTices The practice of Jie Tuo is divided into nine techniques: 1. ‘Wars Among Three Countries’ by Guan Yu. • Hang the hands naturally at the sides. and finally the index finger. Qu Wan Fan Na Jie 6.9.3. Shuang Wan Zhi Jie 4. 王 西 安 117 . such as a waist grasp from the rear to throw you down. Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo 3.
If the fingers are being held.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. In this way. . 王 西 安 118 3.123). 3. otherwise it is not easy to unfold (Fig.122 Fig. hook the wrist and bend the fingers to escape. and also with the speed of Qi descending. the gathering of the ribs and the hooking of fingers should combine to become one unit. This technique becomes effective only after extended practice. 3. This technique is always applied to Liu Feng Si Bi Dan Bian (Six Sealing and Four Closing Single Whip).9.123 • Synchronise the speed of this movement with that of the body.2 Diao Wan Qu Zhi Jie Tuo Escape by Hooking Wrist & Bending Fingers This technique is especially useful to release a hand hold by an opponent. 3. the squatting of the body.
By the end of your movement. Practice these steps with both hands in turn. rolling the chest inward. lowering the elbows. 3.125 • • • • • If the fingers of one hand are seized by the opponent. 王 西 安 119 . By doing this. As you move. your conjoined fingertips and knuckles should be able to escape with ease (Fig. relaxing the shoulders. 3.125). and lowering your Qi as you do so.124). slowly bend the wrist and fingers. join the fingers of your hand together and point them diagonally upward to the right (Fig. you relax and elongate your encaptured arm.Fig. 3. Move your body to transform the attacking power. so that Tuo (escaping) power can reach the fingers effectively. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 This technique is only to be used if you have become proficient in it after extended solo practice. 3. unblocking the arm area being attacked.124 Fig.
3.126).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3.127 120 . and lower the Qi so that power can flow smoothly to the inner side of the wrists. 3. bend the arms. tighten the ribs. closing your hands while opening the opponent’s. then move your arms forward and upward as your weight shifts forward (Fig. Just focus on relaxing and lower the Qi. At the same time. roll the chest inward. 3. 王 西 安 Fig. It consists of spiralling the inner sides of both wrists upward to force the opponent to open his hand. 3.127). clench both hands into fists.9.126 Fig. • • • Step one foot forward and shift your weight to the other leg (Fig. While doing this. It is not necessary to use large movements in this technique. lower the shoulders and elbows.3 Shuang Wan Zhi Jie Escape by Spiralling Wrists Upward This technique is used to escape a double wrist-hold.
• Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. It is most often used in the transition between the Jin Gang Dao Zhui posture (Buddha’s Warrior Attendant Pounds Mortar) and the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying Coat). placing the right hand on the left (Fig.129 121 . tighten the ribs.128). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.128 Fig. 3. 3.3. and lower the shoulders. and Qi.9. two eyes look forward horizontally. • Two feet stand flatly and the body stands straight. • Bend both arms 90o inward and cross them in front of the chest. elbows. and roll the chest inward. 3.4 Chuan Zhang Jie Tuo Escape by Crossing the Hands before the Chest This technique consists of crossing both hands before the chest when you move to the left or right to transform power.
swapping the Shun and Ni reeling to the opposite hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • If you choose to turn to the left: rotate the body to the left then right. It requires you to twist the captured fingers outward in Shun reeling.131 122 . If you choose to turn to the right: rotate the body to the right then left. then to follow your opponent by bending your wrist in Ni reeling while you rotate to the right position so as to extend the left hand and seize with the right. 3. 3.9. 3. Do not rush forward but defend you territory in straight postures (Fig. 3.130 Fig.129). Then ward off (Peng) by pushing both palms outward. and move the right hand in Shun reeling while the left does Ni reeling. then rotate forward again.5 Qu Wan Fan Na Jie Escape by Bending the Wrist and Seize the Opponent This technique is used to counter-attack a hold on the right fingers. and lock the palms of the opponent. 王 西 安 Fig.
As the right toes touch the ground.133).131). raise the elbows. Your movements should be relaxed and executed with power at all times.132 Fig. extend the left hand forward to support the right hand as it seizes downward (Fig. 3. If you practice diligently. relax the shoulders. Rotate the arm about 1800 outward in Ni reeling. 3. palm facing left (Fig.130). it will be difficult for opponents to overcome your attacks. open the joints throughout the body and stretch the muscles so that power can flow through to the wrist and move to its end point more smoothly. As you do this.133 • • • • • Extend your right arm forward.Fig. Apply the principle of constant change and flexibility in Taiji circles. step the right foot forward (Fig. 3. wrist bent inward in readiness to seize and fend off danger (Fig. 3. 3.132). While rotating the arm. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Note: Use the waist as the boundary dividing rising energy above the waist and descending energy below the waist. 3. 王 西 安 123 . then bend it about 450.
then move swiftly to the right to destabilize the opponent. roll the chest inward. move the left hand rightward to the front of the chest.135 124 . 3. right fingertips initially pointing downward.6 Shan Jing Ce Jian Jie … Escape by Flashing Back This technique is applied when the opponent seizes your wrist in Shun reeling. you should rotate externally and upward in Ni reeling. • Simultaneously. • Extend the right arm horizontally and bend it 900 inward. palm facing right. Next. In response. • As the right palm reels outward. 3. so that the power of the left hand combines with the right to become one.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. 王 西 安 Fig.134 Fig.9. coordinating it with the lifting of the back and the descending Qi. incline the body and attack with the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push). this sequence of movements make up the Shan Jing Ce Shen Jie technique. • The right wrist bends inward with the arm to rotate the hand in Ni reeling. Together. the palm gradually guided by Ni reeling to slant externally to the right.
Note: Move in Ni reeling while the opponent moves in Shun reeling.135).134). Use your whole body to collect energy and attack: the Yin force (guiding) from the upper body and Jin force (inserting and attacking) from the lower body. 王 西 安 125 . shift your weight to the left . 3. Almost at the same time. you find it easy to execute Zhen Zhang (Shaking Palm) and thus to escape. and thus enabling one to evade capture. make a big step forward with the right foot. Project your shoulder forward using Shan Jing (Sudden Flash Back) and it will break the copper wall. If the opponent seizes your forearms: • Retreat half-a-step with the left foot. then quickly step the right foot forward (Shang Bu). 3. because with these.• • • As your left hand moves. feet and shoulder should integrate into one resolute force and terminate at the same moment (Fig. then project the right shoulder forward to push at the opponent’s right rib using the Ce Jian Kao technique (Side Shoulder Push).7 Shan jing Zhen Zhang Jie Quick Shaking Palm Stun This technique uses very swift abrupt (Shan) power to stun the opponent. The force of this attack can help wrest you free from the opponent’s grip and dislodge your wrist from his or her grasp. The above movements of both arms and the right foot should occur in one very smooth and swift motion. touching the ground with the toe tips (Fig. then bend your knees slightly to place your body in a squatting position so that you can collect and hold energy. All the above movements of the hands.9. giving him a sense of losing of Qi. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 3. So Shan and Jing serve as the pre-condition of escaping.
136 Fig. step forward quickly and attack with the palm (Fig. As soon as you surprise and destabilize them with your moves. This power should be quick and strong. the body squats. and both palms draw inward. 3. At the same time. use both hands to draw the opponent’s arm toward you and destabilise their center of gravity. 3. Simultaneously. clench the hands into fists and place them at the sides of the body (Fig.138). Shift your weight forward and extend both arms forward to break the power of the opponent’s grip on your forearms (Fig. 3. When the body and two hands send the Dou power. 3. open both fists and shift them away from the sides of the body. slowly raise both hands and bend them inward about 1800.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • • At the same time. then Shang Bu (take a step forward).137).138 126 . and the extending palm reaches the right position at the same time. 3. palms facing up and the two little fingers placed on the middle of each arm. 王 西 安 Fig. palms facing up and eyes looking forward.136). Next.137 Fig. 3. then the whole body sends a Dou in a circle in Shun reeling (short power).
and attacking by the Cu Bu or Dun Bu technique (stomping). Step diagonally right with the right foot. fingertips slanting up (Fig. As the right foot steps on the ground. you find escaping easy.8 Fan Na Cu Bu Jie … Escape by Stomping This is a composite technique consisting of seizing and twisting the opponent’s joints (Fan Na) using the Fan Guanjie (Reverse Joints) technique. which is against principle. • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Step forward with the right foot and commence Shun reeling with the right arm. With Shan and Jing. 3. palm facing out. Then push the left palm to the right. holding and collecting a quicker speed. Bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. because sometimes appropriate retreating gives one a closing power.9. 3. Two elbows draw inward and hands move outwards. the partner cannot reach you though his attacking power is strong. first bending it inward then moving it outward to the right. It is not wise to grasp the opponent’s elbow with your fingers. 3.139). thumb separated from the fingers (Fig. extend the left hand from left to right.140). extend the right hand diagonally forward to the side. At the same time. 王 西 安 127 .It is just like the poem reads: ‘It is not a failure if you retreat your pace. since he or she can easily twist your fingers and get you caught’. then shift your weight to the left and inclining the body to the right to hold and collect.
side pushing with the left palm and exhaling at one time. only by this will you increase in strength. This power can only be gathered with greatly unified power.140 Notes The Cu Bu stomp requires a large incline to the side to project an abrupt burst of power. from long power to short power. Even if you sense the opponent’s intention to move. 3. Stand rooted like a big tree.139 Fig. During the practice. from slow to quick. the body should move from high to low. Then you will free yourself from capture.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. do not react or become anxious but remain confident in your prowess. 王 西 安 128 . Be patient and diligent with practice. paying attention to the upper and lower body and your surroundings. Incline your body and explode the energy with great unity by stomping with the right foot. 3.
tighten the ribs and lower Qi to the Dantian. • Next. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 3. breathing in as you do this. palms facing in (Fig.9.141 Fig. • Step the right foot forward. lower the shoulders and elbows. bending inward about 90o.141). As you do this.142).3.142 129 . exhale. roll the chest in. palms facing each other. the hands wrest free of the opponent’s wrist grip. 3. 3. • Then bend both wrists inward. 3. • Extend both arms forward. the left hand in Ni reeling and the right in Shun reeling.9 Shuang Shou Wai Fen Jie Escaping by separating hands This technique is used to wrest free of a double wrist grip by separating the arms. separate the hands to the sides of the body. • In this way. eyes looking forward (Fig.
3.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.144 Notes The extent to which you separate your hands depends on the opponent’s grip. If you cannot push the opponent’s hands away. During practice. 3.143).143 Fig. If you still can’t free your wrists with this technique.144). then separate them to each side. finally returning them to the front of the chest to repeat the cycle (Fig. 王 西 安 130 . 3. then raise your hands. keeping both arms tightly together like pincers. 3. then you transform and eliminate the seizing on your wrists. Palm Inserting Down) (Fig. insert both palms downward (Xia Cha Zhang. You can escape from seizing by one closing and one opening. get your wrists free by moving the right hand in Shun reeling and the left hand in Ni reeling.
CHAPTER FOUR healTh anD qi enhanCemenT pRaCTiCes 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 131 .
Ji and An. It also incorporates Qigong and body combat techniques and may be regarded as an advanced form of Qigong. each of which can be practiced individually or in sequence: 1. Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan Zhuang (Returning to Wu Ji stance) Diligent practice and application of all the postures in these six groups of Qigong practices will yield great results for Taiji and Tuishou practitioners. Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong can be divided into six postures. unblocking the whole vessel system by enhancing Qi and blood flow through the body and helping the accumulation of Qi in the Yong Quan point (known as the ‘Bubbling Spring’ located on the sole of the foot). Kai He Zhuang (Opening and Closing Posture) 4. These movements are applied throughout the whole system of Taiji and Tuishou practices. Lü. opening and closing. incorporating both movements inner quietness and more active techniques such as the Wu Ji posture. Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.1 inTrOducTiOn Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is a collection of health and Qi enhancement practices essential for the formation of robust Taiji and Tuishou techniques. San Ti Shi (Three Postures) 5. This group of practices is used to strengthen the Prenatal and Postnatal systems of the body. As Qing Dynasty Taiji Master. rising and falling. Chan Si Zhuang (Reeling Silk Posture) 6. Hunyuan Zhuang (Circle Posture) 王 西 安 132 3. states: “If a tree has deep and strong roots. Chen Xin. its leaves and branches must flourish. . Wu Ji Zhuang (Wu Ji Posture) 2.” Taiji Yangsheng Zengqi Gong is an extension of Jing Qigong (Quiet Qigong).
2 wu ji zhuang (wu ji pOsTure) 4. Concentrate your intention (Yi) in the Dantian.4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Open your eyes gradually. keeping your mind relaxed.2.1 133 . eyes closed. Hang both arms at the side of the body and relax. feet parallel and shoulder width apart.1 Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Stand upright. breathing gently and slowly. 4.
Take care of these points and you will not lose power (Diu Jin) unnecessarily.3 134 . palms facing downward and slanted diagonally (Fig. Try to expand your arms moderately. when it should actually be solid. the reverse for females (Fig. 4. the right over the left for male practitioners. 4. do not do it so gently that Qi becomes too soft and weak to reach every part of the body.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 b) Posture 2 • • Raise the arms to the sides. 王 西 安 Fig. Overdoing this will raise your Qi to your upper body so that it becomes blocked in your chest and destabilizes your feet. 4. Maintain the hands at shoulder height. 4. c) Posture 3 • • Curl the little fingers towards the thumb and slowly draw the arms down to the middle of the body.2). the right hand rotating in Shun reeling and the left in Ni reeling. On the other hand.2 Fig. Lower the hands onto the abdomen.3).
Your elbow joints should be lowered. 4. so that the waist descends naturally. The palate is the commencing point of Du Mai while the tip of the tongue is the beginning of Ren Mai. inhale and then swallow saliva down into the stomach. Let the Ren Mai and Du Mai meet during breathing: then lower the tip of tongue. The Yong Quan point should be kept empty and relaxed so that any stagnant Qi can flow through smoothly when it descends.3 Breathing Breathing is one of the main elements of the Zhan Zhuang (Standing Posture). Lift the buttocks and anus up a little.2.4. lower it when exhaling. 2. It is important to practice this diligently to unblock both the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation. bend the knees slightly and grasp the ground gently with the toes. Pay attention to the following points when practicing the Zhuang posture: 1. until they reach the lower Dantian. Concentrate your intention (Yi) at the Bai Hui point and apply power to this point. The whole body will be steady if you gather the internal organs consistently. 4. guiding the Qi and saliva through to the middle Dantian. Relax the crotch so that the inner and middle parts of the lower limbs are also relaxed. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 135 . the mind and facial muscles naturally relaxed. Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth The tip of the tongue should touch the palate when inhaling. 3.2.2 The requirements for every part of the body 1. Your shoulders should be loose and slightly lowered. Gather the chest and ribs inward. The neck should be firm and straight.
roll the chest slightly inward. Maintain your vertical axis. keeping your body upright and lifting your back slightly. across the Yu Zhen point. skin and fine hairs opening as the Qi rises. leading to Qi filling and blocking the chest. including the internal organs. Practice also enhances your ability to guide Qi with Yi (intention). up along the spine. through the Wei Lü Guan point. until it reaches the Bai Hui point. Feel the sensation of all the body joints. By practising the above key points. Note: Do not press the abdomen down too much as it will swell naturally as it lowers.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 2. 王 西 安 136 . Raise your Yi (intention) from the Hui Yin point (perineum). and ease the Major and Minor Zhoutian circulation (Da Zhou Tian and Xiao Zhou Tian). While lowering the internal Qi. lower the waist and gather the Qi in the Dantian. 3. Do not lift the back too much while the Qi rises as this causes both the Qi and blood to rise even further. so that they all have the same rhythm. While exhaling Lower every part of the body. you will enlarge your vital capacity and exercise the diaphragm muscles. While inhaling Gather your chest and abdomen inward while breathing in Qi. which will help with the distribution of Qi around the body.
patients and the correct mastery of key points. During Wu Ji Zhuang.2. The key requirements for practice are relaxation. Practitioners should modify the scope of their practice according to their level and progress. thinking. Only through mastering your mental activities such as intention. Qi follows Yi. Beginners generally find it difficult to remember the postures and key points. external movements) follows Qi.4. • • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 137 . these can be accomplished only by hard learning. However. and achieve the smooth Zhoutian circulation and help with body combat. quietude and concentration. can the mind obtain full rest and be adjusted so that every organ system may be well promoted. Only these can guarantee normal and healthy internal Qi circulation. and emotions. so it is recommended that they do not practice Yi and Qi until they become familliar with the form.4 Additional Notes • In Taiji Yangsheng Zeng Qigong. consciousness. Qi cannot be separated from Yi (intention). you need to concentrate your intention on the Dantian so that all other distracting ideas may be replaced (Yi Yinian Dai Wannian). just as Xing (posture.
as reflected in the following sayings: “You won’t make progress if you practice Chinese Martial Art forms without praticing basic skills.5 138 .” and “Practicing Martial Art routines without practicing Zhuang skill is like a house without pillars.” Hence. people who practice Taiji will make more progress only if they practice not only routines but also Zhuang skill.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4.3.1 Postures 王 西 安 Fig.3 hunyuan zhuang (circle pOsTure) Zhuang skill.4 Fig. 4. also known as ‘Standing Zhuang’ or ‘Standing like a tree’ Qigong meditation. is an important basic skill in Chinese Martial Arts. 4. 4.
waist and crotch. 4. mid-level and low. Keep the head naturally erect. Bend the knees so that the body is squatting a little. then move them back to the middle. a little more than shoulder-width apart. The upper body should be kept upright. The old and weak may practice using a high body stance. 4. if closed. then lower the waist (Fig. 王 西 安 139 . with practice duration increasing gradually from short to long. fingers pointing at their counterparts about 30 cm apart. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. The palms face each other. If your eyes are open.3. Lower the elbows and shoulders slightly. shift your weight to the right and lift the left foot and take half a step to the left. Next.4). Stand with your feet parallel. focus on a static object at the same level as your eyes. Keep the fingers evenly open and slightly bent as if half grasping a sphere. focus your attention on the Dantian (Fig.a) Posture 1 • • • • • Start with the same initial posture as the previous posture. b) Posture 2 • • • Separate the hands when the left foot reaches ground. Leave your eyes naturally open or close them. Execute the posture as if embracing a big tree.2 Body requirements a) Zhuang Skill Adjustment Hunyuan Zhuang can be practiced at three levels of body stance: high.5). Relax the shoulders. waist and back straight. the neck.
past the Yu Zhen point. intention and internal strength join together at the end of Du Mai (which is also the beginning of Ren Mai). raise Qi from the heels up the legs. Should this happen. increasing to thirty or forty minutes at later stages. through the Ren Mai. More benefits may be gained if initial practice lasts for at least ten to fifteen minutes. At the same time. swallowing your breath with saliva. Now lower the tongue and inhale.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The young and strong should start with a high stance. graduating to midlevel. when doing Standing Zhuang at a high stance. Practice duration can last just a few minutes in the initial stages. then a low stance. Inhale again as the body rises. then bend the knees to lower the body until the buttocks are at the same level as the knees. Wei Lü Guan. and guide the saliva down to the middle and lower Dantian. you should raise your stance slightly to rest. until it reaches the Baihui point. In this case. up the spine. Beginners will find that the thighs may ache after two weeks of practice. The trembling may only be detected by touch or by close observation of the leg muscles. although this may become more obvious with prolonged practicing at mid or low stances. the thigh muscles and even the whole body may tremble rhythmically. Continue standing for as long as you can as this helps build fatigue resistance and enhances control of the muscles. and slight trembling may occur. touch the palate with the tip of the tongue. b) Rising and Falling Method This method refers to the subtle rise and fall of the body during Standing Zhuang following the rhythm of the breath. then lower your body again. Du Mai. At this point. becoming gradually longer. 王 西 安 140 . Que Qiao. For example. This relieves or may even stop the trembling for a period. inhale slowly first.
the body lowers slightly and Qi moves down to the Yong Quan point along the inner sides of the legs. It rises and falls like a boat in the ocean. as it responds to the circulating blood. but the apparent non-activity is misleading. The body weight is always subtly moving in various directions. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 141 . the body quivers in a relaxed and peaceful state of mind.3. 4.As you exhale slowly. This is explained in the Song of Huanyuan Zhuang: The body ascends or descends corresponding with the breath. breathing motions and digesting processes.3 Breathing Breathing is an important element of Zhuang skill. Standing on the ground steadily like a mountain. Zhuang skill is actually a practice using static strength and tension. Practice this process repeatedly. like a wild goose flies off and falls. The upper body is Xu (void) while the lower part is Shi (solid) with feet grasping the ground.
At the same time. The navel and Ming Men are in the same rhythm. the middle fingers connect. 4.4 kai he zhuang (Opening and clOsing zhuang) The standing posture of Kai He Zhuang is the same as Hunyuan Zhuang. The only difference is that in this posture. Gather the chest and abdomen.8). 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. as are the requirements and key points for the body parts.1 Postures a) Posture 1 • • • • Inhale and slowly separate both arms to each side. 4. 王 西 安 Fig.4. relax and open the internal organs. extend your breath slowly through the practice process. 4.7 142 . the palms face inward and the eyes are slightly closed (see Fig.6 Fig. the breath is usually short. The distance between both arms starts short then grows longer. the body rises slightly with the inhalation. In the initial stages of practice.
use your intention to guide the current outward. Focusing on your intention (Yi). At the same time. Do this practice slowly. Qi appears between finger tips of both hands like a magnetic force. lower the waist and gather the rib muscles.Note: when you inhale and open up. Roll the chest slightly inward. Guide this Qi from the fingertips and palms into the ‘sphere’ in front of your abdomen. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. crouch down and lower the elbows. Relax the body. Acting slowly. Drop the wrists and hold the palms facing inwards in a concave shape.8 143 . All internal organs are filled with strength. you will detect a current of energy released from both palms which seems to be difficult to gather at this point. b) Posture 2 • • • • • • Exhale and gather the organs. using your intention (Yi). the navel and the Ming Men Mai swell out.
This practice also strengthens the practitioner’s ‘root’. one’s thoughts need to implement intention consistently. “the internal Qi moves inside”. Qi here refers to the fresh air exchanged between the lungs and the outside. it also helps increase internal strength and distributes Qi around the whole body. only when you can mentally trust that you feel the Qi in your hands can you apply the practice techniques to good effect.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The main aim of practising Kai He Zhuang is to enhance the strength of the lower limbs and to promote the shrinking and expanding abilities of the navel and Ming Men. if you require the breath to be slow. 4. and when Qi rises – the body and internal organs gather slightly. Lastly. For example. This is called. It will take some practice before you will be able to sense Qi and feel it move with the rhythm of your breath. and also helps the practitioner build skills in relaxation and quietness.2 The relationship between Thought. the ebb and flow of Qi and strength (or power) are in synch with each other. gentle and even. 王 西 安 144 Qi combines with strength when Qi descends – the whole body and internal organs relax. For thought (or attention) to combine with intention. as well as the internal Qi moving in the body with the guidance of your intention. Qi and strength. intention and Qi. For example. as well as breath control. when extending the hands. In this way. To combine intention with Qi means to guide Qi so that it follows your intention as you practice Zhuang techniques. . Intention and Qi Kai He Zhuang is directly related to the Three Internal Combinations: thought and intention. then your strength must be soft.4.
the regular up-down movement of the midriff muscles are very important in Kai He Zhuang. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 145 . and are one of the main requirements in Zhuang skill. With practice. abdomen and back.The relaxing and gathering of the internal organs mentioned here refers to the activities of the internal organs and the muscles around the midriff area – under the ribs. Guided by intention. Its purpose is to stimulate the nerve system by muscle movement. In particular. you will reach the point where internal Qi may be guided by intention to move freely in your body along desired routes. the chest. this movement becomes a conditioned reflex and helps move muscles which are normally static.
At the same time. This posture could also be called a sideways Bow Step (Fig.9). The fingers are poised as if grasping the air.10). . inhale and move your weight backward. 4. The length of inhalation should match the speed of the weight shift. Start the posture with your eyes closed. When inhaling. fill the body with strength and withdraw the limbs to prepare for the next pushing posture. suffusing it with saliva and Qi and lower it to the middle and lower Dantian. Next. then breathe it out slowly as you move forward (Fig. The rhythm of the navel and Ming Men should be consistent with the breathing in and drawing in.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. a) Posture 1 • • • • • • • • 王 西 安 146 • Stand with feet parallel and take a step forward with the right foot. Swallow the fresh air inhaled. then shift your weight forward from the left foot to the right knee. raise both hands above the right leg.5 san Ti shi (Three pOsTures) The core content of San Ti posture is the method of drawing in and pushing forward. When the weight shifts completely to the left leg. then open your eyes and look into the distance. Expand the crotch like a circle. focusing your intention in the Dantian. make sure your eyes are drawn inward to looking internally. Gather the Lao Gong points of both hands inward. the right hand in front of the left. Purify this saliva with your intention. 4.
lower the waist. As you exhale and shift your weight forward.9 b) Posture 2 • • As Qi is lowered into the Dantian. 4. Repeat this process alternating the left and right sides.11 147 . then push both hands forward slowly (Fig. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 4.10 Fig. You need to have the feeling of closing before opening.Fig. 4. close and fold your strength into your chest and waist.11).
Confidence in Zhuang skills grows with practice as difficulties are overcome. your practice hesitant and inconsistent. Through serious dedication. with confidence and determination. Practitioners who apply the Three Spirits can develop good Zhuang skills and attain the expected results. practioners will make the expected progress. If. on the contrary. determination. With confidence comes determination. So where does confidence come from? From practice. your belief is half-hearted. Indeed. and great determination. then your progress will be poor. confident and diligent practice.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Notes: Remember to cultivate and apply the Three Spirits: confidence. Only after prolonged practice can confidence be nurtured. and persistence. Beginners tend not to have much confidence or belief in Zhuang skills because their practice has only just begun. leading to progress and experience of the benefits. confidence is a critical prerequisite. persistence may be engendered. You can persevere only if you firmly believe in the benefits of Zhuang skills. 王 西 安 148 . In sum. and hold firm to these attributes throughout path of practice and study. practitioners are required to cultivate their Three Spirits when they begin practice.
4. Peng force is maintained while the foundation of the body is reinforced as well.6. As you step forward. extend both hands forward with the right hand before the left. Chan Si Zhuang refers to practices using silkreeling power built on the foundation of Zhuang skill. • The fingers of the both hands point to each other. In this way. • At the same time. 王 西 安 149 .6 chan si zhuang (reeling silk pOsTure) Chan Si power generated by practising Chan Si Zhuang is the core content of Chen Style Taijiquan.12). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 The difference of this posture from that of San Ti posture is: • Both hands extend outward with Peng energy to prepare for the opponent’s Lü gesture. inhaling all the while (Fig.1 The practice method of Chan Si Zhuang a) Posture 1 • • Step forward with the right foot and shift your weight forward. 4.4. relax the chest and midriff muscles to provide balanced strength between the upper and lower bodies (with the waist as the dividing line). both palms facing forward.
4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.14 .13 Fig. 4.12 王 西 安 150 Fig. 4.
4. gather and close the whole body so it forms a posture prepared for opening activities. At the same time. drop the elbows.14). Inhale and swallow saliva. 王 西 安 151 . withdraw the right hand so it intersects the left. When this happens. Both hands make a half fist when reeling.13). relax both arms. 4. step the right foot on the ground. lower the shoulders. you will lose your weight and axis). the right hand in front of the left. open both fists into palms facing inward. otherwize. you start to repeat the sequence.b) Posture 2 • • • • • • • Next. keeping the left hand inside and the right outside (Fig. inhale and crouch the body slightly. suffusing it with Qi before lowering it down to the middle and then lower Dantian. turn the waist and twist the crotch. As this happens. When the left hand executes Lü (roll back) to the middle of the body. relax the right crotch and shift your weight gradually to the right. When both hands reach their full extent (your Peng and Ji can’t exceed your orbit or territory. As the weight shifts. Apply Peng (ward off ) and Ji (press) outwards with both hands as you shift weight and exhale (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 c) Posture 3 • • • Next. rotate the left hand in Shun reeling in front of the lowered abdomen. relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left Move the left hand down in Ni (contrary) reeling and the right hand down in Shun (conforming) reeling. As you shift your weight.
This phenomena of “connected arteries. After practicing Zhuang skills for a period. veins and joints” is known as the “connected Ren Mai and Du Mai” in Zhuang skill terminology. Ren Mai and Du Mai are two of the eight channels (Ji Jing Ba Mai).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. your breath should be natural and of the proper duration so that it enhances body combat and health.2 Breathing and its Purpose in Chan Si Zhuang When practicing Zhuang skill. Ren Mai starts 王 西 安 152 .6. the most essential principles to apply when practicing Zhuang skill is intentional natural breathing and intentional technical coordination. Therefore. decreasing to seven or ten breaths per minute. The purpose of deep breathing is to make sure every small cell of your lungs takes part in the breathing. and even to one or two times per minute. inhalation/exhalation being one breath. Inhalations and exhalations should be of proper length. then to five times per minute. Dual practice with Yi (intention) and Qi connects the whole body. the breath can become slower and longer. When you practise Zhuang skills to a certain level. It is incorrect to exhale with a long breath and inhale with a short breath (known as “too much Yin”) or vice-versa (“too much Yang”). so that your lung capacity is enlarged and the contact area between the capillary vessels of the alveolus and fresh air is increased. Only by this can you avoid errors and side effects. This is a primary sign of beneficial Zhuang practice. you will feel your key joints and your arteries and veins become unblocked and re-connected. This helps in the exchange of carbon dioxide and promotes metabolism in the body. The normal breath frequency of adults is six to twenty times per minute. you should focus on increasing the duration and depth of your breath. and comes only after accumulated practice. After mastering the key principle of natural breath.
the body should be relaxed.from the tip of the tongue. more gentle. reaches the Bai Hui point through Wei Lü Guan. except that the breathing in the former is longer. all channels extended and unfolded. The practice method for Da Zhou Tian is the same as that for Xiao Zhou Tian. Du Mai starts at the perineum. then rises through the backs of the legs before joining the routes of Xiao Zhou Tian. deeper. then reaches the maxilla through the ears and cheeks to finally connect to the tip of the tongue. and Yi and Qi should move in the required routes. is called Xiao Zhou Tian (Minor Zhoutian) of Yin Yang circulation. the difference being that Da Zhou Tian extends Qi to the lower limbs. The Qi of Da Zhou Tian originates from the Yong Quan point. the five sense organs internally gathered. The whole process of moving Qi through Ren Mai and Du Mai. Qi descends to the Yong Quan point through the inner sides of both legs after which it returns to the Dantian. Jia Gu Guan. and Yu Zhen Guan. then infusing Qi into the Dantian. In Da Zhou Tian. Da Zhou Tian (Major Zhoutian) is an extension of Xiao Zhou Tian. For both. even and quiet. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 153 . reaches the perineum through the Dantian and then connects to Du Mai.
Swallow Qi down with saliva and guide it down to the middle Dantian.7 wu zhuang huan yuan (reTurning TO wu ji zhuang) Wu Zhuang Huan Yuan is also called “Closing Practice”. a) Posture 1 • • • Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.15 Fig. close your eyes and inhale.16 154 . 4.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 4. 4.15). Its practicing method can be summarized thus: when you finish Peng and Ji outwards with both arms in Chan Si Zhuang. Leave it there for a little while to nourish the Dantian before disgorging the Qi slowly. then infuse it into the lower Dantian. 王 西 安 Fig. At the same time. 4. bring in the arms and place both palms in front of the abdomen (Fig. then bring in the right foot so that both feet are a shoulder-width apart.
fingertips pointing obliquely down. swallow Qi and saliva and infuse them into the lower Dantian (Fig. palms facing in (Fig. 4. pointing the fingertips upward.18). Clench both hands into fists and lower them to ear level as the body lowers. As the body lowers.17). lift both arms upright. 4. finally placing them in front of the shoulders. 4. palms facing each other. 4. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.b) Posture 2 • • • • • Inhale and with thumbs guiding the energy flow.18 155 . Relax the whole body and raise it up slightly to open the joints throughout the body (Fig.16). 4.17 Fig. separate the arms to the sides. Then using the little fingers to guide the energy.
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c) Posture 3
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Lower the body into a crouch and open the fists into palms. Move them slowly to the outside of the legs and push down slowly while exhaling. Stop pushing when exhalation is complete (Fig. 4.19). Inhale again and slowly raise the body, extending the arms to the sides and lift them upright again. Repeat this process six times. When you finish, detach the tip of the tongue from the palate, open your eyes slowly. Join the hands together and heat them up by rubbing. Then use your warm hands to rub your face, neck, chest and other parts of the body. This method of warming helps relax the acupoint channels, stretches the tendons and muscles, and promotes the generation of Qi (Fig. 4.20).
pRaCTiCes FoR The BuTToCks anD CRoTCh
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5.1 pracTice fOr The buTTOcks
The requirements for positioning the buttocks in Taijiquan practice are very strict. It requires the practitioner to put Wei Lü (coccygeal end, at the end of spine) in an upright position when practicing, gathering and raising it naturally so that the buttocks do not protrude nor swing too much, otherwise the buttocks will be unable to rise and lower naturally. Taijiquan novices sometimes err on over-gathering or raising the buttocks, which can result in various negative effects. For example, if the buttocks are gathered too far forward, the posture will become unnaturally stiff and not follow the natural straight alignment of the body; in addition, this posture may also impede natural breathing as it blocks smooth circulation of Qi throughout the body and may even destabilize the firmness of the weight of the lower limbs. Gathering or raising buttocks in routine and Tuishou practice must be applied in accordance with each specific practice and not generalized. For example, while relaxing the the joints and muscles in the Lan Zha Yi posture (Lazily Tying One’s Coat), the buttocks should be raised slightly as the waist is lowered so that Qi can descend smoothly into the Dantian. If the buttocks are pushed too far forward, the lowering of the waist is impeded and consequently, Qi cannot cannot descend through the Dantian and separate into two streams to flow through the Yong Quan point through to the legs.
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5.1.2 Application to Sparring: Bei Kao
An example of applying this principle in Tuishou sparring is as follows: if the opponent executes Lü on you, you need to relax, lower your Qi and gather your buttocks before executing the Bei Kao move (Kao with the back). In this move, gathering the buttocks helps to concentrate power drawn from the heels and transported up the legs before it is unleashed at the target. In contrast, raising rather than gathering buttocks at this point will hinder full release of striking power and thwarts any attempt to transform the opponent’s energy. Bei Kao is an opening-closing move, consisting of lightening-quick power exertion and rebound, during which you need to guide Qi upward to explode energy. To do this, you need to roll the chest slightly inward and bend knees a little, then stamp on the ground to generate rebounding power and ascending Qi. The gathering of buttocks at this point is essential so that Qi can descend instantaneously after energy release. Protruding the buttocks will impede Qi flow downwards, resulting in Qi blockage at the chest which affects the stability of a practitioner’s stance and may even be harmful to health. These key points in the above example need to be practised and applied assiduously during routine and Tuishou practice.
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5.2 pracTices fOr The crOTch (dang)
Dang refers to the crotch area where the legs connect to the body. To open the Dang area, the thighs need to be stretched apart as much as possible so that the waist and crotch can rotate freely. Any obstruction of Dang movement will negatively affect routine and Tuishou practice. The opening-closing of Dang, that is, the transition between emptiness and solidity of the crotch area, has a direct impact on the flexibility of the practitioner’s body and his or her ability to change speed and weight. The shift between emptiness and solidity of the Dang area is used as a measure to monitor and adjust movement and speed of movement, and also serves as the key point to increase the power to be exploded. The firmness of Dang relates to their exertion of power and resistance. Mastery of Dang power and posture in routine and Tuishou practice helps increase flexibility, emptiness and stability of waist and legs, reinforces the foundation and enhances your practice. Adjustments to the waist and Dang are usually the first steps taken when you feel there is something not quite right with your movements routine or Tuishou practice. As Master Chen Xin said, “When you attain realization of Taiji, even a bird cannot fly out from under you during Taiji movement.” In other words, the openingclosing of Dang is key to increasing and exerting power. When Dang is closed, the whole body is directed toward closing (He); when Dang opens, the body opens. Hence, Dang is essential to Xu (gathering), He (closing), Yin (guiding), and Fang (releasing) in routine and Tuishou practice.
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which means that the left leg bears 30% of body weight while the right leg bears 70% of body weight. To help you master correct Dang postures in routine and Tuishou practice. Ding Dang. the perineum and it’s soft tissue started to bear greater pressure from such internal organs as the liver. Doing so over an extended period can have a positive effect in curing hemorrhoids. the left knee and ankle vertically aligned to each other and the ground. womb and so on. The right leg should be relaxed with the right knee inclined slightly outward and the Dang gathered inward so that both form a strong pair. it was realized that the anus and perineum were two of the most vulnerable parts of the human body. anus contraction should only be slight and done in a natural way. After humans evolved to the upright posture and started to walk. This realization caused the ancients to suggest that “the ground door should be always closed”. womb prolapse and so on. Jian Dang and Tang Dang. when the distribution between the weight-bearing leg and the other leg is at a ratio of 3:7 or 4:6.2 Yuan Dang … Round Crotch Yuan Dang refers to the opening of the Dang area in a circular shape. In ancient times.The Anus In the same way that the positioning of Dang is very precise. a short introduction of key Dang movements. in the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture of the Chen style Taiji Lao Jia routine. the weight distribution is 3:7. A brief introduction is provided below. and it became difficult for vena blood to flow to heart. For example. rectocele.2. the positioning of the anus also needs careful attention. Yuan Dang. 王 西 安 161 . advocating contraction of the anus during physical exercise as a remedy. In Taiji practice. are described below: 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 5. This requires the left leg to be solid with the lower leg standing upright.
2. This should be corrected at the earliest stages of learning. 王 西 安 162 . Yuan Dang reinforces the foundation and allows flexible body rotation in any direction.” Indeed. energy in the legs is strengthened and the body is well supported. the right knee should incline outward. which means there will not be opening-closing power if he or she crouches in the Horse Stance. These traditional teaching methods should be changed as implied by the adage. innate talents. A practitioner trying to eliminate the habit of Ding Dang in his or her postures will require a long period of re-adjustment as the new correct Dang posture will initially feel very uncomfortable. there are many opportunities and responsibilities. and at this moment Dang should open in a circle so that both legs can support all parts of the body. That is. when the right leg moves to the side. teachers do not typically correct their students’ mistakes as the emphasis was on students digesting teachings gradually and adjusting mistakes themselves. 5. Ding Dang arises when the area connecting the weight-bearing right leg to the crotch remains tight. This positioning of Dang also means that it fulfils the Taiji principle of “opening in closing”. at the end of the Dan Bian (Single Whip) posture. Hence. the root of Dang should be relaxed. “closing in opening” and that “Dang should open in a full circle”. he or she will typically re-distribute weight between the legs to a ratio of 4:6 or 5:5. “It is easy to teach but hard to change what is learnt.3 Ding Dang … Tight Crotch Ding Dang refers to a common mistake made by novice practitioners whereby one leg supports the body without relaxing. If a practitioner is advised to relax. As for practitioners. In traditional teaching methods. Some perform better than others due to learning abilities. it is very difficult to correct bad practice habits solidified with prolonged practice. the body crouches as the right knee moves outward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 In this way. For example.
and quality and length of practice, rather than due to a teacher’s attention. Some practitioners are happy to help the teacher out and teach others, their intention being to allow the teacher more rest. Students are also happy to learn from co-practitioners as this may help to accelerate learning.
5.2.4 Jian Dang … Sharp Crotch
In Jian Dang position, the Dang area is shaped like an inverted “A”, the bottom tip of the Dang area is tight and not relaxed. In this case, Dang cannot be lowered during routine and Tuishou practice, and Yuan Dang cannot be formed at all. Moreover, the Bow Step is hampered, one’s gait becomes unsteady, and the upper body becomes heavy while the lower body is unrooted, swaying to the right or left, while the feet are also unsteady. This mistake may be tolerated by the old and weak if their aim is just to improve health, but cannot be ignored by younger practitioners who want to improve combat skills. Because with Jian Dang, some get easily unrooted, some find they can’t get clear distribution of weight, some find it so hard to shift the weight because they put exceeded weight onto one leg. If the habit of Jian Dang is allowed to form over a period of time, practitioners will become used to it and feel comfortable in this incorrect stance, which should be avoided. On the contrary, one must learn to identify and cultivate the twin qualities of emptiness-solidity in the legs through the practice of Taiji routines. Novices practicing Dang will inevitably develop aching feet. This is no cause for worry, as these are normal physical indications of body development and they will disappear when you reach a certain level. For example, after a bout of Tuishou sparring, novice practitioners may feel a little ache in the arms and legs, and indeed, the whole body may ache after a little rest. This is because you are not used to the intense exercise and some capillary blood vessels may have been strained. This ache will lessen gradually after extended practise, as the body becomes stronger, blood circulation improves and lung capacity is increased. At this stage, any additional
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muscle ache resulting from further increase in practice will ease off more quickly. Hence, do not be deterred by any aches and apply Yuan Dang when practicing Taiji and Tuishou, so that Jian Dang may be prevented from developing. Without patience, Taiji skills cannot be improved.
5.2.5 Tang Dang
Tang Dang happens when the legs are spread too far apart, out of proportion to the weight distribution required on the legs and the lowered Dang. As a result, the movements of the legs are hampered as they are not able to move forward and back or turn to the sides with natural ease. This situation is also called Ta Dang, meaning collapsing Dang. The Taijiquan routine is a whole body practice, suitable for people of all ages, body constitutions and those engaged in mental and physical work. Typically, practice methods for Taijiquan routines start from large circle movements to smaller ones, then from smaller circles to no-circle movements. However, the opposite is true for Dang practice, which starts with smaller scale movements, growing to larger-scaled practice. This requires Dang to be positioned a little higher in the beginning before becoming lower and wider gradually. As with Ding Dang and Jian Dang, be careful not to form the habit of committing to Tuishou movements that bring a lot of pressure to the knee joints, as Tang Dang not only increases pressure, but may also cause harm. This results in chronically tight muscles which will eventually cause bad blood circulation in the legs. The Tang Dang posture has particular impact on the stimulation of the on the nerves in the knee joint, so hindering the supply and renewal of blood in the leg muscles. Prolonged Tang Dang positioning will result in aching knee joints and a very heavy feeling in the legs. In some large-scale movements, Tang Dang
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may actually be intentionally applied, such as in the Seven Cun Kao movement, that is Kao applied in the Xie Xing or oblique walk where the distance between the ground and shoulder is seven cun (about 23 cm). Yet even in this movement, heavy pressure on the legs last only an instant and the legs can recover quickly, so Tang Dang poses no real issues. However, large-scale movements cannot be applied to the whole practice; hence Tang Dang is considered harmful to health and body combat if applied for extended periods in routine and Tuishou practice. Generally speaking, Dang practice should begin modestly with a slight lowering of the body, gradually growing to bigger movements. Most importantly, it should match the physical conditions of the practitioner and the requirements of body combat so that the practitioner does not incur any injury.
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Chen sTyle Taiji Tuishou CaTegoRies
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1 Overview Within the Chen style Taiji routine. practitioners may master its secrets and principles with serious study. we will describe how to apply these eight Tuishou techniques in sparring practice. While the combinations of Tuishou moves are infinite. then strike back with Jian Kao. For example. 王 西 安 168 . Tuishou is commonly divided into eight categories. your opponent may respond defensively with Xiong Kao (Kao by chest). you can defend using An (pressing). For example. In this chapter. if the opponent attacks using Jian Kao (Kao with shoulder). if you advance using Ying Men Kao (Kao diagonally to the front). since both the attacking and defensive movements are interrelated and cannot be separated. the attack-defense stances change dynamically. with attackers changing to defensive roles in an instant and back again without warning.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. Indeed.
silk reeling in the shape of a flower) 2. He Bu Tuishou with static footwork. while Tuishou) 8.1.e. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 169 . i. Shuang Shou Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Double Hands) 3. and any movements can be exerted by intention. Da Lü (larger scale movements) 7. Shun Bu Tuishou (Tuishou with movable footwork. which is regarded as the highest level of Tuishou. Dan Wan Hua (Coiling Flower with Single Hand. while Tuishou) or Jin Wu Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 5 steps. Luan Cai Hua (Picking Flower.1 Chen Style Taiji Tuishou Categories The Chen style Taiji Tuishou Routines can be divided into: 1. normally a forward step then a backward step) 6. also known as Ding Bu Tuishou (Coiling Hand with Static Footwork) 5. Li Yuan and Ping Yuan (Vertical Coiling Flower and Horizontal Coiling Flower) 4. Jin San Tui San (both parities advance and then retreat for 3 steps. where the the practitioners are no longer oblidged to the sequences or fixed routines.6.
Ding Bu (static footwork) 2. or Kao hand techniques. Dian Bu (stepping on toe-tips) . Si Zheng Shou (Peng. i. Ji. Lian Jin Lian Tui (moving forward/back/right/left continuously) 4. There are many categories of footwork techniques. practitioners should be able to switch flexibly between Si Zheng Shou and Si Yu Shou techniques as circumstances require. Lian Huan Zuoyou Xuanzhuan (moving continously with body rotation) 王 西 安 170 5. Bie. Zou. Huo Bu (moving footwork) 3. and not be limited to one or the other.2 Types of Tuishou Handwork and Footwork Tuishou handwork is commonly divided into four classifications. feet placed together ) 7. Cha Bu (inserting steps) 6. Si Yu Shou hand techniques are always used. Duli Bu (standing on a single foot) 8. novices should start by learning one set at a time. including: 1. Xuan Wan (rotating wrists) 4. Bing Bu (step touch. Shuang Tuishou (Tuishou with double hands) 3. During sparring. Qie Zhang (palm chop) In static footwork.e. In moving footwork such as Shun Bu (walking backward and forward) and Da Lü. An) is usually applied.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. these consist of the Cai. as follows: 1.1. Lü. However. Dan Tuishou (Tuishou with single hand) 2.
2). the four fingers extended and joined together to form a slightly concave palm (Fig.2 171 . The elbow must be dropped. 6. roll the chest slightly inward and lower the waist and shoulders.1 Li Zhang … Palm vertical to the ground Li Zhang is used at the initial stages of a sparring bout. 6. All these adjustments must be executed simultaneously so that power can reach the palm edge and hit the target clearly (Fig. 6. with the forearm bent toward the upper arm at an angle of 450. Shuan (bind).2 TuishOu handwOrk Techniques 6.2. when both players retreat after being mutually warded off. one arm is extended horizontally sideways.2 Cutting with Palm This technique uses the edge of the palm to cut downward in a vertical or diagonal direction.6. it is also applied to Gun (roll).2.1 Fig. In single practice. Da (meet) and Sao (sweep) movements. with the wrist lowered and fingers relaxed.1). palm facing in. The roots of the fingers are relaxed. 6. In this posture. When cutting downward. it is also often used when pushing or rotating in various directions in both Shun and Ni reeling. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 6. you need to place the body in a crouching position.
During sparring. change your palm to Wa Long Palm as you follow your opponent and reel in the Shun direction as the palm rotates upward. the hand is stretched upward to the sides (Fig.3 Wa Long Zhang … Roof Tile Palm The Wa Long Palm is shaped like a Chinese roof tile where the sides curl upward and the middle is low. 6. one player may guide the other to reel first in the Shun direction.4 Xie Tuo Zhan In this technique. As you rotate the hand downward or outward. Xie Tuo Zhang is also applied in the process of Big Lü. the power lies in the root of the palm. 6.4). then reverse to the Ni direction when the hands arrive at his or her body. if the opponent executes Lü on you. The palm posture during this direction change is called Xie Tuo Zhang.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. 6. when hands are rotating horizontally in a circle. 王 西 安 Fig. This techniqueis often applied in Shun Chan (conforming reeling) and Yin Jin (drawing into your territory). 6.3 Fig.2. For example. In this instance. where the raised hand lies above the middle of the upper arm. The remaing three fingers turn slightly outward so that the palm becomes concave (Fig.4 172 . 6. the little finger is used to guide energy and draw inward toward the thumb.3).2.
• Cha Zhang is also adopted in Shun Bu Tuishou (see above) with moving footwork. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 6. 6. This technique is called Diagonally Upward Cha. • In Luan Cai Hua (palms reel in non-predictable angles. fingers slightly parted (Fig. for example: • When you rotate both hands in vertical circles. then lower your shoulders and drop the elbows.5 Cha Zhang … Slanting Palm In this technique.2.5 173 .6. the hand is inserted upward or vertically/diagonally downward. as the hands insert downward. Cha Zhang can be applied via the same application methods as with the Si Zheng Shou (stated above). and gradually press your hands toward the opponent. Cha Zhang is widely used in Tuishou. insert your hand downward and rotate it in the Shun direction.5). see above). • When the opponent executes Lü on your hand during Si Zheng Shou (handwork in four directions. see above). separate them and switch to Cha Zhang.
Fig. while the thumb and the index finger form a “ 八” shape.6 王 西 安 174 . 6. you find it earsier to eliminate the opponent’s power by rotating your waist outwards with relaxation.2.6 Ba Zi Shou Ba Zi Shou (hand posture in character ‘八’): separate the thumb and the index finger to form a “八” shape. you can rotate your arm with the middle finger. and your partner exerts An to your hand. This type of hand is always used in Qin Na (arresting) and Tuishou with single hand in a horizontal circle. 6. it is called Ba Zi hand because “八” is pronounced ‘ba’ in Chinese (Fig. This way.6). When you guide your partner via Shun reeling to the front of your chest. and the little finger bending inward. the ring finger.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6.
the thigh nearly parallel to the ground.3. The other leg bends with the intention to straighten. 6.1 Qian Gong Bu … Forward Bow Step This technique requires the soles of the feet to touch the ground.7).7 王 西 安 175 . One knee is bent so that the body is in a half crouch. In this posture. following the principle of ‘closing in opening’. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. toe tips bent slightly inward. 6.3 TuishOu fOOTwOrk Techniques 6.6. The toe tips point slightly inward. the Yong Quan point should be empty while the Dang is open with the intention to close. This knee is turned slightly outward to provide a frame for all parts of the body. the sole fully touching the ground. the knee positioned approximately above the tip of the foot (Fig. following the principle of ‘straightening in bending’.
6.8). Keep the Yong Quan point empty so the straightened leg can be lifted later if the body weight is kept on the Bow leg (Fig. for example: • In Ping Yuan Tuishou (Tuishou in horizontal circles). 6.3. big Lü and Luan Cai Hua.3 Qian Dian Bu … Forward Tipping Step In this step. if the opponent presses on any part of your body with his or her hands or arms. 6. Position both feet fully on the ground. It is applied widely in Tuishou.3. body weight is transferred from the front Bow leg to the back leg during in Shun Bu Tuishou pairwork.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. straighten the front leg so that the back leg becomes the Bow leg.2 Hou Zuo Bu … Back Seat Step In this posture. toes grasping the ground. Fig.8 6. When the weight is completely transferred. • This step is always used in Shun step.9). the heel touches the ground with the toes pointing up at about 450 (Fig. knee bent slightly over the toe tips. you can move your the weight back to transform their power by raising your toe tip and hence causing the heel to touch the ground naturally. 王 西 安 176 .
4 Hou Dian Bu … Back Tipping Step This step is applied in three Tuishou techniques: a) Shun Bu –Tuishou big Lü.10 177 . if an opponent applies Lü on you.3.Fig.9 6.10). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 6. move your weight back and withdraw the front leg backward by stepping the toe tip back first. 6. and Luan Cai Hua For example. 6. followed by the sole then heel (Fig.
Big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. in the ‘Dragon sweeps ground’ form.e.11). 6. 6.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. quickly ‘fall’ to the ground with a large-scale ground sweep of the Bow leg. 12).12 .11 b) Pu Bu (Falling Step) Pu Bu is only applied to Big Lü (i. 6. This posture is applied to Shun step. 王 西 安 178 Fig. and is widely used in forward or backward movements (Fig. When the opponent applies Big Lü on you. which now lies close to the ground. c) Duli Bu (Standing on Single Foot) Duli Bu refers to having one foot raised while the other stands on the ground. 6. Hence the name ‘Falling Step’. Lü applied through large-scale movements) (Fig. For example.
the shoulders guiding the elbows and the waist guiding the shoulders.4. This move is called Shun Ji Shun Fa (i. you can also use Shun Chan to attack to the side or directly on to the opponent after drawing them into your territory. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. while simultaneously executing Kao on the opponent. For example.e. enters the bone marrow through gaps in the scapula and travels down the arms.4 hand Techniques in TuishOu reeling 6. in Bei Zhe Kao (Lean with back). with the little finger guiding energy as it points to the thumb when it is drawn inward. when the opponent executes Lü on you. spirals around the waist and shoulders.13 179 . It then rises from the internal to manifest externally through the skin and fine hairs until it reaches the fingers. the term ‘reeling’ means to spiral energy. exerting Ji and Na in confronting reelings). you draw the opponent inward into your territory. you can use Shun Chan to gather energy and edge into the opponent’s territory. In addition.1 Shun Chan … Conforming reeling In Taijiquan.6. In Silk Reeling technique. power rises from the heels up the legs. 6. with the other fingers slightly turned outward. The principle of Shun Chan is that with the elbows guiding the hands. where it returns to its original position of circulation. Shun Chan means to spiral energy from the outside to the inside.
Ni Chan is used to open outward. while the other fingers turn out slightly (Fig. Here. roll your chest slightly inward and lower your waist. You then Ni reel to your right ribs and change the attacking hand into ‘八’ shape so that you can easily capture your opponent. the shoulders to urge on the elbows and the elbows guiding the hands.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 6. concentrate you energy in the wrist. 6.2 Ni Chan … Reverse reeling Ni Chan is the reverse of Shun Chan and may also be called ‘Ni Silk Reeling Outwards’.4. 6. 6.15). 6. by using the waist to urge the shoulder. In Ni Chan. extend your right hand and guide the opponent to rotate in Shun reelings towards your leftside.14 Fig.15 180 . 王 西 安 Fig. 6. In horizontal circle rotations with single hand.3 Shun Ni Zuo Wan Wrist descending in Shun and Ni directions This technique consists of lowering the wrist gradually during the transition from Shun to Ni Chan.14). the thumb gathers inward and guides the little finger. Note: to apply this technique precisely. shoulders and elbows. Zuo Wan (descending wrist) technique is adopted (Fig.4.
6. Cai. and adhere to him or her. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. through any of the four front-oriented Si Zheng Shou techniques (Si Zheng Shou Peng. Zhou. An) or four side-oriented Si Yu Shou techniques (Si Yu Shou.16).16 181 . Diao Wan has two functions: • Diao Wan can be used as one option to enhance the ability of Zhan Nian (adhering to the opponent). your right hand rotates at 90o towards the right side of body in Ni reeling. the Shun hand changes to Diao Shou (Hooked Hand). Ji. while trying to ‘listen’.4. 6. which is formed by pointing the little. in case of single hand rotation in the horizontal circle. The wrist is drawn inward to form a Diao Wan (Hooked Wrist). ring and middle fingers vertically downward while the thumb and the index finger form a ‘八’ shape (Ba Zi). by holding on to the opponent by the hand. then quickly switches to Shun reeling and you easily seize the wrist of your partner by hooking hand. Lie.4 Diao Wan … Hooked Wrist This technique is often used when the Ni Chan changes to Shun Chan.6. Lü. At this point. Diao Wan is also widely applied in response to a Lü attack. to provide a closing and opposing force with the three fingers (Fig. Kao). • For example.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
6.4.5 Shun Chan Yang Zhang Raised palm in conforming reeling
This can be divided into inward Yang (palm rising) and outward Yang (palm rising), which are always used in the four front oriented techniques (called ‘Si Zheng Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Peng, Lü, Ji, An) and four side oriented techniques (called ‘Si Yu Shou’ in Chinese, i.e. Cai, Lie, Zhou, Kao). First, if the partner executes Lü on your right arm, you insert loosely in Ni reeling, and then advance and press inwards by Shun reeling, raising the hand while advancing. It is called Yi Yang Zhang (palm raised inward), because at this time the palm is facing inward and upward. Second, if you guide the partner and withdraw your step, the partner will likely expose some weak point after you raise your palm in Ni reeling. To lift the partner in this ‘openning’ provides preparation for your ‘closing’, i.e. to capture your partner in Shun reeling quickly. At this time your palm is facing upper outward, so it is called Wai Yang Zhang (palm raised outward) Internally, whether in outward Yang or inward Yang, you should coordinate whole body movements coherently. Yang is a kind of opening, so at this time the body should close, so as to support each other and not be separated. Practitioners must pay attention to these principles in practice.
王 西 安
6.5 TuishOu sTeps 6.5.1 Shang Bu … Forward Step
Shang Bu is a forward step with one foot, and begins with both a step forward and the bending of the knees so that the body is slightly crouched, five toes grasping the ground (Fig. 6.18). This preparatory posture resembles a cat ready to pounce on a rat, and allows you to step forward lightly and flexibly. Like a cat, you should prepare first by gathering energy, then extending the foot while listening and feeling intently. Step first with the heel then uncurling the rest of the foot flat on the ground. This procedure will limit your vulnerability.
6.5.2 Tui Bu … Retreating Step
The Tui step consists of moving one leg backward in an arc, and it can consist of more than one step (Fig. 6.19). Key to the Tui Bu is the bending of the weight-bearing knee. How much this knee bends and hence how much your body squats depends on the size of the Tui step. The bigger your retreating step, the lower you will have to bend your knee. However, it also depends on your body condition. Whatever the case, the Tui step has to be done flexibly and lightly and not with stiffness.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
Fig. 6.18 Fig. 6.19
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
6.5.3 Gen Bu … Following Step
The Gen Bu can also be called the Dian (adding) Step (Fig. 6.20). This step is used in the situation where one normal step is too small to reach the target while two steps too excessive. In this instance, one is said to Gen (follow) or Dian (add) a small step after a normal step to reach the target distance. Gen is applied to the four front orientated techniques, Si Zheng Shou (Peng, Lü, Ji, An), big Lü and Luan Cai Hua. The main purpose of Gen Bu is to get closer to the opponent to decrease their chances of escape. However, note that the Gen step is completed without the opponent’s awareness, a technique called Die Fa (a general concept of body combat techniques, referring to the comprehensive techniques and strategies to defeat the opponents, on the basis of quality ‘listening’ to their speed, weight and power in Tuishou). The importance the Gen step in Tuishou is reflected in the saying, “You cannot reach the depth and secrets of Tuishou without understanding Die Fa.”
王 西 安
solo pRaCTiCe in Tuishou
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
王 西 安
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法
Solo Tuishou practice consists of individual practices useful for improving flexibility, agility and responsiveness to combat. Typically, body movements are initially executed at a high stance, gradually lowering to mid then lower stances. However, practitioners should practise according to their body condition. Likewise, beginners should start with practicing at slow speed, gradually working up to faster then very swift movements. At each stage, slow movements should not become blocked, fast movements not energy-losing, and very fast movements not chaotic. In other words, you should not lose energy in slow practice, nor be obstructed in fast movements. On the contrary, you should keep the consistency, coherence and Liu He (the Closing and Consistency of six parts of the body), and avoid any disorder and energy loss.When one part of body moves, all other parts follow and coordinate. In solo Tuishou, you should act as though following your partner neatly, and always keep attention concentrated, shoulder blades relaxed, and movements flexible. Execute solo practice as if you were actually fighting with a partner, with the fight so vivid that it brings you more interest in your practice. As a result, after thorough sole practice, the whole body moves flexibly, neatly and smoothly, and you are able to do well in actual paired Tuishou.
王 西 安
3). Relax the arms and hang them at the sides. Shift your weight slowly to the left leg. 7. so as to avoid empty stepping (i. 7. in preparation for the right leg step forward lightly. eyes looking forward (Fig.2). the left toes grasping the ground.2. heel first with toes pointed up. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. As your weight shifts.3 Part 3 • • • Maintain the vertical axis and lift the top of the head slightly. 7. then slowly roll down the rest of the foot to the ground.2.1). stepping without thought) (Fig.1 Part 1 • • • Stand at attention with toe tips pointing slightly outward to form a “八” shape.e. straightening the neck and lifting the top of the head.2 sOlO ping yuanwan hua (sOlO hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer) 7.2 Part 2 • • • • Relax the crotch and bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. 王 西 安 187 . relax the crotch and lift the right knee. palms lightly touching the sides of the legs. Maintain the vertical axis.7. Your step should be light. empty the Yong Quan point.2. precise and full of intention of listening. Point the right toe tips down naturally as your weight shifts completely to the left and you stand with a left leg posture (Fig. Continue relaxing the crotch. 7. Step the right foot forward. bend the left knee and draw in the lower abdomen slightly to stabilize the weight-bearing left leg.
王 西 安 188 Note: in later movements. thumb behind the fingers (Fig.3 7. 7.4 Part 4 • • • Shift your weight slowly to the right leg to form a right Bow step. . relax the left arm so that the left hand hangs down. extend the right arm forward then bend the forearm about 450 inward while also lowering the shoulders.2 Fig.1 Fig. As the weight shifts. right elbow and wrist. 7. While the right arm moves. 7.2. Complete the movement by raising the right fingers to form the Li (erect) palm.4).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 7. the left elbow and the right hand should move coherently in collaboration with each other.
The right knee follows the movement of the right hand and rotates inward at the same speed (Fig.5 7. As you reel. 7. relax the left side of the crotch and shift your weight slowly to the left so that the inner side of the right foot touches the ground.4 Fig.5). 王 西 安 189 . 7.2. 7.Fig.5 Part 5 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • Focusing your right hand on the imaginary partner move it about 900 in Shun reeling to the left of the body.
. Step the right foot either flatly on the ground or with toe tips pointing up.2.7 7.7). right palm facing down and wrist bending 450 inward using the little finger as a guide. 7. When the right arm moves downward. This gesture enhances the movement by making the downward movement of the arm more precise and structured (Fig. the elbow in a slightly warding off (Peng) position in coordination with the little finger. 7. 7.6). The right forearm now moves transversely in front of the abdomen. draw the right knee slightly inward to prepare for an increased range of movement in the ensuing steps. the weight shifts completely to the left. At this point.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.6 Part 6 • • 王 西 安 190 • • As the right hand completes its reel to the left. The other fingers reel outwards in coordination with the elbow (Fig. change from Shun reeling to Ni reeling and continue moving in a downward arc to the front of the left ribs. 7.6 Fig.
8 Part 8 • • 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 With the right hand. pointing the right knee slightly outward and moving it in a helix. shift your weight to the right. As the arm changes to Ni reeling.7. until it reaches the front of the right ribs. Use the rightward rotation of the waist and torso to steer and guide the partner’s power into your territory towards your right side so you can eliminate it.9 Part 9 • • Now using Ni reeling. that is.7 Part 7 • • • • Using the little finger to guide the energy. followed by the hand. Ni. While the right arm reels. 王 西 安 191 . 7. bend the knees slightly to place the body in a squatting position. a 900 arc to the right side of body. using it as a pivot to rotate the right shoulder rightward. Ni. three Shun reelings and two Ni reelings.9). Return the bent arm and the bow leg to their original positions (Fig. draw the chest slightly inward and relax the right side of the crotch.2. changing into Ni reeling.8). 7. The 3600 rotation of the arm follows this sequence of changes: Shun. 7. then draw an arc to the left where you met yourtpartner at the beginning the posture of palms. Then place the palm downward (Fig. continue reeling the right arm outward until the palm faces upward and the thumb and the first finger form a “八” shape. Rotate the waist to the right.2. Shun. Shun. At this point. power is most concentrated and exerted on the external side of the thumb and index finger. extend the right hand slightly forward.2. 7.
7. The middle body moves in coordination with the upper and lower bodies. Notes In these horizontal-circle rotations. Practice until you reach a level where when one body part keeps still then all other body parts keep still. the arms rotate with the waist and the axis while the hand guides the energy. the lower body follows. and ensure your body weight moves back and forth in synch with the body movements. 7. that is. Ni. Ni.9 • The left arm rotates from the left. Relax the waist and shoulders. all parts moving together collectively. 王 西 安 192 . the reeling sequence being Ni. that is. the upper body guides the lower body’s movement. Shun. rotate the wrist. Practice alternating rotations with both arms so that there is a feeling of balance. three Ni reelings and two Shun reelings. when one body part moves then all other body part follow. The movement of every part of the body should be continuous and synchronised – when the upper body moves. When you feel tired practicing on the right. practice on the left by switching to the left leg and the left hand. Shun.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.8 Fig.
The whole movement is mainly guided by the rotating waist and relaxed shoulders.10). It only requires vertial hand revolution and very small shifts in weight. return your hand to the original Da Shou position (meet the opponent with the hand) (Fig. 7. with eyes looking forward (Fig. Focus the eyes on the right palm (Fig. These shifts are not immediately apparent as they occur mainly between the front and back sides of the legs and feet. drawing an arc of about 90o to the left. Finally. Extend the right arm forward (either below or above the head) with the arm bending inward about 45o and with the left hand akimbo. palm slanting upward with intention to gently guide and draw in. Bend the left leg so that you squat slightly. Next. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 193 . The range and intensity in the arm rotations may be increased gradually depending of the level of the practitioner.3 sOlO wan hua (flOwer cOiling) in verTical circle This is a single hand practice involving movements of a smaller range. then switching to 90o Shun reeling.12). drawing an arc of about 180o which goes downward and then up to the right. with the rest of the foot gradually fully touching the ground.11). 7. This vertical rotation may be developed to the quality of Silk Reeling and may be used as a combat technique or for listening practice. • • • • • Keep your body weight on the left leg and step forward. heel first with the right foot. Next. relax the left side of the crotch. then turn the body to the left and raise the right hand in Shun reeling. lower your Qi.7. switch to Ni reeling.
7.12 • • When rotating in the opposite direction. Finally. 7. Vertical arm rotation is guided by spiraling movements of the waist and back.11 Fig. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 王 西 安 194 . Practice rotating both arms in turn.10 Fig. then reel in Shun. reel in Ni to the right at 90o. then draw a 180o arc to the left side of the body with palm facing left and finger tips slanted upward. Notes The single-hand vertical circle is not completely vertical but slightly slanted at an angle to allow you to guide and draw the opponent in. return to the Da Shou position (meeting the opponent with your hand) by a 90o upward arc in Ni reeling.
16). 7. 7. 7. palms facing to each other. shift your the weight gradually forward.15). then raise the right foot. in preparation for action (Fig.15 195 . 7. otherwise the shape of the posture will be lost (Fig. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.14 Fig. eyes facing the front (Fig. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen.7. 7. pushing both palms forward (Tui Palm) at the same time. Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance. the forward shift of the body should stop once the palms reach their natural end position. 7. the palms should move forward at an inclined angle (see picture). Note: when applying Tui Palm. Also.13). 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Relax the left crotch and while focussing on the right crotch. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting.14).4 dOuble-hand flaT circle wan hua • • • • Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. 7. toes relaxed and pointing downward (Fig.13 Fig. Raise the forearms 90o upward.
15) by drawing a circle by the sides of the body. palms vertical. 7. this time relaxing the right crotch and focussing on the left crotch. Practice this cycle. imagining the hands seizing the opponent’s wrists by Diao (Fig. then pushing both hands forward. Continue shifting your weight backward while both hands return to the original position in front of the abdomen (Fig. 7.17 • • • Next. 7. shift your weight backward and separate both hands to the sides of the body.16 Fig.17). Repeat the Tui Palm movement again. 7. then lowering to the front of the abdomen. 王 西 安 196 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.
drop the elbows and sink the Qi downward. 7. While raising the hands.5 sOlO dOuble-hand wan hua in a verTical circle One cycle consists of one Shun reeling plus one Ni reeling of each hand. This body posture is now one of holding and collecting. toes relaxed and pointing downward (see Fig. Shift your weight gradually to the left leg.18). • • • • Preparation postures are the same as those of Double Hand Horizontal Wan Hua. lower the waist and shoulders.19 197 . Bend the left knee to put the body in a crouching stance. 7.19).18 Fig. draw the chest inward. stated as follows: Stand at attention with the body upright and relaxed. 7. then step the right foot forward while simultaneously extending both hands vertically in front of abdomen. palms facing to each other.7. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Raise the forearms 90o upward. Grasp the ground lightly with the toes and face the eyes forward (Fig. in preparation for action (Fig. eyes facing the front.14). 7. then raise the right foot.
finish the weight shift to your right leg.20). step the left foot on the ground and shift your weight forward (Fig. open your back slightly and withdraw the elbows slightly inward so that power can easily reach the inner edges of the hands.21). Then. push the crossed palms over the head in Ni reeling. 7. with the intention of supporting something upward. . Extend both hands forward in an ‘offering’ stance.21 • • • • 王 西 安 198 • Next. palms facing forward. the palms descend to the sides. stopping at shoulder level (Fig. 7.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.20 Fig. 7. extending the hands forward so that the left hand crosses over the inner side of the right wrist. Next. During this process. At the same time. both palms facing inward. continue to draw your chest inward. As both hands separate upwards. after another small Ni reeling upward. cross both hands slowly in Shun reeling. 7.
upper arm. palms facing each other. each associated body part strikes out in a Peng attack (Ward Off ) from the sides of the body. that is. palms cross together. so as to start a new cycle. then hands. while weight totally switches to the left. With body gathering. the chest. Both hands then draw a downward arc to fall to each side of the abdomen. only that palms in the latter move horizontally. Note: Hand techniques are of the same as that of Solo Ping Yuan Wan Hua. Closing form: palms continue to Shun reel. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 199 .Note: as both hands separate outward. strike out in succession to the sides so that the arms become a pulled bow. finger-tips pointing down. shoulders. You will feel the power after long practice. • • Now the left hand reels in Ni while the right hand reels in Shun. forearm.
Ji. 王 西 安 Fig. Lü. 7. with the foot gradually stepping fully on the ground. and An.22 Fig. The key points are the same as those of solo Tuishou. thumb pointing down and the little finger pointing upward. Extend the left hand transversely and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. act as if sparring with a partner. extend the right hand diagonally forward to the right. palm facing in. body and steps. • As the weight shifts. • Stand at attention. heel first. eyes.6 sOlO TuishOu wiTh sTaTic fOOTwOrk Solo practice for He Bu Tuishou with static footwork is based on the four Zheng hands: Peng. palm facing forward.23 200 . Open every body part to make your rotations natural and flexible. 7. When practicing.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. Coordinate the movements of your hands. then bend it inward 45o. • Shift your weight to the left leg and lift the right foot to step forward. Note that one should practice with intention rather than by force.
Next. 7. relax the left crotch. Move the right hand in Shun reeling. lower the right shoulder and drop the right elbow.25 201 . raise both hands in Ni reeling.22).24 Fig. as the left hand moves inward in Ni reelings.23). and so continue to Peng upward before executing Lü.24). visualize placing the outer edge of the right hand on the outside of the opponent’s elbow joint Then execute Lü with both hands slowly to the left side of the body until the right hand reaches the front of the right breast. As the left hand rises. Relax the right crotch and turn the body to the right. During this process. and the eyes look forward to the right (Fig. coordinate and execution of Ji forward to the right with the right hand acting as a joint force (Fig. Meanwhile. the left hand ahead of the right. Shift your weight to the left slightly then to right. the wrist bent slightly inward and palm facing inward. 7. shift your weight left and focus your eyes on the front of the right hand (Fig. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. At the same time. 7. the arm opens like a circle. focus your intention on meeting and holding the opponent’s hand.• • • • • The left arm intends to Peng outward. 7. 7.
As this happens. At this point. eyes looking forward.25). alternating left and right sides. Now withdraw the left hand quickly and imagine placing it on the middle of the right upper arm of your partner (Fig. pushing it outward. Repeat the process.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • • Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right as the upper body moves and turns right. visualize your left hand pressing down on the hand of the opponent. Execute An forward with both hands the palms facing each other about 33 cm apart. the right hand executes Peng. an instant. Peng and An are transitional actions executed in 王 西 安 202 . and the left hand helps the right to execute Lü. The edges of the hands become power-exerting points. You will also need to use your left shoulder to push and use the right hand to help press forward. Note: In this movement. This is the same as the starting posture of Da Shou posture.22). If the left leg is in the front. shift your weight forward to the right leg. 7. 7. The right hand reels in Ni direction also with the intention to push outward (Fig.
sink the shoulder downward and drop the elbows. These actions drive two the hands forward. where the pushing power is exerted. Ji and An. moving backward uses Peng and Lü hand movements. In practice. outward.7 shun bu TuishOu (sOlO TuishOu wiTh a fOrward and backward sTep) Shun Bu Tuishou consists of two basic steps – one moving forward and one moving backward. moving forward is combined with Ji and An hand movements. Step the left foot on the ground with the inner side of the foot touching the ground. Keep the eyes looking to the front right (Fig. 7. • • • • Step forward with the right foot then shift your weight forward.27 203 . As the weight moves forward.26). Lü. raise both hands to attack by pushing them to the front right of the body.26 Fig. Face the outer hand edges. draw the chest inward. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.7. 7. Hand movements consist of four Zheng hands: Peng. 7. Lower the waist.
28). At the same time. 7. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. 7.29 • • • • • 王 西 安 204 • • • After the pushing attack. toes pointing down (Fig. As the arm moves. The body moves forward following the shift in weight. with the intention to close before opening. move the left hand downward then draw a forward arc to form a Lü posture with the right hand. At the same time.28 Fig. 7. 7. Bend the left leg to squat further and extend the right foot forward. withdraw the left hand gradually and place it on the middle of the right upper arm. followed by the arm and the hand (Fig. Note that Qi should not be allowed to float upward. As this happens. Relax the left crotch after pushing and shift the weight to the left. and in preparation for moving. 7.29). Raise the right hand in Shun reeling. Push the shoulder forward. rotate the right hand slightly downward in Ni reeling. the right hand moves upward in Ni reeling while the right foot takes a step backward without turning the body. turning the right elbow out and upward. tiptoe first. thumb pointing down and palm facing down.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.27). . shift your weight to the left and lift the right foot.
The front push of the right hand provides an instant defense.31 • • • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. Next. thumb pointing down and palm facing forward. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 205 . 7. Visualize sending the opponent’s right hand out to the left side of your body. 7. While the right hand switches to Lü. The outer edges of the hands are power-exerting points. Eyes look to the left (Fig. Then the right hand switches to Lü. Reel the left hand first in Ni direction. then in Shun direction downward to the left. 7.Fig. the upper and lower body form a balanced block of strength with the waist as the boundary. Eyes look to the front left (Fig.which takes place in an instant. raise the left hand in a spiral to form a Lü movement with the right hand. As the weight shifts. Both hands are about 33 cm apart (Fig.30).31). then draw a circle downward. 7.33).30 Fig.32). Eyes look to the front left (Fig. Withdraw the right hand quickly in Ni reeling and place it on the middle of the left upper arm. Next. then shift your weight to the right. Raise the right foot and take a step backwards to the right. raise the right hand quickly to push forward together with the left hand toward the left side of the body. 7. gradually squat the body.
extend the right hand to the right front of the body following the right foot. 7. Raise the body gradually and slowly shift your weight to the left leg.32 Fig.33 • • • Both hands execute Lü from left to right following the body. 7. At the same time.34). 7. until the left hand reaches the middle line of the body.34 Fig. the right arm then bends to 450 inward. 7.35 206 . 王 西 安 Fig. As the weight shifts.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Eyes look to the front left (Fig. take a step forward with the right foot. 7.
38 Fig. 7. Note that the waist power descends to the left first then the right. Then shift your weight slightly rightward.Fig.36 Fig. 7. thumb pointing down. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. 7.36). 7. 7.37 • • Simultaneously. Eyes look to the front right (Fig.35). Eyes look to the front right (Fig.39 207 . 7. place the left hand on the right upper arm. Continue shifting your weight to the right while pressing the right arm forward in a relaxed manner with descending energy.
visualizing that you are pushing the opponent’s hand outward to the right.38). Eyes look to the right (Fig. As soon as both arms finish pressing forward. Eyes look to the front right (Fig. Start a new cycle (Fig.37). raise the right hand quickly and exert An forward with power. Relax the right crotch and shift your weight to the right. Next. 7.39).陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 • • • • Relax the left crotch and shift your weight to the left. then execute Lü movement with both hands to the left side of the body until the right hand moves in front of the right breast. move the right hand in front of the left hand quickly. 7. 王 西 安 208 . 7. then move it out to the right. At the same time. execute Lü downward with the left hand.
It is not easy to practice Cai.41 209 . The other picture demonstrates the big Frontward Bow Step. Bie. beginners should first practise the routines. It uses the combat techniques of the four hand techniques in corner directions – Cai. a good foundation in Taijiquan and solo Tuishou is required before you can become proficient in using Cai. Ji and An is the same to those in Shun Step (forward or backwards Step). the only difference being that the extent of the steps in Da Lü is bigger.8 sOlO danren da lü TuishOu Da Lü is based on four hand techniques in the main directions – Peng. 7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. like the “dragon sweeps ground” routine in which Player A executes Lü on Player B. then the fives methods of solo Tuishou practice. Kao with large-scaled body movements. As such. The circulating of steps in Da Lü when practicing Peng. and Kao. In this chapter. whereby Player B executes Lü on Player A. Bie Zou. Zou. One is Da Pu Bu. Furthermore. Lie. Zhou. we will only refer to two main Da Lü postures as shown in the pictures which follow. Lü Ji and An. Lü. literally meaning “big falling step”. The other movements are the same as the movements in Shun Step (forward or backward step). If not.7.40 Fig. and Kao. the whole body will become stiff when you try to squat down in the big body movements. a major weakness with which you cannot even hope to attack the opponent. 7.
You need to rotate neatly when executing a step forward as the partner changes his or her direction. Luan Cai Hua is also built on the foundation of Peng.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 7. Lü. See how to execute Dian step in Figure 7. you should pay attention to the following points. It’s features include free movement with no fixed direction. You should adjust your direction and position by applying small Gen steps so that you can stick to the partner tightly and prevent their escape. and also uses the Si Zheng Shou. In the Luan Cai Hua Tuishou practice. and flexible.9 sOlO luan cai hua TuishOu The gait in Luan Cai Hu is called San Bu (scattered steps) or Hua Jiao Bu (steps in flower tracks).42. Ji. and An. precise rotation. This way you will not lose energy unnecessarily nor become stiff. 7. 王 西 安 Fig.42 210 . The body movement and gait should be neat and swift.
It is not easy to apply Die Fa. light but not empty and floating. Do not just practice at fast speeds or you will lose your energy or get stiff. An). the only difference being in the stances of the body. When circulating the four Zheng hand techniques (Peng. Lü. If you are able to put the partner in a passive position you can fullfil your intention without being noticed. the extent of the arm rotations should be small to match the changes in gestures and the revolving steps. The steps and gestures in Luan Cai Hua Tuishou are the same as Da Lü and in Shun Step. When you apply Luan Cai Hua in Tuishou sparring. the steps are small but the speed is fast. and thus impede any progress in Tuishou. Ji. looking for the attacking opportunity.In this technique. and entice the partner to advance and show his or her weak points. You should practice listening repeatedly. Your movements should be quick but not chaotic. You try to sense the partner’s intention by through pressing and pushing precisely and lightly. getting close to their upper body while causing them to raise their lower body or slant it. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 211 . you feel the partner’s energy as you rotate. heavy but not stiff.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 212 .
CHAPTER 8 paiR pRaCTiCe in Tuishou 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 213 .
similarly.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Nian (sticking). In addition. Lian (connecting) and finally Sui (following). If possible. whereby your actions should be precise. Partners should pay attention to co-operating with each other and using different practice methods at different stages in pair practice. If solo Tuishou is described as “imagining you are fighting with a person though you are practicing alone”. agile. Faster progress may be made if your partner is proficient in Taiji. like a flowing river: smooth.1 inTrOducTiOn Pair practice in Tuishou consists of applying a combination of techniques with partners and sparring. An introduction to Tuishou pair practices has been provided in the following pages. flexible and without weaknesses. Pair practice Tuishou improves combat skills. If both partners have Taiji proficiency. the practice stance should start high. I hope that the reader will use this to practice diligently and master the key points. pair practice should start slowly. so you must strive to concentrate. try to choose a partner of similar level for pair practice. lowering to mid-height then low stance. Like solo practice. 王 西 安 214 . flexible and rapid. Pair Tuishou embodies the essence of Taiji Tuishou. then pair Tuishou may be described as “acting as if there is no partner although you have one”. moving as the partner moves. development should follow the stages of San Shou to Zhan (coherence). pair practice becomes beautiful to watch. gathering speed in the later stages. Lastly. movements in pair practice should start simply before gaining in complexity.
toes pointing slightly outward to form a 八 shape. 8. The distance between both right feet should be about 10 cm.2.8. gradually forming a front Bow Step. These may be shortened to ‘A’ and ‘B’. 王 西 安 215 . 8. an arms length from each other so that their fists touch when arms are outstretched. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Their bodies are upright.2 single-hand hOrizOnTal wan hua in pair pracTice Player A refers to the male practitioner dressed in a dark blue. Player B refers to the female practitioner dressed in red.1 Both players take a step forward with their right feet. arms hanging relaxed by the sides.1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other.
B’s weight continues to move forward to form a single-hand An (pushing) power. The back of the palms touch each other. using the middle line of the nose as the boundary. 8.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 While the right feet step forward. with the middle fingers at nose level. and his body crouches slightly to form a closing power. and B continues to reel 90o in the Ni direction until her hand falls to the front of A’s lower abdomen. Alternatively. eyes focussed on the right hands.2 8. corresponding with the rotation of the waist.2. A’s weight shifts backward. both players raise their right palm and extend it forward. Both players watch their hands throughout this step. As both players draw this arc. . the left hand can also be placed naturally along side the body. The right hand extends forward with the left hand akimbo.2 Posture 3 王 西 安 216 Player A guides Player B to draw a 90o arc from the waist midline toward his left. Fig.
then Ni reels 90o to the front of Player B’s abdomen.4 217 .2. 8.3 Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and Shun reels 90o to the right.3 8. B shifts her weight gradually backward while her hand draws an arc following Player A. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.Fig. At the same time. 8. then she guides A’s hand to the front of his abdomen. Repeat this cycle.
3. Both players then rise. before crouching again as they Ni reel downward 90o until their hands reach the front of the lower abdomen.2 Posture 2 王 西 安 218 After both players complete a Da Shou (meet partner with hand).1 Posture 1 The preparation postures are the same as that of single-hand horizontal circle rotation. .3. Player A guides Player B to move first in Shun reeling.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. 8.3 single-hand verTical circle wan hua in pair pracTice 8. the only difference being that here the Da Shou (meet partner with hand) position is higher. both hands perpendicular to each other and eyes looking forward. Fig. then then draws a 90o arc to the left.5 8.
B always adheres to A. For example. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. A continues to Shun reel a 900 arc upward until he returns to the original Da Shou position. 8. guiding Player B to Ni reel 900 to his right side. turning to the right (B’s left side).6 8. Partner B relaxes the left crotch.7 219 .Fig.3. 8. with eyes looking at the same direction. During the above process. when A draws an arc to the right side.3 Posture 3 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body to the right.
Both players step forward simultaneously with their right foot.4 shuang shOu ping yuanwan hua (hOrizOnTal cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8. 王 西 安 Fig. While waiting. Both right feet start to uncurl to the ground. Then Player B extends her hands forward. they lower their waists. lower the shoulders and drop the elbows. ready to move and attack if hands touch. 8.8 220 .1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention facing each other. Now both players wait in a defensive mode. placing them outside A’s hands. with aim to form a front Bow Step. toes turned up (optional). Player A raises two hands in front of his chest. draw their chests inward and gather their ribs.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. eyes looking forward. having first shifted their weight onto the left leg. heel first.4.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. 8.8. As B’s weight moves backward. As Player A pushes his hands forward.9 王 西 安 221 . In other words.2 Posture 2 Player A relaxes his right crotch and continues to shift his weight forward while pushing his hands forward in Ni reeling. Player B “listens” to A’s power and shifts her weight backward to force A to increase his pushing distance. her hands reel in Shun. B’s little fingers “stick” to A throughout the process. with her little finger lightly hanging on A’s wrists to guard against any sudden attacks. He stops pushing when his hands are 20 cm away from Player B’s chest.4. Here. A’s weight shift to the right foot has been fully completed.
his little fingers catching Player B’s wrists to the sides of the body as the two hands draw arcs. B moves her weight forward to form a Bow Step. then separates Player B’s hands to the sides of her body at shoulderlevel. While Player A separates. She relaxes her chest as her hands separate.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. He shifts his weight backward.4. Fig. B senses the speed of A’s pushing and separating power as her hands are tightly guided by his hands and separated by them to the sides. using the outer edges of his palms.4. Then both players return to the original position. 8.4 Posture 4 Player A switches to Shun reeling and draws an arc inward.3 Posture 3 Player A pushes first and then separates his hands by reeling in a Ni direction. While A draws arcs.10 8. 王 西 安 222 .
Fig. 8.11 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 223 .
1 Posture 1 Player A and B stand facing each other. Now. .2 Posture 2 Player A reels in the Ni directon and contitues to shift his weight forward. 8.5 shuang shOu li yuan wan hua (verTical cOiling flOwer wiTh dOuble hands) 8.12 王 西 安 224 8. The two parties’ eyes always follow their movements. then step their right feet forward simultaneously. and separate hands to the sides of the body at shoulder level. Both players extend and raise their hands in front of their bodies with Player B’s hands placed on the outer edges of Partner A’s hands. Fig. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart. Now.5. The positions of all hands are higher than the eyes. draw a vertical circle outward. guiding Partner B to raise her hands.5. B has been shifting her weight to the left. all eyes look forward. the weight for both parties starts to shift to the right.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. A’s weight is all at the right foot.
Fig. his little fingers slightly catching Player B’s wrists. Player A draws outwards while Partner B draws inwards. while he shifts his weight backward.5.3 Posture 3 Player A switches to Shun reeling. Both players’ eyes face forward. 8. 8. While Player B rotates her arms downward following Player A.13 8. and draw arcs to the lower abdomen. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig.14 225 . she shifts her weight forward to form a front Bow Step.
Then Player A returns to the original position by Ni reeling and separating his arms outward. 王 西 安 226 .4 Posture 4 Player A continues Shun reeling. Both players can practice this in turn. and continues to move her weight forward. Repeat this cycle. Player B follows Player A closely and feels his change. Both players face forward. his hands crossing before the chest with both palms facing in. whether Player A separates B or vice versa. the body squats to prepare for openning.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Note: The steps are the same.5.
8. Now. then step their right feet forward simultaneously. the weight for both parties are both in the left. 8. Both players then shift a little more weight to the right. eyes looking forward.1 Posture 1 The gait of He Bu Tuishou is the same to that of the Vertical Coiling Flower with Double Hands. and then extend their right hands forward so they cross each other.6 he bu TuishOu (TuishOu wiTh cOiling hands and sTaTic fOOTwOrk) 8. backs of the hands touching.6. yet start to shift to the right. with the inner sides of both feet facing each other and 10 cm apart.15 王 西 安 227 . Player A and B stand facing each other. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.
陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.16 8.2 Posture 2 Player A shifts his weight forward.3 Posture 3 王 西 安 228 Player A holds the left hand of Player B to ward it off outward. palm facing out and thumb pointing down so that both arms form an outward Peng (ward off ) power posture. While the right arm turns. both of B’s arms form an An (Pushing) power. At the same time. then extends forward to press against A’s left forearm. Fig. Player B withdraws her left hand quickly when Player A executes Peng and puts it on the middle of her own right upper arm.6. Player B places her left hand on the right upper arm of Player A as he moves.6. 8. he places his left hand on the middle of the right upper arm. Her right hand presses Player A’s right hand slightly downward. gradually switching from Peng (ward off ) to Lü leftward. In this way. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. then turns his right hand left in Shun reeling following the turn of his body. Player A relaxes his left crotch and moves his weight slightly leftward. During this process. .
then moves quickly forward to press the middle of Player B’s right upper arm with his left hand. Repeat this cycle. 8. and executes Lü (roll back) again.18 229 . In response. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Partner A withdraws his pressing hand and places it on his own right upper arm.4 Posture 4 Player B executes Ji (press) on Player A. Then Player B wards off Player A’s left hand upward.6. 8. Player A executes Lü on B’s hand and presses it downward. In response.Fig. shifting his weight forward to add more pressure. thus returning to the original position.17 8. Player B switches from An (push) to Peng (ward off ).
Player A steps his right foot forward to form a front Bow Step. 王 西 安 Fig. A’s left hand then crosses with B’s left hand.7 pair pracTice in shun bu TuishOu (TuishOu wiTh MOveable fOOTwOrk) 8. 8. Player B’s right hand crosses the outside of A’s right hand. Player A raises his right arm as his right leg moves. placing it on the outside of A’s right leg. palm facing outward. Both players look at each other from the side.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8.19 230 . so that both knees touch (A’s inner knee and B’s outer knee). bending it 450 inward.1 Posture 1 Both players stand at attention. then places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm. and places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.7. Player B steps her right foot forward at the same time.
Simultaneously. he places his right hand on the middle of B’s left upper arm. Player B continues to move her weight forward when Player A applies Lü. 8.2 Posture 2 Player A then relaxes his right crotch.7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. At the same time.3 Posture 3 Player A relaxes his left crotch first. and then wards off Player B’s left hand upwards. Player B shifts her weight forward to double her pressing power. and moves his weight leftward.8. raises his left hand. 王 西 安 231 . and switches both hands to double-hand Shun reeling to ward off outward gradually. As Player A’s body turns right. Both players look to the front and gather themselves to prepare for futher movements. he lowers his left shoulder and left elbow.7. executing Lü (roll back) with his right hand. This switch from Peng to Lü happens in an instant. Both players look to the front. turns his body to the right. shifts his weight slightly to the right. then withdraws her right hand and puts it on the middle of her right upper arm to form a Ji (press) power to counter Partner A quickly.20 8.
A then extends his left hand up and forward and presses the middle of Partner B’s right hand.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.22 232 . he presses Player B’s left hand downward to the front of her lower abdomen. 8. 王 西 安 Fig. then pushes her left hand rightward. with the aim of getting her to fall to his right side.7. Player B exerts a strong Peng force to Player A’s right upper arm touching A’s right hand with her right hand. 8. with the coordination of his right hand. At the same time.21 8. When Player A presses downward.4 Posture 4 Player A relaxes his right crotch and turns his body slightly to the right. forming an An force.
5 Posture 5 Player B’s left foot steps on the ground. 王 西 安 233 . tiptoe first. At the same time. her right crotch relaxes and she shifts her weight to the right. his right hand switches to Ni reeling to force Player B to step backward. At the same time. both her hands follow the body and turn right to execute Lü (roll back) on the right side of Player A’s right arm until her left hand reaches the mid-line of her body. As Player B executes Lü. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. and his forward push corresponds to the hardness or softness and speed of B’s Lü power.8. In this move. A’s upper and lower body move as one.7. He then pushes his shoulder and upper arm towards B’s chest in response to B’s Lü.7.6 Posture 6 Player A shifts his weight back to the left leg after pushing. 8. Note: both players should not move too quickly as this would hinder the rotation of the arms and result in blockages. then her foot gradually steps on the ground fully.23 8. Player A moves his weight first to the left and lifts his right foot quickly to step forward.
7 Posture 7 王 西 安 234 Player A relaxes his left crotch. Player B wards off slowly outwards with both hands in Shun reeling. palm out. Fig. so as to form Peng and Lü with both of his hands. In response. While this happens. turns his body slightly left and shifts his weight slightly leftward.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 At the same time. and steps within A’s left leg so that their two knees connect. 8. to form Ji (press) power with her right arm. . B also places her left hand on the middle of her right upper arm. Simultaneously. Both players look to the side at each other. Player B relaxes her left crotch. Player A places his left hand on B’s right upper arm.7. shifting her weight gradually rightward. B steps forward in synch with A’s guiding hand. then takes a step forward with her right foot.24 8. Both players look diagonally to the front. then pushes Player B’s right hand first down then left using the pressing power of his left hand. shifts her weight leftward.
8 Posture 8 Player A relaxes his left crotch then shifts his weight to the left. 8. B also places her right hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm.Fig. Player B lowers her left shoulder and left elbow.7. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 王 西 安 Fig. Simultaneously. At the same time. then switches her left hand instantly from Peng to Lü.26 235 . 8.25 8. then raises her left hand in an upward Peng on A’s left hand.
His right hand then comes into contact with B’s right hand. then to her left. Both players look to the sides. both A’s arms form an outward Peng power. then quickly forms a pushing power towards B. Both B’s hands work together to form an upward pressure pose. 王 西 安 Fig. As Player B pushes A’s left hand downward. she presses forward on the middle of A’s right lower arm.27 236 .陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 As this happens. Player A continues to shift his weight forward. then raising his left hand upward onto B’s right upper arm to warding off (Peng). she presses Player A’s left hand first down to the front of his lower abdomen.7. A responds first by flowing downward.9 Posture 9 Player B relaxes her right crotch and turns her body slightly to the right. At the same time. In this instance. Then with her left hand. 8. Both players look diagonally to the front. then withdraws his right hand to place it on the middle of his left upper arm. 8.
Both players should defend and stick to defend their own territory.7. leading to increased exposure to attacks. relaxes his left crotch. shifts his weight to the right and rotates both hands to the right following the body to execute Lü on the right side of Player B’s right arm.28 Notes: Player B’s upper and lower body should follow each other when pushing forward. In response to A’s Lü. He moves in Lü until his left hand reaches the mid-line of his body. then steps forward quickly with her right foot and pushes her shoulder and upper arm forward toward A’s chest.10 Posture 10 Both players keep moving and rotating. following A’s Lü power. 8. Player B shifts her weight first to the left. taking care not to go beyond their territory as this would mean that the transferring and changing of movements would not be as quick and flexible. Player A steps his left foot on the ground. and the speed and extent of her forward push should be dependent on the speed and hardness or softness of Partner A’s Lü.8. 王 西 安 237 . 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig.
A relaxes his left crotch. The rotating methods are the same as those on Figures 8. then takes a step forward (Shang Bu) with his right foot to step on the inside of B’s leg. 8. Lü. as well as an accomplishment of one cycle of Peng.26. Both their knees connect. and 8. one full cycle consists of one step forward and one step backward. You may have found that. At the same time. Both playesr look diagonally to the front. Ji and An. Simultaneously. 王 西 安 238 . her right hand changes to Ni reeling to force Player A to step back. Posture 11 is the same as Shun Bu (moving forward and back in one step) Tuishou.11 Posture 11 After pushing forward. Player B shifts her weight backward to her left leg.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Player A places his left hand on the middle of his right upper arm.7.27. and are ready to start a new cycle. to form a Ji power with his right arm. her two hands forming a Lü posture. both players return to their original positions.28.25. 8. At the same time. tiptoe first. As B shifts her weight backward. for both of the two players. palm out. foot gradually steps fully on the ground. B places her left hand on the middle of A’s right upper arm. shifts his weight leftward. Finally.
29 王 西 安 239 .8 pair pracTice in da lü TuishOu (large scale lü TuishOu) Da Lü Tuishou pair practice is the fourth technique of of Chen-style Taiji Tuishou. you should combine Si Zheng Shou practice with Si Yu Shou. This technique consists of larger scale body movement. which is Cai.8. Zhou and Kao. and is based on Shun Bu Tuishou. 8. which is aimed at reinforcing your lower body stance and leg power in this technique. requiring both players to crouch on one leg while extending the other fully forward with calf touching the ground. The practice of Da Lü movements is very important in learning how to apply low body movements in combat without impacting on other combat movements or losing agility and flexibility. 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Bie. In this low body movement.
left and right. or power direction. Gun Shuan is an extension of Da Sao. If you choose not to attack under some circumstances. With this method. use your elbow or Kao (shoulder strike) to attack when you find a weak point. up and down. so as to transform the opponent’s power. can you win consistently. Only this way. In Da Sao.9 pair pracTice in luan cai hua TuishOu (cOiling flOwer TuishOu) Luan Cai Hua is also known as Hua Jiao Bu. Other handwork techniques used to render opponents passive are: Da Sao (support and sweep). reel them in Shun and Ni directions. This Tuishou technique combines the handwork of Si Zheng Shou and the footwork of Shang Xia Bu (moving forward and backward) in varying degrees. push and press against the opponent to force them into a defensive mode. Bi Ya (push and press) and so on. depending on the circumstances. hence sweeping your arm horinzontally left and right after meeting your opponent in Da Shou (meet partner with hand). the opponent cannot discern your target. try to feel the Gongfu level gap between you and your opponent by listening.陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 8. Da means to put your hand on the hand of the opponent with the intention of using it as a touchpoint and support. nor the location of your body weight. Shuan means to put an arm across the chest like a locked door bolt to protect against attack. to place the opponent in a passive position unawares by holding close to the upper part of their body while lifting their lower body). Sao means to sweep or clear away. Gun Shuan (roll and seize). From this position. During combat. 王 西 安 240 . The technique also uses the deft and precise handwork of Shang Long Xia Ti (which means. Instead of sweeping the arms horizontally.
This is an example of the Die Fa. direction and angle of changes. 8. which you think harmful to your opponent. 8. Your Dian Bu should be light. there are no restrictions in the application during practical body combat. Actually. Combine the power of both your hands so that they become one indivisible power.30 陈 氏 太 极 拳 推 手 技 法 Fig. Your footwork should be based on the speed. 8. Fig. you can advance two or three steps to gain a territorial advantage. agile and swift. These are the main methods and purpose of Luan Cai Hua pair practice.32 Fig.31 王 西 安 241 . Place yourself in a strong and active position by applying Dian Bu (adding half paces) continuously when executing Shang Bu (stepping forward). flexible. Apply Ti (lift) and Long (holding close) unpredictably and precisely. For example.Your footwork should be coordinated with your handwork. transforming the power of your opponent so that he or she becomes trapped in a passive position unawares. coordinated with Shang Long Xia Ti. if the opponent retreats one step.
Earth or Human realms. At its foundation. culminating in the modern-day Chen. opposing and complementary. While the Taiji form has undergone many changes through the ages. through Taiji forms and postures. we shall focus on the Yang Style for the purposes of this book as because this style best illustrates the Yin and Yang principles of Taiji philosophy.Other books by INBI World: OLEG TCHERNE philosophy of Taiji The philosophy of Taiji was developed in China at the height of the Daoist era between 700 bc to 200 ad. Yang. According to this philosophy. and offered new ways of understanding humans as a microcosmic blueprint of the Universe. Sun and Wu Styles. each action or form occurs as a result of a certain combination of forces which are generated by Heaven. the philosophy of Taiji attempts to explain the workings of the universe. that is. our world and the human body through the interactions. much of the theory in this book is based on the guidelines written by Yang Chengfu. Taiji Philosophy is most easily expressed and understood through the use of body language. of two fundamental forces: Yin and Yang. . one of the pre-eminent representatives of Yang Taiji family. For this reason. This philosophy provides an alternative and deeply sophisticated paradigm of how human beings may be perceived in relation to their position within the cosmos.
A work of intense scholarship which took over fourteen years to complete. including his meticulous inscriptions for over 400 illustrations.com . www.inbiworld.CHEN XIN The illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan “The Illustrated Canon of Chen Family Taijiquan” is universally acknowledged by the Taoist community and Taiji practitioners as the seminal sourcebook of Taiji philosophy and techniques. The English translation of this canon marks the first ever attempt to translate into English Chen Xin’s highly esoteric and detailed technical explanations of Chen-style Taijiquan techniques. and a referential resource for Taiji instructors and practitioners for generations to follow. this tome was intended by its author to be both the first ever written repository of Taiji lore.
founder of the Yang style. Henan Province. Who was Chen Changxing? A. Through the website below and in person at Master Chen Xiaowang’s seminars worldwide. Chen Changxing was the fourteenth generation Master of Chen family Taijiquan who taught Yang Lu Chan. China. How do I purchase calligraphy or make a contribution A. What is the Chen Changxing - Chen Village Restoration Project? A.Chen Village Restoration Project • Q.com . All people who buy calligraphy or make a direct contribution will have their name and the amount carved into a stone tablet to be displayed in Chen village. Q.chenxiaowang. www. Q. Q. Wenxian. An effort to preserve the heritage of Taijiquan by restoring Chen Changxing’s home in Chen Village. How is the project being funded? A. By proceeds from the purchase of Master Chen Xiaowang’s calligraphy or through direct contributions.
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